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Sample records for profit center economic

  1. [Profit center analysis of esophagectomy : Economical analysis of transthoracic esophagectomy depending on postoperative complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltin, C T; Bludau, M; Kron, F; Zander, T; Hallek, M; Hölscher, A H; Schröder, W

    2018-02-07

    Due to increasing medical costs and yet limited financial resources, medical treatment and economic analyses can no longer be separated; therefore, direct costing and cost unit accounting become more and more relevant as controlling tools in hospital management. Transthoracic esophagectomy is an integral part of the current treatment concept in patients with esophageal carcinoma. The question of the present study was whether the present diagnosis-related groups (DRG) system is a cost-effective tool to represent transthoracic esophagectomy. In this retrospective study at a high-volume center, 161 consecutive patients with esophageal carcinoma were included. All patients were surgically treated according to the current S3 guidelines by a transthoracic esophagectomy. Detailed and standardized documentation of the postoperative complications was made according to the classification of Clavien-Dindo and the guidelines of the Esophagectomy Complications Consensus Group (ECCG). For each individual patient, the respective actual costs were analyzed according to the Institute for the Remuneration System in Hospitals (InEK) cost accounting approach comparing DRG payments (DRG G03A) on a case level including all extra fees per DRG catalogue. The mean costs per case of all included 161 patients were 24,338 € (median: 19,210 €, range: 12,149-127,376 €), while mean payments per case of 22,591 € were recorded. For the entire study population, the profit margin was -281,330 € (mean: -1747 €). Only patients with an uncomplicated course (Clavien-Dindo 0) yielded a slightly positive profit margin of 2514 €. With increasing complication score the profit margin became increasingly negative (Clavien-Dindo I: -2878 €, Clavien-Dindo IVb: -58,543 €). Within the analysis of the InEK target cost matrix, main cost drivers can be identified as medical services (22.3%) and non-medical infrastructure (18.7%). Surgical treatment according to the

  2. Stream maintenance as a profit center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchillon, J.L.

    1997-06-01

    Probably one of the most overlooked profit centers in industrial management strategy is savings in energy costs. Every $1 in certified energy savings is often worth over $10 in increased sales. The author has found from actual practice that there is big corporate profit in a shrewd, diligent steam trap management program. He describes a way to restructure corporate handling of trap maintenance to turn it into a source of revenue. Cited is a case history of building an intensive trap maintenance program at a large, 4000 trap chemical plant. The previously {open_quotes}good{close_quotes} maintenance program which was losing $565,000 per year in steam was turned into a $485,000 per year cost savings. This article will also give the steps that can in as few as 3 months generate over $125,000 annually in tax-free cash per 1000 traps with an investment payback of 18 months or less. The author is a businessman and energy management consultant that has no trap sales or promotion.

  3. Management and socio-economic determinants of profitability in dog ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management and socio-economic determinants of profitability in dog breeding business in Oyo state, Nigeria. ... Descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariable analyses were done to determine predictors of profitability in dog breeding business. The mean age of respondents was 32.1 ± 7.7 years. The median year of ...

  4. Profitability of Serbian banking sector during global economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko M Miljković

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to identify the main factors which contributed to decline of profitability in Serbian banking sector during the period of global economic crisis. There are presented different theories of banking sector profitability and results of scientifically significant empirical researches from economic literature. Following ratios were used as measure of profitability: return on assets (ROA, return on equity (ROE, net interest gain to total revenue, net fees and commissions gain to total revenue, and net pre-tax profit/loss to total revenue ratio. The profitability was analyzed for the whole Serbian banking sector in the period 2008-2012 and particularly for the 15 largest banks according to total assets value in 2012. The empirical analysis indicated that one of the most important factors contributing to high amounts of losses of commercial banks in the previous period includes an increase of net operating expenses, especially expenses on account of a write-off of non-performing loans (NPL. Furthermore, there were analyzed the dynamics of interest rates and interest spread as a factor with certain impact on profitability of banks. Finally, it is estimated that the prospects for intensive growth of profitability in the banking sector of Serbia in the mid-term are poor.

  5. The importance of internal controls in profit centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić-Pupovac Maja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Profit centers are relatively independent organization units within a company that realize revenues and expenditures whose numerical difference expresses the results they achieved. There are guided by basic mission and objectives of company, and profit centers managers are assigned to harmonize the business, motivate the employees, make decisions and implement actions that lead to increase of profitability and efficiency on the level of the whole company. In order to monitor the company development, financial statements are put together on the level of the profit center, and, on their basis, managers make decisions about further steps of company's growth and development. Since financial statements play significant role in company's further business operations, it is necessary to form and implement internal control system that can confirm reliability of profit centers financial statements with a great certainty. Internal control examines compliance with current policies and procedures, detects errors and abuses, and checks the accuracy and completeness of accounting records. The purpose of internal controls is to increase company's business efficiency, basing the decision making on timely and accurate information.

  6. Influence of socio economic characteristics on profitability of yam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper investigated the influence of socio economic characteristics on profitability of yam production in Etche local government area of Rivers State, Nigeria. Data were collected with the aid of structured questionnaire from 120 randomly selected yam farmers in the study area. Data analysis was by use of regression.

  7. The Depreciation Impact of the Profit and Activity Development Carried out by an Economic Operator

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrota, Gabriela; Chirculescu, Felicia Maria

    2008-01-01

    It's interesting how an economic operator decides to depreciate its depreciable fixed assets, because depreciation is an expense input from the taxable profit in accordance with the laws in force, thus contributing to diminishing the operating profit/loss and implicitly the gross and net earnings, without real impact on profitability and especially without any impact on the self-funding capacity. But the impact given by the depreciation expenses may be influenced by the organization policy...

  8. Sharia Banking’s Profit Loss Finance in the Context of ASEAN Economic Community

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    Mardhiyatur Rosita Ningsih

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyze the problems of profit and loss sharing financing is conducted through literature and interviews with funding customers, islamic bankers and entrepreneurs. The result show that profit oriented, lack of trust in the abilities of partners, moral hazard, mismanagement and lack of syariah product information. So, give Incentive for funding customers, incentive compatible constraint, involved effort in spiritual and intellectual expected may help small and medium enterprises to face ASEAN Economic Community.   Keywords: ASEAN Economic Community, profit and loss sharing financing, small and medium enterprises

  9. Trauma center finances and length of stay: identifying a profitability inflection point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhry, Samir M; Couillard, Debbie; Liddy, Casey T; Adams, David; Norcross, E Douglass

    2010-05-01

    Trauma centers frequently report unfavorable financial results for the care of injured patients. Many variables contribute to these results. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship of adult trauma patient hospital length of stay (LOS) to trauma center profitability. The trauma registry of a Level I trauma center was queried for patients older than 18 years for the period July 1, 2003 to June 30, 2008. Hospital financial records were matched to patient trauma registry data. There were 7,990 patients who met selection criteria: 71% were men, mean age was 40 years, mean Injury Severity Score was 12 +/-10, 84.2% of injuries were blunt, and mean LOS was 6.23 days. In the 5 years of the study, total charges were $329,315,191, total costs were $137,680,039, and overall profit was $7,644,894. Total costs rose each year and percent collections fell. The bulk of the profit was realized from patients with LOS profitability as LOS increased. A notable "inflection point" at 11 days defined the cohort of profitable patients. Trauma patient LOS correlates closely with profitability. In this center, the vast majority of profit was realized from patients with LOS profitability and reflects the current reimbursement environment, which rewards shorter LOS over severity and quality. Copyright 2010 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Derivation of economic values for veal, beef and milk production traits using profit equations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekman, H.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1993-01-01

    In this study profit equations for milk, veal and beef bull production were developed to obtain economic values for different traits. Veal and beef production were described in terms of fat and protein daily gain. For categorical traits, dystocia and carcass quality traits, economic values were

  11. Contrasting Socio-Economic and Demographic Profiles of Two, Small Island, Economic Species: MIRAB versus PROFIT/SITE

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    Ashley Oberst

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The MIRAB model developed by Bertram and Watters, based on remittances and aid, has dominated the small island economy literature for two decades. Recently, two challenges have surfaced: the PROFIT formulation emphasizing domestic policy flexibility - a so-called ‘resourcefulness of jurisdiction’ - and a dynamic private sector (Baldacchino, 2006; and the SITE model, stressing the role of tourism (McElroy, 2006. To date, there has been no comparative assessment of these different island models. This article addresses this gap. Its point of departure is to consider SITE islands as a subspecies of the PROFIT cluster. It constructs comprehensive profiles across 27 socio-economic and demographic variables for two island sub-groups with populations of less than three million: 23 MIRAB and 35 PROFIT-SITE. Results indicate PROFIT-SITE islands are much more affluent, socially advanced and demographically mature than their MIRAB counterparts.

  12. ECO PROFIT - A NEW DIMENSION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL ANALYSIS

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    Crecană Cornel Dumitru

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper begins with a review of theoretical concepts including a conceptual delimitation of the term "sustainable development" from the first definition given in 1987 to concrete implementation of EU law and develop a strategy in this regard. Aim of the work is to emphasize the importance of the transition from an economy focused on obtaining maximum profits in a responsible economy, which does not exclude profit, but prioritizes basic maintenance of ecological balance. The innovative character of such a theoretical-methodological approach is limited only by the practicality of implementing the macroeconomic and microeconomic level. It is noteworthy, however, increasing research activities in this field of sustainable development literature study clearly reflects a new direction in the economy, the paradigm shift is expected by all professionals, but was seriously hampered by the financial crisis. Serious impetus was given to research done by the German company Puma, launched in 2010 through the development and publication of a profit and loss "green", taking into account the impact of the natural environment over activities, impact measured clear and published in financial statements of the company. Starting from these considerations, I propose in this paper, introducing the term ECOPROFIT or profit obtained under maintaining fundamental ecological balances, justifying the need for, and practical possibilities to implement this concept in economic and financial analysis, accounting and fiscal management economic entities by developing a model of differential taxation of profits, depending on the impact the entity's economic activities on the ecological balance.

  13. [Geriatric health system, economic profit and the debate on euthanasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedler, H

    1999-08-01

    Three characteristic developments in modern western societies usually are considered to be independent variables in the ethical discussion:1. An explosion-like increase in medical and social expenditures following a rapid multiplication of old and multiply disabled people in this century. 2. the increasing economic importance of the "health industry", and 3. the "new" debate of euthanasia. All these developments are discussed controversially. The volume of geriatric support is mostly considered to be insufficient, but usually it is restricted by both, scarcity of resources as well as increasing demands to focus on "evidence-based medicine" (which might exclude a lot of medical procedures in old age). The mutation of health systems from - originally - social activities to business branches more and more gives priority to economical based decisions in medicine, but otherwise has advanced an increasing number of new health professions. The origin of the actual debate on euthanasia is the development and judicial certification of individual's self-determination in modern societies. However, euthanasia is still refused world-wide because it is considered to be linked with a process of weakening basic ethical principles. The 3 seemingly independent developments certainly are facts in modern societies. They hardly can be influenced by the medical profession, being forced to conform to them. However, there are significant connections between them.A geriatric health system, primarily denying individual demands and basic convictions of old people, contributes to an attitude of non-acceptance towards daily practice medicine. The same effect may result from the economic transformation of medicine when creating a system of self-perpetuating demand (being characteristic for an "ideal" business branch) by "unlimited" prolongation of life of the very old and highly disabled patients. The result from this development undoubtedly will be an increasing demand for self

  14. Are physicians profit or rent seekers? Some evidence from state economic growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Mary; Santerre, Rexford E

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has debated whether physicians act as profit- or rent-seekers. We argue that these two models of physician behavior can be tested by observing empirically the relationship between physician density and economic growth rates. A direct (inverse) relationship provides evidence for the profit-seeking (rent-seeking) theory of physician behavior. We empirically examine the impact of physician density on the economic growth of all US states over the period from 1973 to 2009. The empirical analysis generally finds a statistically significant and direct relationship between physician density and the growth of gross state product. The results are robust with respect to state- and time-fixed effects, individual state time trends, and 2SLS (two-stage least squares) estimation. Thus, in support of the profit-seeking theory of physician behavior, the findings reveal that physicians generally have a positive impact on the growth of the US economy.

  15. Analysing Profits and Economic Behaviour of Organic and Conventional Dutch arable farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Jensma, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper uses a micro-econometric model to analyse differences in variable profits and economic behaviour between organic and conventional arable farms. Insight in factors underlying these differences is essential in designing policy measures that aim at encouraging the transition to a more

  16. Economic value of female fertility and its relationship with profit in Spanish dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Recio, O; Pérez-Cabal, M A; Alenda, R

    2004-09-01

    A data file of 225,085 inseminations and 120,713 lactations from 63,160 Holstein cows was analyzed to obtain female fertility economic value according to number of inseminations per service period (INS). Fertility cost (FCOST) was included in a bioeconomic model, taking into account number of doses of semen, hormonal treatments, fertility culling cost, and delayed milk and calf sales. A profit equation was elaborated to estimate fertility cost and profit according to INS. Fertility in Spanish dairy cattle has worsened >10% over the last 14 yr. Days open have increased by about 15 d, and INS has increased from 1.7 to 2.0. A quadratic relationship was found between FCOST and INS. Similar profitability was estimated for cows who needed one or 2 INS, but when >3 INS were needed, profit decreased by >205 (US dollars)/yr per cow. Cows that needed more INS had higher milk yield per lactation, but also had a higher culling risk and lower productive life and lifetime production, therefore, lower profit. Calving interval (CI) and INS economic values were, respectively, -4.90 and -67.32 (US dollars)/yr per cow and per one unit of change. The economic values of productive traits were 4.04, 1.02, and 1.19 (US dollars)/yr per cow and per one unit of change for kg protein, kg fat, and days in milk, respectively. A mature body weight economic value of -0.67 (US dollars)/yr per cow and per kg was estimated. The relative importance of fertility traits with respect to protein was 64% for CI and 24% for INS, although the CI economic value is highly influenced by phenotypic standard deviation considered.

  17. Economic values for production and functional traits of Small East African goat using profit functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbuku, Samuel; Kosgey, Isaac; Okeyo, Mwai; Kahi, Alexander

    2014-06-01

    Economic values for production traits (milk yield, MY, g; 12-month live weight, yLW, kg; consumable meat percentage, CM, %) and functional traits (mature doe live weight, DoLW, kg; mature buck live weight, LWb, kg; kidding frequency, KF; pre-weaning survival rate, PrSR, %; post-weaning survival rate, PoSR,%; doe survival rate, DoSR, %; and residual feed intake, RFI, kg) were estimated using profit functions for the Small East African goat. The scenario evaluated was a fixed flock size, and the resultant economic values (Kes per doe per year) were 34.46 (MY), 62.35 (yLW), 40.69 (CM), 0.15 (DoLW), 2.84 (LWb), 8.69 (KF), 17.38 (PrSR), 16.60 (PoSR), 16.69 (DoSR) and -3.00 (RFI). Similarly, the economic values decreased by -14.7 % (MY), -2.7 % (yLW), -23.9 % (CM), -6.6 % (DoLW), -98 % (LWb), -8.6 % (KF), -8.2 % (PrSR), -8.9 % (PoSR), -8.1 % (DoSR) and 0 % (RFI) when they were risk rated. The economic values for production and functional traits, except RFI, were positive, which implies that genetic improvement of these traits would have a positive effect on the profitability in the pastoral production systems. The application of an Arrow-Pratt coefficient of absolute risk aversion (λ) at the level of 0.02 resulted in a decrease on the estimated economic values, implying that livestock keepers who were risk averse were willing to accept lower expected returns. The results indicate that there would be improvement in traits of economic importance, and, therefore, easy-to-manage genetic improvement programmes should be established.

  18. The assessment of eco-design with a comprehensive index incorporating environmental impact and economic profit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuo; Fu, Yun; Wang, Xiuteng; Xu, Bingsheng; Li, Zheng

    2017-11-01

    Eco-design is an advanced design approach which plays an important part in the national innovation project and serves as a key point for the successful transformation of the supply structure. However, the practical implementation of the pro-environmental designs and technologies always faces a dilemma situation, where some processes can effectively control their emissions to protect the environment at relatively high costs, while others pursue the individual interest in making profit by ignoring the possible adverse environmental impacts. Thus, the assessment on the eco-design process must be carried out based on the comprehensive consideration of the economic and environmental aspects. Presently, the assessment systems in China are unable to fully reflect the new environmental technologies regarding their innovative features or performance. Most of the assessment systems adopt scoring method based on the judgments of the experts, which are easy to use but somewhat subjective. The assessment method presented in this paper includes the environmental impact (EI) assessment based on LCA principal and willingness-to-pay theory, and economic profit (EP) assessment mainly based on market price. The results from the assessment are in the form of EI/EP, which evaluate the targeted process from a combined perspective of environmental and economic performance. A case study was carried out upon the utilization process of coal fly ash, which indicates the proposed method can compare different technical processes in an effective and objective manner, and provide explicit and insightful suggestions for decision making.

  19. Accounting- versus economic-based rates of return: implications for profitability measures in the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrepnek, Grant H

    2004-01-01

    Accounting-based profits have indicated that pharmaceutical firms have achieved greater returns relative to other sectors. However, partially due to the theoretically inappropriate reporting of research and development (R&D) expenditures according to generally accepted accounting principles, evidence suggests that a substantial and upward bias is present in accounting-based rates of return for corporations with high levels of intangible assets. Given the intensity of R&D in pharmaceutical firms, accounting-based profit metrics in the drug sector may be affected to a greater extent than other industries. The aim of this work was to address measurement issues associated with corporate performance and factors that contribute to the bias within accounting-based rates of return. Seminal and broadly cited works on the subject of accounting- versus economic-based rates of return were reviewed from the economic and finance literature, with an emphasis placed on issues and scientific evidence directly related to the drug development process and pharmaceutical industry. With international convergence and harmonization of accounting standards being imminent, stricter adherence to theoretically sound economic principles is advocated, particularly those based on discounted cash-flow methods. Researchers, financial analysts, and policy makers must be cognizant of the biases and limitations present within numerous corporate performance measures. Furthermore, the development of more robust and valid economic models of the pharmaceutical industry is required to capture the unique dimensions of risk and return of the drug development process. Empiric work has illustrated that estimates of economic-based rates of return range from approximately 2 to approximately 11 percentage points below various accounting-based rates of return for drug companies. Because differences in the nature of risk and uncertainty borne by drug manufacturers versus other sectors make comparative assessments

  20. Selection for profit in cattle: I. Economic weights for purebred dairy cattle in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfová, M; Wolf, J; Kvapilík, J; Kica, J

    2007-05-01

    A bioeconomic model for dairy cattle production was used to estimate economic values of 18 traits for dairy sires in purebred Holstein and Czech Fleckvieh populations. Economic values were defined as partial derivatives of the profit function with respect to each trait in a closed production system with dairy cow herds and integrated fattening of bulls. All revenues and costs associated with cows calving in the herds within one year and with their progeny were discounted at 5% per annum back to the date of calving. Calculations were carried out for the situation in the Czech Republic in 2005 (scenario 1: market quotas for milk yield and fat percentage) and for the expected situation in 2015 (scenario 2: free market). The relative economic importance of each trait was expressed as a ratio of the standardized economic value of that trait (its marginal economic value multiplied by its genetic standard deviation) to the standardized economic value of 305-d milk yield, with average fat and protein percentages. In addition to milk yield, somatic cell score was the second most important trait, achieving 32% to 43% of the value for milk yield in both scenarios. The relative importance of milk components differed notably between scenarios. The relative importance was approximately zero for protein and from -14 to -23% for fat percentage in scenario 1, but changed to 38% for protein and 27 to 31% for fat percentage in scenario 2. In both scenarios and for both breeds, the relative economic values for somatic cell score and length of productive life of cows were similar to those for fat and protein percentages in scenario 2. The smallest relative economic values (less than 4% of the relative importance of milk yield) were for birth weight, conception rate of heifers, and carcass traits. In conclusion, relative emphasis among traits in the breeding objective for Czech dairy cattle should be reassessed according to the expected situation after shifting to a free market economy

  1. Selection for profit in cattle: II. Economic weights for dairy and beef sires in crossbreeding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfová, M; Wolf, J; Kvapilík, J; Kica, J

    2007-05-01

    The relative economic importance (economic weights) of 18 traits was determined for Holstein and Charolais sires used in a dairy production system applying cross-breeding with beef sires and in a cow-calf pasture cross-breeding system with integrated fattening of surplus animals. A bioeconomic model containing a profit function was used for the calculations in both systems. Discounted expressions for direct and maternal components of the traits during an investment period of 25 yr were calculated using the gene-flow technique. The relative economic weights for some traits or trait components of the dairy sires differed substantially between the purebred and crossbred dairy systems. There were also meaningful differences among the relative economic weights of traits for beef sires, depending on whether these bulls were used for terminal crossing with F1 females in the cow-calf pasture system (back-crossing), for crossing in dairy herds producing slaughter animals, or for crossing in dairy herds producing F1 females for the cow-calf pasture system. We therefore recommend construction of specific sets of subindices for dairy and beef sires to allow users to rank the bulls according to expected merit of their progeny in specific production systems.

  2. Profitability indicators of milk production cost center in intensive systems of production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to estimate some profitability indicators of dairy cost center farms with a high volume of daily production in feedlot. The Intended was also to identify the components that had the greatest influence on the operational cost. We used data from three milk systems production, with the origin of the purebred Holsteins. It was considered as a milk cost center production all expenses related in lactating and dry cows. The methodology used total cost and operating cost in profitability analysis. A production system, by presenting gross margin, net positive result, was able to produce short, medium and long term. Another production system had a positive gross margin and net, with conditions to survive in the short and medium term. Finally, the third system of production has shown a negative gross margin presenting decapitalizing and entering into debt, as revenues were not enough to pay operating expenses even effective. The component items of the effective operational cost that exercised higher “impact” cost and income from milk were, in decreasing order, the feeding, labor, miscellaneous expenses, sanitation, energy, milking, reproduction, equipment rental, BST and taxes.

  3. Does procedure profitability impact whether an outpatient surgery is performed at an ambulatory surgery center or hospital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotzke, Michael Robert; Courtemanche, Charles

    2011-07-01

    Ambulatory surgery centers (ASCs) are small (typically physician owned) healthcare facilities that specialize in performing outpatient surgeries and therefore compete against hospitals for patients. Physicians who own ASCs could treat their most profitable patients at their ASCs and less profitable patients at hospitals. This paper asks if the profitability of an outpatient surgery impacts where a physician performs the surgery. Using a sample of Medicare patients from the National Survey of Ambulatory Surgery, we find that higher profit surgeries do have a higher probability of being performed at an ASC compared to a hospital. After controlling for surgery type, a 10% increase in a surgery's profitability is associated with a 1.2 to 1.4 percentage point increase in the probability the surgery is performed at an ASC. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Relationship between profitability and type traits and derivation of economic values for reproduction and survival traits in Chianina beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forabosco, F; Bozzi, R; Boettcher, P; Filippini, F; Bijma, P; Van Arendonk, J A M

    2005-09-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to propose a profit function for Italian Chianina beef cattle; 2) to derive economic values for some biological variables in beef cows, specifically, production expressed as the number of calves born alive per year (NACY), age at the insemination that resulted in the birth of the first calf (FI), and length of productive life (LPL); and 3) to investigate the relationship between the phenotypic profit function and type traits as early predictors of profitability in the Chianina beef cattle population. The average profit was 196 Euros/(cow.yr) for the length of productive life (LPL) and was obtained as the difference between the average income of 1,375 Euros/(cow.yr) for LPL and costs of 1,178 Euros/(cow.yr) of LPL. The mean LPL was equal to 5.97 yr, so the average total phenotypic profit per cow on a lifetime basis was 1,175 Euros. A normative approach was used to derive the economic weights for the biological variables. The most important trait was the number of calves born alive (+4.03.cow(-1).yr(-1) and +24.06 Euros/cow). An increase of 1 d in LPL was associated with an increase of +0.19 Euros/(cow.yr) and +1.65 Euros/cow on a lifetime basis. Increasing FI by 1 d decreased profit by 0.42 Euros/(cow.yr) and 2.51 Euros/cow. Phenotypic profit per cow had a heritability of 0.29. Heritabilities for eight muscularity traits ranged from 0.16 to 0.23, and for the seven body size traits between 0.21 and 0.30. The conformation trait final score can be used as an early predictor of profitability. The sale price of the animal and differences in the revenue and costs of offspring due to muscularity should be included in a future profit function.

  5. A bio-economic model to improve profitability in a large national beef cattle population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier López-Paredes

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A bio-economic model was developed for estimating economic values for use in improving profitability in a large national beef cattle population from birth to slaughter. Results were divided into fattening costs, production costs and income. Economic values were derived for 17 traits for two regions, mature weight (-0.43 € and -0.38 €/+1 kg of live weight, age at first calving (-0.13 € and -0.11 €/+1d, calving interval (-1.06 € and -1.02 €/+1d, age at last calving (0.03 € and 0.03 €/+1d, mortality 0-48 h (-5.86 € and -5.63 €/1% calves per cow and year, pre-weaning mortality (-5.96 € and -5.73 €/+1% calves per cow and year, fattening mortality (-8.23 € and -7.88 €/+1% calves per cow and year, adult mortality (-8.92 € and -7.34 €/+1% adult cows per cow and year, pre-weaning average daily gain (2.56 € and 2.84 €/+10g/d, fattening young animals average daily gain (2.65 € and 3.00 €/+10g/d, culled cow in fattening average daily gain (0.25 € and 0.16 €/+10g/d, culled cow dressing carcass percentage (3.09 € and 2.42 €/+1%, culled cow price (4.59 € and 3.59 €/+0.06 €/kg, carcass conformation score (16.39 € and 15.3 €/+1 SEUROP class, dressing carcass rate of calf (18.22 € and 18.23 €/+1%, carcass growth (9.00 € and 10.09 €/+10g of carcass weight/d and age at slaughter (0.27 € and 0.44 €/+1d. Two sample herds were used to show the economic impact of calving interval and age at first calving shortening in the profit per slaughtered young animal, which was 178 € and 111 € for Herds A and B, respectively. The economic values of functional traits were reduced and production traits were enhanced when fertility traits were improved. The model could be applied in a Spanish national program.

  6. Relationship between profitability and type traits and derivation of economic values for reproduction and survival traits in Chianina beef cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forabosco, F.; Bozzi, R.; Boettcher, P.; Filippini, F.; Bijma, P.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to propose a profit function for Italian Chianina beef cattle; 2) to derive economic values for some biological variables in beef cows, specifically, production expressed as the number of calves born alive per year (NACY), age at the insemination that resulted in

  7. An economic model to compare the profitability of pay-per-use and fixed-fee licensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmus, Douwe; Wijngaard, Jacob; Wortmann, Hans

    This paper develops an economic model to compare the profitability of two strategies for the pricing of packaged software: fixed-fee and pay-per-use licensing. It is assumed that the market consists of a monopoly software vendor who is selling packaged software to Customers who are homogeneous in

  8. Application of risk-rated profit model functions in estimation of economic values for indigenous chicken breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeno, Tobias O; Magothe, Thomas M; Kahi, Alexander K; Peters, Kurt J

    2012-08-01

    The economic values for productive (egg number, average daily gain, live weight, and mature weight) and functional (fertility, hatchability, broodiness, survival rate, feed intake, and egg weight) traits were derived for three production systems utilizing indigenous chicken in Kenya. The production systems considered were free-range, semi-intensive, and intensive system and were evaluated based on fixed flock size and fixed feed resource production circumstances. A bio-economic model that combined potential performances, feeding strategies, optimum culling strategies, farmer's preferences and accounted for imperfect knowledge concerning risk attitude of farmers and economic dynamics was employed to derive risk-rated economic values. The economic values for all the traits were highest in free-range system under the two production circumstances and decreased with level of intensification. The economic values for egg number, average daily gain, live weight, fertility, hatchability, and survival rate were positive while those for mature weight, broodiness, egg weight, and feed intake were negative. Generally, the economic values estimated under fixed feed resource production circumstances were higher than those derived under fixed flock size. The difference between economic values estimated using simple (traditional) and risk-rated profit model functions ranged from -47.26% to +67.11% indicating that inclusion of risks in estimation of economic values is important. The results of this study suggest that improvement targeting egg number, average daily gain, live weight, fertility, hatchability, and survival rate would have a positive impact on profitability of indigenous chicken production in Kenya.

  9. Are SMEs still profitable in an economic crisis? Qualitative research on Romanian entrepreneurship and crisis management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina NICOLAU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs pay a crucial role in the Romanian economy, having a significant contribution to achieving the domestic gross product (GDP; they represent an important source of workplaces, have a considerable number of employees, whose labour productivity is very high as compared to the one in the large enterprises and, last but not least, they are much more flexible in adapting organizational strategies to the conditions generated by the business external environment. That is why we consider of high importance the analysis of the entrepreneurial behaviour of the Romanian small and medium-sized enterprises that provide services, particularly in a situation of financial crisis and if taking into consideration the ever-changing Romanian economic environment. In order to achieve the goal of this paper, namely to identify and analyse the entrepreneurial behaviour of the SMEs in the Romanian Central Development Region, we made an option for the qualitative research method called semi-directive in-depth interview. The discussion group was made up of 7 managers of SMEs in the Central Development Region. At the same time, we had in view to study the influence of the business environment and the legislative framework upon the economic development and profitability of the SMEs providing professional, scientific and technical services. Our research shows that the implemented strategies and the entrepreneurial behaviour adopted by the participants led not only to their remaining on the market, but also to an increase in the business volume and consequently to an increased turnover.

  10. Profits from pollutants: Economic feasibility of integrated anaerobic digester and nutrient management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astill, Gregory M; Shumway, C Richard

    2016-12-15

    There has been sustained interest from both environmental regulators and livestock associations to expand the use of anaerobic digester (AD) technology to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. However, the generally profitable practice of codigesting off-farm organic waste could increase nitrogen and phosphorus content to the farm and exacerbate nutrient over-application concerns near large animal operations. We examine the economic feasibility of a broad set of dairy waste management systems composed of two technology groups that mitigate air and water pollution: an AD system that includes either animal waste input or combination animal/off-farm organic waste codigestion input and either compressed natural gas (CNG) or combined heat and power (CHP) output; and a filtration system that includes fiber separation, nutrient separation, and/or water recovery. We conclude that AD setups without codigestion are only economically feasible under limited conditions, but scenarios which use codigestion have the potential to contribute to nutrient over-application without nutrient separation technology. Trends for CNG and CHP match closely. Net present value (NPV) is greatest for AD with CNG scenarios. Estimated NPV for AD with CNG and environmental credits is $1.8 million and $39.7 million for dairies with 1600 and 15,000 wet cow equivalents, respectively. For these firm sizes, the addition of codigestion contributes $4.8 million and $47.3 million, respectively, to estimated NPV. Nutrient separation and water recovery both lead to decreases in scenario NPV with codigestion, but with the right policies, dairy owners may be willing to adopt AD with nutrient separation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Toward a balanced framework to evaluate and improve the internal functioning of non-profit economic development business incubators : A study in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderstraeten, J.; Matthyssens, P.; van Witteloostuijn, A.

    2014-01-01

    Non-profit organisations, such as economic development incubators, may adapt the balanced scorecard and strategy map in their efforts to improve their internal functioning. In this paper, we employ qualitative research among non-profit economic development incubators in Antwerp, Belgium, to modify

  12. Economic profits enhance trust, perceived integrity and memory of fairness in interpersonal judgment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Eto

    Full Text Available Does money lead to trust in personality and intention of others? Humans have a strong tendency to judge the intention of others from their sequent behaviors. In general, people trust others who behave fairly, but not always. Here we show that judgments of both intentional aspects and memory of intentional behavior are automatically influenced by unintentional benefits from the behaviors of others. We conducted a reward-manipulated and repeated trust game by using real participants interacting with moving image partners on a computer screen. The participants assessed likability, trustworthiness, and perceived integrity of the partners in pre- and post-game questionnaires. The results of judgments of all three dimensions and the memory of frequency of each partner's fair behavior (sharing were strongly influenced by profitability in the trust game, even though all partners shared 75% of the profit and participants were told that profitability was randomly assigned to each partner. Furthermore, these effects were moderated by the gender of the participants: males were more sensitive to monetary profits than were females. The results reveal that humans automatically trust, approve the integrity of, and recall well the fair behavior of others who provide affectively positive outcomes such as monetary profits. We call this phenomenon the "affect ripple effect".

  13. Personnel Policy and Profit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2004-01-01

    personnel structure variation. It is found that personnel policy is strongly related to economic performance. At the margin, more hires are associated with lower profit, and more separations with higher profit. For the average firm, one new job, all else equal, is associated with ?2680 (2000 prices) lower...... annual profit. Higher wage level and lower wage growth is associated with higher profit. A workforce that has less tenure, all else equal, is more profitable....

  14. Occurrence of Eimeria species parasites on small-scale commercial chicken farms in Africa and indication of economic profitability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly M Fornace

    Full Text Available Small-scale commercial poultry production is emerging as an important form of livestock production in Africa, providing sources of income and animal protein to many poor households, yet the occurrence and impact of coccidiosis on this relatively new production system remains unknown. The primary objective of this study was to examine Eimeria parasite occurrence on small-scale commercial poultry farms in Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. Additionally, farm economic viability was measured by calculating the farm gross margin and enterprise budget. Using these economic measures as global assessments of farm productivity, encompassing the diversity present in regional husbandry systems with a measure of fundamental local relevance, we investigated the detection of specific Eimeria species as indicators of farm profitability. Faecal samples and data on production parameters were collected from small-scale (less than 2,000 birds per batch intensive broiler and layer farms in peri-urban Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. All seven Eimeria species recognised to infect the chicken were detected in each country. Furthermore, two of the three genetic variants (operational taxonomic units identified previously in Australia have been described outside of Australia for the first time. Detection of the most pathogenic Eimeria species associated with decreased farm profitability and may be considered as an indicator of likely farm performance. While a causal link remains to be demonstrated, the presence of highly pathogenic enteric parasites may pose a threat to profitable, sustainable small-scale poultry enterprises in Africa.

  15. Occurrence of Eimeria species parasites on small-scale commercial chicken farms in Africa and indication of economic profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornace, Kimberly M; Clark, Emily L; Macdonald, Sarah E; Namangala, Boniface; Karimuribo, Esron; Awuni, Joseph A; Thieme, Olaf; Blake, Damer P; Rushton, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Small-scale commercial poultry production is emerging as an important form of livestock production in Africa, providing sources of income and animal protein to many poor households, yet the occurrence and impact of coccidiosis on this relatively new production system remains unknown. The primary objective of this study was to examine Eimeria parasite occurrence on small-scale commercial poultry farms in Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. Additionally, farm economic viability was measured by calculating the farm gross margin and enterprise budget. Using these economic measures as global assessments of farm productivity, encompassing the diversity present in regional husbandry systems with a measure of fundamental local relevance, we investigated the detection of specific Eimeria species as indicators of farm profitability. Faecal samples and data on production parameters were collected from small-scale (less than 2,000 birds per batch) intensive broiler and layer farms in peri-urban Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. All seven Eimeria species recognised to infect the chicken were detected in each country. Furthermore, two of the three genetic variants (operational taxonomic units) identified previously in Australia have been described outside of Australia for the first time. Detection of the most pathogenic Eimeria species associated with decreased farm profitability and may be considered as an indicator of likely farm performance. While a causal link remains to be demonstrated, the presence of highly pathogenic enteric parasites may pose a threat to profitable, sustainable small-scale poultry enterprises in Africa.

  16. Beyond profitability. The Dutch transatlantic slave trade and its economic impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, Matthias; Fatah-Black, Karwan

    2015-01-01

    Dutch research into the slave trade and its importance to the Dutch economy has often limited itself to investigating the financial success of slave trading companies, calculating the success of slaving by its profit rates. The central argument made in this article is that grossmargin is a better

  17. Economics of microsurgical cases and routine cases in a medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineaweaver, W C; Hui, K; Krave, K; Mailhot, C

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the economic impact of microsurgical cases and routine plastic surgery cases in our medical center. The study is based on a financial analysis of the practices of two surgeons. Financial data of patient encounters (admission to the hospital or a surgical unit) identified with each surgeon were categorized into microsurgical and related cases and routine cases (including cosmetic procedures and general hand cases). Revenues, costs, and profits were tabulated. Data were analyzed for 2 fiscal years (1994-95 and 1995-96). Analysis of the first fiscal year showed that microsurgery encounters (n = 188) generated $4.4 million in revenue with a profit margin after direct costs of $2.5 million (57 percent) and a net profit, after indirect costs, of $1 million (23 percent). Routine encounters (n = 262) generated $1.7 million with a net loss of -$145,000 after direct and indirect costs. In the second fiscal year, microsurgery encounters (n = 230) had income of $4.7 million, a profit over direct costs of $2.5 million (53 percent), and a net profit after indirect costs of $0.9 million (19 percent). Routine cases (n = 202) in the same period earned $1.3 million with a net loss of -$107,000. This analysis formulates a comprehensive definition of microsurgical practice and shows that cases within this definition generated dramatically higher hospital incomes and profits compared with routine plastic surgical practice. In the circumstances of our medical center, development of this subspecialty is fiscally justifiable.

  18. Derivation of economic values for productive and reproductive traits of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) from profit equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadparvar, Abdol Ahad; Ghanipoor, Mani; Mirhosseini, Seyed Ziaoddin; Etebari, Kayvan

    2005-10-01

    Using a deterministic model of profit equation compatible to cocoon production system in Iran, equations for estimating economic values of cocoon weight, shell weight, shell percentage, fecundity, fertility, and hatchability of three commercial varieties of silkworm Bombyx mori (L.) were derived. Economic values of these traits as well as their relative economic importance (REI) compared with cocoon weight were estimated. Estimates of economic value of a given trait differed among the varieties. Cocoon weight, shell weight, and shell percentage had the highest economic value in variety 107. The highest economic value for fecundity, fertility, and hatchability was estimated in variety 110. Shell weight and shell percentage were the most important production traits, and fecundity was the most important reproduction trait. The REI values of shell weight and shell percentage were higher than that of cocoon weight. The sensitivity of estimated economic values to principal factors of production system was studied by altering cocoon weight, shell percentage, fecundity, variable costs, and cocoon price by +/- 10%. The traits varied in the rate of sensitivity of their economic values to changes in production factors. Economic values of cocoon weight, fecundity, fertility, and hatchability had the most sensitivity to the changes in shell percentage. The most important factor affecting economic values of shell weight and shell percentage was the grade 1 cocoon price. Economic value equations provided in this study can help silkworm breeders to concentrate on the most important factors in predicting the future. Furthermore, when these factors change, silkworm breeders will be able to determine to what extent breeding goals have to change.

  19. Association between hospital conversions to for-profit status and clinical and economic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joynt, Karen E; Orav, E John; Jha, Ashish K

    An increasing number of hospitals have converted to for-profit status, prompting concerns that these hospitals will focus on payer mix and profits, avoiding disadvantaged patients and paying less attention to quality of care. To examine characteristics of US acute care hospitals associated with conversion to for-profit status and changes following conversion. Retrospective cohort study conducted among 237 converting hospitals and 631 matched control hospitals. Participants were 1,843,764 Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries at converting hospitals and 4,828,138 at control hospitals. Conversion to for-profit status, 2003-2010. Financial performance measures, quality process measures, mortality rates, Medicare volume, and patient population for the 2 years prior and the 2 years after conversion, excluding the conversion year, assessed using difference-in-difference models. Hospitals that converted to for-profit status were more often small or medium in size, located in the south, in an urban or suburban location, and were less often teaching institutions. Converting hospitals improved their total margins (ratio of net income to net revenue plus other income) more than controls (2.2% vs 0.4% improvement; difference in differences, 1.8% [ 95% CI, 0.5% to 3.1%]; P = .007). Converting hospitals and controls both improved their process quality metrics (6.0% vs 5.6%; difference in differences, 0.4% [95% CI, -1.1% to 2.0%]; P = .59). Mortality rates did not change at converting hospitals relative to controls for Medicare patients overall (increase of 0.1% vs 0.2%; difference in differences, -0.2% [95% CI, -0.5% to 0.2%], P = .42) or for dual-eligible or disabled patients. There was no change in converting hospitals relative to controls in annual Medicare volume (-111 vs -74 patients; difference in differences, -37 [95% CI, -224 to 150]; P = .70), Disproportionate Share Hospital Index (1.7% vs 0.4%; difference in differences, 1.3% [95% CI, -0.9% to 3

  20. [Economic profit of different injuries in a centre for hand surgery - replantation vs. amputation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonser, P; Medved, F; Schaller, H-E; Lotter, O

    2013-12-01

    The Institute for Reimbursements in Hospital (InEK) annually provides an updated DRG system to ensure the medical service providers with a cost-covering remunera-tion. However, the underlying cost data are often opaque and disclosure of the basis of calculation does not take place. On the basis of cost and revenue data from our clinic between 2010 and 2012, a profit statement for amputations and replantation of one or more fingers was employed and compared with the nationwide data of the calculation clinics. Inpatient days, the revenue and the costs incurred in our clinic based on the cost matrix of InEK costing manual [4] were determined for amputation (DRG X05B), replantation of one (DRG X07B) and several fingers (DRG X07A). The profit was calculated as the difference between revenues and costs. Further-more, a comparison of our data with the nationwide data of InEK was applied. For each of the 3 DRGs the actual costs in our clinic were higher than the costs generated by InEK. Only amputation appeared profitable, while all limb-preserving interventions were associated with losses for our hospital. There was a clear discrepancy between the data of cost of InEK GmbH to the data of our clinic. In order not to create any monetary disincentives at the expense of quality of care of individual patients, a cost-covering patient care for all case groups mentioned above should be ensured. The general distrust in the InEK's data that results from such a discrepancy in the cost data can only be rebutted by increasing transparency and disclosure of the calculation basis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Economic characteristic of non-profit sport clubs and their relations with municipalities and sport federations

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Pavlik

    2013-01-01

    There is a running discussion about the system of financing sport from public budgets and there are opinions that the sport is not sufficiently supported. We know surprisingly little about the situation of non-profit sport clubs and to find a better support system we have to gather information about the environment of sport clubs. What do we know about relations of sport clubs with public authorities and their own sport union/federation and why do we need to know? The aim of this paper is to ...

  2. Predicting moisture and economic value of solid forest fuel piles for improving the profitability of bioenergy use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauren, Ari; Kinnunen, Jyrki-Pekko; Sikanen, Lauri

    2016-04-01

    Bioenergy contributes 26 % of the total energy use in Finland, and 60 % of this is provided by solid forest fuel consisting of small stems and logging residues such as tops, branches, roots and stumps. Typically the logging residues are stored as piles on site before transporting to regional combined heat and power plants for combustion. Profitability of forest fuel use depends on smart control of the feedstock. Fuel moisture, dry matter loss, and the rate of interest during the storing are the key variables affecting the economic value of the fuel. The value increases with drying, but decreases with wetting, dry matter loss and positive rate of interest. We compiled a simple simulation model computing the moisture change, dry matter loss, transportation costs and present value of feedstock piles. The model was used to predict the time of the maximum value of the stock, and to compose feedstock allocation strategies under the question: how should we choose the piles and the combustion time so that total energy yield and the economic value of the energy production is maximized? The question was assessed concerning the demand of the energy plant. The model parameterization was based on field scale studies. The initial moisture, and the rates of daily moisture change and dry matter loss in the feedstock piles depended on the day of the year according to empirical field measurements. Time step of the computation was one day. Effects of pile use timing on the total energy yield and profitability was studied using combinatorial optimization. Results show that the storing increases the pile maximum value if the natural drying onsets soon after the harvesting; otherwise dry matter loss and the capital cost of the storing overcome the benefits gained by drying. Optimized timing of the pile use can improve slightly the profitability, based on the increased total energy yield and because the energy unit based transportation costs decrease when water content in the biomass is

  3. Gaining Economic Profit or Losing Cultural Security: Framing Persuasive Arguments for Two Types of Conservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Eschert

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests that different motivational bases underlie economic and cultural conservatism. Different political messages may address these different motivational bases. This article investigates the hypothesis that gain frames and achievement frames are more persuasive for participants high in economic conservatism and for economic conservative political issues, whereas loss and security frames are more persuasive for participants high in cultural conservatism and for cultural conservative political issues. Indeed, differential framing effects were found for economic versus cultural conservative issues across two experimental studies (N = 111 and N = 234. Study 2 could show that these effects were also significantly moderated by individual economic and cultural conservatism. Political arguments were perceived as most persuasive when argument frames matched both the issue at hand and recipient’s individual conservatism. Theoretical implications are discussed with regard to the motivational bases of two dimensions of conservatism along with practical implications for the field of political communication.

  4. Factors influencing economic profitability of dampling-based integrated management of wheat in country elevators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated pest management provides the potential for better insect management in stored wheat, as well as increased worker safety and reduced environmental concerns. Many country elevators, however, continue to use chemical-based approaches. To determine if this choice is economically justified, to...

  5. Effect of Milk Yield on Economic Profitability of Holstein Friesian Cows under Intensive Production System in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. G. El-Awady

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Data of productive and reproductive traits of 1961 of lactation records were obtained from 763 Dutch Friesian cows grew up at Wadi El-Sharkia farm, El-Salheia, Egypt. These data were analyzed to empirical comparison between the profitability of three herds under intensive production system in Egypt. The second herd (H2 produced average milk yield of 8619 kg/lactation, followed by first herd (H1 (5138 kg/lactation which was lower than the H2 by at least one standard deviation (SD = 2935 kg. The third herd (H3 produced high milk yield equal to the average of H2 plus at least one standard deviation. Traits studied were milk yield per day (M/D, kg, total milk yield (TMY, kg, lactation period (LP, day, dry period (DP, day, annual milk yield (AMY, kg, days open (DO, day, number of services per conception (NSPC, calving interval (CI, day, number of lactation completed (NLC and age at first calving (AFC. Least squares analysis of variance showed highly significant (P<0.01 effects of all factors on all traits studied except the effect of month and year of calving on NSPC that was non-significant. For comparing between the three herds, the deterministic model was used to estimate the annual gross margin and benefit/cost ratio as economic parameters. Prices of inputs and outputs were based on market and farm gate prices during the period from 1998 to 2007. DO, CI and NSPC were increased in H3 vs. H2 and H1, indicating poorer reproductive efficiency of high yielding herd. Moreover, H3 gave 1.03 and 1.5 parity less for each cow than that of H2 and H1, respectively. Economic evaluations indicated that the annual variable cost were (LE (Egyptian pound = 0.17 USD and = 0.13 EUR 5136, 6910 and 7845 of H1, H2 and H3, respectively. However, the annual gross margin of H3 was higher than that of H1 and H2 by 79 and 24%, respectively, and the benefit/cost ratio of H3 was 1.90 relative to 1.63 and 1.68 for H1 and H2, respectively. The profit per cow during the

  6. Assessing the economic impacts of drought from the perspective of profit loss rate: a case study of the sugar industry in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Lin, L.; Chen, H.

    2015-07-01

    Natural disasters have enormous impacts on human society, especially on the development of the economy. To support decision-making in mitigation and adaption to natural disasters, assessment of economic impacts is fundamental and of great significance. Based on a review of the literature on economic impact evaluation, this paper proposes a new assessment model of the economic impacts of droughts by using the sugar industry in China as a case study, which focuses on the generation and transfer of economic impacts along a simple value chain involving only sugarcane growers and a sugar-producing company. A perspective of profit loss rate is applied to scale economic impact. By using "with and without" analysis, profit loss is defined as the difference in profits between disaster-hit and disaster-free scenarios. To calculate profit, analysis of a time series of sugar price is applied. With the support of a linear regression model, an endogenous trend in sugar price is identified and the time series of sugar price "without" disaster is obtained, using an autoregressive error model to separate impact of disasters from the internal trend in sugar price. Unlike the settings in other assessment models, representative sugar prices, which represent value level in disaster-free conditions and disaster-hit conditions, are integrated from a long time series that covers the whole period of drought. As a result, it is found that in a rigid farming contract, sugarcane growers suffer far more than the sugar company when impacted by severe drought, which may promote reflections among various economic bodies on economic equality related to the occurrence of natural disasters. Further, sensitivity analysis of the model built reveals that sugarcane purchase price has a significant influence on profit loss rate, which implies that setting a proper sugarcane purchase price would be an effective way of realizing economic equality in future practice of contract farming.

