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Sample records for profiling reflects enterohepatic

  1. Worldwide Marine Seismic Reflection Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC maintains a large volume of both Analog and Digital seismic reflection data. Currently only a limited number of lines are available online. Digital data include...

  2. Remote Sensing and Reflectance Profiling in Entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansen, Christian; Elliott, Norman

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing describes the characterization of the status of objects and/or the classification of their identity based on a combination of spectral features extracted from reflectance or transmission profiles of radiometric energy. Remote sensing can be benchtop based, and therefore acquired at a high spatial resolution, or airborne at lower spatial resolution to cover large areas. Despite important challenges, airborne remote sensing technologies will undoubtedly be of major importance in optimized management of agricultural systems in the twenty-first century. Benchtop remote sensing applications are becoming important in insect systematics and in phenomics studies of insect behavior and physiology. This review highlights how remote sensing influences entomological research by enabling scientists to nondestructively monitor how individual insects respond to treatments and ambient conditions. Furthermore, novel remote sensing technologies are creating intriguing interdisciplinary bridges between entomology and disciplines such as informatics and electrical engineering.

  3. Ciprofloxacin blocked enterohepatic circulation of diclofenac and alleviated NSAID-induced enteropathy in rats partly by inhibiting intestinal β-glucuronidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ze-Yu; Sun, Bin-Bin; Shu, Nan; Xie, Qiu-Shi; Tang, Xian-Ge; Ling, Zhao-Li; Wang, Fan; Zhao, Kai-Jing; Xu, Ping; Zhang, Mian; Li, Ying; Chen, Yang; Liu, Li; Xia, Lun-Zhu; Liu, Xiao-Dong

    2016-07-01

    Diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), which may cause serious intestinal adverse reactions (enteropathy). In this study we investigated whether co-administration of ciprofloxacin affected the pharmacokinetics of diclofenac and diclofenac-induced enteropathy in rats. The pharmacokinetics of diclofenac was assessed in rats after receiving diclofenac (10 mg/kg, ig, or 5 mg/kg, iv), with or without ciprofloxacin (20 mg/kg, ig) co-administered. After receiving 6 oral doses or 15 intravenous doses of diclofenac, the rats were sacrificed, and small intestine was removed to examine diclofenac-induced enteropathy. β-Glucuronidase activity in intestinal content, bovine liver and E coli was evaluated. Following oral or intravenous administration, the pharmacokinetic profile of diclofenac displayed typical enterohepatic circulation, and co-administration of ciprofloxacin abolished the enterohepatic circulation, resulted in significant reduction in the plasma content of diclofenac. In control rats, β-glucuronidase activity in small intestinal content was region-dependent: proximal intestinediclofenac, typical enteropathy was developed with severe enteropathy occurred in distal small intestine. Co-administration of ciprofloxacin significantly alleviated diclofenac-induced enteropathy. Co-administration of ciprofloxacin attenuated enterohepatic circulation of diclofenac and alleviated diclofenac-induced enteropathy in rats, partly via the inhibition of intestinal β-glucuronidase activity.

  4. Ciprofloxacin blocked enterohepatic circulation of diclofenac and alleviated NSAID-induced enteropathy in rats partly by inhibiting intestinal β-glucuronidase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ze-yu; Sun, Bin-bin; Shu, Nan; Xie, Qiu-shi; Tang, Xian-ge; Ling, Zhao-li; Wang, Fan; Zhao, Kai-jing; Xu, Ping; Zhang, Mian; Li, Ying; Chen, Yang; Liu, Li; Xia, Lun-zhu; Liu, Xiao-dong

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), which may cause serious intestinal adverse reactions (enteropathy). In this study we investigated whether co-administration of ciprofloxacin affected the pharmacokinetics of diclofenac and diclofenac-induced enteropathy in rats. Methods: The pharmacokinetics of diclofenac was assessed in rats after receiving diclofenac (10 mg/kg, ig, or 5 mg/kg, iv), with or without ciprofloxacin (20 mg/kg, ig) co-administered. After receiving 6 oral doses or 15 intravenous doses of diclofenac, the rats were sacrificed, and small intestine was removed to examine diclofenac-induced enteropathy. β-Glucuronidase activity in intestinal content, bovine liver and E coli was evaluated. Results: Following oral or intravenous administration, the pharmacokinetic profile of diclofenac displayed typical enterohepatic circulation, and co-administration of ciprofloxacin abolished the enterohepatic circulation, resulted in significant reduction in the plasma content of diclofenac. In control rats, β-glucuronidase activity in small intestinal content was region-dependent: proximal intestinediclofenac, typical enteropathy was developed with severe enteropathy occurred in distal small intestine. Co-administration of ciprofloxacin significantly alleviated diclofenac-induced enteropathy. Conclusion: Co-administration of ciprofloxacin attenuated enterohepatic circulation of diclofenac and alleviated diclofenac-induced enteropathy in rats, partly via the inhibition of intestinal β-glucuronidase activity. PMID:27180979

  5. Differentiation of five enterohepatic Helicobacter species by nested PCR with high-resolution melting curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Miaoli; Rao, Dan; Zhu, Yujun; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Wen; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Ren; Guo, Pengju

    2017-04-01

    Enterohepatic Helicobacter species (EHS) are widespread in rodent species around the world. Several studies have demonstrated that infection with EHS can interfere with the outcomes of animal experiments in cancer research and significantly influence the study results. Therefore, it is essential to establish a rapid detection and identification of EHS for biomedical research using laboratory rodents. Our study aimed to develop a rapid and sensitive method to detect and distinguish five enterohepatic Helicobacter species. Nested PCR followed by high-resolution melting curve analysis (HRM) was developed for identification of H. bilis, H. rodentium, H. muridarum, H. typhlonius, as well as H. hepaticus. To validate the accuracy of nested PCR-HRM analysis, quantitative real-time PCR methods for five different enterohepatic Helicobacter species were developed. A total of 50 cecal samples were tested using both nested PCR-HRM analysis and qPCR method. The nested PCR-HRM method could distinguish five enterohepatic Helicobacter species by different melting temperatures. The melting curve were characterized by peaks of 78.7 ± 0.12°C for H. rodentium, 80.51 ± 0.09°C for H. bilis, 81.6 ± 0.1°C for H. typhlonius, 82.11 ± 0.18°C for H. muridarum, and 82.95 ± 0.09°C for H. hepaticus. The nested PCR-HRM assay is a simple, rapid, and cost-effective assay. This assay could be a useful tool for molecular epidemiology study of enterohepatic Helicobacter infection and an attractive alternative for genotyping of enterohepatic Helicobacter species. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Cyclosporin A and enterohepatic circulation of bile salts in rats : Decreased cholate synthesis but increased intestinal reabsorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulzebos, CV; Wolters, H; Plosch, T; Stengelin, S; Stellaard, F; Sauer, PJJ; Verkade, HJ; Kuipers, F

    Cyclosporin A (CsA) has been shown to inhibit synthesis and hepatobiliary transport of bile salts. However, effects of CsA on the enterohepatic circulation of bile salts in vivo are largely unknown. We characterized the effects of CsA on the enterohepatic circulation of cholate, with respect to

  7. Population pharmacokinetic modelling of the enterohepatic recirculation of diclofenac and rofecoxib in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntjens, D R H; Strougo, A; Chain, A; Metcalf, A; Summerfield, S; Spalding, D J M; Danhof, M; Della Pasqua, O

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Enterohepatic recirculation (EHC) is a common pharmacokinetic phenomenon that has been poorly modelled in animals. The presence of EHC leads to the appearance of multiple peaks in the concentration-time profile and increased exposure, which may have implications for drug effect and extrapolation across species. The aim of this investigation was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for diclofenac and rofecoxib that describes EHC and to assess its consequence for the pharmacodynamics of both drugs. Experimental approach: The pharmacokinetics of diclofenac and rofecoxib was characterized in male rats following intravenous, intraperitoneal and oral administration. Blood samples were collected at pre-defined time points after dosing to determine plasma concentrations over time. A parametric approach using nonlinear mixed effects modelling was applied to describe EHC, whilst simulations were used to evaluate its impact on PGE2 inhibition. Key results: For diclofenac, EHC was described by a compartmental model with periodic transfer rate and metabolite formation rate. For rofecoxib, EHC modelling required a conversion compartment with first-order recycling rate and lag time. Based on model predictions, EHC causes an increase of 95% in the systemic exposure to diclofenac and of 15% in the exposure to rofecoxib. In addition, EHC prolongs the inhibition of PGE2 and increases the duration of the anti-inflammatory effect (24 h for rofecoxib 10 mg kg−1) without affecting maximum inhibition. Conclusions and implications: Our findings show the relevance of exploring EHC in a quantitative manner to accurately interpret pharmacodynamic findings in vivo, in particular when scaling across species. PMID:18193075

  8. Increased bile acids in enterohepatic circulation by short-term calorie restriction in male mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Zidong Donna [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, 66160 (United States); Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: cklaasse@kumc.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, 66160 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Previous studies showed glucose and insulin signaling can regulate bile acid (BA) metabolism during fasting or feeding. However, limited knowledge is available on the effect of calorie restriction (CR), a well-known anti-aging intervention, on BA homeostasis. To address this, the present study utilized a “dose–response” model of CR, where male C57BL/6 mice were fed 0, 15, 30, or 40% CR diets for one month, followed by BA profiling in various compartments of the enterohepatic circulation by UPLC-MS/MS technique. This study showed that 40% CR increased the BA pool size (162%) as well as total BAs in serum, gallbladder, and small intestinal contents. In addition, CR “dose-dependently” increased the concentrations of tauro-cholic acid (TCA) and many secondary BAs (produced by intestinal bacteria) in serum, such as tauro-deoxycholic acid (TDCA), DCA, lithocholic acid, ω-muricholic acid (ωMCA), and hyodeoxycholic acid. Notably, 40% CR increased TDCA by over 1000% (serum, liver, and gallbladder). Interestingly, 40% CR increased the proportion of 12α-hydroxylated BAs (CA and DCA), which correlated with improved glucose tolerance and lipid parameters. The CR-induced increase in BAs correlated with increased expression of BA-synthetic (Cyp7a1) and conjugating enzymes (BAL), and the ileal BA-binding protein (Ibabp). These results suggest that CR increases BAs in male mice possibly through orchestrated increases in BA synthesis and conjugation in liver as well as intracellular transport in ileum. - Highlights: • Dose response effects of short-term CR on BA homeostasis in male mice. • CR increased the BA pool size and many individual BAs. • CR altered BA composition (increased proportion of 12α-hydroxylated BAs). • Increased mRNAs of BA enzymes in liver (Cyp7a1 and BAL) and ileal BA binding protein.

  9. Integration of seismic reflection and geologically balanced profiles; Integration reflexionsseismischer und geologisch bilanzierter Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambrecht, A. [Trappe Erdoel Erdgas Consultant, Isernhagen (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Geophysics and geology employ different kinds of techniques in order to preserve the underground structure. These techniques are based on different sets of data, i.e. seismic or geological data. A sensible combination of the two techniques should produce a better model of the ground structure. This study attempts to integrate geologically balanced profiles and seismic reflection data. A balanced geological profile can than be compared with seismic reflection data measured in the field. The geological model is then changed into a seismic model of the underground by means of seismic modeling. Synthetic modeling is based on the acquisition of available field data. The synthetic stack section or the synthetic migration image are then compared to the field data. Deviations between the two can be attributed to speed errors and the fact that balances will never give an unequivocal solution but always present a group of solutions. (orig. MSK). [Deutsch] In der Geophysik und der Geologie werden verschiedene Techniken verwendet, um die Untergrundstruktur zu erhalten. Diese Techniken basieren auf verschiedenen Datensaetzen, z.B. seismische und geologische Daten. Eine sinnvolle Kombination der Techniken sollte ein besseres Abbild des Untergrundes liefern. In dieser Studie wird ein Versuch unternommen geologisch bilanzierte Profile und reflexionsseismische Daten zu integrieren. Soll ein bilanziertes geologisches Profil mit im Feld gemessenen reflexionsseismischen Daten verglichen werden, dann wird das geologische Modell mit Hilfe der seismischen Modellierung in ein seismisches Abbild des Untergrundes verwandelt. Dabei wird die synthetische Modellierung entsprechend der Aquisition der vorliegenden Felddaten durchgefuehrt. Die synthetische Stapelsektion oder das synthetische Migrationsimage werden anschliessend mit den Felddaten verglichen. Abweichungen zwischen beobachteten und Felddaten haben ihre Ursachen sowohl in Geschwindigkeitsfehlern, als auch in der Tatsache, dass eine

  10. Profile reconstruction from neutron reflectivity data and a priori knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeb, H.

    2008-01-01

    The problem of incomplete and noisy information in profile reconstruction from neutron reflectometry data is considered. In particular methods of Bayesian statistics in combination with modelling or inverse scattering techniques are considered in order to properly include the required a priori knowledge to obtain quantitatively reliable estimates of the reconstructed profiles. Applying Bayes theorem the results of different experiments on the same sample can be consistently included in the profile reconstruction

  11. Reconstruction of fiber grating refractive-index profiles from complex bragg reflection spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, D W; Yang, C C

    1999-07-20

    Reconstruction of the refractive-index profiles of fiber gratings from their complex Bragg reflection spectra is experimentally demonstrated. The amplitude and phase of the complex reflection spectrum were measured with a balanced Michelson interferometer. By integrating the coupled-mode equations, we built the relationship between the complex coupling coefficient and the complex reflection spectrum as an iterative algorithm for reconstructing the index profile. This method is expected to be useful for reconstructing the index profiles of fiber gratings with any apodization, chirp, or dc structures. An apodized chirped grating and a uniform grating with a depression of index modulation were used to demonstrate the technique.

  12. Metabolite profiling of CHO cells: Molecular reflections of bioprocessing effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sellick, C.A.; Croxford, A.S.; Maqsood, A.R.; Stephens, G.M.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Goodacre, R.; Dickson, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Whilst development of medium and feeds has provided major advances in recombinant protein production in CHO cells, the fundamental understanding is limited. We have applied metabolite profiling with established robust (GC-MS) analytics to define the molecular loci by which two yield-enhancing feeds

  13. Site investigation SFR. Reprocessing of reflection seismic profiles 5b and 8, Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhlin, Christopher; Zhang, Fengjiao (Uppsala Univ., Dept. of Earth Sciences (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    Reflection seismic profiles 5b and 8 in the northern Forsmark area have been reprocessed with the aim of improving the images in the uppermost 500 metres in the SFR area. The main conclusion is that a new reflection (B10) has been identified that may extend below the SFR site. This reflection was not clearly observed in the previous processing. The reflection strikes approximately N25E and dips at about 35 degrees to the southeast. This orientation is similar to the set B group identified earlier /Juhlin and Palm 2005/. Note that the dip of the reflection is uncertain. On shot gathers it appears to dip at a slightly shallower angle while on the stacked sections it appears to dip at a greater angle. This discrepancy is probably due to the crooked nature of the profiles. However, reflections are clearly observed in shot gathers and its presence below SFR is highly probable. Two new reflections were also identified further north along profile 5b (A11 and A12). These dip to the south-southeast, but would be found at a depth of 1-2 km below SFR if they extend to below the site. There are also signs of a 3rd reflection with similar orientation to the set A group identified earlier, A13, but its existence is very speculative. This reflector would intersect the surface within the SFR area. South of the Singoe deformation zone on profile 5b, another new reflection has been found, N1. The orientation of this reflection is speculative since it is not clearly seen on profile 8. It has been modelled as dipping to the north at about 35 degrees and projects to the surface south of the main SFR area. In addition, the orientation of reflection B7 has been revised as has the lateral extent of A1. Most importantly, A1 is now interpreted not to extend to the surface and not cross the Singoe deformation zone

  14. Monitoring structure development in milk acidification using diffuse reflectance profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Jacob Lercke; Andersen, Ulf; Møller, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    are needed so that the production can be carried out consistently, regardless of day-to-day variations in the raw materials. Casein micelles aggregate during milk acidification, which leads to formation of a gel network. This change of structure is important for the development of a range of dairy products......, protein, and temperature in the acidification process is conducted. The purpose of the experiment is to investigate how the change of these parameters affects the diffuse reflectance properties as well as to demonstrate the relation between the optical parameters and structure formation in milk......The structure of dairy products is important for the consumer, and milk acidification plays a central role for structural development. To ensure the best possible consumer experience, it is important that a product’s structural properties are stable. Therefore process and quality control tools...

  15. Rat enterohepatic circulation and intestinal distribution of enterally infused thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiStefano, J.J. III; Sternlicht, M.; Harris, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    The enterohepatic circulation (recycling), intestinal (gut) distribution, metabolism, and excretion of enterally infused thyroid hormones were studied in the intact rat under approximately normal physiological steady state conditions. Rats with 7-day osmotic minipumps implanted ip received constant intraduodenal infusions to steady state of very small trace doses of either 125I-labeled T3 (T3*) or T4 (T4*). Enterohepatic and other pathways remained open to normal function, and in particular, there was no biliary diversion or ligation. Complete feces and urine were collected daily, to assess daily distributions of radioactivity and establishment of the steady state, which occurred by day 3. On day 7, rats were anesthetized, blood was sampled, whole intestine and minipumps were removed, and the gut was separated into six segments. Fecal samples and the contents of each gut section were homogenized, ethanol extracted, evaporated, and reconstituted in NaOH for quantitative aqueous chromatography along with infusate, urine, and plasma samples, on Sephadex G-25 columns. No T3* or T4* was found in urine, but feces contained 39% of the T3* infused and 36% of the T4* infused in steady state. Statistically significant amounts of both T3* and T4* in systemic plasma on day 7 clearly indicated absorption of the hormones from the intestine, distinctly demonstrating an enterohepatic circulation of T3 and T4 under experimental conditions closely approximating the physiological steady state. This also establishes the intestine (with its contents) as an exchangeable hormone pool, physiologically internal to the system regulating thyroid hormones and their distribution. Gut contents contained 52 times more T3* and 4.34 times more T4* than corresponding plasma pools in steady state

  16. A Revised Framingham Stroke Risk Profile to Reflect Temporal Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufouil, Carole; Beiser, Alexa; McLure, Leslie A.; Wolf, Philip A.; Tzourio, Christophe; Howard, Virginia J; Westwood, Andrew J.; Himali, Jayandra J.; Sullivan, Lisa; Aparicio, Hugo J.; Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; Ritchie, Karen; Kase, Carlos S.; Pikula, Aleksandra; Romero, Jose R.; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Samieri, Cécilia; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Chêne, Genevieve; Howard, George; Seshadri, Sudha

    2017-01-01

    Background Age-adjusted stroke incidence has decreased over the past 50 years, likely due to changes in the prevalence and impact of various stroke risk factors. An updated version of the Framingham Stroke Risk Profile (FSRP) might better predict current risks in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) and other cohorts. We compared the accuracy of the standard (Old), and of a revised (New) version of the FSRP in predicting the risk of all-stroke and ischemic stroke, and validated this new FSRP in two external cohorts, the 3 Cities (3C) and REGARDS studies. Methods We computed the old FSRP as originally described, and a new model that used the most recent epoch-specific risk factors' prevalence and hazard-ratios for persons ≥ 55 years and for the subsample ≥ 65 years (to match the age range in REGARDS and 3C studies respectively), and compared the efficacy of these models in predicting 5- and 10-year stroke risks. Results The new FSRP was a better predictor of current stroke risks in all three samples than the old FSRP (Calibration chi-squares of new/old FSRP: in men 64.0/12.1, 59.4/30.6 and 20.7/12.5; in women 42.5/4.1, 115.4/90.3 and 9.8/6.5 in FHS, REGARDS and 3C, respectively). In the REGARDS, the new FSRP was a better predictor among whites compared to blacks. Conclusions A more contemporaneous, new FSRP better predicts current risks in 3 large community samples and could serve as the basis for examining geographic and racial differences in stroke risk and the incremental diagnostic utility of novel stroke risk factors. PMID:28159800

  17. Revised Framingham Stroke Risk Profile to Reflect Temporal Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufouil, Carole; Beiser, Alexa; McLure, Leslie A; Wolf, Philip A; Tzourio, Christophe; Howard, Virginia J; Westwood, Andrew J; Himali, Jayandra J; Sullivan, Lisa; Aparicio, Hugo J; Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; Ritchie, Karen; Kase, Carlos S; Pikula, Aleksandra; Romero, Jose R; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Samieri, Cécilia; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Chêne, Genevieve; Howard, George; Seshadri, Sudha

    2017-03-21

    Age-adjusted stroke incidence has decreased over the past 50 years, likely as a result of changes in the prevalence and impact of various stroke risk factors. An updated version of the Framingham Stroke Risk Profile (FSRP) might better predict current risks in the FHS (Framingham Heart Study) and other cohorts. We compared the accuracy of the standard (old) and of a revised (new) version of the FSRP in predicting the risk of all-stroke and ischemic stroke and validated this new FSRP in 2 external cohorts, the 3C (3 Cities) and REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) studies. We computed the old FSRP as originally described and a new model that used the most recent epoch-specific risk factor prevalence and hazard ratios for individuals ≥55 years of age and for the subsample ≥65 years of age (to match the age range in REGARDS and 3C studies, respectively) and compared the efficacy of these models in predicting 5- and 10-year stroke risks. The new FSRP was a better predictor of current stroke risks in all 3 samples than the old FSRP (calibration χ 2 of new/old FSRP: in men: 64.0/12.1, 59.4/30.6, and 20.7/12.5; in women: 42.5/4.1, 115.4/90.3, and 9.8/6.5 in FHS, REGARDS, and 3C, respectively). In the REGARDS, the new FSRP was a better predictor among whites compared with blacks. A more contemporaneous, new FSRP better predicts current risks in 3 large community samples and could serve as the basis for examining geographic and racial differences in stroke risk and the incremental diagnostic utility of novel stroke risk factors. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Analysis of the profile characteristics of corn and soybeans using field reflectance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, E. P.

    1982-01-01

    The typical patterns of spectral development (profiles) for corn and soybeans are presented, based on field-collected reflectance data transformed to correspond to LANDSAT-MSS Tasseled Cap coordinates. Reasonable variations in field conditions and cultural practices are shown to significantly influence profile features. The separability of the two crops is determined to be primarily related to the maximum value of the reflectance equivalent of Greenness, and to the plateau effect seen in corn Greenness profiles. The impact of changes in conditions on separability is described. In addition, association is made between profile features and stages of development for corn and soybeans. Corn is shown to peak at a stage well before tasseling or maximum LAI, while the characteristics of the soybean profile are shown to be unrelated to any particular stage of development.

  19. Ab initio study of intrinsic profiles of liquid metals and their reflectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rio, B. G.; Souto, J.; Alemany, M. M. G.; González, L. E.

    2017-08-01

    The free surfaces of liquid metals are known to exhibit a stratified profile that, in favourable cases, shows up in experiments as a peak in the ratio between the reflectivity function and that of an ideal step-like profile. This peak is located at a wave-vector related to the distance between the layers of the profile. In fact the surface roughness produced by thermally induced capillary waves causes a depletion of the previous so called intrinsic reflectivity by a damping factor that may hinder the observation of the peak. The behaviour of the intrinsic reflectivity below the layering peak is however far from being universal, with systems as Ga or In where the reflectiviy falls uniformly towards the q → 0 value, others like Sn or Bi where a shoulder appears at intermediate wavevectors, and others like Hg which show a minimum. We have performed extensive ab initio simulations of the free liquid surfaces of Bi, Pb and Hg, that yield direct information on the structure of the profiles and found that the macroscopic capillary wave theory usually employed in order to remove the capillary wave components fails badly in some cases for the typical sample sizes affordable in ab initio simulations. However, a microscopic method for the determination of the intrinsic profile is shown to be succesful in obtaining meaningful intrinsic profiles and corresponding reflectivities which reproduce correctly the qualitative behaviour observed experimentally.

  20. Alteration of the enterohepatic recirculation of bile acids in rats after exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanff, P.; Souidi, M.; Grison, S.; Griffiths, N.M.; Gourmelon, P.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study acute alterations of the enterohepatic recirculation (EHR) of bile acids 3 days after an 8-Gy radiation exposure in vivo in the rat by a washout technique. Using this technique in association with HPLC analysis, the EHR of the major individual bile acids was determined in control and irradiated animals. Ex vivo ileal taurocholate absorption was also studied in Ussing chambers. Major hepatic enzyme activities involved in bile acid synthesis were also measured. Measurements of bile acid intestinal content and intestinal absorption efficiency calculation from washout showed reduced intestinal absorption with significant differences from one bile acid to another: absorption of taurocholate and tauromuricholate was decreased, whereas absorption of the more hydrophobic taurochenodeoxycholate was increased, suggesting that intestinal passive diffusion was enhanced, whereas ileal active transport might be reduced. Basal hepatic secretion was increased only for taurocholate, in accordance with the marked increase of CYP8B1 activity in the liver. The results are clearly demonstrate that concomitantly with radiation-induced intestinal bile acid malabsorption, hepatic bile acid synthesis and secretion are also changed. A current working model for pathophysiological changes in enterohepatic recycling after irradiation is thus proposed. (author)

  1. Evidence of the influence of reflections on the Zeff profile measurements and their mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schunke, B.; Huysmans, G.; Thomas, P.

    2004-01-01

    There is a significant interest in the reconstruction of the mean effective charge (Zeff) profile to assess the control of the plasma impurities. On Tore-Supra a modified Abel inversion of the visible Bremsstrahlung allows the calculation of the Zeff profile. Although the total number of viewing lines of the Bremsstrahlung diagnostic is small, the method gives acceptable accuracy due to the high poloidal symmetry (circularity) of the Tore-Supra plasma. It has been noticed that the outer channels were often over-estimated, giving unphysical high Zeff at the edge of 20 or more. An experimental set-up using dedicated discharges has showed that reflections on the vacuum vessel wall are responsible for the additional signal component. It was attempted to model the impact of these reflections on the calculated profile but it appeared that the choice of the model depends strongly on the accurate value of the reflection coefficient of the vacuum wall of Tore-Supra

  2. Evidence of the influence of reflections on the Zeff profile measurements and their mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunke, B.; Huysmans, G.; Thomas, P

    2004-07-01

    There is a significant interest in the reconstruction of the mean effective charge (Zeff) profile to assess the control of the plasma impurities. On Tore-Supra a modified Abel inversion of the visible Bremsstrahlung allows the calculation of the Zeff profile. Although the total number of viewing lines of the Bremsstrahlung diagnostic is small, the method gives acceptable accuracy due to the high poloidal symmetry (circularity) of the Tore-Supra plasma. It has been noticed that the outer channels were often over-estimated, giving unphysical high Zeff at the edge of 20 or more. An experimental set-up using dedicated discharges has showed that reflections on the vacuum vessel wall are responsible for the additional signal component. It was attempted to model the impact of these reflections on the calculated profile but it appeared that the choice of the model depends strongly on the accurate value of the reflection coefficient of the vacuum wall of Tore-Supra.

  3. Surface reflectance drives nest box temperature profiles and thermal suitability for target wildlife.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R Griffiths

    Full Text Available Thermal properties of tree hollows play a major role in survival and reproduction of hollow-dependent fauna. Artificial hollows (nest boxes are increasingly being used to supplement the loss of natural hollows; however, the factors that drive nest box thermal profiles have received surprisingly little attention. We investigated how differences in surface reflectance influenced temperature profiles of nest boxes painted three different colors (dark-green, light-green, and white: total solar reflectance 5.9%, 64.4%, and 90.3% respectively using boxes designed for three groups of mammals: insectivorous bats, marsupial gliders and brushtail possums. Across the three different box designs, dark-green (low reflectance boxes experienced the highest average and maximum daytime temperatures, had the greatest magnitude of variation in daytime temperatures within the box, and were consistently substantially warmer than light-green boxes (medium reflectance, white boxes (high reflectance, and ambient air temperatures. Results from biophysical model simulations demonstrated that variation in diurnal temperature profiles generated by painting boxes either high or low reflectance colors could have significant ecophysiological consequences for animals occupying boxes, with animals in dark-green boxes at high risk of acute heat-stress and dehydration during extreme heat events. Conversely in cold weather, our modelling indicated that there are higher cumulative energy costs for mammals, particularly smaller animals, occupying light-green boxes. Given their widespread use as a conservation tool, we suggest that before boxes are installed, consideration should be given to the effect of color on nest box temperature profiles, and the resultant thermal suitability of boxes for wildlife, particularly during extremes in weather. Managers of nest box programs should consider using several different colors and installing boxes across a range of both orientations and

  4. Crustal structure in the Kiruna area, northern Sweden, based on seismic reflection profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhojuntti, Niklas; Bergman, Stefan; Olsson, Sverker

    2013-04-01

    Northernmost Sweden is currently one of the most active mining areas in Europe. In order to better understand the regional three-dimensional crustal structure and to support deep ore exploration, we have acquired a 74 km long seismic reflection profile in the Kiruna area. The upper crust in this area is largely composed of various supracrustal units, which are dominated by metabasalts, acidic metavolcanics and clastic metasedimentary rocks, resting on an Archaean metagranitoid complex. All of these units have been intruded by plutonic rocks, and to variable degrees folded, sheared and metamorphosed, during the Svecokarelian orogeny. The profile crosses several steep ductile shear zones, some of which extend for hundreds of kilometres along strike. Many of the lithological contacts and deformation zones are expected to be seismically reflective. The profile is located only a few kilometres from the world's largest underground iron-ore mine in Kiruna, and closer to the profile there are several known ore bodies, some of which are active exploration targets. For the seismic recording we used approximately 350 geophones in split-spread configuration, at a separation of 25 m. The main seismic source was the Vibsist system (an impact source), which normally was employed at every geophone station. We also fired explosive charges (8-16 kg) at a few locations distributed along the profile to image deeper structures, although at very low resolution. Wireless seismometers were placed along and to the side of the profile, mainly in order to achieve better velocity control and to study out-of-the-plane reflections. Some mining blasts in Kiruna were also recorded. The upper crust in the area is quite reflective, most clearly demonstrated by the dynamite shot records. Some of the reflections appear to originate from steeply dipping structures. The dynamite shot records show a set of reflections at 3-4 s twt, corresponding to a depth of roughly 10 km, the explanation for which is

  5. Observability of plant metabolic networks is reflected in the correlation of metabolic profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwahn, Kevin; Küken, Anika; Kliebenstein, Daniel James

    2016-01-01

    to obtain information about the entire system. Yet, the extent to which the data profiles reflect the role of components in the observability of the system remains unexplored. Here we first identify the sensor metabolites in the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) by employing state...... with in silico generated metabolic profiles from a medium-size kinetic model of plant central carbon metabolism. Altogether, due to the small number of identified sensors, our study implies that targeted metabolite analyses may provide the vast majority of relevant information about plant metabolic systems....

  6. From Intensity Profile to Surface Normal: Photometric Stereo for Unknown Light Sources and Isotropic Reflectances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Feng; Matsushita, Yasuyuki; Sato, Imari; Okabe, Takahiro; Sato, Yoichi

    2015-10-01

    We propose an uncalibrated photometric stereo method that works with general and unknown isotropic reflectances. Our method uses a pixel intensity profile, which is a sequence of radiance intensities recorded at a pixel under unknown varying directional illumination. We show that for general isotropic materials and uniformly distributed light directions, the geodesic distance between intensity profiles is linearly related to the angular difference of their corresponding surface normals, and that the intensity distribution of the intensity profile reveals reflectance properties. Based on these observations, we develop two methods for surface normal estimation; one for a general setting that uses only the recorded intensity profiles, the other for the case where a BRDF database is available while the exact BRDF of the target scene is still unknown. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations are conducted using both synthetic and real-world scenes, which show the state-of-the-art accuracy of smaller than 10 degree without using reference data and 5 degree with reference data for all 100 materials in MERL database.

  7. A Standardized Narrative Profile Approach to Self-Reflection and Assessment of Cross-Cultural Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle J Wilby

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: 1 to explore clinical assessor’s values regarding behaviours related to cultural aspects of care, 2 to generate standardized narrative profiles regarding cultural behavioural outcomes within clinical teaching settings, and 3 to rank order standardized narrative profiles according to performance expectations. Methods: Ten interviews were completed with clinicians to determine values and performance expectations for culturally competent behaviours. Transcripts were produced and coded. Six narrative profiles were developed based on data obtained. Twenty clinicians categorized profiles according to performance expectations and rank ordered. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs determined inter-rater reliability. Clinicians rated usability of profiles in clinical training settings. Results: Eighteen categories were coded with communication, awareness and ability most frequently reported with each ranging from 9.6-11.5% of the utterances. Consensus for categorization of all profiles was achieved at a level of 70% (ICC = 0.837, 95% CI 0.654-0.969. High inter-rater reliability was achieved for rank ordering (ICC = 0.815, 95% CI 0.561 to 0.984. Seventeen (85% clinicians agreed that the profiles would be usable in clinical training settings. Conclusions: Standardized narrative profiles may aid assessment and self-reflection for student performance within culturally diverse interactions. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents and royalties.   Type: Original Research

  8. DETECTION OF ENTEROHEPATIC AND GASTRIC HELICOBACTER SPP. IN WILD CHIMPANZEES (PAN TROGLODYTES) AND WESTERN LOWLAND GORILLAS (GORILLA GORILLA)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flahou, B.; Modrý, David; Pomajbíková, K.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Smet, J.; Ducatelle, R.; Pasmans, F.; Sa, R.; Haesebrouck, F.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 16, S1 (2011), s. 141 ISSN 1083-4389. [24th International Workshop on Helicobacter and Related Bacteria in Chronic Digestive Inflammation and Gastric Cancer. 11.09.2011-13.09.2011, Dublin] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : wild primates * gastric and enterohepatic helicobacters * Africa Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine

  9. SeHCAT. A new radiopharmaceutical for evaluating ileal function and the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrick, M.V.; Boyd, G.S.; Eastwood, M.A.; Monks, R.

    1982-01-01

    SeHCAT( 75 Se-23-selena-25-homotaurocholate) is the taurine conjugate of a synthetic trihydroxy-bile acid, containing the gamma-ray emitting radionuclide 75 Se. Studies in the laboratory, and initial clinical experience, indicate that SeHCAT is a potentially useful clinical tool. Work to date has concentrated on its ability to detect malfunction of the terminal ileum. It is however the first radiopharmaceutical which facilitates study of the complete cycle of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids

  10. Experimental analysis of bruises in human volunteers using radiometric depth profiling and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidovič, Luka; Milanič, Matija; Majaron, Boris

    2015-07-01

    We combine pulsed photothermal radiometry (PPTR) depth profiling with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) measurements for a comprehensive analysis of bruise evolution in vivo. While PPTR enables extraction of detailed depth distribution and concentration profiles of selected absorbers (e.g. melanin, hemoglobin), DRS provides information in a wide range of visible wavelengths and thus offers an additional insight into dynamics of the hemoglobin degradation products. Combining the two approaches enables us to quantitatively characterize bruise evolution dynamics. Our results indicate temporal variations of the bruise evolution parameters in the course of bruise self-healing process. The obtained parameter values and trends represent a basis for a future development of an objective technique for bruise age determination.

  11. Seismic reflection profile of the Blake Ridge near sites 994, 995, and 997: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, William P.; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Drury, Rebecca M.

    1996-01-01

    Seismic reflection profiles near Sites 994, 995, and 997 were collected with seismic sources that provide maximum resolution with adequate power to image the zone of gas hydrate stability and the region direction beneath it. The overall structure of the sediment drift deposit that constitutes the Blake Ridge consists of southwestward-dipping strata. These strata are approximately conformal to the seafloor on the southwest side of the ridge and are truncated by erosion on the northeast side. A bottom-simulating reflection (BSR) marks the velocity contrast between gas hydrate-bearing sediment and regions containing free gas beneath the zone of gas hydrate stability. The BSR is strong and continuous near the ridge crest but becomes discontinuous on the flanks, where concentration of gas is reduced and dipping strata pass through the level of the base o fgas hydrate stability or the strata are disrupted by faults. Seismic reflection amplitudes appear to be reduced in the region of gas hydrate formation compared to normal amplitudes. A faulted zone ~0.5-0.6 s thick parallels reflections from strata. We infer that this may represent a formerly gas hydrate-bearing zone that was faulted because of a breakdown of hydrate near its phase limit (at the base of the zone). Strong reflections at the top of the faulted zone are caused by free-gas acccumulation at Site 994. Similar strong reflections probably are caused by free-gas accumulations where the top of the faulted zone rises above the BSR, although this would require local free gas within the hydrate-stable zone.