  7. Use of profit equations to determine relative economic value of dairy cattle herd life and production from field data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1991-01-01

    Profit equations or functions that reflect the realized profitability of cows have been used in the literature to determine the relative importance of different variables such as milk yield and herd life. In all profit equations, the opportunity cost of postponed replacement, which reflects the

  8. An evaluation of alternative selection indexes for a non-linear profit trait approaching its economic optimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Collado, D; Byrne, T J; Visser, B; Amer, P R

    2016-12-01

    This study used simulation to evaluate the performance of alternative selection index configurations in the context of a breeding programme where a trait with a non-linear economic value is approaching an economic optimum. The simulation used a simple population structure that approximately mimics selection in dual purpose sheep flocks in New Zealand (NZ). In the NZ dual purpose sheep population, number of lambs born is a genetic trait that is approaching an economic optimum, while genetically correlated growth traits have linear economic values and are not approaching any optimum. The predominant view among theoretical livestock geneticists is that the optimal approach to select for nonlinear profit traits is to use a linear selection index and to update it regularly. However, there are some nonlinear index approaches that have not been evaluated. This study assessed the efficiency of the following four alternative selection index approaches in terms of genetic progress relative to each other: (i) a linear index, (ii) a linear index updated regularly, (iii) a nonlinear (quadratic) index, and (iv) a NLF index (nonlinear index below the optimum and then flat). The NLF approach does not reward or penalize animals for additional genetic merit beyond the trait optimum. It was found to be at least comparable in efficiency to the approach of regularly updating the linear index with short (15 year) and long (30 year) time frames. The relative efficiency of this approach was slightly reduced when the current average value of the nonlinear trait was close to the optimum. Finally, practical issues of industry application of indexes are considered and some potential practical benefits of efficient deployment of a NLF index in highly heterogeneous industries (breeds, flocks and production environments) such as in the NZ dual purpose sheep population are discussed. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Biodiversity management of organic orchard enhances both ecological and economic profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jie; Li, Lijun; Liu, Haitao; Li, Yong; Li, Caihong; Wu, Guanglei; Yu, Xiaofan; Guo, Liyue; Cheng, Da; Muminov, Mahmud A; Liang, Xiaotian; Jiang, Gaoming

    2016-01-01

    Organic farming has been regarded as an alternative solution for both agricultural sustainability and human health maintenance. Few researches have concentrated on the differences of biodiversity and eco-economic benefits between organic and conventional orchards. Organic management (OM) of orchards mainly includes taking advantage of natural enemies and beneficial weeds as well as soil organisms and controlling harmful pests. Here we conducted a three-year experiment on the effects of managing biodiversity in an organic apple orchard, using cattle manure to enrich soil biota, propagating native plant to suppress weeds and applying ecological pest management to control pests. The effect was assessed against the conventional management (CM) model. We found that OM enhanced soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen. The 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing results indicated that the dominant bacterial phyla of the top soil were Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, and OM had richer bacteria diversity with a 7% higher Shannon's index than the CM. In particular, the relative abundance of rhizobium in the OM was higher than that of the CM. For OM, Duchesnea indica was an ideal ground-cover plant to control weeds through winning the niche competition and thus decreased weeds' Simpson, Shannon-Wiener and Pielou index by 38.2%, 53.8% and 16.9% separately. The phototactic pests' weight and scarab beetle's population were effectively decreased by 35% and 86% respectively through long time control and prevention. OM had an average of 20 times more earthworms than CM, and the maximum density had reached 369 m(-2) (0-20 cm soil). The dominant earthworm species of the OM were detritivores which preferring soil with high organic matter content. Due to no synthetic chemicals being used, the OM produced much safer apple fruits which were sold at high prices. Economically, up to a 103% increase of output-input ratio had been achieved in the OM. Our

  10. Biodiversity management of organic orchard enhances both ecological and economic profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Meng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming has been regarded as an alternative solution for both agricultural sustainability and human health maintenance. Few researches have concentrated on the differences of biodiversity and eco-economic benefits between organic and conventional orchards. Organic management (OM of orchards mainly includes taking advantage of natural enemies and beneficial weeds as well as soil organisms and controlling harmful pests. Here we conducted a three-year experiment on the effects of managing biodiversity in an organic apple orchard, using cattle manure to enrich soil biota, propagating native plant to suppress weeds and applying ecological pest management to control pests. The effect was assessed against the conventional management (CM model. We found that OM enhanced soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen. The 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing results indicated that the dominant bacterial phyla of the top soil were Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, and OM had richer bacteria diversity with a 7% higher Shannon’s index than the CM. In particular, the relative abundance of rhizobium in the OM was higher than that of the CM. For OM, Duchesnea indica was an ideal ground-cover plant to control weeds through winning the niche competition and thus decreased weeds’ Simpson, Shannon–Wiener and Pielou index by 38.2%, 53.8% and 16.9% separately. The phototactic pests’ weight and scarab beetle’s population were effectively decreased by 35% and 86% respectively through long time control and prevention. OM had an average of 20 times more earthworms than CM, and the maximum density had reached 369 m−2 (0–20 cm soil. The dominant earthworm species of the OM were detritivores which preferring soil with high organic matter content. Due to no synthetic chemicals being used, the OM produced much safer apple fruits which were sold at high prices. Economically, up to a 103% increase of output–input ratio had

  11. Collaboration between a college of pharmacy and a for-profit health system at an academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Matthew L; Dunn, Rebecca L; Hagemann, Tracy M; Burton, Michael E; Britton, Mark L; St Cyr, Mark B

    2012-07-01

    The genesis and growth of a successful 14-year partnership between the University of Oklahoma (OU) college of pharmacy and the OU Medical Center (OUMC) department of pharmacy are described. Pursuant to a 1998 joint operating agreement, the medical center and pharmacy school have achieved a high degree of collaboration on a wide range of educational and clinical initiatives. The close relationship has conferred a number of benefits on both institutions, including (1) expanded experiential education opportunities for pharmacy students, (2) joint faculty and staff funding arrangements that have facilitated the development and accreditation of OU pharmacy residency programs, and (3) patient care initiatives that have increased awareness of pharmacists' important contributions in areas such as venous thromboembolism prophylaxis, antibiotic stewardship, and core measures compliance. In addition to the formal integration of the college of pharmacy into the OUMC organizational structure, ongoing teamwork by clinicians and administrators at the two institutions has strengthened the 14-year partnership while helping to identify creative solutions to evolving communications, technology, and reimbursement challenges. Potential growth opportunities include the expansion of pharmacy services into additional service areas and greater involvement by OU pharmacy school faculty in the training of medical, nursing, and allied health professionals. A large for-profit academic medical center and a college of pharmacy developed a successful collaboration that is mutually beneficial and provides increased clinical, educational, and scholarly opportunities, advancing the mission of both institutions.

  12. Staffing to Maximize Profit for Call Centers with Impatient and Repeat-Calling Customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Gong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by call center practice, we study the optimal staffing of many-server queues with impatient and repeat-calling customers. A call center is modeled as an M/M/s+M queue, which is developed to a behavioral queuing model in which customers come and go based on their satisfaction with waiting time. We explicitly take into account customer repeat behavior, which implies that satisfied customers might return and have an impact on the arrival rate. Optimality is defined as the number of agents that maximize revenues net of staffing costs, and we account for the characteristic that revenues are a direct function of staffing. Finally, we use numerical experiments to make certain comparisons with traditional models that do not consider customer repeat behavior. Furthermore, we indicate how managers might allocate staffing optimally with various customer behavior mechanisms.

  13. Economic Yield and Profitability of Maize/Melon Intercrop as Influenced by Inorganic Fertilizer Application in Humid Forest Ultisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolawole E. LAW-OGBOMO

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The trial assessed the viability and profitability of maize and melon production under sole and mixed cropping system on a forest Ultisol. This was conducted as an on-farm trial at Evboneka, Edo State, Nigeria in April 2008 and 2009. The trial involved three cropping patterns (sole maize, sole melon and maize/melon mixture and four levels of NPK fertilizer (0, 200, 400 and 600 kg ha-1 in a 3 � 4 factorial arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications. The results revealed that economic yield of maize and melon increased as the fertilizer rate increase. The sole crops had higher yield than in their mixed stands in the entire fertilizer rate. However, land equivalent ratio (LER values of the mixed crop stands were higher than in their respective sole cropping. The LER was highest (1.47 in maize/melon mixed stands treated with 400 kg NPK ha-1. The production cost and economic return followed the same trend as they increased with an increase in fertilizer rate. The sole melon crop had the lowest production cost ($ 316.50-588.51 and economic return ($ 873-1,305 in the entire fertilizer rate compared to the sole maize and maize/melon mixed crop in that order. The net farm income does not follow a definite trend among the three cropping patterns, but the maize/melon intercrop value ($ 748.11-997.52 was the highest. The optimum yield was produced from maize/melon mixed stands treated with 200 kg ha-1. This treatment also gave the highest benefit-cost ratio of 2.19, in addition to ensuring better crop diversity in the rainforest ultisol.

  14. Stockmanship competence and its relation to productivity and economic profitability: the context of backyard goat production in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcedo, M J; Ito, K; Maeda, K

    2015-03-01

    A stockperson has a significant influence on the productivity and welfare of his animals depending on his stockmanship competence. In this study, stockmanship competence (SC) is defined as the capacity of the stockperson to ensure the welfare of his animals by providing his animals' needs. The study was conducted to evaluate the SC of backyard goat raisers and examine its relationship to goat productivity and economic profitability. There were 101 respondents for this study who have all undertaken farmer livestock school on integrated goat management (FLS-IGM). Interview was conducted in Region I, Philippines on September 3 to 30, 2012 and March 4 to 17, 2013. Data on SC, goat productivity and farmer's income were gathered. Questions regarding SC were formulated based on the Philippine Recommendations for Goat Production and from other scientific literature. Housing, feeding, breeding and health and husbandry management were the indicators used in computing stockmanship competence index score (SCIS). Pearson correlation using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was carried out to analyse the relationship between SCIS, productivity and income. Based from the results of the study, a majority of the respondents raised native and upgraded goats. The computed mean SCIS before and after undergoing FLS-IGM were 38.52% and 75.81% respectively, a percentage difference of 65.23%. Both index scores resulted in significant differences in productivity and income. The median mature weight and mortality rate of goats before FLS-IGM was 14 kg and 30% respectively. After FLS-IGM, median mature weight was 19 kg and mortality rate decreased from 30% to 11.11%. Likewise, fewer goat diseases were observed by farmers who were able to undergo FLS-IGM. With regard to income, there was a 127.34% difference on the median net income derived by farmers. Result implies that improved SC could lead not only to increased productivity and income of backyard goat raisers but also to

  15. Economic profitability in conventional and irrigated coffee production systems in three municipalities in the Marilia region of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Helena Nogueira Turco

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic benefit of coffee cultivation, with a focus on the distinction between conventional and irrigated coffee production systems. For the development of the study, the various productive systems were delineated from the data provided by a sample of producers to generate a matrix of average technical coefficients. The methodology used to estimate the operating cost of production is the one used by the Instituto de Economia Agrícola (IEA. Profitability indicators were also evaluated. Results indicated that the effective operational cost (EOC incurred in the irrigated production system is higher than that in the conventional system. As regards the cost composition, in the conventional coffee production system, the largest cost incurred is on fertilizers among all inputs, whereas in the irrigated production system, the largest cost incurred is on machinery and equipment that are mainly used in harvesting, for the period 2013-2015. Profitability index of the conventional coffee production system in 2015 was 44.8%, and that of the drip irrigated production system was 49.7%. In 2014, profitability rates were negative for both the conventional (-13.9% and irrigated coffee production systems (-8.6%. The most preferable choice was found to be the irrigated production system, as it allows reducing the risk of loss in production during prolonged periods of water shortage as well as greater yields due to a larger production of grains.

  16. THE ANALYSIS OF PROFITABILITY INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU GHEORGHE

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of profitability indicators is an activity that should preoccupy all companies. Profitabilitydoes not mean only obtaining profit. A company is competitive if the ownership equity grows (the shareholders’money, the company has a profit that is comparable to that of other companies from the same area of activity,has a positive cash flow and the employees are satisfied with their salaries. Multiple indicators are used tomeasure performance: profit, commercial, economic, financial, investment rate of return, breakeven point,economic value added, net operating result.

  17. A Bio-Economic Case Study of Canadian Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies: Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS) in Queen Breeding Affects Beekeeper Profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bixby, Miriam; Baylis, Kathy; Hoover, Shelley E; Currie, Rob W; Melathopoulos, Andony P; Pernal, Stephen F; Foster, Leonard J; Guarna, M Marta

    2017-06-01

    Over the past decade in North America and Europe, winter losses of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies have increased dramatically. Scientific consensus attributes these losses to multifactorial causes including altered parasite and pathogen profiles, lack of proper nutrition due to agricultural monocultures, exposure to pesticides, management, and weather. One method to reduce colony loss and increase productivity is through selective breeding of queens to produce disease-, pathogen-, and mite-resistant stock. Historically, the only method for identifying desirable traits in honey bees to improve breeding was through observation of bee behavior. A team of Canadian scientists have recently identified markers in bee antennae that correspond to behavioral traits in bees and can be tested for in a laboratory. These scientists have demonstrated that this marker-assisted selection (MAS) can be used to produce hygienic, pathogen-resistant honey bee colonies. Based on this research, we present a beekeeping case study where a beekeeper's profit function is used to evaluate the economic impact of adopting colonies selected for hygienic behavior using MAS into an apiary. Our results show a net profit gain from an MAS colony of between 2% and 5% when Varroa mites are effectively treated. In the case of ineffective treatment, MAS generates a net profit benefit of between 9% and 96% depending on the Varroa load. When a Varroa mite population has developed some treatment resistance, we show that MAS colonies generate a net profit gain of between 8% and 112% depending on the Varroa load and degree of treatment resistance. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  18. A Bio-Economic Case Study of Canadian Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies: Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS) in Queen Breeding Affects Beekeeper Profits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, Kathy; Hoover, Shelley E.; Currie, Rob W.; Melathopoulos, Andony P.; Pernal, Stephen F.; Foster, Leonard J.; Guarna, M. Marta

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over the past decade in North America and Europe, winter losses of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies have increased dramatically. Scientific consensus attributes these losses to multifactorial causes including altered parasite and pathogen profiles, lack of proper nutrition due to agricultural monocultures, exposure to pesticides, management, and weather. One method to reduce colony loss and increase productivity is through selective breeding of queens to produce disease-, pathogen-, and mite-resistant stock. Historically, the only method for identifying desirable traits in honey bees to improve breeding was through observation of bee behavior. A team of Canadian scientists have recently identified markers in bee antennae that correspond to behavioral traits in bees and can be tested for in a laboratory. These scientists have demonstrated that this marker-assisted selection (MAS) can be used to produce hygienic, pathogen-resistant honey bee colonies. Based on this research, we present a beekeeping case study where a beekeeper’s profit function is used to evaluate the economic impact of adopting colonies selected for hygienic behavior using MAS into an apiary. Our results show a net profit gain from an MAS colony of between 2% and 5% when Varroa mites are effectively treated. In the case of ineffective treatment, MAS generates a net profit benefit of between 9% and 96% depending on the Varroa load. When a Varroa mite population has developed some treatment resistance, we show that MAS colonies generate a net profit gain of between 8% and 112% depending on the Varroa load and degree of treatment resistance. PMID:28334400

  19. 75 FR 10219 - Solicitation of Applications for the FY 2010 University Center Economic Development Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Competition in EDA's Austin and Denver Regional Offices AGENCY: Economic Development Administration (EDA... goal of enhancing regional economic development by promoting a favorable business environment to... Center Program Competition, Economic Development Administration, Austin Regional Office, 504 Lavaca...

  20. Predictors of High Profit and High Deficit Outliers under SwissDRG of a Tertiary Care Center.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Mehra

    Full Text Available Case weights of Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs are determined by the average cost of cases from a previous billing period. However, a significant amount of cases are largely over- or underfunded. We therefore decided to analyze earning outliers of our hospital as to search for predictors enabling a better grouping under SwissDRG.28,893 inpatient cases without additional private insurance discharged from our hospital in 2012 were included in our analysis. Outliers were defined by the interquartile range method. Predictors for deficit and profit outliers were determined with logistic regressions. Predictors were shortlisted with the LASSO regularized logistic regression method and compared to results of Random forest analysis. 10 of these parameters were selected for quantile regression analysis as to quantify their impact on earnings.Psychiatric diagnosis and admission as an emergency case were significant predictors for higher deficit with negative regression coefficients for all analyzed quantiles (p<0.001. Admission from an external health care provider was a significant predictor for a higher deficit in all but the 90% quantile (p<0.001 for Q10, Q20, Q50, Q80 and p = 0.0017 for Q90. Burns predicted higher earnings for cases which were favorably remunerated (p<0.001 for the 90% quantile. Osteoporosis predicted a higher deficit in the most underfunded cases, but did not predict differences in earnings for balanced or profitable cases (Q10 and Q20: p<0.00, Q50: p = 0.10, Q80: p = 0.88 and Q90: p = 0.52. ICU stay, mechanical and patient clinical complexity level score (PCCL predicted higher losses at the 10% quantile but also higher profits at the 90% quantile (p<0.001.We suggest considering psychiatric diagnosis, admission as an emergency case and admission from an external health care provider as DRG split criteria as they predict large, consistent and significant losses.

  1. Data center virtualization and its economic implications for the companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian STEFAN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current situation of the economic crisis, when companies target budgetcuttings in a context of an explosive data growth, the IT community must evaluate potentialtechnology developments not only on their technical advantages, but on their economiceffects as well. More then ever, the old cliché “doing more things with fewer resources” istrue today. Many IT companies started building very large facilities, called data centers(DCs or Internet DC (IDCs, which provide businesses a wide range of solutions forsystems deployment and operation. In recent years, the IT departments around the worldhave moved from data center and infrastructure consolidation to virtualization.Data center virtualization is the process of aligning available resources with the actualneeds of the offered services, moving from physical servers to virtual servers, sharing andprovisioning servers, networks, storage, and applications. By taking advantage of threebasic innovations — virtualization, tiered storage architectures and dynamic provisioningsoftware — an organization can achieve greater efficiencies in their current computingenvironment.Such a unified computing architecture offers end-to-end virtualization; all structures areoptimized for virtualized environments, from the CPU to the aggregation layer. Incombination with embedded management, this new approach increases responsiveness andreduces the opportunities for human error, improving consistency and reducing server andnetwork deployment times.

  2. A dual theory of price and value in a meso-scale economic model with stochastic profit rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblatt, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    The problem of commodity price determination in a market-based, capitalist economy has a long and contentious history. Neoclassical microeconomic theories are based typically on marginal utility assumptions, while classical macroeconomic theories tend to be value-based. In the current work, I study a simplified meso-scale model of a commodity capitalist economy. The production/exchange model is represented by a network whose nodes are firms, workers, capitalists, and markets, and whose directed edges represent physical or monetary flows. A pair of multivariate linear equations with stochastic input parameters represent physical (supply/demand) and monetary (income/expense) balance. The input parameters yield a non-degenerate profit rate distribution across firms. Labor time and price are found to be eigenvector solutions to the respective balance equations. A simple relation is derived relating the expected value of commodity price to commodity labor content. Results of Monte Carlo simulations are consistent with the stochastic price/labor content relation.

  3. Profit U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Margery

    2012-01-01

    Preparing employees for the immediate work in front of them is a challenge. While most companies are still mastering effectively training their own workforce, some, such as "Training" magazine Top 10 Hall of Famer The Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company, have set up for-profit academies open to the public. When Ritz-Carlton won the national Malcolm…

  4. Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) - Center for Global Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the leading economic forum in the Asia-Pacific region, APEC facilitates economic growth and prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region through trade and investment liberalization, business facilitation, and economic and technical cooperation.

  5. Financialization and financial profit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Guillén

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article starts from the critical review of the concept of financial capital. I consider it is necessary not to confuse this category with of financialization, which has acquired a certificate of naturalization from the rise of neoliberalism. Although financial monopoly-financial capital is the hegemonic segment of the bourgeoisie in the major capitalist countries, their dominance does not imply, a fortiori, financialization of economic activity, since it depends of the conditions of the process reproduction of capital. The emergence of joint stock companies modified the formation of the average rate of profit. The "promoter profit" becomes one of the main forms of income of monopoly-financial capital. It is postulated that financial profit is a kind of "extraordinary surplus-value" which is appropriated by monopoly-financial capital by means of the monopolistic control it exerts on the issue and circulation of fictitious capital.

  6. Economic and fiscal modeling of petroleum projects: impact of REPETRO on projects profitability; Modelagem economica e fiscal de projetos petroliferos: impacto do REPETRO sobre a rentabilidade de projetos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coimbra, Vinicius Accurso de Mello [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPGE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Economia; Almeida, Edmar Luiz Fagundes de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Economia

    2012-07-01

    REPETRO (Regime Aduaneiro Especial de Exportacao e Importacao de Bens Destinados a Exploracao e a Producao de Petroleo e Gas Natural) is a special custom regime created during the liberalization of the Brazilian oil and gas (O and G) industry. It's goal is to enhance the attractiveness of investments for the exploitation of O and G in Brazilian territory. Under REPETRO, the importation of permitted goods shall benefit from suspension of the following taxes: II, IPI, PIS, COFINS and the reduction of ICMS. The recent review of the sector's regulatory framework, allied to some imperfections on the functioning of the regime, has created a political environment conducive for the questioning of such tax exemption. Given the uncertainty surrounding REPETRO, this paper proposed the construction of a model that simulates all of the economic and tax variables relevant for the exploitation of O and G in Brazilian territory in order to quantify the impact of REPETRO on the profitability of these activities. The model is constructed on the basis of a discounted cash flow that simulates the life cycle of a typical O and G project under the logic of Brazilian fiscal system: Sistema de Concessao. As its original contribution, a complete tax framework was constructed with help from O and G tax specialists. All of the results encountered point to the fact that REPETRO makes a significant impact on the profitability of O and G activities. In some cases it is fundamental for the economic feasibility of the project. In one particular scenario, REPETRO was responsible for doubling the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of the project. (author)

  7. A water productive and economically profitable paddy rice production method to adapt water scarcity in the Vu Gia-Thu Bon river basin, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhone Nay-Htoon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In Vu Gia-Thu Bon river basin, Vietnam, drought during the dry season affected negatively on rice production. High and uneven rainfall distribution cause flooding in the basin during wet season and cause severe agricultural drought during dry season.This study aimed to point out a higher water productive and economically efficient rice production method to adapt water scarcity in the region. Based on available secondary data, water productivity is calculated for different water saving rice production methods, according to Pereira, et al, (2012’s irrigation water productivity and total productivity equations. The profit of technological change is calculated by partial budget analysis of rice production in that area and a sensitivity analysis supports to point out which input factor is sensitive to farmer’s benefit. Farmer’s psychological and social beliefs are used to create fuzzy logic based decision making model. Although water productivities (ranging 0.441 kg/m3/ha to 0.504 kg/m3/ha are ranked as the second after System of Rice Intensification, we demonstrated that Alternate Wetting and Drying method is a recommendable method to the farmer after considering economic profitability and technical simplicity. The System of Rice Intensification method also could be a suitable method to adopt because this method is the highest water productive method (Water Productivities are ranging from 0.77 kg/m3/ha to 1.02 kg/m3/ha coupled with highest yield of rice, subject to certain ecosystem services and payment policies should be developed to subsidize the reduced benefit resulting from this method.

  8. Is a 10-sow unit economically sustainable? A profitability assessment of productivity amongst small-holder pig farmers, Mpumalanga, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munzhelele, Priscilla; Oguttu, James W; Fasina, Folorunso O

    2016-05-12

    The majority of small-holder pig farmers in Mpumalanga had between 1- and 10-sow herds. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the current government agricultural intervention (supply of 10 sows and a boar) in terms of technical and economic feasibilities and ascertain whether the small-scale pig value chain system alleviates poverty. Data were obtained from 220 randomly selected small-holder pig farmers using a semi-structured questionnaire. The results showed that 58% farrowed ≤ 10 piglets/born/sow/litter, 44.2% practiced no weaning method and many fed swill and leftovers alone (41.6%). Pair-wise association revealed that the feeding of commercial feeds had a relationship with pigs in relatively good to very good body condition. Pigs in poor body condition were positively correlated with the feeding of swill alone. The economic models for the 10-sow unit proved that pig farming is unprofitable if the current management and feeding systems that operate in the commercial industry are utilised. However, only through a combination of cooperative systems, benefits of economies of scale, reduction of preweaning mortalities and structured government inputs can pig production be profitable at this scale of production.

  9. [Medical controlling as medical economical service center. Successful concept for orthopedics and trauma surgery centers?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auhuber, T C; Hoffmann, R

    2015-01-01

    The management of patients from administrative admission through the orthopedic-surgical treatment to completion of the billing is complex. Additional challenges originate from the necessity to treat patients in both outpatient and inpatient departments and in more than one medical sector. A superior coordination is essential for a successful cooperation of the various procedures of controlling. The model of a medical controlling department as a service center with effective competence in the management of service and cost, functions as a successful solution to the problem. Central elements of a successful medical economical case management are a well-defined assignment of tasks and definitions of intersections, the integration of health professionals and administrative employees, the utilization of software for process control and the implementation of inlier controlling.

  10. Profit Patterns Across American Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Blank, Steven C.; Erickson, Kenneth W.; Moss, Charles B.

    2005-01-01

    To remain viable, agriculture in each location must offer returns that are competitive with those from alternative investments and sufficient to cover producers' financial obligations. Economic theory says that rates of return converge over time as resources flow into more-profitable industries and out of less-profitable industries, causing factor price changes. Both traditional growth and trade theories say factor markets will adjust to equalize commodity returns over time. This study examin...

  11. Can combining economizers with improved filtration save energy and protect equipment in data centers?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shehabi, Arman; Ganguly, Srirupa; Gundel, Lara A.; Horvath, Arpad; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Tschudi, William; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Nazaroff, William W

    2009-06-05

    Economizer use in data centers is an energy efficiency strategy that could significantly limit electricity demand in this rapidly growing economic sector. Widespread economizer implementation, however, has been hindered by potential equipment reliability concerns associated with exposing information technology equipment to particulate matter of outdoor origin. This study explores the feasibility of using economizers in data centers to save energy while controlling particle concentrations with high-quality air filtration. Physical and chemical properties of indoor and outdoor particles were analyzed at an operating northern California data center equipped with an economizer under varying levels of air filtration efficiency. Results show that when improved filtration is used in combination with an economizer, the indoor/outdoor concentration ratios for most measured particle types were similar to levels when using conventional filtration without economizers. An energy analysis of the data center reveals that, even during the summer months, chiller savings from economizer use greatly outweigh any increase in fan power associated with improved filtration. These findings indicate that economizer use combined with improved filtration could reduce data center energy demand while providing a level of protection from particles of outdoor origin similar to that observed with conventional design.

  12. Oregon High Desert Interpretive Center : Economic feasibility and impact analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a proposal to construct a High Desert Interpretive Center to inform visitors to Harney County, Oregon of the opportunities for education, recreation and...

  13. Economizer Based Data Center Liquid Cooling with Advanced Metal Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Chainer

    2012-11-30

    A new chiller-less data center liquid cooling system utilizing the outside air environment has been shown to achieve up to 90% reduction in cooling energy compared to traditional chiller based data center cooling systems. The system removes heat from Volume servers inside a Sealed Rack and transports the heat using a liquid loop to an Outdoor Heat Exchanger which rejects the heat to the outdoor ambient environment. The servers in the rack are cooled using a hybrid cooling system by removing the majority of the heat generated by the processors and memory by direct thermal conduction using coldplates and the heat generated by the remaining components using forced air convection to an air- to- liquid heat exchanger inside the Sealed Rack. The anticipated benefits of such energy-centric configurations are significant energy savings at the data center level. When compared to a traditional 10 MW data center, which typically uses 25% of its total data center energy consumption for cooling this technology could potentially enable a cost savings of up to $800,000-$2,200,000/year (assuming electricity costs of 4 to 11 cents per kilowatt-hour) through the reduction in electrical energy usage.

  14. Organizational Structure and Behaviour in Day Care: Differences between Non-Profit and For-Profit Centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Patricia M.; Lyon, Mary E.; Kienapple, Kim; Young, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Examined how Canadian day care centers are operated and managed, to identify differences in organizational structure and behavior between non-profit and for-profit centers and characteristics of structure and management linked with high quality care. Found that non-profit centers were more complex, more formalized, and less centralized than…

  15. Profits in reverse? An examination of the decisive factors for reverse supply chain profitability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Samuel; Jacobsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Although the concept of the reverse supply chain (RSC) is not unknown in industry, an inhibitor for its successful use is low (or no) profitability. A research challenge is investigating ways to establish the RSC as a profit-creating center in the organization. This paper contributes to this chal......Although the concept of the reverse supply chain (RSC) is not unknown in industry, an inhibitor for its successful use is low (or no) profitability. A research challenge is investigating ways to establish the RSC as a profit-creating center in the organization. This paper contributes...

  16. Results of attempts to quantify the secondary economic effects generated by big research centers

    CERN Document Server

    Schmied, H

    1982-01-01

    Reviews several years of research aimed at quantifying the surplus generated by the two big research centers European Nuclear Research Organisation (CERN) and European Space Agency (ESA) through their industrial contractors (called in this context, economic utility), and the distribution of this surplus amongst industry's economic agents. It contains a brief description of the method used and the quantification models developed with the help of more than 300 industrial managers who were interviewed. Results are presented and discussed. The paper also contains a critical review of the present shortcomings and limitations of this approach.

  17. Tax Evasion, Monopoly, and Nonneutral Profit Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kangoh

    1998-01-01

    It is known in the literature that tax evasion does not influence the monopolist's output decision, and hence, profit taxes are neutral, even in the presence of tax evasion. This result is based on the assumption that the audit probability and the penalty rate are fixed or depend on the understatement or overstatement of relevant economic indicators. However, under alternative and perhaps more reasonable formulations of the audit probability, the neutrality of profit taxes may not be preserve...

  18. Refined analysis results for multimedia network costs and profits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahkokorpi, M.; Falch, Morten; Skouby, Knud Erik

    This deliverable describes the techno-economic business model developed in EURORIM WP3 and presents the refined results of the multimedia service delivery cost-profit calculations......This deliverable describes the techno-economic business model developed in EURORIM WP3 and presents the refined results of the multimedia service delivery cost-profit calculations...

  19. The Nigerian Statements of Accounting Standards and Ribh (Profit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the subject, profit (ribh), in relation to both conventional and Islamic accounting standards, has almost totally been neglected. This paper, therefore, investigates the determination of profit in line with the Nigerian Statements of Accounting Standards (SAS), conventional economics and Islamic economic ...

  20. DataProfit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    DataProfit er et værktøj til at kortlægge og analysere din virksomheds evne til datadreven forretningsudvikling.......DataProfit er et værktøj til at kortlægge og analysere din virksomheds evne til datadreven forretningsudvikling....

  1. Profit vs. Purpose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Money helps us meet our basic needs, but what about our need for meaning? Businesses will profit — not just financially — by finding their souls.......Money helps us meet our basic needs, but what about our need for meaning? Businesses will profit — not just financially — by finding their souls....

  2. Profit maximization mitigates competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    competition than utility maximization. Since profit maximization tends to raise prices, it may be regarded as beneficial for the owners as a whole. Moreover, if profit maximization is a good proxy for utility maximization, then there is no need for a general equilibrium analysis that takes the distribution...

  3. Economic consequences incurred by living kidney donors: a Canadian multi-center prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarenbach, S; Gill, J S; Knoll, G; Caulfield, T; Boudville, N; Prasad, G V R; Karpinski, M; Storsley, L; Treleaven, D; Arnold, J; Cuerden, M; Jacobs, P; Garg, A X

    2014-04-01

    Some living kidney donors incur economic consequences as a result of donation; however, these costs are poorly quantified. We developed a framework to comprehensively assess economic consequences from the donor perspective including out-of-pocket cost, lost wages and home productivity loss. We prospectively enrolled 100 living kidney donors from seven Canadian centers between 2004 and 2008 and collected and valued economic consequences ($CAD 2008) at 3 months and 1 year after donation. Almost all (96%) donors experienced economic consequences, with 94% reporting travel costs and 47% reporting lost pay. The average and median costs of lost pay were $2144 (SD 4167) and $0 (25th-75th percentile 0, 2794), respectively. For other expenses (travel, accommodation, medication and medical), mean and median costs were $1780 (SD 2504) and $821 (25th-75th percentile 242, 2271), respectively. From the donor perspective, mean cost was $3268 (SD 4704); one-third of donors incurred cost >$3000, and 15% >$8000. The majority of donors (83%) reported inability to perform usual household activities for an average duration of 33 days; 8% reported out-of-pocket costs for assistance with these activities. The economic impact of living kidney donation for some individuals is large. We advocate for programs to reimburse living donors for their legitimate costs. © 2014 The Authors. American Journal of Transplantation Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  4. Economic analysis of requests for laboratory tests in primary health care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunic, Lejla

    2012-03-01

    Operation of the Primary health care center and Medical-biochemical laboratories depends on the number of performed laboratory tests. The number of unnecessary tests significantly affect the operation of health institutions. We analyzed the 1000 requests for laboratory tests at the Primary Health Care Centre in Gracanica from primary care units. Based on the requests for laboratory diagnostics advisable diagnoses from primary health care unit in the Primary Health Care Center (PHC) we made an economic analysis of the total required laboratory tests in the requests for laboratory diagnosis. Incorporating the economic analysis of laboratory tests in requests for laboratory diagnosis by doctors in primary health care (PHC) and the economic analysis of laboratory tests by the disease in primary health care. The economic value of 5333 laboratory tests was 84 312 points (1 point is 0.80 KM). Of the total value of the index score requirements of GPs are 44, 1%, the requirement of family doctors account for 40% and requirements of other specialists make up 15, 9%.. In the requests of the PHC units for laboratory tests are required all levels of services: urine, CBC, SE, glucose, bilirubine, ALT, AST, AF, CK, cholesterol, HDL chol., triglicerdes, creatinine, urea, uric acid, CRP, fibrinogen, calcium and phosphorus. The following requests are the most common laboratory tests: urine, CBC, blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, aminotransferases, creatinine, urea. The doctors in family practice most often requested: blood glucose, urine, CBC, SE, TGL. , Chol., ALT, AST, creatinine and urea. General practitioners were demanding more cholesterol and triglycerides, and family medicine doctors were demanding less cholesterol and triglycerides and more often CRP, fibrinogen, ALT, AST, what from the level of economic cost analysis rises the issue whether this was justified?

  5. Effect of introducing piglets from farrow-to-finish breeding farms into all-in all-out fattening batches in Spain on productive parameters and economic profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J; Guitián, F J; Yus, E

    2007-08-16

    A prospective study was conducted to assess the effect of introduction of piglets from farrow-to-finish farms on the global performance of all-in all-out fattening batches in Galicia (NW Spain). Two hundred and thirty-nine fattening batches from 48 fattening farms integrated in a cooperative were used in the study. All-in all-out fattening batches were classified according to the category of farm that supplied the piglets. Origin F was a fattening batch where all feeder piglets came from one or more farrow to feeder units versus origin FF, in case a group of piglets or all piglets of the batch came from farrow-to-finish farms. Productive parameters of fattening batches included in the study were recorded. Crude comparisons of performance of 37 fattening batches from origin F and 202 from origin FF were made. Mixed multiple linear regression models were used to assess the association between type of origin of feeder piglets and the following parameters: feed consumed per market hog, percentage of deaths (mortality) and time to slaughter. In all models, variables with presumable relationships with the outcomes were offered to the models as well as the biologically plausible interaction terms. Mortality was higher in fattening batches with piglets coming from farrow-to-finish farms (0.67% higher than origin F; Peconomic impact of using origin F or FF as source of piglets. Results of the model indicated that the difference in expected profit per marketed hog between the types of sources of piglets was small (11.50 Euros, S.D. 1.79 for origin F versus 10.44 Euros, S.D. 2.72, for origin FF).

  6. Economic Constraints – the Growing Challenge for Western Breast Cancer Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Rene P.; Lux, Michael P.; Hoellthaler, Josef; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Voigt, Wieland

    2013-01-01

    Summary Breast cancer care in Western countries has reached a considerable level of quality and standardization, which has contributed to the decline in breast cancer mortality. Certified Breast Cancer Centers (BCC) represent an important element of this development. Related to changes in reimbursement and growing costs, BCC face economic constraints which ultimately could endanger the achievements of the past. Thus, BCC have to optimize their care strategies from an economic perspective, particularly by increasing efficiency but also by adapting their service portfolio. This could result in competitive advantages and additional revenue by increasing case numbers and extra charges to patients. Furthermore, an intensification of collaboration with the outpatient sector resulting in an integrated and managed ‘trans-sectoral’ care approach which could allow to shift unprofitable procedures to the outpatient sector – in the sense of a win-win situation for both sectors and without loss of care quality – seems reasonable. Structured and specialized consulting approaches can further be a lever to fulfill economic requirements in order to avoid cuts in medical care quality for the sake of a balanced budget. In this review, economic constraints of BCC with a focus on the German healthcare system and potential approaches to ameliorate these financial burdens are being discussed. PMID:24715842

  7. Economic Development Activities at the Young - Rainey Science, Technology, & Research (STAR) Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul S. Sacco; Carl Smeigh; John Caponiti, Jr.

    2008-06-30

    Project mission was to mitigate the adverse economic effects of closing the U.S. Department of Energy's Pinellas Plant in Largo, Florida. This project was to facilitate the physical renovation of the plant and to help maintain and create jobs for the employees that worked at the plant when DOE terminated its operations. It also included finding and attracting high technology, industrial manufacturing and related firms to utilize the space and high tech equipment to remain at the plant. Stakeholders included the affected plant employees, local government and related public organizations, and businesses and universities in the Tampa Bay Florida area. The $17.6 million funded for this project helped produce 2,780 jobs at the Young - Rainey STAR Center at an average cost of $6,328. Rental income from STAR Center tenants and third party cash input amounted to approximately $66 million over the project period of 13.3 years.

  8. For-Profit Colleges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David Deming; Claudia Goldin; Lawrence Katz

    2013-01-01

    For-profit, or proprietary, colleges are the fastest-growing postsecondary schools in the nation, enrolling a disproportionately high share of disadvantaged and minority students and those ill-prepared for college...

  9. A Decomposition of Hospital Profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Turner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This paper evaluates the drivers of profitability for a large sample of U.S. hospitals. Following a methodology frequently used by financial analysts, we use a DuPont analysis as a framework to evaluate the quality of earnings. By decomposing returns on equity (ROE into profit margin, total asset turnover, and capital structure, the DuPont analysis reveals what drives overall profitability. Methods: Profit margin, the efficiency with which services are rendered (total asset turnover, and capital structure is calculated for 3,255 U.S. hospitals between 2007 and 2012 using data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services’ Healthcare Cost Report Information System (CMS Form 2552. The sample is then stratified by ownership, size, system affiliation, teaching status, critical access designation, and urban or non-urban location. Those hospital characteristics and interaction terms are then regressed (OLS against the ROE and the respective DuPont components. Sensitivity to regression methodology is also investigated using a seemingly unrelated regression. Results: When the sample is stratified by hospital characteristics, the results indicate investor-owned hospitals have higher profit margins, higher efficiency, and are substantially more leveraged. Hospitals in systems are found to have higher ROE, margins, and efficiency but are associated with less leverage. In addition, a number of important and significant interactions between teaching status, ownership, location, critical access designation, and inclusion in a system are documented. Many of the significant relationships, most notably not-for-profit ownership, lose significance or are predominately associated with one interaction effect when interaction terms are introduced as explanatory variables. Results are not sensitive to the alternative methodology. Conclusion: The results of the DuPont analysis suggest that although there appears to be convergence in the behavior of

  10. A Decomposition of Hospital Profitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Kevin; Elliott, Michael; Lee, Jen-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This paper evaluates the drivers of profitability for a large sample of U.S. hospitals. Following a methodology frequently used by financial analysts, we use a DuPont analysis as a framework to evaluate the quality of earnings. By decomposing returns on equity (ROE) into profit margin, total asset turnover, and capital structure, the DuPont analysis reveals what drives overall profitability. Methods: Profit margin, the efficiency with which services are rendered (total asset turnover), and capital structure is calculated for 3,255 U.S. hospitals between 2007 and 2012 using data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services’ Healthcare Cost Report Information System (CMS Form 2552). The sample is then stratified by ownership, size, system affiliation, teaching status, critical access designation, and urban or non-urban location. Those hospital characteristics and interaction terms are then regressed (OLS) against the ROE and the respective DuPont components. Sensitivity to regression methodology is also investigated using a seemingly unrelated regression. Results: When the sample is stratified by hospital characteristics, the results indicate investor-owned hospitals have higher profit margins, higher efficiency, and are substantially more leveraged. Hospitals in systems are found to have higher ROE, margins, and efficiency but are associated with less leverage. In addition, a number of important and significant interactions between teaching status, ownership, location, critical access designation, and inclusion in a system are documented. Many of the significant relationships, most notably not-for-profit ownership, lose significance or are predominately associated with one interaction effect when interaction terms are introduced as explanatory variables. Results are not sensitive to the alternative methodology. Conclusion: The results of the DuPont analysis suggest that although there appears to be convergence in the behavior of NFP and IO

  11. Combining Purpose With Profits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julian Birkinshaw, Julian; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2014-01-01

    A sense of purpose that transcends making money can motivate employees. But to sustain both a sense of purpose and a solid level of profitability over time, companies need to pay attention to several fundamental organizing principles.......A sense of purpose that transcends making money can motivate employees. But to sustain both a sense of purpose and a solid level of profitability over time, companies need to pay attention to several fundamental organizing principles....

  12. Determinants of Bank Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Mukesh Chaudhry; Arjun Chatrath; Ravindra Kamath

    1995-01-01

    This study investigates the determinants of profitability of U.S. commercial banks in the 1970s and 1980s. It is established that banks, depending on their size, may need to exercise greater control over a defined set of variables in order to maximize profits and/or minimize costs. Further, the study provides some indirect evidence of economies of scale/scope in certain aspects of the banksÕ loan and investment portfolios.

  13. Measuring Bank Profit Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzpatrick, Trevor; McQuinn, Kieran

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes that a variant of the Battese and Coelli (1995) inefficiency model can be applied as a consistent and unifying framework in exploring the determinants of credit institutions’ profit inefficiency scores. To date, work concerned with the potential determinants of credit institutions' profit inefficiency levels has addressed the issue in either a single-step or multi-step process. In the former, inefficiency scores are conditioned by region and bank-specific indicators, while...

  14. [Vaccine cold chain interruption in a primary care center and economic evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larena Fernández, Israel; Vara Callau, Marta; Peña Blasco, Guillermo; Atance Melendo, Esther; Gay Gasanz, Blanca; Pérez-Aramendía, María Jesús Blasco

    Cold chain control is one of the most important facts to ensure the effectiveness of vaccines links, which requires specific material and human resources for management. The principal objective is to evaluate the interruptions in cold chain of the last 6 years and the possible cost savings that would result in further improvements. A retrospective and descriptive study based on a review of all cold chain interruptions during the last 6 years, at Valdefierro Primary Health Center. We had 5 interruptions, the maximum temperature reached was 23.1±3.4°C and the longest interruption lasted 25.2±20.7hours. 1611 vaccines were affected and 165 discarded. Total economic loss was 2.098,10 € and 33.611,64 € were savings. The electrical failure was the disruption cause in 5 cases. Equipment and staff are essential. The center did some corrective actions, such as minimizing refrigerator time control, minimum stock control, considering population changes, and the center has requested a electrical supply system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. TURKISH BANKING SECTOR’S PROFITABILITY FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songül Kakilli ACARAVCI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Profitability of banking sector is the most important instrument of financial system for the future of the economy. The objective of this study is to determine by using Johansen and Juselius cointegration test approach of the bank specific and macroeconomic factors that affect the profitability of commercial banks in Turkish banking sector. In study, the data are collected from the three biggest state-owned, privately-owned and foreign banks. The sample period spans from 1998 to 2011. In the study, return of asset, return of equity and net interest margin were used as proxy for profitability of banks. The bank specific determinants, which were thought to have effects on profitability are total credits/total assets, total deposits/total assets, total liquid assets/total assets, total wage and commission incomes/ total assets, total wage and commission expenses/total assets, the logarithm of total assets and total equity/total assets. The macroeconomic determinants of study are real gross domestic product, inflation rate, real exchange rate and real interest rate. Empirical findings suggest that the bank specific determinants have been more effect than macroeconomic factors on profitability of the banks. The reel gross domestic product and real exchange rate have been effective on the profitability. In addition, the 2001 economic crisis has a negative effect on all Turkish Banking sector.

  16. Maximizing profit on New England organic dairy farms: an economic comparison of 4 total mixed rations for organic Holsteins and Jerseys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, S P; Clark, G W; Anderson, G W; Kersbergen, R J; Lunak, M; Marcinkowski, D P; Murphy, M R; Schwab, C G; Erickson, P S

    2011-06-01

    and UMaine, whereas grass silage diets containing commodities generally had the lowest cost. In contrast, the grass silage with commodities diets had the highest income over feed cost in the majority of the replications at both UNH and UMaine replications, whereas the corn silage with commodities diets had the lowest rank. Similar results were observed when forage prices were increased or decreased by 5, 10, and 25% above or below the actual feed price. Feeding a grass silage-based diet supplemented with commodity concentrates may have an economic advantage for dairy producers in New England operating under an organic system of production. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. For-profit colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, David; Goldin, Claudia; Katz, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    For-profit, or proprietary, colleges are the fastest-growing postsecondary schools in the nation, enrolling a disproportionately high share of disadvantaged and minority students and those ill-prepared for college. Because these schools, many of them big national chains, derive most of their revenue from taxpayer-funded student financial aid, they are of interest to policy makers not only for the role they play in the higher education spectrum but also for the value they provide their students. In this article, David Deming, Claudia Goldin, and Lawrence Katz look at the students who attend for-profits, the reasons they choose these schools, and student outcomes on a number of broad measures and draw several conclusions. First, the authors write, the evidence shows that public community colleges may provide an equal or better education at lower cost than for-profits. But budget pressures mean that community colleges and other nonselective public institutions may not be able to meet the demand for higher education. Some students unable to get into desired courses and programs at public institutions may face only two alternatives: attendance at a for-profit or no postsecondary education at all. Second, for-profits appear to be at their best with well-defined programs of short duration that prepare students for a specific occupation. But for-profit completion rates, default rates, and labor market outcomes for students seeking associate's or higher degrees compare unfavorably with those of public postsecondary institutions. In principle, taxpayer investment in student aid should be accompanied by scrutiny concerning whether students complete their course of study and subsequently earn enough to justify the investment and pay back their student loans. Designing appropriate regulations to help students navigate the market for higher education has proven to be a challenge because of the great variation in student goals and types of programs. Ensuring that potential

  18. Short Term Effect of Consolidation on Profitability of Nigerian Banks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings here confirm the existing controversy on whether or not mergers or acquisitions lead to improved profitability. What is however clear is that barring any effect of the present global economic meltdown; it may take some time for the EPS of most of the banks to change significantly. Key Words: EPS Profitability ...

  19. Home hemodialysis: a comprehensive review of patient-centered and economic considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rachael C; Howard, Kirsten; Morton, Rachael L

    2017-01-01

    Internationally, the number of patients requiring treatment for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) continues to increase, placing substantial burden on health systems and patients. Home hemodialysis (HD) has fluctuated in its popularity, and the rates of home HD vary considerably between and within countries although there is evidence suggesting a number of clinical, survival, economic, and quality of life (QoL) advantages associated with this treatment. International guidelines encourage shared decision making between patients and clinicians for the type of dialysis, with an emphasis on a treatment that aligned to the patients’ lifestyle. This is a comprehensive literature review of patient-centered and economic impacts of home HD with the studies published between January 2000 and July 2016. Data from the primary studies representing both efficiency and equity of home HD were presented as a narrative synthesis under the following topics: advantages to patients, barriers to patients, economic factors influencing patients, cost-effectiveness of home HD, and inequities in home HD delivery. There were a number of advantages for patients on home HD including improved survival and QoL and flexibility and potential for employment, compared to hospital HD. Similarly, there were several barriers to patients preferring or maintaining home HD, and the strategies to overcome these barriers were frequently reported. Good evidence reported that indigenous, low-income, and other socially disadvantaged individuals had reduced access to home HD compared to other forms of dialysis and that this situation compounds already-poor health outcomes on renal replacement therapy. Government policies that minimize barriers to home HD include reimbursement for dialysis-related out-of-pocket costs and employment-retention interventions for home HD patients and their family members. This review argues that home HD is a cost-effective treatment, and increasing the proportion of patients on this

  20. Spatial Model for Determining the Optimum Placement of Logistics Centers in a Predefined Economic Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Iulia Țarțavulea (Dieaconescu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The process of globalization has stimulated the demand for logistics services at a level of speed and increased efficiency, which involves using of techniques, tools, technologies and modern models in supply chain management. The aim of this research paper is to present a model that can be used in order to achieve an optimized supply chain, associated with minimum transportation costs. The utilization of spatial modeling for determining the optimal locations for logistics centers in a predefined economic area is proposd in this paper. The principal methods used to design the model are mathematic optimization and linear programming. The output data of the model are the precise placement of one up to ten logistics centers, in terms of minimum operational costs for delivery from the optimum locations to consumer points. The results of the research indicate that by using the proposed model, an efficient supply chain that is consistent with optimization of transport can be designed, in order to streamline the delivery process and thus reduce operational costs

  1. Medical Schools for Profit?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and that funding is only spent on that will deliver more or better medical education. So staffing and other resources will be kept to the minimum required to deliver a high‑quality service. Secondly as in other walks of life, the profit motive should be a driver of innovation, and this should also be the case in medical education.

  2. From People to Profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, L.; Hayday, S.; Bevan, S.

    An empirical test of the service-profit chain in a large United Kingdom retail business explored how employee attitudes and behavior can improve customer retention and, consequently, company sales performance. Data were collected from 65,000 employees and 25,000 customers from almost 100 stores. The business collected customer satisfaction for…

  3. Economic efficiency of Embrapa's research centers and the influence of contextual variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo da Silva e Souza

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we measure, with a DEA BCC model, the economic efficiency of Embrapa’s (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation research centers. We model the DEA economic efficiency as a linear function of the contextual variables revenue generation capacity, partnership intensity, improvement of administrative processes, cost rationalization, size and type of research centers. The model used is of the type dynamic panel and assumes a structured correlation matrix intra times and unstructured inter times. In order to better discriminate the efficient units we used a heuristic efficiency score that aggregates the efficiencies in relation to the original and inverted DEA frontiers. Partnerships positive effect in the efficiency scores does not confirm the thoughts that Embrapa’s performance evaluation process discourages the integration and cooperation of its research centers. From the point of view of statistical significance, the improvement of administrative processes is the most important indicator among the contextual variables.Neste artigo é medida a eficiência econômica dos centros de pesquisa da Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Embrapa. É usado o modelo DEA BCC, cuja medida de eficiência é modelada como função linear das variáveis contextuais capacidade de geração de receita, intensidade de parcerias, melhoria de processos administrativos, racionalização de custos, tamanho e tipo de centro. O modelo é do tipo painel dinâmico, assume correlação intra-temporal estruturada entre os centros de pesquisa e inter-temporal não estruturada. Para desempatar as unidades eficientes é usado um índice heurístico de eficiência que agrega os resultados de eficiência em relação às fronteiras DEA clássica e invertida. O efeito positivo das parcerias na medida de eficiência, invalida as críticas de que o processo de avaliação prejudica a integração e cooperação entre os centros de pesquisa. A melhoria de

  4. Home hemodialysis: a comprehensive review of patient-centered and economic considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker RC

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Rachael C Walker,1,2 Kirsten Howard,1 Rachael L Morton3 1School of Public Health, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 2Hawke’s Bay District Health Board, Hastings, New Zealand; 3NHMRC Clinical Trials Centre, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia Abstract: Internationally, the number of patients requiring treatment for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD continues to increase, placing substantial burden on health systems and patients. Home hemodialysis (HD has fluctuated in its popularity, and the rates of home HD vary considerably between and within countries although there is evidence suggesting a number of clinical, survival, economic, and quality of life (QoL advantages associated with this treatment. International guidelines encourage shared decision making between patients and clinicians for the type of dialysis, with an emphasis on a treatment that aligned to the patients’ lifestyle. This is a comprehensive literature review of patient-centered and economic impacts of home HD with the studies published between January 2000 and July 2016. Data from the primary studies representing both efficiency and equity of home HD were presented as a narrative synthesis under the following topics: advantages to patients, barriers to patients, economic factors influencing patients, cost-effectiveness of home HD, and inequities in home HD delivery. There were a number of advantages for patients on home HD including improved survival and QoL and flexibility and potential for employment, compared to hospital HD. Similarly, there were several barriers to patients preferring or maintaining home HD, and the strategies to overcome these barriers were frequently reported. Good evidence reported that indigenous, low-income, and other socially disadvantaged individuals had reduced access to home HD compared to other forms of dialysis and that this situation compounds already-poor health outcomes on renal

  5. DETERMINANTS OF BANK PROFITABILITY IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kundid

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The research objective of this study is twofold. It aims to provide a synthesis of relevant empirical researches on the determinants of commercial banks’ profitability and to establish empirical verification of profitability determinants of banks in the Republic of Croatia using an econometric method of dynamic panel analysis. The empirical analysis is carried out on a data sample of 28 commercial banks in the period 2003-2008 which continuously refers to more than 95 % of assets of the overall banking intermediation. Return on assets (ROA is profitability indicator used in the analysis. The presented research results and their economic interpretation may serve as a valuable foundation for the general assessment of commercial bank management in Croatia as well as for identifying several sources of potential improvement and impairment of their financial performance in the future. Thus, corrective actions could be planned and implemented in advance.