  12. Crustal structure of the North Iberian continental margin from seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M.; Díaz, J.; Pedreira, D.; Gallart, J.; Pulgar, J. A.

    2017-10-01

    The structure and geodynamics of the southern margin of the Bay of Biscay have been investigated from a set of 11 multichannel seismic reflection profiles, recorded also at wide angle offsets in an onshore-offshore network of 24 OBS/OBH and 46 land sites. This contribution focuses on the analysis of the wide-angle reflection/refraction data along representative profiles. The results document strong lateral variations of the crustal structure along the margin and provide an extensive test of the crustal models previously proposed for the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula. Offshore, the crust has a typical continental structure in the eastern tip of the bay, which disappears smoothly towards the NW to reach crustal thickness close to 10 km at the edge of the studied area ( 45°N, 6°W). The analysis of the velocity-depth profiles, altogether with additional information provided by the multichannel seismic data and magnetic surveys, led to the conclusion that the crust in this part of the bay should be interpreted as transitional from continental to oceanic. Typical oceanic crust has not been imaged in the investigated area. Onshore, the new results are in good agreement with previous results and document the indentation of the Bay of Biscay crust into the Iberian crust, forcing its subduction to the North. The interpreted profiles show that the extent of the southward indentation is not uniform, with an Alpine root less developed in the central and western sector of the Basque-Cantabrian Basin. N-S to NE-SW transfer structures seem to control those variations in the indentation degree.

  13. Combined analysis of surface reflection imaging and vertical seismic profiling at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daley, T.M.; Majer, E.L.; Karageorgi, E.

    1994-08-01

    This report presents results from surface and borehole seismic profiling performed by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) on Yucca Mountain. This work was performed as part of the site characterization effort for the potential high-level nuclear waste repository. Their objective was to provide seismic imaging from the near surface (200 to 300 ft. depth) to the repository horizon and below, if possible. Among the issues addressed by this seismic imaging work are location and depth of fracturing and faulting, geologic identification of reflecting horizons, and spatial continuity of reflecting horizons. The authors believe their results are generally positive, with tome specific successes. This was the first attempt at this scale using modem seismic imaging techniques to determine geologic features on Yucca Mountain. The principle purpose of this report is to present the interpretation of the seismic reflection section in a geologic context. Three surface reflection profiles were acquired and processed as part of this study. Because of environmental concerns, all three lines were on preexisting roads. Line 1 crossed the mapped surface trace of the Ghost Dance fault and it was intended to study the dip and depth extent of the fault system. Line 2 was acquired along Drill Hole wash and was intended to help the ESF north ramp design activities. Line 3 was acquired along Yucca Crest and was designed to image geologic horizons which were thought to be less faulted along the ridge. Unfortunately, line 3 proved to have poor data quality, in part because of winds, poor field conditions and limited time. Their processing and interpretation efforts were focused on lines 1 and 2 and their associated VSP studies

  14. Simultaneous Determination of Source Wavelet and Velocity Profile Using Impulsive Point-Source Reflections from a Layered Fluid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bube, K; Lailly, P; Sacks, P; Santosa, F; Symes, W. W

    1987-01-01

    .... We show that a quasi-impulsive, isotropic point source may be recovered simultaneously with the velocity profile from reflection data over a layered fluid, in linear (perturbation) approximation...

  15. Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Embree

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ideally, editorials are written one to two months before publication in the Journal. It was my turn to write this one. I had planned to write the first draft the evening after my clinic on Tuesday, September 11. It didn't get done that night or during the next week. Somehow, the topic that I had originally chosen just didn't seem that important anymore as I, along my friends and colleagues, reflected on the changes that the events of that day were likely to have on our lives.

  16. Diffraction efficiency of radially-profiled off-plane reflection gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Drew M.; Tutt, James H.; DeRoo, Casey T.; Marlowe, Hannah; Peterson, Thomas J.; McEntaffer, Randall L.; Menz, Benedikt; Burwitz, Vadim; Hartner, Gisela; Laubis, Christian; Scholze, Frank

    2015-09-01

    Future X-ray missions will require gratings with high throughput and high spectral resolution. Blazed off-plane reflection gratings are capable of meeting these demands. A blazed grating profile optimizes grating efficiency, providing higher throughput to one side of zero-order on the arc of diffraction. This paper presents efficiency measurements made in the 0.3 - 1.5 keV energy band at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) BESSY II facility for three holographically-ruled gratings, two of which are blazed. Each blazed grating was tested in both the Littrow configuration and anti-Littrow configuration in order to test the alignment sensitivity of these gratings with regard to throughput. This paper outlines the procedure of the grating experiment performed at BESSY II and discuss the resulting efficiency measurements across various energies. Experimental results are generally consistent with theory and demonstrate that the blaze does increase throughput to one side of zero-order. However, the total efficiency of the non-blazed, sinusoidal grating is greater than that of the blazed gratings, which suggests that the method of manufacturing these blazed profiles fails to produce facets with the desired level of precision. Finally, evidence of a successful blaze implementation from first diffraction results of prototype blazed gratings produce via a new fabrication technique at the University of Iowa are presented.

  17. Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence determination of interfering elements rubidium and uranium by profile fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhara, Sangita; Khooha, Ajay; Singh, Ajit Kumar; Tiwari, M. K.; Misra, N. L.

    2018-06-01

    Systematic studies to assess the analytical parameters obtained in the total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) determinations of interfering elements Rb and U using profile fitting are reported in the present manuscript. The X-ray lines Rb Kα and U Lα having serious spectral interference (ΔE = 218 eV), have been used as analytical lines. The intensities of these X-ray lines have been assessed using profile fitting. In order to compare the analytical results of Rb determinations in presence of U, with and without U excitation, synchrotron radiation was tuned to energy just above and below the U Labs edge. This approach shall excite both Rb Kα and U Lα simultaneously and Rb Kα selectively. Finally, the samples were also analyzed with a laboratory based TXRF spectrometer. The analytical results obtained in all these conditions were comparable. The authenticity of the results was assessed by analyzing U with respect to Rb in Rb2U(SO4)3, a standard reference material for U. The average precision obtained for TXRF determinations was below 3% (RSD, n = 3, 1σ) and the percent deviation of TXRF values from the expected values calculated on the basis of sample preparation was within 3%.

  18. Interpretation of shallow crustal structure of the Imperial Valley, California, from seismic reflection profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severson, L.K.

    1987-05-01

    Eight seismic reflection profiles (285 km total length) from the Imperial Valley, California, were provided to CALCRUST for reprocessing and interpretation. Two profiles were located along the western margin of the valley, five profiles were situated along the eastern margin and one traversed the deepest portion of the basin. These data reveal that the central basin contains a wedge of highly faulted sediments that thins to the east. Most of the faulting is strike-slip but there is evidence for block rotations on the scale of 5 to 10 kilometers within the Brawley Seismic Zone. These lines provide insight into the nature of the east and west edges of the Imperial Valley. The basement at the northwestern margin of the valley, to the north of the Superstition Hills, has been normal-faulted and blocks of basement material have ''calved'' into the trough. A blanket of sediments has been deposited on this margin. To the south of the Superstition Hills and Superstition Mountain, the top of the basement is a detachment surface that dips gently into the basin. This margin is also covered by a thick sequence sediments. The basement of the eastern margin consists of metamorphic rocks of the upper plate of the Chocolate Mountain Thrust system underlain by the Orocopia Schist. These rocks dip to the southeast and extend westward to the Sand Hills Fault but do not appear to cross it. Thus, the Sand Hills Fault is interpreted to be the southern extension of the San Andreas Fault. North of the Sand Hills Fault the East Highline Canal seismicity lineament is associated with a strike-slip fault and is probably linked to the Sand Hills Fault. Six geothermal areas crossed by these lines, in agreement with previous studies of geothermal reservoirs, are associated with ''faded'' zones, Bouguer gravity and heat flow maxima, and with higher seismic velocities than surrounding terranes.

  19. Motor activity of the gallbladder and gastrointestinal tract as determinants of enterohepatic circulation. A scintigraphic and manometric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qvist, N.

    1995-01-01

    The aims of the study were to describe the dynamics of the enterohepatic circulation in relation to gallbladder and gastrointestinal motility in the interdigestive as well as the postprandial period. Furthermore, to investigate the level of circulating cholecystokinin, secretin, pancreatic polypeptide, motilin and bile acids in relation to gallbladder motility and MMC during the interdigestive period. All investigations were carried out on healthy male volunteers aged 18-40 years. The most suitable method for studying various characteristics of the enterohepatic circulation, and especially gallbladder motility in humans, is scintigraphy. It is non-invasive, and allows a continuing dynamic investigation of the partitioning of the radioactive marker between the various compartment. Two entirely different pharmacological substances may be use. HIDA (diethyl-acetanilide-iminodiacetic acid) which is semisynthetic and closely related to lidocaine forms a chelate with 99m Tc for intravenous administration only. The transport of 99m Tc-HIDA across the hepatocyte is a carrier-mediated organic anion pathway, similar to the hepatic handling of bilirubin. Homocholic-acid-taurine (HCAT) is a synthetic bile acid analogue, corresponding to the naturally occurring bile acid cholic acid-taurine. It is marked with 75 Se and is available for peroral use only. The 75 SeHCAT is adsorbed in the same manner as the naturally occurring conjugated trihydroxy bile acids, involving specific carrier systems for absorption and secretion, i.e. with a high first pass extraction and a secretory rate proportional to the blood concentration. (EG) 24 refs

  20. The polarized neutron reflectivity and X-ray reflectivity studies of the magnetic profiles of epitaxial Ni80Fe20/Ru multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, H.-C.; Peir, J.-J.; Lee, C.-H.; Lin, M.-Z.; Wu, P.-T.; Huang, J.C.A.; Tun Zin

    2005-01-01

    The depth profiles of the epitaxial Ni 80 Fe 20 (1 1 1)/Ru(0 0 0 1) multilayers were studied by polarized neutron reflectivity and X-ray reflectivity. At the Ru thickness that the anti-ferromagnetic coupling was found, the magnetic moments between two Ni 80 Fe 20 interlayers show a biquadratic coupling effect with a double unit cell at low applied fields. A magnetic dead layer of about 0.3 nm was also found at the interface boundaries. The maximal polarization effect applied to the Ru layer is less than 0.03μ B

  1. Seismarmara experiment: results from reprocessing of selected multi-channel seismic reflection profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, S.; Voogd, B.; Carton, H.; Laigle, M.; Becel, A.; Saatcilar, R.; Singh, S.; Hirn, A.

    2003-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) has been responsible for the earthquakes of Izmit and Duzce in 1999. The occurrence of these earthquakes has drawn scientific attention into the Sea of Marmara since the NAF enters into the Sea of Marmara where the latest Izmit earthquake rupture stopped. The SEISMARMARA-2001 survey is a combined seismic reflection, refraction and earthquake experiment carried out in 2001 in the Marmara Region in Turkey by French-Turkish scientific cooperation. The objectives of this survey were to image the various branches of the NAF and related other fault systems. R/V Le Nadir was equipped with a 4.5 km long streamer with 360 channels and a large airgun source. During Leg 1, a grid of large regional lines encompassing the whole Marmara trough was shot. For part of them a strong 8100 cu.in. source for deepest penetration was used, with a 150 m shot interval giving a 15-fold coverage. Another part was shot for a higher resolution with a 2900 cu. in. array at a 50m or 38 m interval to give a 45 or 60-fold coverage. The latter acquisition parameters were used for Leg 2 that was devoted to a very dense grid of lines in the Cinarcik Basin Reprocessing of the multi-channel seismic data is currently being undertaken in several Institutions using different seismic processing softwares (GeoVecteur, ProMAX, Focus), to take advantage of the diverse acquisitions and cope with their limitations, for instance high fold-order for Leg 2 and strength of signal but loose spatial sampling for the bigger source. The main objectives of the reprocessing of the selected profiles are to do a detailed velocity analysis and stacking after deconvolution, filtering to remove or suppress deep sea bottom multiples and out of plane reflections, and time-migration and depth conversion and thus reveal both the shallow and deeper reflection image of the crust in the Sea of Marmara. We show that choosing an appropriate processing sequence for different sources and acquisition

  2. Vertical seismic profiling and integration with reflection seismic studies at Laxemar, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhlin, C.; Bergman, B. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden); Cosma, C.; Keskinen, J.; Enescu, N. [Vibrometric Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2002-02-01

    Vertical seismic profile (VSP) data were acquired in October 2000 in the 1700 m deep KLX02 borehole, near Laxemar in southeastern Sweden. The objectives of the VSP were to image reflectors in the borehole for correlation with surface seismic and borehole data, study the signal penetration of explosive versus mechanical sources and determine the seismic velocity as a function of depth. Five principal source points were used, one located close to the KLX02 wellhead and 4 others that were offset by about 200 m to 400 m. An explosive source was only used at the wellhead and consisted of 15 grams of dynamite in 90 cm deep shot holes in bedrock. A swept impact seismic source (SIST) was also used at the wellhead, as well as at the other four offset source points. The primary SIST source consisted of a computer controlled mechanical hammer mounted on a tractor. By activating the hammer over a 15 second sweep length, the total energy transferred to the ground is on the same order as that produced by the dynamite. The recorded data are then processed to generate seismic records that are equivalent to a single impact source. A smaller hand held SIST source was also tested at the wellhead. Tests of both the tractor mounted source and dynamite were made at a location offset somewhat from the wellhead at a site containing loose sediments at the surface. Full waveform sonic, resistivity and gamma logs were also acquired in conjunction the VSP survey. A comparison between the explosive and large SIST source shows that comparable energy levels are produced by the two methods. The SIST source appears to be more stable in terms of the energy level, although the frequency content of data are somewhat lower. However, its most significant advantage is the low cost of preparation of the source points and the speed of the acquisition. Numerous reflections are observed on the VSP, as is the case on the surface seismic, implying a complex structure in the vicinity of the KLX02 borehole

  3. Vertical seismic profiling and integration with reflection seismic studies at Laxemar, 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhlin, C.; Bergman, B.; Cosma, C.; Keskinen, J.; Enescu, N.

    2002-02-01

    Vertical seismic profile (VSP) data were acquired in October 2000 in the 1700 m deep KLX02 borehole, near Laxemar in southeastern Sweden. The objectives of the VSP were to image reflectors in the borehole for correlation with surface seismic and borehole data, study the signal penetration of explosive versus mechanical sources and determine the seismic velocity as a function of depth. Five principal source points were used, one located close to the KLX02 wellhead and 4 others that were offset by about 200 m to 400 m. An explosive source was only used at the wellhead and consisted of 15 grams of dynamite in 90 cm deep shot holes in bedrock. A swept impact seismic source (SIST) was also used at the wellhead, as well as at the other four offset source points. The primary SIST source consisted of a computer controlled mechanical hammer mounted on a tractor. By activating the hammer over a 15 second sweep length, the total energy transferred to the ground is on the same order as that produced by the dynamite. The recorded data are then processed to generate seismic records that are equivalent to a single impact source. A smaller hand held SIST source was also tested at the wellhead. Tests of both the tractor mounted source and dynamite were made at a location offset somewhat from the wellhead at a site containing loose sediments at the surface. Full waveform sonic, resistivity and gamma logs were also acquired in conjunction the VSP survey. A comparison between the explosive and large SIST source shows that comparable energy levels are produced by the two methods. The SIST source appears to be more stable in terms of the energy level, although the frequency content of data are somewhat lower. However, its most significant advantage is the low cost of preparation of the source points and the speed of the acquisition. Numerous reflections are observed on the VSP, as is the case on the surface seismic, implying a complex structure in the vicinity of the KLX02 borehole

  4. Diversity of zoonotic enterohepatic Helicobacter species and detection of a putative novel gastric Helicobacter species in wild and wild-born captive chimpanzees and western lowland gorillas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flahou, B.; Modrý, David; Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Smet, A.; Ducatelle, R.; Pasmans, F.; Sá, R. M.; Todd, A.; Hashimoto, C.; Mulama, M.; Kiang, J.; Rossi, M.; Haesebrouck, F.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 174, 1-2 (2014), s. 186-194 ISSN 0378-1135 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Enterohepatic Helicobacter species * Gastric Helicobacter species * Helicobacter cinaedi * 'Candidatus Helicobacter homininae' * Chimpanzee * Gorilla Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.511, year: 2014

  5. Diversity of zoonotic enterohepatic Helicobacter species and detection of a putative novel gastric Helicobacter species in wild and wild-born captive chimpanzees and western lowland gorillas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flahou, B.; Modrý, D.; Pomajbíková, K.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Smet, A.; Ducatelle, R.; Pasmans, F.; Sá, R. M.; Todd, A.; Hashimoto, C.; Mulama, M.; Kiang, J.; Rossi, M.; Haesebrouck, F.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 174, 1-2 (2014), s. 186-194 ISSN 0378-1135 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Enterohepatic Helicobacter species * Gastric Helicobacter species * Helicobacter cinaedi * Candidatus Helicobacter homininae * Chimpanzee * Gorilla Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.511, year: 2014

  6. Modification of UV absorption profile of polymer film reflectors to increase solar-weighted reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Gary; Gee, Randall C.; White, David

    2017-05-02

    Provided are reflective thin film constructions including a reduced number of layers, which provides for increased solar-weighted hemispherical reflectance and durability. Reflective films include those comprising an ultraviolet absorbing abrasion resistant coating over a metal layer. Also provided are ultraviolet absorbing abrasion resistant coatings and methods for optimizing the ultraviolet absorption of an abrasion resistant coating. Reflective films disclosed herein are useful for solar reflecting, solar collecting, and solar concentrating applications, such as for the generation of electrical power.

  7. Lipid profiles reflecting high and low risk for coronary heart disease : Contribution of apolipoprotein E polymorphism and lifestyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, J.M.A.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Schouten, E.G.; Havekes, L.M.; Seidell, J.C.; Kromhout, D.

    1998-01-01

    To elucidate the role of modifiable factors and the apolipoprotein E polymorphism in explaining lipid profiles reflecting low, average and high risk for coronary heart disease, we selected subjects from a large population-based study. Subjects with low total cholesterol (TC) (< 15th percentile) and

  8. Lipid profiles reflecting high and low risk for coronary heart disease: contribution of apolipoprotein E polymorphism and lifestyle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, J.M.A.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Schouten, E.G.; Havekes, L.M.; Seidell, J.C.; Kromhout, D.

    1998-01-01

    To elucidate the role of modifiable factors and the apolipoprotein E polymorphism in explaining lipid profiles reflecting low, average and high risk for coronary heart disease, we selected subjects from a large population-based study. Subjects with low total cholesterol (TC) (<15th percentile)

  9. Motor activity of the gallbladder and gastrointestinal tract as determinants of enterohepatic circulation. A scintigraphic and manometric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qvist, N. [Odense University Hospital, Dept. of Surgical Gastroenterology and Clinical Physiology, Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Odense (Denmark)

    1995-12-31

    The aims of the study were to describe the dynamics of the enterohepatic circulation in relation to gallbladder and gastrointestinal motility in the interdigestive as well as the postprandial period. Furthermore, to investigate the level of circulating cholecystokinin, secretin, pancreatic polypeptide, motilin and bile acids in relation to gallbladder motility and MMC during the interdigestive period. All investigations were carried out on healthy male volunteers aged 18-40 years. The most suitable method for studying various characteristics of the enterohepatic circulation, and especially gallbladder motility in humans, is scintigraphy. It is non-invasive, and allows a continuing dynamic investigation of the partitioning of the radioactive marker between the various compartment. Two entirely different pharmacological substances may be use. HIDA (diethyl-acetanilide-iminodiacetic acid) which is semisynthetic and closely related to lidocaine forms a chelate with {sup 99m}Tc for intravenous administration only. The transport of {sup 99m}Tc-HIDA across the hepatocyte is a carrier-mediated organic anion pathway, similar to the hepatic handling of bilirubin. Homocholic-acid-taurine (HCAT) is a synthetic bile acid analogue, corresponding to the naturally occurring bile acid cholic acid-taurine. It is marked with {sup 75}Se and is available for peroral use only. The {sup 75}SeHCAT is adsorbed in the same manner as the naturally occurring conjugated trihydroxy bile acids, involving specific carrier systems for absorption and secretion, i.e. with a high first pass extraction and a secretory rate proportional to the blood concentration. (EG) 24 refs.

  10. Profile of male-field dependent (FD) prospective teacher's reflective thinking in solving contextual mathematical problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustan, S.; Juniati, Dwi; Siswono, Tatag Yuli Eko

    2017-08-01

    Reflective thinking is an important component in the world of education, especially in professional education of teachers. In learning mathematics, reflective thinking is one way to solve mathematical problem because it can improve student's curiosity when student faces a mathematical problem. Reflective thinking is also a future competence that should be taught to students to face the challenges and to respond of demands of the 21st century. There are many factors which give impact toward the student's reflective thinking when student solves mathematical problem. One of them is cognitive style. For this reason, reflective thinking and cognitive style are important things in solving contextual mathematical problem. This research paper describes aspect of reflective thinking in solving contextual mathematical problem involved solution by using some mathematical concept, namely linear program, algebra arithmetic operation, and linear equations of two variables. The participant, in this research paper, is a male-prospective teacher who has Field Dependent. The purpose of this paper is to describe aspect of prospective teachers' reflective thinking in solving contextual mathematical problem. This research paper is a descriptive by using qualitative approach. To analyze the data, the researchers focus in four main categories which describe prospective teacher's activities using reflective thinking, namely; (a) formulation and synthesis of experience, (b) orderliness of experience, (c) evaluating the experience and (d) testing the selected solution based on the experience.

  11. The cuticular hydrocarbons profiles in the stingless bee Melipona marginata reflect task-related differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Caliman, M J; Nascimento, F S; Turatti, I C; Mateus, S; Lopes, N P; Zucchi, R

    2010-07-01

    Members of social insect colonies employ a large variety of chemical signals during their life. Of these, cuticular hydrocarbons are of primary importance for social insects since they allow for the recognition of conspecifics, nestmates and even members of different castes. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the variation of the chemical profiles among workers of the stingless bee Melipona marginata, and (2) to investigate the dependence of the chemical profiles on the age and on the behavior of the studied individuals. The results showed that cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of workers were composed of alkanes, alkenes and alkadienes that varied quantitatively and qualitatively according to function of workers in the colony. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Swept source optical coherence tomography of objects with arbitrary reflectivity profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezgebo, Biniyam; Nagib, Karim; Fernando, Namal; Kordi, Behzad; Sherif, Sherif

    2018-03-01

    Swept Source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) has become a well established imaging modality for both medical and industrial diagnostic applications. A cross-sectional SS-OCT image is obtained by applying an inverse discrete Fourier transform (DFT) to axial interferogram measured in the frequency domain (k-space). Fourier inversion of the obtained interferogram typically produces a potentially overlapping conjugate mirror image, whose overlap could be avoided by restricting the object to have its highest reflectivity at its surface. However, this restriction may not be fulfilled when imaging a very thin object that is placed on a highly reflective surface, or imaging an object containing a contrast agent with high reflectivity. In this paper, we show that oversampling of the SS-OCT signal in k-space would overcome the need for such restriction on the object. Our result is demonstrated using SS-OCT images of Axolotl salamander eggs.

  13. Ground magnetic studies along a regional seismic-reflection profile across Bare Mountain, Crater Flat and Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenheim, V.E.; Ponce, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Ground magnetic data were collected along a 26-km-long regional seismic-reflection profile in southwest Nevada that starts in the Amargosa Desert, crosses Bare Mountain, Crater Flat and Yucca Mountain, and ends in Midway Valley. Parallel ground magnetic profiles were also collected about 100 m to either side of the western half of the seismic-reflection line. The magnetic data indicate that the eastern half of Crater Flat is characterized by closely-spaced faulting (1--2 km) in contrast to the western half of Crater Flat. Modeling of the data indicates that the Topopah Spring Tuff is offset about 250 m on the Solitario Canyon fault and about 50 m on the Ghost Dance fault. These estimates of fault offset are consistent with seismic-reflection data and geologic mapping. A broad magnetic high of about 500--600 nT is centered over Crater Flat. Modeling of the magnetic data indicates that the source of this high is not thickening and doming of the Bullfrog Tuff, but more likely lies below the Bullfrog Tuff. Possible source lithologies for this magnetic high include altered argillite of the Eleana Formation, Cretaceous or Tertiary intrusions, and mafic sills

  14. Design and fabrication of optical thin film layers with variable thickness profile for producing variable reflectivity mirrors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R fallah

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available   The design method and fabrication of mirrors with variable reflectivity are presented. To fabricate such a mirror a fixed mask with a circular aperture is used. The circular aperture is considered as an extended source with cosx(θas its diffusion distribution function and is the parameter for the distribution function of the particles through the aperture. The thickness profile of deposited layer is a function of this distribution. In this work, the coating system is calibrated for the materials which are used and then the parameter of the diffusion distribution function of the particles through the circular aperture is defined by experiments. Using these results, a graph is presented which connects the parameter of the circular aperture to the parameters of the thickness profile. It is then possible to deposit any type of variable reflectivity mirror using this graph. Finally, the effect of the uncertainty in measuring layer thicknesses on the phase of reflected wave and transmitted wave is investigated.

  15. Improving the Automatic Inversion of Digital ISIS-2 Ionogram Reflection Traces into Topside Vertical Electron-Density Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, R. F.; Truhlik, V.; Huang, X.; Wang, Y.; Bilitza, D.

    2011-01-01

    The topside-sounders on the four satellites of the International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) program were designed as analog systems. The resulting ionograms were displayed on 35-mm film for analysis by visual inspection. Each of these satellites, launched between 1962 and 1971, produced data for 10 to 20 years. A number of the original telemetry tapes from this large data set have been converted directly into digital records. Software, known as the TOPside Ionogram Scalar with True-height (TOPIST) algorithm has been produced that enables the automatic inversion of ISIS-2 ionogram reflection traces into topside vertical electron-density profiles Ne(h). More than million digital Alouette/ISIS topside ionograms have been produced and over 300,000 are from ISIS 2. Many of these ISIS-2 ionograms correspond to a passive mode of operation for the detection of natural radio emissions and thus do not contain ionospheric reflection traces. TOPIST, however, is not able to produce Ne(h) profiles from all of the ISIS-2 ionograms with reflection traces because some of them did not contain frequency information. This information was missing due to difficulties encountered during the analog-to-digital conversion process in the detection of the ionogram frame-sync pulse and/or the frequency markers. Of the many digital topside ionograms that TOPIST was able to process, over 200 were found where direct comparisons could be made with Ne(h) profiles that were produced by manual scaling in the early days of the ISIS program. While many of these comparisons indicated excellent agreement (inversion process: (1) improve the quality of the digital ionogram database by remedying the missing frequency-information problem when possible, and (2) using the above-mentioned comparisons as teaching examples of how to improve the original TOPIST software.

  16. Contribution of corner reflections from oriented ice crystals to backscattering and depolarization characteristics for off-zenith lidar profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovoi, Anatoli G.; Konoshonkin, Alexander V.; Kustova, Natalia V.; Veselovskii, Igor A.

    2018-06-01

    Backscattering Mueller matrix and the depolarization and color ratios for quasi-horizontally oriented hexagonal ice plates have been calculated within the framework of the physical optics approximation. In the case of a tilted lidar, the dependence of the color and depolarization ratios on polarization of the incident light has been analyzed. It is shown that the corner reflection effect inherent to the pristine hexagonal ice crystals results in sharp peaks of both the backscattering cross section and depolarization ratio at the lidar tilts of about 30° off zenith. The experimental results obtained recently by Veselovskii et al. [13] at the lidar tilt of 43° have been interpreted as a partial manifestation of the corner reflection effect. The retrieval of the vertical profile of the ice crystal fraction consisting of quasi-horizontally oriented hexagonal plates has been demonstrated.

  17. Circulating, Cell-Free Micro-RNA Profiles Reflect Discordant Development of Dementia in Monozygotic Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengel-From, Jonas; Rønne, Mette E; Carlsen, Anting L

    2018-01-01

    We aim to examine if circulating micro-RNA and cytokine levels associate with dementia diagnosis and cognitive scores. To test our hypothesis, we use plasma donated from 48 monozygotic twin pairs in 1997 and 46 micro-RNAs and 10 cytokines were quantified using microfluidic RT-qPCR and multiplex...... solid-phase immunoassays, respectively. Micro-RNA and cytokine profiling were examined for associations with dementia diagnoses in a longitudinal registry study or with cognitive scores at baseline. Thirty-six micro-RNAs and all cytokines were detected consistently. Micro-RNA profiles associate...... with diagnoses and cognitive scores at statistically significant levels while cytokine only showed trends pointing at chronic inflammation in twins having or developing dementia. The most notable findings were decreased miR-106a and miR-210, and increased miR-106b expression in twins with a dementia diagnosis...

  18. Using Reflectance Spectroscopy and Artificial Neural Network to Assess Water Infiltration Rate into the Soil Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naftali Goldshleger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We explored the effect of raindrop energy on both water infiltration into soil and the soil's NIR-SWIR spectral reflectance (1200–2400 nm. Seven soils with different physical and morphological properties from Israel and the US were subjected to an artificial rainstorm. The spectral properties of the crust formed on the soil surface were analyzed using an artificial neural network (ANN. Results were compared to a study with the same population in which partial least-squares (PLS regression was applied. It was concluded that both models (PLS regression and ANN are generic as they are based on properties that correlate with the physical crust, such as clay content, water content and organic matter. Nonetheless, better results for the connection between infiltration rate and spectral properties were achieved with the non-linear ANN technique in terms of statistical values (RMSE of 17.3% for PLS regression and 10% for ANN. Furthermore, although both models were run at the selected wavelengths and their accuracy was assessed with an independent external group of samples, no pre-processing procedure was applied to the reflectance data when using ANN. As the relationship between infiltration rate and soil reflectance is not linear, ANN methods have the advantage for examining this relationship when many soils are being analyzed.

  19. Variable post-Paleozoic deformation detected by seismic reflection profiling across the northwestern "prong" of New Madrid seismic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, J.H.; Pugin, Andre J.M.; Nelson, W.J.; Larson, T.H.; Sargent, S.L.; Devera, J.A.; Denny, F.B.; Woolery, E.W.

    2003-01-01

    High-resolution shallow seismic reflection profiles across the northwesternmost part of the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ) and northwestern margin of the Reelfoot rift, near the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers in the northern Mississippi embayment, reveal intense structural deformation that apparently took place during the late Paleozoic and/or Mesozoic up to near the end of the Cretaceous Period. The seismic profiles were sited on both sides of the northeast-trending Olmsted fault, defined by varying elevations of the top of Mississippian (locally base of Cretaceous) bedrock. The trend of this fault is close to and parallel with an unusually straight segment of the Ohio River and is approximately on trend with the westernmost of two groups of northeast-aligned epicenters ("prongs") in the NMSZ. Initially suspected on the basis of pre-existing borehole data, the deformation along the fault has been confirmed by four seismic reflection profiles, combined with some new information from drilling. The new data reveal (1) many high-angle normal and reverse faults expressed as narrow grabens and anticlines (suggesting both extensional and compressional regimes) that involved the largest displacements during the late Cretaceous (McNairy); (2) a different style of deformation involving probably more horizontal displacements (i.e., thrusting) that occurred at the end of this phase near the end of McNairy deposition, with some fault offsets of Paleocene and younger units; (3) zones of steeply dipping faults that bound chaotic blocks similar to that observed previously from the nearby Commerce geophysical lineament (CGL); and (4) complex internal deformation stratigraphically restricted to the McNairy, suggestive of major sediment liquefaction or landsliding. Our results thus confirm the prevalence of complex Cretaceous deformations continuing up into Tertiary strata near the northern terminus of the NMSZ. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Probing the magnetic profile of diluted magnetic semiconductors using polarized neutron reflectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X; Tseng, L T; Lee, W T; Tan, T T; Bao, N N; Liu, R; Ding, J; Li, S; Lauter, V; Yi, J B

    2017-07-24

    Room temperature ferromagnetism has been observed in the Cu doped ZnO films deposited under an oxygen partial pressure of 10 -3 and 10 -5 torr on Pt (200 nm)/Ti (45 nm)/Si (001) substrates using pulsed laser deposition. Due to the deposition at relatively high temperature (873 K), Cu and Ti atoms diffuse to the surface and interface, which significantly affects the magnetic properties. Depth sensitive polarized neutron reflectometry method provides the details of the composition and magnetization profiles and shows that an accumulation of Cu on the surface leads to an increase in the magnetization near the surface. Our results reveal that the presence of the copper at Zn sites induces ferromagnetism at room temperature, confirming intrinsic ferromagnetism.

  1. A simple method for migrating narrow aperture, noisy seismic reflection data and application to Project INDEPTH (International Deep Profiling of Tibet and the Himalaya) deep seismic profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdorf, Doug

    1997-08-01

    Migration of deep seismic data is often hindered by a narrow recording aperture (line length by record length) and a low signal-to-noise ratio. The severity of typical migration artifacts (e.g., lateral smearing of discontinuous reflections into synforms, "smiles") increases with travel time such that interpreters of deep seismic data have often substituted migrated line drawings for the actual sections. As part of Project INDEPTH (International Deep Profiling of Tibet and the Himalaya), a new migration method was developed to address both the noise and migration issues. The method works in the time-space domain and uses the simple, constant velocity, straight ray path to perform the migration. First, only amplitudes within a given range are retained for migration, thus avoiding high-amplitude noise bursts and low-amplitude background noise. Then, the local dip of a reflection is found by automatically fitting a straight line to the highest amplitudes within a small window (several time samples by several traces) and calculating the dip of the line using a constant velocity. Finally, using this dip, the method migrates a selected amplitude value. The dips, lateral positions, and depths of the migrated events compare very well with output from more conventional algorithms (e.g.,fk-Stolt, finite difference, etc.). The advantages of the new method include fewer artifacts, fast computer run times, low memory use and the ability to migrate long profiles and travel times (e.g., 50 s). The output of the method is a grid of migrated amplitudes (not wavelets) or dip values which is particularly effective for making small figures, such as those needed for publication. The principal disadvantage is the use of a constant migration velocity.

  2. Improving the Automatic Inversion of Digital Alouette/ISIS Ionogram Reflection Traces into Topside Electron Density Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Robert F.; Truhlik, Vladimir; Huang, Xueqin; Wang, Yongli; Bilitza, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    The topside sounders of the International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) program were designed as analog systems. The resulting ionograms were displayed on 35 mm film for analysis by visual inspection. Each of these satellites, launched between 1962 and 1971, produced data for 10 to 20 years. A number of the original telemetry tapes from this large data set have been converted directly into digital records. Software, known as the Topside Ionogram Scalar With True-Height (TOPIST) algorithm, has been produced and used for the automatic inversion of the ionogram reflection traces on more than 100,000 ISIS-2 digital topside ionograms into topside vertical electron density profiles Ne(h). Here we present some topside ionospheric solar cycle variations deduced from the TOPIST database to illustrate the scientific benefit of improving and expanding the topside ionospheric Ne(h) database. The profile improvements will be based on improvements in the TOPIST software motivated by direct comparisons between TOPIST profiles and profiles produced by manual scaling in the early days of the ISIS program. The database expansion will be based on new software designed to overcome limitations in the original digital topside ionogram database caused by difficulties encountered during the analog-to-digital conversion process in the detection of the ionogram frame sync pulse and/or the frequency markers. This improved and expanded TOPIST topside Ne(h) database will greatly enhance investigations into both short- and long-term ionospheric changes, e.g., the observed topside ionospheric responses to magnetic storms, induced by interplanetary magnetic clouds, and solar cycle variations, respectively.