  6. How's Business? Status Report #6 on For Profit Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger

    1990-01-01

    Describes the growth of for-profit child care and indications of a potential slowdown. Discusses the declining expansion of major chains and the accelerated growth of midsize and small chains. Lists the nations' largest for-profit child care and center management organizations. (RJC)

  7. Control design profits heliostat techno-economics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rubin, N

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Modelling, Identification, Simulation and Synthesis are well known components of the System Engineering Process. Ally these with the Target Aligned (TA) heliostat architecture and the universally acknowledged merits of using closed loop feedback...

  8. Alternative quality measures and profitability of hospital inpatient services offered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Donald R; Hegji, Charles E; Self, Robin M

    2010-01-01

    In this analysis, we study the relationship between hospital quality and hospital profits for a sample of 88 Alabama (USA) hospitals. Quality is measured by three groups of procedures performed on newly admitted patients as suggested by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services and the Health Quality Alliance (HQA) as well as a weighted quality measure. Profit is measured for eight hospital services. Profits from cardiac care were most responsive to the quality measures studied. Moreover, profits from six of the inpatient services increased as the weighted quality measure increased. Finally, in two cases quality increased with the relative number of employees a hospital utilized.

  9. Profit and place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Bentley

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the physical and symbolic effects the built environment has on human activities in a capitalist economy. The built environment is integrated in the capitalist economy on three levels: as the focus of a profit-oriented manufacturing industry, as the setting for all sorts of other enterprises and as the built context of the whole economy. The built environment is understood as a commodity. The capitalist system contains inbuilt tensions which have important design implications: the first tension arises because the system, if left to itself, lacks any overall planning functions, the second tension stems from the ability of the system to generate profit and the third arises from the character of labour, which distinguishes it from other commodities used in the production process. In conclusion methods of designing built environments, which perpetuate social order, are discussed.

  10. Determinants of Tunisian Bank Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Raoudha Bejaoui; Houssam Bouzgarrou

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the persistence of profit and the effect of bank-specific determinants of Tunisian bank profitability. To account for profit persistence, we apply a dynamic panel model, using Generalized Methods of Moments (GMM) system for 16 Tunisian commercial banks, divided into 11 deposit banks and 5 development banks during the period 1999-2010. The estimates show that the evidence for profit persistence is positive and significant for both deposit and development ban...

  11. Rates of profit as correlated sums of random variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblatt, R. E.

    2013-10-01

    Profit realization is the dominant feature of market-based economic systems, determining their dynamics to a large extent. Rather than attaining an equilibrium, profit rates vary widely across firms, and the variation persists over time. Differing definitions of profit result in differing empirical distributions. To study the statistical properties of profit rates, I used data from a publicly available database for the US Economy for 2009-2010 (Risk Management Association). For each of three profit rate measures, the sample space consists of 771 points. Each point represents aggregate data from a small number of US manufacturing firms of similar size and type (NAICS code of principal product). When comparing the empirical distributions of profit rates, significant ‘heavy tails’ were observed, corresponding principally to a number of firms with larger profit rates than would be expected from simple models. An apparently novel correlated sum of random variables statistical model was used to model the data. In the case of operating and net profit rates, a number of firms show negative profits (losses), ruling out simple gamma or lognormal distributions as complete models for these data.

  12. METKA - Forest energy profitably

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kymaelaeinen, M. (FMA Kanta-Hame, Hameenlinna (Finland)); Rieppo, K. (TTS Research, Hameenlinna (Finland)), e-mail: matti.kymalainen@mhy.fi, e-mail: kaarlo.rieppo@tts.fi

    2010-07-01

    The harvesting and profitability of forest energy in Finland is practically entirely dependent on state subsidies. Currently, there is a lot to improve in forest energy knowledge and competence. METKA - Forest energy profitably project (2008-2011) aims at increasing the cost efficiency of the forest energy chain and the volume of the supply chain in Haeme region. The project ia coordinated by Forest Management Association Kanta-Haeme (Kanta-Haemeen Metsanhoitoyhdistys ry). Project partners include FMA Paeijaet-Haeme, TTS Research and the Finnish Forest Research Institute's (METLA) Joensuu unit. METKA -project belongs to the Rural Development Programme for Mainland Finland 2007-2013 and is being funded partly by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD). The final project objective is to develop a new operational forest energy model for FMA Kanta-Haeme and FMA Paeijaet-Haeme. In order to create the operational model, the project has been divided into several sub-tasks, in which TTS Research and Metla are responsible for the research. TTS Research conducts studies that focus on forest energy harvesting and processing. The studies investigate especially small-diameter energy wood harvesting. Majority of the studies investigate the use of time, and they form the basis for cost and profit analyses. Metla is responsible or areas of research that contribute to the development of a forest energy storage's moisture estimation algorithm and a forest energy harvesting yield calculation program. Upon completion, the calculation program and the estimation algorithm are integrated to the logistics control system developed by FMA Kanta-Haeme and FMA Paeijaet-Haeme and taken into use as aids in forestry planning. During 2008 and 2009, several practical tests have been performed. Tests will be executed in autumn 2010 as well. The analysis of the results is likely to be completed in 2010, and the results is likely to be completed in 2010, and the results

  13. Does outsourcing affect hospital profitability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danvers, Kreag; Nikolov, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Organizations outsource non-core service functions to achieve cost reductions and strategic benefits, both of which can impact profitability performance. This article examines relations between managerial outsourcing decisions and profitability for a multi-state sample of non-profit hospitals, across 16 states and four regions of the United States. Overall regression results indicate that outsourcing does not necessarily improve hospital profitability. In addition, we identify no profitability impact from outsourcing for urban hospitals, but somewhat positive effects for teaching hospitals. Our regional analysis suggests that hospitals located in the Midwest maintain positive profitability effects with outsourcing, but those located in the South realize negative effects. These findings have implications for cost reduction efforts and the financial viability of non-profit hospitals.

  14. The Service-profit Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Lars; Martensen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the links between employee attitudes, customer loyalty and company profitability. From a conceptual point of view, this employee-customer-profit chain, also known as the service-profit chain, is well founded and generally accepted. But for many companies, it seems difficult...... to demonstrate such links, and several issues must be addressed to uncover the links. To investigate these links empirically, a hotel chain provided data matching employee and customer measures with measures of profitability. We have successfully employed a modeling approach, and the paper reports empirical...... evidence of the employee-customer-profit chain. As it is possible to estimate the links, we have demonstrated their effect on company profitability. The research findings provide a better understanding of the service-profit chain and may help practitioners in improving company financial performance....

  15. The Clinical and Economic Impact of Generic Locking Plate Utilization at a Level II Trauma Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcphillamy, Austin; Gurnea, Taylor P; Moody, Alastair E; Kurnik, Christopher G; Lu, Minggen

    2016-12-01

    In today's climate of cost containment and fiscal responsibility, generic implant alternatives represent an interesting area of untapped resources. As patents have expired on many commonly used trauma implants, generic alternatives have recently become available from a variety of sources. The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical and economic impact of a cost containment program using high quality, generic orthopaedic locking plates. The implants available for study were anatomically precontoured plates for the clavicle, proximal humerus, distal radius, proximal tibia, distal tibia, and distal fibula. Retrospective review. Level II Trauma center. 828 adult patients with operatively managed clavicle, proximal humerus, distal radius, proximal tibia, tibial pilon, and ankle fractures. Operative treatment with conventional or generic implants. The 414 patients treated with generic implants were compared with 414 patients treated with conventional implants. There were no significant differences in age, sex, presence of diabetes, smoking history or fracture type between the generic and conventional groups. No difference in operative time, estimated blood loss or intraoperative complication rate was observed. No increase in postoperative infection rate, hardware failure, hardware loosening, malunion, nonunion or need for hardware removal was noted. Overall, our hospital realized a 56% reduction in implant costs, an average savings of $1197 per case, and a total savings of $458,080 for the study period. Use of generic orthopaedic implants has been successful at our institution, providing equivalent clinical outcomes while significantly reducing implant expenditures. Based on our data, the use of generic implants has the potential to markedly reduce operative costs as long as quality products are used. Therapeutic Level III.

  16. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of economics, and presents educational resources for teaching basics to children. Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources, as well as activities which focus on economics are described. Includes short features on related topics, and the subtopics of trade, money and banking, and…

  17. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  18. The Salem Smart Power Center: An Assessment of Battery Performance and Economic Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balducci, Patrick J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Alam, M. J.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Viswanathan, Vilayanur [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wu, Di [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crawford, Aladsair J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mongird, Kendall [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Somani, Abhishek [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Whitener, Kevin [Portland General Electric, OR (United States)

    2017-09-21

    This paper presents an assessment of the economic potential of a 5 MW/1.25 MWh Energy Storage System (ESS) installed at the Salem Smart Power Center (SSPC), a smart grid technology demonstration facility owned and operated by Portland General Electric (PGE) in Salem, Oregon. The ESS and the grid conditions in which it operates were modeled using Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Battery Storage Evaluation Tool (BSET) to explore tradeoffs between services, and to develop optimal control strategies. This assessment monetized the value derived from nine services the SSPC could provide to PGE and the customers it serves. The ESS and the grid conditions in which it operates were modeled using PNNL’s in-house optimization tool BSET to explore tradeoffs between services, and to develop optimal control strategies. The analysis resulted in a number of lessons that provide crucial insights into the practical application of ESS, including; The SSPC, which was originally conceived as a research and test facility and built with the prevailing maturity technology level, was built at a cost ($20.4 million) that exceeds current day prices ($5.4 million) for a similarly designed and built 5 MW/1.25 MWh system; In terms of economic operation, the SSPC is currently underutilized, deployed only for primary frequency response. PNNL modeling indicates that optimal operation of the ESS could generate an additional value of $2.3 million over 20 years. It should also be noted that primary frequency response is the highest benefit application but requires a response from the SSPC only 17 hours each year. While optimally engaged, the ESS would provide arbitrage and ancillary services 78 percent of the time, but those services generate only 27 percent of the total value; Participation in Western EIM represents an interesting opportunity for PGE with a potential to generate $2.1 million value in PV terms over 20 years in the 5-min real-time market; With an energy to power ratio of

  19. Economic profitability evolution at the Carpathian Commercial Bank , in relation to aggregate values of calculated in the Romanian banking system in the period 2007-2010 and the need to identify banking risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEDAR LUCIAN-ION

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The management of credit institutions must be concerned with identifying the internal and external risks of banking operations development, estimating their size and importance, assessing the possibility and imposing measures for their management. On the one hand, the identification, analysis, and mitigation of banking risks can cause reduction of inconvenient and uneconomical costs and realization of incomes with the role of shock absorber in profits reduction, and on the other hand, ignoring them can lead to loss reflected in the profit decrease, thus affecting the bank performance.

  20. Impact of managed care on the economics of laboratory operation in an academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benge, H; Bodor, G S; Younger, W A; Parl, F F

    1997-07-01

    Throughout the 1980s, the number of laboratory tests performed in the United States grew at an annual rate of over 10%, and laboratory costs accounted for approximately 10% of overall health care expenditures. Recently, the influence of capitation, emphasis on cost-effectiveness, and changing roles among specialists and primary care physicians have begun to affect the growth of laboratory testing. We examined the impact of managed care on the economics of the clinical chemistry laboratory at Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tenn, to define the relative position of the clinical laboratory in the managed care environment of an academic medical center. The following data were prospectively collected between fiscal years 1984/1985 and 1995/1996: number of inpatients and outpatients, average length of stay, number of laboratory tests, total laboratory revenue, direct costs (consisting of salary and consumable costs), and number of full-time-equivalent (FTE) personnel. Using these data, we derived the following parameters: revenue and direct cost per patient, and revenue and productivity per FTE. Between 1984/1985 and 1995/1996 the number of inpatients and outpatients increased 33% and 155%, respectively. Laboratory utilization, expressed as tests per patient, increased from 17 to 22 for inpatients between 1984/1985 and 1991/1992, and then sharply declined to 14.5 tests by 1995/1996, a 34% decrease compared with the 1991/1992 level. Laboratory utilization for outpatients increased from 0.23 in 1984/1985 to 0.45 tests in 1991/1992, decreased to 0.38 in 1993/1994, but then rose again to 0.43 in 1995/1996. Total revenue more than doubled between 1984/1985 and 1991/1992, mostly owing to increased inpatient revenue. Since 1992/1993, inpatient revenue has steadily declined, leading to a decrease in total revenue, which was partially offset by a continuous increase in outpatient revenue. In 1995/1996, outpatient revenue accounted for 32.1% of total revenue

  1. Fully aligned academic health centers: a model for 21st-century job creation and sustainable economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, E Albert; Chrencik, Robert A; Miller, Edward D

    2012-07-01

    Alignment is the degree to which component parts of academic health centers (AHCs) work cohesively. Full alignment allows AHCs to act quickly and cohesively toward common goals and to take advantage of opportunities that present themselves, particularly where collaboration is essential. Maryland's two major AHCs-University of Maryland Medicine (UMM) and Johns Hopkins Medicine (JHM)-have experienced periods of significant misalignment during each of their histories. Their most recent periods of misalignment caused significant negative economic and academic impacts. However, the process of realigning their clinical and research missions has not only given them a renewed economic vigor but has also paid significant dividends for the state of Maryland, helping it weather the current recession much better than other regions of the country. The two AHCs' continued economic success during the recession has led Maryland lawmakers to increasingly seek out their expertise in attempts to stimulate economic development. Indeed, UMM, JHM, and other fully aligned AHCs have shown that they can be powerful economic engines and offer a model of job growth and economic development in the 21st century.

  2. DETERMINANTS OF BANKS’ PROFITABILITY IN REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATJANA SPASESKA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The commercial banks are important financial institutions in the financial system and the economy. As financial intermediaries, banks play a crucial role in the economic growth of the country through making available the funds for investors to borrow as well as financial deepening in the country. Therefore, the success of working in the banks creates possibilities for more efficient (cheaper crediting of economic entities which results in an increased potential for investing of the enterprises and encouraging the personal people’s spending. Namely, the banking system profitability is the most important instrument of the financing system that has positive influence on potential growth of each national economy. The objective of this study is to investigate the determinants in bank profitability in R. Macedonia. For that reason, Return of Assets, Return of Equity and Net Interest Margin, are taken as indicators of the banks’ profitability. On the other hand, the determinants influencing profitability are grouped into two categories, i.e. internal and external. The bank internal determinants, which were thought to have effects on profitability, are total loans, asset quality (non-performing loan to total loan ratio, capital adequacy and total deposit to total assets. In our study we use the gross domestic product and inflation rate as external determinants of bank profitability. The results indicate that the bank specific determinants have been more effect than macroeconomic factors on profitability of the banks

  3. The Persistence of Profits in Azerbaijan's Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Batu TUNAY

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the persistence of profits in Azerbaijan's banking sector in the short-run and the long-run is investigated. Although there are a lot of researches done in the case of different countries, enough study has been implemented for the case of Azerbaijan despite of its high speed economic growth. This research analysis continuity of profits by using system panel data method. Obtained results indicate that profits demonstrate no persistence or a little persistence. In this context, existence of competitive powers in the sector can be stated.

  4. Comparing profitability of Burlina and Holstein Friesian cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to compare profitability of Burlina and Holstein Friesian cows in northern Italy. Cow’s profitability was calculated for each breed, with consideration of economic incentive programs and alternative milk pricing scenarios. The difference in annual profitability between Burlina and Holstein Friesian ranged from −€719 to −€274 per cow per year. In a low-input management level with a cow’s incentive payment and a specific cheese market strategy the low milk yield of Burlina can be compensate respect to Holstein Friesian.

  5. The trauma ecosystem: The impact and economics of new trauma centers on a mature statewide trauma system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesla, David J; Pracht, Etienne E; Leitz, Pablo T; Spain, David A; Staudenmayer, Kristan L; Tepas, Joseph J

    2017-06-01

    Florida serves as a model for the study of trauma system performance. Between 2010 and 2104, 5 new trauma centers were opened alongside 20 existing centers. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of trauma system expansion on system triage performance and trauma center patients' profiles. A statewide data set was queried for all injury-related discharges from adult acute care hospitals using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for 2010 and 2014. The data set, inclusion criteria, and definitions of high-risk injury were chosen to match those used by the Florida Department of Health in its trauma registry. Hospitals were classified as existing Level I (E1) or Level II (E2) trauma centers and new E2 (N2) centers. Five N2 centers were established 11.6 to 85.3 miles from existing centers. Field and overall trauma system triage of high-risk patients was less accurate with increased overtriage and no change in undertriage. Annual volume at N2 centers increased but did not change at E1 and E2 centers. In 2014, Patients at E1 and E2 centers were slightly older and less severely injured, while those at N2 centers were substantially younger and more severely injured than in 2010. The injured patient-payer mix changed with a decrease in self-pay and commercial patients and an increase in government-sponsored patients at E1 and E2 centers and an increase in self-pay and commercial patients with a decrease in government-sponsored patients at N2 centers. Designation of new trauma centers in a mature system was associated with a change in established trauma center demographics and economics without an improvement in trauma system triage performance. These findings suggest that the health of an entire trauma system network must be considered in the design and implementation of a regional trauma system. Therapeutic/care management study, level IV; epidemiological, level IV.

  6. Profitability of Management Systems on German Fenlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Rebhann

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fens are organic sites that require drainage for agricultural use. Lowering the groundwater level leads to trade-offs between economic benefits and environmental impacts (i.e., CO2 and nutrient emissions. To identify management options that are both environmentally and economically sustainable, a propaedeutic systematic analysis of the costs, income and profit of different land use and management systems on fenlands is necessary. This study provides an overview of the profitability, labor demand and comparative advantages of feasible management systems on German fenlands. Twenty management practices in four land use systems are analyzed. The results indicate that most management systems are profitable only with subsidies and payments for ecosystem services. In addition to sales revenue, these payments are indispensable to promote peat-saving agricultural practices on fenlands. Regarding the labor aspect, intensive management systems caused an increase in working hours per hectare, which may positively affect employment in rural areas. The calculations obtained in this study can be used as a basis for estimations of greenhouse gas (GHG mitigation costs when management systems are associated with GHG emission values.

  7. Competition and Profitability in European Financial Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Morten; Lierman, F.; Mullineux, A.

    Financial services firms play a key role in the European economy. The efficiency and profitability of these firms and the competition among them have an impact on allocation of savings, financing of investment, economic growth, the stability of the financial system and the transmission of monetary...... policy. This collection of research contributions includes evaluations of trends in the European financial service industry and examinations of the driving forces of efficiency, competition and profitability of financial firms and institutions in Europe. The papers have been written by leading academics...... and researchers in the field, who specialize in strategic, systematic and policy issues related to the European financial services industry. This edited collection will be will be essential reading for students and academics but will also be of interest to financial practitioners and government officials...

  8. DataProfit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Lund Pedersen, Carsten; Eibe Sørensen, Hans

    Mange erhvervsledere har store forventninger til at bruge data til at tjene penge i deres virksomheder. Dog viser det sig, at det ikke er så ligetil – mange forventninger bliver simpelthen ikke indfriet. Derfor har vi igennem de seneste to år kortlagt de kompetencer, som er nødvendige for at real......Mange erhvervsledere har store forventninger til at bruge data til at tjene penge i deres virksomheder. Dog viser det sig, at det ikke er så ligetil – mange forventninger bliver simpelthen ikke indfriet. Derfor har vi igennem de seneste to år kortlagt de kompetencer, som er nødvendige...... sammen for at udnytte mulighederne for datadreven profitabel vækst. Denne guide giver en anvendelsesorienteret gennemgang af de ni kompetencer i vores kort, som vi kalder for DataProfit. I guiden beskrives hver kompetence – og du inviteres til at analysere din virksomhed. Til sidst sætter vi hele...

  9. Review: Not for Profit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruud Veldhuis

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this book Nussbaum makes a strong case for the importance of the liberal arts in education. If the economic pressure of globalization is not kept under control, the end result might be an erosion of our democracies. The book is more a manifesto (178 pages and not an empirical study. Quantitative data have been omitted.

  10. Guttman Community College Puts "Work" at the Center of Learning: An Approach to Student Economic Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Every young person in the United States, whatever his or her background, wants to grow up to be economically self sufficient, to have a stable and productive career. So "college" is the aspiration for nearly 90 percent of high school seniors who say they will pursue some form of postsecondary education after high school, and nearly 66…

  11. Prevalence of ruminants fascioliasis and their economic effects in Kashan, center of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Khoramian

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: This study indicated that the Fasciola sp. clearly remains prevalent and causes considerable economic losses in study region in sheep, goats and cattle and presumably, other areas and hosts of Iran, providing baseline data for the future monitoring of this potentially important parasitic infection in the country.

  12. Economic feasibility of converting center pivot irrigation to subsurface drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advancements in irrigation technology have increased water use efficiency. However, producers can be reluctant to convert to a more efficient irrigation system when the initial investment costs are high. This study examines the economic feasibility of replacing low energy precision application (LEPA...

  13. Análise da rentabilidade econômica dos reflorestamentos com essências nativas brasileiras: o caso do Estado de São Paulo Economic profitability analysis of reforestation with native trees: the state of São Paulo's case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Arimatéia Rabelo Machado

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, analisou-se a rentabilidade econômica dos reflorestamentos com essências nativas brasileiras destinados à produção de toras, considerando como caso em estudo o Estado de São Paulo. Na revisão de literatura, constatou-se que poucos são os trabalhos publicados a respeito do reflorestamento com essências nativas e com um longo período de observação. Dentre esses trabalhos, destacou-se um, no qual os autores recomendaram três espécies florestais como viáveis para reflorestamentos comerciais: Centrolobium tomentosum (araruva, Balfourodendron riedelianum (pau-marfim e Araucaria angustifolia (pinheiro-brasileiro. Após recuperar as informações técnicas dos experimentos com essas essências nativas, realizou-se a análise de rentabilidade econômica de possíveis projetos, em condições deterministas e de risco. Concluiu-se que, do ponto de vista privado, os projetos de reflorestamento com essas essências nativas são viáveis economicamente. Diante desse cenário, sugerem-se novas linhas de pesquisa técnica capazes de gerar resultados que assegurem maior confiabilidade e ampliação na rentabilidade dos projetos de reflorestamento com essências nativas brasileiras.This paper analyzes the economic profitability of native-tree reforestation for the production of sawlogs. The projects evaluated are experimental rather than commercial and are located in the Brazilian state of São Paulo. These experimental plots were reforested with the native tree species Centrolobium tomentosum ("araruva", Balforodendron riedelianum ("pau-marfim" and Araucaria angustifolia ("pinheiro-brasileiro", recommended for their economic value by a previous evaluation of long-term native-tree reforestation. Economic profitability analyses were made under both deterministic and risk conditions using data from the reforestation experiments. It was found that all the experiments would be profitable. This paper concludes with the suggestion

  14. New high profitable wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankovic, Bernard [Rijeka Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Rijeka (Croatia); Vrsalovic, Ivan [Rijekaprojekt d.o.o., Rijeka (Croatia)

    2001-11-01

    To generate more quantities of electric energy from wind it is necessary to use a new type of wind turbine built in the regulable mantle's nozzle. This wind turbine type replaces the free air stream from wind by a programmed, i.e. regulated, and partially concentrated stream of air. The nozzle shell is designed as an aerodynamically shaped ring with wings with its lower pressure side pointed towards the centre so that the lift force on each part of the wing is directed radially towards the centre. This induces centrifugal reaction force in the airflow that causes the stream field to expand strongly downstream of the rotor and includes a greater number of streamlines in the active stream in front of the rotor (upstream). Thus the nozzle forces a higher mass flow rate of air through the turbine. The higher mass flow and higher velocity reduction behind the rotor result in a higher energy output from the wind turbine in the nozzle. In this way the wind turbine efficiency is multiplied. New turbines induce more power from weaker and medium winds and their lasting time, because of the relation p = f(v{sup 3}) (i.e. the power corresponds to wind velocity raised to third power). Wind turbine nozzle produces three times more energy than conventional wind turbine. Short economic analysis for conditions of the island of Lastovo indicates that profit gained by new turbines is up to five times higher than by conventional turbines. The new wind turbine nozzle should generate interest and demand on an international market, even for regions with weaker winds. (Author)

  15. Implications of human trafficking in Asia: a scoping review of aftercare initiatives centered on economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Meghan A; Barner, John R; Okech, David

    2018-01-01

    The trafficking of persons is one of the most egregious violations of human rights in modern society. Given the disproportionate effects across demographic categories of age and gender, as well as concentrated impacts within the developing world, there is a strong need for research and literature on program effectiveness and appropriate aftercare efforts for those persons whose lives and livelihoods have been impacted by trafficking. The purpose of this article is to provide a scoping review of what is known about effectively helping survivors of human trafficking experiencing lack of economic opportunity and the implications for practice and future research regarding the absence of literature. From over 14,000 initial search results, this article focuses on those initiatives (N = 16) that support economic development of the individual or family after being trafficked. Implications arising from the review for trafficking policy, areas for further research, and implications for practitioners are highlighted and discussed.

  16. 15th Annual Freight and Logistics Symposium : the future is front and center : the impacts of economic change on freight transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. transportation system stands at the center of virtually all economic : activity in the country today. Effects of a lengthy global recession are radically and : rapidly reshaping transportation priorities and needs. Now more than ever, freigh...

  17. Costs, commitment and locality: a comparison of for-profit and not-for-profit health plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    only 105,000 Medicare risk members in 2002, or 27% of the statewide total. The emergence in New York of health care insurance markets that are predominantly for-profit raises significant public policy issues, especially with reference to community benefits and services. Should the upstate health insurance environment change with the entrance of for-profit plans or conversion of existing plans to for-profit status, the upstate market is likely to look very similar to the downstate in that there will be diminished access to care for the at-risk population; premium costs will be higher and administrative costs will be higher. The health care insurance market upstate would become less attentive to the provision of public goods as insurers strive to maximize their economic advantages.

  18. The economic impact and multiplier effect of a family practice clinic on an academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweiss, R; Ellsbury, K; Hart, L G; Geyman, J P

    1989-07-21

    Academic medical centers are facing the need to expand their primary care referral base in an increasingly competitive medical environment. This study describes the medical care provided during a 1-year period to 6304 patients registered with a family practice clinic located in an academic medical center. The relative distribution of primary care, secondary referrals, inpatient admissions, and their associated costs are presented. The multiplier effect of the primary care clinic on the academic medical center was substantial. For every $1 billed for ambulatory primary care, there was $6.40 billed elsewhere in the system. Each full-time equivalent family physician generated a calculated sum of $784,752 in direct, billed charges for the hospital and $241,276 in professional fees for the other specialty consultants. The cost of supporting a primary care clinic is likely to be more than offset by the revenues generated from the use of hospital and referral services by patients who received care in the primary care setting.

  19. STUDIES PROFITABILITY OF RESTAURANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Tindeche

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fast foods are internationally expanding at an amazing pace. Because fast-food products are delicious, abundant, relatively cheap and available in any moment of the day, this type of restaurants are found almost everywhere, and in addition, these have home delivery options, are appreciated and consumed by all age categories, so that fast-food has become a worldwide appreciated phenomenon. In support of the previous mentions, we shall emphasize an economic analysis performed for the Burger King Plaza Restaurant during 2010-2011. The results of the analysis may be appreciated as for being satisfying, although there is a need for improvement if this unit is to cope to the current and future conditions.

  20. A genetic analysis of post-weaning feedlot performance and profitability in Bonsmara cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Westhuizen, R R; van der Westhuizen, J; Schoeman, S J

    2009-02-25

    The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing profitability in a feedlot environment and to estimate genetic parameters for and between a feedlot profit function and productive traits measured in growth tests. The heritability estimate of 0.36 for feedlot profitability shows that this trait is genetically inherited and that it can be selected for. The genetic correlations between feedlot profitability and production and efficiency varied from negligible to high. The genetic correlation estimate of -0.92 between feed conversion ratio and feedlot profitability is largely due to the part-whole relationship between these two traits. Consequently, a multiple regression equation was developed to estimate a feed intake value for all performance-tested Bonsmara bulls, which were group fed and whose feed intakes were unknown. These predicted feed intake values enabled the calculation of a post-weaning growth or feedlot profitability value for all tested bulls, even where individual feed intakes were unknown. Subsequently, a feedlot profitability value for each bull was calculated in a favorable economic environment, an average economic environment and in an unfavorable economic environment. The high Pearson and Spearman correlations between the estimate breeding values based on the average economic environment and the other two environments suggested that the average economic environment could be used to calculate estimate breeding values for feedlot profitability. It is therefore not necessary to change the carcass, weaned calf or feed price on a regular basis to allow for possible re-rankings based on estimate breeding values.

  1. The Impact of the Financial Crisis on the Islamic Banks Profitability - Evidence from GCC

    OpenAIRE

    Mousa Almanaseer

    2014-01-01

    Using pooled data for 24 Islamic banks operating in Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and UAE over the 2005-2012 period the current study examines empirically the impact of the global financial crisis on the Islamic banks¡¯ profitability. The study finds that the financial crisis does not have significant impact on Islamic banks profitability. Favorable macro-economic conditions, bank size and equity capital are important factors in increasing Islamic banks¡¯ profitability. Furthermore Inc...

  2. Productivity and profitability of robusta coffee agroforestry systems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To contribute to understanding the socio-economic impact of shade trees and the returns from robusta coffee farming systems, this study compared the financial profitability of shaded coffee fields which are dependent on nutrient cycling to sustain production (traditional system) and shaded coffee fields where compost ...

  3. Assessing the suitability and profitability of the system of rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results were significantly different at p = 0.05 for practices and location effects. The enriched ... The basic SRI without any organic matter raised paddy yields by 60 % over conventional methods, (3.2 and 2.0 t/ha, respectively). The number of ... Key Words : Suitability, profitability, organic matter, SRI, economic analysis.

  4. Effectiveness and profitability of insecticide formulations used for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To identify optimal pest control with lower economic risks to farmers, we investigated the effectiveness and profitability of different insecticides and insecticide formulations against bean fly (Ophiomyia spp.) and bean flower thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedtii). Two separate experiments were conducted during 2009 to 2012.

  5. The Impact of Internal Factors on Bank Profitability in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora Haliti Rudhani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Commercial banks play an important role in the economic development and financial stability; therefore this study investigated the influence of internal factors in the profitability of commercial banks in Kosovo. Based on the literature review, a crucial internal factor on the profitability of banks in Kosovo was deemed: the repayment of assets (ROA as a measure of profitability influenced by other independent variables, such as: bank size, capital adequacy, loan and liquidity risk. The aim of this study is to investigate the empirical relation between internal factors determining bank profitability and profitability as a dependent variable. The empirical analysis is based on the data of commercial banks in Kosovo published in the period 2010-2014. The data were analysed with SPSS 21 version, and the hypotheses were tested by means of correlation and linear regression. The findings of the study proved that commercial banks in Kosovo could enlarge their profitability by increasing the level of bank loaning and other investments, except for managing risk and liquidity properly.

  6. Champions of profitable growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, G Bennett

    2004-01-01

    Many companies have posted impressive top-line growth over the past two decades in their respective economic regions--for instance, Wal-Mart in North America, BP in Europe, Toyota in Asia, and News Corporation in the Southern Hemisphere. But which were the best at converting all of that revenue growth into shareholder value? Harvard Business Review asked C. Bennett Stewart III, the senior partner of the consulting firm Stern Stewart & Company, and his colleagues to come up with the answer. For the period 1983 to 2003, they assembled a list of the top 20 high-growth value adders (and laggards) in each of the four regions cited above. Their calculations gave equal weight to companies' revenue growth and market-value-added scores, revealing the important effect of region on the performance of companies in the same industry. For instance, while automakers are positioned high on the Asian list of high-growth value adders, U.S. carmakers GM and Ford--each of which reported revenue growth in excess of 100 billion dollars between 1983 and 2003--are among the value laggards on the North American list, as are DaimlerChrysler and Volkswagen on the European list. The Japanese win through better efficiency, higher quality, and narrower product mixes, the author says. And while there are four telecom companies represented among the European high-growth value adders, there are none on the North American list. That's probably because the European telecoms enjoyed more protective regulation, made fewer high-priced acquisitions, and didn't bet as big on the overblown dot-com economy, the author says.

  7. Profit and loss account in the international context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU - POPA LUCIA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Given that the objective of financial statements is to provide information about the financial position, financial performance and cash flows of an economic unit, useful for a wide range of users in making economic decisions, particular attention should be paid to the profit and loss account, which is the main instrument for reflecting the financial performance, because on the one hand it provides the information necessary for their evaluation, and on the other hand the information essential for determining the risk of cash flows. Even if each component of the financial statements provides different pieces of information, they should be correlated because they reflect different aspects of the same transactions or events, and in this article we will address the general aspects of profit and loss account from the perspective of profit and loss account models. In this regard, after a brief theoretical approach of the profit and loss account, we will indicate the advantages of two models of profit and loss account but without forgetting their limitations. Thus, we will provide the income statement structure on two stages of normalization: internationally and nationally.

  8. Capital structure and profitability. A case of JSE Listed Companies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faith Mashavave

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to find out the relationship between capital structure and profitability focusing on firms listed on the Johannesburg stock exchange in South Africa. Past research on this topic excluded the Johannesburg Stock Exchange listed firms. The research results will be useful to the business people in South Africa because it will be more in line with the South African economic status and thus relevant. From the graphs and tables of the companies analyzed, it appears there is no relationship between the capital structure and profitability. The fluctuations in the debt/equity ratio and profitability ratio are so severe to such an extent that no meaningful conclusion regarding the relationship between capital structure and profitability can be made. The outcomes are haphazard there is no uniformity and consistence on the outcomes. Other hindrances to the relationship between capital structure and profitability were also discovered and these were attributed to the environmental factors of the company such as economic, political, and social and all other external forces that companies under study were exposed to.

  9. Electronic Payments Profitability Extent Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Vohnout

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cashless payments are recent phenomena, which even increased with the introduction of contactless means like NFC, PayPass or payWave. Such new methods speed-up the entire payment process and in comparison to cash transactions are much simpler and faster. But on the other hand the key question for merchant is if it is worth to have such device, which accept these new payment means or not to have the terminal at all. What is the amount of cash flow, which delimits the cash holdings to be still profitable? This paper tries to give answers to such question by presenting general profitability model, which will address defining the cash threshold amount. The aim is to show that cash holdings could be profitable up to certain amount, but after the threshold is met, cashless payment methods are fairly superior despite their additional costs.

  10. Economic perspective on strategic human capital management and planning for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kakoli; Chen, Zhuo Adam; Crawford, Carol A Gotway

    2009-11-01

    An organization's workforce--or human capital--is its most valuable asset. The 2002 President's Management Agenda emphasizes the importance of strategic human capital management by requiring all federal agencies to improve performance by enhancing personnel and compensation systems. In response to these directives, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) drafted its strategic human capital management plan to ensure that it is aligned strategically to support the agency's mission and its health protection goals. In this article, we explore the personnel economics literature to draw lessons from research studies that can help CDC enhance its human capital management and planning. To do so, we focus on topics that are of practical importance and empirical relevance to CDC's internal workforce and personnel needs with an emphasis on identifying promising research issues or methodological approaches. The personnel economics literature is rich with theoretically sound and empirically rigorous approaches for shaping an evidence-based approach to human capital management that can enhance incentives to attract, retain, and motivate a talented federal public health workforce, thereby promoting the culture of high-performance government.

  11. Prevalence of head lice in two socio-economically different schools in the center of Izmir City, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakuş, Mehmet; Arıcı, Aylin; Töz, Seray Özensoy; Özbel, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    The well-known and common infestation caused by Pediculus humanus capitis is an important public health and a social issue in many communities in the world. The aim of this study was to compare the head louse infestation rate in two schools having pupils from different socio-economic levels in the city center of Izmir. The pupils aged between 6 and 11 years, were screened for the presence of eggs and nymph/adult lice using a fine-tooth head louse comb. A total of 88 and 126 pupils from the schools with low and medium socio-economic level were screened and 24 (27.2%) and 5 (3.96%) of them were found to be positive for head lice, respectively. Overall, the infestation rate among girls was 3.14 times higher than in boys. Head louse infestation is a significant public health problem among primary schools. Increasing the knowledge about pediculosis and self-hygiene would be helpful in successfully reducing head louse infestation in the school setting. School authorities must encourage the parents to look for head lice routinely and a "school nurse" system is needed for effective head louse control in the schools.

  12. Fort Collins Science Center- Policy Analysis and Science Assistance Branch : Integrating social, behavioral, economic and biological sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The Fort Collins Science Center's Policy Analysis and Science Assistance (PASA) Branch is a team of approximately 22 scientists, technicians, and graduate student researchers. PASA provides unique capabilities in the U.S. Geological Survey by leading projects that integrate social, behavioral, economic, and biological analyses in the context of human-natural resource interactions. Resource planners, managers, and policymakers in the U.S. Departments of the Interior (DOI) and Agriculture (USDA), State and local agencies, as well as international agencies use information from PASA studies to make informed natural resource management and policy decisions. PASA scientists' primary functions are to conduct both theoretical and applied social science research, provide technical assistance, and offer training to advance performance in policy relevant research areas. Management and research issues associated with human-resource interactions typically occur in a unique context, involve difficult to access populations, require knowledge of both natural/biological science in addition to social science, and require the skill to integrate multiple science disciplines. In response to these difficult contexts, PASA researchers apply traditional and state-of-the-art social science methods drawing from the fields of sociology, demography, economics, political science, communications, social-psychology, and applied industrial organization psychology. Social science methods work in concert with our rangeland/agricultural management, wildlife, ecology, and biology capabilities. The goal of PASA's research is to enhance natural resource management, agency functions, policies, and decision-making. Our research is organized into four broad areas of study.

  13. Patient experience and hospital profitability: Is there a link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Jason P; Muhlestein, David B

    Patient experience has had a direct financial impact on hospitals since value-based purchasing was instituted by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services in 2013 as a method to reward or punish hospitals based on performance on various measures, including patient experience. Although other industries have shown an indirect impact of customer experience on overall profitability, that link has not been well established in the health care industry. Return-to-provider rate and perceptions of health quality have been associated with profitability in the health care industry. Our aims were to assess whether, independent of a direct financial impact, a more positive patient experience is associated with increased profitability and whether a more negative patient experience is associated with decreased profitability. We used a sample of 19,792 observations from 3767 hospitals over the 6-year period 2007-2012. The data were sourced from Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems. Using generalized estimating equations to account for repeated measures, we fit four separate models for three dependent variables: net patient revenue, net income, and operating margin. Each model included one of the following independent variables of interest: percentage of patients who definitely recommend the hospital, percentage of patients who definitely would not recommend the hospital, percentage of patients who rated the hospital 9 or 10, and percentage of patients who rated the hospital 6 or lower. We identified that a positive patient experience is associated with increased profitability and a negative patient experience is even more strongly associated with decreased profitability. Management should have greater justification for incurring costs associated with bolstering patient experience programs. Improvements in training, technology, and staffing can be justified as a way to improve not only quality but now

  14. Surgery for degenerative cervical myelopathy: a patient-centered quality of life and health economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witiw, Christopher D; Tetreault, Lindsay A; Smieliauskas, Fabrice; Kopjar, Branko; Massicotte, Eric M; Fehlings, Michael G

    2017-01-01

    Degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) represents the most common cause of non-traumatic spinal cord impairment in adults. Surgery has been shown to improve neurologic symptoms and functional status, but it is costly. As sustainability concerns in the field of health care rise, the value of care has come to the forefront of policy decision-making. Evidence for both health-related quality of life outcomes and financial expenditures is needed to inform resource allocation decisions. This study aimed to estimate the lifetime incremental cost-utility of surgical treatment for DCM. This is a prospective observational cohort study at a Canadian tertiary care facility. We recruited all patients undergoing surgery for DCM at a single center between 2005 and 2011 who were enrolled in either the AOSpine Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy (CSM)-North America study or the AOSpine CSM-International study. Health utility was measured at baseline and at 6, 12, and 24 months following surgery using the Short Form-6D (SF-6D) health utility score. Resource expenditures were calculated on an individual level, from the hospital payer perspective over the 24-month follow-up period. All costs were obtained from a micro-cost database maintained by the institutional finance department and reported in Canadian dollars, inflated to January 2015 values. Quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gains for the study period were determined using an area under the curve calculation with a linear interpolation estimate. Lifetime incremental cost-to-utility ratios (ICUR) for surgery were estimated using a Markov state transition model. Structural uncertainty arising from lifetime extrapolation and the single-arm cohort design of the study were accounted for by constructing two models. The first included a highly conservative assumption that individuals undergoing nonoperative management would not experience any lifetime neurologic decline. This constraint was relaxed in the second model to permit more

  15. The relationship of CSR and the business profit: can the most responsible companies be more profitable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Miguel Gil Salmerón

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Persistent financial crisis and the cases of corruption afflicting Spain have broken the trust of society that forcefully demands an ethical, responsible and sustainable management of organizations, which are not immune to environmental problems. The effects of globalization, the introduction of tecnoestructura as a management model, technological and socio-economic changes have reshaped the cultural, management and ownership system of the current company, the company nowadays is transferred the responsibility to combine growth and competitiveness with social development and environmental improvement. This reconfiguration of business management model is implemented with the introduction of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR in the strategic plans of the companies with the purpose of achieving a competitive advantage. The question is: can the most responsible companies be more profitable? The introduction of CSR in the organizational culture of the companies involved as a vector, accelerates the profitability of the companies that apply it: the higher level of CSR used, the more profitable the companies are. These conclusions are determined from a linear regression analysis comparing the ROA –return on assets– to CSR levels in a hundred companies with higher levels of sustainability that operate in Spain, according to a survey published in 2014 by the Monitor business Corporate Reputation (Merco

  16. Business strategies, profitability and efficiency of production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Alarcón

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The strategy choices of market-oriented companies are a topic now under wide investigation in the analysis of business performance antecedents. The purpose of this study is to examine the outcomes of the combination of three different organizational strategies (market orientation, innovativeness and entrepreneurial orientation on business performance indicators. Models using profitability and efficiency indicators are proposed with the specific aim of obtaining a deeper analysis of the relative roles played by each. The empirical work takes place in the agro-food industry in the Ebro Valley, one of Spain’s most competitive regions. The estimates from profitability quantile and truncated regressions of the efficiency scores reveal that market orientation has a positive effect on economic and productivity performance. The impact of pro-active, innovation-seeking, and risk-averse entrepreneurship is nevertheless more debatable, despite some influence of these entrepreneurial styles on observed performance values. This enables conclusions regarding the possibility of combining a market-oriented business culture with innovation and entrepreneurial activity with a view to obtaining business performance gains.

  17. Konsep Perjanjian Profit and Loss Sharing dalam Ekonomi islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahrurrozi Fahrurrozi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Agreements of Profit and Loss Sharing is an agreement based on the confidence (trust investment, in another sense that financiers or Shahibul Mall will deliver the funds to the fund manager or mudharib after investors feel confident that the managers of these funds both skill and moral can be trusted to manage the capital provided by the expertise and capital will not manipulate it. With this fact it is necessary to examine the concept of profit and loss sharing agreement, with the hope to find a concept that is based on the teachings of Islam. In this paper presents about the concept of Profit and Loss Sharing in the view of Islamic economics is based on the Qur'an and Hadith.

  18. Profitability analysis of KINGLONG nearly 5 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei; Wen, Jinghua

    2017-08-01

    Profitability analysis for measuring business performance and forecast its prospects play an important role. In this paper, the research instance King Long Motor in understanding the basic theory on the basis of financial management, to take a combination of theory and data analysis methods, combined with a measure of profitability related indicators of King Long Motor company’s profitability do a specific analysis to identify factors constraining the profitability of Kinglong company exists and the motivation to improve profitability, which made recommendations to improve the profitability of Kinglong car company to promote the company’s future can be better and faster development.)

  19. Maximum Profit Configurations of Commercial Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran Chen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of commercial engines with finite capacity low- and high-price economic subsystems and a generalized commodity transfer law [n ∝ Δ (P m] in commodity flow processes, in which effects of the price elasticities of supply and demand are introduced, is presented in this paper. Optimal cycle configurations of commercial engines for maximum profit are obtained by applying optimal control theory. In some special cases, the eventual state—market equilibrium—is solely determined by the initial conditions and the inherent characteristics of two subsystems; while the different ways of transfer affect the model in respects of the specific forms of the paths of prices and the instantaneous commodity flow, i.e., the optimal configuration.

  20. Profitability diagnosis of refinery and improvement proposal; Seiyusho no shueki shindan to kaizen teian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, H.

    2000-07-01

    Based on consulting service RPS-J under joint operation of Nikki, UOP LLC of U.S.A. and Nikki Universal, approaching ways applied for profitability improvement and improvement proposal for refineries and analyzing techniques used for resolution of process bottlenecks were described. In RPS-J, themes of (1) energy saving, (2) quality upgrading, (3) improvement of disintegrating ratio, (4) reduction of give-away, (5) improvement of equipment operation ratio, (6) reduction of maintenance cost, (7) effective utilization of catalysts, are considered for profitability improvement fields. Procedures from idea excavation for profitability improvement to realization of profitability improvement are carried out in the order of, (1) Grasping of the present state, (2) Excavation of improving items and selection, (3) Quantitative evaluation of draft profitability improvement plan and focusing, (4) Profitability improvement by operation improvement, (5) Profitability improvement by minor improvement, (6) Profitability improvement in middle- and long-term vision, (7) Final focusing by feasibility study. Afterwards, examination to economically solve bottlenecks of critical facilities, examination on bottlenecks of distillation tower and refining tower and utility analysis are carried out. RPS-J was already applied to 4 refineries including Muroran Refinery and Negishi Refinery of Nisseki Mitsubishi, and profitability improvement themes were found to improve profitability of 50 to 150 cents per barrel. (NEDO)

  1. ANALYSIS OF INCOMES, EXPENSES AND PROFITABILITY IN BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRELA MONEA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is centered on presenting some aspects regarding incomes, expenses and results of commercial banks from Romanian banking system such as: income dynamics and structure, expenses dynamics and structure, a set of indicators which reflects the main banks performances. Discussion is focused on a comparative analysis between two commercial banks from Romanian banking system, taking into consideration date from a certain period of time. Profitability indicators are very usefully from banks management having an important informational value, the main discussion being focused on: return on assets, return on equity, net assets margin, rate of profit, equity multiplier, expenses to income ratio.

  2. The benefits of customer profitability analysis in the hospitality industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Georgiev

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the benefits of customer profitability analysis implementation according to the specifics of the hotel product and the state of the management accounting in hotels. On this basis is substantiated the necessity management accounting and information systems in the hotels to be anteriorly adapted and developed in relevance with the objectives and methodological tools of customer profitability analysis, while keeping their function in collecting information for operational revenues and costs by responsibility centers. A model for customer profitability analysis based on ABC method is proposed in this connection, providing an example to clarify its methodological aspects and benefits. The latter consist in providing information for the purposes of taking a variety of management decisions regarding costs, product mix, pricing, performance measurement and implementation of various marketing initiatives.

  3. Profitability of Small-Scale Fisheries in Elmina, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Okyere

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve sustainable fishing livelihoods in coastal communities, data on profitability of small-scale fisheries relative to fish species caught and gear types used by fishermen is required as part of a broader fisheries management strategy. This study was undertaken with this in mind. Interviews were conducted among 60 fishermen between February and March 2010. Economic assessment of small-scale fishing activities were done using questionnaires based on direct market pricing and contingent valuation methods. The results indicate that highly profitable fish species include Epinephelus aeneus, Sparus caeruleostictus, Dentex angolensis and Lutjanus goreensis valued at US$2.97, US$2.87, US$2.85 and US$2.63 per kilogram respectively. The less profitable species include Dasyatis margarita, Caranx crysos and Sardinella aurita valued at US$0.34, US$0.66 and US$ 0.85 per kilogram respectively. Although Sardinella aurita was among the less valuable fish species, it was the main species driving profits for the fishermen due to its high share volume among the fish catches. Findings from this study suggest high rates of exploitation, in that stocks generally cannot provide for increased economic return in the face of increased investment. This is a clear indicator that the open-access nature of Ghanaian fisheries is not sustainable, and management reform is well overdue.

  4. An ethical justification of profit maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    2010-01-01

    behaviour. It is argued that some form of consequential ethics must be applied, and that both profit seeking and profit maximization can be defended from a rule-consequential point of view. It is noted, however, that the result does not apply unconditionally, but requires that certain form of profit (and...

  5. 40 CFR 35.936-4 - Profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Profits. 35.936-4 Section 35.936-4... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.936-4 Profits. Only fair and reasonable profits may be earned by contractors in subagreements under EPA grants. See § 35.937-7 for...

  6. Using the American Community Survey to Create a National Academy of Sciences-Style Poverty Measure: Work by the New York City Center for Economic Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, Mark; D'Onofrio, Christine; Koolwal, Gayatri; Krampner, John; Scheer, Daniel; Seidel, Todd; Virgin, Vicky

    2010-01-01

    The need to improve the U.S. poverty measure has received renewed attention as state and local governments have initiated antipoverty efforts and wish to judge their effect. This paper describes the New York City Center for Economic Opportunity's implementation of the National Academy of Sciences' recommendations for measuring poverty. The…

  7. Growth, carcass characteristics, and profitability of organic versus conventional dairy beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, E A; Heins, B J; Dicostanzo, A; Chester-Jones, H

    2014-03-01

    Bull calves (n=49), born at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris) between March and May 2011, were used to compare growth measurements and profitability of conventional and organic dairy steers. Calves were assigned to 1 of 3 replicated groups at birth: conventional (CONV; n=16), organic (pasture and concentrate; ORG; n=16), or organic grass only (GRS; n=17), and analysis of variables was on a pen basis. Breed groups of calves were Holstein (HO; n=9); Holsteins (n=11) maintained at 1964 breed average level; crossbreds (n=19) including combinations of HO, Montbéliarde, and Swedish Red; and crossbreds (n=10) including combinations of HO, Jersey, Swedish Red, and Normande. The CONV steers were fed a diet of 80% concentrate and 20% forage. The ORG steers were fed a diet of organic corn, organic corn silage, and at least 30% of their diet consisted of organic pasture during the grazing season. The GRS steers grazed pasture during the grazing season and were fed high-quality hay or hay silage during the nongrazing season. Intakes of a total mixed ration were recorded daily with herd management software. A profit function was defined to include revenues and expenses for beef value, feed intake, pasture intake, health cost, and yardage. The GRS (358.6 kg) steers had lesser total gains from birth to slaughter than ORG (429.6 kg) and CONV (534.5 kg) steers. Furthermore, the GRS (0.61 kg/d) steers had lesser average daily gain from birth compared with ORG (0.81 kg/d) and CONV (1.1 kg/d) steers. The GRS and ORG steers had smaller rib eye area (49.5 and 65.8 cm(2), respectively) compared with CONV (75.4 cm(2)) steers. For profitability, GRS steers had 43% greater profit than CONV steers due to organic beef price premiums and lower feed costs. On the other hand, ORG steers had substantially less profit than CONV steers. The higher cost of production for the ORG steers is due to the extreme high value of organic corn. The results of the

  8. RESEARCH ON MILK COST, RETURN AND PROFITABILITY IN DAIRY FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to the relationship between milk cost in terms of material cost and labor cost and estimate theinfluence of these costs on returns coming from milk and profitability in 5 small dairy farms from the SouthernRomania. The main economic indicators taken into consideration were: material cost, Xi, (feeding cost, replacingheifer, equipment and shed depreciation, electricity and water cost, fuel and lubricants cost , labour cost, Y, andincome coming from milk, Z. The Cobb-Douglas regression function Z= a xα yβ was used to determine the variationof the studied economic indicators and relationships between them. Taking into account the close relationshipbetween income from marketed milk and material cost and labor cost, it is enough to use it as the only criterion infarm classification. Profitability in dairy farms depends both on cost input and milk output as well as milk marketprice.

  9. Measuring Customer Profitability in Complex Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Morten; Kumar, V.; Rohde, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    that the degree of sophistication deployed when implementing customer profitability measurement models is determined by the type of complexity encountered in firms’ customer environments. This gives rise to a contingency framework for customer profitability measurement model selection and five research......Customer profitability measurement is an important element in customer relationship management and a lever for enhanced marketing accountability. Two distinct measurement approaches have emerged in the marketing literature: Customer Lifetime Value (CLV) and Customer Profitability Analysis (CPA...... propositions. Additionally, the framework provides design and implementation guidance for managers seeking to implement customer profitability measurement models for resource allocation purposes....

  10. The Economic and Risk Constraints in the Feasibility Analysis of Wireless Communications in Marine Corps Combat Operation Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    TOC Tactical Operations Center UOC Unit Operations Center USMC United States Marine Corps VLAN Virtual Local Area Network WIDS Wireless Intrusion...Marine Corps COC CapSets. The Combat Operations Center (COC), originally known as the unit operations center ( UOC ) when it first came out, is

  11. Economic Efficiency On Overseeding Grasslands From Preajba - Gorj County In 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoş Mihai, Medelete; Radu Lucian, Pânzaru

    2015-09-01

    This study was achieved using the support of strategic project "Support Scholarships University in Romania by the European Doctoral and Post-doctoral (SCHOLARSHIPS DOC-POSTDOC)", ID 133255. The paper emphasizes the importance of meadows and hayfields production, considering that their value can be increased using over-seeding and organic-mineral fertilizers. Experience is located in the Experimental Center for Meadows Culture -Preajba, Gorj County, on natural meadow of Agrostis capillaris, over-seeded with Red clover. The production have increase with fertilizer dose, but maximum economic efficiency was found on variant that use only organically fertilizer. It should be noted that organic fertilizers are used in the first year only partially by plants. The indicators of economic efficiency used are: raw product, variable costs, fixed costs, production costs, and the indices: total expenditure rate of profit, income taxes, net profit and net profit rate.

  12. Prevención en salud: ¿inversión rentable? Eficiencia económica de las intervenciones preventivas en España Health promotion: a profitable investment? Economic efficiency of preventive interventions in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexo Esperato

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analizar el volumen y la calidad de las evaluaciones económicas de intervenciones preventivas realizadas en España hasta septiembre de 2005, extrayendo conclusiones sobre temáticas y metodologías que se espera orienten futuras líneas de investigación. Métodos: Se ha realizado una revisión sistemática de la evidencia científica. Tras definir los criterios de inclusión, la búsqueda ha procedido en motores especializados (Pubmed, NHS EED, DARE, HTA, HRSPROJ, IME, EMBASE y, manualmente, en revistas y organismos de salud pública. Se extrajo un conjunto de características predefinidas de los artículos seleccionados, y se evaluaron mediante análisis univariantes y bivariantes. Resultados: Un total de 49 artículos cumplieron los criterios de inclusión, 40 de los cuales pudieron ser revisados. La técnica más utilizada ha sido el análisis coste-efectividad (en el 60% de los artículos; 28 estudios (el 70% se centran en campañas de inmunización. La calidad de las publicaciones ha aumentado, de una puntuación media de 4,21 (1985-1995 a 6,38 (1995-2004, pero se han detectado áreas metodológicas que necesitan una mejora. Un 72,5% de los artículos favorece la expansión del programa analizado o el mantenimiento de su carácter universal. Conclusiones: La investigación española ha de hacer esfuerzos por mejorar la cantidad y la calidad de sus publicaciones en salud pública. Para ello, se sugieren 3 estrategias básicas: a evaluación de los programas preventivos nacionales en vigor y diseminación de los resultados; b estrategias para la internacionalización de las publicaciones; c adhesión a las guías de evaluación económica disponibles.Objective: To examine the quantity and quality of economic evaluations analyzing preventive interventions in Spain to September 2005, with the further goal of extracting conclusions for further research and the design of future programs. Methods: We performed a systematic review of

  13. Integrated analysis of production potential and profitability of a horizontal well in the Lower Glen Rose Formation, Maverick County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammer, J.R.; Mroz, T.H.; Zammerilli, A.M.; Yost, A.B. II [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States); Muncey, J.G.; Hegeman, P.S.

    1995-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) awarded a contract in 1991 to Prime Energy Corporation (PEC) to demonstrate the benefit of using horizontal wells to recover gas from low permeability formations. The project area was located in the Chittim field of Maverick County, Texas. The Lower Glen Rose Formation in the Chittim field was a promising horizontal well candidate based on the heterogenous nature of the reservoir (suggested by large well-to-well variances in reserves) and the low percentage of economical vertical wells. Since there was substantial evidence of reservoir heterogeneity, it was unknown whether the selected, wellsite would penetrate a reservoir with the desired properties for a horizontal well. Thus, an integrated team was formed to combine geologic analysis, seismic interpretation, reservoir engineering, reservoir simulation, and economic assessment to analyze the production potential and profitability of completing a horizontal well in the Lower Glen Rose formation.

  14. PARTICULARITIES REGARDING THE CALCULATION AND PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS OF FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela SIMTION

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to the industry, in the agricultural production process, specific factors intervene, which determine peculiarities in the use of labor, means of production and work items. The specific factors acting in the agricultural production process: land, plants, animals, soil and climate conditions, give special features regarding the development strategy, but also regarding the production processes with the two sides: technological and economical, causing certain features with effects on the methodology of economic analysis. These features of farm profitability analysis were briefly presented in this study.

  15. FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE THE PROFITABILITY, AN IMPORTANT QUALITY SYNTHETIC INDICATOR OF THE COMPANIES FROM TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDA GHEORGHE GABRIEL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The tourist activity is numbered among those phenomena which have been imposed globally, the special development of it being one of the characteristic features of our century, and especially of the second half of it. The goal of any travel company is to obtain profit, performing economic activities in terms of economic profitability. We can talk about the profitability of an activity when the effects are of the nature of the net income, profit. We can speak of efficiency when the effects are of the nature of economies. The concept of profitability must be delimited as economic and theoretical concept, which involves the capacity of a system to produce useful economic effects and measure profitability which is carried out by comparing the effects with the effort[1]. The purpose of the use of profitability varies according to the organizational levels of the economy, interests which pursue the place where the action takes place. Given the evolution of the global tourism, tourism activity is among the few large-scale phenomena, which are essential for the welfare of each of us. Any travel agency, in order to be profitable, it must have an effective manager to manage all resources, human, financial and material in order to obtain a result at least lucrative, with which you can develop your business and thrive on the tourist market. The research on tourism phenomenon integrates a broad thematic area, from defining its place in the development strategy to highlighting the determinants, the development fluctuations and the manifestation forms of coordinates and market mechanisms and evaluating its impact on economic, social, cultural, environmental and political area.

  16. Role Of Stock Market Development In Relationship Between Foreign Ownership And Profitability Of Asean Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhitya Agri Putra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to examine effect of stock market development on relationship between foreign ownership and profitability in ASEAN. Research samples are 491 manufacture firms listed in stock market of Thailand Singapore Philippines Indonesia and Malaysia from 2012-2013. With regression analysis this research find that stock market development have effect on relationship between foreign ownership and profitability in ASEAN. Stock market development as a function of indicator of investor mood legal and policy making and management practices support foreign shareholder role in profits increasing. This research shows new evidence of role of macro economics level factor which is stock market development in ASEAN countries as foreign owners role supporting in profits increasing. Stock market development is important factor to answer inconsistencies of role of foreign owner since foreign ownership will be more growing up in open market between countries in profits increasing.

  17. Profit of Tourism Companies and their Market Evaluation On ZSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penda Ivor Altaras

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The author of this paper presents a statistical analysis of data on realized profits of companies in the tourist sector, whose shares are listed on the Zagreb Stock Exchange and used for active trading. Data on the realized profit for the companies in accounting period 2010 - 2015 is correlated with the prices of shares. Based on the above obtained results about the direction and strength of this correlation the author concludes about the extent to which the market takes into account profit of the companies as a relevant indicator for investments. This information can be extremely significant because, on the one hand, it provides information about the functionality of the market as a comprehensive socio-economic mechanism that anticipates all the available information based on which the prices of the shares are created as a monetary expression of the presumed value of companies. On the other hand, this information tells us about the expectations of active market participants about the future development of the tourism sector, which already accounts for almost 20% of the Croatian GDP. In addition, the author examines what other explanations could be used for the part of variance which is not explained with the correlation between profit and price of shares.

  18. Economics and agroforestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Brown

    1993-01-01

    The concept of sustainability is an underlying theme in much of the literature dealing with the economics of agroforestry. Four major areas of concern for economic investigation into sustainable agroforestry systems — profitability, dynamics, externalities, and markets — are addressed using examples from the available literature. Finally, the social constraints that...

  19. Impact of robotic operative efficiency on profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Elizabeth J; Matthews, Catherine A

    2013-07-01

    We sought to determine the impact of robotic operative efficiency on profitability and assess the impact of secondary variables. Financial data were collected for all robotic cases performed for fiscal years 2010 (FY10) and 2011 (FY11) at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and included 9 surgical subspecialties. Profitability was defined as a positive operating income. From July 2009 through June 2011, 1295 robotic cases were performed. Robotic surgery was profitable in both fiscal years, with an operating income of $386,735 in FY10 and $822,996 in FY11. In FY10, urogynecology and pediatric surgery were the only nonprofitable subspecialties. In FY11, all subspecialties were profitable. Profitability was associated with case time, payor mix, and procedure type (all P profitability regardless of surgical specialty. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Analyzing profit efficiency of banks in India with undesirable output – Nerlovian profit indicator approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Jayaraman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to provide a holistic approach to measure the profit efficiency of banks, factoring desirable/undesirable outputs, using Nerlovian profit indicator approach. The profit inefficiency of banks has been decomposed into technical and allocation inefficiency using directional distance function. Results reveal that profit inefficiency of banks is primarily due to allocative inefficiency and the impact of technical inefficiency on profit inefficiency is minimal compared to allocative inefficiency, which indicates that banks need to focus on optimal utilization of input–output mix to enhance profit efficiency.

  1. Profitable tail-end production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinchbeck, R.H.

    1997-12-31

    This presentation discusses the origins of the present challenge faced in making mature oil fields profitable in the North Sea. It briefly examines the origins of these challenges, which are rooted in the industrial psychology of the North Sea. It develops a methodological formula for the successful re-engineering of inefficiently-run assets, focusing in particular on the personnel management aspects. It identifies some key areas to seek sustainable cost reductions and recognises the importance of renewing the context for investment in tail-end fields. Finally, it speculates about the way in which the learnings developed in the experiences of the last few years will influence the future of the North Sea. 2 refs.

  2. Profitable use of bio fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekelund, Mats [Strateco Develoment AB, Vega (Sweden)], e-mail: mats.e@strateco.se

    2012-11-01

    Traditionally, the transportation industry has been opposed to any new legislation and when rather stringent emission legislation occurred, they objected just as they did when new fuels came on the agenda. On very short notice, Taxi Stockholm lost 20 % of their business when the County decided to award all public transportation contracts to a competitor. It was time to change plans instead of complaining and to take advantage of new opportunities - 'The first mover advantage'. Making the use of bio fuels into a profitable business takes a change of a standard 'business model' to do and there is still much room others to do the same. With a new CEO, an active marketing department and active individuals among the Board of Directors, Taxi Stockholm massaged a strategy where more business and private customers would be attracted by justifying the green leaf on every cab. All initiatives were publically announced and Taxi Stockholm broke new ice by putting a ban on spike tires - a decision which the vice Mayor made part of her ruling for the whole city. The Ban on gasoline and diesel cars were announced and such a statement attracted business from a loyalty point of view and from companies that had a 'Green Transport Policy' to live up to. Taxi Stockholm has seen growth and profitability grow since and credit the green policy on bio fuels such as bio gas and ethanol for most of it. Preem, Stockholm Transit, Volvo and other market driven operators have all seen markets grow from green initiatives.

  3. ProfitFruit: Decision Support System for Evaluation of Investments in Fruit Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, P.F.M.M.; Groot, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Innovative techniques were developed in the Isafruit project in order to create a more ecological sustainable way of fruit growing. Before fruit growers will consider implementation of these innovations they need information concerning their economic sustainability. The economic model ProfitFruit is

  4. The Persistence of Shocks to Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Anita M McGahan; Porter, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we use data for 1981 through 1994 on a large sample of U.S. companies to examine the persistence of incremental industry, corporate-parent, and business-specific effects on profitability. Our results indicate that the incremental effects of industry on profitability persist longer than the incremental effects of the corporate parent and of the specific business. Changes in industry structure have a more persistent impact on profitability than do changes in firm structure. © 199...

  5. The Choice of For-Profit College

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Anna

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I investigate whether students self-select into the US for-profit colleges or whether the choice of for-profit sector is accidental or due to the reasons external to the students (geographic exposure to for-profit providers, tuition pricing, or random circumstances). The main student-level data samples come from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) and the associated Postsecondary Education Transcript Study (PETS:2000). I estimate a multinomial logit of co...

  6. Farm profitability and Labour Use Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Amarender A, Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate choice of cropping systems to local agro-ecology increases profitability and employment. The increased labour shortage and reduced profitability are growing concerns to the farmers. Keeping this, the paper written with the following objectives: i) To assess the profitability among different cropping systems in the semi-arid tropics; ii) To assess the labour use pattern among different cropping systems and farm size; iii) To determine the resource use efficiency of the different cr...

  7. Emissions trading and profit-neutral grandfathering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hepburn, Cameron; Ritz, Robert; Quah, John (Oxford Univ., Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment, Oxford (United Kingdom))

    2008-07-01

    This paper examines the amount of grandfathering needed for an emissions trading scheme (ETS) to have a neutral impact on firm profits. We provide a simple formula to calculate profit-neutral grandfathering in an asymmetric Cournot model with a general demand function. Using this formula, we obtain estimates of profit-neutral grandfathering for the electricity, cement, newsprint and steel industries. Under the current EU ETS, firms obtain close to full grandfathering. We find no evidence that any industry as a whole could be worse off with full grandfathering. We also show that the common presumption that a higher rate of cost pass-through lowers profit-neutral grandfathering is unreliable

  8. THE PROFIT TARGET IN A RESTAURATION UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briciu Sorin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The hospitality industry represents one of the most dynamic sectors of the contemporary society, with an emphasised role in the process of globalization. Currently, the hospitality industry does not only face the challenges of the economic crisis but the changes in the market, the consumers behaviour and the technological trends, too. That is why, in this time, it is extremely important to apply the management accounting and the cost calculation in any entity in the hospitality industry in order to cope with the market challenges. The main services are performed through the hospitality industry: the accommodation and the restauration. These services satisfy the vital needs of the tourists, but this industry must meet other needs or requests such as the acknowledgement of the social status, the desire to know other cultures or traditions, to spend free time in a pleasant manner etc. Our intention and goal in the current article is to approach an image of the CVP analysis in the decision making process with an emphasis on the restauration in the hospitality industry. In order to cope with this critical time, the competition and to achieve the profits estimated, the managers in the hospitality industry can apply the CVP analysis, one of the simplest and most useful analytical instruments. The paper will tackle with the problem of the break even point in a restaurant, one of the main indicators of the CVP model and also the possibility of the decision making process orientation.

  9. The green and virtual data center

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, Greg

    2009-01-01

    The Green and Virtual Data Center sets aside the political aspects of what is or is not considered green to instead focus on the opportunities for organizations that want to sustain environmentally-friendly economical growth. If you are willing to believe that IT infrastructure resources deployed in a highly virtualized manner can be combined with other technologies to achieve simplified and cost-effective delivery of services in a  green, profitable manner, this book is for you. Savvy industry veteran Greg Schulz provides real-world insight, addressing best practices, server, software, storag

  10. HOW CAN OPPORTUNITY COST BE USED IN DETERMINING THE PROFIT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘTELIAC NELA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Opportunity cost is an economic concept which takes on multiple forms of expression. One of these is the foregone profit as a result of the manufacturer’s option to produce goods by quality classes or of its choice of goods with certain values of gross margin and production lead times. This paper is focused on presenting some situations of avoiding opportunity costs within the meaning of foregone profit. To this end we contemplated two situations: i one where manufacturers may opt, or not, to produce branded goods; ii another where a restrictive factor (technical/physical and financial may influence the manufacturer’s decision-making in what type of goods should be manufactured.

  11. Additional profits of selected German companies and economic sectors within the EU emission trading system. Analysis for the period from 2005 to 2012; Zusatzertraege von ausgewaehlten deutschen Unternehmen und Branchen im Rahmen des EU-Emissionshandelssystems. Analyse fuer den Zeitraum 2005-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthes, Felix C.; Gores, Sabine; Hermann, Hauke

    2011-05-15

    The first two trading periods of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) included extensive free allocation of emission allowances. Since in electricity production the carbon price is passed on - in an economically rational way - to the electricity price, the utility companies were able to reap substantial additional revenue, a significant amount of which result from the free allocation of emission allowances. Taking into account the nuclear fuel tax (introduced in Germany since 2011) which also aims to absorb additional revenue from the EU ETS, the additional revenue for utility companies from the first and second trading periods of the EU ETS considered in this paper are estimated to amount to Euro 38 billion (without nuclear fuel tax) or approx. Euro 35.6 billion (with nuclear fuel tax). The following results arise for the utilities under consideration in the period from 2005 to 2012: - For E.ON the additional revenue amounts to approx. Euro 13.4 billion (without nuclear fuel tax) or Euro 12.3 billion (with nuclear fuel tax); - For RWE the additional revenue amounts to approx. Euro 10.3 billion (without nuclear fuel tax) or Euro 9.6 billion (with nuclear fuel tax); - For Vattenfall Europe the additional revenue amounts to approx. Euro 5.7 billion, the consideration of the nuclear fuel tax causes only marginal changes because of the non-operational nuclear power plants Krummel and Brunsbuttel; - For EnBW the additional revenue amounts to approx. Euro 6.4 billion (without nuclear fuel tax) or Euro 5.9 billion (with nuclear fuel tax); - For Evonik the additional revenue remains unchanged by the introduction of the nuclear fuel tax and amounts to approx. Euro 2.1 billion for the period from 2005 to 2012. In the first two trading periods the free allocation of emission allowances to plants of energy-intensive industry which are outside of the electricity production sector and covered by the EU ETS sometimes substantially exceeded the emission levels of these plants

  12. ECONOMY, ECONOMICS, ECONOMIC, ECONOMICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sim Monica Ariana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To speak and understand a language means - among many other things - knowing the words of that language. The average speaker knows, hears, understands and uses thousands of words daily. But does he use them appropriately? That is why this paper is about words and meanings. More specifically, it deals with the internal structure of complex words, i.e. derivatives. The purpose of the paper is to enable students and potentially other individuals dealing with English language on business basis to engage in their own analyses of some aspects of the language, namely the family tree of the word economy. After having read the paper, the reader should be familiar with the necessary knowledge regarding differences between meanings, misuse and actual sense of words deriving from economy, be able to systematically analyze data and relate his own findings on theoretical language problems. English is used by hundreds of millions speakers and still there is always need for improving our knowledge continuously. Knowing and speaking approximate English may not be enough at an advanced level as in the case of students who prepare themselves for careers that involve proficient communication in a foreign language on specific business issues. This is where the idea of such a paper appeared: students of the Faculty of Economic Sciences talk about economy and all the other terms deriving from it, with approximate knowledge of their meaning, without even being aware that some ‘minor' suffixes like –ic, -ical, -ics etc. really matter and do make a difference. Consequently, we started our teaching of Business English lecture in September 2012 with a working sheet based on the terms economic/ economical/ economics/ economy to assess students' awareness of these terms. The result was not a surprise as more than 90% misused economical instead of economic. That seemed a perfect introduction for students in economics. From that moment on, the building of their specific

  13. Education for Profit, Education for Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, Martha C.

    2009-01-01

    Education is often discussed in low-level utilitarian terms: how can educators produce technically trained people who can hold onto "their" share of the global market? With the rush to profitability, values precious for the future of democracy are in danger of getting lost. The profit motive suggests to most concerned politicians that science and…

  14. Corporate Social Responsibility and Profit Maximizing Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Becchetti, Leonardo; Giallonardo, Luisa; Tessitore, Maria Elisabetta

    2005-01-01

    We examine the behavior of a profit maximizing monopolist in a horizontal differentiation model in which consumers differ in their degree of social responsibility (SR) and consumers SR is dynamically influenced by habit persistence. The model outlines parametric conditions under which (consumer driven) corporate social responsibility is an optimal choice compatible with profit maximizing behavior.

  15. Price Discrimination, Economies of Scale, and Profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Donghyun

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates that it is possible for economies of scale to induce a price-discriminating monopolist to sell in an unprofitable market where the average cost always exceeds the price. States that higher profits in the profitable market caused by economies of scale may exceed losses incurred in the unprofitable market. (CMK)

  16. Cooperation and profit allocation in distribution chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guardiola, Luis A.; Meca, Ana; Timmer, Judith B.

    2007-01-01

    We study the coordination of actions and the allocation of profit in supply chains under decentralized control in which a single supplier supplies several retailers with goods for replenishment of stocks. The goal of the supplier and the retailers is to maximize their individual profits. Since the

  17. Risk Management And Organisational Profitability | Ukandu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The level of growth and profit maximization in the oil industry has been impaired by a lot of risks. Risk control measures and effective plan are used to reduce the occurrence of such risks. Also, proper risk evaluation techniques are used to evaluate the cost implication of risk on production and the profitability level of such ...

  18. Will farm profits shift in 2013?

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan Kauffman

    2012-01-01

    Despite a severe drought, profits in the U.S. farm sector soared in 2012. Beginning in late June, U.S. crops and pastures wilted under one of the worst droughts in history. Although total farm incomes remained high, the drought exacerbated a widening gulf in profitability between the crop and livestock sectors.

  19. relating customer satisfaction to customer profitability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    carried out by marketing scholars. This is not likely to advance marketing theory. After all, accounting to profitability lies at the heart of the marketing concept, Kohli & Jaworski (1990:1-18) and Narver and Slater (1990:35). Similarly, according to Buttle (1996) marketing's link to profitability is stressed in the definitions of.

  20. Determinants of Iranian bank profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghodrati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Banks are the most important tool for preparing and supplying money in each country. In recent years, by institution of the new private banks and privatization of the governmental banks, banking competition has become very complex. This paper performs an empirical investigation to study the effects of different factors on return on assets and return on equities on 18 selected Iranian firms over the period 2002-2011. Using different regression models, the study studies the effects of total assets, debt ratio, etc. on return of assets (ROA and return on equities (ROE on selected eighteen Iranian banks as statistical community. The study considers total assets, ownership ratio, deposits to assets ratio, and loans to assets ratio as independent variables, and ROE and ROA as dependent variables. The results indicate that the private banks returns were better than governmental banks and the commercial banks’ returns were better than special banks. There is a reverse relationship between logarithm of total assets and ownership ratio with profitability based on return of assets.

  1. Profiting from innovative user communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Lars Bo

    Modding - the modification of existing products by consumers - is increasingly exploited by manufacturers to enhance product development and sales. In the computer games industry modding has evolved into a development model in which users act as unpaid `complementors' to manufacturers' product pl......, a manufacturer can incorporate and commercialize the best complements found in the user communities. Keywords: innovation, modding, user communities, software platform, business model. JEL code(s): L21; L23; O31; O32...... platforms. This article explains how manufacturers can profit from their abilities to organize and facilitate a process of innovation by user communities and capture the value of the innovations produced in such communities. When managed strategically, two distinct, but not mutually exclusive business...... models appear from the production of user complements: firstly, a manufacturer can let the (free) user complements `drift' in the user communities, where they increase the value to consumers of owning the given platform and thus can be expected to generate increased platform sales, and secondly...

  2. Economic rationality and ethical behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Le Menestrel

    2001-01-01

    This paper argues that economic rationality and ethical behavior cannot be reduced one to the other, casting doubts on the validity of formulas like 'profit is ethical' or 'ethics pays'. In order to express ethical dilemmas as opposing economic interest with ethical concerns, we propose a model of rational behavior that combines these two irreducible dimensions in an open but not arbitrary manner. Behaviors that are neither ethical nor profitable are considered irrational (non-arbitrariness)....

  3. Profitability Analysis of Soybean Oil Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsun Cheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Soybean oil production is the basic process for soybean applications. Cash flow analysis is used to estimate the profitability of a manufacturing venture. Besides capital investments, operating costs, and revenues, the interest rate is the factor to estimate the net present value (NPV, break-even points, and payback time; which are benchmarks for profitability evaluation. The positive NPV and reasonable payback time represent a profitable process, and provide an acceptable projection for real operating. Additionally, the capacity of the process is another critical factor. The extruding-expelling process and hexane extraction are the two typical approaches used in industry. When the capacities of annual oil production are larger than 12 and 173 million kg respectively, these two processes are profitable. The solvent free approach, known as enzyme assisted aqueous extraction process (EAEP, is profitable when the capacity is larger than 17 million kg of annual oil production.

  4. Profitability Analysis of Soybean Oil Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ming-Hsun; Rosentrater, Kurt A

    2017-10-07

    Soybean oil production is the basic process for soybean applications. Cash flow analysis is used to estimate the profitability of a manufacturing venture. Besides capital investments, operating costs, and revenues, the interest rate is the factor to estimate the net present value (NPV), break-even points, and payback time; which are benchmarks for profitability evaluation. The positive NPV and reasonable payback time represent a profitable process, and provide an acceptable projection for real operating. Additionally, the capacity of the process is another critical factor. The extruding-expelling process and hexane extraction are the two typical approaches used in industry. When the capacities of annual oil production are larger than 12 and 173 million kg respectively, these two processes are profitable. The solvent free approach, known as enzyme assisted aqueous extraction process (EAEP), is profitable when the capacity is larger than 17 million kg of annual oil production.

  5. Stakeholder rights and economic performance: the profitability of nonprofits

    OpenAIRE

    Bøhren, Øyvind; Josefsen, Morten G.

    2013-01-01

    This is the authors’ accepted manuscript to the article. Also published at http://www.ssrn.com/ This paper explores whether ownership matters in a fundamental sense by comparing the performance of stockholder-owned firms with the much less analyzed nonprofit firms. No stakeholder has residual cash flow rights in nonprofit firms, and the control rights are held by customers, employees, and community citizens. Accounting for differences in size and risk and comparing only firms in the same i...

  6. Economics-driven software architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Mistrik, Ivan; Kazman, Rick; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    Economics-driven Software Architecture presents a guide for engineers and architects who need to understand the economic impact of architecture design decisions: the long term and strategic viability, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability of applications and systems. Economics-driven software development can increase quality, productivity, and profitability, but comprehensive knowledge is needed to understand the architectural challenges involved in dealing with the development of large, architecturally challenging systems in an economic way. This book covers how to apply economic consider

  7. Bank Specific and Macroeconomic Determinants of Commercial Bank Profitability: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwaseyi Ebenezer Olalere

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the bank-specific and macroeconomic determinants of banks profitability in Nigeria analyzing audited financial reports of selected sixteen (16 commercial banks over the period of 2010 to 2015 making up to 96 observations. The study identified that existing studies are sketchy in developing economies even though many studies have emerge in developed economies. The bank profitability is measured by return on assets and return on equity as function of bank-specific and macroeconomic determinants. Using the balanced panel data set, the empirical results of the study shows that capital adequacy and liquidity have a positive and significant effect on bank profitability. However, efficiency ratio have a negative and significant effect on bank profitability. With regards to macroeconomic variable, GDP growth also have a positive and significant impact on banks profitability. The empirical results of the study suggested that banks can improve their profitability through increasing capital and liquidity, decreasing operating cost with conscious effort to maintain transparency in their operations. In addition, a good economic environment for financial institutions foster increase in bank profitability. Hence, the study recommends that further studies can expand the scope while extending to other industries as well.

  8. A Methodology to Exploit Profit Allocation in Logistics Joint Distribution Network Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Logistics joint distribution network (LJDN optimization involves vehicle routes scheduling and profit allocation for multiple distribution centers. This is essentially a combinational and cooperative game optimization problem seeking to serve a number of customers with a fleet of vehicles and allocate profit among multiple centers. LJDN routing optimization based on customer clustering units can alleviate the computational complexity and improve the calculation accuracy. In addition, the profit allocation mechanism can be realized based on cooperative game theory through a negotiation procedure by the Logistics Service Provider (LSP. This paper establishes a model to minimize the total cost of the multiple centers joint distribution network when each distribution center is assigned to serve a series of distribution units. An improved particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is presented to tackle the model formulation by assigning distribution centers (DCs to distribution units. Improved PSO algorithm combines merits of PSO algorithm and genetic algorithm (GA with global and local search capabilities. Finally, a Shapley value model based on cooperative game theory is proposed to obtain the optimal profit allocation strategy among distribution centers from nonempty coalitions. The computational results from a case study in Guiyang city, China, suggest the optimal sequential coalition of distribution centers can be achieved according to Strictly Monotonic Path (SMP.

  9. Economics of cucumber production in Rivers State, Nigeria | Elum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study employed descriptive statistics in examining the socio-economic characteristics of the cucumber farmers; gross profit margin analysis in examining profitability and the Garrett ranking technique in establishing the challenges faced by the farmers. From the study analysis, it was observed that the gross profit level of ...

  10. The Process Management in Non - Profit Organisations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dagmara Bubel; Sylwia Legowik-Swiacik; Michal Dziadkiewicz; Anna Wisniewska-Salek

    2016-01-01

      The purpose of this paper is to learn about the implementation of the process management concepts in the non-profit organisations and the possible evaluation of effectiveness raise of the organisations' functioning...

  11. Donations and Differentiation: Three Essays on Non-Profit Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfolds, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Given increased competition with for-profit firms, the issue of the comparative advantage of non-profit organizations is renewed. While non-profits may want to differentiate themselves when faced with additional non-profit competition, it is unclear whether they would want to differentiate themselves or converge towards for-profit competitors. This paper addresses this issue by considering the different financing models, human resource systems, and objectives of non-profit organizations, as c...

  12. TRANSPARENCY IN ITALIAN NON PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Gazzola

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to evaluate the accountability and transparency of Italian non profits organizations. The main goal is to understand if a general accountability or transparency problem, or a systematic publicity deficit, exist in the third sector in Italy. Non profit organizations have an ethical obligation to their stakeholder and to the public to conduct their activities with accountability and transparency. Non profit organizations should regularly and openly convey information to the stakeholder about their vision, mission, objectives, activities, accomplishments, decision-making processes and organizational structure. Information from a non profit organization should be easily accessible to the stakeholder and should create external visibility, public understanding and trust in the organization, conditions necessary to find donors. Non profit organizations work with communities and community donors need to know how their money is used. In the first part the analysis of the definition of transparency and accountability is made and the sustainability report like an important instrument of communication is considered. In the second part an empirical research is presented. The Italian law allows taxpayers to devote 5 per thousand of their income tax to non profit organizations, choosing between charities, social promotion associations, recognized associations, entities dedicated to scientific research and health care, universities, municipal social services and other non profit organizations. The present study present a quantitative research and it’s based on an empirical analysis of non-profit organizations that receive this donation in Italy in the year 2010 and 2011. In the paper we analyze the transparency and the accountability of the top 100 non profit organizations that have received the contribution of 5 per thousand, checking whether they prepare their Sustainability Report or any other kind of report for communicate the use

  13. Economic considerations for bariatric surgery and morbid obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frezza, Eldo E; Wacthell, Mitchell; Ewing, Bradley

    2009-01-01

    The obesity epidemic is also an economic tragedy. This analysis evaluates the economic effects and the potential to improve the well-being of both individual and societal wealth. Econometric techniques should carefully assess the degree to which obesity affects declines in business output, employment, income, and tax revenues at the regional and national levels. Microeconomics assesses lost productivity and associated wages and profit. Macroeconomics assesses trends associated with employment, inflation, interest rates, money supply, and output. To decrease the adverse economic consequences of the obesity epidemic, policy makers must emphasize bariatric surgery as a cost-effective option for qualified patients. Early intervention, education, and tax rebates for obese individuals who undergo bariatric surgery and for medical centers and doctors would likely have positive economic effects on the whole economy in a few years. PMID:21935309

  14. Economic considerations for bariatric surgery and morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frezza, Eldo E; Wacthell, Mitchell; Ewing, Bradley

    2009-01-01

    The obesity epidemic is also an economic tragedy. This analysis evaluates the economic effects and the potential to improve the well-being of both individual and societal wealth. Econometric techniques should carefully assess the degree to which obesity affects declines in business output, employment, income, and tax revenues at the regional and national levels. Microeconomics assesses lost productivity and associated wages and profit. Macroeconomics assesses trends associated with employment, inflation, interest rates, money supply, and output. To decrease the adverse economic consequences of the obesity epidemic, policy makers must emphasize bariatric surgery as a cost-effective option for qualified patients. Early intervention, education, and tax rebates for obese individuals who undergo bariatric surgery and for medical centers and doctors would likely have positive economic effects on the whole economy in a few years.

  15. Social media and small non profit organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Gulyás, A.

    2016-01-01

    This project sought to explore patterns of and views about social media adoption among small non-profit organisations and to identify mechanisms that could effectively support these organisations with their social media use. \\ud The following findings emerged from the study: \\ud • Social media are now part of the organisational infrastructure of small non-profits and the main ways in which they communicate with the public\\ud • Key variables that influence social media adoption among small non...

  16. Inclusive governance in non-profit organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Borzaga, Carlo; Sacchetti, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The study of private non-profit enterprises that offer general interest services is only at the start. The understanding of existing organisations resists an inclusive, public interest view of governance. This contribution aims at providing a reflection on specific features that non-profit enterprises should have, and outlines four main justifications for including stakeholders in production governance: 1) access to knowledge and other resources, 2) trust creation, 3) internal efficiency, 4) ...

  17. DETERMINANTS OF BANK PROFITABILITY IN CROATIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Kundid; Blanka Škrabić; Roberto Ercegovac

    2011-01-01

    The research objective of this study is twofold. It aims to provide a synthesis of relevant empirical researches on the determinants of commercial banks’ profitability and to establish empirical verification of profitability determinants of banks in the Republic of Croatia using an econometric method of dynamic panel analysis. The empirical analysis is carried out on a data sample of 28 commercial banks in the period 2003-2008 which continuously refers to more than 95 % of assets of the overa...

  18. Determinants of commercial bank profitability in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Chavarín, Rubén

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to identify the main determinants of profitability for commercial banks established in Mexico. A data base of 45 banks representing virtually the whole world of commercial banking in the period 2007-2013 was used. Dynamic models using Arellano-Bover/Blundell-Bond estimators with an error that follows an MA(1) process were employed along with static models having random effects and Hausman-Taylor estimator. Findings suggest that the profitability of commercial ba...

  19. Energy Conflicts and Differential Profits: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Bichler, Shimshon; Nitzan, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    During the late 1980s and early 1990s, we identified a new phenomenon that we called ‘energy conflicts’ and showed that these conflicts were intimately linked to the differential profitability of the leading oil companies. This link remains as true today as it was in the early 1970s. Like earlier energy conflicts, the ‘Arab Spring’, the outsourced wars that followed and the third Gulf War against ISIS continue to march to the drum beat of differential profits.

  20. Fractal profit landscape of the stock market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönlund, Andreas; Yi, Il Gu; Kim, Beom Jun

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the structure of the profit landscape obtained from the most basic, fluctuation based, trading strategy applied for the daily stock price data. The strategy is parameterized by only two variables, p and q Stocks are sold and bought if the log return is bigger than p and less than -q, respectively. Repetition of this simple strategy for a long time gives the profit defined in the underlying two-dimensional parameter space of p and q. It is revealed that the local maxima in the profit landscape are spread in the form of a fractal structure. The fractal structure implies that successful strategies are not localized to any region of the profit landscape and are neither spaced evenly throughout the profit landscape, which makes the optimization notoriously hard and hypersensitive for partial or limited information. The concrete implication of this property is demonstrated by showing that optimization of one stock for future values or other stocks renders worse profit than a strategy that ignores fluctuations, i.e., a long-term buy-and-hold strategy.

  1. Energy productivity, fertilization rate and profitability of wheat production after various predecessors II.Profitability of wheat production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Uhr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In the course of our study on the adaptation of modern genotypes common winter wheat (Triticum aestivum to the requirements of sustainable agriculture data were received concerning the influence of the predecessor and nitrogen fertilizer rate on energy efficiency and recyclable nitrogen fertilization and profitability of productivity.We share these data with the scientific community, as they are up-to-date and informative in both theoretical and practical aspects. The analyses are based on data from field experiments fertilizer derived after predecessor cereals – regular crop of sorghum, millet, maize and legumes after predecessor - separate sowing of chickpeas. Energy efficiency of nitrogen fertilization was calculated as the ratio between the energy supplied in the additional grain yield and energy input in the form of fertilizers. Refundable efficiency of nitrogen fertilization is the additional amount of nitrogen accumulated in the grain, with respect to the applied nitrogen fertilization. Economic profitability of production is evaluated by coefficient R = P/Ra (ratio of benefits/costs. The results show that energy efficiency and recyclable nitrogen fertilization are on average five times higher after cereal than after legumes predecessor, and decreased with increasing the fertilizer rate, the decrease was statistically significant only for the first item (exponent. Profitability ratio of production after the introduction of legumes predecessor in crop rotation increases by an average of 42% and retains maximum values of fertilization levels 0.06, 0.12 and 0.18 t/ha nitrogen. Profitability of wheat production using pre-legumes crop is not determined by the parameters nitrogen fertilizer rate and energy efficiency of nitrogen fertilization and refundable efficiency of nitrogen fertilization.

  2. Profitability and sustainability of small - medium scale palm biodiesel plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solikhah, Maharani Dewi; Kismanto, Agus; Raksodewanto, Agus; Peryoga, Yoga

    2017-06-01

    The mandatory of biodiesel application at 20% blending (B20) has been started since January 2016. It creates huge market for biodiesel industry. To build large-scale biodiesel plant (> 100,000 tons/year) is most favorable for biodiesel producers since it can give lower production cost. This cost becomes a challenge for small - medium scale biodiesel plants. However, current biodiesel plants in Indonesia are located mainly in Java and Sumatra, which then distribute biodiesel around Indonesia so that there is an additional cost for transportation from area to area. This factor becomes an opportunity for the small - medium scale biodiesel plants to compete with the large one. This paper discusses the profitability of small - medium scale biodiesel plants conducted on a capacity of 50 tons/day using CPO and its derivatives. The study was conducted by performing economic analysis between scenarios of biodiesel plant that using raw material of stearin, PFAD, and multi feedstock. Comparison on the feasibility of scenarios was also conducted on the effect of transportation cost and selling price. The economic assessment shows that profitability is highly affected by raw material price so that it is important to secure the source of raw materials and consider a multi-feedstock type for small - medium scale biodiesel plants to become a sustainable plant. It was concluded that the small - medium scale biodiesel plants will be profitable and sustainable if they are connected to palm oil mill, have a captive market, and are located minimally 200 km from other biodiesel plants. The use of multi feedstock could increase IRR from 18.68 % to 56.52 %.

  3. Service & non-profit marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Čedomir

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Services are dominantly untouchable products which cannot be physically owned. Services promotion is difficult for its untouchables. Personal sale is very powerful in service companies because customers must interact with employees. Price is very important for service's companies. It has psychological role, economic role and it creates attitude for goal achievement. Marketing goal for nonprofit organizations is to get an answer from target market Development of marketing strategies of nonprofit organizations consists of defining and analyzing target market and creating and maintaining marketing mix. In nonprofit organizations product is usually an idea or a service. Promotion in nonprofit organizations is very important. Personal sale, promotional sale, advertising and publicity are used for communicating an idea and informing people about services.

  4. A study on the effect of different factors on profitability of banking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ghadimi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the effect of different influencing factors on profitability of banking system in Iran for a panel data from 2001 to 2010. The sample of banking system includes ten different banks and two different types of internal and external variables are considered. Internal factors include ownership ratio, ratio of bank customers' deposit to banks' assets, ratio of total loans given to all assets, ratio of total interest free loans on total assets, ratio of interest free revenues on total revenue. External factors include economic growth, actual rate of interest and inflation rate. The proposed model of this paper uses econometrics method to investigate the proposed model and the preliminary results indicate that ownership ratio, ratio of total equity on total assets, along with inflation rate have negative impact on profitability. In addition, the ratio of customers' deposit on total assets, the ratio of total loans on total assets and economic growth have positive impact on profitability.

  5. Return of investment and profitability analysis of bio-fuels production using a modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangyang Deng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the return of investment and profitability of a bio-gasification facility using a modeling method. Based on preliminary market analysis, the results determined that the power facilities driven by biomass gasifiers could be profitable if they consider the most sensitive cost factors such as labor, project investment, and feedstock supply. The result showed that economic feasibility of bio-gasification facility can significantly affect by its production capacity and operating modes (one shift, two shifts, or three shifts. The cost analysis modeling approach developed in this study could be a good approach for economic analysis of bio-syngas and bio-fuel products. In addition, this study demonstrated a unique modeling approach to analyze return of investment and profitability of biofuels production.

  6. Profitability of irradiation plants; Rentabilidad de plantas de irradiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos R, M.E.; Gonzalez F, C.; Liceaga C, G.; Ortiz A, G. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, Col. Escandon, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    In any industrial process it is seek an attractive profit from the contractor and the social points of view. The use of the irradiation technology in foods allows keep their hygienically, which aid to food supply without risks for health, an increment of new markets and a losses reduction. In other products -cosmetics or disposable for medical use- which are sterilized by irradiation, this process allows their secure use by the consumers. The investment cost of an irradiation plant depends mainly of the plant size and the radioactive material reload that principally is Cobalt 60, these two parameters are in function of the type of products for irradiation and the selected doses. In this work it is presented the economic calculus and the financial costs for different products and capacities of plants. In general terms is determined an adequate utility that indicates that this process is profitable. According to the economic and commercial conditions in the country were considered two types of credits for the financing of this projects. One utilizing International credit resources and other with national sources. (Author)

  7. Essays in development economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Marijke

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three chapters in the field of Development Economics. The first chapter examines the saving and investment decisions of self-employed farming households in Indonesia. Using an instrumental variables strategy, with local rainfall as an instrument for farm profit, no

  8. Patient-centered medical home initiative produced modest economic results for Veterans Health Administration, 2010-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Paul L; Liu, Chuan-Fen; Wong, Edwin S; Hernandez, Susan E; Batten, Adam; Lo, Sophie; Lemon, Jaclyn M; Conrad, Douglas A; Grembowski, David; Nelson, Karin; Fihn, Stephan D

    2014-06-01

    In 2010 the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) began a nationwide initiative called Patient Aligned Care Teams (PACT) that reorganized care at all VHA primary care clinics in accordance with the patient-centered medical home model. We analyzed data for fiscal years 2003-12 to assess how trends in health care use and costs changed after the implementation of PACT. We found that PACT was associated with modest increases in primary care visits and with modest decreases in both hospitalizations for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions and outpatient visits with mental health specialists. We estimated that these changes avoided $596 million in costs, compared to the investment in PACT of $774 million, for a potential net loss of $178 million in the study period. Although PACT has not generated a positive return, it is still maturing, and trends in costs and use are favorable. Adopting patient-centered care does not appear to have been a major financial risk for the VHA. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  9. What Is Education For? A Discussion of Nussbaum's "Not for Profit: Why Democracy Needs the Humanities"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a discussion of the book, "Not for Profit: Why Democracy Needs the Humanities" by Martha C. Nussbaum from the perspective of a visiting scholar to the United States from China. It begins by addressing two critical topics discussed by Nussbaum: consequences of focusing only on economic growth and the importance of…

  10. Is profitability a good proxy for efficiency? Evidence from the subsector of tour operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedija Veronika

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper is to evaluate the economic efficiency of tour operators in the Czech Republic in the period 2007-2014 using data envelopment analysis (DEA models and prove the link between economic efficiency and profitability and to find out if profitability is a good proxy for economic efficiency. Data was exported from the database Albertina CZ Gold Edition. We calculated the efficiency score using CCR (Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes and BCC (Banker, Charnes and Cooper models based on 3 inputs and 1 output. In the years 2007 to 2010, the efficiency score of almost all the companies was higher than 0.5; however, in years since 2011, we revealed significant differences in the efficiency of individual firms and only about 40 percent of tour operators achieved an efficiency score higher than 0.5. Using Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients, our findings show that, in the case of the Czech tour operator market, profitability ratios do not correspond with firm efficiency. Profitability ratios are not a good proxy for economic efficiency and should not be used as the only firm criterion of performance.

  11. Adapting to Mother Nature's changing climatic conditions: Flexible stocking for enhancing profitability of Wyoming ranchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranching is a dynamic business in which profitability is impacted by changing weather and climatic conditions. A ranch-level model using a representative ranch in southeastern Wyoming was used to compare economic outcomes from growing season precipitation scenarios of: 1) historical precipitation da...

  12. Profit efficiency among Kenyan smallholders milk producers: A case study of Meru-South district, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nganga, S.K.; Kungu, J.; Ridder, de N.; Herrero, M.