  3. High Resolution Vertical Seismic Profile from the Chicxulub IODP/ICDP Expedition 364 Borehole: Wave Speeds and Seismic Reflectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, C.; Kofman, R.; Schmitt, D. R.; Lofi, J.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Christeson, G. L.; Saustrup, S., Sr.; Morgan, J. V.

    2017-12-01

    We acquired a closely-spaced vertical seismic profile (VSP) in the Chicxulub K-Pg Impact Crater drilling program borehole to calibrate the existing surface seismic profiles and provide complementary measurements of in situ seismic wave speeds. Downhole seismic records were obtained at spacings ranging from 1.25 m to 5 m along the borehole from 47.5 m to 1325 mwsf (meters wireline below sea floor) (Fig 1a) using a Sercel SlimwaveTM geophone chain (University of Alberta). The seismic source was a 30/30ci Sercel Mini GI airgun (University of Texas), fired a minimum of 5 times per station. Seismic data processing used a combination of a commercial processing package (Schlumberger's VISTA) and MatlabTM codes. The VSP displays detailed reflectivity (Fig. 1a) with the strongest reflection seen at 600 mwsf (280 ms one-way time), geologically corresponding to the sharp contact between the post-impact sediments and the target peak ring rock, thus confirming the pre-drilling interpretations of the seismic profiles. A two-way time trace extracted from the separated up-going wavefield matches the major reflection both in travel time and character. In the granitic rocks that form the peak ring of the Chicxulub impact crater, we observe P-wave velocities of 4000-4500 m/s which are significantly less than the expected values of granitoids ( 6000 m/s) (Fig. 1b). The VSP measured wave speeds are confirmed against downhole sonic logging and in laboratory velocimetry measurements; these data provide additional evidence that the crustal material displaced by the impact experienced a significant amount of damage. Samples and data provided by IODP. Samples can be requested at http://web.iodp.tamu.edu/sdrm after 19 October 2017. Expedition 364 was jointly funded by ECORD, ICDP, and IODP with contributions and logistical support from the Yucatan State Government and UNAM. The downhole seismic chain and wireline system is funded by grants to DRS from the Canada Foundation for Innovation and

  4. Salmonella enterica Prophage Sequence Profiles Reflect Genome Diversity and Can Be Used for High Discrimination Subtyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Mottawea

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-typhoidal Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide. Prompt and accurate identification of the sources of Salmonella responsible for disease outbreaks is crucial to minimize infections and eliminate ongoing sources of contamination. Current subtyping tools including single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP typing may be inadequate, in some instances, to provide the required discrimination among epidemiologically unrelated Salmonella strains. Prophage genes represent the majority of the accessory genes in bacteria genomes and have potential to be used as high discrimination markers in Salmonella. In this study, the prophage sequence diversity in different Salmonella serovars and genetically related strains was investigated. Using whole genome sequences of 1,760 isolates of S. enterica representing 151 Salmonella serovars and 66 closely related bacteria, prophage sequences were identified from assembled contigs using PHASTER. We detected 154 different prophages in S. enterica genomes. Prophage sequences were highly variable among S. enterica serovars with a median ± interquartile range (IQR of 5 ± 3 prophage regions per genome. While some prophage sequences were highly conserved among the strains of specific serovars, few regions were lineage specific. Therefore, strains belonging to each serovar could be clustered separately based on their prophage content. Analysis of S. Enteritidis isolates from seven outbreaks generated distinct prophage profiles for each outbreak. Taken altogether, the diversity of the prophage sequences correlates with genome diversity. Prophage repertoires provide an additional marker for differentiating S. enterica subtypes during foodborne outbreaks.

  5. Antioxidant status and hormonal profile reflected by experimental feeding of probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Magdy A; Moselhy, Said S

    2016-04-01

    Excessive production of free radicals can result in tissue damage, which mainly involves generation of hydroxyl radical and other oxidants. Such free radical-induced cell damage appears to play a major role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Probiotics have been used therapeutically to modulate immunity, improve digestive processes, lower cholesterol, treat rheumatoid arthritis, and prevent cancer. The proposed research was designed to evaluate the changes in oxidative and antioxidative profile in addition to metabolic-related hormones of living animal model, which may generally affect the health status. Two groups of rabbits (10 animals each) were allocated in hygienic cages of controlled animal house. Control group received standard diet, and the other group received the same diet containing one probiotic for 30 days. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in leukocytes, blood glucose, reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were estimated in different tissues. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and total proteins were also determined in different tissues. Certain hormones related to metabolism and growth were also evaluated. Leukocytic LDH activity was significantly increased along with nonsignificant increase of blood glucose in probiotics-fed animals. Results showed significant decreases in the levels of triiodothyronine and thyroid-stimulating hormone but showed significant elevations in thyroxine, insulin, growth hormone, and testosterone levels in animals fed with probiotics. Total proteins content was highly significantly elevated in liver, kidneys, and muscles of probiotic-administered animals. Microsomal GSH level was significantly decreased only in skeletal muscles of probiotic-treated animals. MDA was significantly lowered in animal tissues fed with probiotics. GSH-Px activity was elevated in hepatic and muscular microsomes of probiotic-supplemented animals while it was nonsignificantly increased in renal

  6. Identification and uncertainty estimation of vertical reflectivity profiles using a Lagrangian approach to support quantitative precipitation measurements by weather radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazenberg, P.; Torfs, P. J. J. F.; Leijnse, H.; Delrieu, G.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to estimate the vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR) from volumetric weather radar data using both a traditional Eulerian as well as a newly proposed Lagrangian implementation. For this latter implementation, the recently developed Rotational Carpenter Square Cluster Algorithm (RoCaSCA) is used to delineate precipitation regions at different reflectivity levels. A piecewise linear VPR is estimated for either stratiform or neither stratiform/convective precipitation. As a second aspect of this paper, a novel approach is presented which is able to account for the impact of VPR uncertainty on the estimated radar rainfall variability. Results show that implementation of the VPR identification and correction procedure has a positive impact on quantitative precipitation estimates from radar. Unfortunately, visibility problems severely limit the impact of the Lagrangian implementation beyond distances of 100 km. However, by combining this procedure with the global Eulerian VPR estimation procedure for a given rainfall type (stratiform and neither stratiform/convective), the quality of the quantitative precipitation estimates increases up to a distance of 150 km. Analyses of the impact of VPR uncertainty shows that this aspect accounts for a large fraction of the differences between weather radar rainfall estimates and rain gauge measurements.

  7. Key Inflammatory Processes in Human NASH Are Reflected in Ldlr-/-.Leiden Mice: A Translational Gene Profiling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Martine C; Kleemann, Robert; van Koppen, Arianne; Hanemaaijer, Roeland; Verschuren, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: It is generally accepted that metabolic inflammation in the liver is an important driver of disease progression in NASH and associated matrix remodeling/fibrosis. However, the exact molecular inflammatory mechanisms are poorly defined in human studies. Investigation of key pathogenic mechanisms requires the use of pre-clinical models, for instance for time-resolved studies. Such models must reflect molecular disease processes of importance in patients. Herein we characterized inflammation in NASH patients on the molecular level by transcriptomics and investigated whether key human disease pathways can be recapitulated experimentally in Ldlr -/- .Leiden mice, an established pre-clinical model of NASH. Methods: Human molecular inflammatory processes were defined using a publicly available NASH gene expression profiling dataset (GSE48452) allowing the comparison of biopsy-confirmed NASH patients with normal controls. Gene profiling data from high-fat diet (HFD)-fed Ldlr -/- .Leiden mice (GSE109345) were used for assessment of the translational value of these mice. Results: In human NASH livers, we observed regulation of 65 canonical pathways of which the majority was involved in inflammation (32%), lipid metabolism (16%), and extracellular matrix/remodeling (12%). A similar distribution of pathways across these categories, inflammation (36%), lipid metabolism (24%) and extracellular matrix/remodeling (8%) was observed in HFD-fed Ldlr -/- .Leiden mice. Detailed evaluation of these pathways revealed that a substantial proportion (11 out of 13) of human NASH inflammatory pathways was recapitulated in Ldlr -/- .Leiden mice. Furthermore, the activation state of identified master regulators of inflammation (i.e., specific transcription factors, cytokines, and growth factors) in human NASH was largely reflected in Ldlr -/- .Leiden mice, further substantiating its translational value. Conclusion: Human NASH is characterized by upregulation of specific

  8. Key Inflammatory Processes in Human NASH Are Reflected in Ldlr−/−.Leiden Mice: A Translational Gene Profiling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Martine C.; Kleemann, Robert; van Koppen, Arianne; Hanemaaijer, Roeland; Verschuren, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: It is generally accepted that metabolic inflammation in the liver is an important driver of disease progression in NASH and associated matrix remodeling/fibrosis. However, the exact molecular inflammatory mechanisms are poorly defined in human studies. Investigation of key pathogenic mechanisms requires the use of pre-clinical models, for instance for time-resolved studies. Such models must reflect molecular disease processes of importance in patients. Herein we characterized inflammation in NASH patients on the molecular level by transcriptomics and investigated whether key human disease pathways can be recapitulated experimentally in Ldlr−/−.Leiden mice, an established pre-clinical model of NASH. Methods: Human molecular inflammatory processes were defined using a publicly available NASH gene expression profiling dataset (GSE48452) allowing the comparison of biopsy-confirmed NASH patients with normal controls. Gene profiling data from high-fat diet (HFD)-fed Ldlr−/−.Leiden mice (GSE109345) were used for assessment of the translational value of these mice. Results: In human NASH livers, we observed regulation of 65 canonical pathways of which the majority was involved in inflammation (32%), lipid metabolism (16%), and extracellular matrix/remodeling (12%). A similar distribution of pathways across these categories, inflammation (36%), lipid metabolism (24%) and extracellular matrix/remodeling (8%) was observed in HFD-fed Ldlr−/−.Leiden mice. Detailed evaluation of these pathways revealed that a substantial proportion (11 out of 13) of human NASH inflammatory pathways was recapitulated in Ldlr−/−.Leiden mice. Furthermore, the activation state of identified master regulators of inflammation (i.e., specific transcription factors, cytokines, and growth factors) in human NASH was largely reflected in Ldlr−/−.Leiden mice, further substantiating its translational value. Conclusion: Human NASH is characterized by upregulation of specific

  9. Metabolite profiling identifies candidate markers reflecting the clinical adaptations associated with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Mutch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB surgery is associated with weight loss, improved insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis, and a reduction in co-morbidities such as diabetes and coronary heart disease. To generate further insight into the numerous metabolic adaptations associated with RYGB surgery, we profiled serum metabolites before and after gastric bypass surgery and integrated metabolite changes with clinical data. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Serum metabolites were detected by gas and liquid chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry before, and 3 and 6 months after RYGB in morbidly obese female subjects (n = 14; BMI = 46.2+/-1.7. Subjects showed decreases in weight-related parameters and improvements in insulin sensitivity post surgery. The abundance of 48% (83 of 172 of the measured metabolites changed significantly within the first 3 months post RYGB (p<0.05, including sphingosines, unsaturated fatty acids, and branched chain amino acids. Dividing subjects into obese (n = 9 and obese/diabetic (n = 5 groups identified 8 metabolites that differed consistently at all time points and whose serum levels changed following RYGB: asparagine, lysophosphatidylcholine (C18:2, nervonic (C24:1 acid, p-Cresol sulfate, lactate, lycopene, glucose, and mannose. Changes in the aforementioned metabolites were integrated with clinical data for body mass index (BMI and estimates for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. Of these, nervonic acid was significantly and negatively correlated with HOMA-IR (p = 0.001, R = -0.55. CONCLUSIONS: Global metabolite profiling in morbidly obese subjects after RYGB has provided new information regarding the considerable metabolic alterations associated with this surgical procedure. Integrating clinical measurements with metabolomics data is capable of identifying markers that reflect the metabolic adaptations following RYGB.

  10. Identification of sixteen peptides reflecting heat and/or storage induced processes by profiling of commercial milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Jennifer; Baum, Florian; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2016-09-16

    Peptide profiles of different drinking milk samples were examined to study how the peptide fingerprint of milk reflects processing conditions. The combination of a simple and fast method for peptide extraction using stage tips and MALDI-TOF-MS enabled the fast and easy generation and relative quantification of peptide fingerprints for high-temperature short-time (HTST), extended shelf life (ESL) and ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk of the same dairies. The relative quantity of 16 peptides changed as a function of increasing heat load. Additional heating experiments showed that among those, the intensity of peptide β-casein 196-209 (m/z 1460.9Da) was most heavily influenced by heat treatment indicating a putative marker peptide for milk processing conditions. Storage experiments with HTST- and UHT milk revealed that the differences between different types of milk samples were not only caused by the heating process. Relevant was also the proteolytic activity of enzymes during storage, which were differently influenced by the heat treatment. These results indicate that the peptide profile may be suitable to monitor processing as well as storage conditions of milk. In the present study, peptide profiling of different types of milk was carried out by MALDI-TOF-MS after stage-tip extraction and relative quantification using an internal reference peptide. Although MALDI-TOF-MS covers only part of the peptidome, the method is easy and quick and is, therefore, suited for routine analysis to address several aspects of food authenticity. Using this method, 16 native peptides were detected in milk that could be modulated by different industrial processes. Subsequent heating and storage experiments with pasteurized and UHT milk confirmed that these peptides are indeed related to the production or storage conditions of the respective products. Furthermore, the heating experiments revealed one peptide, namely the β-casein-derived sequence β-casein 196-209, which underwent

  11. Wind turbines and bat mortality: Doppler shift profiles and ultrasonic bat-like pulse reflection from moving turbine blades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Chloe V; Flint, James A; Lepper, Paul A

    2010-10-01

    Bat mortality resulting from actual or near-collision with operational wind turbine rotors is a phenomenon that is widespread but not well understood. Because bats rely on information contained in high-frequency echoes to determine the nature and movement of a target, it is important to consider how ultrasonic pulses similar to those used by bats for echolocation may be interacting with operational turbine rotor blades. By assessing the characteristics of reflected ultrasonic echoes, moving turbine blades operating under low wind speed conditions (<6 m s(-1)) were found to produce distinct Doppler shift profiles at different angles to the rotor. Frequency shifts of up to ±700-800 Hz were produced, which may not be perceptible by some bat species. Monte Carlo simulation of bat-like sampling by echolocation revealed that over 50 rotor echoes could be required by species such as Pipistrellus pipistrellus for accurate interpretation of blade movement, which may not be achieved in the bat's approach time-window. In summary, it was found that echoes returned from moving blades had features which could render them attractive to bats or which might make it difficult for the bat to accurately detect and locate blades in sufficient time to avoid a collision.

  12. Specific Features of Destabilization of the Wave Profile During Reflection of an Intense Acoustic Beam from a Soft Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deryabin, M. S.; Kasyanov, D. A.; Kurin, V. V.; Garasyov, M. A.

    2016-05-01

    We show that a significant energy redistribution occurs in the spectrum of reflected nonlinear waves, when an intense acoustic beam is reflected from an acoustically soft boundary, which manifests itself at short wave distances from a reflecting boundary. This effect leads to the appearance of extrema in the distributions of the amplitude and intensity of the field of the reflected acoustic beam near the reflecting boundary. The results of physical experiments are confirmed by numerical modeling of the process of transformation of nonlinear waves reflected from an acoustically soft boundary. Numerical modeling was performed by means of the Khokhlov—Zabolotskaya—Kuznetsov (KZK) equation.

  13. Initiation and evolution of the Oligo-Miocene rift basins of southwestern Europe: Contribution of deep seismic reflection profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bois, C.

    1993-11-01

    Southwestern European Oligo-Miocene rift basins have recently been investigated by deep seismic reflection profiling. The study of these data, together with other geophysical and geological data, shows that the rifts, which run from the Rhinegraben to the western Mediterranean, do not form a single clearcut system. The N-trending rifts (Rhinegraben, Bresse and Limagne) were developed on a cold and rigid lithosphere affected by the Alpine collision. The NE-trending rifts (southeastern France, Gulf of Lions and Valencia Trough) were formed slightly later in a backarc basin associated with an active segment of the European-Iberian plate that was heated, affected by widespread calcalkaline volcanism and probably weakened. All the southwestern European rifts and basins together may, however, be related to a common heritage represented by the boundary between the European-Iberian and African-Apulian plates that was created in the Jurassic with the initiation of the Tethys Ocean. The present features of the southwestern European Oligo-Miocène rift basins may be explained by a combination of three geodynamic mechanisms: mechanical stretching of the lithosphere, active mantle uplifting, and subordinate lithospheric flexuring. All the rifts were probably initiated by passive stretching. A systematic discrepancy between stretching derived from fault analysis and attenuation of the crust has been observed in all the rifts. This suggests that these rifts were subsequently reworked by one or several active mantle upwelling events associated with late shoulder uplift, asthenosphere upwelling and anomalous P-wave velocities in the lowermost crust and the uppermost mantle. Crustal attenuation may have been achieved by mantle intrusion, metamorphism of the deep crust and/or its delamination. Some of the rifts were affected by lithospheric flexuring. Combinations, in various proportions, of a small number of geodynamic mechanisms probably controlled many basins in the world. This

  14. Profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Profiles is a synthetic overview of more than 100 national energy markets in the world, providing insightful facts and key energy statistics. A Profile is structured around 6 main items and completed by key statistics: Ministries, public agencies, energy policy are concerned; main companies in the oil, gas, electricity and coal sectors, status, shareholders; reserve, production, imports and exports, electricity and refining capacities; deregulation of prices, subsidies, taxes; consumption trends by sector, energy market shares; main energy projects, production and consumption prospects. Statistical Profiles are present in about 3 pages the main data and indicators on oil, gas, coal and electricity. (A.L.B.)

  15. Profiles of environmental contaminants in hawksbill turtle egg yolks reflect local to distant pollution sources among nesting beaches in the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Cynthia C; Vermeiren, Peter

    2018-04-01

    Knowledge of spatial variation in pollutant profiles among sea turtle nesting locations is limited. This poses challenges in identifying processes shaping this variability and sets constraints to the conservation management of sea turtles and their use as biomonitoring tools for environmental pollutants. We aimed to increase understanding of the spatial variation in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds among nesting beaches. We link the spatial variation to turtle migration patterns and the persistence of these pollutants. Specifically, using gas chromatography, we confirmed maternal transfer of a large number of compounds (n = 68 out of 69) among 104 eggs collected from 21 nests across three nesting beaches within the Yucatán Peninsula, one of the world's most important rookeries for hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata). High variation in PAH profiles was observed among beaches, using multivariate correspondence analysis and univariate Peto-Prentice tests, reflecting local acquisition during recent migration movements. Diagnostic PAH ratios reflected petrogenic origins in Celestún, the beach closest to petroleum industries in the Gulf of Mexico. By contrast, pollution profiles of OCPs and PCBs showed high similarity among beaches, reflecting the long-term accumulation of these pollutants at regional scales. Therefore, spatial planning of protected areas and the use of turtle eggs in biomonitoring needs to account for the spatial variation in pollution profiles among nesting beaches. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Probing ultrafast changes of spin and charge density profiles with resonant XUV magnetic reflectivity at the free-electron laser FERMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutt, C; Sant, T; Ksenzov, D; Capotondi, F; Pedersoli, E; Raimondi, L; Nikolov, I P; Kiskinova, M; Jaiswal, S; Jakob, G; Kläui, M; Zabel, H; Pietsch, U

    2017-09-01

    We report the results of resonant magnetic XUV reflectivity experiments performed at the XUV free-electron laser FERMI. Circularly polarized XUV light with the photon energy tuned to the Fe M 2,3 edge is used to measure resonant magnetic reflectivities and the corresponding Q -resolved asymmetry of a Permalloy/Ta/Permalloy trilayer film. The asymmetry exhibits ultrafast changes on 240 fs time scales upon pumping with ultrashort IR laser pulses. Depending on the value of the wavevector transfer Q z , we observe both decreasing and increasing values of the asymmetry parameter, which is attributed to ultrafast changes in the vertical spin and charge density profiles of the trilayer film.

  17. Diffusion Profiling via a Histogram Approach Distinguishes Low-grade from High-grade Meningiomas, Can Reflect the Respective Proliferative Potential and Progesterone Receptor Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gihr, Georg Alexander; Horvath-Rizea, Diana; Garnov, Nikita; Kohlhof-Meinecke, Patricia; Ganslandt, Oliver; Henkes, Hans; Meyer, Hans Jonas; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Surov, Alexey; Schob, Stefan

    2018-02-01

    Presurgical grading, estimation of growth kinetics, and other prognostic factors are becoming increasingly important for selecting the best therapeutic approach for meningioma patients. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) provides microstructural information and reflects tumor biology. A novel DWI approach, histogram profiling of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) volumes, provides more distinct information than conventional DWI. Therefore, our study investigated whether ADC histogram profiling distinguishes low-grade from high-grade lesions and reflects Ki-67 expression and progesterone receptor status. Pretreatment ADC volumes of 37 meningioma patients (28 low-grade, 9 high-grade) were used for histogram profiling. WHO grade, Ki-67 expression, and progesterone receptor status were evaluated. Comparative and correlative statistics investigating the association between histogram profiling and neuropathology were performed. The entire ADC profile (p10, p25, p75, p90, mean, median) was significantly lower in high-grade versus low-grade meningiomas. The lower percentiles, mean, and modus showed significant correlations with Ki-67 expression. Skewness and entropy of the ADC volumes were significantly associated with progesterone receptor status and Ki-67 expression. ROC analysis revealed entropy to be the most accurate parameter distinguishing low-grade from high-grade meningiomas. ADC histogram profiling provides a distinct set of parameters, which help differentiate low-grade versus high-grade meningiomas. Also, histogram metrics correlate significantly with histological surrogates of the respective proliferative potential. More specifically, entropy revealed to be the most promising imaging biomarker for presurgical grading. Both, entropy and skewness were significantly associated with progesterone receptor status and Ki-67 expression and therefore should be investigated further as predictors for prognostically relevant tumor biological features. Since absolute ADC

  18. Rain cell-based identification of the vertical profile of reflectivity as observed by weather radar and its use for precipitation uncertainty estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazenberg, P.; Torfs, P. J. J. F.; Leijnse, H.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2012-04-01

    The wide scale implementation of weather radar systems over the last couple of decades has increased our understanding concerning spatio-temporal precipitation dynamics. However, the quantitative estimation of precipitation by these devices is affected by many sources of error. A very dominant source of error results from vertical variations in the hydrometeor size distribution known as the vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR). Since the height of the measurement as well as the beam volume increases with distance from the radar, for stratiform precipitation this results in a serious underestimation (overestimation) of the surface reflectivity while sampling within the snow (bright band) region. This research presents a precipitation cell-based implementation to correct volumetric weather radar measurements for VPR effects. Using the properties of a flipping carpenter square, a contour-based identification technique was developed, which is able to identify and track precipitation cells in real time, distinguishing between convective, stratiform and undefined precipitation. For the latter two types of systems, for each individual cell, a physically plausible vertical profile of reflectivity is estimated using a Monte Carlo optimization method. Since it can be expected that the VPR will vary within a given precipitation cell, a method was developed to take the uncertainty of the VPR estimate into account. As a result, we are able to estimate the amount of precipitation uncertainty as observed by weather radar due to VPR for a given precipitation type and storm cell. We demonstrate the possibilities of this technique for a number of winter precipitation systems observed within the Belgian Ardennes. For these systems, in general, the precipitation uncertainty estimate due to vertical reflectivity profile variations varies between 10-40%.

  19. Whole Tumor Histogram-profiling of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Images Reflects Tumorbiological Features of Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schob, Stefan; Münch, Benno; Dieckow, Julia; Quäschling, Ulf; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Richter, Cindy; Garnov, Nikita; Frydrychowicz, Clara; Krause, Matthias; Meyer, Hans-Jonas; Surov, Alexey

    2018-04-01

    Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) quantifies motion of hydrogen nuclei in biological tissues and hereby has been used to assess the underlying tissue microarchitecture. Histogram-profiling of DWI provides more detailed information on diffusion characteristics of a lesion than the standardly calculated values of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)-minimum, mean and maximum. Hence, the aim of our study was to investigate, which parameters of histogram-profiling of DWI in primary central nervous system lymphoma can be used to specifically predict features like cellular density, chromatin content and proliferative activity. Pre-treatment ADC maps of 21 PCNSL patients (8 female, 13 male, 28-89 years) from a 1.5T system were used for Matlab-based histogram profiling. Results of histopathology (H&E staining) and immunohistochemistry (Ki-67 expression) were quantified. Correlations between histogram-profiling parameters and neuropathologic examination were calculated using SPSS 23.0. The lower percentiles (p10 and p25) showed significant correlations with structural parameters of the neuropathologic examination (cellular density, chromatin content). The highest percentile, p90, correlated significantly with Ki-67 expression, resembling proliferative activity. Kurtosis of the ADC histogram correlated significantly with cellular density. Histogram-profiling of DWI in PCNSL provides a comprehensible set of parameters, which reflect distinct tumor-architectural and tumor-biological features, and hence, are promising biomarkers for treatment response and prognosis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Geological affinity of reflecting boundaries in the intermediate structural stage of the Chu Sarysuyskiy depression based on results of vertical seismic profilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davydov, N.G.; Kiselevskiy, Yu.N.

    1983-01-01

    A computer (EVM) and an ASOI-VSP-SK program complex are used to analyze data from seismic exploration and acoustical logging with interval by interval calculation of the velocity every four meters. Vertical seismic profilling (VSP) results are used to identify all the upper layers as reference layers. The basic reference level, the third, which corresponds to the floor of the carbonate middle to upper Visean series, is not sustained due to the thin layered state of the terrigeneous section. Based on data from vertical seismic profilling, the reflected wave method (MOV) and the common depth point method (MOGT), the reference 3-a and 6-a levels are identified. Deep reflections of the seventh, 7-a and Rf, approximately confined to the roof and floor of the lower Paleozoic deposits and the upper part of the upper reef series, are noted in the series of the Caledonian cap of the Prebaykal massifs based on vertical seismic profilling. Collector levels are noted on the basis of the frequency of the wave spectra and from the absorption coefficient in the Testas structure and in other low amplitude structures. The insufficiency of the depth capability of the common depth point method and the poor knowledge level of seismic exploration of the section of the lower Paleozoa and the upper Proterozoa of the Chu Sarysuyskiy depresion are noted.

  1. Probing ultrafast changes of spin and charge density profiles with resonant XUV magnetic reflectivity at the free-electron laser FERMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gutt

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of resonant magnetic XUV reflectivity experiments performed at the XUV free-electron laser FERMI. Circularly polarized XUV light with the photon energy tuned to the Fe M2,3 edge is used to measure resonant magnetic reflectivities and the corresponding Q-resolved asymmetry of a Permalloy/Ta/Permalloy trilayer film. The asymmetry exhibits ultrafast changes on 240 fs time scales upon pumping with ultrashort IR laser pulses. Depending on the value of the wavevector transfer Qz, we observe both decreasing and increasing values of the asymmetry parameter, which is attributed to ultrafast changes in the vertical spin and charge density profiles of the trilayer film.

  2. Physical, biological, and chemical data from radiometer, profiling reflectance radiometer, and CTD casts in a world-wide distribution as part of the SeaWiFS/SIMBIOS project from 13 September 1981 to 16 December 1999 (NODC Accession 0000632)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, biological, and chemical data were collected using radiometer, profiling reflectance radiometer, and CTD casts in a world-wide distribution from 13...

  3. Combined evaluation of grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence and X-ray reflectivity data for improved profiling of ultra-shallow depth distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingerle, D., E-mail: dingerle@ati.ac.at [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, A-1020 Vienna (Austria); Meirer, F. [Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht (Netherlands); Pepponi, G.; Demenev, E.; Giubertoni, D. [MiNALab, CMM-irst, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 18, I-38050 Povo (Italy); Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, A-1020 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-01

    The continuous downscaling of the process size for semiconductor devices pushes the junction depths and consequentially the implantation depths to the top few nanometers of the Si substrate. This motivates the need for sensitive methods capable of analyzing dopant distribution, total dose and possible impurities. X-ray techniques utilizing the external reflection of X-rays are very surface sensitive, hence providing a non-destructive tool for process analysis and control. X-ray reflectometry (XRR) is an established technique for the characterization of single- and multi-layered thin film structures with layer thicknesses in the nanometer range. XRR spectra are acquired by varying the incident angle in the grazing incidence regime while measuring the specular reflected X-ray beam. The shape of the resulting angle-dependent curve is correlated to changes of the electron density in the sample, but does not provide direct information on the presence or distribution of chemical elements in the sample. Grazing Incidence XRF (GIXRF) measures the X-ray fluorescence induced by an X-ray beam incident under grazing angles. The resulting angle dependent intensity curves are correlated to the depth distribution and mass density of the elements in the sample. GIXRF provides information on contaminations, total implanted dose and to some extent on the depth of the dopant distribution, but is ambiguous with regard to the exact distribution function. Both techniques use similar measurement procedures and data evaluation strategies, i.e. optimization of a sample model by fitting measured and calculated angle curves. Moreover, the applied sample models can be derived from the same physical properties, like atomic scattering/form factors and elemental concentrations; a simultaneous analysis is therefore a straightforward approach. This combined analysis in turn reduces the uncertainties of the individual techniques, allowing a determination of dose and depth profile of the implanted

  4. Plasma metabolomic profiles reflective of glucose homeostasis in non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic obese African-American women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Fiehn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance progressing to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is marked by a broad perturbation of macronutrient intermediary metabolism. Understanding the biochemical networks that underlie metabolic homeostasis and how they associate with insulin action will help unravel diabetes etiology and should foster discovery of new biomarkers of disease risk and severity. We examined differences in plasma concentrations of >350 metabolites in fasted obese T2DM vs. obese non-diabetic African-American women, and utilized principal components analysis to identify 158 metabolite components that strongly correlated with fasting HbA1c over a broad range of the latter (r = -0.631; p<0.0001. In addition to many unidentified small molecules, specific metabolites that were increased significantly in T2DM subjects included certain amino acids and their derivatives (i.e., leucine, 2-ketoisocaproate, valine, cystine, histidine, 2-hydroxybutanoate, long-chain fatty acids, and carbohydrate derivatives. Leucine and valine concentrations rose with increasing HbA1c, and significantly correlated with plasma acetylcarnitine concentrations. It is hypothesized that this reflects a close link between abnormalities in glucose homeostasis, amino acid catabolism, and efficiency of fuel combustion in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle. It is speculated that a mechanism for potential TCA cycle inefficiency concurrent with insulin resistance is "anaplerotic stress" emanating from reduced amino acid-derived carbon flux to TCA cycle intermediates, which if coupled to perturbation in cataplerosis would lead to net reduction in TCA cycle capacity relative to fuel delivery.

  5. Aspects of the Quaternary evolution of the Southern Kattegat and the central North Sea based on interpretation of 2D and 3D marine reflection seismic profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carina

    In this PhD study interpretation of 2D shallow seismic data in the Kattegat region (Pinger, Sparker and Innomar parametric sub-bottom profiler), 3D conventional seismic data in the central North Sea, combined with sediment core interpretation and radiocarbon dating has been carried out in order...... to outline the geological development of the southwestern part of the Kattegat region, from the Late Weichselian to Early Holocene and to investigate the potential of using 3D seismic in Quaternary geology. Within the study area of the Kattegat region Late Weichselian (Lateglacial - LG) sediments...... are widespread and seen as semi-transparent reflections. The LG deposits drape the surface of the underlying till and were deposited during a period of relative high sea level (highstand system tract). The following postglacial (PG - Holocene) sediments represent a full depositional sequence including lowstand...

  6. Reflecting reflection in supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    associated with reflection and an exploration of alternative conceptions that view reflection within the context of settings which have a more group- and team-based orientation. Drawing on an action research project on health care supervision, the paper questions whether we should reject earlier views...... of reflection, rehabilitate them in order to capture broader connotations or move to new ways of regarding reflection that are more in keeping with not only reflective but also emotive, normative and formative views on supervision. The paper presents a critical perspective on supervision that challenge...... the current reflective paradigm I supervision and relate this to emotive, normative and formative views supervision. The paper is relevant for Nordic educational research into the supervision and guidance...

  7. Neutron reflectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The specular neutron reflectivity is a technique enabling the measurement of neutron scattering length density profile perpendicular to the plane of a surface or an interface, and thereby the profile of chemical composition. The characteristic sizes that are probed range from around 5 Å up 5000 Å. It is a scattering technique that averages information on the entire surface and it is therefore not possible to obtain information within the plane of the interface. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the contrast by isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons makes it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics and magnetic thin films. This course is a basic introduction to the technique and does not address the magnetic reflectivity. It is composed of three parts describing respectively its principle and its formalism, the experimental aspects of the method (spectrometers, samples and two examples related to the materials for energy.

  8. Structural and geological analysis of the northern Pescadero basin: preliminary results based on the analysis of 2D multichannel seismic reflection profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelz, R. M.; Ramirez-Zerpa, N. A.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, A.; Yarbuh, I.; Contreras, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Pacific-North America plate boundary along the Gulf of California is characterized by an array of right-stepping, right-lateral, transform faults connecting a series of pull-apart basins distributed along the gulf axis. Altogether, these structures accommodate an oblique-divergent component of deformation characterizing the modern tectonic regime along the gulf. The northern Pescadero complex, in the southern Gulf of California, is one of the deepest and probably least studied transtensional fault-termination basins in the gulf. The complex is bounded to the north and south by Atl and Farallon transform faults, respectively, and consists of two asymmetric, rhomboidal-shaped, basins with a series of intrabasinal high-angle normal faults and ramps connecting their depocenters. In this study we present preliminary results derived from the processing and analysis of 400 km of seismic reflection profiles, collected in 2006 onboard the R/V Francisco de Ulloa in northern Pescadero, providing new insights into the geology and internal structure of the basin. Northern Pescadero is a deep and narrow basin characterized by a maximum sedimentary infill of 1 km, and depths to the basin floor exceeding 3500 m. Deformation is chiefly accommodated by an array of self-parallel half-graben structures that appear to grow towards the northern flank of the basin. Faults-scarps located farther from the deformation axis appear to be more degraded, suggesting a progressively younger age of the half-grabens near the basin's depocenter. Another important feature revealed in the seismic images is the lack of sediments on top of the crystalline basement that floors the narrow central portion of the basin. In this area the reflectors at the basin's floor show a pronounced increase in amplitude and coherence, indicating the emplacement of magmatic extrusions. Likewise, in those areas with the greater sediment infill, the occurrence of high-amplitude reflectors, located 150 m below the

  9. The Reflective Learning Continuum: Reflecting on Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, James W.; Hay, Amanda; Drago, William

    2005-01-01

    The importance of reflection to marketing educators is increasingly recognized. However, there is a lack of empirical research that considers reflection within the context of both the marketing and general business education literature. This article describes the use of an instrument that can be used to measure four identified levels of a…

  10. Global gene expression profiles in brain regions reflecting abnormal neuronal and glial functions targeting myelin sheaths after 28-day exposure to cuprizone in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Hajime; Saito, Fumiyo; Tanaka, Takeshi; Mizukami, Sayaka; Watanabe, Yousuke; Imatanaka, Nobuya; Akahori, Yumi; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Both developmental and postpubertal cuprizone (CPZ) exposure impairs hippocampal neurogenesis in rats. We previously found that developmental CPZ exposure alters the expression of genes related to neurogenesis, myelination, and synaptic transmission in specific brain regions of offspring. Here, we examined neuronal and glial toxicity profiles in response to postpubertal CPZ exposure by using expression microarray analysis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, corpus callosum, cerebral cortex, and cerebellar vermis of 5-week-old male rats exposed to 0, 120, and 600 mg/kg CPZ for 28 days. Genes showing transcript upregulation were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis. We found transcript expression alterations at 600 mg/kg for genes related to synaptic transmission, Ache and Prima1, and cell cycle regulation, Tfap4 and Cdkn1a, in the dentate gyrus, which showed aberrant neurogenesis in the subgranular zone. This dose downregulated myelination-related genes in multiple brain regions, whereas KLOTHO + oligodendrocyte density was decreased only in the corpus callosum. The corpus callosum showed an increase in transcript levels for inflammatory response-related genes and in the number of CD68 + microglia, MT + astrocytes, and TUNEL + apoptotic cells. These results suggest that postpubertal CPZ exposure targets synaptic transmission and cell cycle regulation to affect neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. CPZ suppressed myelination in multiple brain regions and KLOTHO-mediated oligodendrocyte maturation only in the corpus callosum. The increased number of CD68 + microglia, MT + astrocytes, and TUNEL + apoptotic cells in the corpus callosum may be involved in the induction of KLOTHO + oligodendrocyte death and be a protective mechanism against myelin damage following CPZ exposure. - Highlights: • Target gene expression profiles were examined in rats after 28-day CPZ exposure. • Multiple brain region-specific global gene expression profiling was performed. • CPZ

  11. Reflections on the professional profile in positions of academic libraries director / Reflexiones sobre el perfil profesional para la dirección de bibliotecas universitarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pablo Gallo León

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of the library paradigm in the last decade means that their professionals must acquire new skills and improve their increasingly demanding specific skills. This is especially critical in the case of management positions that are responsible for making decisions under the pressure of a changing and hostile environment. Therefore, it should be ensured that people accessing these positions correspond to a professional profile that enables them to perform properly. A proposal of competencies and skills that every director of university library should have is thus presented.