    2010-01-01

    Production inefficiency is usually analyzed by economical efficiency, which is composed of two components-technical and allocative efficiencies. This study provided a direct measure of production efficiency of the smallholder milk producers in Kenya using a stochastic profit frontier and

  13. Miller Table Company: A Profit Analysis Case Integrating Managerial Accounting, Microeconomics and Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Louise

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a unique integrative business case appropriate for use in a managerial accounting course or other business courses related to economics or marketing. The case describes a scenario in which a managerial accountant is assisting in business decisions relating to factors influencing the profitability of a small manufacturing…

  14. Decomposing variation in dairy profitability: the impact of output, inputs, prices, labour and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, P

    2011-08-01

    The UK dairy sector has undergone considerable structural change in recent years, with a decrease in the number of producers accompanied by an increased average herd size and increased concentrate use and milk yields. One of the key drivers to producers remaining in the industry is the profitability of their herds. The current paper adopts a holistic approach to decomposing the variation in dairy profitability through an analysis of net margin data explained by physical input-output measures, milk price variation, labour utilization and managerial behaviours and characteristics. Data are drawn from the Farm Business Survey (FBS) for England in 2007/08 for 228 dairy enterprises. Average yields are 7100 litres/cow/yr, from a herd size of 110 cows that use 0·56 forage ha/cow/yr and 43·2 labour h/cow/yr. An average milk price of 22·57 pence per litre (ppl) produced milk output of £1602/cow/yr, which after accounting for calf sales, herd replacements and quota leasing costs, gave an average dairy output of £1516/cow/yr. After total costs of £1464/cow/yr this left an economic return of £52/cow/yr (0·73 ppl) net margin profit. There is wide variation in performance, with the most profitable (as measured by net margin per cow) quartile of producers achieving 2000 litres/cow/yr more than the least profitable quartile, returning a net margin of £335/cow/yr compared to a loss of £361/cow/yr for the least profitable. The most profitable producers operate larger, higher yielding herds and achieve a greater milk price for their output. In addition, a significantly greater number of the most profitable producers undertake financial benchmarking within their businesses and operate specialist dairy farms. When examining the full data set, the most profitable enterprises included significantly greater numbers of organic producers. The most profitable tend to have a greater reliance on independent technical advice, but this finding is not statistically significant

  15. Decomposing variation in dairy profitability: the impact of output, inputs, prices, labour and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    WILSON, P.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The UK dairy sector has undergone considerable structural change in recent years, with a decrease in the number of producers accompanied by an increased average herd size and increased concentrate use and milk yields. One of the key drivers to producers remaining in the industry is the profitability of their herds. The current paper adopts a holistic approach to decomposing the variation in dairy profitability through an analysis of net margin data explained by physical input–output measures, milk price variation, labour utilization and managerial behaviours and characteristics. Data are drawn from the Farm Business Survey (FBS) for England in 2007/08 for 228 dairy enterprises. Average yields are 7100 litres/cow/yr, from a herd size of 110 cows that use 0·56 forage ha/cow/yr and 43·2 labour h/cow/yr. An average milk price of 22·57 pence per litre (ppl) produced milk output of £1602/cow/yr, which after accounting for calf sales, herd replacements and quota leasing costs, gave an average dairy output of £1516/cow/yr. After total costs of £1464/cow/yr this left an economic return of £52/cow/yr (0·73 ppl) net margin profit. There is wide variation in performance, with the most profitable (as measured by net margin per cow) quartile of producers achieving 2000 litres/cow/yr more than the least profitable quartile, returning a net margin of £335/cow/yr compared to a loss of £361/cow/yr for the least profitable. The most profitable producers operate larger, higher yielding herds and achieve a greater milk price for their output. In addition, a significantly greater number of the most profitable producers undertake financial benchmarking within their businesses and operate specialist dairy farms. When examining the full data set, the most profitable enterprises included significantly greater numbers of organic producers. The most profitable tend to have a greater reliance on independent technical advice, but this finding is not statistically significant

  16. PROFIT: Bayesian profile fitting of galaxy images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robotham, A. S. G.; Taranu, D. S.; Tobar, R.; Moffett, A.; Driver, S. P.

    2017-04-01

    We present PROFIT, a new code for Bayesian two-dimensional photometric galaxy profile modelling. PROFIT consists of a low-level C++ library (libprofit), accessible via a command-line interface and documented API, along with high-level R (PROFIT) and PYTHON (PyProFit) interfaces (available at github.com/ICRAR/libprofit, github.com/ICRAR/ProFit, and github.com/ICRAR/pyprofit, respectively). R PROFIT is also available pre-built from CRAN; however, this version will be slightly behind the latest GitHub version. libprofit offers fast and accurate two-dimensional integration for a useful number of profiles, including Sérsic, Core-Sérsic, broken-exponential, Ferrer, Moffat, empirical King, point-source, and sky, with a simple mechanism for adding new profiles. We show detailed comparisons between libprofit and GALFIT. libprofit is both faster and more accurate than GALFIT at integrating the ubiquitous Sérsic profile for the most common values of the Sérsic index n (0.5 automated bulge-disc decomposition with PROFIT on SDSS, KiDS, and future LSST imaging. We find that the biggest increases in fit quality come from moving from SDSS- to KiDS-quality data, with less significant gains moving from KiDS to LSST.

  17. Shared Cared for Stable Glaucoma Patients: Economic Benefits and Patient-centered Outcomes of a Feasibility Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, David; de Korne, Dirk F; Ho, Henrietta; Mathur, Ranjana; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Van Hai, Nguyen; Wai, Charity; Perera, Shamira; Aung, Tin; Wong, Tien Y; Lamoureux, Ecosse L

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to assess the quality of care and economic benefits of a shared care model managing patients with stable glaucoma in a primary eye care (PEC) clinic compared with a tertiary specialist outpatient clinic (SOC) in Singapore. A randomized equivalence feasibility trial was preformed comparing the PEC with SOC models. Participants recruited from the SOC had no visual field progression or change in management for at least 3 years, were on a maximum of a single glaucoma medication, had no previous tube-shunt implant and were at least 3-year posttrabeculectomy surgery.Primary outcomes were clinical assessment and management, economic benefits, and patient satisfaction. Differences were analyzed using equivalence testing and generalized odds ratios. The trial included 233 patients, consisting of 42.1% glaucoma disc suspects (PEC: 47.4%; SOC: 36.8%), 27.5% primary angle closure suspects (PEC: 25.0%; SOC: 29.9%), 13.7% with ocular hypertension (PEC: 13.8%; SOC: 13.7%), 3.9% with primary angle closure glaucoma (PEC: 4.3%; SOC: 3.4%), and 3.0% with primary open angle glaucoma (PEC: 1.7%; SOC: 4.3%). Glaucoma clinical care for patients at PEC was as good as SOC [rate difference, 6.83%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.84-11.12) and management (rate difference, 7.69%; 95% CI, 3.21-12.17). In 23 cases (9.9%), 5.2% at PEC and 14.5% at SOC, there was disconcordance with the gold standard of senior consultant. Patient satisfaction at the PEC was equally high when compared with SOC (generalized odds ratio, 1.43; CI, 0.50-2.00). Direct costs per patient visit were 43% lower at PEC compared with SOC. Managing stable glaucoma patients at a primary care setting is a cost saving, safe, and effective shared care while enhancing professional collaboration between hospital and community settings.

  18. PROFIT EFFICIENCY IN BROILER PRODUCTION: EVIDENCE FROM GREATER ACCRA REGION OF GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Tuffour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examines profit efficiency and its determinants in broiler production in the context of profit maximization as an incentive for optimum production. The study uses the stochastic frontier approach with the application of the Cobb – Douglas profit function. A cross sectional data was obtained from one hundred poultry producers in Greater Accra Region using a multistage sampling method. The results of the study indicated that price of labor significantly reduced profit but the price of day old chick increased profit. The result further revealed that broiler producers were able to realize 54% of their frontier profit on the average. Number of years of experience in broiler production was found to reduce inefficiency whilst farms owned by sole proprietors were less economically efficient. The study recommends that the inputs should be made available to farmers at competitive prices and the quantity of labor use should be declined because the current level is uncompetitive. Training should also be provided to less experienced farmers to enable them adopt the best poultry farming practices.

  19. Cost and profitability of biofuel chipping in Alnus incana stands in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizaras, Stasys; Sadauskiene, Liana; Mizaraite, Diana (Department of Forest Resources, Economics and Policy, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Inst. of Forestry, Girionys, (Lithuania)), e-mail: l.sadauskiene@mi.lt

    2011-07-01

    The demand for forest fuels is increasing in Lithuania. One biofuel source could be grey alder stands, which are currently underused. This study examines the economic feasibility of producing chips from grey alder stands. The research was performed on three grey alder stands. Three chip production technologies were analysed: chips from logging residues, stemwood chips and whole-tree chips. Work time expenditures and costs were assessed for each mode of chip production. When raw material for chips are sold at the roadside, their production from logging residues is usually not profitable. Profitability of whole-tree raw material for chips depends on forwarding distance. Production of raw material for chips from stemwood is profitable. When chips are sold at the heating plant, production is profitable if the chips are made from stemwood and whole trees. Production of chips from logging residues can be profitable if forwarding distances are short. If it is desired to promote the use of grey alder stands for fuel, the problem of the competing profitability of this raw material for chip production should be solved by instituting subsidies or increasing its price

  20. Proposals of changes in the financial statements of non-profit organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Otavová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial statements (balance sheet, profit and loss statement intended for profit and non-profit organizations have large number of differences in terms of content of individual items and also with regard to their formal structure. This is due to the existence of different types of accounting entities for which there are created sets of accounting rules. Need for separate set of accounting rules results from their objectives, management rules, performed activities and certain specific of costs, revenues, assets and liabilities. The differences found on the basis of comparative analysis in this paper are evaluated and subsequently there are recommended changes of the statements so that they would be more useful for the purposes of economic analysis. The paper also identified problems that arise in connection with the evaluation of the efficiency of this type of organizations and subsequently there are recommended tools of financial analysis suitable for evaluation of non-profit organizations and the specifics of non-profit sector are pointed out. The paper presents also the proposal to change the Decree 504/2002 Coll. so as to avoid distortion of financial statement closing of non-profit organizations, and also with regard to their higher explanatory power.

  1. 48 CFR 1615.404-70 - Profit analysis factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Profit analysis factors... CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1615.404-70 Profit analysis factors. (a) OPM contracting officers..., will likely serve to diminish this profit analysis factor in an overall determination of profit. This...

  2. IMPROVEMENTS IN ACCOUNTING OF BREWERIES’ PROFIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sklyaruk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities of formation of the profit of breweries, taking into account the specifics of the production process and business peculiarities were identified. There were found out the specificity of calculation of the expenses, considering the norms of the technological process, the duration of the operating cycle and the specifics of the production of beer and non-alcoholic products, which determine the methodology of formation of the prime price of the products and the price of its sale. The expediency of using the method for phases (with semi-ready and not semi- ready option method of calculation of the semi-finished products of own production there was proved. The irrelevance of using Account 44 “Undistributed profit (uncovered loss” according to its purpose under the current Plan of accounts is shown. The model of using the profit based on the proposed sub-accounts was built and the example of their use was shown.

  3. Transaction Cost and Activity of Economic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan D. Kotliarov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present paper is to clarify the role of transaction cost for existence of an economic agent. It is demonstrated that the opposition of transaction cost and transformation cost is not rigid and there are costs that contain both transaction and transformation component. In addition the amount of transaction cost depends on parameters of company’s activity. This is why it is hardly possible to find the precise minimum of transaction cost and the model of organization of transactions within firm will be flexible. The firm’s structure contains special transaction divisions (centers of transaction cost that are necessary for existence of the firm as a mechanism of organization of transactions (opposed to market. The status of these divisions depends on firm’s size. Transaction divisions can also exist outside the firm. They will minimize transaction costs of other economic agents on the basis of external effect of scale. External transaction divisions can exist both as collective structures (coordinating centers of strategic alliances as well as independent ones (franchisors. A comparative analysis of transaction divisions and centers of cost was done. It was demonstrated that these elements of the firm have different economic and organizational structure. The notion of cost of external profitability was introduced. This notion can be used to analyze reasons for merger of companies or for their existence as independent structures. It is demonstrated that one of the functions of the firm is to use resources that cannot be used within independent production units.

  4. Democracy and non-profit housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Vorre; Langergaard, Luise Li

    2017-01-01

    Resident democracy as a special form of participatory democratic set-up is fundamental in the understanding, and self-understanding, of the non-profit housing sector in Denmark. Through a case study, the paper explores how resident democracy is perceived and narrated between residents and employees...... at a housing association. The study indicates that the meta-story of democracy is disconnected from practice and the lived lives of residents. Three analytical tensions structure the analysis, which relate to the conditions for realizing the democratic ideal embedded in the structure of the sector......, the article discusses conditions for prospective democracy in the Danish non-profit housing sector....

  5. Competitive Intelligence Practices And Their Effect on Profitability of Firms In The Kenyan Banking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOHN KARANJA NGUGI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly changing business climate created by advances in technologies, economic and social changes as well as fast-shortening product life cycles, which lead to hyper-competition, demands that firms embrace competitive intelligence as a strategy. This study sought to fill the existing knowledge gap by carrying out an investigation of competitive intelligence practices for greater profitability in the commercial banking industry in Kenya. The management staffs who directly deal with the day to day management of the banks were selected to collect primary data. The study concludes that adoption of competitive intelligence practices affect the profitability of the banking sector.

  6. Understanding and overcoming the “positive profits with negative surplus-value” paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSTAVO DAOU LUCAS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper explains the “positive profits with negative surplus-value” example of Steedman (1975 and shows that while in joint production systems individual labour values can be negative, the claim that the total labour embodied in the surplus product of the economy (surplus-value can also be negative is based on assumptions that have no economic meaning (such as negative activity levels.The paper also provides a way to measure the surplus-value of joint production systems which overcomes the problems of the traditional concept and restates the proposition that a positive amount of surplus labour is a necessary condition for positive profits.

  7. Management trends: Internationalization of non-profit organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inić Branimir P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-profit organizations are increasingly gaining importance in the modern economy with their development and their numbers increasing day by day. It is very important to note that non-profit organizations are often subject to various benefits that the for-profit companies are not. Thus, for example, preferential tax status of non-profit organizations is manifested primarily in the form of exemption from corporate income tax. In addition, private non-profit organizations enjoy various other state, local and federal taxes exemptions. Under certain conditions, these organizations are exempt from taxes on donations and membership fees. A feature that differentiates various non-profit organizations and profit-oriented companies is their source of income. Profit oriented companies depend on their income, obtained from sales of their goods or services to customers, who usually cover the price and cost of goods and services plus the profit. In contrast, nonprofit organizations are very dependent on membership fees, tax exemptions, members donations or depend on funds of the sponsoring agency which covers most of their costs, for example a federal government agency. Those non-profit organizations that have substantial operating costs beyond national borders and do not identify themselves as purely domestic in their mandate are International non-profit organizations. Most non-profit organizations remain in their national boundaries, on the territory of the country in which they were created, but a large number of non-profit organizations rapidly internationalize, and some larger non-profits have grown into important global actors. The paper includes the following sections: (1 introduction, (2 why is the 'non-profit' important, (3 the internationalization of non-profit organizations, (4 sources of income of non-profit organizations (4.1. causality of impact and of strategic decisions in cases pertaining to universities, (5 the limits of strategic

  8. 48 CFR 415.404-4 - Profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Termination settlements; and (v) Cost-plus-award-fee contracts; (b) Unless otherwise restricted by contracting... CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 415.404-4 Profit. (a)(1) USDA will use a... negotiation is based on cost analysis. (2) The following types of acquisitions are exempt from the...

  9. 48 CFR 215.404-4 - Profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... prenegotiation profit or fee objective on any negotiated contract action when cost or pricing data is obtained, except for cost-plus-award-fee contracts (see 215.404-74, 216.405-2, and FAR 16.405-2) or contracts with... DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 215.404-4...

  10. 262 257 Profitability Analysis of Three Met

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-02

    Dec 2, 2008 ... Profitability Analysis of Three Methods of Suya Production and Marketing in. Maiduguri metropolitan Council, Borno State, ... N 1.25:1 and N 1.1:1 for Kilishi, Tsire and Balangu production and marketing enterprises, respectively. The marketing ... packaging and retailing. It is retailed to consumers in cement ...

  11. Profitability analysis and management practices among poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Profitability analysis and management practices among poultry farmers in Yola metropolis of Adamawa state, Nigeria. ... Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences ... The major constraints includes: high input costs, unstable market, power supply, diseases, loans, government assistance and to lack of poultry management ...

  12. Profitability of Qualified-Labour-Power Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldino, Roberto Ribeiro; Cabral, Tânia Cristina Baptista

    2015-01-01

    In Baldino and Cabral (2013) we introduced the concept of qualified labour-power as the commodity produced by the school system. In the present article we outline a quantitative model to evaluate the profit rate of educational programmes. We compare a medical school programme with a teacher education programme at a public university in Brazil,…

  13. EPA for Businesses and Non-Profits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information and links to EPA web pages that are meant to help businesses and non-profits adhere to EPA regulations and otherwise protect the environment, take advantage of opportunities to collaborate with the EPA, and find training EPA training programs.

  14. Continuous sawmill studies: protocols, practices, and profits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Mayer; Jan Wiedenbeck

    2005-01-01

    In today's global economy, the "opportunity cost" associated with suboptimal utilization of raw material and mill resources is significant. As a result, understanding the profit potential associated with different types of logs is critically important for sawmill survival. The conventional sawmill study typically has been conducted on a substantially...

  15. How to Generate Good Profit Maximization Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lewis

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author considers the merits of two classes of profit maximization problems: those involving perfectly competitive firms with quadratic and cubic cost functions. While relatively easy to develop and solve, problems based on quadratic cost functions are too simple to address a number of important issues, such as the use of…

  16. THE PERFORMANCE AND PROFITABILITY OF SWEET POTATO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    propagule length and cattle dung application rates on the growth, yield and profitability of sweet potato. (Ipomea batatas L.) in a humid Ultisols. ... this permits the growing of two or three crop cycles in a year. This crop is usually produced ...... vegetative growth as evidenced by number of leaves, vines, shorter internodes and ...

  17. Data Sparseness and Variance in Accounting Profitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Stavropoulos (Spyridon); M.J. Burger (Martijn); D. Skuras (Dimitris)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ A central question in strategic management is why some firms perform better than others. One approach to addressing this question empirically is to decompose the variance in firm-level profitability into firm, industry, location, and year components. Although it is

  18. Cooperation and profit allocation in distribution chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guardiola, L.A.; Meca, A.; Timmer, Judith B.

    2005-01-01

    We study the coordination of actions and the allocation of profit in distribution chains under decentralized control. We consider distribution chains in which a single supplier supplies goods for replenishment of stocks of several retailers who, in turn, sell these goods to their own separate

  19. Profitability Analysis of Groundnuts Processing in Maiduguri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the profitability of groundnuts processing in Maiduguri Metropolitan Council of Borno State. The specific objectives of the study were to examine the socioeconomic characteristics of groundnut processors, estimate the costs and returns in groundnut processing and determine the return on investment in ...

  20. Sustainability, productivity, and profitability of agroecosystems under variable rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vico, G.; Porporato, A. M.

    2010-12-01

    Agriculture is by far the most important user of freshwater and the role of irrigation is projected to increase in face of climate change and increased food requirements. Hence, it is becoming imperative to sustainably manage the available water resources, while simultaneously meeting yield and profitability targets. Simple, widely applicable models of irrigation provide the key irrigation quantities (volumes, frequencies, etc.) for different irrigation schemes as a function of the main soil, crop, and climatic features, including rainfall unpredictability and are necessary for short- and long-term water resource management. We consider often-employed irrigation methods (e.g., surface and sprinkler irrigation systems, as well as modern micro-irrigation techniques) and describe them under a unified conceptual and theoretical framework that includes rainfed agriculture and stress-avoidance irrigation as extreme cases. Mostly analytical solutions for the stochastic steady state of soil moisture probability density function with random rainfall timing and amount are employed to compute water requirements, yields, and net economic gain as a function of climate, crop, and soil parameters. These results provide the necessary starting point to quantify the risks that a certain target yield or profit is not met for given irrigation strategies, with clear implications on food security

  1. Profitability of raspberry production on holdings in the territory of Arilje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kljajić Nataša

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Raspberry is the most important kind of berries and specific in many of its characteristics - biological properties, economic importance, agro-ecological, technological and organizational requirements, the market value of the product, as well as very high interdependence and correlation between the individual phases of the reproductive cycle. Due to its extremely pleasant smell and taste and high nutritional value, raspberry represents a very esteemed and sought fruit which has a high price in the world market and is very suitable for processing. In addition to financial effect, the cultivation of raspberries enables recruitment of labour force, which is in our economic situation of great socio-economic importance, especially in the mountainous regions of Serbia. Based on real data examples, this paper analyzes the economic profitability of this production. Investments in the establishment and cultivation of a raspberry plantation under irrigation amount to 12.140 €/ha. In the production of raspberries a very favourable annual financial result (profit in the amount of 9300 €/ha is achieved, production is very cost-effective, accumulation is significant (about 77% and return on equity is in the second year of exploitation. The established economic and financial results show that the production of raspberries is very profitable.

  2. profit: a new alternative for emission-line profile fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffel, Rogemar A.

    2010-06-01

    I briefly describe a simple routine for emission-line profile fitting by Gaussian curves or Gauss-Hermite series. The profit (line- profile fitting) routine represent a new alternative for use in fits data cubes, as the ones from Integral Field Spectroscopy or Fabry-Pérot Interferometry, and may be useful to better study the emission-line flux distributions and gas kinematics in distinct astrophysical objects, such as the central regions of galaxies and star forming regions. The profit routine is written in IDL language and is available at http://www.ufsm.br/rogemar/software.html . The profit routine was used to fit the [Fe ii] λ=1.257 μm emission-line profiles for about 1800 spectra of the inner 350 pc of the Seyfert galaxy Mrk 1066 obtained with Gemini NIFS and shows that the line profiles are better reproduced by Gauss-Hermite series than by the commonly used Gaussian curves. The two-dimensional map of the h 3 Gauss-Hermite moment shows its highest absolute values to be in regions close to the edge of the radio structure. These high values may be originating with an biconical outflowing gas associated with the radio jet—previously observed in the optical [O iii] emission. The analysis of this kinematic component indicates that the radio jet leaves the center of the galaxy with the north-west side slightly oriented towards us and the south-east side away from us, being partially hidden by the disc of the galaxy.

  3. Factors affecting carcass value and profitability in early-weaned Simmental steers: II. Days on feed endpoints and sorting strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatt, N A; Berger, L L; Faulkner, D B; Walker, P M; Rodriguez-Zas, S L

    2005-12-01

    In a 4-yr study, early-weaned Simmental steers (n = 192) of known genetics were individually fed to determine EPD, performance, and carcass measurements explaining variation in carcass value and profitability across incremental days on feed (DOF) when sorted by HCW, calculated yield grade (YG), or at their highest profit endpoint (BEST). Steers were weaned at 88.0 +/- 1.1 d of age, pen-fed a high-concentrate diet for 84.5 +/- 0.4 d, individually fed for 249.7 +/- 0.7 d, and slaughtered at 423.3 +/- 1.4 d of age. Carcass weight, YG, and marbling score (MS) were predicted using real-time ultrasound throughout the finishing period to calculate carcass value and profitability at 90, 60, 30 d preslaughter and under three individual sorting strategies. Sorting strategies included marketing the 25 and 50% heaviest HCW, the highest YG at d 60 and 30, or the remaining 25% at 0-d endpoints. Independent variables were year, weaning weight EPD, yearling weight EPD, marbling EPD, DMI, ADG, HCW, YG, and MS. Profit was quadratic in response to increased DOF; the greatest economic return was noted on d 30 (pre-slaughter). Final weight, DMI, HCW, MS, and YG increased (linear; P profit variation. Among sorting strategies, final BW and HCW were greater for BEST, whereas other measurements were similar. Sorting individuals by HCW, YG, or at BEST increased profitability 3.70 dollars, 2.52 dollars, or 30.65 dollars over the optimal group DOF endpoint (d 30). Retrospective analyses illustrated that sorting does not need to pinpoint each animal's profit optimum to result in economic gains; rather, increasing HCW and decreasing weight- and YG-related penalties improved profitability. Opportunities may exist with existing and new technology to uniformly allocate cattle into feeding and marketing groups, decrease overfeeding, and increase carcass value and profitability.

  4. Profit based unit commitment for GENCOs using Lagrange Relaxation–Differential Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V.V. Sudhakar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the real time operation of power markets under deregulation, electricity price forecasting, profit based unit commitment (PBUC and optimal bidding strategy are important problems. Among these, the PBUC problem is one of the important combinatorial optimization problems. The objective of generating companies (GENCOs is to maximize their profit. In this article, a hybrid Lagrange Relaxation (LR–Differential Evolution (DE is proposed for solving the PBUC problem. In the proposed hybrid method, the LR is applied to solve the unit commitment problem and the DE algorithm is used to update the Lagrange multipliers. At each stage, secant method is used to solve economic dispatch (ED problem. The proposed method is tested on 3-units, 10-units and 20-units systems. The simulation results are compared with existing methods available in the literature. The results demonstrate the superiority of the present method over the previous methods in terms of profit and computational time.

  5. Profit rates in the developed capitalist economies: a time series investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan D. Trofimov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines whether there is empirical evidence to support the hypothesis of a secular decline in the economy-wide profit rates, as predicted by classical economic theories. We specifically consider profit rates in the OECD economies based on the national accounts data contained in the Extended Penn World Table database. We use linear trend, Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF tests, and allow for structural breaks and instabilities in the series. Our results suggest that profit rates in OECD economies exhibited a variety of patterns, including stochastic and deterministic trends, random walk, reversals, as well as stability. The secular decline (fluctuation around a falling deterministic trend hypothesis is supported for Canada, Portugal and the USA, while secular rise is witnessed for Greece and Norway. JEL Classification: B5, C22, P17

  6. Having faith in each other: not-for-profit giant Ascension Health hooks up with United Surgical Partners for ASC joint venture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Michael

    2004-09-13

    In the biggest deal of its kind, not-for-profit giant Ascension is going to build ambulatory surgery centers with for-profit United Surgical Partners, which already has a deal with Baylor, left. "Hospitals are realizing that outpatient services are the future. This strategy is sound," one healthcare consultant said.

  7. Alternative profit rate shariah-compliant for islamic banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazali, Nadhirah; Halim, Nurfadhlina Abdul; Ghazali, Puspa Liza

    2017-09-01

    Profit is the aims for Islamic banking and conventional banking. Determination of profit in Islamic banking in Malaysia depends on the profit rate, whereas profit rate is essentially from reference rate which is known as the base rate (BR). However, the determination of the components contained in the BR such as benchmark cost of funds and the statutory reserve requirement (SRR) is non-compliance with the Shariah because its directly proportional to the overnight policy rate (OPR). Therefore, an alternative formula for the profit rate are proposed which is known as the base profit rate (BPR). Construction of BPR formula is based on the principle that are more Shariah-compliant.

  8. The not-for-profit form and translational research: Kerr revisited?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joiner Keith A

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Translational research conducted in academic health centers is confounded by the organizational structure in which the work is performed. Investigators must obtain research funding and appropriate recognition as a part of a research team in a not-for-profit environment which has more readily rewarded basic work, and individual accomplishments. What results is a unique form of conflict of interest, best understood by relating the basic principles underlying the not-for-profit form to the conduct of translational research in the AHC setting.

  9. Relationship between dairy cow genetic merit and profit on commercial spring calving dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsbottom, G; Cromie, A R; Horan, B; Berry, D P

    2012-07-01

    Because not all animal factors influencing profitability can be included in total merit breeding indices for profitability, the association between animal total merit index and true profitability, taking cognisance of all factors associated with costs and revenues, is generally not known. One method to estimate such associations is at the herd level, associating herd average genetic merit with herd profitability. The objective of this study was to primarily relate herd average genetic merit for a range of traits, including the Irish total merit index, with indicators of performance, including profitability, using correlation and multiple regression analyses. Physical, genetic and financial performance data from 1131 Irish seasonal calving pasture-based dairy farms were available following edits; data on some herds were available for more than 1 year of the 3-year study period (2007 to 2009). Herd average economic breeding index (EBI) was associated with reduced herd average phenotypic milk yield but with greater milk composition, resulting in higher milk prices. Moderate positive correlations (0.26 to 0.61) existed between genetic merit for an individual trait and average herd performance for that trait (e.g. genetic merit for milk yield and average per cow milk yield). Following adjustment for year, stocking rate, herd size and quantity of purchased feed in the multiple regression analysis, average herd EBI was positively and linearly associated with net margin per cow and per litre as well as gross revenue output per cow and per litre. The change in net margin per cow per unit change in the total merit index was €1.94 (s.e. = 0.42), which was not different from the expectation of €2. This study, based on a large data set of commercial herds with accurate information on profitability and genetic merit, confirms that, after accounting for confounding factors, the change in herd profitability per unit change in herd genetic merit for the total merit index is

  10. Growth Propensities under Capitalism and Profit-Oriented Market Socialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Arthur Yunker

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research mathematically investigates the hypothesis of slow economic growth under capitalism, relative to potential economic growth under a profit-oriented market socialist alternative. The hypothesis is examined within two different economic models: (1 a current-period model that looks at the optimal level of investment in any period from the respective standpoints of the capitalist minority and the general population, and (2 a steady-state equilibrium model that looks at the optimal capital-labor ratio from the respective standpoints of the capitalist minority and the general population. In both cases, two inequalities are derived for the determination of parameter combinations under which growth retardation will hold, the first under the assumption that the aggregate CES production function is linear homogeneous, and the second under the assumption that this function is homogeneous to any degree. The fact that parameter combinations exist under which growth retardation would hold, and also under which growth retardation would not hold, suggests that this issue is essentially an empirical issue rather than a theoretical issue

  11. Health care joint ventures between tax-exempt organizations and for-profit entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Michael I

    2005-01-01

    Health care exempt organizations have many options regarding their structure and affiliations with for-profit entities. As long as any joint ventures are carefully structured and the nonprofit retains control over the exempt health care activities, the Internal Revenue Service should not question the structure. However, as outlined above, if the for-profit entity effectively gains control over the activities of the venture, the structure is not likely to be upheld by the IRS or the courts, and either the exempt status of the nonprofit will be denied or revoked, or health care income will be subject to the unrelated business income tax. In summary, the health care industry has been severely impacted by many economic forces, including uncertainty in the area of joint ventures between nonprofits and for-profit health care systems. The uncertainty as to whether the joint venture would negatively impact the nonprofit's tax-exempt status undoubtedly caused many nonprofits to form for-profit subsidiaries and otherwise expanded operations in a for-profit marketplace. Fortunately, with the guidance that is currently available in the form of Revenue Ruling 98-15, Redlands, St. David's, and now Revenue Ruling 2004-51, health care institutions can move forward with properly structured joint ventures with greater confidence that the joint venture will not endanger the tax-exempt status of the nonprofit.

  12. Negotiators' profit predicted by cognitive reappraisal, suppression of emotions, misrepresentation of information, and tolerance of ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtsever, Gülçimen

    2008-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between negative emotions and variables that affect negotiators' profit. Based on a simulated negotiation, this study induced emotions by providing negative feedback on how negotiating partners perceived and evaluated each other's behavior. Then relationships were examined between negative emotions and emotional regulation strategies, misrepresentation of information, tolerance of ambiguity, and negotiators' profit. A total of 228 undergraduate students enrolled in an economics course in the Faculty of Law and the Faculty of Management at a university in Ankara participated. There were 130 students in the experimental group and 98 students in the control group; 102 were men and 126 were women, ages 17 to 35 years (M =22.6 yr., SD = 2.3). A simulated negotiation process was used. Regression coefficients suggested positive relation between Emotional Reaction and the use of a Suppression strategy and Misrepresentation of Information. Negative coefficients were obtained from scores between Emotional Reaction and Cognitive Reappraisal and Tolerance of Ambiguity. The regression also suggested there were negative regression coefficients linking Misrepresentation of Information and Suppression strategies to Negotiators' Profit. Positive regression coefficients linked Tolerance of Ambiguity to Negotiators' Profit. Mediating variables explained 55% of variance in Negotiators' Profit; the majority (43%) was explained by Cognitive Reappraisal.

  13. Profitability and Farmers Conservation Efforts on Sustainable Potato Farming in Wonosobo Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Fatma Leslie Pratiwi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It takes into account in potato farming sustainability, since it was recognised as a holticultural commodity for farmers’ subsistence in Wonosobo Regency. For the reason that farming land was being degraded by errossion, the potato productivity apparently continued to decline. Potato farming sustainability can be deliberated from economic (profitability and environmental (conservation efforts points of view in order to remain profitable in a long term sustainable environment. This study is aimed to (1 to analyse the profitability of potato farming; (2 to analyse farmers’ effort on soil conservation and factors which affected sustainability of potato farming. The method used in this study was basic descriptive analysis. The study site was in Kejajar District, Wonosobo Regency, subsequently 50 random farmers as respondences was obtained. Gross Margin, Return on Invested Capital, and Operating Ratio were used to measure the profitability of potato farming. Conservation Activity Index (CAI was used to measure farmers’ effort on soil conservation, while paired liner regression model with Ordinary Least Square (OLS method was used to understand the factors which affected the conservation efforts of test sites. The study results revealed that the potato farming was profitable. Farmers conservation efforts mostly was in average category (74%, and only view in high category (16% and low category (10%. Factors affected the farmers conservation efforts i.e. land area, potato products, potato price, the off-farm income, number of family members, farmers ages, and village dummy.

  14. Profitability and Efficiency of Red Onion Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imron Rosyadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to determine and analyze the profitability and performance of onion farming marketing margins; analyze and know the parts of prices received by farmers and analyze the efficiency of onion farming in the district of Brebes. Samples taken in this study is 30 onion farmers in the district of Brebes, who settled in six villages, each village was taken 5 farmers as the research sample. These results indicate that the location of onion farming research does not provide benefits significantly to the household economy of farmers. Higher selling prices at the retail level and supermarkets do not have a significant impact on the level of profits of farming in the study area. Farming is done by farmers in the study area is inefficient. Onion marketing chain in the study area is relatively long, which consists of 4 lines of marketing.

  15. Partners in Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Regina M. J.

    1981-01-01

    A key element for economic revitalization, the local labor market development, can be supported by colleges and universities in coordination with business and government. The Human Resources Management Center, a strategic model for managing economic dislocations, is described. (MLW)

  16. Competition for FDI and Profit Shifting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Jie; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis

    When countries compete for the location of a new multinational plant they need to be aware of the profit shifting opportunities this new plant creates for the global multinational firm. By modelling explicitly the multinational’s intra-firm transactions, we show that the home market advantage tha...... easily win the location game ahead of a large country. How lenient the small country is in implementing transfer pricing regulations turns out to be an important variable in such location games....

  17. Profitability and Efficiency of Red Onion Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Rosyadi, Imron; Purnomo, Didit

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine and analyze the profitability and performance of onion farming marketing margins; analyze and know the parts of prices received by farmers and analyze the efficiency of onion farming in the district of Brebes. Samples taken in this study is 30 onion farmers in the district of Brebes, who settled in six villages, each village was taken 5 farmers as the research sample. These results indicate that the location of onion farming research does not provi...

  18. Base Erosion, Profit Shifting and Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Crivelli; De Mooij, Ruud A.; Michael Keen

    2015-01-01

    International corporate tax issues are prominent in public debate, notably with the G20-OECD project addressing Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (‘BEPS’). But while there is considerable empirical evidence for advanced countries on the cross-country fiscal externalities at the heart of these issues, there is almost none for developing countries. This paper uses panel data for 173 countries over 33 years to explore their magnitude and nature, focusing particularly on developing countries a...

  19. Determinants of Bank Profitability in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Osuagwu, Eze

    2014-01-01

    There are increasing scholarly debates on the direction of policy to effectively improve the performance of banks. Some scholars argue that bank performance is enhanced by improvements in the internal organization and managerial efficiency, others argue that industry wide factors are integral to bank performance. In recent times, the direction of literature has shown that macroeconomic factors play a significant role in determining bank profitability. This paper investigates the determinants ...

  20. The Determinants Of European Bank Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Christos K. Staikouras; Wood, Geoffrey E.

    2011-01-01

    The rate of return earned by a financial institution is affected by numerous factors. These factors include elements internal to each financial institution and several important external forces shaping earnings performance. The type of explanation would determine possible policy implications and ought to be taken seriously. This paper reviews the literature on bank performance studies and classifies the bank profitability determinants. The second part of the paper quantifies how internal dete...

  1. Business strategies, profitability and efficiency of production

    OpenAIRE

    S. Alarcón; M. Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    The strategy choices of market-oriented companies are a topic now under wide investigation in the analysis of business performance antecedents. The purpose of this study is to examine the outcomes of the combination of three different organizational strategies (market orientation, innovativeness and entrepreneurial orientation) on business performance indicators. Models using profitability and efficiency indicators are proposed with the specific aim of obtaining a deeper analysis of the relat...

  2. Models of Anaylzing the Influence of Factors on Forming Profit Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klara S. Jakovčević

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis in this paper is focused on identifying the impact of individual factors on the elements of the profit rate. The primary aim of this work is a methodological overview of solutions for understanding the full content of the profit rate as a cause of economic quality as well as indicators of the results of reproduction. Application of model analysis of profit rate factors was performed in an enterprise from Serbia that manufactures construction materials from baked clay. The aim is of application is to test the range in determining elements and factors of economic success of the enterprise, and quantification of changes in its assumptions. The results are useful guideline for the management to take organizational measures to increase the economic success of the enterprise. This means eliminating the negative, emphasizing the positive impact of objectively, and organizational factors to make higher economic success. Based on empirical research, it could be concluded that the proposed quantitative models of analyzing the dynamics of enterprise business quality could be applied in practice.

  3. A proposed selection index for feedlot profitability based on estimated breeding values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Westhuizen, R R; van der Westhuizen, J

    2009-04-22

    It is generally accepted that feed intake and growth (gain) are the most important economic components when calculating profitability in a growth test or feedlot. We developed a single post-weaning growth (feedlot) index based on the economic values of different components. Variance components, heritabilities and genetic correlations for and between initial weight (IW), final weight (FW), feed intake (FI), and shoulder height (SHD) were estimated by multitrait restricted maximum likelihood procedures. The estimated breeding values (EBVs) and the economic values for IW, FW and FI were used in a selection index to estimate a post-weaning or feedlot profitability value. Heritabilities for IW, FW, FI, and SHD were 0.41, 0.40, 0.33, and 0.51, respectively. The highest genetic correlations were 0.78 (between IW and FW) and 0.70 (between FI and FW). EBVs were used in a selection index to calculate a single economical value for each animal. This economic value is an indication of the gross profitability value or the gross test value (GTV) of the animal in a post-weaning growth test. GTVs varied between -R192.17 and R231.38 with an average of R9.31 and a standard deviation of R39.96. The Pearson correlations between EBVs (for production and efficiency traits) and GTV ranged from -0.51 to 0.68. The lowest correlation (closest to zero) was 0.26 between the Kleiber ratio and GTV. Correlations of 0.68 and -0.51 were estimated between average daily gain and GTV and feed conversion ratio and GTV, respectively. These results showed that it is possible to select for GTV. The selection index can benefit feedlotting in selecting offspring of bulls with high GTVs to maximize profitability.

  4. The Dynamic Relationship between Growth and Profitability under Long-Term Recession: The Case of Korean Construction Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungkyu Yoo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted an empirical analysis of the dynamic relationship between growth and profitability for small- and medium-sized construction companies that faced long-term economic stagnation in Korea. The period of the analysis spanned 2000 to 2014, and the full period was divided into two halves: before the 2008 global financial crisis and after it. Our empirical model was based on the system generalized method of moments model, and 264 construction companies were used as the study sample. The results of the empirical analysis are as follows. (1 A profitability-driven management strategy limits company growth, thus prolonging the economic downturn; (2 When the macroeconomic environment is relatively stable, high growth in the previous period fosters profitability in the current period. This implies that the phenomenon of dynamic increasing returns is present in the Korean construction industry, and learning through growth enhances productivity and profitability. Consequentially, a strategy oriented towards short-term profitability (popular with small- and medium-sized Korean construction companies makes the corporate management less resilient, causing them to select “de-growth” during the long-term stagnation by decreasing their scale of operations. Accordingly, it is important for companies to maintain the balance between growth and profitability.

  5. Using Cotton Model Simulations to Estimate Optimally Profitable Irrigation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauget, S. A.; Leiker, G.; Sapkota, P.; Johnson, J.; Maas, S.

    2011-12-01

    In recent decades irrigation pumping from the Ogallala Aquifer has led to declines in saturated thickness that have not been compensated for by natural recharge, which has led to questions about the long-term viability of agriculture in the cotton producing areas of west Texas. Adopting irrigation management strategies that optimize profitability while reducing irrigation waste is one way of conserving the aquifer's water resource. Here, a database of modeled cotton yields generated under drip and center pivot irrigated and dryland production scenarios is used in a stochastic dominance analysis that identifies such strategies under varying commodity price and pumping cost conditions. This database and analysis approach will serve as the foundation for a web-based decision support tool that will help producers identify optimal irrigation treatments under specified cotton price, electricity cost, and depth to water table conditions.

  6. Profit-Sharing – A Tool for Improving Productivity, Profitability and Competitiveness of Firms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fibirova Jana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of appropriate utilization of rewards for performance is still growing and therefore this type of rewards can be seen as a significant part of a total rewards package. Companies that are able to appropriately implement rewards for performance may gain competitive advantage over their competitors, but successful implementation requires a good knowledge of these rewards. The main aim of this paper is to contribute to the growth of this knowledge by identifying possible positive and negative impacts of profit-sharing on various areas that are important for the performance of a company, nevertheless, addressed are also macroeconomic consequences of profit-sharing. Furthermore, a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the relevant literature is provided, under-researched areas are identified and suggestions for further research are given. To accomplish these goals, we applied methods of bibliometric analysis to the articles indexed in ISI Web of Knowledge to identify the most important articles, authors and topics. According to our findings, the majority of studies report a neutral or positive impact of profit-sharing on productivity and profitability. This impact may be achieved by direct influence of profit-sharing on productivity of employees (due to the dependence of their pay on profit, but it seems that yet more important are various mediating mechanisms, especially effects on employment stability, absenteeism, quits and related issues, as well as effects on attitudes of employees and on relationships between employees. We argue that a well-designed profit-sharing plan is crucial for its success, but it is a relatively under-researched problem.

  7. Development of atom-economical catalytic asymmetric reactions under proton transfer conditions: construction of tetrasubstituted stereogenic centers and their application to therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Naoya

    2011-01-01

    The development of atom-economical catalytic asymmetric reactions based on two distinct sets of catalyst, a rare earth metal/amide-based ligand catalyst and a soft Lewis acid/hard Brønsted base catalyst, is reviewed. These catalytic systems exhibit high catalytic activity and stereoselectivity by harnessing a cooperative catalysis through hydrogen bond/metal coordination and soft-soft interactions/hard-hard interactions, respectively. The effectiveness of these cooperative catalysts is clearly delineated by the high stereoselectivity in reactions with highly coordinative substrates, and the specific activation of otherwise low-reactive pronucleophiles under proton transfer conditions. The rare earth metal/amide-based ligand catalyst was successfully applied to catalytic asymmetric aminations, nitroaldol (Henry) reactions, Mannich-type reactions, and conjugate addition reactions, generating stereogenic tetrasubstituted centers. Catalytic asymmetric amination and anti-selective catalytic asymmetric nitroaldol reactions were successfully applied to the efficient enantioselective synthesis of therapeutic candidates, such as AS-3201 and the β(3)-adrenoreceptor agonist, showcasing the practical utility of the present protocols. The soft Lewis acid/hard Brønsted base cooperative catalyst was specifically developed for the chemoselective activation of soft Lewis basic allylic cyanides and thioamides, which are otherwise low-reactive pronucleophiles. The cooperative action of the catalyst allowed for efficient catalytic generation of active carbon nucleophiles in situ, which were integrated into subsequent enantioselective additions to carbonyl-type electrophiles.

  8. The Effect of Age at First Calving and Calving Interval on Productive Life and Lifetime Profit in Korean Holsteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhee Do

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to estimate the effect of age at first calving and first two calving intervals on productive life and life time profit in Korean Holsteins. Reproduction data of Korean Holsteins born from 1998 to 2004 and lactation data from 276,573 cows with birth and last dry date that calved between 2000 and 2010 were used for the analysis. Lifetime profit increased with the days of life span. Regression of Life Span on Lifetime profit indicated that there was an increase of 3,800 Won (approximately $3.45 of lifetime profit per day increase in life span. This is evidence that care of each cow is necessary to improve net return and important for farms maintaining profitable cows. The estimates of heritability of age at first calving, first two calving intervals, days in milk for lifetime, lifespan, milk income and lifetime profit were 0.111, 0.088, 0.142, 0.140, 0.143, 0.123, and 0.102, respectively. The low heritabilities indicated that the productive life and economical traits include reproductive and productive characteristics. Age at first calving and interval between first and second calving had negative genetic correlation with lifetime profit (−0.080 and −0.265, respectively. Reducing age at first calving and first calving interval had a positive effect on lifetime profit. Lifetime profit increased to approximately 2,600,000 (2,363.6 from 800,000 Won ($727.3 when age at first calving decreased to (22.3 month from (32.8 month. Results suggested that reproductive traits such as age at first calving and calving interval might affect various economical traits and consequently influenced productive life and profitability of cows. In conclusion, regard of the age at first calving must be taken with the optimum age at first calving for maximum lifetime profit being 22.5 to 23.5 months. Moreover, considering the negative genetic correlation of first calving interval with lifetime profit, it should be reduced against the present

  9. The Effect of Age at First Calving and Calving Interval on Productive Life and Lifetime Profit in Korean Holsteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Changhee; Wasana, Nidarshani; Cho, Kwanghyun; Choi, Yunho; Choi, Taejeong; Park, Byungho; Lee, Donghee

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to estimate the effect of age at first calving and first two calving intervals on productive life and life time profit in Korean Holsteins. Reproduction data of Korean Holsteins born from 1998 to 2004 and lactation data from 276,573 cows with birth and last dry date that calved between 2000 and 2010 were used for the analysis. Lifetime profit increased with the days of life span. Regression of Life Span on Lifetime profit indicated that there was an increase of 3,800 Won (approximately $3.45) of lifetime profit per day increase in life span. This is evidence that care of each cow is necessary to improve net return and important for farms maintaining profitable cows. The estimates of heritability of age at first calving, first two calving intervals, days in milk for lifetime, lifespan, milk income and lifetime profit were 0.111, 0.088, 0.142, 0.140, 0.143, 0.123, and 0.102, respectively. The low heritabilities indicated that the productive life and economical traits include reproductive and productive characteristics. Age at first calving and interval between first and second calving had negative genetic correlation with lifetime profit (−0.080 and −0.265, respectively). Reducing age at first calving and first calving interval had a positive effect on lifetime profit. Lifetime profit increased to approximately 2,600,000 (2,363.6) from 800,000 Won ($727.3) when age at first calving decreased to (22.3 month) from (32.8 month). Results suggested that reproductive traits such as age at first calving and calving interval might affect various economical traits and consequently influenced productive life and profitability of cows. In conclusion, regard of the age at first calving must be taken with the optimum age at first calving for maximum lifetime profit being 22.5 to 23.5 months. Moreover, considering the negative genetic correlation of first calving interval with lifetime profit, it should be reduced against the present trend of increase

  10. 26 CFR 1.1502-33 - Earnings and profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... also lost in Year 1, P would have decreased its earnings and profits for Year 1 by the additional $50... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Earnings and profits. 1.1502-33 Section 1.1502... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Basis, Stock Ownership, and Earnings and Profits Rules § 1.1502-33 Earnings and...

  11. Relating customer satisfaction to customer profitability: an empirical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores relationships between customer satisfactions; repurchase intentions, purchase behavior, and customer profitability with empirical data on attitudes, behavior, and profitability at the customer level of analysis. Purchase behavior and profitability data derived from the accounting system of a firm, are ...

  12. Comparative Corporate Governance of Non-Profit Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2014-01-01

    Based on the impressive work of Hopt and von Hippel (2010), I review the comparative corporate governance of non-profit organizations and propose topics for future research. There is evidence of agency problems in non-profit as well as for-profit organizations, but the governance mechanisms...

  13. 26 CFR 1.312-6 - Earnings and profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Earnings and profits. 1.312-6 Section 1.312-6...) INCOME TAXES Effects on Corporation § 1.312-6 Earnings and profits. (a) In determining the amount of earnings and profits (whether of the taxable year, or accumulated since February 28, 1913, or accumulated...

  14. An Algorithm for the Nucleolus of Airport Profit Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brânzei, R.; Inarra, E.; Tijs, S.H.; Zarzuelo, J.

    2003-01-01

    Airport profit games are a generalization of airport cost games as well as of bankruptcy games.In this paper we present a simple algorithm to compute the nucleolus of airport profit games.In addition we prove that there exists an unique consistent allocation rule in airport profit problems, and it

  15. Taxing across Borders: Tracking Personal Wealth and Corporate Profits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabriel Zucman

    2014-01-01

    ... that UScompanies are shifting profits to Bermuda, Luxembourg, and similar countries on a large and growing scale. About 20percent of all US corporate profits are now booked in such havens, a tenfoldincrease since the 1980s. This profit-shifting is typically done within the letter of the law and thus would be best described as tax avoidance rather than fraud. ...

  16. Determinants Of Profitability And Willingness To Pay For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study attempts to analyse the profitability of urban agriculture using metropolitan organic waste in Abuja, the Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria. The results show that the enterprise is profitable, and that output price is the most important determinant of maximum variable profit. Other price factors, specifically planting ...

  17. Analysis and forecasting of profit by using simulation models for growing pea in conventional and organic plant production in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bean is the third most important food legume crop of the world after soybean and groundnuts; it provides an important source of dietary proteins, carbohydrates, minerals and fiber essential in human nutrition worldwide. A high, per capita bean consumption of 13 to 40 kg yr-1 was observed in developing countries. In EU developed countries, market of the organic products is growing in average 10 % per annum, but this growth has not been followed by production growth and this is the chance for Serbian products. Organic bean growing enables the producers a higher profit. Expenses in organic production are higher (2170 EUR/ha than those in conventional bean production (1825 EUR/ha. However, net profit in the organic production was estimated to 1440 EUR/ha, while the profit in the conventional concept was 315 EUR/ha. Also, profitability rate and the economic efficiency coefficient had higher values when growing bean in organic concept.

  18. Coordination-based inventory management for deteriorating items in a two-echelon supply chain with profit sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jonas C. P.; Lin, Yu-Siang; Wang, Kung-Jeng

    2013-09-01

    This study develops a model for inventory management consisting of a two-echelon supply chain (SC) with profit sharing and deteriorating items. The retailer and the supplier act as the leader and follower, in which the supplier faces a huge setup cost and economic order quantity ordering strategy. The market demand is affected by the sale price of the product, and the inventory has a deterioration rate following a Weibull distribution. The retailer executes three profit-sharing mechanisms to motivate the supplier to participate in SC optimisation and to extend the life cycle of the product. A search algorithm is developed to determine the solutions as using the profit-sharing mechanisms. The outcomes from numerical experiments demonstrate the profitability of the proposed model.

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF THE MAIN PARAMETERS OF TRAIN TRAFFIC VOLUME ON TOTAL PROFITS OF RAILWAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. YA. Mozolevich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper is aimed to influence analysis of parameters such as the number of trains on the section and the length of freight trains, the total profit of the railway and determination of total profit of Prydniprovsk railway for major parts of the trains handling; the determination of the specific rate of return on 1 kilometer operational length of each individual link in the rail network. Methodology. To achieve this goal the simulation models of the sections of railway polygon and the simulation of cargo trains have been developed. On the basis of obtained results the dependence of the main parameters of train traffic and their impact on the overall profit of the railway was determined. Findings. On the basis of the conducted studies the functions operating costs for each section were developed to determine the optimal routes crossing of trains and choice of rational parameters. The operating costs, revenue, total profit of railways and certain impact parameters of train traffic volume on the economic performance of railway transport were calculated with their help. It is determined that freight trains, length 53-56 of a conventional car is optimal to pass and loading area should be 75-85% of the available crossing capacity. Taking into account given results, the electrification of the sections with diesel traction (due to the significant cost of diesel fuel is the priority development of railway transport at the possible increase in size of the movement. Originality. Authors have improved the technology of determining the total profits of railways on the basis of variables train traffic volumes. For the first time the specific rate of profit on the 1 kilometer operational length of the section depending on the size of the average daily traffic is identified and proposed to use to determine the investment attractiveness of the railways. The simulation models of individual sections of the real train polygon at Prydniprovsk railway were

  20. The Influence of Allocation Formula on Generation of Profit in Different Economy Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Krchnivá

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism for the distribution of the Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base will be based on three macroeconomics factors which are considered to be the main indicators of generated profit/loss. The paper analyzes the explanatory power of proposed allocation formula for the distribution of the Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base with respect to the sector of economic activity from the perspective of the Czech independent enterprises. The research is based on the comparison of the coefficients of determination indicating the proportion of explained variability of proposed multiple regression models. The paper concludes that the proportion of explained profitability by the allocation formula factors as are defined by the Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base Draft Directive may differ up to 34% with regard to the sector of economic activity classified by NACE classification.

  1. Basic Economic Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tideman, T. N.

    1972-01-01

    An economic approach to design efficient transportation systems involves maximizing an objective function that reflects both goals and costs. A demand curve can be derived by finding the quantities of a good that solve the maximization problem as one varies the price of that commodity, holding income and the prices of all other goods constant. A supply curve is derived by applying the idea of profit maximization of firms. The production function determines the relationship between input and output.

  2. Disrupting Syrian Economic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-28

    inclusively termed the, “Shadow Economy”. 56 This is run by war profiteers, smugglers, criminal gangs, and often encompasses displaced economic activities...down, even the Hawala system suffers when serving the most vulnerable of Syria’s population, including women, the elderly , and people with disabilities...to consider is the agent network. While it would be desirable to create a digital credit environment along the lines of a Syrian PayPal, even if the

  3. Economic considerations for bariatric surgery and morbid obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldo E Frezza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Eldo E Frezza, Mitchell Wacthell1, Bradley Ewing21Center for Metabolic Disease and Texas Tech University, Department of Pathology, 2Rawls Business School, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USAAbstract: The obesity epidemic is also an economic tragedy. This analysis evaluates the economic effects and the potential to improve the well-being of both individual and societal wealth. Econometric techniques should carefully assess the degree to which obesity affects declines in business output, employment, income, and tax revenues at the regional and national levels. Microeconomics assesses lost productivity and associated wages and profit. Macroeconomics assesses trends associated with employment, inflation, interest rates, money supply, and output. To decrease the adverse economic consequences of the obesity epidemic, policy makers must emphasize bariatric surgery as a cost-effective option for qualified patients. Early intervention, education, and tax rebates for obese individuals who undergo bariatric surgery and for medical centers and doctors would likely have positive economic effects on the whole economy in a few years.Keywords: bariatric surgery, morbid obesity, economics

  4. Strategy Proposal for Pelita Rakyat Hospital as Non Profit Organization in Sukabumi

    OpenAIRE

    Simanjuntak, Yosua Arthur Burhandito; Wandebori, Harimukti

    2013-01-01

    The Hospital is an institution which provides health service for people with their own characteristic. It influenced by the development of health science, technological advances, and economic-social living of society. As institution, they need to fund their activites. It could be come from government subsidies or fee charge from patient. Pelita Rakyat hospital is non-profit hospital which established in 2011. As pioneer, they did not ask charge from their patient moreover they provide free m...

  5. Identity dynamics in non-profit organizations: Ideological and methodological identity orientations

    OpenAIRE

    Mena, Maria Inês Pereira Coutinho Falcão

    2010-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics Organizational identity, a social and relational process that is continuously happening, plays a key role in organizations’ performance and communication. Achieving a clear and shared organizational identity enables employees’ alignment and the projection of consistent images to external stakeholders. Non-profit organizations are an inter...

  6. Market Structure, Efficiency and Profitability: An Empirical Study on the Chinese Banking Industry 2007-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Che, Chang

    2014-01-01

    Since the economic reform was initiated in 1978, the Chinese banking sector has undergone significant changes, especially after the entry to the WTO in 2001 and shock by the global financial crisis in 2008. With the purpose of examining whether the recent Chinese banking sector is effective as well as suggesting future policy directions, this study investigates market structure, efficiency and profitability in the Chinese banking industry over 2007-2012. I firstly estimate X-efficien...

  7. Management of current assets in the context of increasing the Enterprise’s Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Arbidane, Iluta

    2015-01-01

    In order to ensure the financial sustainability of companies under current economic conditions successful management of current assets is crucial. In practice it is quite often observed that the decisions related to current assets management in Latvian companies are made in the short-term aspects without making analysis. Efficient management of working capital is an essential condition of rise in profitability of a company.  Potentialities of working capital management in the context of effic...

  8. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE PROFITABILITY OF TOURISTIC PENSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana TINDECHE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansion that rural tourism has witnessed in the late XIXth century was determined by the existence of two reasons: on the one side the revival and development of the rural area, and the other side the alternative tourism form compared to traditional, classic or table tourism. It is known that regardless of the external environment in which tourist accommodation units operate, an important role belongs to the quality of the services offered and the satisfaction level of the customers. This study aimed to comparatively analyze the economic efficiency of the Confort Pension located in a rural area and the Danacris Pension from the urban area. The reason for choosing these two units was that the types of tourism they represent are significant areas of operation, namely leisure tourism ("Confort " Pension from Suceava area and business tourism ("Danacris" Pension fromBucharest. Based on the existing methodology in the specialized literature, specific indicators were calculated in order to highlight economic efficiency. Based on the analysis of the main financial standing indicators and the evolution of income and expenditure one may conclude that both companies were profitable.

  9. Land-use choices follow profitability at the expense of ecological functions in Indonesian smallholder landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Yann; Krishna, Vijesh V.; Corre, Marife D.; Darras, Kevin; Denmead, Lisa H.; Meijide, Ana; Moser, Stefan; Musshoff, Oliver; Steinebach, Stefanie; Veldkamp, Edzo; Allen, Kara; Barnes, Andrew D.; Breidenbach, Natalie; Brose, Ulrich; Buchori, Damayanti; Daniel, Rolf; Finkeldey, Reiner; Harahap, Idham; Hertel, Dietrich; Holtkamp, A. Mareike; Hörandl, Elvira; Irawan, Bambang; Jaya, I. Nengah Surati; Jochum, Malte; Klarner, Bernhard; Knohl, Alexander; Kotowska, Martyna M.; Krashevska, Valentyna; Kreft, Holger; Kurniawan, Syahrul; Leuschner, Christoph; Maraun, Mark; Melati, Dian Nuraini; Opfermann, Nicole; Pérez-Cruzado, César; Prabowo, Walesa Edho; Rembold, Katja; Rizali, Akhmad; Rubiana, Ratna; Schneider, Dominik; Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri Sudarmiyati; Tjoa, Aiyen; Tscharntke, Teja; Scheu, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Smallholder-dominated agricultural mosaic landscapes are highlighted as model production systems that deliver both economic and ecological goods in tropical agricultural landscapes, but trade-offs underlying current land-use dynamics are poorly known. Here, using the most comprehensive quantification of land-use change and associated bundles of ecosystem functions, services and economic benefits to date, we show that Indonesian smallholders predominantly choose farm portfolios with high economic productivity but low ecological value. The more profitable oil palm and rubber monocultures replace forests and agroforests critical for maintaining above- and below-ground ecological functions and the diversity of most taxa. Between the monocultures, the higher economic performance of oil palm over rubber comes with the reliance on fertilizer inputs and with increased nutrient leaching losses. Strategies to achieve an ecological-economic balance and a sustainable management of tropical smallholder landscapes must be prioritized to avoid further environmental degradation.

  10. Land-use choices follow profitability at the expense of ecological functions in Indonesian smallholder landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Yann; Krishna, Vijesh V; Corre, Marife D; Darras, Kevin; Denmead, Lisa H; Meijide, Ana; Moser, Stefan; Musshoff, Oliver; Steinebach, Stefanie; Veldkamp, Edzo; Allen, Kara; Barnes, Andrew D; Breidenbach, Natalie; Brose, Ulrich; Buchori, Damayanti; Daniel, Rolf; Finkeldey, Reiner; Harahap, Idham; Hertel, Dietrich; Holtkamp, A Mareike; Hörandl, Elvira; Irawan, Bambang; Jaya, I Nengah Surati; Jochum, Malte; Klarner, Bernhard; Knohl, Alexander; Kotowska, Martyna M; Krashevska, Valentyna; Kreft, Holger; Kurniawan, Syahrul; Leuschner, Christoph; Maraun, Mark; Melati, Dian Nuraini; Opfermann, Nicole; Pérez-Cruzado, César; Prabowo, Walesa Edho; Rembold, Katja; Rizali, Akhmad; Rubiana, Ratna; Schneider, Dominik; Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri Sudarmiyati; Tjoa, Aiyen; Tscharntke, Teja; Scheu, Stefan

    2016-10-11

    Smallholder-dominated agricultural mosaic landscapes are highlighted as model production systems that deliver both economic and ecological goods in tropical agricultural landscapes, but trade-offs underlying current land-use dynamics are poorly known. Here, using the most comprehensive quantification of land-use change and associated bundles of ecosystem functions, services and economic benefits to date, we show that Indonesian smallholders predominantly choose farm portfolios with high economic productivity but low ecological value. The more profitable oil palm and rubber monocultures replace forests and agroforests critical for maintaining above- and below-ground ecological functions and the diversity of most taxa. Between the monocultures, the higher economic performance of oil palm over rubber comes with the reliance on fertilizer inputs and with increased nutrient leaching losses. Strategies to achieve an ecological-economic balance and a sustainable management of tropical smallholder landscapes must be prioritized to avoid further environmental degradation.

  11. DOD Contractor Profitability 1980-1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    compdny’s control), surf)lus, and retdined earnings. 2. Seleccion of a Profit ~~asure A number of prot1t measures have been used in s t u d y i n g de E...iC- GGG GGG GGG L"II .:)S. 0.. S.t?ACr; F1ŕC COHPOkA’l’ I ON 1. ~1C Corp. is the world’s largest ~roducer of natural sod~ ash and

  12. Implementation of the World Health Organization Trauma Care Checklist Program in 11 Centers Across Multiple Economic Strata: Effect on Care Process Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashoher, Angela; Schneider, Eric B; Juillard, Catherine; Stevens, Kent; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Berry, William R; Bloem, Christina; Chadbunchachai, Witaya; Dharap, Satish; Dy, Sydney M; Dziekan, Gerald; Gruen, Russell L; Henry, Jaymie A; Huwer, Christina; Joshipura, Manjul; Kelley, Edward; Krug, Etienne; Kumar, Vineet; Kyamanywa, Patrick; Mefire, Alain Chichom; Musafir, Marcos; Nathens, Avery B; Ngendahayo, Edouard; Nguyen, Thai Son; Roy, Nobhojit; Pronovost, Peter J; Khan, Irum Qumar; Razzak, Junaid Abdul; Rubiano, Andrés M; Turner, James A; Varghese, Mathew; Zakirova, Rimma; Mock, Charles

    2017-04-01

    Trauma contributes more than ten percent of the global burden of disease. Initial assessment and resuscitation of trauma patients often requires rapid diagnosis and management of multiple concurrent complex conditions, and errors are common. We investigated whether implementing a trauma care checklist would improve care for injured patients in low-, middle-, and high-income countries. From 2010 to 2012, the impact of the World Health Organization (WHO) Trauma Care Checklist program was assessed in 11 hospitals using a stepped wedge pre- and post-intervention comparison with randomly assigned intervention start dates. Study sites represented nine countries with diverse economic and geographic contexts. Primary end points were adherence to process of care measures; secondary data on morbidity and mortality were also collected. Multilevel logistic regression models examined differences in measures pre- versus post-intervention, accounting for patient age, gender, injury severity, and center-specific variability. Data were collected on 1641 patients before and 1781 after program implementation. Patient age (mean 34 ± 18 vs. 34 ± 18), sex (21 vs. 22 % female), and the proportion of patients with injury severity scores (ISS) ≥ 25 (10 vs. 10 %) were similar before and after checklist implementation (p > 0.05). Improvement was found for 18 of 19 process measures, including greater odds of having abdominal examination (OR 3.26), chest auscultation (OR 2.68), and distal pulse examination (OR 2.33) (all p < 0.05). These changes were robust to several sensitivity analyses. Implementation of the WHO Trauma Care Checklist was associated with substantial improvements in patient care process measures among a cohort of patients in diverse settings.

  13. Management of business economic growth as function of resource rents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prljić, Stefan; Nikitović, Zorana; Stojanović, Aleksandra Golubović; Cogoljević, Dušan; Pešić, Gordana; Alizamir, Meysam

    2018-02-01

    Economic profit could be influenced by economic rents. However natural resource rents provided different impact on the economic growth or economic profit. The main focus of the study was to evaluate the economic growth as function of natural resource rents. For such a purpose machine learning approach, artificial neural network, was used. The used natural resource rents were coal rents, forest rents, mineral rents, natural gas rents and oil rents. Based on the results it is concluded that the machine learning approach could be used as the tool for the economic growth evaluation as function of natural resource rents. Moreover the more advanced approaches should be incorporated to improve more the forecasting accuracy.

  14. Cournot competition between a non-profit firm and a for-profit firm with uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we consider a Cournot competition between a nonprofit firm and a for-profit firm in a homogeneous goods market, with uncertain demand. Given an asymmetric tax schedule, we compute explicitly the Bayesian-Nash equilibrium. Furthermore, we analyze the effects of the tax rate and the degree of altruistic preference on market equilibrium outcomes.

  15. To Profit or Not To Profit: That Is the Tough Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger

    1999-01-01

    Discusses advantages and disadvantages of organizing a child care operation as a for-profit or a nonprofit organization. Areas discussed include ease of start up; access to capital and funding; exposure to taxes; access to community support; appeal to volunteers, teaching candidates, and parents; challenge of management; risk to management;…

  16. Do non-profits make a difference? : Evaluating non-profit vis-à-vis for-profit organisations in social

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, P.; Noailly, J.; Visser, S.

    2006-01-01

    This CPB Document provides a framework for the evaluation of non-profit organisations. This framework addresses the question under which conditions, and, if so, in what way non-profits should be stimulated. Essentially, in order to answer these questions, three steps can be followed: (i) identifying

  17. THE PROFITABILITY – AN ATTRIBUTE OF FINANCIAL AND ACCOUNTING NATURE IN THE DECISION TO INVEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela TULVINSCHI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The investments represent the primary factor in the development strategy of an economic entity. The role of the investments begins with their purpose, meaning that the investments involve the increasing of a stock portfolio. The research methodology that is approached in this article is based on the analysis of two factors: net present value and internal rate of profitability. Capital budgeting in an investment project that, without a prior analysis of the efficiency of such a decision, can lead to the total or partial loss of the invested capital. An investment project is efficient if the net present value is positive and has a larger value. An investment project becomes more profitable as the value of the internal rate of profitability gets higher. If the two factors are correctly interpreted they lead to exactly the same conclusions regarding the determination of an investment profitability. We can conclude that the two efficiency factors are complementary, their simultaneous use leading to a better grounding of the investment decision than their separate use.

  18. Impact of expenditures for veterinary services and medical supplies on dairy farm productivity and profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G Y; McSweeny, W T

    1993-01-15

    The value of the marginal product (VMP) for veterinary services and medical supplies (VETMED), and the profit maximizing level of VETMED were estimated for dairy producers. Data from the Pennsylvania Farmers Association-Dairy Farm Business Analysis system during the years of 1986 to 1990 were used to evaluate the functional relationship between production and expenditures for VETMED. Other input variables examined were man-year equivalents of labor, asset values, value of feed fed, and culling rate. Data were screened to reflect economically viable dairy farms in Pennsylvania, and 173 such farms participated for each of the 5 years analyzed. The VMP was estimated for 1990. Profit maximizing levels for VETMED were estimated for 1990 holding other input variables at their mean values. Mean expenditures for VETMED were $2,606/farm, or $43/cow in 1990. The VMP for VETMED was estimated to be $3.22 or $4.98, depending on the method of calculation. In other words, the marginal dollar spent on VETMED generated $3.22 ($4.98) in additional revenue from milk production. The profit maximizing level of expenditures for VETMED was $138/cow, substantially more than the mean, indicating the potential for farms in this data set to improve profitability through additional expenditures on VETMED.

  19. PRECISION MARKETING AS FACTOR FOR ATTRACTING, RETAINING AND LEVERAGING PROFITABLE CUSTOMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SNEZANA OBEDNIKOVSKA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The basic function of marketing is communication between company and consumers. Seen from the scope of the company, customers can be divided as profitable and one with negative value. Profitable consumers are of particular interest for the companies and all marketing activities are made to keep them and turn them into loyal customers. The release of customers who have a negative value for the company is never a fun business for management. On the contrary, it even may look like breaking the rules of social ethics that are pointed toward the relationship between the company and the consumers. The economic value of the company tells us that replacement of the resources from consumers with negative value for the company to the consumers that have positive value for the company is required. In such case, there is a need for learning and improving the concept of marketing that is understood as a tool for communication between company and market. Precision marketing is a concept that may help inpromotingthe collective thinking and understanding of the criteria used for segmenting and targeting, with the bottom line better to serve customers that will result in increasing the profit and profitability as a whole. The main purpose of precision marketing is to understand customers as a core value for the marketing, especially because nowadays there are much more products that customers on the market.

  20. RESEARCHES CONCERNING PRODUCTION DIVERSIFICATION AND INTEGRATION IN ORDER TO INCREASE PROFITABILITY AND COMPETITIVENESS OF FAMILY SERICICULTURAL FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGATHA POPESCU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to present different management variants for family sericicultural farms .These variants assures family reproduction sericicultural integrated management along production – processing – marketing chain, a larger range of marketable products, a better marketing for unreeling cocoons, increased income and profit for silk worm breede, a higher profitability and competitiveness of the agricultural unit. The matrix of experimental variants combinations between Mulberry tree culture and Silk worm rearing show that the most profitable alternative is CD V3 + VM V2, which assures Lei 556,874 profit during the first years of farm activity. The matrix of integrated combinative variants between Mulberry the culture, Silk worm rearing and unreeling cocoons processing in handicrafts (P5 show that the most profitable alternative is CDV3 + VMV1 + P5, that is 0.5 ha mulberry tree plantation + 0.2 ha Seeding field + 0.1. ha Sowing field 1 + 0.2 ha Pricking out field, silk worm rearing for delivering 1,000 egg boxes, 10 kg silk filament, 25 kg fresh pupa and 1,298 Wowen belts, assuring Lei 504,336 profit during the 8 years of farm operating. No matter what variant of integrated management is chosen by silk worm Breeders as long as economical and financial perfomances are superior the ones which are obtained in case of the lack of integration .

  1. Gasohol: economic feasibility study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, M. L.; Hammaker, G. S.; Buzenberg, R. J.; Wagner, J. P.

    1978-07-01

    This report was prepared by Development Planning and Research Associates, Inc. under a contract with the Energy Research and Development Center of the University of Nebraska in cooperation with the Agricultural Products Industrial Utilization Committee and the State of Nebraska. Funding for this study was provided to the Energy Research and Development Center by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Old West Regional Commission. The primary objective of the study was to: determine the fiscal and market conditions under which the production of gasohol would be profitable for private producers. For purposes of this study, gasohol is a motor fuel consisting of 10 percent agriculturally-derived anhydrous ethanol and 90 percent unleaded gasoline. The study assumes that gasohol can be a fuel substitute for gasoline; indeed, the cost of gasoline will significantly influence that for gasohol. Gasoline prices are determined by factors external to ethanol; thus, the economic feasibility study of gasohol is in large part an economic feasibility study of fuel-grade ethanol production. More specifically, the study examined the following: the technical aspects of distributing, marketing, and using gasohol; the costs of the distribution and marketing of ethanol and gasohol; the energy balance of ethanol production; the cost of producing ethanol; the factors influencing ehtanol plant size and location; and the conditions that would make ethanol economicaly feasible for private producers.

  2. Determinants of profitability differences among major refiner/marketers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This report attempts to shed light on the factors affecting the differing profitabilities among companies, particularly, the effect of refinery upgrading, to contribute toward a better understanding of the performance of the domestic petroleum refining industry. The determinants of domestic refining-marketing profitability in the short run are evaluated. The focus is on those factors affecting the profitability of operations using the existing capital stock. Of particular interest is the effect on profitability of investments made for refinery upgrading. The refining-marketing segment is assumed to be operated to maximize profits of that segment rather than the profits of some other segment. The cost and financial data used in the analysis are proprietary line-of-business data from the FRS. The FRS provides detailed information on refining-marketing revenue, cost, income, and investment. The specific data used are discussed and key definitions provided later in this report. 14 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  3. Economics Of Rabbit Production In Abeokuta South Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at examining the economic profitability of rabbit production based on the hypothesis that the low level of production may likely be a consequence of low profitability of the enterprise. Abeokuta South Local Government area was used as a case study. It involved the collection of primary data from a ...

  4. Conventional Versus Pasture-Based Dairy Systems: An Economic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, Gena; Lacy, R. Curt; Bernard, John K.

    2014-01-01

    Due to volatility in milk and feed prices, which has reduced profits, Southeastern U.S. dairy producers are considering production systems that can generate greater profits with lower capital requirements. This paper estimates economic costs and returns of three types of dairy systems used in the Southeast: conventional confinement, mostly grazing, and a hybrid system.

  5. Leaching of feed nutrients, economic losses to fish farming | FALAYI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total proteins and total lipids retention at 10, 20, 30 and 60 minutes were observed in the laboratory. There were decreasing trends ... The economic evaluation was highest (P < 0.05) in CMC in net production value, value of fish, cost of feed, gross profit, incidence of cost and the least in profit index. However, CS binder was ...

  6. Profitable solutions to climate, oil, and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovins, Amory B

    2010-05-01

    Protecting the climate is not costly but profitable (even if avoided climate change is worth zero), mainly because saving fuel costs less than buying fuel. The two biggest opportunities, both sufficiently fast, are oil and electricity. The US, for example, can eliminate its oil use by the 2040s at an average cost of $15 per barrel ($2000), half by redoubled efficiency and half by alternative supplies, and can save three-fourths of its electricity more cheaply than operating a thermal power station. Integrative design permits this by making big energy savings cheaper than small ones, turning traditionally assumed diminishing returns into empirically observed expanding returns. Such efficiency choices accelerate climate-safe, inexhaustible, and resilient energy supply-notably the "micropower" now delivering about a sixth of the world's electricity and 90% of its new electricity. These cheap, fast, market-financeable, globally applicable options offer the most effective, yet most underestimated and overlooked, solutions for climate, proliferation, and poverty.

  7. Full truckload vehicle routing problem with profits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A new variant of the full truckload vehicle routing problem is studied. In this problem there are more than one delivery points corresponding to the same pickup point, and one order is allowed to be served several times by the same vehicle or different vehicles. For the orders which cannot be assigned because of resource constraint, the logistics company outsources them to other logistics companies at a certain cost. To maximize its profits, logistics company decides which to be transported by private fleet and which to be outsourced. The mathematical model is constructed for the problem. Since the problem is NP-hard and it is difficult to solve the large-scale problems with an exact algorithm, a hybrid genetic algorithm is proposed. Computational results show the effectiveness of the hybrid genetic algorithm.

  8. Pharmaceutical technology management--profitable business avenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthli, Shivanand P

    2010-01-01

    Growing research expenditure, regulatory framework and generic erosion have forced pharmaceutical companies globally to resort to pharmaceutical technology management (PTM). Indeed, the pharmaceutical industry has witnessed the impact of innovative drug delivery and device technologies and their influence on business. PTM has given a new business insight with greater profits and enhancement of product franchise. Promising breakthrough technologies have not been able to reach a commercial platform largely owing to lack of capital at the preliminary stages of the product development program. Intellectual property plays a considerable role in protecting innovative technologies. Joint ventures and strategic alliances also become important for commercializing a new technology. The synergy of PTM with options of in-licensing is expected to infuse newer opportunities to the pharmaceutical business.

  9. Economic Modelling in Institutional Economic Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wadim Strielkowski; Evgeny Popov

    2017-01-01

    Our paper is centered around the formation of theory of institutional modelling that includes principles and ideas reflecting the laws of societal development within the framework of institutional economic theory...

  10. There's no profiting from a joint venture misadventure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschman, Gary W

    2004-10-01

    In St. David's vs. IRS, a not-for-profit health system effectively challenged the IRS's determination that the system should be disqualified from tax exemption because it had entered a 50/50 joint venture with a for-profit system. The court decisions in St. David's, coupled with a recent IRS ruling, Revenue Ruling 2004-51, provide insight into how a not-for-profit hospital can structure such a joint venture to avoid jeopardizing its tax-exempt status.

  11. Analisis Teknikal Untuk Mendapatkan Profit Dalam Forex Trading Online

    OpenAIRE

    Liyanto, .; Alwiyah, .

    2012-01-01

    Technical Analysis To Obtain Profit From Online Forex Trading. The purpose of the research is to find profitable consistency in predicting price movement, especially on pairs GBPUSD and EURUSD using candlestick, moving average convergence divergence (MACD) and stochastic oscillator as parts of technical analysis before taking an action whether to buy or to sell forex. The profit is calculated for every given buy-sell signal after considering transaction cost in the amount of spread. The desig...

  12. Investigating the effect of different factors on profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Hamidian

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of different factors influencing on profitability of shares of petrochemical industry. The study gathers the information of three firms whose stock prices were listed on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2006-2012. Using different regression analysis, the study has determined that while stock price, currency rate and material influence on profitability of these firms, energy price, liquidity and gold price had no impact on profitability in petrochemical industry.

  13. Benefits and Costs of For-Profit Public Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Molnar

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available As a policy initiative, for-profit operation of public schools has not lived up to the claims of its proponents. An examination of issues such as teaching methods, academic achievement, autonomy, local control, and the image and influence of for-profit public schools suggests that "for-profits" are unlikely to succeed in the long term in improving the overall quality of public education. They do, however, seem capable of harming public schools.

  14. Components of the Profitability of Technical Currency Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Schulmeister, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the sources of the profitability of 1024 moving average and momentum models when trading in the German mark (euro)/U.S. dollar market based on daily data. The main results are as follows. First, each of these models would have been profitable over the entire sample period. Second, this profitability is exclusively due to the exploitation of persistent exchange rate trends. Third, these results do not change substantially when trading is examined within subperiods. Four...

  15. Risk Sharing and Layoff Risk in Profit Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Fabella, Raul V.

    1995-01-01

    We show that if the employer is risk averse, however slightly, there is always a profit sharing contract that will Pareto-dominate the spot wage contract in the sense of pure risk sharing. The smaller is the employer risk aversion, the narrower is the room for profit sharing. The higher the workers value employment stability (less layoff risk), the more Pareto attractive is profit sharing regardless of employer risk aversion.

  16. Why public health services? Experiences from profit-driven health care reforms in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, Göran

    2014-01-01

    Market-oriented health care reforms have been implemented in the tax-financed Swedish health care system from 1990 to 2013. The first phase of these reforms was the introduction of new public management systems, where public health centers and public hospitals were to act as private firms in an internal health care market. A second phase saw an increase of tax-financed private for-profit providers. A third phase can now be envisaged with increased private financing of essential health services. The main evidence-based effects of these markets and profit-driven reforms can be summarized as follows: efficiency is typically reduced but rarely increased; profit and tax evasion are a drain on resources for health care; geographical and social inequities are widened while the number of tax-financed providers increases; patients with major multi-health problems are often given lower priority than patients with minor health problems; opportunities to control the quality of care are reduced; tax-financed private for-profit providers facilitate increased private financing; and market forces and commercial interests undermine the power of democratic institutions. Policy options to promote further development of a nonprofit health care system are highlighted.

  17. Profitability Analysis for Agricultural Investment Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana VIRLANUTA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In agriculture production is based on a process both economically as well as the biological one, the work results are influenced, more than any branch of economic, natural and climatic conditions are subject to higher risk and permanently. Due to the features of production in agriculture, we believe that it is necessary such as performance agricultural units to be assessed under a system of specific indicators. The correct assessment units are closely related agricultural economic-financial investment in agriculture. In the following we present and analyze a complex system of specific performance indicators of the extremely for assessing agricultural units.

  18. INCREASING PROFIT IN TOURISM THROUGH STRENGTHENING OF MANAGEMENT COMPETENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagoda Jankovska

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tourism economy is the most significant industry in the world. It holds a central position and plays an important role in the economic development of a country, especially of countries with high unemployment rate, such as the Republic of Macedonia. Strengthening of, and investing in, tourism capacities directly contribute to further development, integration, and promotion of a country. It is especially important to indicate that creating a strategy, developing and educating human potential, as well as successfully managing the said potential, bear huge significance for good-quality development of tourism economy. Human resources are a crucial factor for achieving good-quality service and the effect of satisfied guests, which is the goal of each tourism organization in view of increasing their competitiveness. In a situation of an open world market, competitiveness and profitability of tourism organizations will, to a greater extent, depend on the competence of tourism managers, as well as on their ability to successfully manage human resources. Certainly, a prerequisite for all this is possessing of competent and creative workforce, which, rather than being content with their present knowledge level, will make continuous initiatives for advanced learning, perfecting their work, and promoting their career

  19. Accountability and Governance Reporting by Non-Profit Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslan Nurfarahin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many non-profit organizations (NPOs are facing funding cuts and reduction in voluntary donations during the current economic environment. In ensuring the sustainability of these organizations, the Malaysian government is currently promoting collaborative efforts between the government, social organisations and the private sector in providing social services. The potential advantages of such collaborations include, the risks of providing social services are shared between the government, social organizations and the private sector, build positive perceptions of government as enabler for social organizations, capitalise on social organizations’ collective skills, enthusiasm and innovation in providing social services. However, the current reporting requirement for NPOs in Malaysia may give rise to information asymmetry that can hinder such efforts. Hence, this study aims to examine the current reporting practices of NPOs in Malaysia. Based on content analysis of annual reports of 205 NPOs registered with Registry of Societies for the financial year 2011, this study finds that the overall information reported by the NPOs is relatively weak. NPOs also disclosed relatively high non-financial information as compared to the financial information. Hence, there is a need for more comprehensive reporting guidelines for the NPOs that can facilitate the decision-making needs of the relevant stakeholders.

  20. Identifying and Studying the Factors Effective on Greenhouses Profitability in the Varamin Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Rajabi Tehrani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was economic evaluation of green houses and the factors that affect their profitability in the Varamin plain. The type of this research is descriptive-correlation research that was conducted by using a survey method. The statistical population of the research consisted of the beneficiary farmers of established and cultivated green houses in the Varamin plain. The sample size was 108 farmers. The sampling method was simple random sampling method. The main tool of this research study is a questionnaire that whose validity was verified by using a panel of experts and professors in the field of agriculture. The reliability of the questionnaire was assessed through a pre-test for which the Cronbach alpha was between 0.78 and 0.85 which is considered to be acceptable. The results of this research study show that the mean of the profitability index of cost benefit  was 2.286 and thus there is a significant positive correlation between agricultural experience, the level of famer education, agricultural income, the total area of the green house, technical knowledge, using of information resources with the cost benefit  profitability index. The results of regression analysis also indicated that the five variables of agricultural experience, agricultural income, the total area of the green house, technical knowledge, using of information resources well explain for 51.5 % of the changes in the cost benefit profitability index of the green houses located in the Varamin plain. Finally, it is recommended to improve the cost benefit profitability index by actions such as increasing the level of technical knowledge and farmers' access to and use of information resources.

  1. Producing Hardwood Dimension Parts Directly From Logs: An Economic Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenjie Lin; D. Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman; Janice K. Wiedenbeck

    1995-01-01

    The economic feasibility and profitability of a direct processing system for converting Factory Grades 2 and 3 red oak logs directly into rough dimension parts were evaluated. New present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR) were used as the measurement of economic feasibility, and return on sales (ROS) was used as the measurement of profitability. NPV and IRR...

  2. Profiting from competition: Financial tools for electric generation companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Charles William, Jr.

    Regulations governing the operation of electric power systems in North America and many other areas of the world are undergoing major changes designed to promote competition. This process of change is often referred to as deregulation. Participants in deregulated electricity systems may find that their profits will greatly benefit from the implementation of successful bidding strategies. While the goal of the regulators may be to create rules which balance reliable power system operation with maximization of the total benefit to society, the goal of generation companies is to maximize their profit, i.e., return to their shareholders. The majority of the research described here is conducted from the point of view of generation companies (GENCOs) wishing to maximize their expected utility function, which is generally comprised of expected profit and risk. Strategies that help a GENCO to maximize its objective function must consider the impact of (and aid in making) operating decisions that may occur within a few seconds to multiple years. The work described here assumes an environment in which energy service companies (ESCOs) buy and GENCOs sell power via double auctions in regional commodity exchanges. Power is transported on wires owned by transmission companies (TRANSCOs) and distribution companies (DISTCOs). The proposed market framework allows participants to trade electrical energy contracts via the spot, futures, options, planning, and swap markets. An important method of studying these proposed markets and the behavior of participating agents is the field of experimental/computational economics. For much of the research reported here, the market simulator developed by Kumar and Sheble and similar simulators has been adapted to allow computerized agents to trade energy. Creating computerized agents that can react as rationally or irrationally as a human trader is a difficult problem for which we have turned to the field of artificial intelligence. Some of our

  3. Evaluating Banking Profit Performance in Ghana during and post Profit Decline: A five Step Du-Pont Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baah Aye Kusi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we aimed at three objectives. First, identify and rank banks based on a composite score comprising of all five du-pont variables. Second, we identify variables in the five step du-pont set up that are most likely to influence bank ROE during and post profit declining periods. And third, we estimate a model to capture the variables that drive bank ROE during and post profit declining periods. We first establish from our rankings that, foreign banks in Ghana performed better during profit declining periods while the local banks performed better in post profit decline periods using the top ten banks as a benchmark in both periods. Employing Pearson correlation coefficients matrix, we recognized that operating profit margin, asset turnover and leverage were most likely to influence bank ROE in both time periods. We further employ OLS regression and find that bank ROE was impacted by operating profit margin and leverage during profit declining periods and post profit decline while tax effect added up in post profit declining periods.

  4. THE DETERMINANTS OF PROFITABILITY IN COMPANIES LISTED ON THE BUCHAREST STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORANA VĂTAVU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to establish the determinants of financial performance in 126 Romanian companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange, over a period of ten-years (2003-2012. The analysis is based on cross sectional regressions. Return on assets is the performance proxy, while the variables expected to have a significant impact on profitability are debt, asset tangibility, size, liquidity, taxation, risk, inflation and crisis. Regression results indicate that profitable companies operate with limited borrowings. Tangibility, business risk and the level of taxation have a negative impact on return on assets. Although earnings are sustained by significant sales turnover, performance is affected by high levels of liquidity. Periods of unstable economic conditions, reflected by high inflation rates and the current financial crisis, have a strong negative impact on corporate performance.

  5. Expansion in markets with decreasing demand-for-profits in the German hospital industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwierz, Christoph

    2011-06-01

    Over the last 20 years, acute-care hospitals in most OECD countries have built up costly overcapacities. From the perspective of economic policy, it is desirable to know how hospitals of different ownership forms respond to changes in demand and are probably best suited to deal with existing overcapacities. This article examines ownership-specific differences in the responsiveness to changes in demand for hospital services in Germany between 1996 and 2006. With respect to the speed of adaptation to increasing demand, the study finds for-profit ownership to be superior to public and nonprofit ownership. However, contrary to other ownership types, for-profits also tend to expand in markets with decreasing demand - mainly through conversions of publicly owned hospitals. Thus, in short term, the privatization of the hospital sector may slow down the reduction of excess capacities and be therefore socially wasteful. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Operating Profitability of For-Profit and Not-for-Profit Florida Community Hospitals During Medicare Policy Changes, 2000 to 2010

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Langland-Orban, Barbara; Large, John T; Sear, Alan M; Zhang, Hanze; Zhang, Nanhua

    2015-01-01

    ...) and not-for-profit (NFP) hospital operating margins in Florida. FP hospitals were expected to be more adversely affected as admissions growth has been one strategy to improve stock performance, which is not a consideration at NFPs...

  7. Contribution of family labour to the profitability and competitiveness of small-scale dairy production systems in central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadas-Domínguez, Rodolfo Rogelio; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel; Martínez-Castañeda, Francisco Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the effect of family labour on the profitability and competitiveness of small-scale dairy farms in the highlands of Central Mexico. Economic data from 37 farms were analysed from a stratified statistical sampling with a Neyman assignment. Three strata were defined taking herd size as criterion. Stratum 1: herds from 3 to 9 cows plus replacements, Stratum 2: herds from 10 to 19 cows and Stratum 3: herds from 20 to 30 cows. The policy analysis matrix was used as the method to determine profitability and competitiveness. The coefficient of private profitability (CPP) when the economic cost of family labour is included in the cost structure was 8.0 %, 31.0 % and 46.0 %. When the economic cost of family labour is not included, CPP increase to 47.0 %, 57.0 % and 66.0 % for each strata, respectively. The private cost ratio (PCR) when family labour is included was 0.79, 0.51 and 0.42 for strata 1, 2 and 3, respectively. When family labour is not included, the PCR was 0.07, 0.25 and 0.26. Net profit per litre of milk including family labour was US$0.03 l(-1) for Stratum 1, US$0.09 for Stratum 2 and US$0.12 l(-1) for Stratum 3; but increased to $0.12, 0.14 and 0.15, respectively, when the economic cost of family labour is not included. It is concluded that family labour is a crucial factor in the profitability and competitiveness of small-scale dairy production.

  8. Effect of Financing on Profitability of Sawmill Industries in Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the Effect of Financing on Profitability of Sawmill Industries in Cross River State, Nigeria. The study was conducted at enterprise level in Cross River State with a sample of 80 saw millers to ascertain the effect of finance on their profitability. The result shows that amount borrowed business experience, ...

  9. A More Detailed Understanding Of Factors Associated With Hospital Profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ge; Anderson, Gerard F

    2016-05-01

    To identify the characteristics of the most profitable US hospitals, we examined the profitability of acute care hospitals in fiscal year 2013, measured as net income from patient care services per adjusted discharge. Based on Medicare Cost Reports and Final Rule Data, the median hospital lost $82 for each such discharge. Forty-five percent of hospitals were profitable, with 2.5 percent earning more than $2,475 per adjusted discharge. The ten most profitable hospitals, seven of which were nonprofit, each earned more than $163 million in total profits from patient care services. Hospitals with for-profit status, higher markups, system affiliation, or regional power, as well as those located in states with price regulation, tended to be more profitable than other hospitals. Hospitals that treated a higher proportion of Medicare patients, had higher expenditures per adjusted discharge, were located in counties with a high proportion of uninsured patients, or were located in states with a dominant insurer or greater health maintenance organization (HMO) penetration had lower profitability than hospitals that did not have these characteristics. These findings can inform policy reforms, while providing a baseline against which to measure the impact of any subsequent reforms. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  10. Methods utilized in evaluating the profitability of commercial space processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, H. L.; Schmitt, P. T.

    1976-01-01

    Profitability analysis is applied to commercial space processing on the basis of business concept definition and assessment and the relationship between ground and space functions. Throughput analysis is demonstrated by analysis of the space manufacturing of surface acoustic wave devices. The paper describes a financial analysis model for space processing and provides key profitability measures for space processed isoenzymes.

  11. The relationship between size, growth and profitability of commercial banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shehzad, C. T.; De Haan, J.; Scholtens, B.

    2013-01-01

    Using a dynamic panel model for more than 15 000 banks from 148 countries from 1988 to 2010, we investigate the interaction between size, growth and profitability of banks. For our total sample, we cannot reject the hypotheses that the variability of bank profitability and the level and variability

  12. Analysis of profitability and poverty reduction of yoghurt processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the profitability of yoghurt processing with a view of determining its potentials for reducing poverty in Maiduguri Metropolitan Area. Data were collected from a survey of 10 yoghurt processing firms in Maiduguri and analysed using profit model and descriptive statistics. Results revealed that yoghurt ...

  13. A method for predicting the probability of business network profitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, P.; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; Välja, M.; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Magnusson, C; Ladhe, T.

    2014-01-01

    In the design phase of business collaboration, it is desirable to be able to predict the profitability of the business-to-be. Therefore, techniques to assess qualities such as costs, revenues, risks, and profitability have been previously proposed. However, they do not allow the modeler to properly

  14. Comparative Analysis of Profitability of Layers Production in Esan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    agricultural sector are rational, thus, they would increase their supply if they are sure of making higher profit ceteris paribus (Emokaro et al., 2009). Higher profit ..... Energy and Crude Protein Requirements for. Chicks of Nigeria Local Fowl and Crossbreeds. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 5:.271-274. Koutsoyiannis, A (2001). Theory of ...

  15. Profitability of Snail Production in Osun State,Nigeria | Baba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The costs and returns analysis revealed that variable costs accounted for 96% of the production costs. Labour was the most costly single item in snail production in the area. The results further showed that snail farming was highly profitable, with the average farmer earning a net return of 40 naira per snail. There was a profit ...

  16. Summer 2012 Colorado Wildfire Non-Profit Sector Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    include commercial losses. Rocky Mountain Insurance Information Association is a non-profit consumer information organization . Affiliated with the...million. These estimates do not include commercial losses. Rocky Mountain Insurance Information Association is a non-profit consumer information ... organization . Affiliated with the Insurance Information Institute, RMIIA has been serving consumers and the media since 1952. 22 5.0 Observations

  17. Determinant of Profit Efficiency among Small Scale Traditional Palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to examine the determinants of profit efficiency among traditional palm oil processing in Nigeria, using stochastic Cobb – Douglas profit frontier model. A Multi – Stage random sampling technique was used to select 240 traditional palm oil processors from which input – output data were collected.

  18. The implementation of customer profitability analysis: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raaij, E.M.; Vernooij, M.J.A.; Vernooij, Maarten J.A.; van Triest, S.P.

    2003-01-01

    By using customer profitability analysis (CPA), firms can determine the profit contribution of customer segments and/or individual customers. This article presents an approach for the implementation of CPA. The implementation process is illustrated using a case study of a firm producing and selling

  19. Profitability Analysis of Rice Processing and Marketing in Kano State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: The study determined the profitability of rice processing and marketing in Kano. State. The objective of the study was to assess the profitability levels of rice processing and marketing, evaluate the value added to the commodity at each stage in the study area and determine the most efficient services produce.

  20. 45 CFR 74.81 - Prohibition against profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Special Provisions for Awards to Commercial Organizations § 74.81 Prohibition against profit. Except for awards under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small... to any recipient even if the recipient is a commercial organization. Profit is any amount in excess...

  1. Academic Libraries in For-Profit Schools of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jinnie Y.; Adams, Mignon; Hardesty, Larry

    2011-01-01

    For-profit schools constitute the fastest-growing sector of higher education institutions in the United States. Yet accompanying the phenomenal growth of these proprietary colleges and universities has been considerable controversy over the role that the profit motive should play in higher education. The literature of higher education contains…

  2. 48 CFR 2115.404-71 - Profit analysis factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Profit analysis factors... TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 2115.404-71 Profit analysis factors. (a) The OPM... (service charge) for the FEGLI Program contract. In accordance with the factors defined in FAR 15.404-4(d...

  3. Management Control Systems in Not for Profit Organization

    OpenAIRE

    De La Cruz Marquez, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    The diploma thesis is about management control system. The first part contains the analysis of the subject, the factors, components and tools of management control. In the second part is about the difference of management control in profit and non-profit organizations.

  4. 26 CFR 509.105 - Industrial and commercial profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Industrial and commercial profits. 509.105...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.105 Industrial and commercial profits... contracting States shall not be taxable by the other contracting State upon its industrial and commercial...

  5. Risk attitudes and profits among small enterprises in Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, J.; Willebrands, D.; Hartog, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of risk attitudes of firm owners on profits among micro and small enterprises (MSEs) in Lagos, Nigeria. Higher risk perceptions are shown to have a significant positive effect on profits, whereas risk propensity has a negative or no effect. Education, age, being male,

  6. Profitability of cover crops for single and twin row cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the increased interest in cover crops, the impact of adoption on profitability of cash crops is a common question from producers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the profitability of cover crops for single and twin row cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in Alabama. This experiment inclu...

  7. Application of relationship marketing in non-profit organisations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concept of relationship marketing was born from this need for long-term interaction with customers. A variety of factors have over time contributed to a need for marketing in non-profit organisations, such as non-profit sports clubs and recreation centres at local and school levels, to offset the decrease in income and ...

  8. Profitability analysis of plantain marketing in Kaduna metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Descriptive statistics, Cost and return analysis, Herfindahl index, Gross ratio, Operating ratio, Expense structure ratio, Return per capital invested, Benefit cost ratio were used to analyze the data. The study showed that ... Analysis of the profit revealed that plantain marketing is a profitable business. The constraint militating ...

  9. Acquisition of the Profit Concept by Third-Grade Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Anna Emilia

    1992-01-01

    Conceptions of 50 third graders (aged 8-9 years) in Italy about shopkeepers' profit were examined using the Piagetian clinical procedure, with an interview followed by a comparison task that checked comprehension. Teaching children about profit had a higher impact at posttest on children who could compare correctly. (SLD)

  10. Distribution of Costs and Profits in Danish Urban Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Tophøj; Christensen, Finn Kjær

    2009-01-01

    Most countries have a system – procedures and tools – for foreseeable, clear and fair distribution of costs and profits in urban development. However, the distribution of profits and costs between the municipality and the developers /landowners is in Denmark rather fragmented and not very transpa...

  11. Macroeconomy and Banks' Profitability in Nigeria | Chidozie | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It also seeks to examine the significance of microeconomic variables (cost to income ratio, loan to deposit ratio; loan to total assets ratio and total assets) on banks' profitability. It analysed the impact of banking industry concentration on banks' profitability. The estimation technique follows a panel regression which studied a ...

  12. HUBUNGAN ANTARA UKURAN PERUSAHAAN DAN PROFITABILITAS DENGAN PENGUNGKAPAN CSR PADA PERUSAHAAN YANG TERDAFTAR DI DAFTAR EFEK SYARIAH 2013 (THE CORRELATION BETWEEN FIRM SIZE AND PROFITABILITY WITH CSR DISCLOSURE OF COMPANIES LISTED OF SHARIA SECURITIES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arum Ariftyarini; Ratna Anggraini ZR; Erika Takidah

    2014-01-01

    .... Faculty of Economics. State University of Jakarta, 2014. This study aims to examine the relationship caused by firm size and profitability with CSR disclosure of companies listed of sharia securities in 2013...

  13. EXAMINATION OF IMPACT OF PHARMA R&D ON PROFITABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergo Tomori

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available By today, in our business environment, mostly based on innovation, the potential opportunities in the pharmaceutical sector and impact of these to the national economic trends has a determining significance. This latter requires the examination of the impact of research and development activity as the most important factor to the profitability of two selected regional market leader pharma companies and presentation of how these groups handle their high operating risks which resulting from these investments. National and international importance of the pharmaceutical industry defined by not only the prominent role of application of the biochemical academic research, but the humanitarian concerns which increasingly appreciating in the global context. In the developing and overpopulated countries the risks of become massive epidemics arisen from the emergence viruses which mutating quickly and in increasingly complex forms has risen due to the scientist discoveries and more modernize preventive procedures. These facts – in view of growing efficient immune substances developing procedures – are stronger pressure on the industrial actors, with this affecting the profitability of future operations. The farming specificities and their role can be illustrated well by comparing the activities of the Central European market-leader Richter and the world-renowned Swiss Novartis which ranked number two in sales with approximately 47 billion dollar among the world-wide pharma groups in 2010. Since the comparable figures based on IFRS, it must be also mention that how the international accountant standards display these management areas. Among the examined factors, the pharma R&D activity had the highest impact on the long-term firming both individually and in comparison, but the different of the financial strategy and accounting policy as a kind of asset of risk management had no negligible. My analysis is mostly theoretical and based on quantitative

  14. Advertising representation, treatment menu and economic circulation of substance misuse treatment centers in Iran: a rapid survey based on newspaper advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Sobhan; Ekhtiari, Hamed

    2014-05-01

    Daily newspapers are the main platform by which substance misuse treatment (SMT) centers in Iran advertise their services. However, these advertisements provide little information on treatment options or costs. The current research aimed to use advertisements to compile a schema of treatment services and to map the extent and nature of drug treatments offered. During a four-week period (April to May) in 2009, the four most popular Persian newspapers printed in Tehran were reviewed. Across these publications 1704 advertisements were posted by 66 SMT centers. Each center was then contacted by telephone to complete a structured interview about services offered and related costs. The advertisements were also decoded through a quantitative contextual analysis method. On average, each SMT center published 26 advertisements during the review period, costing 421 US$. In addition, advertisements included word signifiers in six main categories including centers' introduction (100%), treatment types (91%), treatment duration (68%), medicines (70%), treatment features (60%) and psychological facilities (52%). The three detoxification programs advertised were the rapid method (57% of clinics, 443.23 US$), buprenorphine (68%, 265 US$) and methadone (71%, 137 US$). More than 90% of the centers in Tehran were offering methadone maintenance (99 US$, per month). SMT services in the Iranian market ranged from abstinence to maintenance programs, with opiates as the main focus. This review of centers' advertisements provides an indirect but rapidly obtained picture of the drug misuse treatment network. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. ANALYSIS OF MILK PRODUCTION AND ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN DAIY FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGATHA POPESCU

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to present some aspects regarding milk production and farm size and their relationship to economic efficiency in dairy farming. For this purpose, three variants of hers size have been taken into consideration as follows: F1– raising 12 dairy cows whose milk yield is 3,500 kg /cow/lactation; F2- raising 50 dairy cows whose milk yield is 5,000 kg /cow and year and F3 – rearing 150 dairy cows, producing 6,000 kg milk per cow/year. For each variant, the following economic parameters have been determined: gross product, variable costs, fixed costs, gross margin, gross and net profit, profit rate and other specific indicators of economic efficiency such as: milk yield, milk cost, cost /cow/year, profit/cow, profit rate /cow, income /cow, profit/farm and profit rate at farm level. In conclusion, the higher the farm size and milk yield, the higher gross margin, net profit and profit rate

  16. Determinants of the Profitability in the Czech Banking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Palečková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to estimate the banking profitability determinants of the Czech commercial banks during the period 2004-2014. For estimation of banking profitability we used three common measures, namely the Return on Assets, Return on Equity and Net Interest Margin. We estimated twelve determinants of banking performance. The effect of the determinants of banking profitability is estimated using panel data analysis. The data set is consists of seventeen commercial banks in the Czech Republic. The results show that the profitability was positively influenced by the bank’s size, capitalization, credit risk, level of concentration, ownership structure and bank’s market share. Number of branches of the bank had the negative impact on ROA and ROE. on the other hand, the variables Gross Domestic Product, interest rate, liquidity risk, riskiness of bank’s portfolio and affiliation with financial conglomerate have not got the significant influence on profitability of the Czech commercial banks.