  12. Global gene expression profiles in brain regions reflecting abnormal neuronal and glial functions targeting myelin sheaths after 28-day exposure to cuprizone in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Hajime [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Pathogenetic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu-shi, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Saito, Fumiyo [Chemicals Evaluation and Research Institute, Japan, 1-4-25 Koraku, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-0004 (Japan); Tanaka, Takeshi; Mizukami, Sayaka; Watanabe, Yousuke [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Pathogenetic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu-shi, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Imatanaka, Nobuya; Akahori, Yumi [Chemicals Evaluation and Research Institute, Japan, 1-4-25 Koraku, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-0004 (Japan); Yoshida, Toshinori [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Shibutani, Makoto, E-mail: mshibuta@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Both developmental and postpubertal cuprizone (CPZ) exposure impairs hippocampal neurogenesis in rats. We previously found that developmental CPZ exposure alters the expression of genes related to neurogenesis, myelination, and synaptic transmission in specific brain regions of offspring. Here, we examined neuronal and glial toxicity profiles in response to postpubertal CPZ exposure by using expression microarray analysis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, corpus callosum, cerebral cortex, and cerebellar vermis of 5-week-old male rats exposed to 0, 120, and 600 mg/kg CPZ for 28 days. Genes showing transcript upregulation were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis. We found transcript expression alterations at 600 mg/kg for genes related to synaptic transmission, Ache and Prima1, and cell cycle regulation, Tfap4 and Cdkn1a, in the dentate gyrus, which showed aberrant neurogenesis in the subgranular zone. This dose downregulated myelination-related genes in multiple brain regions, whereas KLOTHO{sup +} oligodendrocyte density was decreased only in the corpus callosum. The corpus callosum showed an increase in transcript levels for inflammatory response-related genes and in the number of CD68{sup +} microglia, MT{sup +} astrocytes, and TUNEL{sup +} apoptotic cells. These results suggest that postpubertal CPZ exposure targets synaptic transmission and cell cycle regulation to affect neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. CPZ suppressed myelination in multiple brain regions and KLOTHO-mediated oligodendrocyte maturation only in the corpus callosum. The increased number of CD68{sup +} microglia, MT{sup +} astrocytes, and TUNEL{sup +} apoptotic cells in the corpus callosum may be involved in the induction of KLOTHO{sup +} oligodendrocyte death and be a protective mechanism against myelin damage following CPZ exposure. - Highlights: • Target gene expression profiles were examined in rats after 28-day CPZ exposure. • Multiple brain region-specific global gene expression

  13. Reflective photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Goeke, Ronald S.

    2018-03-06

    A photovoltaic module includes colorized reflective photovoltaic cells that act as pixels. The colorized reflective photovoltaic cells are arranged so that reflections from the photovoltaic cells or pixels visually combine into an image on the photovoltaic module. The colorized photovoltaic cell or pixel is composed of a set of 100 to 256 base color sub-pixel reflective segments or sub-pixels. The color of each pixel is determined by the combination of base color sub-pixels forming the pixel. As a result, each pixel can have a wide variety of colors using a set of base colors, which are created, from sub-pixel reflective segments having standard film thicknesses.

  14. Using bathymetry and reflective seismic profiles to tests a suspected link between melt flux and cumulative fault heave at mid-ocean ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughton, G.; Murton, B. J.; Le Bas, T.; Henstock, T.

    2017-12-01

    The interplay between magma supply and spreading rate is believed to play a major role in determining large scale seafloor morphology. Here we use bathymetry to test this relationship in areas with similar spreading rates and differing magma supplies. By using open source bathymetry data we have developed a repeatable, automated method for categorising seafloor cumulative fault heave and then attempt to identify the controlling variables. We measure the total apparent fault heave along axis and off-axis at 29°N and 60°N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge then compare this to proxies for deformation and magma supply. Two approaches are adopted for identifying faults: one using bathymetry and the other spreading-parallel seismic reflection data. The first re-examines the orthogonally spreading Broken Spur segment (26°N) spreading at 23 mm yr-1 (full rate). The other examines the Reykjanes Ridge (60°N) spreading obliquely at 21 mm yr-1 (full rate), which may be influenced by the Icelandic hotspot. Each have contrasting residual depth and structure, with the former being typical of slow spreading ridges, with marked axial valleys, whereas the latter is more typical of fast spreading ridge morphology, with smooth axial rise. We find that high total heave (indicating high tectonic spreading) on the Broken Spur segment does not correlate with high mantle Bouguer anomalies (indicating thin crust and low melt flux). From this we hypothesise that total heave on the large scale at the Broken Spur segment is not controlled by crustal thickness or melt supply. At the Raykjanes Ridge, V-shaped ridges have thicker crust (measured seismically) which converge south of Iceland. These are thought to reflect transient (every 4-6 Myrs) pulses of hot mantle radiating away from the Iceland plume. We find ridge-symmetrical variation in fault heave but with a lower frequency (6-8 Myrs) and longer wavelength (3-7 Myrs) than the V-shaped ridges. Our analysis shows that plume pulses do not

  15. Application of Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transformed Infrared (ATR-FTIR) Spectroscopy To Determine the Chlorogenic Acid Isomer Profile and Antioxidant Capacity of Coffee Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ningjian; Lu, Xiaonan; Hu, Yaxi; Kitts, David D

    2016-01-27

    The chlorogenic acid isomer profile and antioxidant activity of both green and roasted coffee beans are reported herein using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometric analyses. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) quantified different chlorogenic acid isomer contents for reference, whereas ORAC, ABTS, and DPPH were used to determine the antioxidant activity of the same coffee bean extracts. FTIR spectral data and reference data of 42 coffee bean samples were processed to build optimized PLSR models, and 18 samples were used for external validation of constructed PLSR models. In total, six PLSR models were constructed for six chlorogenic acid isomers to predict content, with three PLSR models constructed to forecast the free radical scavenging activities, obtained using different chemical assays. In conclusion, FTIR spectroscopy, coupled with PLSR, serves as a reliable, nondestructive, and rapid analytical method to quantify chlorogenic acids and to assess different free radical-scavenging capacities in coffee beans.

  16. Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and irritable bowel syndrome have different profiles of extracellular matrix turnover, which also reflects disease activity in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Joachim Høg; Manon-Jensen, Tina; Jensen, Michael Dam

    2017-01-01

    Increased protease activity is a key pathological feature of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the differences in extracellular matrix remodelling (ECM) in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are not well described. An increased understanding of the inflammatory processes may...... provide optimized disease monitoring and diagnostics. We investigated the tissue remodelling in IBD and IBS patients by using novel blood-based biomarkers reflecting ECM remodelling. Five ECM biomarkers (VICM, BGM, EL-NE, C5M, Pro-C5) were measured by competitive ELISAs in serum from 72 CD patients, 60 UC...... patients, 22 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and 24 healthy donors. One-way analysis of variance, Mann-Whitney U-test, logistic regression models, and receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was carried out to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the biomarkers. The ECM...

  17. Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and irritable bowel syndrome have different profiles of extracellular matrix turnover, which also reflects disease activity in Crohn's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Høg Mortensen

    Full Text Available Increased protease activity is a key pathological feature of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. However, the differences in extracellular matrix remodelling (ECM in Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC are not well described. An increased understanding of the inflammatory processes may provide optimized disease monitoring and diagnostics. We investigated the tissue remodelling in IBD and IBS patients by using novel blood-based biomarkers reflecting ECM remodelling.Five ECM biomarkers (VICM, BGM, EL-NE, C5M, Pro-C5 were measured by competitive ELISAs in serum from 72 CD patients, 60 UC patients, 22 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, and 24 healthy donors. One-way analysis of variance, Mann-Whitney U-test, logistic regression models, and receiver operator characteristics (ROC curve analysis was carried out to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the biomarkers.The ECM remodelling was significantly different in UC compared to CD. The best biomarker combination to differentiate UC from CD and colonic CD was BGM and VICM (AUC = 0.98, P5mg/mL, correlation of Pro-C5 (r = 0.36 with CDAI was slightly improved compared to CRP (r = 0.27 corrected for the use of immunosuppressant. Furthermore, BGM and EL-NE biomarkers were highly associated with colon inflammation in CD patients.ECM fragments of tissue remodelling in IBD affect UC and CD differently, and may aid in differentiating IBD from IBS (EL-NE, BGM, Pro-C5, and UC from CD patients (BGM, VICM. Formation of type V collagen is related to the level of inflammation in CD and may reflect disease activity in CD.

  18. Structure across the northeastern margin of Flemish Cap, offshore Newfoundland from Erable multichannel seismic reflection profiles: evidence for a transtensional rifting environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welford, J. Kim; Hall, Jeremy; Sibuet, Jean-Claude; Srivastava, Shiri P.

    2010-11-01

    We present the results from processing and interpreting nine multichannel seismic reflection lines collected during the 1992 Erable experiment over the northeastern margin of Flemish Cap offshore Newfoundland. These lines, combined into five cross-sections, provide increased seismic coverage over this lightly probed section of the margin and reveal tectonically significant along-strike variations in the degree and compartmentalization of crustal thinning. Similar to the southeastern margins of Flemish Cap and the Grand Banks, a transitional zone of exhumed serpentinized mantle is interpreted between thinned continental and oceanic crust. The 25 km wide transitional zone bears similarities to the 120 km wide transitional zone interpreted as exhumed serpentinized mantle on the conjugate Irish Atlantic margin but the significant width difference is suggestive of an asymmetric conjugate pair. A 40-50 km wide zone of inferred strike-slip shearing is interpreted and observed to extend along most of the northeastern margin of Flemish Cap. Individual shear zones (SZs) may represent extensions of SZs and normal faults within the Orphan Basin providing further evidence for the rotation and displacement of Flemish Cap out of Orphan Basin. The asymmetry between the Flemish Cap and Irish conjugate pairs is likely due in large part to the rotation and displacement of Flemish Cap which resulted in the Flemish Cap margin displaying features of both a strike-slip margin and an extensional margin.

  19. Thick deltaic sedimentation and detachment faulting delay the onset of continental rupture in the Northern Gulf of California: Analysis of seismic reflection profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A.; González-Escobar, M.; Fletcher, J. M.; Pacheco, M.; Oskin, M. E.; Dorsey, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    The transition from distributed continental extension to the rupture of continental lithosphere is imaged in the northern Gulf of California across the obliquely conjugate Tiburón-Upper Delfín basin segment. Structural mapping on a 5-20 km grid of seismic reflection lines of Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) demonstrates that ~1000% extension is accommodated on a series of NNE-striking listric-normal faults that merge at depth into a detachment fault. The detachment juxtaposes a late-Neogene marine sequence over thinned continental crust and contains an intrabasinal divide due to footwall uplift. Two northwest striking, dextral-oblique faults bound both ends of the detachment and shear the continental crust parallel to the tectonic transport. A regional unconformity in the upper 0.5 seconds (TWTT) and crest erosion of rollover anticlines above the detachment indicates inversion and footwall uplift during the lithospheric rupture in the Upper Delfin and Lower Delfin basins. The maximum length of new crust in both Delfin basins is less than 40 km based on the lack of an acoustic basement and the absence of a lower sedimentary sequence beneath a wedge shaped upper sequence that reaches >5 km in thickness. A fundamental difference exists between the Tiburón-Delfin segment and the Guaymas segment to the south in terms of presence of low angle normal faults and amount of new oceanic lithosphere, which we attribute to thermal insulation, diffuse upper-plate extension, and slip on low angle normal faults engendered by a thick sedimentary lid.

  20. Lamont Doherty Seismic Reflection Scanned Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains single channel seismic reflection profiles as provided to NGDC by Lamont Doherty Earh Observatory (LDEO). The profiles were originally...

  1. Personal Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Personal Reflections. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 6 Issue 3 March 2001 pp 90-93 Personal Reflections. Why did I opt for Career in Science? Jayant V Narlikar · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 9 Issue 8 August 2004 pp 89-89 ...

  2. Reflection groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, PISA organised proactive meetings of reflection groups on involvement in decision making, expert culture and ethical aspects of radiation protection.All reflection group meetings address particular targeted audiences while the output publication in book form is put forward

  3. Reflection ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boura, Christina; Canteaut, Anne; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2017-01-01

    study the necessary properties for this coupling permutation. Special care has to be taken of some related-key distinguishers since, in the context of reflection ciphers, they may provide attacks in the single-key setting.We then derive some criteria for constructing secure reflection ciphers...

  4. Quantifying Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcock, Gordon Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    ´ These are all based on Blooms taxonomy and levels of competence and form a major part of individual student and group learning portfolios. Key Words :Project-Based learning, Reflective Portfolios, Self assessment, Defining learning gains, Developing learning strategies , Reflections on and for learning....... It contrasts the students’ self-assessment in a range of ‘product’ skills such as Revit, Structural Design, Mathematics of construction, Technical Installations; as well as ‘process’ competencies such as ‘Working in a team’, Sharing knowledge, Maintaining a portfolio and Reflecting ON learning and FOR learning......This paper documents 1st semester student reflections on “learning to learn” in a team-based PBL environment with quantitative and qualitative student reflective feedback on the learning gains of 60 Architectural Technology and Construction Management students at VIA University College, Denmark...

  5. Reflectance Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Cooper, K.; Randolph, M.

    1984-01-01

    A classical description of the one dimensional radiative transfer treatment of vegetation canopies was completed and the results were tested against measured prairie (blue grama) and agricultural canopies (soybean). Phase functions are calculated in terms of directly measurable biophysical characteristics of the canopy medium. While the phase functions tend to exhibit backscattering anisotropy, their exact behavior is somewhat more complex and wavelength dependent. A Monte Carlo model was developed that treats soil surfaces with large periodic variations in three dimensions. A photon-ray tracing technology is used. Currently, the rough soil surface is described by analytic functions and appropriate geometric calculations performed. A bidirectional reflectance distribution function is calculated and, hence, available for other atmospheric or canopy reflectance models as a lower boundary condition. This technique is used together with an adding model to calculate several cases where Lambertian leaves possessing anisotropic leaf angle distributions yield non-Lambertian reflectance; similar behavior is exhibited for simulated soil surfaces.

  6. Reflective optics

    CERN Document Server

    Korsch, Dietrich

    1991-01-01

    This is the first book dedicated exclusively to all-reflective imaging systems. It is a teaching tool as well as a practical design tool for anyone who specializes in optics, particularly for those interested in telescopes, infrared, and grazing-incidence systems. The first part of the book describes a unified geometric optical theory of all-reflective imaging systems (from near-normal to grazing incidence) developed from basic principles. The second part discusses correction methods and a multitude of closed-form solutions of well-corrected systems, supplemented with many conventional and unc

  7. Layered magnets: polarized neutron reflection studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabel, H; Schreyer, A [Ruhr-Univ. Bochum, Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentalphysik/Festkoerperphysik, Bochum (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Neutron reflectivity measurements from extended surfaces, thin films and superlattices provide information on the chemical profile parallel to the film normal, including film thicknesses, average composition and interfacial roughness parameters. Reflectivity measurements with polarized neutrons are particularly powerful for analyzing the magnetic density profiles in thin films and superlattices in addition to chemical profiles. The basic theory of polarized neutron reflectivity is provided, followed by some examples and more recent applications concerning polarized neutron reflectivity studies from exchange coupled Fe/Cr superlattices. (author) 5 figs., 13 refs.

  8. Reflective Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Bagnoli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to highlight some difficulties of Neil Sinhababu’s Humean theory of agency, which depend on his radically reductivist approach, rather than to his Humean sympathies. The argument is that Sinhababu’s theory builds upon a critique of reflective agency which is based on equivocation and misunderstandings of the Kantian approach. Ultimately, the objection is that his reductivist view is unequipped to address the rclassical problems of rational deliberation and agential authority.

  9. Historical Text Comprehension Reflective Tutorial Dialogue System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriadou, Maria; Tsaganou, Grammatiki; Cavoura, Theodora

    2005-01-01

    The Reflective Tutorial Dialogue System (ReTuDiS) is a system for learner modelling historical text comprehension through reflective dialogue. The system infers learners' cognitive profiles and constructs their learner models. Based on the learner model the system plans the appropriate--personalized for learners--reflective tutorial dialogue in…

  10. On Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasco, Maribel

    2012-01-01

    produces: that the self is accessible and transcendable, that reflexivity is universal across space and time, and that the self can act as its own remedial change agent or ‘inner consultant.’ I argue that because reflexivity is understood in many different ways, attention to definition is crucial, both...... on the concepts of selfhood that prevail and how notions of difference are constructed. First, I discuss how the dominant usages of reflexivity in intercultural education reflect and reproduce a Cartesian view of the self that shapes how ICC is conceptualized and taught. I discuss three assumptions that this view...

  11. Inspiring Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo

    2011-01-01

    A numberof Chris Freeman's colleagues were asked to reflect on what they thought describes his life and work in a few words. Some of the colleagues replied including former SPRU students that were taught or supervised by Chris Freeman. Their views on what they thought were Chris Freeman's defining...... life is not free from fluctuations, cycles, disruptions, crises and destructions both human and ecological. Innovation research ought to position itself to address environmental, financial and economic crises. The third is innovation research for development by addressing not only poverty erdaication...

  12. Reflective Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenkiel Jørgensen, Andriette

    2016-01-01

    In Breve fra min Have (Letters from my Garden), the Swedish landscape architect, Sven-Ingvar Andersson, produces dialogues about his garden to a wide circle of friends, colleagues, deceased and still living acquaintances such as Karen Blixen, Gertrude Stein, C. Th. Sørensen, Albrecht Dürer, Peter...... Høeg etetera. The dialogues work as a tool of reflection in terms of providing opportunity to examine his own beliefs, to explore the possible reasons for engaging in a particular activity. On the basis of Sven-Ingvar Andersson’s book a teaching program at the Aarhus School of Architecture provides...

  13. Reflective Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  14. Bragg reflection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, J.W.

    This user's guide to the Bragg Reflection Program (BRP) is in the nature of an informal report. The general purpose of BRP is to scan a series of Bragg reflections automatically in order to obtain profiles and integrated intensities. The program is used in conjunction with the SUPERVISOR and READ packages, and the procedures for using it are similar to those for the Triple-Axis Control program. All the general features of the system, SUPERVISOR and READ packages as described in the Spectrometer Control Systems User's Guide are preserved. The presentation assumes that the reader is familiar with these. Sections are given on the READ package, execution and use, error messages, and output. A few sample problems are shown. (1 figure) (U.S.)

  15. Reflected Glory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The nebula Messier 78 takes centre stage in this image taken with the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile, while the stars powering the bright display take a backseat. The brilliant starlight ricochets off dust particles in the nebula, illuminating it with scattered blue light. Igor Chekalin was the overall winner of ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition with his image of this stunning object. Messier 78 is a fine example of a reflection nebula. The ultraviolet radiation from the stars that illuminate it is not intense enough to ionise the gas to make it glow - its dust particles simply reflect the starlight that falls on them. Despite this, Messier 78 can easily be observed with a small telescope, being one of the brightest reflection nebulae in the sky. It lies about 1350 light-years away in the constellation of Orion (The Hunter) and can be found northeast of the easternmost star of Orion's belt. This new image of Messier 78 from the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory is based on data selected by Igor Chekalin in his winning entry to the Hidden Treasures competition [1]. The pale blue tint seen in the nebula in this picture is an accurate representation of its dominant colour. Blue hues are commonly seen in reflection nebulae because of the way the starlight is scattered by the tiny dust particles that they contain: the shorter wavelength of blue light is scattered more efficiently than the longer wavelength red light. This image contains many other striking features apart from the glowing nebula. A thick band of obscuring dust stretches across the image from the upper left to the lower right, blocking the light from background stars. In the bottom right corner, many curious pink structures are also visible, which are created by jets of material being ejected from stars that have recently formed and are still buried deep in dust clouds. Two bright stars, HD 38563A and

  16. Challenging Narcissus, or Reflecting on Reflecting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles, C. M.

    The concept of reflective practice and teaching people to be reflective practitioners is examined. The document begins with a look at professional knowledge according to three prominent professionals in the educational administration field: Schon, Schein, and Achilles. "Reflective" strategies that could be incorporated into courses and…

  17. Acoustic reflections in the water column of Krishna-Godavari offshore basin, Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sinha, S.K.; Dewangan, P.; Sain, K.

    reflection seismic data. Remarkable similarities between the reflection seismic and the salinity profile in the upper thermocline suggest the importance of salinity variations on the water column reflection. Furthermore, impedance inversion...

  18. Critical reflection activation analysis - a new near-surface probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, J.M.F.; Trohidou, K.N.

    1988-09-01

    We propose a new surface analytic technique, Critical Reflection Activation Analysis (CRAA). This technique allows accurate depth profiling of impurities ≤ 100A beneath a surface. The depth profile of the impurity is simply related to the induced activity as a function of the angle of reflection. We argue that the technique is practical and estimate its accuracy. (author)

  19. Information content in reflected signals during GPS Radio Occultation observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Josep M.; Cardellach, Estel; Rodríguez, Hilda

    2018-04-01

    The possibility of extracting useful information about the state of the lower troposphere from the surface reflections that are often detected during GPS radio occultations (GPSRO) is explored. The clarity of the reflection is quantified, and can be related to properties of the surface and the low troposphere. The reflected signal is often clear enough to show good phase coherence, and can be tracked and processed as an extension of direct non-reflected GPSRO atmospheric profiles. A profile of bending angle vs. impact parameter can be obtained for these reflected signals, characterized by impact parameters that are below the apparent horizon, and that is a continuation at low altitude of the standard non-reflected bending angle profile. If there were no reflection, these would correspond to tangent altitudes below the local surface, and in particular below the local mean sea level. A forward operator is presented, for the evaluation of the bending angle of reflected GPSRO signals, given atmospheric properties as described by a numerical weather prediction system. The operator is an extension, at lower impact parameters, of standard bending angle operators, and reproduces both the direct and reflected sections of the measured profile. It can be applied to the assimilation of the reflected section of the profile as supplementary data to the direct section. Although the principle is also applicable over land, this paper is focused on ocean cases, where the topographic height of the reflecting surface, the sea level, is better known a priori.

  20. Data Profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Hladíková, Radka

    2010-01-01

    Title: Data Profiling Author: Radka Hladíková Department: Department of Software Engineering Supervisor: Ing. Vladimír Kyjonka Supervisor's e-mail address: Abstract: This thesis puts mind on problems with data quality and data profiling. This Work analyses and summarizes problems of data quality, data defects, process of data quality, data quality assessment and data profiling. The main topic is data profiling as a process of researching data available in existing...

  1. Reflective masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Khanh Bao [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithographic masks are made by patterning multilayer reflective coatings with high normal incidence reflectivity. Masks can be patterned by depositing a patterned absorber layer above the coating or by etching the pattern directly into the coating itself. Electromagnetic simulations showed that absorber-overlayer masks have superior imaging characteristics over etched masks (less sensitive to incident angles and pattern profiles). In an EUVL absorber overlayer mask, defects can occur in the mask substrate, reflective coating, and absorber pattern. Electromagnetic simulations showed that substrate defects cause the most severe image degradation. A printability study of substrate defects for absorber overlayer masks showed that printability of 25 nm high substrate defects are comparable to defects in optical lithography. Simulations also indicated that the manner in which the defects are covered by multilayer reflective coatings can affect printability. Coverage profiles that result in large lateral spreading of defect geometries amplify the printability of the defects by increasing their effective sizes. Coverage profiles of Mo/Si coatings deposited above defects were studied by atomic force microscopy and TEM. Results showed that lateral spread of defect geometry is proportional to height. Undercut at defect also increases the lateral spread. Reductions in defect heights were observed for 0.15 μm wide defect lines. A long-term study of Mo/Si coating reflectivity revealed that Mo/Si coatings with Mo as the top layer suffer significant reductions in reflectivity over time due to oxidation.

  2. Karolinske psychodynamic profile (KAPP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Birgit Bork; Søgaard, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    psykologiske testmetoder, assesment, Karolinska psychodynamic profile (KAPP), psykodynamisk profil......psykologiske testmetoder, assesment, Karolinska psychodynamic profile (KAPP), psykodynamisk profil...

  3. Temperature-reflection I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGady, David A.

    2017-01-01

    -temperature path integrals for quantum field theories (QFTs) should be T-reflection invariant. Because multi-particle partition functions are equal to Euclidean path integrals for QFTs, we expect them to be T-reflection invariant. Single-particle partition functions though are often not invariant under T......In this paper, we revisit the claim that many partition functions are invariant under reflecting temperatures to negative values (T-reflection). The goal of this paper is to demarcate which partition functions should be invariant under T-reflection, and why. Our main claim is that finite...... that T-reflection is unrelated to time-reversal. Finally, we study the interplay between T-reflection and perturbation theory in the anharmonic harmonic oscillator in quantum mechanics and in Yang-Mills in four-dimensions. This is the first in a series of papers on temperature-reflections....

  4. Liberating Moral Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horell, Harold D.

    2013-01-01

    The author argues that if we are to foster life-giving and liberating moral reflection, we must first liberate moral reflection from distortions; specifically, from the distorting effects of moral insensitivity, destructive moral relativism, and confusions resulting from a failure to understand the dynamics of moral reflection. The author proposes…

  5. Looping up Professional Reflection in Honours Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Trijntje

    2012-01-01

    Within the Saxion Universities in the Netherlands, a profile of the "Reflective Professional" comprises a number of competencies that the honours programmes are designed to develop and support. This article describes the process of developing these competencies. The process involves three loops of learning, characterized by three sets of…

  6. Shave-off depth profiling: Depth profiling with an absolute depth scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojima, M.; Maekawa, A.; Yamamoto, T.; Tomiyasu, B.; Sakamoto, T.; Owari, M.; Nihei, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Shave-off depth profiling provides profiling with an absolute depth scale. This method uses a focused ion beam (FIB) micro-machining process to provide the depth profile. We show that the shave-off depth profile of a particle reflected the spherical shape of the sample and signal intensities had no relationship to the depth. Through the introduction of FIB micro-sampling, the shave-off depth profiling of a dynamic random access memory (DRAM) tip was carried out. The shave-off profile agreed with a blue print from the manufacturing process. Finally, shave-off depth profiling is discussed with respect to resolutions and future directions

  7. Media for Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This article develops the concept media for reflection in the interest of conceptualizing the interpretative frames that enable and limit reflection in management and leadership education. The concept ‘media for reflection’ allows us to conceptualize the social and cultural mediation of reflection...... without reducing reflection to an effect of the social structures and cultural norms in which it is embedded. Based on the developed theoretical framework, this article analyses how a renaissance ‘mirror for princes’ and contemporary research-based management education mediate reflection. The content...... of the mediations is analysed as well as the societal and organizational background. Furthermore, the means by which the two media enable and limit reflection in different ways is compared. Finally, the article discusses possible implications of the analysis in terms of management and leadership education....

  8. Principles of neutron reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felcher, G.P.

    1988-08-01

    Neutron reflection is perhaps the most developed branch of slow neutrons optics, which in itself is a direct consequence of the undulatory nature of the neutron. After reviewing the basic types of interactions (nuclear and magnetic) between neutrons and matter, the formalism is introduced to calculate the reflectivity from a sample composed of stacked flat layers and, inversely, to calculate the stacking from reflectivity measurements. Finally, a brief survey of the applications of neutron reflection is given, both in technology and in fundamental research. 32 refs., 6 figs

  9. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water-reflected (i.e. surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established

  10. A climatology of visible surface reflectance spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoogman, Peter; Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly; Sun, Qingsong; Schaaf, Crystal; Mahr, Tobias; Wagner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We present a high spectral resolution climatology of visible surface reflectance as a function of wavelength for use in satellite measurements of ozone and other atmospheric species. The Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) instrument is planned to measure backscattered solar radiation in the 290–740 nm range, including the ultraviolet and visible Chappuis ozone bands. Observation in the weak Chappuis band takes advantage of the relative transparency of the atmosphere in the visible to achieve sensitivity to near-surface ozone. However, due to the weakness of the ozone absorption features this measurement is more sensitive to errors in visible surface reflectance, which is highly variable. We utilize reflectance measurements of individual plant, man-made, and other surface types to calculate the primary modes of variability of visible surface reflectance at a high spectral resolution, comparable to that of TEMPO (0.6 nm). Using the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Bidirection Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF)/albedo product and our derived primary modes we construct a high spatial resolution climatology of wavelength-dependent surface reflectance over all viewing scenes and geometries. The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment–2 (GOME-2) Lambertian Equivalent Reflectance (LER) product provides complementary information over water and snow scenes. Preliminary results using this approach in multispectral ultraviolet+visible ozone retrievals from the GOME-2 instrument show significant improvement to the fitting residuals over vegetated scenes. - Highlights: • Our goals was visible surface reflectance for satellite trace gas measurements. • Captured the range of surface reflectance spectra through EOF analysis. • Used satellite surface reflectance products for each given scene to anchor EOFs. • Generated a climatology of time/geometry dependent surface reflectance spectra. • Demonstrated potential to

  11. Dissenting in Reflective Conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Boulus, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Reflective monitoring of research practices is essential. However, we often lack formal training in the practices of doing action research, and descriptions of actual inquiry practice are seldom included in publications. Our aim is to provide a glimpse of self-reflective practices based on our...

  12. Self-Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2016-01-01

    will take a look at the establishing of the modern self and possibilities of self-reflection, too. My examples will be from the so-called dark-selfies and from a new selfie form, which merge the present with the previous progressing into the future. I will discuss the media reflections as loos and/or gain...

  13. Profiling cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciro, Marco; Bracken, Adrian P; Helin, Kristian

    2003-01-01

    In the past couple of years, several very exciting studies have demonstrated the enormous power of gene-expression profiling for cancer classification and prediction of patient survival. In addition to promising a more accurate classification of cancer and therefore better treatment of patients......, gene-expression profiling can result in the identification of novel potential targets for cancer therapy and a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cancer....

  14. Reflection: A Socratic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Seggelen-Damen, Inge C M; Van Hezewijk, René; Helsdingen, Anne S; Wopereis, Iwan G J H

    2017-12-01

    Reflection is a fuzzy concept. In this article we reveal the paradoxes involved in studying the nature of reflection. Whereas some scholars emphasize its discursive nature, we go further and underline its resemblance to the self-biased dialogue Socrates had with the slave in Plato's Meno . The individual and internal nature of the reflection process creates difficulty for studying it validly and reliably. We focus on methodological issues and use Hans Linschoten's view of coupled systems to identify, analyze, and interpret empirical research on reflection. We argue that researchers and research participants can take on roles in several possible system couplings. Depending on who controls the manipulation of the stimulus, who controls the measuring instrument, who interprets the measurement and the response, different types of research questions can be answered. We conclude that reflection may be validly studied by combining different couplings of experimenter, manipulation, stimulus, participant, measurement, and response.

  15. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water reflected (i.e., surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established. When evaluating arrays, it has become more common for analysts to use calculations to demonstrate the safety of the array configuration. In performing these calculations, the analyst has considerable freedom concerning the assumptions made for modeling the reflection of the array. Considerations are given for the physical layout of the array with little or no discussion (or demonstration) of what conditions are bounded by the assumed reflection conditions. For example, an array may be generically evaluated by placing it in a corner of a room in which the opposing walls are far away. Typically, it is believed that complete flooding of the room is incredible, so the array is evaluated for various levels of water mist interspersed among array containers. This paper discusses some assumptions that are made regarding storage array reflection

  16. The Reflective Foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Jørgensen, Ida

    Private foundations and cultural philanthropy by élites is viewed with increasing skepticism in recent years, begging the question of the extent to which foundations reflect on their role vis a vis wider societal norms. Through the prism of the New Carlsberg Foundation, financed by the brewery...... Carlsberg A/S, the paper seeks to elucidate the way in which one culturally significant foundation from Denmark has reflected on - and legitimated - its work and investments at critical moments in the past decades. The paper indicates a foundation with a high degree of reflection on the wider societal...

  17. Seasonal soybean crop reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaster, E. W. (Principal Investigator); Chance, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Data are presented from field measurements of 1980 including 5 acquisitions of handheld radiometer reflectance measurements, 7 complete sets of parameters for implementing the Suits mode, and other biophysical parameters to characterize the soybean canopy. LANDSAT calculations on the simulated Brazilian soybean reflectance are included along with data collected during the summer and fall on 1981 on soybean single leaf optical parameters for three irrigation treatments. Tests of the Suits vegetative canopy reflectance model for the full hemisphere of observer directions as well as the nadir direction show moderate agreement for the visible channels of the MSS and poor agreement in the near infrared channel. Temporal changes in the spectral characteristics of the single leaves were seen to occur as a function of maturity which demonstrates that the absorptance of a soybean single leaf is more a function of thetransmittancee characteristics than the seasonally consistent single leaf reflectance.

  18. Wave reflections from breakwaters

    OpenAIRE

    Dickson, William S.

    1994-01-01

    A new method is presented for estimating the reflection of a random, multi-directional sea from a coastal structure. The technique is applicable to an array of wave gauges of arbitrary geometry deployed seaward of the reflector. An expansion for small oblique wave incidence angles is used to derive an approximate relationship between measured array cross-spectra and a small number of parameters that describe the incident wave properties and the reflectivity of the structure. Model tests with ...

  19. The emerging South African profile in Africa: Reflections on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1998-10-21

    Oct 21, 1998 ... arrangements, the South African government has embarked upon a process of planning for ... Norway, Canada, Sweden and the Netherlands, and developing ... prime focus for future engagements" (Department of Foreign Affairs 1999:22) ... strong voice in debates on multinational conflict management and ...