  17. Analysis of alternative approach to determining of customers' profitability level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Vodák

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes alternative approach to analysis of customers profitability based just on volume of purchased goods. By including average distance of customers' distributional places as additional criteria for profitability analysis and using cluster analysis as a method for ranking customers is proven that assessing of customers' profitability can be more accurate.This approach to evaluation of customers' profitability changes order of customers listed acordingly to profit they generate. In fact it shows that in business terms is room for improvement and harmonisation of relationship among some business partners in certain cases. Recalculation of business conditions which comes from detailed analysis can bring either increase of competitiveness by price reduction or increase of incomes by rising price of goods.

  18. PERBEDAAN PERUSAHAN PENCIPTA ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED POSITIF DENGAN ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED NEGATIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suripto Suripto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was to explain and analyze the different variable of Inflation Rate,Exchange Rate, Interest Rate, Ratio Plant Asset, Size Measure Company, Profitability, Growth ,LD / E, TD / TA, Stock of Return, Book To Market between company having Economic ValueAdded ( Positive and company having Economic Value Added ( Negative . Analysis which wasused in this research was multivariate analysis of variant (MANOVA. There was different variableof Inflation Rate, Exchange Rate, Interest Rate, Ratio Plant Asset, Size Measure Company,Profitability, Growth , LD / E, TD / TA, Stock of Return, Book To Market between companyhaving Economic Value Added ( Positive and negative EVA. However, by partial, only differentsale size was significant

  19. UTILITATEA ANALIZEI RELAŢIEI COST-VOLUM-PROFIT ÎN METODA DIRECT-COSTING PENTRU PROCESUL DECIZIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelea CHIRILOV

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available În acest articol este analizată relaţia cost-volum-profit în scopul optimizării profitului şi fundamentării unor decizii economice optime. Sunt prezentate studii de caz metodologice menite să evidenţieze necesitatea indicatorilor: pragul de rentabilitate, marja de contribuţie, rezerva stabilităţii financiare, volumul vânzărilor necesar obţinerii profitului dorit, preţul marginal. Rezultatele obţinute sunt prezentate şi analizate de autori. Articolul se încheie cu concluziile autorilor privind avantajele oferite de calculele şi analizele ce pot fi efectuate pe baza relaţiei cost-volum-profit în metoda direct-costing pentru procesul decizional.THE UTILITY OF ANALYZING COST-VOLUME-PROFIT RELATIONSHIP THROUGH THE DIRECT-COSTING METHOD FOR DECISION MAKING PROCESSIn this article it is analyzed the cost-volume-profit relationship with the aim of profit optimization and elaboration of optimum economic decisions. The statement also reflects methodological case studies which highlight the necessity of the following indicators: break-even point, contribution margin, reserve of financial stability, sales volume required for obtaining target profit, marginal price. The results are presented and are analyzed by authors. The article ends up with the conclusions of the authors with regards to advantages provided by the calculations and analysis which can be performed on the basis of cost-volume-profit relationship through the direct-costing method for decision making process.

  20. 26 CFR 1.901-2T - Income, war profits, or excess profits tax paid or accrued (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... subject to tax on the basis of place of management, place of incorporation or similar criterion or... loss recognized by FC for country Z tax purposes, and pursuant to a group relief regime in country Z FC... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Income, war profits, or excess profits tax paid...

  1. For-profit Hospitals: A comparative and longitudinal study of the for-profit hospital sector in four Western countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.T. Jeurissen (Patrick)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMany now argue that for-profit hospital ownership is on the rise because of the retrenchment of public entitlements and – often more importantly in health care – pro-market reforms in the delivery of these services1. Most theoretical notions assume that for-profit hospitals are more

  2. Examining Not-for-Profit Higher Education Faculty Attitudes and Knowledge toward For-Profit Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpel, Nichole

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, for-profit higher education has been the fastest growing segment within higher education. Despite the growth, little research exists about for-profit higher education institutions. The purpose of this exploratory, descriptive, quantitative study was to examine the attitudes and knowledge of higher education faculty toward…

  3. PROFITABILITY OF VALUE ADDITION TO CASHEW FARMING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    The cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale L.) is an economic crop in Nigeria grown in small plantations in almost every State because of the ease of cultivation and need for minimum attention. Cashew apple wastes on planta- tions and this reduces cashew farming household incomes. This study examined value addition ...

  4. Prisons for Profit: Public Justice, Private Interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, John D.

    This paper examines several aspects of the private prison debate: (1) How much scope is there for improving the technical and economic efficiency of incarceration through contracting-out to private prison entrepreneurs? (2) Will a fully developed corrections industry be sufficiently competitive to ensure that any efficiency gains are passed on to…

  5. Excessive Profits of German Defense Contractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    aesthetic aspects; customer service; follow-on costs; life cycle costs)” (“Regulations on contract,” 2009, p. 44). Further, “the most economically...3840 Surgical, Medical, and Dental Instruments and Supplies 1 3841 Surgical and Medical Instruments and Apparatus 1 7300 Business Services 2

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF THE NET PROFIT OVER THE INVESTMENT DECISION MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela GADOIU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at analysing how the investment decision is influenced by the final result of the activity of an entity after paying the profit tax. Starting from the need to make investments in order to ensure the economic efficiency and subsequently the economic growth, we sought to capture both the advantages and the disadvantages of the various versions that must be considered for the selection of the investment project. From the perspective of the presentation of this topic, we have analysed, in addition to the aspects related to the notion of investment, the investment typology, the decision to invest in a certain environment, and a number of economic and financial indicators used in order to make an investment decision.

  7. Challenges in Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Management: A Profitability Assessment in Three European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idiano D’Adamo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE is known as an important source of secondary raw materials. Since decades, its treatment allowed to recover great amounts of basic resources. However, the management of electronic components embedded in WEEE still presents many challenges. The purpose of the paper is to cope with some of these challenges through the definition of an economic model able to identify the presence of profitability within the recovery process of waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs. To this aim, a set of common economic indexes is used within the paper. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis on a set of critical variables is conducted to evaluate their impact on the results. Finally, the combination of predicted WEEE volumes (collected during the 2015–2030 period in three European countries (Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom and related economic indexes quantify the potential advantage coming from the recovery of this kind of waste in the next future.

  8. Profit (p-index: the degree to which authors profit from co-authors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Ahmad Aziz

    Full Text Available Current metrics for estimating a scientist's academic performance treat the author's publications as if these were solely attributable to the author. However, this approach ignores the substantive contributions of co-authors, leading to misjudgments about the individual's own scientific merits and consequently to misallocation of funding resources and academic positions. This problem is becoming the more urgent in the biomedical field where the number of collaborations is growing rapidly, making it increasingly harder to support the best scientists. Therefore, here we introduce a simple harmonic weighing algorithm for correcting citations and citation-based metrics such as the h-index for co-authorships. This weighing algorithm can account for both the nvumber of co-authors and the sequence of authors on a paper. We then derive a measure called the 'profit (p-index', which estimates the contribution of co-authors to the work of a given author. By using samples of researchers from a renowned Dutch University hospital, Spinoza Prize laureates (the most prestigious Dutch science award, and Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine, we show that the contribution of co-authors to the work of a particular author is generally substantial (i.e., about 80% and that researchers' relative rankings change materially when adjusted for the contributions of co-authors. Interestingly, although the top University hospital researchers had the highest h-indices, this appeared to be due to their significantly higher p-indices. Importantly, the ranking completely reversed when using the profit adjusted h-indices, with the Nobel laureates having the highest, the Spinoza Prize laureates having an intermediate, and the top University hospital researchers having the lowest profit adjusted h-indices, respectively, suggesting that exceptional researchers are characterized by a relatively high degree of scientific independency/originality. The concepts and methods

  9. Uncompensated care provided by for-profit, not-for-profit, and government owned hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan-Sarrazin Mary S

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing concern certain not-for-profit hospitals are not providing enough uncompensated care to justify their tax exempt status. Our objective was to compare the amount of uncompensated care provided by not-for-profit (NFP, for-profit (FP and government owned hospitals. Methods We used 2005 state inpatient data (SID for 10 states to identify patients hospitalized for three common conditions: acute myocardial infarction (AMI, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG, or childbirth. Uncompensated care was measured as the proportion of each hospital's total admissions for each condition that were classified as being uninsured. Hospitals were categorized as NFP, FP, or government owned based upon data obtained from the American Hospital Association. We used bivariate methods to compare the proportion of uninsured patients admitted to NFP, FP and government hospitals for each diagnosis. We then used generalized linear mixed models to compare the percentage of uninsured in each category of hospital after adjusting for the socioeconomic status of the markets each hospital served. Results Our cohort consisted of 188,117 patients (1,054 hospitals hospitalized for AMI, 82,261 patients (245 hospitals for CABG, and 1,091,220 patients for childbirth (793 hospitals. The percentage of admissions classified as uninsured was lower in NFP hospitals than in FP or government hospitals for AMI (4.6% NFP; 6.0% FP; 9.5% government; P Conclusions For the three conditions studied NFP and FP hospitals appear to provide a similar amount of uncompensated care while government hospitals provide significantly more. Concerns about the amount of uncompensated care provided by NFP hospitals appear warranted.

  10. [Profitability analysis of clinical risk management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banduhn, C; Schlüchtermann, J

    2013-05-01

    Medical treatment entails many risks. Increasingly, the negative impact of these risks on patients' health is revealed and corresponding cases are reported to hospital insurances. A systematic clinical risk management can reduce risks. This analysis is designed to demonstrate the financial profitability of implementing a clinical risk management. The decision analysis of a clinical risk management includes information from published articles and studies, publicly available data from the Federal Statistical Office and expert interviews and was conducted in 2 scenarios. The 2 scenarios result from a maximum and minimum value of preventable adverse events reported in Germany. The planning horizon was a 1-year ­period. The analysis was performed from a hospital's perspective. Subsequently, a threshold-analysis of the reduction of preventable adverse events as an effect of clinical risk management was executed. Furthermore, a static capital budgeting over a 5-year period was added, complemented by a risk analysis. Regarding the given assumptions, the implementation of clinical risk management would save about 53 000 € or 175 000 €, respectively, for an average hospital within the first year. Only if the reduction of preventable adverse events is as low as 5.6 or 2.8%, respectively, will the implementation of clinical risk management produce losses. According to a comprehensive risk simulation this happens in less than one out of 1 million cases. The investment in a clinical risk management, based on a 5-year period and an interest rate of 5%, has an annually pay off of 81 000 € or 211 000 €, respectively. The implementation of clinical risk management in a hospital pays off within the first year. In the subsequent years the surplus is even higher due to the elimination of implementation costs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Protein production: planet, profit, plus people?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiking, Harry

    2014-07-01

    Food sustainability and food security are increasingly in the spotlight and increasingly intertwined. According to some projections we will need to nearly double food production in the next 4 decades. This article argues that protein production and consumption are pivotal to sustainability, because anthropogenic contributions to the nitrogen cycle are 100-200% compared with a contribution of 1-2% to the carbon cycle by mineral fuel combustion, with biodiversity as the main casualty. Because 1 kg animal protein requires ∼ 6 kg plant protein, its large-scale production by means of factory farming is a major driver of biodiversity loss, climate change, and freshwater depletion. Furthermore, intensive livestock production is associated with antibiotics resistance and increasing incidence of emerging diseases. Therefore, a "reversed" diet transition back to less animal protein could make a difference. Some European countries, such as the United Kingdom, Sweden, and The Netherlands, have published integrated policy reports addressing food security, sustainability, and health combined. The food industry is focusing on food safety and increasingly on sustainability. An important issue is consumer communication, because consumer "framing" is radically different from that of governmental and industrial policy makers. There is no "one size fits all." A huge range of differences exists between countries and between distinct groups of consumers within countries; getting consumers to change their diets in a more sustainable direction is likely to require much more than gentle nudging. National governments and the United Nations should assume their responsibilities and initiate a global strategy integrating sustainability, food security, nutrition, and equity. To date, the profit pillar of sustainability has taken precedence over planet and people. It is time to redress the balance. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Orthodoxy versus heterodoxy: Inflation, unemployment, growth, profit

    OpenAIRE

    Manera, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Institutions like the IMF, the ECB and many finance ministries and private banks in the world's richest countries are sending out unequivocal calls for strict control of prices to be addressed urgently, given their intrinsic relationship with how the budget deficit and government debt evolve. These messages allow very little room for nuances or interpretations, stating categorically that price stability is the essential factor that guarantees economic growth and therefore plays a key role in ...

  13. Youth Voice and the Llano Grande Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo, Francisco; Perez, Delia; Guajardo, Miguel A.; Davila, Eric; Ozuna, Juan; Saenz, Maribel; Casaperalta, Nadia

    2006-01-01

    The Llano Grande Center is a non-profit education and community development organization founded in the mid-1990s by youth and teachers out of a public high school classroom in a rural South Texas (USA) community. The Center was created, in large part, to cultivate youth voices as important elements of curriculum development and teacher training…

  14. Determinants of bank profitability: Evidence from the Greek banking sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexiou Constantinos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of bank-specific and macroeconomic determinants of bank profitability, using an empirical framework that incorporates the traditional Structure-Conduct- Performance (SCP hypothesis. A panel data approach has been adopted and effectively applied to six Greek banks. The evidence generated suggests that for any consistent or systematic size the profitability relationship is relatively weak. Most of the bank-specific determinants were found to significantly affect bank profitability. A more ambiguous picture emerged when the macroeconomic factors were considered.

  15. A MANAGERIAL AND COST ACCOUNTING APPROACH OF CUSTOMER PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARDOS Ildiko Reka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last years many organizations realized that market orientation is essential to their success. Satisfying the needs of customers, offering them products and services which meet their desires and demands, customer loyalty can increase profitability for long term. After analyzing the existing journal literature in this field we would like to emphasize that managerial accounting, cost calculation methods and techniques, the analysis of costs provides relevant information when analyzing the customer’s profitability. We pay special attention on cost systems. An activity based costing approach takes customer profitability to new levels of accuracy and usefulness, provides the basis for creating, communicating and delivering value to the customers.

  16. FURNIZORII SI CLIENTII-SURSE DE PROFIT ALE COMPANIILOR DE COMERT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Lavinia Tănăsoiu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Customer is a relevant item to evaluate products, because it is an expression of effectivedemand, which manifests at a time on the market. Source of company profits are customersand not products and services. They are a true capital for company and can be reunited inthe economic circle-firms and institutions and the circle of individuals which companyoffers its products and services. Managing suppliers is more than just meeting obligationsof making available provide the required inventory supply master plan (acquisition ofmaterials, parts, components and articles.

  17. PROFITABILITY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE NEEDS AND REQUIREMENTS OF SUSTAINABLE FARMS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela SIMTION

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Market economy requires from any farm particular efforts for the profitability of products and organizational structures as well as for the increase in a higher pace of the profitability of each product in order to achieve the level of competitiveness imposed by the competitive market and the modernization needs of agriculture from the given stage. Under the new conditions created by globalization and environmental requirements, modernization is closely related to promotion of sustainable development for agriculture and the entire countryside. Holdings must strive in their work towards sustainable, competitive profitability, which can not be admitted as maximum at all costs, taking into account the environment and human health. Thus, should any financial analysis include not only physic but also the value of natural resources and the environment? Therefore, it is necessary to introduce the concept of sustainable agriculture, adapted to the conditions of each country, as an organizational capacity to grow in the future, effectively and rationally exploiting its natural, economic and social resources, in harmony with the surrounding environment, in the benefit of the producers and ensuring food security for current and future generations.

  18. Is the profitability of Canadian freestall farms associated with their performance on an animal welfare assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villettaz Robichaud, M; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M; Vasseur, E; Haley, D; Orsel, K; Pellerin, D

    2017-12-28

    Improving animal welfare on farm can sometimes require substantial financial investments. The Canadian dairy industry recently updated their Code of Practice for the care of dairy animals and created a mandatory on-farm animal care assessment (proAction Animal Care). Motivating dairy farmers to follow the recommendations of the Code of Practice and successfully meet the targets of the on-farm assessment can be enhanced by financial gain associated with improved animal welfare. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the association between meeting or not meeting several criteria from an on-farm animal welfare assessment and the farms' productivity and profitability indicators. Data from 130 freestall farms (20 using automatic milking systems) were used to calculate the results of the animal care assessment. Productivity and profitability indicators, including milk production, somatic cell count, reproduction, and longevity, were retrieved from the regional dairy herd improvement association databases. Economical margins over replacement costs were also calculated. Univariable and multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate the associations between welfare and productivity and profitability indicators. The proportion of automatic milking system farms that met the proAction criterion for hock lesions was higher compared with parlor farms and lower for the neck lesion criterion. The proAction criterion for lameness prevalence was significantly associated with average corrected milk production per year. Average days in milk (DIM) at first breeding acted as an effect modifier for this association, resulting in a steeper increase of milk production in farms that met the criterion with increasing average DIM at first breeding. The reproduction and longevity indicators studied were not significantly associated with meeting or not meeting the proAction criteria investigated in this study. Meeting the proAction lameness prevalence parameter was

  19. The relationship between the Balanced Budget Act (BBA) and hospital profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Mustafa Z

    2006-01-01

    The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (BBA) reduced the payment for fees for service providers and reduced the subsidy paid by the government for teaching hospitals. Since the passage of such cost containment measures, debates regarding their impact on hospitals, graduate medical education, and access to health care were raised. The need to examine the effect of such payment reduction on hospital profitability was widely ignored. We examined the relationship between the BBA and hospital profitability by using return on assets to measure profitability, by running an ordinary least squares regression for 1996 as pre-BBA and 1999 as post-BBA. We controlled for variables that were not included in previous literature, such as disproportionate share hospital status, critical access hospital status, and graduate medical education, measured by teaching hospitals to measure the effect of BBA cuts on teaching hospitals. Furthermore we incorporated several economic, financial, and utilization variables in the model. We used 1996 and 1999 data in our analysis to bridge potential effects of the BBA. To locate hospitals that changed ownership status we cross-matched the Medicare Cost Report data with the American Hospital Association Annual Survey. We found that overall hospital profitability declined as a result of the introduction of the BBA; however, small rural hospitals that converted to critical access status enjoyed improvement in financial status over the period of our study. Hospitals that converted to for-profit status did not improve in financial status, and showed a lower earning after the conversation. Our results show that the BBA had a negative effect on hospitals because of cuts in its reimbursement policy, except for critical access hospitals, which show improvement because of their exemption from the prospective payment system. Our study differs from others by using national comprehensive data for years that focus exclusively on the Balanced Budget Act period. We

  20. A model of economic management of cultural heritage: the rehabilitation of fort christmas as an interpretation center of defensive architecture of the Mediterranean in Cartagena (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Pacheco, Gema María; Peñalver Martinez, Maria Jesús; García Erviti, Federico; Maciá Sánchez, Juan Francisco

    2011-01-01

    The Cultural Heritage constitutes a way to generate social identities and play an important role in the development of the Spanish Mediterranean cities that opt to sustainable quality tourism. The reflection on the necessity of intervention on this heritage, in addition to establishing what should be done, brings up the need to define the reasons for taking action, why and what-for. These decisions are essential to establish if its maintenance and recovery are economically sustainable. Th...

  1. Scientific, technical and economic information center for the coal industry - 30 years of success in developing science and technology in the coal sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemcova, A.; Bruskova, P. (PKD, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia). Rozvoj a Projektovani)

    1990-06-01

    Summarizes the 30-year history of the Center, including introduction of its first automated information system in 1969 and the organization's own suite of AUTIS programs introduced in 1979 and which now run on IBM 4331 and 4361 computers. The Center is responsible for coordinating acquisition of foreign literature, access to foreign data bases, international cooperation within the Informugol' system, AUTIS coal data base management, analytical information processing, publications and systems control. Its structure includes a directorate with secretariat, a technical library, an analysis section, an analytical information section, a publications section and a development section. The Center's publications include 4 periodicals and 5 occasional series covering many aspects of the coal industry. Briefly describes some products manufactured by Rohde and Schwarz of the FRG, with whom the Center has had a long association; these include the CMS 52 communications tester, ZWOB 6 polyscope, EZM spectrum monitor, FSAC spectrum analyzer, PSA 5 control computer, SMGU and GMHU signal generators and TIF video/timing analyzer.

  2. Effect of direct and indirect selection criteria for efficiency of gain on profitability of Japanese Black cattle selection strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahi, A K; Hirooka, H

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of use of residual feed intake (RFI) and the blood concentration of IGF-I (IGF) as selection criteria for efficiency of gain on profitability of Japanese Black cattle selection strategies with restricted test capacity. A breeding objective that integrated the cow-calf and feedlot segments was considered. Selection strategies were defined that differed in whether information on IGF and RFI during performance testing (RFIpt) was used to make selection decisions and in the number of animals measured for IGF. In all strategies, sires were selected from the proportion chosen during the first selection stage (performance testing), modeling a 2-stage selection process. The effect on genetic gain and profitability of variations in test capacity, of the genetic correlations of IGF with marbling score (MS) and RFIpt, and nonzero economic values for and, hence, inclusion of RFI of the cow and feedlot animals in the breeding objective was examined. Additional genetic gain and profitability were generated when information on IGF concentration and RFIpt in the performance-tested young bulls was included in the selection criteria. Profit per cow was optimal when measurement of IGF and RFIpt were incorporated together in the selection index. Increasing test capacity resulted in an increase in genetic gain in all strategies, and profit per cow was optimal in all strategies when 900 places were available for performance testing. Profit per cow was more sensitive to changes in the genetic correlation between IGF and MS than between IGF and RFIpt, especially when more animals were measured for IGF, or else the favorable relationship between IGF and MS had no significant effect on profit per cow. Additional genetic gain and profitability were generated in each strategy when RFI of the cow and feedlot animals were included in the breeding objective with nonzero economic values. These results may be used to provide guidance to

  3. Profitability of a dairy sheep genetic improvement program using artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valergakis, G E; Gelasakis, A I; Oikonomou, G; Arsenos, G; Fortomaris, P; Banos, G

    2010-10-01

    This simulation study investigated the farm-level economic benefits of a genetic improvement scheme using artificial insemination (AI) with fresh ram semen in dairy sheep of the Chios breed in Greece. Data were collected from 67 farms associated with the Chios Sheep Breeders' Cooperative 'Macedonia', describing the percentage of ewes that would be artificially inseminated in the flock, pregnancy rate, annual ram costs that could be saved using AI rather than natural mating, expected improvement in milk production, annual costs of semen and feed, milk price and number of years of AI usage. The study considered 77 760 possible scenarios in a 3 × 4 × 4 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 4 × 15 factorial arrangement. Analysis of variance was used to investigate the effect of each factor on farm profitability. All factors considered were statistically significant (P profitability and farmers should become aware that using AI is a long-term investment. Semen price, pregnancy rate and improvement in milk production also had substantial effects. The price of milk and feed had a considerably lower effect on profitability, as did the annual cost of maintaining rams that would be replaced by AI. A positive annual and cumulative return was achieved in the model within the first 6 years. The cost of semen was estimated at 8€ to 10€ per dose for the first 5 years. Where the annual improvement in milk production was 1% of annual phenotypic mean (e.g. 3.0 kg) profitability of the scheme was improved greatly.

  4. For-Profit Hospital Status and Carotid Artery Stent Utilization in US Hospitals Performing Carotid Revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Justin V; George, Benjamin P; Kelly, Adam G; Holloway, Robert G

    2017-11-01

    Carotid artery stenting may be an economically attractive procedure for hospitals and physicians. We sought to identify the association of hospital ownership (nonprofit versus for-profit) on carotid artery stenting (CAS) versus carotid endarterectomy utilization in US hospitals. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample admissions for cerebrovascular disease from 2008 to 2011, we identified all private, nonfederal US hospitals performing at least 20 carotid revascularization procedures annually, including carotid artery stenting (International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision 00.63) or carotid endarterectomy (International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision 38.12). We used a multilevel multivariable logistic regression controlling for patient demographics, comorbidities, and hospital characteristics, to assess the effect of hospital ownership on CAS use. Across 723 hospitals (600 nonprofit, 123 for-profit), 66 731 carotid revascularization admissions were identified. Approximately 1 in 5 (n=11 641; 17.4%) revascularizations received CAS. The mean CAS rate among nonprofit hospitals was 17.5 per 100 revascularizations (median, 11.5; interquartile range, 5.2-24.5), and the mean CAS rate among for-profit hospitals was 24.2 per 100 revascularizations (median, 16.0; interquartile range, 6.7-33.3; Pprofit hospital designation was associated with greater odds of CAS (adjusted odds ratio, 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.98). For-profit hospital ownership is associated with a higher rate of CAS compared to nonprofit hospitals in those receiving carotid revascularization. Further research is needed to understand the individual- and system-level factors driving this difference. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Profit Function Approximations and Duality Applications to Agriculture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gary D. Thompson; Mark Langworthy

    1989-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of profit functions indicate that flexible functional forms may be ranked nearly the same with respect to Allen-Uzawa partial substitution elasticities or price and fixed factor elasticities...

  6. A study on relationship between working capital and profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghodrati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the relationship between working capital management and profitability of accepted corporations in Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2008-2012. The study selected 66 firms as a statistical sample based on Cochran formula and simple random selection. In this study, variables including the average period of collecting accordance, periods of circulation of inventories, the average period of debt payment, and cycle of cash conversion on the factories operating profits are studied. The research method is applied and collection of data is solidarity, the Pierson and Regression solidarity are used. Results show that variables of capital investment management and profitability were in opposite direction. If the period of collecting accordance, period of debt payment, period of circulation of inventories and the cycle of cash conversion increase, it decreases the period profitability and the manager can decrease the period of debt payment, period of cash conversion to the least amount of positive value for affiliate.

  7. The Significance of Loyalty on Consumer Credit Profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Galih Prihartono

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyze and test the effect of customer loyalty on consumer credit profitability. Loyalty Index Score was developed to determine the level of customers’ loyalty level through 4 main variables; Longevity, Depth, Breadth and Referrals. The effect of Loyalty Index Score on profitability was further tested by path analysis to find out the significance direct relationship between loyalty and profitablity and the indirect relationship between the two variable through bucket. The result showed that loyalty has a significant effect on profitability either directly or indirectly. It was concluded that direct loyalty effect on profitability is lower than that of the indirect effect through bucket. The conclusion could be made by analyzing the available data from personal loan customers in one of the biggest multinational bank in indonesia during October 2010 until March 2011.

  8. Profitability of fungicide use decisions among cocoa farmers in south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CRIN) recommended fungicide use rate with profit maximization objective of Nigerian cocoa farmers. To achieve this research objective, a cross-sectional survey of cocoa farmers in four local government areas (LGAs) each in Osun and Ondo ...

  9. Distribution of Costs and Profits in Urban Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Kjær; Sørensen, Michael Tophøj

    2009-01-01

    Most countries have a system - procedures and tools - for foreseeable, clear and fair distribution of costs and profits in urban development. However, the distribution of profits and costs between the municipality and the developers /landowners is in Denmark rather fragmented and not very...... transparent as the distribution is regulated throughout the whole planning and environmental regulation system. Furthermore, development agreements – an “old” tool in many countries and an efficient tool to distribute profits and costs between the public and private sector – have only recently become possible...... in Denmark, and only under some special circumstances. This paper aims to clarify how costs and profits are distributed between the municipality and the developers /landowners in Denmark. The paper analyses how the Danish planning and environmental regulation system handles this issue. Based on the analysis...

  10. EXAMINATION OF IMPACT OF PHARMA R&D ON PROFITABILITY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gergo Tomori;

    2014-01-01

    .... This latter requires the examination of the impact of research and development activity as the most important factor to the profitability of two selected regional market leader pharma companies...

  11. Grants Management Guidance for Non-Profit Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guidance is intended to provide non-profit grant recipients with information to ensure that their organizations remain in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Office of Management (OMB) cost principles, and the terms and conditions.

  12. Determinants of Profitability of Insurance Firms in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Kofi Boadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of the study is to find out the determinants of the profitability of insurance firms in Ghana. Secondary data on financial reports were collected from sixteen insurance firms in Ghana for the period 2005 to 2010.The study was quantitative in nature. It adopted the longitudinal time dimension, specifically, the panel method and ordinary least square regression. The study discovered that, apart from tangibility which has a negative relationship, there is a positive relationship between leverage, liquidity and profitability of insurance firms in Ghana. It was also concluded that, the profitability model adopted has been explained in respect to all the independent variables and that the degree of error is less than 20%. Finally, it is suggested that the explanatory variables used in this study should be regressed on Return on Equity to find their extent of relationship on profitability.

  13. Determinants of bank profitability: Evidence from the Greek banking sector

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexiou, Constantinos; Sofoklis, Voyazas

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of bank-specific and macroeconomic determinants of bank profitability, using an empirical framework that incorporates the traditional Structure-Conduct- Performance (SCP) hypothesis...

  14. For-Profit Institutions and Student Veteran Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kevin C.; Fox Garrity, Bonnie K.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter explores the lack of data about student veterans and reasons this lack of data raises particular concerns about for-profit institutions, which enroll a large percentage of student veterans.

  15. Research Ethics and Commercial Drug Development: When Integrity Threatens Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Bélisle Pipon, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    This case, based on personal experiences and on those found in the literature, highlights the delicate tension faced by drug development companies having to balance research integrity and their profitability.

  16. Research Ethics and Commercial Drug Development: When Integrity Threatens Profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bélisle Pipon, Jean-Christophe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This case, based on personal experiences and on those found in the literature, highlights the delicate tension faced by drug development companies having to balance research integrity and their profitability.

  17. RESEARCH ON MILK COST, RETURN AND PROFITABILITY IN DAIRY FARMING

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agatha POPESCU

    2014-01-01

    The paper aimed to the relationship between milk cost in terms of material cost and labor cost and estimate theinfluence of these costs on returns coming from milk and profitability in 5 small dairy...

  18. The Determinants of Bank Profitability: The Case of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olfa Nessibi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using bank level data this paper examines how bank’s specific characteristics and macroeconomic indicators affect the profitability in the Tunisian banking industry over the period 1990–2008. The results indicate that the more profitable banks are those higher amount of capital and lower operating costs. Furthermore, it appears that private banks tend to perform better than state owned ones.  Despite the great importance given to the board of directors, it doesn't have a dominant role in the Tunisian commercial banks. Finally, turning to macroeconomic conditions and its impact on banks’ profitability, we find that the real interest rate has a positive effect on bank profitability.

  19. Long term profitable technique: in situ combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naudin, Y.

    1980-03-01

    Onsite combustion, used for heavy petroleum, should permit the rate of recuperation of certain oil fields to be increased to 45% before the end of the century. This procedure, which has not yet been perfected and is, to large extent, still in the laboratory stage, is the object of extensive experiments in the oil fields of Suplacu and Balaria in Rumania. The IFP, which has been associated with these projects since 1969, is continuing its exhaustive laboratory tests. From an economic point of view, onsite combustion necessitates heavy investments, and the technical cost of production ranges from $5 to $15/bbl.

  20. A Decomposition of Hospital Profitability: An Application of DuPont Analysis to the US Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jason; Broom, Kevin; Elliott, Michael; Lee, Jen-Fu

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates the drivers of profitability for a large sample of U.S. hospitals. Following a methodology frequently used by financial analysts, we use a DuPont analysis as a framework to evaluate the quality of earnings. By decomposing returns on equity (ROE) into profit margin, total asset turnover, and capital structure, the DuPont analysis reveals what drives overall profitability. Profit margin, the efficiency with which services are rendered (total asset turnover), and capital structure is calculated for 3,255 U.S. hospitals between 2007 and 2012 using data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' Healthcare Cost Report Information System (CMS Form 2552). The sample is then stratified by ownership, size, system affiliation, teaching status, critical access designation, and urban or non-urban location. Those hospital characteristics and interaction terms are then regressed (OLS) against the ROE and the respective DuPont components. Sensitivity to regression methodology is also investigated using a seemingly unrelated regression. When the sample is stratified by hospital characteristics, the results indicate investor-owned hospitals have higher profit margins, higher efficiency, and are substantially more leveraged. Hospitals in systems are found to have higher ROE, margins, and efficiency but are associated with less leverage. In addition, a number of important and significant interactions between teaching status, ownership, location, critical access designation, and inclusion in a system are documented. Many of the significant relationships, most notably not-for-profit ownership, lose significance or are predominately associated with one interaction effect when interaction terms are introduced as explanatory variables. Results are not sensitive to the alternative methodology. The results of the DuPont analysis suggest that although there appears to be convergence in the behavior of NFP and IO hospitals, significant financial differences remain

  1. Uncompensated care provided by for-profit, not-for-profit, and government owned hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cram, Peter; Bayman, Levent; Popescu, Ioana; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary S; Cai, Xueya; Rosenthal, Gary E

    2010-04-07

    There is growing concern certain not-for-profit hospitals are not providing enough uncompensated care to justify their tax exempt status. Our objective was to compare the amount of uncompensated care provided by not-for-profit (NFP), for-profit (FP) and government owned hospitals. We used 2005 state inpatient data (SID) for 10 states to identify patients hospitalized for three common conditions: acute myocardial infarction (AMI), coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), or childbirth. Uncompensated care was measured as the proportion of each hospital's total admissions for each condition that were classified as being uninsured. Hospitals were categorized as NFP, FP, or government owned based upon data obtained from the American Hospital Association. We used bivariate methods to compare the proportion of uninsured patients admitted to NFP, FP and government hospitals for each diagnosis. We then used generalized linear mixed models to compare the percentage of uninsured in each category of hospital after adjusting for the socioeconomic status of the markets each hospital served. Our cohort consisted of 188,117 patients (1,054 hospitals) hospitalized for AMI, 82,261 patients (245 hospitals) for CABG, and 1,091,220 patients for childbirth (793 hospitals). The percentage of admissions classified as uninsured was lower in NFP hospitals than in FP or government hospitals for AMI (4.6% NFP; 6.0% FP; 9.5% government; P NFP; 3.3% FP; 7.0% government; P NFP; 4.2% FP; 11.8% government; P NFP and FP hospitals (4.4% vs. 4.3%; P = 0.71), and higher for government hospitals (6.0%; P NFP vs. government). Likewise, results demonstrated similar proportions of uninsured patients in NFP and FP hospitals and higher levels of uninsured in government hospitals for both CABG and childbirth. For the three conditions studied NFP and FP hospitals appear to provide a similar amount of uncompensated care while government hospitals provide significantly more. Concerns about the amount of

  2. IMPROVING HUMAN RESOURCES REPORTING IN NON FOR PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolae Todea1; Delia Corina Mihaltan2

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims to expose the present reality concerning the information offered byaccounting regarding the human resources in a non for profit organization and to propose ways ofimproving it. To this end we display the typical aspects of human resources which are connected tothe specificities of the non for profit organizations and their impact on accounting. We emphasizethe deficiencies of human resources reporting and submit means of improving it.

  3. What Do We Know About Variance in Accounting Profitability?

    OpenAIRE

    Anita M McGahan; Porter, Michael E.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the variance of accounting profitability among a broad cross-section of forms in the American economy from 1981 to 1994. The purpose of the analysis is to identify the importance of year, industry, corporate-parent, and business-specific effects on accounting profitability among operating businesses across sectors. The findings indicate that industry and corporate-parent effects are important and related to one another. As expected, business-specific effects, which a...

  4. Non-profit organization as a category of political science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhametov Ruslan Salikhovich

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to theoretical and methodological study of non-profit organizations. The author proposes to distinguish the concept of “non-governmental organization” and “non-profit organization” (NPO. The article outlines the main features of the NPO. A lot of attention is paid to the typology of these organizations. The author gave an exhaustive scientific analysis of the forms of NPO activities.

  5. sustainable development and profitability in the Finnish restaurant industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mulenga, Mpafya

    2015-01-01

    Environmental sustainability in the food industry is often concerned with the provision of organic products and recycling. The emphasis on organically produced supplies though viewed as an environmentally sustainable means of food production to meet the ends of the green revolution should not obscure consideration of profitability in the business. Making profit is a business goal, while environmental sustainability is an ethical issue whose practice is subject to the balancing act of being pr...

  6. Sustainability and Counteracting Factors to Profit Rate Decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ougaard, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses sustainability implications of barriers to growth as specified in the theory of the long-term falling rate of profit but focusing on the counteracting factors (CFs) specified by Marx. These depend much on political processes and are important in state theory for understanding...... which implies a destruction of capital that will counteract the falling rate of profit. This will require sustained political intervention....

  7. Pricing, Profits, and Technological Progress in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Scherer, F. M.

    1993-01-01

    The decades-old debate over pharmaceutical industry prices, profits, and innovation has again intensified. A number of events coalesced to refocus public interest on pharmaceuticals. Contributing to public concern were Bureau of Labor Statistics price index increases for pharmaceuticals far outpacing those for the products of other industries. Another prominent characteristic of the pharmaceutical industry has been its extraordinarily high reported profitability. This article examines the phe...

  8. Persistence of Profitability in Family-Owned Food Businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Michael A. Boland; Pendell, Dustin L.

    2005-01-01

    We examine firm profitability in the food economy and determine the source of variance of firm profitability in family-owned and non-family-owned food processing firms. The results indicate firm effects dominate in explaining the variance in the business-segment performance in the food economy. More specifically, we find family-owned firms compared to non-family-owned firms have a higher percentage of total variance in the business-segment performance explained by yearly effects, industry eff...

  9. Relationship between Non-current Assets & Firms Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Athar; mati, madhu

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines the relation between capital еxpеnditurе and earnings of the companies which are non-financial. The scope of research is related to the firm’s profitability and the relationship with the noncurrent assets as managing working capital and capital expenditure efficiently affects the profitability of the firm. Last ten years data of non – financial firms listed at KSE 100 index was taken. It includes Cement, Manufacturing, Engineering, Chemical, Paper, Sugar, Textile, T...

  10. Determinants of bank profitability: evidence from CreditCoop

    OpenAIRE

    Ioana-Raluca DIACONU; Oanea, Dumitru-Cristian

    2014-01-01

    Co-operative banks were not analyzed in great detail in the literature compared to credit unions or even commercial banks. Through this paper we want to identify the main determinants of CreditCoop profitability, determinants: internal determinants (result of bank management) and external determinants (macroeconomic and industry variables). We found that the loan to assets ratio and equity to assets ratio have the highest and significant impact over the CreditCoop profitability. Moreover, we ...

  11. Improving Gross Profit Margin in a quick service restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Heino, Minna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to try help implementing the corporate strategy in a quick service restaurant environment by offering practical examples. The objective is to improve the profitability of the case company by the management of the sales team. Questions to be answered are how the gross margin can be developed and what results can be gained. Some of the key concepts of this thesis are gross margin and sales management, restaurant profitability and implementing corporate strategy int...

  12. Profit and Risk Measures in Oil Production Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capolei, Andrea; Foss, Bjarne; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2015-01-01

    In oil production optimization, we usually aim to maximize a deterministic scalar performance index such as the profit over the expected reservoir lifespan. However, when uncertainty in the parameters is considered, the profit results in a random variable that can assume a range of values dependi...... pro and cons for each of them. Finally, among the presented risk measures, we identify two of them as appropriate risk measures when minimizing the risk....

  13. Towards more profitable and sustainable milk and beef production system

    OpenAIRE

    Kokko, Pauliina

    2017-01-01

    Achieving and maintaining national self-sufficiency in milk and meat play important roles in ensuring future food security. Currently, Finland is self-sufficient in milk. However, beef production, which is strongly related to dairy production, has fallen below consumption mainly because of a decreased number of dairy cows and low profitability. Even though the efficiency and productivity in dairy herds have increased substantially during the last decades, the profitability of milk, and especi...

  14. Profit Sharing and Workplace Productivity: Does Teamwork Play a Role?

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Richard J.; Fang, Tony

    2013-01-01

    The conditions under which profit sharing affects workplace productivity have never been fully understood. Using panel data, this paper examines whether there is any link between adoption of an employee profit sharing plan and subsequent productivity growth in Canadian establishments, and whether this relationship is affected by various contextual factors, particularly use of work teams. In so doing, we use both three and five-year panels. Overall, we find a significant link between adoption ...

  15. Entry of Wal-Mart Supercenters and Supermarkets’ Profit Margins

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoou Liu; Rigoberto A. Lopez

    2011-01-01

    This article quantifies the impact of Wal-Mart Supercenters on supermarkets’ profitability via a two-stage dynamic entry game, using method of simulated moments and milk scanner data from Dallas/Fort Worth supermarkets. The empirical findings show that the entry of Wal-Mart Supercenters accounts for about an average 50% decrease in milk profit margins for incumbent supermarkets. Effects of scale are found to be more significant for Wal-Mart Supercenters than for incumbent supermarkets, granti...

  16. Social media for non-profit organizations in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thy

    2016-01-01

    The thesis presents about social media in general and social media for non-profit organizations in Vietnam in particular. The writer wanted to explore the disadvantages that non-profits in Vietnam face when using social media and search for recommendations which helps them to use it more efficiently. In the theoretic part, core concepts related to social media were introduced, namely, definition of social media, its types, the popular platforms, situation of social media in Vietnam, pros...

  17. OPPORTUNITIES OF EXERCISING THE ROLE OF AN ACTIVE STUDENT AS A PREMISE OF STUDENT-CENTERED EDUCATION IN THE ECONOMIC SCIENCES FACULTY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ORADEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosca Remus Dorel

    2014-07-01

    The ideas presented in this paper are to represent a part of a good practice guide on implementing student-centered education within a high educational institution. The concern for this concept is determined by the current context of the high educational system in Romania characterized by: the intensification of the competitive environment; increasing employers’ demands; increasing high school graduates and students’ demands towards the quality offered by a high educational institution; the performance indicators used by ARACIS in the evaluation of the universities, a very relevant example being the graduates’ professional route in the labour field. We are convinced that the ideas presented in this paper are important to the decision factors from the academic environment, factors that should initiate and facilitate the implementation of the student- centered education concept.

  18. Impact of Liquidity on Islamic Banks' Profitability: Evidence from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limon Moinur Rasul

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of liquidity on Islamic banks’ profitability during an 11 years period of 2001 to 2011. To explore and interpret the results the study has taken samples from five Islamic banks that have been in operation in Bangladesh on or before 2001 to till date. In order to construct the liquidity model it used four liquidity variables namely cash & due from banks to total assets (CDTA, cash & due from banks to total deposits (CDDEP, investment to total assets (INVSTA and investment to total deposits (INVSDEP. According to adjusted R squares profitability variables return on assets (ROA, return on equity (ROE and return on deposits (ROD are respectively 17.1%, 4.5% and 24.6% dependent on independent variables. The statistical results suggest that CDTA is found insignificant with all profitability variables, whereas CDDEP is individually significant with all profitability variables except ROE. On the other hand INVSTA and INVSDEP are recognized significant with all three profitability variables. However, when ROE stands for an insignificant relationship with the overall liquidity model, ROA and ROD are identified significantly correlated with the similar model at 1% significant level. Unsurprisingly the findings do strengthen the specification that the impact of liquidity reflects adequate imposition on profitability that the Islamic banks in Bangladesh must abide by.

  19. Capital Structure and Profitability of Quoted Companies in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMOS O. AROWOSHEGBE. Ph.D; ACA.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the relationship of capital structure to profitability of quoted firms in Nigeria. The study was based on a panel data set from 1996 to 2010 comprising sixty non – financial companies. The study specified two panel regression models. Two profitability measures: Net Profit Margin (NPM and Operating Profit Margin (OPM were taken as the dependent variables respectively. The principal explanatory variable for each of the models was Debt Ratio (DR. The results of the study indicated that there was a significant negative relationship between capital structure and profitability of quoted companies in Nigeria. Indeed, the results the Pecking order theory that profitable firms do not target an optimal level of leverage to balance the benefits and costs of debt financing. Rather, firms use retained earnings first, then debts and finally equity. Such firms would actually be paying high tax charges and also high operating costs arising from over dependence on the money market for their funds requirements. It was recommended that appropriate fiscal policies, relevant capital market institutional and legal framework should be put in place. These measures, we believe, will ensure better access to funds and reduce the cost of doing business.

  20. Cause Related Marketing: Consumers Perceptions and Benefits for Profit and Non-Profits Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Farache

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to understand consumers’ perceptions regarding Cause Related Marketing [CRM]. The research findings were based on a survey of 200 consumers in the Brighton area and published data. The research aim was focused on the consumers’ perception of the alliance between corporations and non-profit organisations. The research found that consumers have a better perception of firms that work with charities and good causes than those that do not. They believe that the partnership between corporations and charities has an impact on the good of society. However, they are aware that corporations themselves benefit from this partnership. Concerning good causes, consumers prefer to support those related to Children. The researchers noticed that an individual connection with a cause might have considerable influence on consumer attitudes and behaviour in relation to a specific cause.

  1. [Trial of the Profit Optimization of the Department of Cardiac Surgery in the Local National University Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Taro; Kimura, Fumiaki; Kikuchi, Yuta; Tada, Hiroki; Kuriyama, Naoya; Jin, Tomoyuki; Kamiya, Hiroyuki

    2017-05-01

    In recent years economic sense is required in hospital management, the national university hospital is also no exception. We performed duty improvement efforts as well as the current state analysis in the department of cardiac surgery for the purpose of revenue optimization in our hospital. At result, we succeeded in the improvement of the medical index as well as medical profit and found the key of solution to the serious problem that national university hospital has.

  2. Costs, Commitment and Locality: A Comparison of For-Profit and Not-for-Profit Health Plans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    ...) (Schlesinger, Mitchell, and Gray 2003), this study of the New York state market shows significant differences in premiums, administrative overhead and commitment to safety net coverage between nonprofit and for-profit health plans...

  3. Development of an activity-based costing model to evaluate physician office practice profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugel, Pravin U; Tong, Kuo Bianchini

    2011-01-01

    Newer treatment regimens for age-related macular degeneration have significantly affected traditional and non-traditional retinal services across all types of practice settings around the country as they seek to find a balance among delivering best patient care, keeping operating costs under control, and maintaining profitability. A systematic retrospective review of a multi-city, multi-physician retinal practice's accounting system to obtain data on revenues, expenses, and profit. Data reviewed were from practice management systems to obtain claims level data on clinical procedures across 7 primary activity centers: non-laser surgery, laser surgery, office visits, optical coherence tomography (OCT), non-OCT diagnostics, drugs and drug injections, and research. All treated patients from a retina practice from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2007. Retrospective claims data review from a multi-physician retina practice detailing Current Procedural Terminology and Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System procedures performed and billed, submitted charges, allowed charges, and net collections. Analyses were performed by an outside firm and verified by a risk advisory firm. Identifying practice efficiencies/inefficiencies as they relate to patient care. An elaborate analysis using activity-based costing (ABC) showed that increased office visits and OCT and non-OCT diagnostics had a significant negative impact on the practice's profit margins, whereas surgical procedures contributed to the majority of the practice's profit margins because of the lower operating costs associated with surgery. The practice was able to accommodate the demand in patient volume, medical retina services, and medical imaging with the advent of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy and realized a seismic shift in operating costs. The practice attempted to deliver state-of-the-art patient care in a cost-effective manner, yet underwent a significant decline in its financial health

  4. Economics and business economics.

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Silva

    1993-01-01

    The comparison between Economics and Business Management allows the clarification of some of their characteristics and limits as regards method, language, and objectives. Secondly, it allows the verification of the reciprocal contribution relating to research. For such a comparison, the object of study, the method, and the objectives of Economics and Business Management are taken into consideration distinguishing; so far as Business Management is concerned, between the Italian and American tr...

  5. Domotics in existing houses for elderly people. Evaluation of the project Lidwinahof. People, Planet, Profit; Domotica in bestaande seniorenwoningen. Evaluatie project Lidwinahof. People, Planet, Profit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schouw, J.; Corpeleijn, M.; Poiesz, E. [CEA, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2003-08-01

    Domotics is applied in 49 houses for elderly people of the building complex Lidwinahof in Best, Netherlands. The domotics application concerns the functions safety (burglary, control of access, fire), care (emergency call, measurement of activity) and comfort (lighting). Among all residents an evaluation has been carried out from the perspective of sustainable development. A precondition for sustainable development is a balance between social, ecological and economical benefits (People, Planet and Profit). Results before and after the application of domotics are compared. [Dutch] De afgelopen jaren hebben diverse woningcorporaties een pilot-project met domotica uitgevoerd, met name met toepassingen op het gebied van wonen en zorg. Domein (woningcorporatie in Eindhoven, Best en Son en Breugel) was in het voorjaar van 2002 de eerste woningcorporatie die domotica heeft toegepast in de bestaande bouw (49 seniorenwoningen van het complex Lidwinahof in Best). Het systeem bevatte de functies veiligheid (inbraak, toegangscontrole, brand), zorg (noodoproep, activiteitsmeting) en comfort (verlichting). Onder alle bewoners is een evaluatie uitgevoerd vanuit het perspectief van duurzame ontwikkeling. Voorwaarde voor duurzame ontwikkeling is een balans tussen sociale, ecologische en economische opbrengsten (People, Planet en Profit). De resultaten op deze drie gebieden voor en na toepassing van domotica zijn vergeleken.