  20. Selectively reflective transparent sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 μ m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  1. Thoughts on Reflection (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been some acknowledgement in the published literature that reflection is a crucial element of the evidence based library and information practice (EBLIP model we have adopted (Booth 2004, 2006; Grant 2007; Helliwell 2007. As we work through a problem and try to incorporate the best available evidence into our decision making, reflection is required at several stages, including the very identification of the problem through to our assessment of the process itself and what we have learned in order to inform future practice. However, reflection and reflective writing have not fully been integrated into the process we espouse, and very little has been done to look more closely at this element of the model and how it can be integrated into professional learning.In a recently published research article, Sen (2010 confirms the relationship between reflection and several aspects of professional practice. These include critical review and decision making, two aspects that are tied closely to the evidence based process. Sen notes: Students were more likely to show evidence of learning, self‐development, the ability to review issues crucially, awareness of their own mental functions, ability to make decision [sic] and being empowered when they had mastered the art of reflective practice and the more deeply analytical reflective writing. (p.84 EBLIP (the journal tries to incorporate elements of reflection within the articles we publish. While we clearly believe in the need for our profession to do quality research and publish that research so that it can be accessible to practitioners, we also know that research cannot be looked at in isolation. Our evidence summaries are one way of reflecting critically on previously published research, and in the same vein, our classics bring older research studies back to the foreground. This work needs to continue to be discussed and looked at for its impact on our profession.More directly, the Using

  2. Neutron reflectivity studies of ionomer blends

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrys, B J; Bucknall, D G; Vesely, D; Braiewa, R; Weiss, R A

    2002-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented of a neutron reflectivity study of the interfacial width between lithium- and zinc-sulphonated deuterated polystyrene with polycarbonate (PC). Both systems are partially miscible and exhibit an upper critical solution temperature behaviour. The interdiffusion in these systems was measured by annealing at a temperature above the glass-transition temperature of both polymers. The interfacial profiles obtained for these systems were described by symmetric Gaussian interfaces. No significant diffusion was observed. (orig.)

  3. Creation, Identity and Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Beatrice Cheşcă

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper “Creation, Identity and Reflection” approaches the identification in the “mirror” of reality with creation, in other words seeking the authors’ identity in the reflected images. Reflection means attempting to find oneself, the mirror being the main principle of creation. Many characters become interesting only when they step into the world beyond the mirror, when their faces are doubled by the other self or when their selves are returned by other characters. The narcissistic concept of the mirror, i.e. the reflection in the mirror and the representation of the mirror itself, is a recurrent one in literature, but the reflection of the self which is not the self (as it is a reflection does not necessarily appear in a mirror or in a photograph or portrait. Sometimes, the not-self is returned to the self by another person or character. As far as Oscar Wilde’s theories are concerned, the main idea is that people are interesting for their masks, not for their inner nature. What Wilde calls “inner nature” is the characters’ un-reflected self and the mask is the reflection, the self in the mirror. Some characters’ relationships develop within a fiction that they dramatically try to preserve and protect with the risk of suffering. They refuse to take off the masks which define them in the others’ minds and hearts; the narcissistic individuals (both artists and characters seek and love their own image which they project upon facts, thus creating a fictive realm.

  4. Theory of relativistic radiation reflection from plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonoskov, Arkady

    2018-01-01

    We consider the reflection of relativistically strong radiation from plasma and identify the physical origin of the electrons' tendency to form a thin sheet, which maintains its localisation throughout its motion. Thereby, we justify the principle of relativistic electronic spring (RES) proposed in [Gonoskov et al., Phys. Rev. E 84, 046403 (2011)]. Using the RES principle, we derive a closed set of differential equations that describe the reflection of radiation with arbitrary variation of polarization and intensity from plasma with an arbitrary density profile for an arbitrary angle of incidence. We confirm with ab initio PIC simulations that the developed theory accurately describes laser-plasma interactions in the regime where the reflection of relativistically strong radiation is accompanied by significant, repeated relocation of plasma electrons. In particular, the theory can be applied for the studies of plasma heating and coherent and incoherent emissions in the RES regime of high-intensity laser-plasma interaction.

  5. Investigating murals with terahertz reflective tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Minjie; Sun, Wenfeng; Wang, Xinke; Wang, Sen; Zhang, Qunxi; Ye, Jiasheng; Zhang, Yan

    2015-08-01

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) imaging technology has been proposed to be used in the non-invasive detection of murals. THz-TDS images provide structural data of the sample that cannot be obtained with other complementary techniques. In this paper, two types of defects hidden in the plaster used to simulate the cases of defects in the murals, have been investigated by the terahertz reflected time domain spectroscopy imaging system. These preset defects include a leaf slice and a slit built in the plaster. With the terahertz reflective tomography, information about defects has been determined involving the thickness from the surface of sample to the built-in defect, the profile and distribution of the defect. With this THz tomography, different defects with the changes of optical thickness and their relative refractive index have been identified. The application of reflective pulsed terahertz imaging has been extended to the defect detection of the murals.

  6. Effect of various antibiotics on modulation of intestinal microbiota and bile acid profile in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Youcai; Limaye, Pallavi B.; Renaud, Helen J.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic treatments have been used to modulate intestinal bacteria and investigate the role of intestinal bacteria on bile acid (BA) homeostasis. However, knowledge on which intestinal bacteria and bile acids are modified by antibiotics is limited. In the present study, mice were administered various antibiotics, 47 of the most abundant bacterial species in intestine, as well as individual BAs in plasma, liver, and intestine were quantified. Compared to the two antibiotic combinations (vancomycin + imipenem and cephalothin + neomycin), the three single antibiotics (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and aztreonam) have less effect on intestinal bacterial profiles, and thus on host BA profiles and mRNA expression of genes that are important for BA homeostasis. The two antibiotic combinations decreased the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes in intestine, as well as most secondary BAs in serum, liver and intestine. Additionally, the two antibiotic combinations significantly increased mRNA of the hepatic BA uptake transporters (Ntcp and Oatp1b2) and canalicular BA efflux transporters (Bsep and Mrp2), but decreased mRNA of the hepatic BA synthetic enzyme Cyp8b1, suggesting an elevated enterohepatic circulation of BAs. Interestingly, the two antibiotic combinations tended to have opposite effect on the mRNAs of most intestinal genes, which tended to be inhibited by vancomycin + imipenem but stimulated by cephalothin + neomycin. To conclude, the present study clearly shows that various antibiotics have distinct effects on modulating intestinal bacteria and host BA metabolism. - Highlights: • Various antibiotics have different effects on intestinal bacteria. • Antibiotics alter bile acid composition in mouse liver and intestine. • Antibiotics influence genes involved in bile acid homeostasis. • Clostridia appear to be important for secondary bile acid formation

  7. Effect of various antibiotics on modulation of intestinal microbiota and bile acid profile in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Youcai; Limaye, Pallavi B.; Renaud, Helen J.; Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: curtisklaassenphd@gmail.com

    2014-06-01

    Antibiotic treatments have been used to modulate intestinal bacteria and investigate the role of intestinal bacteria on bile acid (BA) homeostasis. However, knowledge on which intestinal bacteria and bile acids are modified by antibiotics is limited. In the present study, mice were administered various antibiotics, 47 of the most abundant bacterial species in intestine, as well as individual BAs in plasma, liver, and intestine were quantified. Compared to the two antibiotic combinations (vancomycin + imipenem and cephalothin + neomycin), the three single antibiotics (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and aztreonam) have less effect on intestinal bacterial profiles, and thus on host BA profiles and mRNA expression of genes that are important for BA homeostasis. The two antibiotic combinations decreased the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes in intestine, as well as most secondary BAs in serum, liver and intestine. Additionally, the two antibiotic combinations significantly increased mRNA of the hepatic BA uptake transporters (Ntcp and Oatp1b2) and canalicular BA efflux transporters (Bsep and Mrp2), but decreased mRNA of the hepatic BA synthetic enzyme Cyp8b1, suggesting an elevated enterohepatic circulation of BAs. Interestingly, the two antibiotic combinations tended to have opposite effect on the mRNAs of most intestinal genes, which tended to be inhibited by vancomycin + imipenem but stimulated by cephalothin + neomycin. To conclude, the present study clearly shows that various antibiotics have distinct effects on modulating intestinal bacteria and host BA metabolism. - Highlights: • Various antibiotics have different effects on intestinal bacteria. • Antibiotics alter bile acid composition in mouse liver and intestine. • Antibiotics influence genes involved in bile acid homeostasis. • Clostridia appear to be important for secondary bile acid formation.

  8. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, Cheryl Ann

    Often students and educators view assessments as an obligation and finality for a unit. In the current climate of high-stakes testing and accountability, the balance of time, resources and emphasis on students' scores related to assessment have been slanted considerably toward the summative side. This tension between assessment for accountability and assessment to inform teaching strains instruction and educators' ability to use that information to design learning opportunities that help students develop deeper conceptual understanding. A substantive body of research indicates that formative and reflective assessment can significantly improve student learning. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum (BRAC) examines support provided for high school science students through assessment practices. This investigation incorporates the usage of reflective assessments as a guiding practice for differentiated instruction and student choice. Reflective assessment is a metacognitive strategy that promotes self-monitoring and evaluation. The goals of the curriculum are to promote self-efficacy and conceptual understanding in students learning biology through developing their metacognitive awareness. BRAC was implemented in a high school biology classroom. Data from assessments, metacognitive surveys, self-efficacy surveys, reflective journals, student work, a culminating task and field notes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum. The results suggest that students who develop their metacognitive skills developed a deeper conceptual understanding and improved feelings of self-efficacy when they were engaged in a reflective assessment unit embedded with student choice. BRAC is a tool for teachers to use assessments to assist students in becoming metacognitive and to guide student choice in learning opportunities.

  9. Self-Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2018-01-01

    Reflecting has a double meaning, mirroring and thinking. The seminar will investigate how these two meanings intervene in each other. As we perceive we are already in pre-refectory state, and thinking involves a lot of not only thoughts, but also of senses and sensing, wherefrom our thoughts star...

  10. Worship, Reflection, Empirical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Ding Dong,

    2012-01-01

    In my youth, I was a worshipper of Mao Zedong. From the latter stage of the Mao Era to the early years of Reform and Opening, I began to reflect on Mao and the Communist Revolution he launched. In recent years I’ve devoted myself to empirical historical research on Mao, seeking the truth about Mao and China’s modern history.

  11. Wave Reflection Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Larsen, Brian Juul

    The investigation concerns the design of a new internal breakwater in the main port of Ibiza. The objective of the model tests was in the first hand to optimize the cross section to make the wave reflection low enough to ensure that unacceptable wave agitation will not occur in the port. Secondly...

  12. Reflections on 21 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eklund, S.; Mandel, H.; Teller, E.

    1977-01-01

    Personal reflections after twenty one years of nuclear power are presented by a number of those who were international figures in the nuclear energy field during that period. Lessons learnt, achievements, prospects and predictions for the future are discussed in eleven brief surveys. (U.K.)

  13. Reflection by Porro Prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2010-04-01

    Students all know that reflection from a plane mirror produces an image that is reversed right to left and so cannot be read by anyone but Leonardo da Vinci, who kept his notes in mirror writing. A useful counter-example is the Porro prism, which produces an image that is not reversed.

  14. Value reflected health education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the impact of a value-reflected approach in health education by demonstrating the nature of professional competence development connected to this approach. It is based on findings from two three-year health educational development projects carried out by school health nurses...... develop pedagogical competences in health education improving school childrens’ health....

  15. Reflection on Political Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusche, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    This article compares how Members of Parliament in the United Kingdom and Ireland reflect on constituency service as an aspect of political representation. It differs from existing research on the constituency role of MPs in two regards. First, it approaches the question from a sociological viewp...

  16. Onward: Reflections on Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kimberley Buster

    2018-01-01

    The author has been blessed with great mentors throughout her career. When she was invited to participate in the Leadership University of Mary Washington (UMW), a mentoring program at her institution, she did not hesitate to say yes. In this article, the author shares her reflections on mentoring.

  17. Interferometric reflection moire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Combell, Olivier

    1995-06-01

    A new reflection moire technique is introduced in this paper. The basic equations that relate the measurement of slopes to the basic geometric and optical parameters of the system are derived. The sensitivity and accuracy of the method are discussed. Examples of application to the study of silicon wafers and electronic chips are given.

  18. Reflection on robotic intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartneck, C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reflects on the development or robots, both their physical shape as well as their intelligence. The later strongly depends on the progress made in the artificial intelligence (AI) community which does not yet provide the models and tools necessary to create intelligent robots. It is time

  19. Reflections on "La Esperanza"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Anita

    2007-01-01

    The author was recently asked to reflect on her "educational journey." As far as she can remember she has been hungry to learn. A friend once described her as having "hambres atrasadas," which he described as a kind of "hunger nipping at her heels." It goes back, of course, to her parents: Her father's and her early…

  20. Reflecting on Writing Autobiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Andy

    2011-01-01

    The following reflections relate to the reasons for and an approach to an autobiographic task, the notions that underpin it, and some thoughts about the quality and value of such a project. The focus was on the ways one views curriculum change over time; and the intention was to provide an example that others may sense as either familiar or at…

  1. Reflections on the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, James M.

    2003-01-01

    Reflections on the field of special education offer six ideas: (1) the value of science; (2) the continuing value of separate and special education for some students; (3) the continuing importance of prevention; (4) the importance of academic instruction; (5) the importance of social justice for the poor; and (6) a renewed emphasis on human…

  2. Reflections, 15 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, George

    2016-01-01

    George Knox reflects on his 15-year career as president of Labette Community College in Parsons, Kansas. Knox writes that, as a first-time president coming into a brand new system, he was very fortunate to have many seasoned presidents and mentors in Kansas and from the American Association of Community Colleges' (AACC) Presidents Academy. He says…

  3. Existing reflection seismic data re-processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashinaka, Motonori; Sano, Yukiko; Kozawa, Takeshi

    2005-08-01

    This document is to report the results of existing seismic data re-processing around Horonobe town, Hokkaido, Japan, which is a part of the Horonobe Underground Research Project. The main purpose of this re-processing is to recognize the subsurface structure of Omagari Fault and fold system around Omagari Fault. The seismic lines for re-processing are TYHR-A3 line and SHRB-2 line, which JAPEX surveyed in 1975. Applying weathering static correction using refraction analysis and noise suppression procedure, we have much enhanced seismic profile. Following information was obtained from seismic re-processing results. TYHR-A3 line: There are strong reflections, dipping to the west. These reflections are corresponding western limb of anticline to the west side of Omagari Fault. SHRB-2 line: There are strong reflections, dipping to the west, at CDP 60-140, while there are reflections, dipping to the east, to the east side of CDP 140. These reflections correspond to the western limb and the eastern limb of the anticline, which is parallel to Omagari FAULT. This seismic re-processing provides some useful information to know the geological structure around Omagari Fault. (author)

  4. Being a reflective teacher——reflection on group management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan; Lehui

    2015-01-01

    <正>Introduction According to Pollard and Triggs(1997),reflective teaching is a process through which the capacity to make such professional judgments can be developed and maintained.Then what is a reflective teacher?Reflective teacher is someone who reflects systematically on her practice in a constant attempt to improve

  5. Ethical reflection and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskocilová, Jana; Prasko, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Theories of ethics and ethical reflection may be applied to both theory and practice in psychotherapy. There is a natural affinity between ethics and psychotherapy. Psychotherapy practice is concerned with human problems, dilemmas and emotions related to both one's own and other people's values. Ethics is also concerned with dilemmas in human thinking and with how these dilemmas reflect other individuals' values. Philosophical reflection itself is not a sufficient basis for the ethics of psychotherapy but it may aid in exploring attitudes related to psychotherapy, psychiatry and health care. PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched for articles containing the keywords "psychotherapy", "ethics", "therapeutic relationship" and "supervision". The search was conducted by repeating the terms in various combinations without language or time restrictions. Also included were data from monographs cited in reviews. The resulting text is a review with conclusions concerning ethical aspects of psychotherapy. The ability to behave altruistically, sense for justice and reciprocity and mutual help are likely to be genetically determined as dispositions to be later developed by upbringing or to be formed or deformed by upbringing. Early experiences lead to formation of ethical attitudes which are internalized and then applied to both one's own and other people's behavior. Altruistic behavior has a strong impact on an individual's health and its acceptance may positively influence the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying numerous diseases. Ethical theory and reflection, however, may be applied to both theory and practice of psychotherapy in a conscious, targeted and thoughtful manner. In everyday practice, psychotherapists and organizations must necessarily deal with conscious conflicts between therapeutic possibilities, clients' wishes, their own as well as clients' ideas and the real world. Understanding one's own motives in therapy is one of the aims of a

  6. Reflections on Active Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    with a Software Switch for Active Networks ”. We had initially called the project “ SoftSwitch ”, but after some concerns David Farber raised that this...Reflections on Active Networking Jonathan M. Smith CIS Department, University of Pennsylvania jms@cis.upenn.edu Abstract Interactions among...telecommunications networks , computers, and other peripheral devices have been of interest since the earliest distributed computing systems. A key

  7. Clinical linguistics: conversational reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, David

    2013-04-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference participants during that time.

  8. Superradiance or total reflection?

    CERN Document Server

    László, András

    2014-01-01

    Numerical evolution of massless scalar fields on Kerr background is studied. The initial data specifications are chosen to have compact support separated from the ergoregion and to yield nearly monochromatic incident wave packets. The initial data is also tuned to maximize the effect of superradiance. Evidences are shown indicating that instead of the anticipated energy extraction from black hole the incident radiation fail to reach the ergoregion rather it suffers a nearly perfect reflection.

  9. Polarizer reflectivity variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozarski, R.G.; Prior, J.

    1980-01-01

    On Shiva the beam energy along the chain is monitored using available reflections and/or transmission through beam steering, splitting, and polarizing optics without the intrusion of any additional glass for diagnostics. On the preamp table the diagnostic signal is obtained from the signal transmitted through turning mirrors. At the input of each chain the signal is obtained from the transmission through one of the mirrors used for the chain input alignment sensor (CHIP). At the chain output the transmission through the final turning mirror is used. These diagnostics have proved stable and reliable. However, one of the prime diagnostic locations is at the output of the beta rod. The energy at this location is measured by collecting small reflections from the last polarizer surface of the beta Pockels cell polarizer package. Unfortunately, calibration of this diagnostic has varied randomly, seldom remaining stable for a week or more. The cause of this fluctuation has been investigated for the past year and'it has been discovered that polarizer reflectivity varies with humidity. This report will deal with the possible causes that were investigated, the evidence that humidity is causing the variation, and the associated mechanism

  10. Experimental reconstruction of a highly reflecting fiber Bragg grating by using spectral regularization and inverse scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Amir; Horowitz, Moshe; Kieckbusch, Sven; Brinkmeyer, Ernst

    2007-10-01

    We demonstrate experimentally, for the first time to our knowledge, a reconstruction of a highly reflecting fiber Bragg grating from its complex reflection spectrum by using a regularization algorithm. The regularization method is based on correcting the measured reflection spectrum at the Bragg zone frequencies and enables the reconstruction of the grating profile using the integral-layer-peeling algorithm. A grating with an approximately uniform profile and with a maximum reflectivity of 99.98% was accurately reconstructed by measuring only its complex reflection spectrum.

  11. CFD Analysis of Water Solitary Wave Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Smida

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A new numerical wave generation method is used to investigate the head-on collision of two solitary waves. The reflection at vertical wall of a solitary wave is also presented. The originality of this model, based on the Navier-Stokes equations, is the specification of an internal inlet velocity, defined as a source line within the computational domain for the generation of these non linear waves. This model was successfully implemented in the PHOENICS (Parabolic Hyperbolic Or Elliptic Numerical Integration Code Series code. The collision of two counter-propagating solitary waves is similar to the interaction of a soliton with a vertical wall. This wave generation method allows the saving of considerable time for this collision process since the counter-propagating wave is generated directly without reflection at vertical wall. For the collision of two solitary waves, numerical results show that the run-up phenomenon can be well explained, the solution of the maximum wave run-up is almost equal to experimental measurement. The simulated wave profiles during the collision are in good agreement with experimental results. For the reflection at vertical wall, the spatial profiles of the wave at fixed instants show that this problem is equivalent to the collision process.

  12. Reflection Revisited: The Class Collage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Through the regular use of what Donald Schon has termed reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action, students can learn to improve their "reflection-in-presentation," in Kathleen Blake Yancey's term. Students are often asked to do this type of reflection-in-presentation as a capstone to first-year or basic writing courses. However, a number of…

  13. Reflection as Self-Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how reflection can be used as self-assessment. Reflection involves not only thinking about a learning experience, but also questioning parts of the experience. Reflection is thinking about what one knows from the learning experience, what one might do differently the next time. Reflection is wondering about…

  14. Seismic reflection imaging, accounting for primary and multiple reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapenaar, Kees; van der Neut, Joost; Thorbecke, Jan; Broggini, Filippo; Slob, Evert; Snieder, Roel

    2015-04-01

    Imaging of seismic reflection data is usually based on the assumption that the seismic response consists of primary reflections only. Multiple reflections, i.e. waves that have reflected more than once, are treated as primaries and are imaged at wrong positions. There are two classes of multiple reflections, which we will call surface-related multiples and internal multiples. Surface-related multiples are those multiples that contain at least one reflection at the earth's surface, whereas internal multiples consist of waves that have reflected only at subsurface interfaces. Surface-related multiples are the strongest, but also relatively easy to deal with because the reflecting boundary (the earth's surface) is known. Internal multiples constitute a much more difficult problem for seismic imaging, because the positions and properties of the reflecting interfaces are not known. We are developing reflection imaging methodology which deals with internal multiples. Starting with the Marchenko equation for 1D inverse scattering problems, we derived 3D Marchenko-type equations, which relate reflection data at the surface to Green's functions between virtual sources anywhere in the subsurface and receivers at the surface. Based on these equations, we derived an iterative scheme by which these Green's functions can be retrieved from the reflection data at the surface. This iterative scheme requires an estimate of the direct wave of the Green's functions in a background medium. Note that this is precisely the same information that is also required by standard reflection imaging schemes. However, unlike in standard imaging, our iterative Marchenko scheme retrieves the multiple reflections of the Green's functions from the reflection data at the surface. For this, no knowledge of the positions and properties of the reflecting interfaces is required. Once the full Green's functions are retrieved, reflection imaging can be carried out by which the primaries and multiples are

  15. A fiberoptic reflection oximeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsman, M L; Knop, N; Kwant, G; Mook, G A; Zijlstra, W G

    1978-03-20

    A catheter tip oximeter is described consisting of a cardiac catheter containing optical fibers, and incandescent light source, a light detection unit and a processing unit. Half of the optical fibers guide the light to the blood at the tip of the catheter, the other half the backscattered (reflected) light to the detection unit. The detection unit contains a dichroic mirror, transmitting most of the light with lambda less than 800 nm and reflecting most of the light with lambda greater than 900 nm, thus splitting the light into two beams. These pass through interference filters with nominal wavelengths of 640 and 920 nm respectively, and are focused on silicium barrier layer photocells. The photocell signals are amplified and fed into a divider giving the ratio of measuring (R640) and compensating (R920) photocell output. The relationship between log R640/R920 and oxygen saturation is represented by a slightly curved line. The relation may be linearized by subtracting a constant voltage from the divided output before taking the logarithm. The slope of the calibration line is dependent on the total haemoglobin concentration. Nonetheless an average calibration line can be used between 70 and 100% oxygen saturation. For 78 measurements of pig blood samples in this range (haemoglobin concentration between 96 and 161 g.1(-1)), the standard deviation of the difference between the fiberoptic oximeter and a Radiometer OSM1 oxygen saturation meter was 1.9% saturation, for 152 samples over the entire saturation range the standard deviation of the difference was 3.1% saturation. The influence of the flow velocity of blood on the light reflection depends on wavelength as well as on oxygen saturation. Therefore, complete compensation for the flow effect is not possible by simple means.

  16. Reflections on preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Olli S

    2014-10-01

    Having thought much about medicine in my career-long effort to understand it and the research for its advancement, I have come to views rather different form the now-prevailing ones in respect to what preventive medicine is about; what epidemiology is in relation to preventive medicine; what distinguishes preventive medicine in preventive healthcare at large; the relation of preventive medicine to public health; the concept of health promotion; and also the core principles of preventive medicine. All of these views I set forth in this article, for the readers' critical reflection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Matter reflects Antimatter

    CERN Document Server

    Bianconi, A.; Cristiano, A.; Leali, M.; Lodi Rizzini, E.; Venturelli, L.; Zurlo, N.

    2008-01-01

    It is common belief that the interaction between antimatter and ordinary solid matter is dominated by annihilation. However, non-destructive processes may play a relevant role too. One century ago E. Rutherford wrote about the "diffuse reflection" of alpha and beta particles by thin layers of different metals: "The observations ... of Geiger and Marsden on the scattering of alpha rays indicate that some of the alpha particles must suffer a deflexion of more than a right angle at a single encounter.... It will be shown that the main deductions from the theory are independent of whether the central charge is supposed to be positive or negative". Although the theory of electromagnetic scattering is in first approximation independent of the relative sign of the colliding particles, in the case where projectile antiprotons are shot against a wall of solid matter the Rutherford diffuse reflection mechanism competes with the annihilation process. So it is not obvious at all that a relevant part of an antiproton beam...

  18. Reflection, Interrogatory, Provocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, W.E.

    2016-01-01

    This invited paper advances a framing context for considering next steps in HOF and organizational culture in light of the presentations and discussions that occur during the conference. Many of the contributions during the conference will represent results of scholarly research, structured investigations, or formal organizational improvement efforts. This contribution is intended as informal reflection by a 40-year nuclear veteran on themes from other presentations considering questions such as: ''Where do we think we are?, Are we better off as an industry based on what we have done?, Where do we think we need to go?, What do we think we need to do?, and, Why do we think these things?'' Our coming together on this occasion marks 30 years since the publication of INSAG-l. As we reflect on the past, perhaps it is time to pose a series of questions. Are we sustainers of a mature technology that is in some places declining and being replaced by other energy sources? If we consider nuclear a mature technology, should we focus most on operational excellence with renewed attention to managing the unexpected? Or, is innovation still a vital part of our industry?

  19. Reflection and Non-Reflection of Particle Wavepackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Timothy; Lekner, John

    2008-01-01

    Exact closed-form solutions of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation are obtained, describing the propagation of wavepackets in the neighbourhood of a potential. Examples given include zero reflection, total reflection and partial reflection of the wavepacket, for the sech[superscript 2]x/a, 1/x[superscript 2] and delta(x) potentials,…

  20. Reflecting Contemporary Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, design research has been the object of growing attention in universities and academies throughout the world. The present paper addresses the heterogeneous character of design research and the current need for reflection on the various approaches and interests. For this purpose......, the paper follows two steps. First, it proposes a categorization of the field in the form of a position model. The paper’s underlying assumption is that design research as a discipline exists in many different forms that cannot necessarily be brought together under one common academic research tradition......; instead it is necessary to attempt to define the field in order to initiate discussions about what constitutes the various research bases for design. Second, the paper discusses the implication for future design research when it is an interdisciplinary field that involves many disciplines, mindsets...

  1. The Reflective Methodologists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Bjørg

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a focus on inclusion and vulnerable children has reignited discussions about the quality of pedagogical work. It has also initiated processes of change that have challenged the Danish kindergarten tradition and the identity of the pedagogue in a number of different ways. In this ......In recent years, a focus on inclusion and vulnerable children has reignited discussions about the quality of pedagogical work. It has also initiated processes of change that have challenged the Danish kindergarten tradition and the identity of the pedagogue in a number of different ways...... in which the practical sense and tacit knowledge are related to questions of power and social actors’ strategies for positioning themselves within a social space. This demands a particular focus on the historical effect of the concept of ‘the reflective practitioner’ as a symbolic marker of identity...

  2. Reflections on SLAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, Roger

    1997-01-01

    The SLAP data bases represent a major step forward in the reliability analysis of passive components. The present reflections are motivated by draft documentation for SLAP and have profited greatly from discussions with the SLAP team. We collect a number of remarks and suggestions: The use of event and failure fields to organize the data seems sensible and feasible, from a data analysis viewpoint. Influence factors, i. e. environmental influences which are affected by plant operations, are clearly important yet very difficult to accommodate in any straightforward data analysis methodology. We would welcome a serious effort to estimate the exposure in the various exposure cells. These estimates would not be based on failure records, but on knowledge of plant design and operations. Quantitative expert judgement might be a viable alternative to a massive review of all plants in the SLAP data base

  3. Reflections on Conformal Spectra

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    We use modular invariance and crossing symmetry of conformal field theory to reveal approximate reflection symmetries in the spectral decompositions of the partition function in two dimensions in the limit of large central charge and of the four-point function in any dimension in the limit of large scaling dimensions Δ0 of external operators. We use these symmetries to motivate universal upper bounds on the spectrum and the operator product expansion coefficients, which we then derive by independent techniques. Some of the bounds for four-point functions are valid for finite Δ0 as well as for large Δ0. We discuss a similar symmetry in a large spacetime dimension limit. Finally, we comment on the analogue of the Cardy formula and sparse light spectrum condition for the four-point function. (based on 1510.08772 with Kim & Ooguri). This seminar will be given via videolink

  4. Reflections on academic video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thommy Eriksson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As academics we study, research and teach audiovisual media, yet rarely disseminate and mediate through it. Today, developments in production technologies have enabled academic researchers to create videos and mediate audiovisually. In academia it is taken for granted that everyone can write a text. Is it now time to assume that everyone can make a video essay? Using the online journal of academic videos Audiovisual Thinking and the videos published in it as a case study, this article seeks to reflect on the emergence and legacy of academic audiovisual dissemination. Anchoring academic video and audiovisual dissemination of knowledge in two critical traditions, documentary theory and semiotics, we will argue that academic video is in fact already present in a variety of academic disciplines, and that academic audiovisual essays are bringing trends and developments that have long been part of academic discourse to their logical conclusion.

  5. Reflections on Student Persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Tinto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Feature for this issue Reflections on Student Persistence has been prepared by Professor Vincent Tinto, Distinguished University Professor Emeritus at Syracuse University, United States of America (USA and a longtime friend and supporter of STARS. Vincent explores the case for motivation to be considered as a significant aspect of the tertiary student psyche by drawing on theoretical frameworks, research and practical experiences related to the issue. He synthesises this extensive, detailed, rich but often somewhat impenetrable data into a trilogy of clear and credible key dimensions of the motivation construct student self efficacy, sense of belonging and perceived value of the curriculum. This interpretation of the literature is a personal but informed reflection and is a timely piece which highlights the breadth and profundity of the presentations at this year's conference in Adelaide, Australia where students in all their diversity are central to our focus on enhancing the student experience. In this opening article, Vincent refers directly to the STARS papers selected for this Conference issue of the Journal which also address the importance of student persistence, self-efficacy and building the sense of belonging within their own institutional communities (Fernandes, Ford, Rayner & Pretorius; Kahu, Nelson, & Picton; McFarlane, Spes-Skrbis & Taib; Naylor; Smallhorn. Echoing his position on social justice and his advocacy for underserved students, Vincent reminds us that educational equity gaps still exist, and he encourages us to see the issue of persistence through the eyes of the students to support their perseverance and completion and thereby help reduce educational disadvantage.

  6. Reflective Practices for Teacher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulus Kuswandono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on reflective practice in teacher education are increasingly getting more attention at least in the last 2 decades. This article discusses concepts of reflection and how it is implemented in educating pre-service teachers on their early stage of professional learning. The purposes of doing the reflection for pre-service teachers are not only for illuminating their professional learning experiences, but also to critically reflect their vocation as teachers, including the values which may be dictated to them through rigid regulations. Reflection in teacher education is crucial as it connects well with learning in that learners use reflection to exercise their mind and to evaluate their learning experiences. Besides, this article also highlights some perceived difficulties to implement reflective practice, as well as ways how to promote reflection.   DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.2012.150102

  7. Guided and Unguided Student Reflections

    OpenAIRE

    Matheson, Amanda; Wood, Laura; Franklin, Scott V.

    2017-01-01

    Self-reflection is important metacognitive skill, enabling students to build coherence into their learning and embed content in a broader context. While various pedagogical techniques exist to encourage student reflection, little research has examined the differences between formally guided, partially guided and unguided reflections. This study focuses on student responses to online Guided Reflection Forms (GRFs) from students in a first-semester non-physics class and, separately, a sophomore...

  8. Students’ Learning through Reflective Journaling

    OpenAIRE

    Alvyda Liuolienė; Regina Metiūnienė

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the article is to get acquainted with the types of journals used in education to help students to learn. The paper presents some ways of fostering student’s learning through reflective journaling. It also describes the key aspects of a new method ARRIVE cycle in connection with teachers preparation to use reflective journals in a classroom. The article also presents self-assessment in reflective journaling and students’ need to self-evaluate their learning process. Reflective journ...

  9. Reflection in Russian Educational Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Jo M. C.; Tomic, Welko

    This paper discusses the cultural-historical school founded by Vygotsky, Luria, and Leontiev as the theoretical background of Russian educational psychologists who have been studying how children learn to reflect. Two approaches to reflection are examined within the cultural-historical tradition: first, reflection--like other higher psychological…

  10. Reflective Practice: Origins and Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The idea of reflection is central to the theory and practice of learning--especially learning which is grounded in past or current experience. This paper proposes a working definition of reflection and reviews its origins and recent developments. The author also provides an account of "critical reflection", including its rationale and…

  11. High resolution reflection seismic mapping of shallow coal seams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mngadi, SB

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available the extent of the mine workings. Two 94 m profiles (tied to boreholes) were surveyed using a sledgehammer source. Processing was optimized to image the shallow reflections. The refraction seismic models and stacked time sections were compared and integrated...

  12. Doping profile measurement on textured silicon surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa, Zahi; Taleb, Nadjib; Sermage, Bernard; Broussillou, Cédric; Bazer-Bachi, Barbara; Quillec, Maurice

    2018-04-01

    In crystalline silicon solar cells, the front surface is textured in order to lower the reflection of the incident light and increase the efficiency of the cell. This texturing whose dimensions are a few micrometers wide and high, often makes it difficult to determine the doping profile measurement. We have measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and electrochemical capacitance voltage profiling the doping profile of implanted phosphorus in alkaline textured and in polished monocrystalline silicon wafers. The paper shows that SIMS gives accurate results provided the primary ion impact angle is small enough. Moreover, the comparison between these two techniques gives an estimation of the concentration of electrically inactive phosphorus atoms.

  13. Teachers’ way of reflecting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Lea

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to insights on teachers’ thinking and practice by building partly on the large amount of prior research in the field of continuing professional development (in line with ISATT), and partly on examples from an empirical small-scale study executed in Denmark. The purpose of t......’ reflections on practice. Based on this model, the paper provides a proposal regarding how to work with teachers’ professional development and learning processes. Educational implications and future research directions are discussed.......This paper contributes to insights on teachers’ thinking and practice by building partly on the large amount of prior research in the field of continuing professional development (in line with ISATT), and partly on examples from an empirical small-scale study executed in Denmark. The purpose...... of the Danish study was to investigate and understand teachers’ classroom experiences using Fenstermacher’s approach to develop a practical argument, as these classroom experiences are regarded as a potential source of learning for teachers. A three-level scale model from the study describes the teach-ers...

  14. Profile: Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American Profile: Asian Americans Asian American Profile (Map of the US with the top 10 states displaying the largest Asian American population according to the Census Bureau) CA - ...

  15. Single-Residue Sensitivity in Neutron Reflectivity and Resonant X-ray Reflectivity from Langmuir Monolayers of Synthetic Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzalka, Joseph; Satija, Sushil; Dimasi, Elaine; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Gog, Thomas; Blasie, J. Kent

    2004-03-01

    Labeling groups with ^2H to distinguish them in the scattering length density (SLD) profile constitutes the chief advantage of neutron reflectivity (NR) in studying Langmuir monolayers (LM) of lipids and proteins. Solid phase synthesis (SPPS) permits the labeling of a single residue in a peptide. Recent work demonstrates the sensitivity of NR to single ^2H-labeled residues in LM of vectorially oriented α -helical bundle peptides. NR requires comparison of isomorphic samples of all-^1H and ^2H-labeled peptides. Alternately, resonant x-ray reflectivity (RXR) uses only one sample. RXR exploits energy-dependent changes in the scattering factor from heavy atoms to distinguish them within the SLD profile. Peptides may be labeled by SPPS (e.g. Br-Phe), or may have inherent labels (e.g. Fe in heme proteins). As test cases, we studied LM of Br-labeled lipids and peptides with RXR. Both approaches require a model-independent means of obtaining SLD profiles from the reflectivity data. We have applied box-refinement to obtain the gradient SLD profile. This is fit uniquely with a sum of Gaussians and integrated analytically [Blasie et al., PRB 67 224201 (2003)] to provide the SLD profile. Label positions can then be determined to sub-Ångstrom accuracy. This work supported by the NIH (GM55876).

  16. E-Commerce Marketing State Competency Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Tech Prep Curriculum Services.

    This profile provides the curricular framework for Ohio Tech Prep programs in e-commerce marketing beginning in high school and continuing through the end of the associate degree. It includes a comprehensive set of e-commerce marketing competencies that reflect job opportunities and skills required for e-commerce marketing professionals today and…

  17. Suspended Solids Profiler Shop Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    The Suspended Solids Profiler (SSP) Instrument is planned to be installed in the AZ-101 tank to measure suspended solids concentrations during mixer pump testing. The SSP sensor uses a reflectance measurement principle to determine the suspended solids concentrations. The purpose of this test is to provide a documented means of verifying that the functional components of the SSP operate properly

  18. Effect of reflective practice education on self-reflection, insight, and reflective thinking among experienced nurses: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselin, Marilyn E; Fain, James A

    2013-01-01

    A mixed-method study was conducted to determine whether nurses' participation in a reflective practice continuing education program using a structured reflection model makes a difference in nurses' self-reflection, insight, and reflective thinking about clinical practice situations. Findings suggested that use of structured reflection using question cues, written narratives, and peer-facilitated reflection increased nurses' engagement in self-reflection and enhanced reflective thinking in practice. Including reflective practice education in novice orientation and preceptor training may be beneficial.

  19. Demystifying the reflective clinical journal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milinkovic, Danielle; Field, Nikki

    2005-01-01

    Student learning on clinical placement is a complex issue and cannot be defined solely by just doing things. Reflection during clinical practice is essential if the student is going to learn from the experience. Therefore it is important for educators to include as part of clinical education programs learning strategies that encourage reflection. The reflective clinical journal is an educational tool that is employed by the School of Medical Radiation Sciences at the University of Sydney to encourage reflection of undergraduate radiation therapy students whilst on clinical placement. This discussion paper explores the key concepts of reflection and the reflective clinical journal. Due to the paucity of information about this issue in radiation therapy the literature reviewed is from across all areas of the health sciences

  20. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest developments in the field of renewables at country level around the world. Each profile combines analysis by IRENA's specialists with the latest available country data and additional information from a wide array of sources. The resulting reports provide a brief yet comprehensive picture of the situation with regard to renewable energy, including energy supply, electrical generation and grid capacity, and access. Energy policies, targets and projects are also considered, along with each country's investment climate and endowment with renewable energy resources. The energy statistics presented here span the period from 2009 until 2012, reflecting varying timelines in the source material. Since data availability differs from country to country, wider regional comparisons are possible only for the latest year with figures available for every country included. Despite the time lag in some cases, the evident differences and disparities between countries and regions around the world remain striking. The current package of country profiles is just a starting point. The geographic scope will continue to expand, and existing profiles will be enhanced with new indicators, with the whole series maintained as a live product on the IRENA website (www.irena.org)

  1. Berlin Reflectance Spectral Library (BRSL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henckel, D.; Arnold, G.; Kappel, D.; Moroz, L. V.; Markus, K.

    2017-09-01

    The Berlin Reflectance Spectral Library (BRSL) provides a collection of reflectance spectra between 0.3 and 17 µm. It was originally dedicated to support space missions to small solar system bodies. Meanwhile the library includes selections of biconical reflectance spectra for spectral data analysis of other planetary bodies as well. The library provides reference spectra of well-characterized terrestrial analogue materials and meteorites for interpretation of remote sensing reflectance spectra of planetary surfaces. We introduce the BRSL, summarize the data available, and access to use them for further relevant applications.

  2. Students’ Learning through Reflective Journaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvyda Liuolienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to get acquainted with the types of journals used in education to help students to learn. The paper presents some ways of fostering student’s learning through reflective journaling. It also describes the key aspects of a new method ARRIVE cycle in connection with teachers preparation to use reflective journals in a classroom. The article also presents self-assessment in reflective journaling and students’ need to self-evaluate their learning process. Reflective journaling as central to students’ self-evaluation is described as a means of fostering metacognition.

  3. Studies of the Reflection, Refraction and Internal Reflection of Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanchester, P. C.

    2014-01-01

    An inexpensive apparatus and associated experiments are described for studying the basic laws of reflection and refraction of light at an air-glass interface, and multiple internal reflections within a glass block. In order to motivate students and encourage their active participation, a novel technique is described for determining the refractive…

  4. Cultivating Reflective Practitioners in Technology Preparation: Constructing TPACK through Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangyue Lu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching is a complex profession, which is further complicated by the integration of technology into classrooms. Reflection can help teachers unpack the complexity in their practice. Reflection can be an effective instructional strategy in helping preservice teachers develop technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK, the complex and dynamic knowledge necessary for effective technology integration into instruction. In this study, reflective activities were integrated into a Learning By Design (LBD environment, which was created to help preservice teachers develop TPACK. This paper investigated the participants’ TPACK development and examined how reflection helped them construct TPACK. Through content analysis of the participants’ reflective journals, the researcher found that the preservice teachers developed initial TPACK awareness. However, their reflection in technology knowledge and the content aspects of TPACK were limited and superficial. Interviews with the participants showed reflection helped the preservice teachers remember what they learned by describing and elaborating on their in-class experiences, pushed them to think about how to apply what they learned in their future classrooms, and helped them become more reflective and open-minded about using technology in classrooms. Finally, the researcher discussed this study’s implications for teacher educators and researchers.

  5. Reflection and Reflective Practice Discourses in Coaching: A Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushion, Christopher J.

    2018-01-01

    Reflection and reflective practice is seen as an established part of coaching and coach education practice. It has become a "taken-for-granted" part of coaching that is accepted enthusiastically and unquestioningly, and is assumed to be "good" for coaching and coaches. Drawing on sociological concepts, a primarily Foucauldian…

  6. Postgraduate Education to Support Organisation Change: A Reflection on Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jim; Keegan, Anne; Stevens, Pam

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore how teaching and assessing reflective learning skills can support postgraduate practitioners studying organisational change and explores the challenges for tutors in assessing these journals. Design/methodology/approach: Assessment criteria were developed from the literature on reflective practice and…

  7. Ubuntu feminism: Tentative reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drucilla Cornell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The starting-point for the article is to provide a brief background on the Ubuntu Project that Prof. Drucilla Cornell convened in 2003; most notably the interviews conducted in Khayamandi, the support of a sewing collective, and the continued search to launch an Ubuntu Women�s Centre. The article will reflect on some of the philosophical underpinnings of ubuntu, whereafter debates in Western feminism will be revisited. Ubuntu feminism is suggested as a possible response to these types of feminisms. The authors support an understanding of ubuntu as critique and ubuntu feminism accordingly as a critical intervention that recalls a politics of refusal. The article ends by raising the importance of thinking about spatiality through ubuntu, and vice versa. It may seem strange to title an article Ubuntu feminism when feminism itself has often been identified as a European or Western idea. But, this article will argue that ubuntu offers conceptions of transindividuality and ways of social belonging that could respond in a meaningful way to some of European feminism�s own dilemmas and contradictions. Famously, one of the most intense debates in feminism was between those who defended an ethic of care in a relational view of the self, on one side, and those feminists who held on to more traditional conceptions of justice, placing an emphasis on individuality and autonomy, on the other side. The authors will suggest that ubuntu could address this tension in feminism. Thus, in this article the focus will not simply be on ubuntu, in order to recognise that there are other intellectual heritages worthy of consideration, other than those in Europe and the United States. It will also take a next step in arguing that ubuntu may be a better standpoint entirely from which to continue thinking about what it means to be a human being, as well as how to conceive of the integral interconnection human beings all have with one another. This connection through

  8. The worker profile autocontrolled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Omar Delgado Mora

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This document is part of two deliveries. In this first paper is to make an approach to the concept of self-control from the very beginning with Sakichi Toyoda, founder of what the industry Toyota Motor Company, additionally taking some excerpts of the concept issued by teachers and the psychologist Henry Murray, a professor at the university Harvard precursor test TAT personality test creator, pen applied world wide by psychologists David McCllelan, also a psychologist and a pioneer in the study of human needs and the concept of competence; Professor Jeffrey Pfeffer of Stanford University organizational behavior and theory, Frederick Hertzberg, Psychologist and strong influential in business management, Kronfly Cruz, lawyer and investigator of social and administrative sciences, Charles Perrow, a sociologist at Yale University and Stanford , who studies the impact of large organizations in society, among others. The study reflects the need to meet organizational objectives related to the physicochemical characteristics of the finished product in a plant of the company’s main beers in the country. In this paper, we intend to make an approximation of worker self -controlled, which when compared with the powers, generic, specific and technical area established by the brewery, will allow generating a methodology to adjust these competencies and to obtain the target profile drawn. This comparison and development of the methodology proposed is the subject of the second work planned.

  9. The effect of surface texture on total reflection of neutrons and X-rays from modified interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldar, A.; Roser, S.J.; Hughes, A.

    2002-01-01

    X-ray and neutron scattering from macroscopically rough surfaces and interfaces is considered and a new method of analysis based on the variation of the shape of the total reflection edge in the reflectivity profile is proposed. It was shown that in the limit that the correlation length and the h......X-ray and neutron scattering from macroscopically rough surfaces and interfaces is considered and a new method of analysis based on the variation of the shape of the total reflection edge in the reflectivity profile is proposed. It was shown that in the limit that the correlation length...... and the height of the surface roughness are larger than the wavelength (at least 100 times bigger) of the incoming beam, the total reflection edge in the reflection profile becomes rounded. This technique allows direct analysis of the variation of the reflectivity pro le in terms of the structure of the surface...

  10. Ethical Reflections on Becoming Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Pamela Bolotin

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes narratives written in a culminating graduate seminar on reflective practice by 36 new secondary teachers who were asked to consider their moral beliefs, moral values and system of ethics as they reflected on their recent student teaching experiences. The findings explore how the participants depicted their constructed moral…

  11. Flexible Bistable Cholesteric Reflective Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2006-03-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) exhibit two stable states at zero field condition-the reflecting planar state and the nonreflecting focal conic state. ChLCs are an excellent candidate for inexpensive and rugged electronic books and papers. This paper will review the display cell structure,materials and drive schemes for flexible bistable cholesteric (Ch) reflective displays.

  12. Reflection measurements for luminescent powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, R. E.

    2018-04-01

    Luminescent materials are useful in applications varying from lighting and display technologies to document security features and medical research, amongst many others. Measurement of the excitation range is an important consideration, and absorption bands are often determined from a decrease in the measured diffuse reflectance of the material using a ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere. Such a system may provide questionable results when used to measure the reflectance of a luminescence material, which is demonstrated for a Tb doped silica phosphor, because the system cannot differentiate between the reflected light and luminescence. It is shown that more reliable results are achieved for this phosphor by measuring the reflectance using a synchronous zero-offset scan in a fluorescence spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere. This method is therefore recommended instead of traditional reflectance measurements using a UV-vis spectrophotometer for luminescent powders.

  13. Meteorological information in GPS-RO reflected signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Boniface

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Vertical profiles of the atmosphere can be obtained globally with the radio-occultation technique. However, the lowest layers of the atmosphere are less accurately extracted. A good description of these layers is important for the good performance of Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP systems, and an improvement of the observational data available for the low troposphere would thus be of great interest for data assimilation. We outline here how supplemental meteorological information close to the surface can be extracted whenever reflected signals are available. We separate the reflected signal through a radioholographic filter, and we interpret it with a ray tracing procedure, analyzing the trajectories of the electromagnetic waves over a 3-D field of refractive index. A perturbation approach is then used to perform an inversion, identifying the relevant contribution of the lowest layers of the atmosphere to the properties of the reflected signal, and extracting some supplemental information to the solution of the inversion of the direct propagation signals. It is found that there is a significant amount of useful information in the reflected signal, which is sufficient to extract a stand-alone profile of the low atmosphere, with a precision of approximately 0.1 %. The methodology is applied to one reflection case.

  14. 'Combined reflectance stratigraphy' - subdivision of loess successions by diffuse reflectance spectrometry (DRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberényi, Jozsef; Bradak-Hayashi, Balázs; Kiss, Klaudia; Kovács, József; Varga, György; Balázs, Réka; Szalai, Zoltán; Viczián, István

    2016-04-01

    The different varieties of loess (and intercalated paleosol layers) together constitute one of the most widespread terrestrial sediments, which was deposited, altered, and redeposited in the course of the changing climatic conditions of the Pleistocene. To reveal more information about Pleistocene climate cycles and/or environments the detailed lithostratigraphical subdivision and classification of the loess variations and paleosols are necessary. Beside the numerous method such as various field measurements, semi-quantitative tests and laboratory investigations, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is one of the well applied method on loess/paleosol sequences. Generally, DRS has been used to separate the detrital and pedogenic mineral component of the loess sections by the hematite/goethite ratio. DRS also has been applied as a joint method of various environmental magnetic investigations such as magnetic susceptibility- and isothermal remanent magnetization measurements. In our study the so-called "combined reflectance stratigraphy method" were developed. At First, complex mathematical method was applied to compare the results of the spectral reflectance measurements. One of the most preferred multivariate methods is cluster analysis. Its scope is to group and compare the loess variations and paleosol based on the similarity and common properties of their reflectance curves. In the Second, beside the basic subdivision of the profiles by the different reflectance curves of the layers, the most characteristic wavelength section of the reflectance curve was determined. This sections played the most important role during the classification of the different materials of the section. The reflectance value of individual samples, belonged to the characteristic wavelength were depicted in the function of depth and well correlated with other proxies like grain size distribution and magnetic susceptibility data. The results of the correlation showed the significance of

  15. Reflection measurements of microwave absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Dirk E.; van der Neut, Cornelis A.

    1988-12-01

    A swept-frequency interferometer is described for making rapid, real-time assessments of localized inhomogeneities in planar microwave absorber panels. An aperture-matched exponential horn is used to reduce residual reflections in the system to about -37 dB. This residual reflection is adequate for making comparative measurements on planar absorber panels whose reflectivities usually fall in the -15 to -25 dB range. Reflectivity measurements on a variety of planar absorber panels show that multilayer Jaumann absorbers have the greatest inhomogeneity, while honeycomb absorbers generally have excellent homogeneity within a sheet and from sheet to sheet. The test setup is also used to measure the center frequencies of resonant absorbers. With directional couplers and aperture-matched exponential horns, the technique can be easily applied in the standard 2 to 40 GHz waveguide bands.

  16. Ibuanyidanda (Complementary Reflection), Communalism and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Prof. Asouzu

    Glossary of Igbo Terms and Phrases ihe ahụ na anya ... other words, it is in mutual dependence that the feeling of intimacy found among kindred ..... Complementary Reflection, Communalism and Theory Formulation in African Philosophy 25.

  17. Reflective Methodology: The Beginning Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Ronald K.; Siefert, Thomas E.

    1970-01-01

    Offers a variety of specific techniques which will help the beginning teacher to implement reflective methodology and create an inquiry-centered classroom atmosphere, at the same time meeting the many more pressing demands of first-year teaching. (JES)

  18. High-resolution reflection spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducloy, Martial

    1997-01-01

    In this article some recent developments in selective reflection spectroscopy is reviewed and the various ways to extend Doppler free techniques to this spectroscopic field is discussed. Its main feature is to probe atomic gas close to the cell boundaries

  19. Analytic Reflected Lightcurves for Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggard, Hal M.; Cowan, Nicolas B.

    2018-04-01

    The disk-integrated reflected brightness of an exoplanet changes as a function of time due to orbital and rotational motion coupled with an inhomogeneous albedo map. We have previously derived analytic reflected lightcurves for spherical harmonic albedo maps in the special case of a synchronously-rotating planet on an edge-on orbit (Cowan, Fuentes & Haggard 2013). In this letter, we present analytic reflected lightcurves for the general case of a planet on an inclined orbit, with arbitrary spin period and non-zero obliquity. We do so for two different albedo basis maps: bright points (δ-maps), and spherical harmonics (Y_l^m-maps). In particular, we use Wigner D-matrices to express an harmonic lightcurve for an arbitrary viewing geometry as a non-linear combination of harmonic lightcurves for the simpler edge-on, synchronously rotating geometry. These solutions will enable future exploration of the degeneracies and information content of reflected lightcurves, as well as fast calculation of lightcurves for mapping exoplanets based on time-resolved photometry. To these ends we make available Exoplanet Analytic Reflected Lightcurves (EARL), a simple open-source code that allows rapid computation of reflected lightcurves.

  20. HOPWA Performance Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HOPWA Performance Profiles are generated quarterly for all agencies receiving HOPWA formula or competitive grants. Performance Profiles are available at the national...

  1. Partial reflection data collection and processing using a small computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birley, M. H.; Sechrist, C. F., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Online data collection of the amplitudes of circularly polarized radio waves, partially reflected from the D region of the earth's ionosphere, has enabled the calculation of an electron-density profile in the height region 60-90 km. A PDP 15/30 digital computer with an analog to digital converter and magnetic tape as an intermediary storage device are used. The computer configuration, the software developed, and the preliminary results are described.

  2. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics, and to whom he always remained close - his sister Maja. .... moved to Munich at the beginning of 1882, when Albert was barely two years old. ... This was demonstrated during a further change in the sphere of activity of .... As is well known, in Germany one uses the polite form "Sie" for adults and for people who.

  3. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2004-04-01

    Apr 1, 2004 ... journal Current Science, Vol 61, 1991, pp.594-600. It is an ... could be explained as mere imperfections in the fossil record. .... would almost seem that exposure to the rigours of the climate had quickened the pace ... would be interesting to know whether this telescoping effect is the outward manifesta-.

  4. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    making computer programs 'human like' by building in learning and ... discussed the problems of control and communication in the living organism and the machine. ... To be effective in warding off disastrous consequences, our understanding.

  5. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    not only in linguistics hut also in allied fields, splitting social scientists into t\\VO groups, Chomskyan and others. ... views on language, IlO\\\\"knoVv'Il as 'Standard Theory', generated a ... For the human mind, learning is a kind of reminiscence.

  6. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    future seemed secure, and there was such complete harmony of character between ... was at once so taken with the idea that he was able to persuade Hermann Einstein to .... A liberal spirit, undogmatic in matters of religion, brought by both.

  7. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Of what lasting benefit has been man's use of science and of the new instruments which his research .... future moves about the laboratory or the field, every time he looks at something worthy of ... Yet the speed of action, the intricacy of .... physician, puzzled by a patient's reactions, strikes the trail established in studying an.

  8. Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Gay, Paul; Vikkelsø, Signe

    2012-01-01

    The notion of ‘change’ has become pervasive in contemporary organizational discourse. On the one hand, change is represented as an organizational imperative that increasingly appears to trump all other concerns. On the other hand, change is addressed as an abstract, generic entity that can be the...

  9. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Newton that there was a transition to the understanding and explanation of natural .... All of this again is accessible to human understanding, and new laws of nature couched in ..... able limits to communication with other individuals.

  10. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The modem picture of the basic constituents and their interactions is described by the so called ... According to him, however great the ... Finally, it is good to remember the words of Bhabha that only science and technology can solve the.

  11. Is spectral reflectance of the face a reliable biometric?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzair, Muhammad; Mahmood, Arif; Shafait, Faisal; Nansen, Christian; Mian, Ajmal

    2015-06-15

    Over a decade ago, Pan et al. [IEEE TPAMI 25, 1552 (2003)] performed face recognition using only the spectral reflectance of the face at six points and reported around 95% recognition rate. Since their database is private, no one has been able to replicate these results. Moreover, due to the unavailability of public datasets, there has been no detailed study in the literature on the viability of facial spectral reflectance for person identification. In this study, we introduce a new public database of facial spectral reflectance profiles measured with a high precision spectrometer. For each of the 40 subjects, spectral reflectance was measured at the same six points as Pan et al. [IEEE TPAMI 25, 1552 (2003)] in multiple sessions and with time lapse. Furthermore, we sample the facial spectral reflectance from two public hyperspectral face image datasets and analyzed the data using state of the art face classification techniques. The best performing classifier achieved the maximum rank-1 identification rate of 53.8%. We conclude that facial spectral reflectance alone is not a reliable biometric for unconstrained face recognition.

  12. Spectral backward radiation profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sung Duck; Lee, Keun Hyun; Kim, Bo Ra; Yoon, Suk Soo

    2004-01-01

    Ultrasonic backward radiation profile is frequency-dependent when incident region has deptional gradient of acoustical properties or multi-layers. Until now, we have measured the profiles of principal frequencies of used transducers so that it was not easy to understand the change of the frequency component and spectrum of backward radiation from the profile. We tried to measure the spectral backward radiation profiles using DFP(digital filer package) Lecroy DSO. The very big changes in the shape and pattern of spectral backward radiation profiles leads to the conclusion that this new try could be very effective tool to evaluate frequency dependent surface area.

  13. Reflectance spectra of subarctic lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzold, D.E.; Goward, S.N.

    1988-01-01

    Lichens constitute a major portion of the ground cover of high latitude environments, but little has been reported concerning their in situ solar spectral reflectance properties. Knowledge of these properties is important for the interpretation of remotely sensed observations from high latitude regions, as well as in studies of high latitude ecology and energy balance climatology. The spectral reflectance of common boreal vascular plants is similar to that of vascular plants of the mid latitudes. The dominant lichens, in contrast, display variable reflectance patterns in visible wavelengths. The relative reflectance peak at 0.55 μm, common to green vegetation, is absent or indistinct in spectra of pervasive boreal forest and tundra lichens, despite the presence of chlorophyll in the inner algal cells. Lichens of the dominant genus, Cladina, display strong absorption of ultraviolet energy and short-wavelength blue light relative to their absorption in other visible wavelengths. Since the Cladinae dominate both the surface vegetation in open woodlands of the boreal forest and the low arctic tundra, their unusual spectral reflectance patterns will enable accurate monitoring of the boreal forest-tundra ecotone and detection of its vigor and movement in the future. (author)

  14. Low reflectance radio frequency load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M

    2014-04-01

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  15. Reflectance spectra of subarctic lichens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Donald E.; Goward, Samuel N.

    1988-01-01

    Lichens constitute a major portion of the ground cover of high latitude environments, but little has been reported concerning their in situ solar spectral reflectance properties. Knowledge of these properties is important for the interpretation of remotely sensed observations from high latitude regions, as well as in studies of high latitude ecology and energy balance climatology. The spectral reflectance of common boreal vascular plants is similar to that of vascular plants of the midlatitudes. The dominant lichens, in contrast, display variable reflectance patterns in visible wavelengths. The relative reflectance peak at 0.55 microns, common to green vegetation, is absent or indistinct in spectra of pervasive boreal forest and tundra lichens, despite the presence of chlorophyll in the inner algal cells. Lichens of the dominant genus, Cladina, display strong absorption of ultraviolet energy and short-wavelength blue light relative to their absorption in other visible wavelengths. Since the Cladinae dominate both the surface vegetation in open woodlands of the boreal forest and the low arctic tundra, their unusual spectral reflectance patterns will enable accurate monitoring of the boreal forest-tundra ecotone and detection of its vigor and movement in the future.

  16. Audible reflection density for different late reflection criteria in rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krueger, Donata; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    For reasonably accurate but practical auralizations, some simplifications and approximations are needed. The main issue in the present investigation is that the reflection density of a room impulse response, in theory, increases so fast as a quadratic function of the elapsed time, even assuming...

  17. Assessing Reflection: Understanding Skill Development through Reflective Learning Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathro, Virginia; O'Kane, Paula; Gilbertson, Deb

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to suggest ways in which business educators can interact successfully with reflective learning journals (RLJs). Specifically, the research was interested in how students used RLJs and how educators assessed these RLJs. Design/methodology/approach: In total, 31 RLJs, submitted as part of an international…

  18. Reflective Drawing as a Tool for Reflection in Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Mirian

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the role of drawing as a tool for reflection. It reports on a PhD research project that aims to identify and analyse the value that co-design processes can bring to participants and their communities. The research is associated with Leapfrog, a three-year project funded by the UK Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC).…

  19. Methodological Reflections: Inter- ethnic Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    with both youth and the parental generation with ethnic minority background in Denmark. These reflections include implications and challenges related to researcher’s national, ethnic background and educational, professional position in encounter with   diverse ‘researched persons’ such as youth......This article reflects on the methodological and epistemological aspects of the ethical issues involved in encounters between researcher and research participants with ethnic minority background in contexts with diversity. Specific challenges involved in longitudinal research (10 - 15 years......) are also considered. The issues related to the social relevance of the research deriving from psycho political validity implying consideration of power dynamics in the personal, relational and collective domains are included. The primary basis for these reflections is a follow-up study concerning young...

  20. Reflecting variable opening insulating panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nungesser, W.T.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of a reflecting variable opening insulating panel assembly, comprising a static panel assembly of reflecting insulation sheets forming a cavity along one side of the panel and a movable panel opening out by sliding from the cavity of the static panel, and a locking device for holding the movable panel in a position extending from the cavity of the static panel. This can apply to a nuclear reactor of which the base might require maintenance and periodical checking and for which it is desirable to have available certain processes for the partial dismantling of the insulation [fr

  1. Guide on reflectivity data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Soo; Ku, Ja Seung; Seong, Baek Seok; Lee, Chang Hee; Hong, Kwang Pyo; Choi, Byung Hoon

    2004-09-01

    This report contains reduction and fitting process of neutron reflectivity data by REFLRED and REFLFIT in NIST. Because the detail of data reduction like BKG, footprint and data normalization was described, it will be useful to the user who has no experience in this field. Also, reflectivity and BKG of d-PS thin film were measured by HANARO neutron reflectometer. From these, the structure of d-PS thin film was analyzed with REFLRED and REFLFIT. Because the structure of thin film such as thickness, roughness and SLD was attained in the work, the possibility of data analysis with REFLRED and REFLFIT was certified

  2. Seismic reflection data imaging and interpretation from Braniewo2014 experiment using additional wide-angle refraction and reflection and well-logs data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzeciak, Maciej; Majdański, Mariusz; Białas, Sebastian; Gaczyński, Edward; Maksym, Andrzej

    2015-04-01

    Braniewo2014 reflection and refraction experiment was realized in cooperation between Polish Oil and Gas Company (PGNiG) and the Institute of Geophysics (IGF), Polish Academy of Sciences, near the locality of Braniewo in northern Poland. PGNiG realized a 20-km-long reflection profile, using vibroseis and dynamite shooting; the aim of the reflection survey was to characterise Silurian shale gas reservoir. IGF deployed 59 seismic stations along this profile and registered additional full-spread wide-angle refraction and reflection data, with offsets up to 12 km; maximum offsets from the seismic reflection survey was 3 km. To improve the velocity information two velocity logs from near deep boreholes were used. The main goal of the joint reflection-refraction interpretation was to find relations between velocity field from reflection velocity analysis and refraction tomography, and to build a velocity model which would be consistent for both, reflection and refraction, datasets. In this paper we present imaging results and velocity models from Braniewo2014 experiment and the methodology we used.

  3. Fragments on teachers' reflective practicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Predrag Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available in many historical and comparative overviews of the works, in which there is an analytical discussion of the dominant pedagogical theories in the twentieth century, John Dewey (Dewey, 1933 is referred to as the founder and creator of the concept of reflection (reflective thought and knowledge in practice. Reflection as a concept is understood as the forms and the form of problem solving, as well as continuously thinking about the causes of problems in situations in situ, including active and systematically and consistently changing connecting ideas with solutions to the problems and situations that preceded them (Hatton & Smith, 1995. Reflective thinking is the most general level to tackle practical problems, allowing the ''recommended'' doubts and confusion before proposing possible solutions to the problem. Dewey wrote about a reflective action which refers to the use of solutions to the problem and to thinking through the course of the action. in later works of the authors who have dealt with this problem, an unambiguous link can be observed between the so-called ''professional'' action and the reflection on action which, in this cyclical relationship, leads to visible changes (Zeichner & Gore, 1984. Already at first glance, this implies a connection with experiential learning and adult position of observation and reflection in various models of experiential learning, which will be discussed later. it would be useful to compare this method with a cyclic action of routine as an expression of impulse, tradition and authority. Reflective action, as opposed to the routine, is a consistently and carefully thought-out action (practice reflection, which is an ''awakened'' knowledge and belief, and that is an expression of openness, accountability and commitment. We are ready for reflection, says Schon, when the ''knowledge-in-action'' - a kind of knowledge that professionals notice when it is acted spontaneously - occurs suddenly and unintentionally

  4. Creative reflection in industrial design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, J.K.; Verbrugge, J.K.

    2012-01-01

    The dissertation is a reflection of the writer on his career as an industrial designer of Demand-Driven Design for a period of approximately 25 years. This period is exposed with a discussion of five designs. The projects are introduced by developments in the surrounding design landscape, such as

  5. Reflections on Ethics in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Helen R.

    2009-01-01

    Each profession has its own code of ethics. The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (2008) defines professional ethics as "the principles of conduct governing an individual or a group." The Code of Ethics of the American Library Association (ALA Council 2008) has served librarians for seventy years and reflects the ideals toward which all librarians…

  6. Questioning Intuition through Reflective Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    Current literature on ethics and moral development focuses on discussion concerning the impact of intuition on moral decision-making. Through the use of student journal reflections over the course of one semester, this study utilized a grounded theory approach in order to explore and understand participant levels of awareness and understanding of…

  7. The Hiroshima Experience: Two Reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enloe, Walter; Cogan, John

    1985-01-01

    The bombing of Hiroshima changed forever the concept of conflict and warfare in the human family. Two Americans, one having grown up in Hiroshima and the other having spent one year in the city as a Fullbright research scholar, reflect on the Hiroshima experience. (RM)

  8. Five Perspectives on Reflective Journaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Carrie J.; Cook, Deborah; Lasker-Scott, Tennille; Moore, Sylvia; Shelton, Debbie

    2006-01-01

    It has long been posited in the field of adult education and elsewhere that reflection is an integral part of one's teaching practice and as well as a beneficial learning tool for students. It was with this orientation to practice that Dr. Carrie J. Boden started her first year of teaching in the Adult Education Masters Degree Program at the…

  9. Simulating complex noise barrier reflections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, F.J.M. van der; Lutgendorf, D.; Roo, F. de

    2011-01-01

    Within the EU FP7 QUIESST project, QUIeting the Environment for a Sustainable Surface Transport, a test method is being developed for the reflectivity of noise barriers. The method needs to account for a complex shape of barriers and the use of various types of absorbing materials. The performance

  10. Vegetables, Coctails & Reflections / Marco Laimre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laimre, Marko, 1968-

    2006-01-01

    Pealkirja "Vegetables, Coctails & Reflections" kandis Tallinna Kunstihoones 8.04.-28.05.2006 avatud Elin Kardi, Marko Mäetamme, Marco Laimre ja Andres Tali ühisnäitusel "Vägivald ja propaganda" Marco Laimre installatsioon. Marco Laimre esinemine raadiosaates "kunst.er" Klassikaraadios 16.04.2006

  11. REFLECTION AND REFRACTION, VOLUME 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KLAUS, DAVID J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS VOLUME 2 OF A TWO-VOLUME SET PROVIDES AUTOINSTRUCTION IN PHYSICS. THE UNITS COVERED IN THIS VOLUME ARE (1) REFLECTION OF LIGHT, (2) PHOTOMETRY, (3) POLARIZATION, (4) REFRACTION OF LIGHT, (5) SNELL'S LAW, (6) LENSES, FOCUS, AND FOCAL POINTS, (7) IMAGE FORMATION, AND (8) ABERRATIONS, THE EYE, AND MAGNIFICATION. THE INTRODUCTION AND UNITS ON…

  12. Reflections on a Disco Ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Jair Lúcio Prados

    2016-01-01

    A disco ball is a spherical object covered with small plane mirrors. When light reflects on these mirrors, it is scattered in many directions, producing a novel effect. The mirror globe is usually set to rotate, creating a profusion of moving spots (Fig. 1). In this article, we present a geometrical description of the movement of these spots and…

  13. REFLECTION IN RUSSIAN EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelissen, J.M.C.; Tomic, W.

    2008-01-01

    The present article explores the theoretical underpinnings upon which Russian psychologists base their analysis of reflection. The intention is to arrive at a clearer understanding of their research aims and research methods, and to explore the relevance of their research to educational practice.

  14. Gamma camera with reflectivity mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention there is provided a radiographic camera comprising: a scintillator; a plurality of photodectors positioned to face said scintillator; a plurality of masked regions formed upon a face of said scintillator opposite said photdetectors and positioned coaxially with respective ones of said photodetectors for decreasing the amount of internal reflection of optical photons generated within said scintillator. (auth)

  15. Consultant radiographers: Profile of the first generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, Lesley J.; Maehle, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this research is to examine the profile of first generation consultant radiographers: their demographics, educational backgrounds, qualifications and training, career experience and progression, teaching, lecturing and research activities. Method: Participant recruitment was drawn from the Society and College of Radiographers consultant radiographer group. Data collection involved a self-administered paper based and web based questionnaire. Results: Participant response rate of 55% (n = 11). Conclusions: The profile of the first consultant radiographer cohort reflects a diverse and eclectic mix. While some aspects of their development such as educational background, clinical training and skills enhancement are comparable to nurse consultants, clinical experience and employment history show some differences. Commitment to development of expert clinical skills is evident within the profile of the first generation cohort of consultant radiographers however research and leadership training are not strong features.

  16. Consultant radiographers: Profile of the first generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, Lesley J., E-mail: l.forsyth@rgu.ac.u [School of Health Sciences, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, AB10 7QG (United Kingdom); Maehle, Valerie [Faculty of Health and Social Care, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, AB10 7QG (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    Aim: The aim of this research is to examine the profile of first generation consultant radiographers: their demographics, educational backgrounds, qualifications and training, career experience and progression, teaching, lecturing and research activities. Method: Participant recruitment was drawn from the Society and College of Radiographers consultant radiographer group. Data collection involved a self-administered paper based and web based questionnaire. Results: Participant response rate of 55% (n = 11). Conclusions: The profile of the first consultant radiographer cohort reflects a diverse and eclectic mix. While some aspects of their development such as educational background, clinical training and skills enhancement are comparable to nurse consultants, clinical experience and employment history show some differences. Commitment to development of expert clinical skills is evident within the profile of the first generation cohort of consultant radiographers however research and leadership training are not strong features.

  17. Reflection seismic studies in the Forsmark area - stage 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhlin, Christopher; Bergman Bjoern; Palm, Hans [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    2002-10-01

    Reflection seismic data were acquired in the Spring of 2002 in the Forsmark area, located about 70 km northeast of Uppsala, Sweden. The Forsmark area has been targeted by SKB as a possible storage site for high level radioactive waste. About 16 km of high resolution seismic data were acquired along five separate profiles varying in length from 2 to 5 km. Non-final source and receiver spacing was 10 m with 100 active channels when recording data from a dynamite source (15-75 g). The profiles were located within a relatively undeformed lens of bedrock that trends in the NW-SE direction. The lens is surrounded by highly deformed rock on all sides. In conjunction with the reflection component of the study, all shots were also recorded on up to eleven 3-component fixed Orion seismographs. These recordings provided long offset data from which a velocity model of the uppermost 400 m of bedrock could be derived. Results from the study show that the bedrock has been well imaged down to depths of at least 3 km. The upper 1000 m of bedrock is much more reflective in the southeastern portion of the lens compared to the northwestern part close to the Forsmark reactors. This is interpreted as the bedrock being more homogeneous in the northwest. However, a major reflective zone (the A1 reflector) is interpreted to dip to the S-SE below this homogeneous bedrock. In the southeastern portion of the lens the orientation of the reflectors is well determined where the profiles cross one another. The general strike of the major reflectors is NE-SW with dips of 20-35 degrees to the southeast.