  6. Globalisation, economics and professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chay-Hoon; Macneill, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the effect of globalisation and attendant economic factors on the global practice of medicine, medical education, medical ethics and medical professionalism. The authors discuss the implications of these trends, citing case scenarios in the healthcare insurance, medical tourism, pharmaceutical industries, and the educational systems as well as in clinical practice, to illustrate the impact of globalisation and economics on professionalism. Globalisation, on the one hand, offers benefits for the global practice of medicine and for medical education. On the other, globalisation can have negative effects, particularly when the main driver is to maximise profitability across national boundaries rather than concern for human well-being. Appraising the effect of globalisation on professionalism involves assessing its effects at the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and institutional levels, and its effect on society at large.

  7. Exploring current and projected tradeoffs between hydropower profitability and reliability of supply in the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, D.; Castelletti, A.; Burlando, P.

    2015-12-01

    The recent spreading of renewable energy across Europe and the associated production variability and uncertainty are emerging challenges for hydropower system operation. Widely distributed and highly intermittent solar and wind power generation systems, along with feed-in-tariffs, at which they are remunerated, are threating the operation of traditional hydropower systems. For instance, in countries where the transition to a larger production by means of renewable power systems is a novel process, e.g. Switzerland, many hydropower companies are operating their reservoirs with low or no profits, claiming for a revision of the entire energy market system. This situation goes along with the problem of ensuring energy supply both nowadays and in the future, with changing energy demand and available water resources. In this work, we focus on a hydropower system in the Swiss Alps to explore how different operating policies can cope with both adequate energy supply and profitable operation under current and future climate and socio-economic conditions. We investigate the operation of the Mattmark reservoir in South-West Switzerland. Mattmark is a pumped reservoir of 98 106 m3 fed by a natural catchment of 37 km2 and contributing catchments, summing up to 51 km2, connected by several diversion channels. The hydrological regime, snow- and ice-melt dominated, has already experienced changes in the last decades due to glacier retreat and is expected to be strongly impacted by climate change in the future. We use Multi-Objective optimization techniques to explore current tradeoffs between profitability and secure supply. We then investigate how tradeoffs may evolve in time under different climate change projections and energy market scenarios. Results inform on the co-evolution of climate- and socio-economic induced variations, thus unveiling potential co-benefit situations to hydropower generation and providing insights to future energy market design.

  8. THE RELEVANCE OF ECONOMIC INFORMATION IN ANALYZING THE ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRUTA MIRCEA IOAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The performance analysis is based on an informational system, which provides financial information in various formatsand with various applicabilities.We intend to formulate a set of important caracteristics of financial information along with identifying a set of relevant financial rates and indicatorsused to appreciate the performance level of a company. Economic performance can be interpreted in different ways at each level of analysis. Generally, it refers to economic growth, increased productivity and profitability. The growth of labor productivity or increased production per worker is a measure of efficient use of resources in value creation.

  9. From rainfed agriculture to stress-avoidance irrigation: II. Sustainability, crop yield, and profitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vico, Giulia; Porporato, Amilcare

    2011-02-01

    The optimality of irrigation strategies may be sought with respect to a number of criteria, including water requirements, crop yield, and profitability. To explore the suitability of different demand-based irrigation strategies, we link the probabilistic description of irrigation requirements under stochastic hydro-climatic conditions, provided in a companion paper [Vico G, Porporato A. From rainfed agriculture to stress-avoidance irrigation: I. A generalized irrigation scheme with stochastic soil moisture. Adv Water Resour 2011;34(2):263-71], to crop-yield and economic analyses. Water requirements, application efficiency, and investment costs of different irrigation methods, such as surface, sprinkler and drip irrigation systems, are described via a unified conceptual and theoretical approach, which includes rainfed agriculture and stress-avoidance irrigation as extreme cases. This allows us to analyze irrigation strategies with respect to sustainability, productivity, and economic return, using the same framework, and quantify them as a function of climate, crop, and soil parameters. We apply our results to corn ( Zea mays), a food staple and biofuel source, which is currently mainly irrigated through surface systems. As our analysis shows, micro-irrigation maximizes water productivity, but more traditional solutions may be more profitable at least in some contexts.

  10. Toltrazuril and sulphonamide treatment against naturally Isospora suis infected suckling piglets: is there an actual profit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, Antonio; Demontis, Francesca; Varcasia, Antonio; Pipia, Anna Paola; Poglayen, Giovanni; Ferrari, Nicola; Genchi, Marco

    2009-08-26

    A study was carried out to assess the efficacy and the economic profit of prophylactic treatment against Isopsora suis with toltrazuril or with a sulfamethazine/trimethoprim combination in piglets from an intensive pig farm. Thirty-one litters were included in study. Eight litters were treated once with toltrazuril (20 mg/kg b.w.) at 3 days of age (Toltra group); 8 litters were treated with 2 ml/animal of a [corrected] sulphonamide combination (sodium sulfamethazine 250 [DOSAGE ERROR CORRECTED] mg and trimethoprim 50 [DOSAGE ERROR CORRECTED] mg/kg b.w.) for 3 consecutive days starting at 3 days of age (Sulfa group), and 15 litters were untreated (control group). Counts of oocyst per gram on pooled feces sampled from each litter were carried out on Days 7, 14, 21 and 28 and diarrhea was registered daily from pooled samples. Piglets were weighed on Days 1, 7 and 28 and mean weight gain (WG) and daily weight gain (DWG) were evaluated. The economic profit of treatment was evaluated comparing the WG of piglets of each treatment group from the day of birth to Day 28. On Days 14, 21 and 28, toltrazuril showed a better efficacy in controlling fecal oocyst output, diarrhea and weight gain compared with sulphamidic treatment (Ptoltrazuril-treated piglets and an additional cost of euro 1.155 per sulphonamide-treated piglets.

  11. THE PROBLEM OF PIG MEAT PRODUCTION PROFITABILITY IN HOUSEHOLDS: RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigore BALTAG

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of low profitability of fresh pork production in Moldovan pig farmers. The author analyses, in a complex way, the structure of the production of pork from the producer to the processor, which identifies the main problem – the added value to the pig producers is well below that of the processors and its size does not allow the economic development. The Sensitivity Analysis in the paper presents some possible scenarios for obtaining a sufficient return. It proposes a matrix of profitability of pork production on the basis of the researches carried out. As a factual basis for the elaboration of this scientific article, the field results obtained within the project “Determining the influence of the factors influencing the change of the efficiency of the meat breeding efficiency in the conditions of liberalization of the internal market” within the State Program Development of competitiveness and economic growth In the context of an economy based on knowledge, globalization and regional and European integration.

  12. Cost structure and profitability of Assaf dairy sheep farms in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milán, M J; Frendi, F; González-González, R; Caja, G

    2014-01-01

    Twenty dairy sheep farms of Assaf breed, located in the Spanish autonomous community of Castilla y León and included in a group receiving technical support, were used to study their production cost structure and to assess their economic profitability during 2009. On average, farms had 89.2±38.0 ha (own, 38%), 592±63 ewes, yielded 185.9±21.1×10(3) L/yr (i.e., 316±15 L/ewe), and were attended by 2.3±0.2 annual working units (family, 72%). Total annual income was €194.4±23.0×10(3)/yr (€1.0=$1.3) from milk (78.6%), lamb (13.2%), culled ewes (0.5%), and other sales (0.8%, wool and manure), and completed with the European Union sheep subsidy (6.9%). Total costs were €185.9±19.0×10(3)/yr to attend to feeding (61.6%), labor (18.2%), equipment maintenance and depreciation (7.6%), finances (3.0%), animal health (2.5%), energy, water and milking supplies (2.2%), milk recording (0.5%), and other costs (4.4%; assurances, shearing, association fees, and so on). Mean dairy sheep farm profit was €8.5±5.8×10(3)/yr (€7.4±8.3/ewe) on average, and varied between -€40.6 and €81.1/ewe among farms. Only 60% of farms were able to pay all costs, the rest had negative balances. Nevertheless, net margin was €31.0±6.5×10(3)/yr on average, varying between €0.6 and €108.4×10(3)/yr among farms. In this case, without including the opportunity costs, all farms had positive balances. Total annual cost (TAC; €/ewe) and total annual income (TAI; €/ewe) depended on milk yield (MY; L/ewe) and were TAC=161.6 + 0.502 MY (R(2)=0.50), and TAI=78.13 + 0.790 MY (R(2)=0.88), respectively, with the break-even point being 291 L/ewe. Conversely, farm TAC (€/yr) and farm TAI (€/yr) were also predicted as a function of the number of ewes (NOE) per flock, as TAC=18,401 + 282.8 NOE (R(2)=0.89) and TAI=330.9 NOE (R(2)=0.98), with the break-even point being 383 ewes/flock. Finally, according to the increasing trend expected for agricultural commodity prices, it was

  13. The effectiveness, safety, and economic evaluation of Korean medicine for unexplained infertile women: A multi-center, prospective, observational study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-Hyun; Jo, Junyoung; Kim, Dong-Il

    2017-12-01

    Infertility is a condition in which a woman has not been pregnant despite having had normal intercourse for 1 year. The number of unexplained infertile females is increasing because of late marriage customs, as well as environmental and lifestyle habits. In Korea, infertile females have been treated with Korean medicine (KM). However, these effects have not been objectively confirmed through clinical trials. Therefore, this study was conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of herbal medicine treatment in infertile patients and to demonstrate the economic feasibility through economical evaluation with assisted reproductive technology.This study is designed as a multicenter, single-arm clinical trial. All participants included will be from 3 Korean Medicine hospitals in Korea and will voluntarily sign an informed consent agreement. All recruited patients will conduct related surveys and tests, and be provided with treatment according to their menstrual cycle. Patients will take herbal medicines for 4 menstruation cycles and receive acupuncture and moxibustion treatment at 3 times (menstrual cycle day 3, 8, 14) during 4 menstruation cycles. They will also undergo an approximately 4 menstrual cycle treatment period, and 3 menstrual cycle observation period. If pregnant during the study, participants will take the herbal medicine for implantation for about 15 days. In this study, the primary outcome will be the clinical pregnancy rate, whereas the secondary outcome will include the implantation rate, ongoing pregnancy rate, and live birth rate.Ultimately, this study will provide clinical data regarding the effectiveness and safety of KM treatment for females with unexplained infertility and important evidence for establishing standard KM treatments for unexplained infertility. Moreover, we will identify the most cost-effective way to treat unexplained infertility. Korean Clinical Trial Registry (CRIS), Republic of Korea: KCT0002235. Date: February 21, 2017

  14. Socio-economic Status, Needs, and Utilization of Dental Services among Rural Adults in a Primary Health Center Area in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommireddy, Vikram Simha; Pachava, Srinivas; Ravoori, Srinivas; Sanikommu, Suresh; Talluri, Devaki; Vinnakota, Narayana Rao

    2014-01-01

    The oral disease burden in India is showing a steady increase in the recent years. Utilization of dental care being the major factor affecting the oral health status of the population is used as an important tool in oral health policy decision-making and is measured in terms of the number of dental visits per annum. A cross-sectional house to house questionnaire survey was conducted in three rural clusters which were randomly selected from a total of eight clusters served by a primary health center. Simple random sampling was used to select 100 houses from each cluster. Screening was done to examine the existing oral diseases. A total of 385 completed questionnaires were collected from 300 houses. Of 385 study subjects, 183 have experienced previous dental problems. Major dental problem experienced by the study subjects was toothache (68.85%) and the treatment underwent was extraction (50.27%). Most preferred treatment centers by the study subjects were private dental hospital (68.25%) and reason identified was accessibility which constituted (45.24%) of all the reasons given. Negative attitude toward dental care is one of the important barriers; 50.8% of the non-utilizers felt dental treatment is not much important. Person's attitude, lack of awareness, and affordability remain the barriers for utilization of dental services. Effective methods have to be exercised to breach such barriers.

  15. Clinical, patient-related, and economic outcomes of home-based high-dose hemodialysis versus conventional in-center hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsides N

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nicos Mitsides,1,2 Sandip Mitra,1,2 Tom Cornelis3 1Department of Renal Medicine, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Science Center, Manchester, 2National Institute for Healthcare Research Devices for Dignity Healthcare Co-operative, Sheffield, UK; 3Department of Nephrology, Jessa Hospital, Hasselt, Belgium Abstract: Despite technological advances in renal replacement therapy, the preservation of health and quality of life for individuals on dialysis still remains a challenge. The high morbidity and mortality in dialysis warrant further research and insight into the clinical domains of the technique and practice of this therapy. In the last 20 years, the focus of development in the field of hemodialysis (HD has centered around adequate removal of urea and other associated toxins. High-dose HD offers an opportunity to improve mortality, morbidity, and quality of life of patients with end-stage kidney disease. However, the uptake of this modality is low, and the risk associated with the therapy is not fully understood. Recent studies have highlighted the evidence base and improved our understanding of this technique of dialysis. This article provides a review of high-dose and home HD, its clinical impact on patient outcome, and the controversies that exist. Keywords: hemodialysis, home dialysis, high dose, outcomes

  16. Small run-of-river hydropower: tradeoff among energy production, profitability and hydrologic impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, S.; Lazzaro, G.; Schirmer, M.; Botter, G.

    2013-12-01

    Energy production by run-of-river hydropower plants strongly depends on the availability and temporal variability of streamflows. Due to the absence of a reservoir, the selection of the plant capacity is a key step to reach an efficient exploitation of the available water resources, and it should rest on a characterization of the variability of river flows as well as on economic issues. In this work we propose an analytical framework to identify the capacity which maximizes the produced energy or the economic profitability of small run-of-river power plants, explicitly taking into account the streamflow variability and the management strategies used to operate the plants. The framework allows for an assessment of the gap between the economic and energy optimizations of these plants and of the effectiveness of policies aimed at its reduction. In order to consider also the value linked to protection or restoration of riverine processes and habitats, which could be heavily impacted by small run-of-river plants built in cascade along the same river reach, the alteration of the hydrologic regime between the intake and the outflow of the plant is expressed as a function of the natural regime. Two alternative withdrawal strategies (the commonly used minimum flow discharge and the percent-of-flow approaches) are analyzed and the resulting hydrologic disturbances and economic profitabilities are compared by using a set of synthetic indices. The application to three case studies in the Alps proves the framework to be a valuable tool to assess the ability of water management strategies to trade between hydrologic disturbance and anthropogenic uses of fresh water and to identify incentive policies promoting an efficient exploitation of water resources.

  17. Institutional Support : Economic Policy Research Centre (EPRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Economic Policy Research Centre (EPRC) was established in 1993 as an autonomous not-for-profit policy research institute with support from the Government of Uganda, donor ... An IDRC-supported researcher is receiving international attention for his work to address maternal and child death rates in East Africa.

  18. Does ownership matter? An overview of systematic reviews of the performance of private for-profit, private not-for-profit and public healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Cristian A; Rada, Gabriel; Kuhn-Barrientos, Lucy; Barrios, Ximena

    2014-01-01

    Ownership of healthcare providers has been considered as one factor that might influence their health and healthcare related performance. The aim of this article was to provide an overview of what is known about the effects on economic, administrative and health related outcomes of different types of ownership of healthcare providers--namely public, private non-for-profit (PNFP) and private for-profit (PFP)--based on the findings of systematic reviews (SR). An overview of systematic reviews was performed. Different databases were searched in order to select SRs according to an explicit comprehensive criterion. Included SRs were assessed to determine their methodological quality. Of the 5918 references reviewed, fifteen SR were included, but six of them were rated as having major limitations, so they weren't incorporated in the analyses. According to the nine analyzed SR, ownership does seem to have an effect on health and healthcare related outcomes. In the comparison of PFP and PNFP providers, significant differences in terms of mortality of patients and payments to facilities have been found, both being higher in PFP facilities. In terms of quality and economic indicators such as efficiency, there are no concluding results. When comparing PNFP and public providers, as well as for PFP and public providers, no clear differences were found. PFP providers seem to have worst results than their PNFP counterparts, but there are still important evidence gaps in the literature that needs to be covered, including the comparison between public and both PFP and PNFP providers. More research is needed in low and middle income countries to understand the impact on and development of healthcare delivery systems.

  19. Impact of subclinical mastitis on greenhouse gas emissions intensity and profitability of dairy cows in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan Gülzari, Şeyda; Vosough Ahmadi, Bouda; Stott, Alistair W

    2018-02-01

    Impaired animal health causes both productivity and profitability losses on dairy farms, resulting in inefficient use of inputs and increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions produced per unit of product (i.e. emissions intensity). Here, we used subclinical mastitis as an exemplar to benchmark alternative scenarios against an economic optimum and adjusted herd structure to estimate the GHG emissions intensity associated with varying levels of disease. Five levels of somatic cell count (SCC) classes were considered namely 50,000 (i.e. SCC50), 200,000, 400,000, 600,000 and 800,000cells/mL (milliliter) of milk. The effects of varying levels of SCC on milk yield reduction and consequential milk price penalties were used in a dynamic programming (DP) model that maximizes the profit per cow, represented as expected net present value, by choosing optimal animal replacement rates. The GHG emissions intensities associated with different levels of SCC were then computed using a farm-scale model (HolosNor). The total culling rates of both primiparous (PP) and multiparous (MP) cows for the five levels of SCC scenarios estimated by the model varied from a minimum of 30.9% to a maximum of 43.7%. The expected profit was the highest for cows with SCC200 due to declining margin over feed, which influenced the DP model to cull and replace more animals and generate higher profit under this scenario compared to SCC50. The GHG emission intensities for the PP and MP cows with SCC50 were 1.01kg (kilogram) and 0.95kg carbon dioxide equivalents (CO 2 e) per kg fat and protein corrected milk (FPCM), respectively, with the lowest emissions being achieved in SCC50. Our results show that there is a potential to reduce the farm GHG emissions intensity by 3.7% if the milk production was improved through reducing the level of SCC to 50,000cells/mL in relation to SCC level 800,000cells/mL. It was concluded that preventing and/or controlling subclinical mastitis consequently reduces the GHG

  20. Determinants of profitability according to groups of banks in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Arjeta Hallunovi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzed the determinants of profitability of all the commercial banks in Albania, where the banks were analyzed by dividing into groups[1]. These determinants are categorized into two groups, internal and external factors. The objective of the study is to determine the factors that affect the profitability in commercial banks, to show how they differ according to groups of the banks and making some recommendations which can help the management. A panel data with all the commercial banks that operate in Albania is analyzed for the period 2009-2014. To measure the profitability is used the independent variable return on assets. Banking specific factors that are used in this study include variables such as bank size, asset management, credit risk, liquidity of assets, capital adequacy, operational efficiency and cost of financing. On the other hand is taken into consideration only one industry specific factor, which is the concentration and some macroeconomic factors as GDP, exchange rate and inflation. The quantitative data are obtained from the financial statements of commercial banks, INSTAT, Bank of Albania, World Bank and Bankscope, in order to make empirical analysis needed to identify and measure the determinants of bank profitability. In particular, the multiple regression analysis is used to measure the impact of determinants in bank profitability and to realize empirical analysis is used Eviews 7. The results of the study showed a positive relationship between bank size and profitability, statistically important in the group 2, with 1% level of significance. The credit risk had an inverse relation with profitability in the model, statistically significant at 1% level of significance for the group 2 and 5% for the group 1 and 3. While, in terms of macroeconomic factors, GDP had a positive relationship with profitability and it is statistically significant in the group 3. On the other hand, inflation and exchange rate showed a

  1. Pricing strategies and levels and their impact on corporate profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deonir De Toni

    Full Text Available Abstract Price policy definition is one of the most important decisions in management as it affects corporate profitability and market competitiveness. Despite the importance that prices take in organizations, it appears that this element has not received proper attention by many academics and marketers since it represents, according to estimates, less than 2% of the papers on leading journals in the field. Thus, the aim of this study was to propose and test a theoretical model showing the impacts of pricing policy on corporate profitability. To this end, 150 companies in the metal-mechanic sector situated in the Northeast of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil were studied, integrating customer value-based pricing strategies, competition-based pricing strategies and cost-based pricing strategies with price levels (high and low and performance with respect to profitability. The results indicate that the profitability of the surveyed companies is positively affected by value-based pricing strategy and high price levels while it is negatively affected by low price levels. Such findings indicate that pricing policies influence the profitability of organizations and therefore, a more strategic look at the pricing process may constitute one aspect that cannot be overlooked by managers.

  2. The impact of profitability of hospital admissions on mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindrooth, Richard C; Konetzka, R Tamara; Navathe, Amol S; Zhu, Jingsan; Chen, Wei; Volpp, Kevin

    2013-04-01

    Fiscal constraints faced by Medicare are leading to policies designed to reduce expenditures. Evidence of the effect of reduced reimbursement on the mortality of Medicare patients discharged from all major hospital service lines is limited. We modeled risk-adjusted 30-day mortality of patients discharged from 21 hospital service lines as a function of service line profitability, service line time trends, and hospital service line and year-fixed effects. We simulated the effect of alternative revenue-neutral reimbursement policies on mortality. Our sample included all Medicare discharges from PPS-eligible hospitals (1997, 2001, and 2005). The results reveal a statistically significant inverse relationship between changes in profitability and mortality. A $0.19 average reduction in profit per $1.00 of costs led to a 0.010-0.020 percentage-point increase in mortality rates (p profitable. Policy simulations that target service line inequities in payment generosity result in lower mortality rates, roughly 700-13,000 fewer deaths nationally. The policy simulations raise questions about the trade-offs implicit in universal reductions in reimbursement. The effect of reduced payment generosity on mortality could be mitigated by targeting highly profitable services only for lower reimbursement. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  3. IS THE PRICE RIGHT? PRICING FOR LONG TERM PROFITABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Erika NYÁRÁDI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The way how we choose our pricing strategy has a significant impact on company’s success. Nowadays companies more and more adopt a new way of thinking in pricing, namely pricing for a long term period in order to bring higher profitability, to build an efficient pricing strategy. Marketers have only recently begun to focus seriously on effective pricing. These companies are the so called progressive companies. They have begun doing more than just worrying about pricing. To increase profitability many are abandoning traditional reactive pricing procedures in favor of proactive pricing, making explicit corporate decisions to change their focus to growth in top-line sales to growth in profitability. The long-term implications of price strategies are still under-researched, and managers should be aware of shifts in customer reactions that may result from frequent adoption of certain strategies. The company pricing strategy should be seen in relation to developments in the company variables, internal ones (capital strength, competencies, organizational conditions, efficiency of the work force etc. as well as external ones (customers, competitors, the technological development etc., adopting strategic pricing. In this paper I will present the most effective pricing strategies leading to long term profitability, and also suggest practical conditions for pricing strategies to maximize profit in the long run.

  4. Domestic and Foreign Banks’ Profitability: Differences and Their Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad AZAM

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study to analyze and compare the profitability of domestic (Public & Private and foreign banks operating in the Pakistan Banking market between 2004 and 2010 on quarterly basis. Total 36 Commercial Banks of Pakistani Industry have represented our sample. To control for the effect of bank ownership on performance, we split the sample into three categories: (1 domestic banks with Government Control, (2 domestic banks with Private control, and (3 foreign banks. This study also finds that foreign banks are more profitable than all domestic banks regardless of their ownership structure by applying regression analysis. This may suggest that it is better for a multinational bank to establish a subsidiary/branch rather than acquiring an “existing player” in the host country. We also found that domestic and foreign banks have different profitability determinants, i.e. factors that are important in shaping domestic banks’ profitability are not necessary important for the foreign banks and vice versa. Empirical results show that foreign banks are less affected by the macroeconomic factors of the host country than domestic banks and they have a higher profitability margin in Pakistan.

  5. ECONOMIC THEORY OF LOBBYING: EVALUATION OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolstyh Pavel Aleksandrovich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author continues to analyze lobbying with regards to economic paradigm. [The author has started discussing lobbying in terms of economic theory in the article Politico-economic theory of lobbying / / Historical, philosophical, political and legal sciences, culture and art. Theory and practice. Tambov: Gramota, 2013. No 1. Part 2. p. 177-189.] Researcher evaluates the cost effectiveness of the lobbying function. Lobbying is understood as activity of specifically authorized employees of corporations and lobbying firms representing their interests, trade associations. This activity is aimed at improving the profitability of integrated and sustainable business development by representing long-term, comfortable, predictable system of relationships with the relevant field-specific political stakeholders of the federal and regional levels. The article presents an in-depth analysis of economic concepts of lobbying function.

  6. ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel MARIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to highlight the quality of life that depends on necessary, harmonious and simultaneous satisfying of all human needs, instead of „one at a time”, health and economic insecurity being at the very foundation of it. A society that is focused on quality of life will be a society centered on the individual, their needs and aspirations. It needs to offer alternatives and choices of the individual and not to impose models. Coercion of society over the individual is an objective and necessary phenomenon. Its deepening is not, however, as required. Social environment based on quality of life must be characterized by the maximum possible degree of permissiveness in which the individual is educated in its contribution to social awareness.

  7. ANALISIS PENGARUH LEVERAGE, PROFITABILITY, DAN FOREIGN OWNERSHIP TERHADAP PENGUNGKAPAN INFORMASI TANGGUNG JAWAB SOSIAL PERUSAHAAN (CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Handoyo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility is defined as the voluntary activities undertaken by a company to operate in economic, social and environmentally sustainable manner. It's based on Pasal 74 Undang-Undang Perseroan Terbatas No. 40 Tahun 2007. The research aimed to analyze the factors influencing disclosure level of corporate social responsibility at mining sector that listed at Indonesian Stock Exchange (IDX period 2013-2014. In this research caracteristics of the company are consisting of leverage, profitability, and foreign ownership. The population taken in this research was all companies at mining sector that listed in IDX from 2013 to 2014. The method of data analisys was linear regression analisys with SPSS 20. Multiple linear regression analysis technique that used in this research to determine the effect of leverage, profitability and foreign ownership to Corporate Social Responsibility disclosure. Index of corporate social responsibility (CSR is measured with company's indicators disclosed by the number of indicator is set on G4 by Global Reporting Initiative (GRI. Leverage is defined by debt to asset ratio (DAR, profitability is defined by return on assets (ROA, and foreign ownership is defined by the amount of foreign ownership divided by number of outstanding shares. The result of this research showed that leverage and profitability have a positive and significant effect on the CSR disclosure, while the foreign ownership have no effect on CSR disclosure at the mining companies in Indonesia.

  8. Net profit flow per country from 1980 to 2009 : The long-term effects of foreign direct investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, Dirk H.M.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the paper The paper aims at describing and explaining net profit flows per country for the period 1980-2009. Net profit flows result from Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) stock and profit repatriation: inward stock creating a profit outflow and outward FDI stock a profit inflow. Profit flows,

  9. AN ANALYSIS OF THE COMPANIE'S ECONOMIC GROWTH CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia BURJA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable economic growth of companies constitutes a strategic management objective as it is ofgeneral interest. The companies’ accrued net worth and their capacity to generate profit result in increasedcompetitiveness. This paper presents a general model to analyze the companies’ economic growth grounded on theinvested capital profitability that is illustrated in an adequate case study. The described model highlights the majorfactors influencing economic growth at a microeconomic level as well as the direction they act, providing thepossibility to better substantiate decisions that serve this purpose.

  10. SOCIAL BALANCE - SUMMARY DOCUMENT AND REPORTING ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NĂSTASIE MIHAELA – ANDREEA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available General research area of this article is the annual social reports that have as main objective the good information of users of both the internal and external users of accounting information reported. In economic, financial reports along with reports of social attract itself an end, equally profitable and moral, individual and social welfare bringing. Social Balance is an instrument of human resource management information, retrospective summary that aims to satisfy the social information of employees and highlight the social resources of the economic entity and use, in order to know the case where the entity is economic profit or loss realized.

  11. Time delay and profit accumulation effect on a mine-based uranium market clearing model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auzans, Aris [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ostwaldi 1, EE-50411 Tartu (Estonia); Teder, Allan [School of Economics and Business Administration, University of Tartu, Narva mnt 4, EE-51009 Tartu (Estonia); Tkaczyk, Alan H., E-mail: alan@ut.ee [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ostwaldi 1, EE-50411 Tartu (Estonia)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Improved version of a mine-based uranium market clearing model for the front-end uranium market and enrichment industries is proposed. • A profit accumulation algorithm and time delay function provides more realistic uranium mine decision making process. • Operational decision delay increased uranium market price volatility. - Abstract: The mining industry faces a number of challenges such as market volatility, investment safety, issues surrounding employment and productivity. Therefore, computer simulations are highly relevant in order to reduce financial risks associated with these challenges. In the mining industry, each firm must compete with other mines and the basic target is profit maximization. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the world uranium (U) supply by simulating financial management challenges faced by an individual U mine that are caused by a variety of regulation issues. In this paper front-end nuclear fuel cycle tool is used to simulate market conditions and the effects they have on the stability of U supply. An individual U mine’s exit or entry in the market might cause changes in the U supply side which can increase or decrease the market price. In this paper we offer a more advanced version of a mine-based U market clearing model. The existing U market model incorporates the market of primary U from uranium mines with secondary uranium (depleted uranium DU), enriched uranium (HEU) and enrichment services. In the model each uranium mine acts as an independent agent that is able to make operational decisions based on the market price. This paper introduces a more realistic decision making algorithm of individual U mine that adds constraints to production decisions. The authors added an accumulated profit model, which allows for the profits accumulated to cover any possible future economic losses and the time-delay algorithm to simulate delayed process of reopening a U mine. The U market simulation covers time period 2010

  12. Monetary economics from econophysics perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovenko, Victor M.

    2016-12-01

    This is an invited article for the Discussion and Debate special issue of The European Physical Journal Special Topics on the subject "Can Economics be a Physical Science?" The first part of the paper traces the personal path of the author from theoretical physics to economics. It briefly summarizes applications of statistical physics to monetary transactions in an ensemble of economic agents. It shows how a highly unequal probability distribution of money emerges due to irreversible increase of entropy in the system. The second part examines deep conceptual and controversial issues and fallacies in monetary economics from econophysics perspective. These issues include the nature of money, conservation (or not) of money, distinctions between money vs. wealth and money vs. debt, creation of money by the state and debt by the banks, the origins of monetary crises and capitalist profit. Presentation uses plain language understandable to laypeople and may be of interest to both specialists and general public.

  13. The Profit Distribution of Supply Chain under E-Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Hua Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of e-commerce, its influence on supply chain and supply chain management is becoming increasingly significant too. In this paper, the literature on the supply chain profit is reviewed first, and then a two-level and four-party supply chain which consists of a supplier, an e-commerce platform, third-party logistics, and demander is taken into consideration. The profit function of supply chain under e-commerce is formulated by taking the price of product and the maximum supply amount under certain investment as decision-making variables and taking the expected value of random variables of price as the setting sales quantity. Finally, the existence of maximum profit in the supply chain is proved in the model, and the coordination of supply chain under e-commerce environment can be achieved by setting coordination parameters when the relevant cost parameters of supply chain members satisfy certain conditions.

  14. Industrial management- control and profit a technical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Halevi, Gideon

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents controlling tools for management in order to be in a position to communicate with control engineers concerning technological decisions. The main objective of manufacturing management is to make profit. However, in traditional manufacturing systems none of the separate stages in the process support this objective. Management is not expert in any of these stages, and therefore is dependent on specific experts at each stage and must follow their decisions. Each stage has its own first priority which is not profit and cost. This means that management does not have real control over these functional stages, nor over the process as a whole. This book presents controlling tools for management in order to allow them to communicate better with the experts of the particular manufacturing stages to reach better results and higher profits. It is shown that most enterprises can improve their efficiency rate by between 25 and 60% by using the tools developed here.

  15. Applicability of Investment and Profitability Effects in Asset Pricing Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio André Veras Machado

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate whether investment and profitability are priced and if they partially explain the variations of stock returns in the Brazilian stock market, according to the Fama and French’s (2015 five-factor model. By using time series and cross-section regression, we found that book-to-market, momentum and liquidity are associated with stock returns whereas investment and profitability were not significant. We also found that there is no investment premium in Brazil. Therefore, motivated by the importance of B/M, momentum and liquidity to the Brazilian stock market, as well as by the poor performance of profitability and investment, we document that Keene and Peterson’s (2007 five-factor model is superior to all other models, especially the five-factor model by Fama and French (2015.

  16. Understanding and performing economic assessments at the company level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mossink, J.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    Improvement of safety and health in the workplace can bring economic benefits for both the individual worker, company and the society as a whole. Employers and decision makers can be convinced of the profitability of improving working conditions by making financial and economic estimations. This

  17. COSTS AND PROFITABILITY IN FOOD PROCESSING: PASTRY TYPE UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUMITRANA MIHAELA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available For each company, profitability, products quality and customer satisfaction are the most importanttargets. To attaint these targets, managers need to know all about costs that are used in decision making. Whatkind of costs? How these costs are calculated for a specific sector such as food processing? These are only a fewquestions with answers in our paper. We consider that a case study for this sector may be relevant for all peoplethat are interested to increase the profitability of this specific activity sector.

  18. The Determinants of Bank Profitability: The Case of Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Olfa Nessibi

    2016-01-01

    Using bank level data this paper examines how bank’s specific characteristics and macroeconomic indicators affect the profitability in the Tunisian banking industry over the period 1990–2008. The results indicate that the more profitable banks are those higher amount of capital and lower operating costs. Furthermore, it appears that private banks tend to perform better than state owned ones.  Despite the great importance given to the board of directors, it doesn't have a dominant role in the ...

  19. Fluctuations of company yearly profits versus scaled revenue: Fat tail distribution of Levy type

    OpenAIRE

    H. E. Roman; Siliprandi, R. A.; Dose, C.; Riccardi, C.; Porto,M.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze annual revenues and earnings data for the 500 largest-revenue U.S. companies during the period 1954-2007. We find that mean year profits are proportional to mean year revenues, exception made for few anomalous years, from which we postulate a linear relation between company expected mean profit and revenue. Mean annual revenues are used to scale both company profits and revenues. Annual profit fluctuations are obtained as difference between actual annual profit and its expected mea...

  20. University of TX Bureau of Economic Geology's Core Research Centers: The Time is Right for Registering Physical Samples and Assigning IGSN's - Workflows, Stumbling Blocks, and Successes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averett, A.; DeJarnett, B. B.

    2016-12-01

    The University Of Texas Bureau Of Economic Geology (BEG) serves as the geological survey for Texas and operates three geological sample repositories that house well over 2 million boxes of geological samples (cores and cuttings) and an abundant amount of geoscience data (geophysical logs, thin sections, geochemical analyses, etc.). Material is accessible and searchable online, and it is publically available to the geological community for research and education. Patrons access information about our collection by using our online core and log database (SQL format). BEG is currently undertaking a large project to: 1) improve the internal accuracy of metadata associated with the collection; 2) enhance the capabilities of the database for both BEG curators and researchers as well as our external patrons; and 3) ensure easy and efficient navigation for patrons through our online portal. As BEG undertakes this project, BEG is in the early stages of planning to export the metadata for its collection into SESAR (System for Earth Sample Registration) and have IGSN's (International GeoSample Numbers) assigned to its samples. Education regarding the value of IGSN's and an external registry (SESAR) has been crucial to receiving management support for the project because the concept and potential benefits of registering samples in a registry outside of the institution were not well-known prior to this project. Potential benefits such as increases in discoverability, repository recognition in publications, and interoperability were presented. The project was well-received by management, and BEG fully supports the effort to register our physical samples with SESAR. Since BEG is only in the initial phase of this project, any stumbling blocks, workflow issues, successes/failures, etc. can only be predicted at this point, but by mid-December, BEG expects to have several concrete issues to present in the session. Currently, our most pressing issue involves establishing the most

  1. Opportunities for Energy Crop Production Based on Subfield Scale Distribution of Profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian J. Bonner

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Incorporation of dedicated herbaceous energy crops into row crop landscapes is a promising means to supply an expanding biofuel industry while benefiting soil and water quality and increasing biodiversity. Despite these positive traits, energy crops remain largely unaccepted due to concerns over their practicality and cost of implementation. This paper presents a case study for Hardin County, Iowa, to demonstrate how subfield decision making can be used to target candidate areas for conversion to energy crop production. Estimates of variability in row crop production at a subfield level are used to model the economic performance of corn (Zea mays L. grain and the environmental impacts of corn stover collection using the Landscape Environmental Analysis Framework (LEAF. The strategy used in the case study integrates switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L. into subfield landscape positions where corn grain is modeled to return a net economic loss. Results show that switchgrass integration has the potential to increase sustainable biomass production from 48% to 99% (depending on the rigor of conservation practices applied to corn stover collection, while also improving field level profitability of corn. Candidate land area is highly sensitive to grain price (0.18 to 0.26 $·kg−1 and dependent on the acceptable subfield net loss for corn production (ranging from 0 to −1000 $·ha−1 and the ability of switchgrass production to meet or exceed this return. This work presents the case that switchgrass may be economically incorporated into row crop landscapes when management decisions are applied at a subfield scale within field areas modeled to have a negative net profit with current management practices.

  2. ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY OF THE LOCAL DUAL-PURPOSE CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Krupová

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Base economic characteristics (total revenues, total costs, profit and profitability ratio of the Slovak Pinzgau breed were calculated in this study. Under the actual production and economic conditions of the breed, production system is operated with loss (-457 € per cow and per year and with negative profitability ratio (-20%. Optimisation of the production parameters on the level defined in the breed standard (5,200 kg milk per cow and year, 92% for conception rate of cows, 404 days of calving interval and 550 g in daily gain of reared heifers and improved udder health traits (clinical mastitis incidence and somatic cells score was of positive impact on the total revenues (+34%, on the effective utilisation of costs (+105% and balanced profit of dairy systems. Next to the positive profitability of the system, higher quality and security of dairy milk products should be mentioned there. Moreover, direct subsidies as an important factor of positive economic result of dairy cattle systems has to be pointed as well. Subsidies should be provided to compensate the real biological limitation of the local breed farmed in marginal areas. However, improvement of the production parameters of the Slovak Pinzgau breed is recommended with the same attention to reach the economic sustainability of dairy production system. To reach economic sustainability of the breed from practical point of view, the farmer activity should be aimed especially to the enhanced herd management.

  3. Sustainability is possible despite greed - Exploring the nexus between profitability and sustainability in common pool resource systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osten, Friedrich Burkhard von der; Kirley, Michael; Miller, Tim

    2017-05-23

    The sustainable use of common pool resources has become a significant global challenge. It is now widely accepted that specific mechanisms such as community-based management strategies, institutional responses such as resource privatization, information availability and emergent social norms can be used to constrain individual 'harvesting' to socially optimal levels. However, there is a paucity of research focused specifically on aligning profitability and sustainability goals. In this paper, an integrated mathematical model of a common pool resource game is developed to explore the nexus between the underlying costs and benefits of harvesting decisions and the sustainable level of a shared, dynamic resource. We derive optimal harvesting efforts analytically and then use numerical simulations to show that individuals in a group can learn to make harvesting decisions that lead to the globally optimal levels. Individual agents make their decision based on signals received and a trade-off between economic and ecological sustainability. When the balance is weighted towards profitability, acceptable economic and social outcomes emerge. However, if individual agents are solely driven by profit, the shared resource is depleted in the long run - sustainability is possible despite some greed, but too much will lead to over-exploitation.

  4. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MAJOR AIRLINE COMPANIES IN UAE WITH REFERENCE TO PROFITABILITY, LIQUIDITY, EFFICIENCY, EMPLOYEE STRENGTH AND PRODUCTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Hazarika

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The demand for air transport has been consistently increasing in UAE and has made significant growth in the aviation sector in terms of expansion and modernization. Within Dubai’s services sector, transport ranks first accounting for 14.8% of Dubai’s GDP in 2014.As per the Economics Report commissioned by Emirates and Dubai Airports, aviation sector is expected to contribute $53.1 billion to Dubai’s economy, 37.5 per cent to its GDP and will support over 750,000 jobs by 2020. The present study makes a comparative analysis of the top airline companies in UAE – Emirate Airlines and Air Arabia in terms of profitability, liquidity, efficiency and also Etihad Airways on employee strength and productivity from 2010 to 2014.Dubai’s aviation sector is projected to support over 1,194,700 jobs by 2030 and the total economic impact on UAE is expected to increase to $88.1 billion. The financial performance indicators of Emirates Airlines and Air Arabia has been compared and further analyzed to see if there is any significant impact of the macroeconomic indicators on the financial performance of the airline companies. Companies can create wealth either by increasing profit per employee or by increasing the number of employees earning such profits, or both.

  5. HUBUNGAN ANTARA UKURAN PERUSAHAAN DAN PROFITABILITAS DENGAN PENGUNGKAPAN CSR PADA PERUSAHAAN YANG TERDAFTAR DI DAFTAR EFEK SYARIAH 2013 (THE CORRELATION BETWEEN FIRM SIZE AND PROFITABILITY WITH CSR DISCLOSURE OF COMPANIES LISTED OF SHARIA SECURITIES (DAFT

    OpenAIRE

    Ariftyarini, Arum; ZR, Ratna Anggraini; Takidah, Erika

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe Correlation Between Firm Size and Profitability With CSR Disclosure of Companies Listed of Sharia Securities (Daftar Efek Syariah (DES)) in 2013. Faculty of Economics. State University of Jakarta, 2014. This study aims to examine the relationship caused by firm size and profitability with CSR disclosure of companies listed of sharia securities (daftar efek syariah) in 2013. Data were obtained from the Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI) in 2013. The sampling technique was conducted by rand...

  6. INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL DETERMINANTS OF COMMERCIAL BANKS PROFITABILITY: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM BULGARIA AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIRTESCU BOGDAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study focuses on commercial banks which are operating in Bulgaria and Romania, two countries whose banking sectors have registered major structural changes in the transition to a market economy and which are showing some similarities. Similar to other EU countries, the financial system from Bulgaria and Romania is dominated by the banking sector, which holds the largest share of total assets. Thus, we can say that health, strength and performance of the banking sector are of major importance for the sustainable economic development of states, but also for efficient transmission of monetary policy decisions on the real economy. The paper aims to identify the key factors that affect bank profitability and to evaluate empirically their contribution to a sample of 29 commercial banks in Bulgaria and Romania, for the period 2003-2012. Our research is based on data from the Bureau Van Dijk database, the World Bank and the European Central Bank and uses panel data estimation techniques. The dependent variable used in our study is the bank profitability, which is measured by two representative indicators the Return on Average Assets (ROAA and Return on Average Equity (ROAE. Regarding the independent variables, our analysis includes capital adequacy, the loan loss reserve rate, cost to income ratio, the ratio of liquid assets to total assets, the interest expenses to deposits ratio, the non-interest income over total gross revenues, bank size, the GDP per capita growth, inflation rate, domestic bank credit to private sector and banking industry concentration. The results of our empirical study shows that among the variables considered, the loan loss reserve rate, the ratio of cost to income, GDP per capita growth and domestic bank credit to the private sector, have a significant impact on bank profitability, results in line with our expectations, but also with the results of other empirical studies.

  7. Electricity supply efficiency and organizational growth and profitability in Lagos, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, Adedeji Tajudeen

    A modern and efficient infrastructure is a basic necessity for economic development and integration into the global economy. The specific problem was the inadequate and unreliable supply of electricity to manufacturing corporations in Lagos, Nigeria. The purpose of the current quantitative correlational research study was to examine if there was a correlation between electricity supply efficiency and organizational growth and profitability in manufacturing corporations in Lagos, Nigeria. The population of the current correlational research study involved 28 out of 34 manufacturing corporations from various industrial sectors in Lagos, Nigeria, that are listed and traded on the Nigerian Stock Exchange. Spearman rho correlations were used to assess the relationships between independent variables of electricity supply efficiency levels and the dependent variables of organizational growth and profitability. The result of the correlational analysis of the data revealed that there was a statistically significant, strong positive correlation between the Average Gross Income (1998-2007) and Average Actual Electricity supply efficiency level (1998-2007), rho = 0.57; p = 0.002. A statistically significant, strong positive correlation was found between the Average Balance Sheet Size (1998-2007) and Average Actual Electricity Supply Efficiency Level (1998-2007), rho = 0.54; p = 0.003. A statistically significant, strong positive correlation between the Average Profit After Tax (1998-2007) and Average Actual Electricity Supply Efficiency Level (1998-2007), rho = 0.60; p = 0.001, was found. No statistically significant correlation between the Average Return on Investment (1998-2007) and Average Actual Electricity supply efficiency level (1998-2007), rho = 0.19; p = 0.33, was discovered.

  8. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATION FOR CELLULOSE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Donizette de Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were: to analyze the economic feasibility of planting eucalyptus for producing wood pulp,considering various site index and two spacings; to analyze the economic effects regarding the profitability of the forest activity indifferent distances from the industry and changes on discount rate, wood price, transportation costs, minimum profitable diameter oflogs and the length of the logs. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed, using data of a trial ofEucalyptus grandis stands 19 and 103 months old. The prognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5 and 6.0 m of lenghtand the minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (NPW was used as the economic decisioncriterium, considering an infinite horizon. The main conclusions were: reducing the minimum profitable diameter and the length ofthe logs are good strategies to increase wood utilization and profit; plantations located in less productive lands are economicallyunfeasible; the cost of transportation has significant effect on the profitability of the forest activity and must be analyzed carefully atthe moment of defining the location of new plantations; small variations on wood sales price may cause big alterations on theprofitability of the forest activity, suggesting that the improvement of the wood quality together with other decisions that may increasewood price are alternatives that may render the plantations in less productive areas profitable.

  9. Healthcare hath no fury. Power of religion and might of physicians join forces to prevent joint venture of faith-based Baptist Health, for-profit Triad Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Michael

    2003-07-21

    The power of religion and the might of physicians seem to have joined forces against Baptist Health System's proposed merger with for-profit Triad Hospitals. Doctors and employees of Baptist facilities such as Montclair Baptist Medical Center, left, demanded that the system remain faith-based and under local control.

  10. A study of the financial history of the U.S. scheduled airlines and the improvement of airline profitability through technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    The financial history of the U.S. scheduled airline industry was investigated to determine the causes of the erratic profit performance of the industry and to evaluate potential economic gains from technology advances of recent years. Operational and economic factors affecting past and future profitability of the industry are discussed, although no attempt was made to examine the profitability of individual carriers. The results of the study indicate that the profit erosion of the late 1960's and early 1970's was due more to excess capacity than to inadequate fare levels, but airline problems were severely compounded by the rapid fuel price escalation in 1974 and 1975. Near-term solutions to the airline financial problems depend upon the course of action by the industry and the CAB and the general economic health of the nation. For the longer term, the only acceptable alternative to continued fare increases is a reduction in unit operating costs through technological advance. The next generation of transports is expected to incorporate technologies developed under Government sponsorship in the 1960's and 1970's with significant improvements in fuel consumption and operating costs.

  11. Fertilizer micro-dosing: a profitable innovation for Sahelian women ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-06

    Fertilizer micro-dosing: a profitable innovation for Sahelian women. June 06, 2016. Ibro M Abdoulaye, Baco Mohamed Nasser, Badiori Ouatara, Sogodogo Diakalia, Mahaman Sabiou,Akponikpè PB Irenikatche, Derek Peak, Kimaro Anthony and Koala Saidou. The localized application of small quantities of fertilizer ...

  12. Coffee Production in Kigoma Region, Tanzania: Profitability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    profitability in existing agricultural activities through agricultural transformation that focuses on investing in more productive technologies and efficient marketing ... only 0.25kg per tree of green coffee; the yields are among the lowest in the world). The study conducted by USAID (2010) in Kilimanjaro and Arusha revealed that ...

  13. Profit allocation among rational players in a cooperative game under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    negotiation via mediator. Math Forum Spl. 21: 33–40. Borkotokey S and Rupok Neog 2012 Allocating profit among rational players in a fuzzy coalition: A game theoretic model. Group Decis. Negot. 21: 439–459. Branzei R, Dimitrov D and Tijs S 2004 Hypercubes and compromise values for cooperative fuzzy games. Eur.

  14. analysis of profitability and poverty reduction of yoghurt processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    mostly males (70%) who were in their active age group of 36-45 years. Profitability analysis revealed that yoghurt ... 2007). Poverty, food insecurity and malnutrition are prevalent throughout Nigeria (Innovative .... Storage problem caused by the epileptic power supply in Maiduguri and improper packaging of products.

  15. Profitability of sorghum-legume cropping practices among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Data collected was entered in SPSS and Excel computer soft ware for analysis. Gross margin was computed to determine the profitability of the intercrops and sole component crops. Gross margin was subjected to analysis of variance using SPSS and results showed that the gross margin of sorghum-cowpea and sorghum- ...

  16. A simple technique to increase profits in wood products marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    George B. Harpole

    1971-01-01

    Mathematical models can be used to solve quickly some simple day-to-day marketing problems. This note explains how a sawmill production manager, who has an essentially fixed-capacity mill, can solve several optimization problems by using pencil and paper, a forecast of market prices, and a simple algorithm. One such problem is to maximize profits in an operating period...

  17. Risk Pricing and Profit Maximization of Insurance Companies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insurance companies continue to face intense pressure to improve performance, increase profitability, deliver superior customer service and increase shareholder returns. This is primarily due to the fact that operating efficiency is of particular interest for managers whose aim is to improve the performance of their firm and, ...

  18. Impacts of transportation on the profitability of sweet potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transportation is an essential aspect of agricultural production. However, in many parts of Nigeria, bad transport system is still a problem of rural farmers. Therefore, this study seeks to examine the impacts of transportation on the profitability of sweet potato production in Kwara State. The sampling techniques involved the ...

  19. The performance and profitability of sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in 2013 and 2014 at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of propagule length and cattle dung application rates on the growth, yield and profitability of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas L.) in ...

  20. Profitability of poultry production among school leavers in Anaocha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was undertaken to investigate the profitability of poultry production in Anaocha Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria. Ten poultry farmers were randomly drawn from each of the ten autonomous communities that make up the local Government Area to give a sample size of one hundred. Structured ...