  18. Remote measurement of surface roughness, surface reflectance, and body reflectance with LiDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolu; Liang, Yu

    2015-10-20

    Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) intensity data are attracting increasing attention because of the great potential for use of such data in a variety of remote sensing applications. To fully investigate the data potential for target classification and identification, we carried out a series of experiments with typical urban building materials and employed our reconstructed built-in-lab LiDAR system. Received intensity data were analyzed on the basis of the derived bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model and the established integration method. With an improved fitting algorithm, parameters involved in the BRDF model can be obtained to depict the surface characteristics. One of these parameters related to surface roughness was converted to a most used roughness parameter, the arithmetical mean deviation of the roughness profile (Ra), which can be used to validate the feasibility of the BRDF model in surface characterizations and performance evaluations.

  19. YOUNG ATHLETES' MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Moreno Murcia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between motivational characteristics and dispositional flow. In order to accomplish this goal, motivational profiles emerging from key constructs within Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory were related to the dispositional flow measures. A sample of 413 young athletes (Age range 12 to 16 years completed the PMCSQ-2, POSQ, SMS and DFS measures. Cluster analysis results revealed three profiles: a "self-determined profile" characterised by higher scores on the task-involving climate perception and on the task orientation; a "non-self-determined profile", characterised by higher scores on ego-involving climate perception and ego orientation; and a "low self-determined and low non-self-determined profile" which had the lowest dispositional flow. No meaningful differences were found between the "self-determined profile" and the "non-self-determined profile" in dispositional flow. The "self-determined profile" was more commonly associated with females, athletes practising individual sports and those training more than three days a week. The "non-self-determined profile" was more customary of males and athletes practising team sports as well as those training just two or three days a week

  20. Reflection of ion acoustic waves by the plasma sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, I.; Kuehl, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    The reflection coefficient R for linear monochromatic ion acoustic waves incident on the transonic layer and sheath from the plasma interior is calculated. The treatment differs from previous analyses in that (1) the exact zero-order ion density and velocity profiles for a planar, bounded plasma are used, and the zero-order charge separation is not neglected, and (2) the first-order quantities near the transonic layer are considered in detail, including first-order charge separation, whereby it is found that no coupling to the beam modes exists, and that the functional form of the first-order solution is completely determined. It is shown that the upper bound for Vertical BarRVertical Bar is (1)/(3) . The largest reflection occurs for frequencies which are small compared with the ionization frequency, and generally decreases with increasing frequency. By Fourier superposition, the reflection of a pulse is computed. For a narrow incident pulse, the reflected pulse is greatly distorted and is small compared with the incident pulse. For a broad pulse, the reflected pulse is similar in shape to the incident pulse, and has a magnitude which is approximately (1)/(3) of the incident pulse

  1. Terahertz wave reflective sensing and imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hua

    Sensing and imaging technologies using terahertz (THz) radiation have found diverse applications as they approach maturity. Since the burgeoning of this technique in the 1990's, many THz sensing and imaging investigations have been designed and conducted in transmission geometry, which provides sufficient phase and amplitude contrast for the study of the spectral properties of targets in the THz domain. Driven by rising expectations that THz technology will be a potential candidate in the next generation of security screening, remote sensing, biomedical imaging and non-destructive testing (NDT), most THz sensing and imaging modalities are being extended to reflection geometry, which offers unique and adaptive solutions, and multi-dimensional information in many real scenarios. This thesis takes an application-focused approach to the advancement of THz wave reflective sensing and imaging systems: The absorption signature of the explosive material hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5triazine (RDX) is measured at 30 m---the longest standoff distance so far attained by THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The standoff distance sensing ability of THz-TDS is investigated along with discussions specifying the influences of a variety of factors such as propagation distance, water vapor absorption and collection efficiency. Highly directional THz radiation from four-wave mixing in laser-induced air plasmas is first observed and measured, which provides a potential solution for the atmospheric absorption effect in standoff THz sensing. The simulations of the beam profiles also illuminate the underlying physics behind the interaction of the optical beam with the plasma. THz wave reflective spectroscopic focal-plane imaging is realized the first time. Absorption features of some explosives and related compounds (ERCs) and biochemical materials are identified by using adaptive feature extraction method. Good classification results using multiple pattern recognition methods are

  2. High-resolution humidity profiles retrieved from wind profiler radar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saïd, Frédérique; Campistron, Bernard; Di Girolamo, Paolo

    2018-03-01

    The retrieval of humidity profiles from wind profiler radars has already been documented in the past 30 years and is known to be neither as straightforward and nor as robust as the retrieval of the wind velocity. The main constraint to retrieve the humidity profile is the necessity to combine measurements from the wind profiler and additional measurements (such as observations from radiosoundings at a coarser time resolution). Furthermore, the method relies on some assumptions and simplifications that restrict the scope of its application. The first objective of this paper is to identify the obstacles and limitations and solve them, or at least define the field of applicability. To improve the method, we propose using the radar capacity to detect transition levels, such as the top level of the boundary layer, marked by a maximum in the radar reflectivity. This forces the humidity profile from the free troposphere and from the boundary layer to coincide at this level, after an optimization of the calibration coefficients, and reduces the error. The resulting mean bias affecting the specific humidity profile never exceeds 0.25 g kg-1. The second objective is to explore the capability of the algorithm to retrieve the humidity vertical profiles for an operational purpose by comparing the results with observations from a Raman lidar.

  3. Seismic reflection imaging with conventional and unconventional sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiros Ugalde, Diego Alonso

    This manuscript reports the results of research using both conventional and unconventional energy sources as well as conventional and unconventional analysis to image crustal structure using reflected seismic waves. The work presented here includes the use of explosions to investigate the Taiwanese lithosphere, the use of 'noise' from railroads to investigate the shallow subsurface of the Rio Grande rift, and the use of microearthquakes to image subsurface structure near an active fault zone within the Appalachian mountains. Chapter 1 uses recordings from the land refraction and wide-angle reflection component of the Taiwan Integrated Geodynamic Research (TAIGER) project. The most prominent reflection feature imaged by these surveys is an anomalously strong reflector found in northeastern Taiwan. The goal of this chapter is to analyze the TAIGER recordings and to place the reflector into a geologic framework that fits with the modern tectonic kinematics of the region. Chapter 2 uses railroad traffic as a source for reflection profiling within the Rio Grande rift. Here the railroad recordings are treated in an analogous way to Vibroseis recordings. These results suggest that railroad noise in general can be a valuable new tool in imaging and characterizing the shallow subsurface in environmental and geotechnical studies. In chapters 3 and 4, earthquakes serve as the seismic imaging source. In these studies the methodology of Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) is borrowed from the oil and gas industry to develop reflection images. In chapter 3, a single earthquake is used to probe a small area beneath Waterboro, Maine. In chapter 4, the same method is applied to multiple earthquakes to take advantage of the increased redundancy that results from multiple events illuminating the same structure. The latter study demonstrates how dense arrays can be a powerful new tool for delineating, and monitoring temporal changes of deep structure in areas characterized by significant

  4. Reflection group on 'Expert Culture'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.

    2000-01-01

    As part of SCK-CEN's social sciences and humanities programme, a reflection group on 'Expert Culture' was established. The objectives of the reflection group are: (1) to clarify the role of SCK-CEN experts; (2) to clarify the new role of expertise in the evolving context of risk society; (3) to confront external views and internal SCK-CEN experiences on expert culture; (4) to improve trust building of experts and credibility of SCK-CEN as a nuclear actor in society; (5) to develop a draft for a deontological code; (6) to integrate the approach in training on assertivity and communication; (7) to create an output for a topical day on the subject of expert culture. The programme, achievements and perspectives of the refection group are summarised

  5. AntiReflection Coating D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIKEN, DANIEL J.

    1999-01-01

    Analytical expressions used to optimize AR coatings for single junction solar cells are extended for use in monolithic, series interconnected multi-junction solar cell AR coating design. The result is an analytical expression which relates the solar cell performance (through J(sub sc)) directly to the AR coating design through the device reflectance. It is also illustrated how AR coating design be used to provide an additional degree of freedom for current matching multi-junction devices

  6. The reflection seismology measurement method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprecher, C.

    1987-01-01

    Even though data acquisition and data processing procedures have become more and more complex in recent decades, the end products of a reflection seismic survey have remained simple and illustrative. A seismic section resembles a geological cross-section and can be interpreted without in-depth knowledge provided that the basic principles behind the method are understood. This article attempts to convey some insight into the methodology without claiming to be scientifically exact or complete. (author)

  7. Electron density profile measurements by microwave reflectometry on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clairet, F.; Paume, M.; Chareau, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    A proposal is presented developing reflectometry diagnostic for electron density profile measurements as routine diagnostic without manual intervention as achieved at JET. Since density fluctuations seriously perturb the reflected signal and the measurement of the group delay, a method is described to overcome the irrelevant results with the help of an adaptive filtering technique. Accurate profiles are estimated for about 70% of the shots. (author) 3 refs.; 6 figs

  8. Polar measurements on profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althaus, D.

    1985-03-01

    Wind tunnel models with a profile depth of t=0.5 m were measured in a laminar wind tunnel by the usual measuring processes. The profile resistance was determined by integration along the width of span. The smooth profiles were examined at Re=0.7/1.0 and 1.5 million. At Re=1.0 million, the position of the changeover points were determined with a stethoscope. Also at this Reynolds number measurements were taken with a trip wire of d=2 mm diameter, directly on the profile nose. The tables contain the co-ordinates of the profiles, the contours, the theoretical speed distributions for 4 different angles of attack, the csub(a)-csub(w) polar measurements and changeover points, and the torque coefficients around the t/4 point. (BR).

  9. Implicit User Interest Profile

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, K

    2002-01-01

    User interest profile presents items that the users are interested in. Typically those items can be listed or grouped. Listing is good but it does not possess interests at different abstraction levels - the higher-level interests are more general, while the lower-level ones are more specific. Furthermore, more general interests, in some sense, correspond to longer-term interests, while more specific interests correspond to shorter-term interests. This hierarchical user interest profile has obvious advantages: specifying user's specific interests and general interests and representing their relationships. Current user interest profile structures mostly do not use implicit method, nor use an appropriate clustering algorithm especially for conceptually hierarchical structures. This research studies building a hierarchical user interest profile (HUIP) and the hierarchical divisive algorithm (HDC). Several users visit hundreds of web pages and each page is recorded in each users profile. These web pages are used t...

  10. Reflective array modeling for reflective and directional SAW transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, D P

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a new approximate method for analyzing reflective SAW transducers, with much of the convenience of the coupled-mode (COM) method but with better accuracy. Transduction accuracy is obtained by incorporating the accurate electrostatic solution, giving for example correct harmonics, and allowance for electrode width variation, in a simple manner. Results are shown for a single-electrode transducer, Natural SPUDT and DART SPUDT, each using theoretically derived parameters. In contrast to the COM, the RAM can give accurate results for short or withdrawal-weighted transducers and for wide analysis bandwidth.

  11. Surface roughness and gloss study of prints: application of specular reflection at near infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silfsten, P; Dutta, R; Pääkkönen, P; Peiponen, K-E; Tåg, C-M; Gane, P A C

    2012-01-01

    Absolute reflectance data were measured with a spectrophotometer in the visible and near infrared (NIR) spectral range. The specular reflectance data in the NIR were used for the assessment of the surface roughness of magenta, yellow, cyan and black prints on paper. In addition, surface roughness data obtained from the prints with a mechanical diamond stylus, an optical profiling system and the spectrophotometer are compared with each other. The surface roughness obtained with the aid of the spectrophotometer data suggests a smoother surface than when measured with the diamond stylus and the optical profiling system. The gloss of the prints can be obtained from the absolute specular reflectance spectra in the spectral region of visible light. It is shown that specular reflection data at a fixed wavelength in the NIR are useful also in the interpretation of gloss in the visible spectral range, but using an unconventional grazing angle of incidence. (paper)

  12. O professor de Biologia em formação: reflexão com base no perfil socioeconômico e perspectivas de licenciandos de uma universidade pública Pre-service Biology teacher training: reflection based on public university future teachers' socio-economical profile and professional perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simão Dias Vasconcelos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa buscou investigar o perfil socioeconômico de licenciandos em Ciências Biológicas, suas motivações para escolher o curso e suas perspectivas quanto ao seu futuro profissional. Observou-se que a maioria dos estudantes trabalha, é proveniente de escola pública, tem baixo hábito de leitura e pretende seguir carreira de pesquisador. A maioria afirma ter escolhido Licenciatura por vocação, embora revele baixíssimo interesse pela pesquisa em ensino de Biologia como área de atuação profissional. Os licenciandos, de modo geral, estão satisfeitos com o curso e acreditam que a formação recebida na universidade contribuirá significativamente para sua empregabilidade.This research aimed to investigate future Biology teachers' socio-economical profile, their motivations for choosing the program and perspectives regarding their professional future. We noticed that most of the future teachers work, come from public High School, have low reading custom, and intend to follow a Biology researcher career. Most of them declare to have chosen the program based on vocation, although reveal very low interest in Biology Education research as professional carrier. The majority of them is satisfied with the undergraduate program they are taking and believe that their training in the university will help significantly for their employment.

  13. Improved algorithm for estimating optical properties of food and biological materials using spatially-resolved diffuse reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this research, the inverse algorithm for estimating optical properties of food and biological materials from spatially-resolved diffuse reflectance was optimized in terms of data smoothing, normalization and spatial region of reflectance profile for curve fitting. Monte Carlo simulation was used ...

  14. Biomimetic approaches to create anti-reflection glass surfaces for solar cells using self-organizing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achtelik, J.; Sievers, W.; Lindner, J.K.N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nanostructured glass surfaces with theoretically near-to-zero reflectivity in the UVNIR region. ► Simple fabrication process using self-organization during reactive ion etching proposed. ► Prediction of optical reflectivity from AFM measured surface morphology. -- Abstract: Aiming to diminish the reflection losses of glass covered light harvesting devices, the optical reflectivity of nanostructured glass surfaces is studied theoretically and experimentally. The work is inspired by the nanoscale roughness of insect eyes, which is tried to be replicated on a technical glass surface. To this end, the reflectivity of glass surfaces with topographies represented by linear, parabolic and Fermi-shaped glass/air fill factor profiles is calculated for normal incidence. It is shown that using the latter ones, an almost complete suppression of reflections can be achieved. A simple, self-organization technique to create such Fermi-shaped filling factor profiles in glass experimentally is also presented

  15. Biomimetic approaches to create anti-reflection glass surfaces for solar cells using self-organizing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achtelik, J.; Sievers, W. [University of Paderborn, Department of Physics, 33098 Paderborn (Germany); Center of Optoelectronics and Photonics Paderborn CeOPP, 33098 Paderborn (Germany); Lindner, J.K.N., E-mail: lindner@physik.uni-paderborn.de [University of Paderborn, Department of Physics, 33098 Paderborn (Germany); Center of Optoelectronics and Photonics Paderborn CeOPP, 33098 Paderborn (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Nanostructured glass surfaces with theoretically near-to-zero reflectivity in the UVNIR region. ► Simple fabrication process using self-organization during reactive ion etching proposed. ► Prediction of optical reflectivity from AFM measured surface morphology. -- Abstract: Aiming to diminish the reflection losses of glass covered light harvesting devices, the optical reflectivity of nanostructured glass surfaces is studied theoretically and experimentally. The work is inspired by the nanoscale roughness of insect eyes, which is tried to be replicated on a technical glass surface. To this end, the reflectivity of glass surfaces with topographies represented by linear, parabolic and Fermi-shaped glass/air fill factor profiles is calculated for normal incidence. It is shown that using the latter ones, an almost complete suppression of reflections can be achieved. A simple, self-organization technique to create such Fermi-shaped filling factor profiles in glass experimentally is also presented.

  16. Study on the Reflection Spectra of One Dimensional Plasma Photonic Crystals Having Exponentially Graded Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, S.; Singh, Vivek; Singh, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    The transfer matrix method is used to study the effect of the permittivity profile on the reflectivity of a one dimensional plasma photonic crystal having exponentially graded material. The analysis shows that the proposed structure works as a perfect mirror within a certain frequency range. These frequency ranges can be completely controlled by the permittivity profile of a graded dielectric layer. As expected we observed that these frequency ranges are also controlled by plasma parameters. (plasma technology)

  17. Advanced analysis techniques for X-ray reflectivities. Theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, Klaus Martin

    2005-01-01

    The first part of this thesis adresses the phase problem in X-ray reflectivity. The analytical properties of the reflection coefficient imply that the phase is completely determined by the Hilbert transform of the logarithm of the modulus and the zeros in the upper half complex plane (UHP). To account in addition for interfacial roughness, a new formula for the Hilbert-phase is derived.In the following, the conditions for which the reflection coefficient has zeros in the UHP is discussed and the existing sufficient condition is extended to rough multi-layer systems. Procedures for locating these zeros are developed. The second part of this thesis introduces a new iterative inversion method for X-ray reflectivity. It expands the profile in a set of eigenfunctions, which are discrete approximations of the eigenfunction of the classical reconstruction problem of a compact supported function from its partially known Fourier-transform. In this work, piecewise constant functions, polygons and second-order B-splines are used to expand the density profile. The eigenvalue problems for the calculation of the above mentioned approximations are stated and solved. The formalism for the calculation of the reflection coefficient for these profiles is developed in dynamical and single-scattering theory. In the experimental part of this work iterative inverse schemes are applied to the analysis of X-ray reflectivity. Different sample systems are investigated: For two titanium-carbon samples tiny details at the Ti/C interface such as the formation of a thin TiC layer can be observed.The density profiles obtained from the reflectivities taken from nickel-carbon samples show the formation of SiC inside the Si sub strate. Finally, the new inversion scheme is applied to a series of reflectivities from a 700 AaSiGe film on a substrate.

  18. Advanced analysis techniques for X-ray reflectivities. Theory and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Klaus Martin

    2005-07-01

    The first part of this thesis adresses the phase problem in X-ray reflectivity. The analytical properties of the reflection coefficient imply that the phase is completely determined by the Hilbert transform of the logarithm of the modulus and the zeros in the upper half complex plane (UHP). To account in addition for interfacial roughness, a new formula for the Hilbert-phase is derived.In the following, the conditions for which the reflection coefficient has zeros in the UHP is discussed and the existing sufficient condition is extended to rough multi-layer systems. Procedures for locating these zeros are developed. The second part of this thesis introduces a new iterative inversion method for X-ray reflectivity. It expands the profile in a set of eigenfunctions, which are discrete approximations of the eigenfunction of the classical reconstruction problem of a compact supported function from its partially known Fourier-transform. In this work, piecewise constant functions, polygons and second-order B-splines are used to expand the density profile. The eigenvalue problems for the calculation of the above mentioned approximations are stated and solved. The formalism for the calculation of the reflection coefficient for these profiles is developed in dynamical and single-scattering theory. In the experimental part of this work iterative inverse schemes are applied to the analysis of X-ray reflectivity. Different sample systems are investigated: For two titanium-carbon samples tiny details at the Ti/C interface such as the formation of a thin TiC layer can be observed.The density profiles obtained from the reflectivities taken from nickel-carbon samples show the formation of SiC inside the Si sub strate. Finally, the new inversion scheme is applied to a series of reflectivities from a 700 AaSiGe film on a substrate.

  19. Reflections on researching rape resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Sarah E

    2014-03-01

    This article provides a retrospective account of my experience embarking on research about women's resistance to rape, including reflections on personal and professional experiences related to studying this topic. I discuss factors inspiring my interest, including pioneering feminist rape researchers, my experience as a woman living with the reality and fear of rape, and influential mentors who facilitated my career development as a scholar in graduate school and beyond. I weave this narrative together with my thoughts about how the study of resistance relates to other important issues in the field of sexual assault including alcohol, recovery, and prevention.

  20. Hospital management. The reflective practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, I

    Ian Campbell's paper, originally delivered at a conference on the development of 'The reflective practitioner' while he was Unit General Manager of Sunderland Royal Infirmary, describes the liaison between general and nurse managers in the hospital. Management must give a hospital organisation direction and must set the parameters of corporate and individual performance, but it must also be responsive to the feedback received from practising clinicians. The key concept is quality of service, and in this managers and practitioners can work together towards a common goal.

  1. Reflections on a digital upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadjalli, M.

    2013-07-01

    Upon receiving US NRC's approval in 2010, the first RPS/ESPS digital upgrade using TELEPERM® XS technology was successfully installed in Spring of 2011 at the first Unit of a three-unit station, followed by the 2nd Unit installation in spring of 2012. Both Units' systems have been operating flawlessly since installation. After about two years of operation, a reflection on digital upgrades and lessons learned, from a vendor perspective, provides valuable insight for the commercial nuclear power industry.

  2. Positronium reflection and positronium beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.; Tang, S.; Khatri, R.; Roellig, L.O.; Viescas, A.J.; Berko, S.; Canter, K.F.; Lynn, K.G.; Mills, A.P. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    We have observed specular reflection of positronium, Ps, and established that there is adequate intensity at higher energies to make further study worthwhile. The scattering appears to be restricted to the outermost surface with a mean free path of (0.75 ± 0.15)Angstrom for Ps in LiF(100). With a greater intensity Ps beam one should see higher order diffraction beams as the result of the periodicity of the surface. Ps diffraction thus offers the possibility of being a novel and valuable probe to study the outermost surface and to study adsorbents on it. Two methods for producing Ps beams are described. 29 refs., 11 figs

  3. The digital divide: philosophical reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedyulina Marina Anatolevna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of digital divide itself is interesting for philosophical reflection as it lies at the crossroads of interests of social and political philosophy, philosophy of technology and epistemology, and these are just some of them. Due to the constant development of information technologies and the introduction of new technologies the digital divide is a dynamic problem. The main aim of this work is to analyse the conceptual and descriptive aspects of the problem of the digital divide, to get a more complete picture of the phenomenon. The digital divide is a complex problem that has social, political, cultural and ethical aspects.

  4. Reflections on Design Methodology Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    We shall reflect on the results of Design Methodology research and their impact on design practice. In the past 50 years the number of researchers in the field has expanded enormously – as has the number of publications. During the same period design practice and its products have changed...... and produced are also now far more complex and distributed, putting designers under ever increasing pressure. We shall address the question: Are the results of Design Methodology research appropriate and are they delivering the expected results in design practice? In our attempt to answer this question we...

  5. Cosmological Reflection of Particle Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Khlopov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The standard model involves particle symmetry and the mechanism of its breaking. Modern cosmology is based on inflationary models with baryosynthesis and dark matter/energy, which involves physics beyond the standard model. Studies of the physical basis of modern cosmology combine direct searches for new physics at accelerators with its indirect non-accelerator probes, in which cosmological consequences of particle models play an important role. The cosmological reflection of particle symmetry and the mechanisms of its breaking are the subject of the present review.

  6. A predictable Java profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgholm, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2009-01-01

    A Java profile suitable for development of high integrity embedded systems is presented. It is based on event handlers which are grouped in missions and equipped with respectively private handler memory and shared mission memory. This is a result of our previous work on developing a Java profile......, and is directly inspired by interactions with the Open Group on their on-going work on a safety critical Java profile (JSR-302). The main contribution is an arrangement of the class hierarchy such that the proposal is a generalization of Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ). A further contribution...

  7. Profiling the Mobile Customer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille Wegener; King, Nancy J.

    2010-01-01

    of significant concerns about privacy and data protection. This second article in a two part series on "Profiling the Mobile Customer" explores how to best protect consumers' privacy and personal data through available mechanisms that include industry self-regulation, privacy-enhancing technologies...... discusses the current limitations of using technology to protect consumers from privacy abuses related to profiling. Concluding that industry self-regulation and available privacy-enhancing technologies will not be adequate to close important privacy gaps related to consumer profiling without legislative...

  8. High-resolution seismic reflection study, Vacherie Dome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    A high-resolution seismic reflection study, consisting of recording, processing, and interpreting four seismic reflection lines, was made at Vacherie Dome, Louisiana. The presumed shape of the dome, as pictured in the geologic area characterization report by Law Engineering Testing Company in 1982, was based largely on interpretation of gravity data, constrained by a few wells and exploration-type seismic profiles. The purpose of the study was to obtain refined profiles of the dome above -914 m (-3000 ft) elevation. Additional study had been recommended by Louisiana State University in 1967 and the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation in 1981 because the interpreted size of Vacherie Dome was based on limited seismic and gravity data. Forty-eight traces of seismic data were recorded each time shots were made to generate energy. Twelve-fold, common-depth-point data were obtained using geophone stations spaced at 15-m (50-ft) intervals with shots at 30-m (100-ft) intervals. The time-sampling interval used was 1 ms. Processing intended to enhance resolution included iterative static corrections, deconvolution before stacking, and both time- and depth-migration. The locations of the steep dome sides were inferred primarily from terminations of strong reflections (migrated) from strata near the top of the upper and lower Cretaceous sections. This interpretation agrees closely with the presumed shape from the top of the dome to about -610 m (-2000 ft) elevation, but below this on three of the profiles, this interpretation indicates a steeper salt face than the presumed shape. The area reduction at -914 m (-3000 ft) elevation is estimated to be on the order of 20 percent. 10 references, 11 figures, 4 tables

  9. Polarization sensitivity testing of off-plane reflection gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Hannah; McEntaffer, Randal L.; DeRoo, Casey T.; Miles, Drew M.; Tutt, James H.; Laubis, Christian; Soltwisch, Victor

    2015-09-01

    Off-Plane reflection gratings were previously predicted to have different efficiencies when the incident light is polarized in the transverse-magnetic (TM) versus transverse-electric (TE) orientations with respect to the grating grooves. However, more recent theoretical calculations which rigorously account for finitely conducting, rather than perfectly conducting, grating materials no longer predict significant polarization sensitivity. We present the first empirical results for radially ruled, laminar groove profile gratings in the off-plane mount which demonstrate no difference in TM versus TE efficiency across our entire 300-1500 eV bandpass. These measurements together with the recent theoretical results confirm that grazing incidence off-plane reflection gratings using real, not perfectly conducting, materials are not polarization sensitive.

  10. Discharge lamp with reflective jacket

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Kipling, Kent

    2001-01-01

    A discharge lamp includes an envelope, a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope, a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed around the envelope and defining an opening, the reflector being configured to reflect some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit through the opening. The reflector may be made from a material having a similar thermal index of expansion as compared to the envelope and which is closely spaced to the envelope. The envelope material may be quartz and the reflector material may be either silica or alumina. The reflector may be formed as a jacket having a rigid structure which does not adhere to the envelope. The lamp may further include an optical clement spaced from the envelope and configured to reflect an unwanted component of light which exited the envelope back into the envelope through the opening in the reflector. Light which can be beneficially recaptured includes selected wavelength regions, a selected polarization, and selected angular components.

  11. The seismic reflection inverse problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symes, W W

    2009-01-01

    The seismic reflection method seeks to extract maps of the Earth's sedimentary crust from transient near-surface recording of echoes, stimulated by explosions or other controlled sound sources positioned near the surface. Reasonably accurate models of seismic energy propagation take the form of hyperbolic systems of partial differential equations, in which the coefficients represent the spatial distribution of various mechanical characteristics of rock (density, stiffness, etc). Thus the fundamental problem of reflection seismology is an inverse problem in partial differential equations: to find the coefficients (or at least some of their properties) of a linear hyperbolic system, given the values of a family of solutions in some part of their domains. The exploration geophysics community has developed various methods for estimating the Earth's structure from seismic data and is also well aware of the inverse point of view. This article reviews mathematical developments in this subject over the last 25 years, to show how the mathematics has both illuminated innovations of practitioners and led to new directions in practice. Two themes naturally emerge: the importance of single scattering dominance and compensation for spectral incompleteness by spatial redundancy. (topical review)

  12. Euclidean mirrors: enhanced vacuum decay from reflected instantons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akal, Ibrahim; Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid

    2018-05-01

    We study the tunnelling of virtual matter–antimatter pairs from the quantum vacuum in the presence of a spatially uniform, time-dependent electric background composed of a strong, slow field superimposed with a weak, rapid field. After analytic continuation to Euclidean spacetime, we obtain from the instanton equations two critical points. While one of them is the closing point of the instanton path, the other serves as an Euclidean mirror which reflects and squeezes the instanton. It is this reflection and shrinking which is responsible for an enormous enhancement of the vacuum pair production rate. We discuss how important features of two different mechanisms can be analysed and understood via such a rotation in the complex plane. (a) Consistent with previous studies, we first discuss the standard assisted mechanism with a static strong field and certain weak fields with a distinct pole structure in order to show that the reflection takes place exactly at the poles. We also discuss the effect of possible sub-cycle structures. We extend this reflection picture then to weak fields which have no poles present and illustrate the effective reflections with explicit examples. An additional field strength dependence for the rate occurs in such cases. We analytically compute the characteristic threshold for the assisted mechanism given by the critical combined Keldysh parameter. We discuss significant differences between these two types of fields. For various backgrounds, we present the contributing instantons and perform analytical computations for the corresponding rates treating both fields nonperturbatively. (b) In addition, we also study the case with a nonstatic strong field which gives rise to the assisted dynamical mechanism. For different strong field profiles we investigate the impact on the critical combined Keldysh parameter. As an explicit example, we analytically compute the rate by employing the exact reflection points. The validity of the predictions

  13. Wind Profiling Radar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Clutter present in radar return signals as used for wind profiling is substantially removed by carrying out a Daubechies wavelet transformation on a time series of...

  14. Fishing fleet profiling methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferraris, Jocelyne

    2002-01-01

    A fishing fleet profile aims tho assist in understanding the complexity and structure of fisheries from a technical and socio-economic point of view, or from the point of view of fishing strategies...

  15. Beach Profile Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Beaches are commonly characterized by cross-shore surveys. The resulting profiles represent the elevation of the beach surface and nearshore seabed from the back of...

  16. Secretaries: A Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusselman, Kay

    1987-01-01

    Consists of the results of a profile survey completed by more than 12,000 members of Professional Secretaries International. Information is included on secretarial titles, salaries, employer types, and secretaries' personal characteristics. (CH)

  17. Prescription Drug Profiles PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Prescription Drug Profiles Public Use Files (PUFs) drawn from Medicare prescription drug claims for the year of the date on which the...

  18. Fishing Community Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To enable fisheries managers to comply with National Standard 8 (NS8), NMFS social scientists around the nation are preparing fishing community profiles that present...

  19. Monte Carlo simulation of diffuse attenuation coefficient in presence of non uniform profiles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E; Desai, R.G.P.; Desa, B.A.E

    This paper presents a Monte Carlo simulation of the vertical depth structure of the downward attenuation coefficient (K sub(d)), and the irradiance reflectance (R) for a given profile of chlorophyll. The results are in quantitaive agreement...

  20. Subsurface geology off Bombay with paleoclimatic inferences interpreted from shallow seismic profiles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhattacharya, G.C.; Almeida, F.; Vora, K.H.; Siddiquie, H.N.

    High resolution seismic reflection profiles nearshore areas off Bombay provide information on subsurface geology and permit certain paleoclimatic inferences. Three sedimentary units overlie the acoustic basement: late Pleistocene consolidated...

  1. Global oil company profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Global Oil Company Profiles provides a comprehensive review of 50 of the top oil companies in the world. Each chapter is devoted to an individual company, providing an invaluable insight into the organisation, its structure and operations. Using the most recent data available, the report offers an up-to-date analysis of performance and future direction, as well as a unique benchmarking system for each company profiled. (author)

  2. Laquinimod Safety Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Soelberg; Comi, Giancarlo; Vollmer, Timothy L

    2017-01-01

    the safety profile of laquinimod versus placebo. Adverse events (AEs), laboratory value changes, and potential risks identified in preclinical studies were evaluated in participants in ALLEGRO and BRAVO treated with at least one dose of laquinimod or matching placebo (1:1 random assignment). RESULTS...... laquinimod studies demonstrate a safety profile comprising benign or manageable AEs and asymptomatic laboratory findings with a clear temporal pattern. Potential risks noted in preclinical studies were not observed....

  3. Household electricity demand profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •A 1-min resolution household electricity load model is presented. •Model adapts a bottom-up approach with single appliance as the main building block. •Load profiles are used to analyse the flexibility potential of household appliances. •Load profiles can be applied in other domains, .......g. building energy simulations. •The demand level of houses with different number of occupants is well captured....

  4. Country nuclear power profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles was initiated within the framework of the IAEA`s programme for nuclear power plant performance assessment and feedback. It responded to a need for a database and a technical document containing a description of the energy and economic situation and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. The task was included in the IAEA`s programmes for 1993/1994 and 1995/1996. In March 1993, the IAEA organized a Technical Committee meeting to discuss the establishment of country data ``profiles``, to define the information to be included in the profiles and to review the information already available in the IAEA. Two expert meetings were convened in November 1994 to provide guidance to the IAEA on the establishment of the country nuclear profiles, on the structure and content of the profiles, and on the preparation of the publication and the electronic database. In June 1995, an Advisory Group meeting provided the IAEA with comprehensive guidance on the establishment and dissemination of an information package on industrial and organizational aspects of nuclear power to be included in the profiles. The group of experts recommended that the profiles focus on the overall economic, energy and electricity situation in the country and on its nuclear power industrial structure and organizational framework. In its first release, the compilation would cover all countries with operating power plants by the end of 1995. It was also recommended to further promote information exchange on the lessons learned from the countries engaged in nuclear programmes. For the preparation of this publication, the IAEA received contributions from the 29 countries operating nuclear power plants and Italy. A database has been implemented and the profiles are supporting programmatic needs within the IAEA; it is expected that the database will be publicly accessible in the future. Refs, figs, tabs.

  5. Country nuclear power profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles was initiated within the framework of the IAEA's programme for nuclear power plant performance assessment and feedback. It responded to a need for a database and a technical document containing a description of the energy and economic situation and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. The task was included in the IAEA's programmes for 1993/1994 and 1995/1996. In March 1993, the IAEA organized a Technical Committee meeting to discuss the establishment of country data ''profiles'', to define the information to be included in the profiles and to review the information already available in the IAEA. Two expert meetings were convened in November 1994 to provide guidance to the IAEA on the establishment of the country nuclear profiles, on the structure and content of the profiles, and on the preparation of the publication and the electronic database. In June 1995, an Advisory Group meeting provided the IAEA with comprehensive guidance on the establishment and dissemination of an information package on industrial and organizational aspects of nuclear power to be included in the profiles. The group of experts recommended that the profiles focus on the overall economic, energy and electricity situation in the country and on its nuclear power industrial structure and organizational framework. In its first release, the compilation would cover all countries with operating power plants by the end of 1995. It was also recommended to further promote information exchange on the lessons learned from the countries engaged in nuclear programmes. For the preparation of this publication, the IAEA received contributions from the 29 countries operating nuclear power plants and Italy. A database has been implemented and the profiles are supporting programmatic needs within the IAEA; it is expected that the database will be publicly accessible in the future

  6. Reflection-type hologram for atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Fujio; Fujita, Jun-ichi

    2002-01-01

    A cold metastable neon atomic beam was manipulated with a reflective amplitude hologram that was encoded on a silicon surface. A black-and-white pattern of atoms was reconstructed on a microchannel plate detector. The hologram used the enhanced quantum reflection developed by authors and was made of a two-dimensional array of rectangular low and high reflective cells. The surface of the high reflective cell was composed of regularly spaced roof-shaped ridges, while the low reflective cell was simply a flat surface. The hologram was the first demonstration of reflective atom-optical elements that used universal interaction between a neutral atom and solid surface

  7. A profile of the impact of Acta Botanica Brasilica: reflections on how to improve visibility and recognition of a scientific journal Um perfil do impacto da Acta Botanica Brasilica: reflexões acerca de como aumentar a visibilidade e o reconhecimento de um periódico cient��fico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Rubio Scarano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We have estimated the ISI-impact factor of Acta Botanica Brasilica for the past six years, calculated the journal's h-index, calculated the journal's self-citation, examined country and institutions of origin of the papers that cite Acta papers, and examined scope and profile of the most-cited papers published by the journal. Results demonstrated a steep rise in impact factor and citation frequency in 2008, which is most encouraging, but also revealed that the journal is below the level of maturity expected of a 20-year old journal. Visibility of the journal is mostly national although, surprisingly, journal's self-citation of 12% is fairly low. We use Acta as an example to discuss possible strategies to enhance the international visibility of botanical journals that are newcomers to ISI.Este artigo estima o fator de impacto (ISI-Web of Science do periódico Acta Botanica Brasilica para os últimos seis anos, calcula o índice-h do periódico, calcula a sua auto-citação, examina os países e instituições de origem dos artigos que citam artigos da Acta, e examina o escopo e o perfil dos artigos mais citados ao longo da história do periódico. Os resultados demonstraram um aumento substancial no fator de impacto estimado e na freqüência de citação em 2008, o que é muito encorajador, mas também revelaram que o periódico está abaixo do grau de maturidade esperado para um periódico com 20 anos de existência. A visibilidade do periódico é predominantemente nacional embora, surpreendentemente, a auto-citação de 12% seja consideravelmente baixa. A revista é utilizada como exemplo para discutir possíveis estratégias para aumentar a visibilidade internacional de periódicos em botânica recém-indexados no ISI.

  8. BWR AXIAL PROFILE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffer, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to develop axial profiles for estimating the axial variation in burnup of a boiling water reactor (BWR) assembly spent nuclear fuel (SNF) given the average burnup of an assembly. A discharged fuel assembly typically exhibits higher burnup in the center and lower burnup at the ends of the assembly. Criticality safety analyses taking credit for SNF burnup must account for axially varying burnup relative to calculations based on uniformly distributed assembly average burnup due to the under-burned tips. Thus, accounting for axially varying burnup in criticality analyses is also referred to as accounting for the ''end effect'' reactivity. The magnitude of the reactivity change due to ''end effect'' is dependent on the initial assembly enrichment, the assembly average burnup, and the particular axial profile characterizing the burnup distribution. The set of bounding axial profiles should incorporate multiple BWR core designs and provide statistical confidence (95 percent confidence that 95 percent of the population is bound by the profile) that end nodes are conservatively represented. The profiles should also conserve the overall burnup of the fuel assembly. More background on BWR axial profiles is provided in Attachment I

  9. Accelerated Profile HMM Searches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean R Eddy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Profile hidden Markov models (profile HMMs and probabilistic inference methods have made important contributions to the theory of sequence database homology search. However, practical use of profile HMM methods has been hindered by the computational expense of existing software implementations. Here I describe an acceleration heuristic for profile HMMs, the "multiple segment Viterbi" (MSV algorithm. The MSV algorithm computes an optimal sum of multiple ungapped local alignment segments using a striped vector-parallel approach previously described for fast Smith/Waterman alignment. MSV scores follow the same statistical distribution as gapped optimal local alignment scores, allowing rapid evaluation of significance of an MSV score and thus facilitating its use as a heuristic filter. I also describe a 20-fold acceleration of the standard profile HMM Forward/Backward algorithms using a method I call "sparse rescaling". These methods are assembled in a pipeline in which high-scoring MSV hits are passed on for reanalysis with the full HMM Forward/Backward algorithm. This accelerated pipeline is implemented in the freely available HMMER3 software package. Performance benchmarks show that the use of the heuristic MSV filter sacrifices negligible sensitivity compared to unaccelerated profile HMM searches. HMMER3 is substantially more sensitive and 100- to 1000-fold faster than HMMER2. HMMER3 is now about as fast as BLAST for protein searches.

  10. Entropy inequalities from reflection positivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casini, H

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the question of whether the entropy and the Renyi entropies of the vacuum state reduced to a region of space can be represented in terms of correlators in quantum field theory. In this case, the positivity relations for the correlators are mapped into inequalities for the entropies. We write them using a real-time version of reflection positivity, which can be generalized to general quantum systems. Using this generalization we can prove an infinite sequence of inequalities which are obeyed by the Renyi entropies of integer index. There is one independent inequality involving any number of different subsystems. In quantum field theory the inequalities acquire a simple geometrical form and are consistent with the integer index Renyi entropies being given by vacuum expectation values of twisting operators in the Euclidean formulation. Several possible generalizations and specific examples are analyzed

  11. Reflections in the clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell-Carrió, F; Hernández-Clemente, J C

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze some models of expert decision and their impact on the clinical practice. We have analyzed decision-making considering the cognitive aspects (explanatory models, perceptual skills, analysis of the variability of a phenomenon, creating habits and inertia of reasoning and declarative models based on criteria). We have added the importance of emotions in decision making within highly complex situations, such as those occurring within the clinical practice. The quality of the reflective act depends, among other factors, on the ability of metacognition (thinking about what we think). Finally, we propose an educational strategy based on having a task supervisor and rectification scenarios to improve the quality of medical decision making. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. Microdosimetry: Reflections on Harald Rossi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellerer, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    This and twelve previous Symposia reflect the evolution of microdosimetry, a field of research that has determined major new developments in radiation research, radiation protection, and radiology during the past four decades. The concepts of microdosimetry and its techniques were developed almost single handedly by H.H. Rossi. This memorial lecture outlines some of the ideas and some of the work of Harald Rossi that led to microdosimetry. It describes its major impact on radiobiology and, especially, its impact on studies with fast neutrons and on risk assessment. Microdosimetry was primarily designed as a tool for the elucidation of basic mechanisms of radiation action, but it has found its most important applications in the dosimetric measurement techniques that have become indispensable in radiation protection and in the dosimetry for radiation therapy. The advances of molecular biology are now providing new possibilities for a quantitative application of microdosimetry to radiobiology along the lines that Harald Rossi defined. (author)

  13. Reflecting on Normative Power Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diez, Thomas; Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    -interested geographical expansion or military superiority. In the 1970s, François Duchêne called it a ‘civilian power’ (1972: 43); in the early 2000s it was argued that the label ‘normative power’ would be better suited (Manners 2000, 2002). Just as Duchêne’s civilian power reflected the Cold War milieu of the 1970s......There is a widespread belief that the European Union (EU) is a novel kind of power not only in its own institutional set-up but also in its external relations. It is said to rely on civilian rather than military means and to pursue the spread of particular norms rather than self......, the normative power approach signified a crystallisation of the EU in the post-Cold War era....

  14. Temporal reflectance changes in vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing, Bjørn Skovlund; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2009-01-01

    Quality control in the food industry is often performed by measuring various chemical compounds of the food involved. We propose an imaging concept for acquiring high quality multispectral images to evaluate changes of carrots and celeriac over a period of 14 days. Properties originating...... in the surface chemistry of vegetables may be captured in an integrating sphere illumination which enables the creation of detailed surface chemistry maps with a good combination of spectral and spatial resolutions. Prior to multispectral image recording, the vegetables were prefried and frozen at -30Â......°C for four months. During the 14 days of image recording, the vegetables were kept at +5°C in refrigeration. In this period, surface changes and thereby reflectance properties were very subtle. To describe this small variation we employed advanced statistical techniques to search a large featurespace...

  15. Reading Comprehension Improvement with Individualized Cognitive Profiles and Metacognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kathleen D.; Hancock, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    This study models improving classroom reading instruction through valid assessment and individualized metacomprehension. Individualized cognitive profiles of Woodcock-Johnson III cognitive abilities correlated with reading comprehension were used during classroom independent reading for judgments of learning, feedback, self-reflection, and…

  16. A profile of resuscitations at the Kalafong Hospital Emergency Unit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gunshot wounds and car accidents were the major causes of serious injuries. Conclusions: The disease profile of the resuscitation patients reflects the medical and social problems of our society. A holistic, bio-psychosocial approach to health care in the primary health care setting could prevent resultant mortality and ...

  17. Reflection of neutrons from a helicoidal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, V.L.; Ignatovich, V.K.; Nikitenko, Yu.V.

    2006-01-01

    Analytical solution for neutron reflection and transmission of magnetic mirrors with helicoidal magnetization is found. The dependence of neutron speed of reflection and transmission curves is shown. Resonant properties of helicoidal systems are found

  18. Reflection in Medical Diagnosis: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mamede, Silvia; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Reflection in medical diagnosis has been said to prevent errors by minimizing flaws in clinical reasoning. This claim, however, has been much disputed. While some studies show reflective reasoning to improve diagnostic performance, others find it to add nothing. This paper presents a narrative review of the literature on reflection in medical diagnosis aimed at addressing two questions: (1) how reflective reasoning has been conceived in this literature; and (2) what is the effect of ...

  19. Effectuation And Reflection-In-Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gertsen, Frank; Lervang, Johan-Ulrik; Maack, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Our main aim is to facilitate a reflective methodology for MSc thesis students in practical entrepreneurship that draws on the ideas of ‘reflection-in-action’ while simultaneously making use of the effectuation logics.......Our main aim is to facilitate a reflective methodology for MSc thesis students in practical entrepreneurship that draws on the ideas of ‘reflection-in-action’ while simultaneously making use of the effectuation logics....

  20. Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier-Transform spectra of selected organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, S.H.; Caton, J.E.

    1982-05-01

    Diffuse reflectance infrared spectra of a variety of different organic compounds have been determined. Profiles of the spectra along with the location and relative intensity of the principal bands have been included for each compound studied. In addition both diffuse reflectance and transmittance infrared spectra were obtained for the same samples, and the spectral results were compared. Although some minor variations are observed between a diffuse reflectance spectrum and the corresponding transmittance spectrum, the diffuse reflectance is quite useful and may be a superior technique for the study of many samples because it possesses an inherently higher signal-to-noise response, requires less sample preparation and allows a very wide range of samples (solids, liquids of low volatility, neat sample, or sample diluted in a reflecting medium) to be studied under very similar conditions.

  1. The role of emotion in design reflection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammer, D.K.; Reymen, I.M.M.J.; Mcdonagh, Deana; Hekkert, Paul; Van Erp, Jeroen; Gyi, Diane

    2003-01-01

    Reflection on design processes performed by designers is called design reflection. In our view, this kind of reflection aims at answering essential questions like “Is my design answering the stakeholder concerns?”, “Am I solving the essential problems or am I wasting time on irrelevant aspects?”,

  2. Reflection during Portfolio-Based Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterbaan, Anne E.; van der Schaaf, Marieke F.; Baartman, Liesbeth K. J.; Stokking, Karel M.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to explore the relationship between the occurrence of reflection (and non-reflection) and thinking activities (e.g., orientating, selecting, analysing) during portfolio-based conversations. Analysis of 21 transcripts of portfolio-based conversations revealed that 20% of the segments were made up of reflection (content reflection…

  3. Reflection and Reasoning in Moral Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Joseph M.; Ungar, Leo; Greene, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    While there is much evidence for the influence of automatic emotional responses on moral judgment, the roles of reflection and reasoning remain uncertain. In Experiment 1, we induced subjects to be more reflective by completing the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) prior to responding to moral dilemmas. This manipulation increased utilitarian…

  4. Toy models of crossed Andreev reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melin, R; Jirari, H; Peysson, S

    2003-01-01

    We propose toy models of crossed Andreev reflection in multiterminal hybrid structures containing out-of-equilibrium conductors. We apply the description to two possible experiments: (i) to a device containing a large quantum dot inserted in a crossed Andreev reflection circuit, and (ii) to a device containing an Aharonov-Bohm loop inserted in a crossed Andreev reflection circuit

  5. Enabling Critical Reflection on Research Supervisory Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Margot; Kayrooz, Carole

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an instrument--The Reflective Supervisor Questionnaire (RSQ). The RSQ maps the domain of research supervisory practice as a facilitative process involving educational tasks and activities. It is designed to assist research supervisors explore, by means of self-reflection and reflection on feedback from…

  6. Reflective Journals: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroth, James T.

    2015-01-01

    The use of reflective journals has been identified as an effective tool to promote reflection in preservice teachers. This review of literature provides the reader with an understanding of the various ways journals are used and assessed in teacher education programs. The findings of this review outline the use of reflective journals on topics such…

  7. Improving Teaching through Collaborative Reflective Teaching Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    Reflection and collaboration are two activities teachers can use to change and improve their practice. However, finding the time and space to do so can be challenging. The collaborative reflective teaching cycle is a structured activity teachers can use to engage in reflection and collaboration. This article describes how a seventh grade teaching…

  8. Developing Mathematical Practices through Reflection Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholz, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on reflection in learning mathematical practices. While there is a long history of research on reflection in mathematics, it has focused primarily on the development of conceptual understanding. Building on notion of learning as participation in social practices, this paper broadens the theory of reflection in mathematics…

  9. Improving Inquiry Teaching through Reflection on Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotter, Christine R.; Miller, Cory

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we explore middle school science teachers' learning of inquiry-based instructional strategies through reflection on practice teaching sessions during a summer enrichment program with middle level students. The reflection sessions were part of a larger year-long inquiry professional development program in which teachers learned science content and inquiry pedagogy. The program included a 2-week summer institute in which teachers participated in science content sessions, practice teaching to middle level students, and small group-facilitated reflection sessions on their teaching. For this study, data collection focused on teachers' recorded dialogue during the facilitator - run reflection sessions, the teachers' daily written reflections, a final written reflection, and a written reflection on a videotaped teaching session. We investigated the teachers' reflection levels and the themes teachers focused on during their reflection sessions. Teachers were found to reflect at various reflection levels, from simple description to a more sophisticated focus on how to improve student learning. Recurrent themes point to the importance of providing situated learning environments, such as the practice teaching with immediate reflection for teachers to have time to practice new instructional strategies and gain insight from peers and science educators on how to handle student learning issues.

  10. Superconvergent sum rules for the normal reflectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, K.; Zimerman, A.H.; Villani, A.

    1976-05-01

    Families of superconvergent relations for the normal reflectivity function are written. Sum rules connecting the difference of phases of the reflectivities of two materials are also considered. Finally superconvergence relations and sum rules for magneto-reflectivity in the Faraday and Voigt regimes are also studied

  11. Convolution based profile fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, A.; Coelho, A.A.; Cheary, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In convolution based profile fitting, profiles are generated by convoluting functions together to form the observed profile shape. For a convolution of 'n' functions this process can be written as, Y(2θ)=F 1 (2θ)x F 2 (2θ)x... x F i (2θ)x....xF n (2θ). In powder diffractometry the functions F i (2θ) can be interpreted as the aberration functions of the diffractometer, but in general any combination of appropriate functions for F i (2θ) may be used in this context. Most direct convolution fitting methods are restricted to combinations of F i (2θ) that can be convoluted analytically (e.g. GSAS) such as Lorentzians, Gaussians, the hat (impulse) function and the exponential function. However, software such as TOPAS is now available that can accurately convolute and refine a wide variety of profile shapes numerically, including user defined profiles, without the need to convolute analytically. Some of the most important advantages of modern convolution based profile fitting are: 1) virtually any peak shape and angle dependence can normally be described using minimal profile parameters in laboratory and synchrotron X-ray data as well as in CW and TOF neutron data. This is possible because numerical convolution and numerical differentiation is used within the refinement procedure so that a wide range of functions can easily be incorporated into the convolution equation; 2) it can use physically based diffractometer models by convoluting the instrument aberration functions. This can be done for most laboratory based X-ray powder diffractometer configurations including conventional divergent beam instruments, parallel beam instruments, and diffractometers used for asymmetric diffraction. It can also accommodate various optical elements (e.g. multilayers and monochromators) and detector systems (e.g. point and position sensitive detectors) and has already been applied to neutron powder diffraction systems (e.g. ANSTO) as well as synchrotron based

  12. Country nuclear power profiles. 2000 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles was initiated within the framework of the IAEA programme on assessment and feedback of nuclear power plant performance. It responded to a need for a database and a technical document containing a description of the economic situation, the energy and the electricity sector and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. In 1998, the first edition of the Country Nuclear Power Profiles was published focusing on the overall economic, energy and electricity situation in the country and on its nuclear power industrial structure and organizational framework. The compilation was made based on of 29 Member States with operating nuclear power plants by the end of 1995 and incorporated the 'Fact Sheets' on international, multilateral and bilateral agreements as collected by EXPO. In May 1999, an Advisory Group Meeting was organized with the purpose of updating the information in the Country Nuclear Power Profiles of each country, to reflect the new approaches and conditions of the national nuclear power programmes. The impact of the open electricity market, privatization and deregulation on the nuclear sector was an important aspect recommended by the experts to be taken in consideration. It was also recommended to periodically review the status and trends of nuclear industries in IAEA Member States and exchange information among experts of the lessons learned from the countries engaged in nuclear programmes, with a view to update the profiles at two year intervals. This second edition covers the changes in the new environment in the electricity as well as in the nuclear sector, be it that the situation differs from country to country. In general, the information is updated to 1999. For the preparation of this second edition, the IAEA received contributions from all 31 countries with operating power plants by the end of 1999, as well as Italy and the Islamic Republic of Iran. A database has been

  13. [Profile and professional expectations for nursing students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonín, M; Ballester, D; Esteve, J; Guilera, A; Pérez, I; Ortega, O; Tarruella, M; Peya, M; Guitard, M L; Ricomà, R; Teixidor, M; Ubiergo, I; Valls, M; Zabalegui, A

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe the profile corresponding to students enrolled in first, second and third year courses to become registered nurses in Catalonia, along with their professional and job expectations; the authors examine students' perceptions of the university environment. This information will be a great aid to, on the one hand, update the performances and initiatives taken by those responsible for nursing schools, and on the other hand, to obtain a preliminary view on future nursing professionals. At the same time, this information will provide useful elements for students themselves to reflect on their studies and their future as professionals.

  14. Working changes - a reflection on both knowledge and qualification as well as career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariluci Alves Martino

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends not only to discuss the question of knowledge into the context ofworking transformation but also to reflect on the way that flexible management standard has been applied in some organizations. It also aims to join the debate between career resignifying and new job profiles.

  15. Reflections of Young Language Learners on Diversity Dimensions in EFL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdogan, Derya

    2016-01-01

    Despite the proclaimed mono-cultural and mono-linguistic profile, in reality, diversity lies at the core of classrooms. This paper outlines the literature on diversity in young learners' classrooms followed by student and teacher reflections on diversity issues in the EFL context. Sixty-two primary school students studying at the 4th and 5th grade…

  16. Country profile: Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary`s energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  17. Country profile: Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary's energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  18. Qualitative Value Profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Henrik Johannsen; Bjerre, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    allows the development of 1) profiles of the target country in which operations are to take place, 2) profiles of the buying center (i.e. the group of decision makers) in the partner company, and 3) profiles of the product/service offering. It also allows the development of a semantic scaling method...... for deeper analysis of all involved factors. This paper presents the method and compares and contrasts it with other similar methods like the PESTELE method known from corporate strategy, the STEEPAL method known from scenario analysis, and the Politics-Institutions-Economy (PIE) framework known from...... International Business. This comparison suggests that QVP on most accounts provides deeper insights than alternative methods and thus lays the foundation for better strategic planning in international business-to-business markets. Hence, it is a valuable addition to the toolbox of business strategists...

  19. Detonation Wave Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-12-14

    The Zel’dovich-von Neumann-Doering (ZND) profile of a detonation wave is derived. Two basic assumptions are required: i. An equation of state (EOS) for a partly burned explosive; P(V, e, λ). ii. A burn rate for the reaction progress variable; d/dt λ = R(V, e, λ). For a steady planar detonation wave the reactive flow PDEs can be reduced to ODEs. The detonation wave profile can be determined from an ODE plus algebraic equations for points on the partly burned detonation loci with a specified wave speed. Furthermore, for the CJ detonation speed the end of the reaction zone is sonic. A solution to the reactive flow equations can be constructed with a rarefaction wave following the detonation wave profile. This corresponds to an underdriven detonation wave, and the rarefaction is know as a Taylor wave.

  20. Euclidean mirrors. Enhanced vacuum decay from reflected instantons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akal, Ibrahim [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2017-06-15

    We study the tunneling of virtual matter-antimatter pairs from the quantum vacuum in the presence of a spatially uniform temporal electric background composed of of a strong slow field superimposed with a weak rapid field. After analytic continuation to Euclidean spacetime we obtain from the instanton equations two critical points. While one of them is the closing point of the instanton path, the other serves as an Euclidean mirror which reflects and squeezes the instanton. It is this reflection and shrinking which is responsible for an enormous enhancement of the vacuum pair production rate. We discuss how important features of this mechanism can be analysed and understood via such a rotation in the complex plane. Consistent with previous studies, we consider certain examples where we apply weak fields with a distinct pole structure in order to show that the reflection takes place exactly at the poles. We also discuss the effect of possible sub-cycle structures. We extend this reflection picture to fields which have no poles present and illustrate the effective reflections with explicit examples. An additional field strength dependence for the rate occurs in such cases. We analytically compute the characteristic threshold for this mechanism given by the critical combined Keldysh parameter. We discuss significant differences between these two types of fields. For various backgrounds, we present the contributing instantons and perform analytical computations for the corresponding rates treating both fields nonperturbatively. The validity of the results is confirmed by numerical computations. Considering different profiles for the strong field, we also discuss its impact on the critical combined Keldysh parameter.

  1. Daytime Water Detection Based on Sky Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo; Matthies, Larry; Bellutta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    A water body s surface can be modeled as a horizontal mirror. Water detection based on sky reflections and color variation are complementary. A reflection coefficient model suggests sky reflections dominate the color of water at ranges > 12 meters. Water detection based on sky reflections: (1) geometrically locates the pixel in the sky that is reflecting on a candidate water pixel on the ground (2) predicts if the ground pixel is water based on color similarity and local terrain features. Water detection has been integrated on XUVs.

  2. Beyond the Margins: Reflective Writing and Development of Reflective Capacity in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Shmuel P.

    2010-01-01

    Reflective capacity has been described as an essential characteristic of professionally competent clinical practice, core to ACGME competencies. Reflection has been recently linked to promoting effective use of feedback in medical education and associated with improved diagnostic accuracy, suggesting promising outcomes. There has been a proliferation of reflective writing pedagogy within medical education to foster development of reflective capacity, extend empathy with deepened understanding of patients’ experience of illness, and promote practitioner well-being. At Alpert Med, “interactive” reflective writing with guided individualized feedback from interdisciplinary faculty to students’ reflective writing has been implemented in a Doctoring course and Family Medicine clerkship as an educational method to achieve these aims. Such initiatives, however, raise fundamental questions of reflection definition, program design, efficacy of methods, and outcomes assessment. Within this article, we consider opportunities and challenges associated with implementation of reflective writing curricula for promotion of reflective capacity within medical education. We reflect upon reflection. PMID:20407840

  3. Theory of reflection reflection and transmission of electromagnetic, particle and acoustic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Lekner, John

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with the reflection of electromagnetic and particle waves by interfaces. The interfaces can be sharp or diffuse. The topics of the book contain absorption, inverse problems, anisotropy, pulses and finite beams, rough surfaces, matrix methods, numerical methods,  reflection of particle waves and neutron reflection. Exact general results are presented, followed by long wave reflection, variational theory, reflection amplitude equations of the Riccati type, and reflection of short waves. The Second Edition of the Theory of Reflection is an updated and much enlarged revision of the 1987 monograph. There are new chapters on periodically stratified media, ellipsometry, chiral media, neutron reflection and reflection of acoustic waves. The chapter on anisotropy is much extended, with a complete treatment of the reflection and transmission properties of arbitrarily oriented uniaxial crystals. The book gives a systematic and unified treatment reflection and transmission of electromagnetic and particle...

  4. Do writing and storytelling skill influence assessment of reflective ability in medical students' written reflections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Louise; Niehaus, Brian; DeVries, Charlie D; Siegel, Jennifer R; O'Sullivan, Patricia S

    2010-10-01

    Increasingly, students are asked to write reflections as part of their medical education, but some question the influence of other factors on the evaluation of these reflections. In this pilot study, the investigators determined whether scores from a validated rubric to measure reflective ability were affected by irrelevant variance resulting from writing or storytelling ability. Students in clerkships wrote reflections on professionalism. All were given identical prompts, with half receiving additional structured guidelines on reflection. Sixty reflections, 30 from each group, were randomly chosen and scored for reflection, writing, and storytelling by trained raters using validated rubrics. There was no correlation between reflection and either writing (r = 0.049, P = .35) or storytelling (r = 0.14, P = .13). The guidelines increased reflection, but not writing or storytelling scores. Reflection is a distinct construct unaffected by learners' writing or storytelling skills. These findings support reflective ability as a distinct skill.

  5. Constructing Data Curation Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Witt

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief literature review and then introduces the methods, design, and construction of the Data Curation Profile, an instrument that can be used to provide detailed information on particular data forms that might be curated by an academic library. These data forms are presented in the context of the related sub-disciplinary research area, and they provide the flow of the research process from which these data are generated. The profiles also represent the needs for data curation from the perspective of the data producers, using their own language. As such, they support the exploration of data curation across different research domains in real and practical terms. With the sponsorship of the Institute of Museum and Library Services, investigators from Purdue University and the University of Illinois interviewed 19 faculty subjects to identify needs for discovery, access, preservation, and reuse of their research data. For each subject, a profile was constructed that includes information about his or her general research, data forms and stages, value of data, data ingest, intellectual property, organization and description of data, tools, interoperability, impact and prestige, data management, and preservation. Each profile also presents a specific dataset supplied by the subject to serve as a concrete example. The Data Curation Profiles are being published to a public wiki for questions and discussion, and a blank template will be disseminated with guidelines for others to create and share their own profiles. This study was conducted primarily from the viewpoint of librarians interacting with faculty researchers; however, it is expected that these findings will complement a wide variety of data curation research and practice outside of librarianship and the university environment.

  6. Interpreting Electromagnetic Reflections In Glaciology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, O.; Nixdorf, U.; Wilhelms, F.; Steinhage, D.; Miller, H.

    Electromagnetic reflection (EMR) measurements are active remote sensing methods that have become a major tool for glaciological investigations. Although the basic pro- cesses are well understood, the unambiguous interpretation of EMR data, especially internal layering, still requires further information. The Antacrtic ice sheet provides a unique setting for investigating the relation between physical­chemical properties of ice and EMR data. Cold ice, smooth surface topography, and low accumulation facilitates matters to use low energy ground penetrating radar (GPR) devices to pene- trate several tens to hundreds of meters of ice, covering several thousands of years of snow deposition history. Thus, sufficient internal layers, primarily of volcanic origin, are recorded to enable studies on a local and regional scale. Based on dated ice core records, GPR measurements at various frequencies, and airborne radio-echo sound- ing (RES) from Dronning Maud Land (DML), Antarctica, combined with numerical modeling techniques, we investigate the influence of internal layering characteristics and properties of the propagating electromagnetic wave on EMR data.

  7. Filmography to reflect on retirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Ángeles AGUILERA VELASCO

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A documentary compilation of films about retirement was made. The data of films, in language or subtitles in Spanish, that had an argument related to retirement or that their protagonists evidenced experiences of the retirement were included. The documentary compilation was made through the stages of search and analysis. 54 films were found and organized into nine categories. The oldest film was from 1924 and the most recent of 2017. 61.11% of films were made as of 2010. In five films (9.25% the protagonists wanted to commit suicide when leaving work. Euthanasia (5.55% was performed in three films (5.55%. The problem of retirement in women was found only in four films (7.49%. In 18 films (33.33% the male protagonists went through widowhood. Twenty-one countries participated in productions, the United States produced 21 films (38.88%. It provides a very extensive collection of valuable films that convey great lessons, allow us to reflect and raise awareness of this stage of life. It is recommended to socialize the films through socio-educational interventions and investigations, as well as to begin to inquire scientifically about the relationship between suicide and euthanasia in retirement.

  8. REFLECTIONS ON SCREENAGERS, FACULTY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike K. MOULTON

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a strategy for a faculty development program with respect to net-supported learning. Many universities and colleges are struggling with meeting the demands of a rapidly changing world. Reflections in this paper are based on experiences from the Norwegian University of Life Sciences. Attention has been given to the intelligent use of technology as a means of meeting pressing challenges. What does this mean? I ask a series of questions, the answers of which form the basis for a faculty development program. What qualities and skills should our graduates have? What consequences does this have for the way we approach teaching and learning? And what role does technology play? In short, we must focus on faculty training courses and the ensuing development cycles of trial, error, refinement and sharing. Guiding principles for these activities should be:1. It is about learning.2. It is about easy access.3. It is about emphasizing collaboration.4. It is about support.

  9. Reflection asymmetric shapes in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Carpenter, M.P.; Emling, H.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental data show that there is no even-even nucleus with a reflection asymmetric shape in its ground state. Maximum octupole- octupole correlations occur in nuclei in the mass 224 (N∼134, Z∼88) region. Parity doublets, which are the characteristic signature of octupole deformation, have been observed in several odd mass Ra, Ac and Pa nuclei. Intertwined negative and positive parity levels have been observed in several even-even Ra and Th nuclei above spin ∼8ℎ. In both cases, the opposite parity states are connected by fast El transitions. In some medium-mass nuclei intertwined negative and positive parity levels have also been observed above spin ∼7ℎ. The nuclei which exhibit octupole deformation in this mass region are 144 Ba, 146 Ba and 146 Ce; 142 Ba, 148 Ce, 150 Ce and 142 Xe do not show these characteristics. No case of parity doublet has been observed in the mass 144 region. 32 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab

  10. A Feminist Reflection on Citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Vargas Valente

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the course of the past decade, citizenship has become one of the axes of feminist action and reflection in Latin America, and, at the same time, it is at the core of democratic concerns at the national levels and, as never before, at the global level. Citizenship constitutes an important pole in women's long fight for equality, lending new democratic content to feminist debates. It also is a meaningful axis for generating alliances among women and between women and other social groups, with the aim of broadening the limits of citizenship restrained by the manifold discriminations in our societies. Citizenship is a terrain of dispute between civil society and the state, and also within civil society itself. Feminist theorists of citizenship are adding complexity and contributing to a theory of citizenship by pointing to incongruities and weaknesses in the concept and practice of citizenship, recognizing that differences - not only gender-based ones- but among women themselves, may present possibilities and obstacles which need to be enhanced or neutralized.

  11. Equilibrium shoreface profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels; Hughes, Michael G

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale coastal behaviour models use the shoreface profile of equilibrium as a fundamental morphological unit that is translated in space to simulate coastal response to, for example, sea level oscillations and variability in sediment supply. Despite a longstanding focus on the shoreface...... profile and its relevance to predicting coastal response to changing environmental conditions, the processes and dynamics involved in shoreface equilibrium are still not fully understood. Here, we apply a process-based empirical sediment transport model, combined with morphodynamic principles to provide......; there is no tuning or calibration and computation times are short. It is therefore easily implemented with repeated iterations to manage uncertainty....

  12. Self-reflection, gender and science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoop, Kathleen A.

    Drawing on socio-cognitive learning theory, this study compared achievement scores of 134 male and female high school biology students randomly assigned to groups which either used self-reflection, used self-reflection and received feedback, or did not self-reflect. Following a pretest, the teacher provided self-reflection strategy instruction to students in the two intervention groups and then subsequently provided in-class self-reflection time for these groups. The posttest concluded the unit; the retention measure was five weeks later. A quasi-experimental 3 x 3 x 2 (time x intervention x gender) factorial repeated-measures control group design was used for this study; a repeated measures ANOVA and several one-way ANOVA's were used to answer the research questions. Results from the repeated-measures ANOVA revealed significant results for Time and Time x Intervention, with the reflection group demonstrating significantly lower gains from pretest to posttest than the other two groups. The ANOVA examining differences between those who reflected and those who reflected and received feedback provided significant results with similar results for the difference between the control group and the reflection group. For teachers and students this study provides several areas of practical significance. Primarily, teachers may find lower student achievement if students regularly self-reflect but do not receive feedback for their reflection.

  13. REX - a program for the analysis of X-ray reflectivity data: user guide and programmer manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabb, T.A.; Gibson, P.N.

    1992-12-01

    A FORTRAN program REX, which has been developed to facilitate the interpretation of X-ray reflectivity data, is described. The program allows the simulation of reflectivity profiles as a function of either incident angle or of energy. Factors such as anomalous dispersion, and surface and interface roughness are taken into account in the model. In addition, experimental data of reflectivity as a function of incident angle can be matched to user-supplied theoretical parameters by a least-squares refinement procedure. Experimental reflectivity data recorded at several X-ray wavelengths can be analysed simultaneously, thus eliminating certain experimental errors. (author)

  14. GHOSTLY REFLECTIONS IN THE PLEIADES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has caught the eerie, wispy tendrils of a dark interstellar cloud being destroyed by the passage of one of the brightest stars in the Pleiades star cluster. Like a flashlight beam shining off the wall of a cave, the star is reflecting light off the surface of pitch black clouds of cold gas laced with dust. These are called reflection nebulae. The famous cluster is easily visible in the evening sky during the winter months as a small grouping of bright blue stars, named after the 'Seven Sisters' of Greek mythology. Resembling a small dipper, this star cluster lies in the constellation Taurus at a distance of about 380 light-years from Earth. The unaided eye can discern about half a dozen bright stars in the cluster, but a small telescope will reveal that the Pleiades contains many hundreds of fainter stars. In many cases, the nebulae surrounding star clusters represent material from which the stars have formed recently. However the Pleiades nebulosity is actually an independent cloud, drifting through the cluster at a relative speed of about 6.8 miles/second (11 kilometers/second). In 1890, American astronomer E. E. Barnard, observing visually with the Lick Observatory 36-inch telescope in California, discovered an exceptionally bright nebulosity adjacent to the bright Pleiades star Merope. It is now cataloged as IC 349, or 'Barnard's Merope Nebula.' IC 349 is so bright because it lies extremely close to Merope--only about 3,500 times the separation of the Earth from the Sun, or about 0.06 light-year--and thus is strongly illuminated by the star's light. In the new Hubble image, Merope itself is just outside the frame on the upper right. The colorful rays of light at the upper right, pointing back to the star, are an optical phenomenon produced within the telescope, and are not real. However, the remarkable parallel wisps extending from lower left to upper right are real features, revealed for the first time through Hubble's high

  15. Designing a Reflective Teacher Education Course and Its Contribution to ELT Teachers' Reflectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajik, Leila; Pakzad, Kazem

    2016-01-01

    Researchers in the present study planned a reflective teacher education course and documented the contribution of such a course to improving teachers' reflectivity. Five English teachers took part in the reflective teacher education course designed by the researchers. To record how the course could help improve reflective teaching, researchers…

  16. Economy Profile of Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Argentina. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Arge...

  17. Economy Profile of Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Estonia. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Estonia ...

  18. Economy Profile of Australia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Australia. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Aust...

  19. Profiling & Utilizing Learning Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, James W., Ed.

    The purpose of the National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) Learning Style Profile is to provide educators with a well-validated and easy-to-use instrument for diagnosing the cognitive styles, perceptual response tendencies, and study/instructional preferences of middle level and senior high school students. The Learning Style…

  20. Country Profiles, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuki, Ariffin Bin; Peng, J. Y.

    A profile of Malaysia is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  1. Economy Profile of Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Bolivia. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Bolivia ...

  2. Culinary Arts Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This chart is intended for use in documenting the fact that a student participating in a culinary arts program has achieved the performance standards specified in the Missouri Competency Profile for culinary arts. The chart includes space for recording basic student and instructor information and the student's on-the-job training and work…

  3. Beam profile monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausse, G.J.; Gram, P.A.M.

    1978-05-01

    A system used to monitor secondary beam profiles at the LAMPF Linac for channel tune-up and diagnostics is described. The multiwire proportional chamber design is discussed, and descriptions and drawings of the gate card, the amplifier/multiplexer card, the output amplifier card, and the overall system are given

  4. Simple beam profile monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelbart, W.; Johnson, R. R.; Abeysekera, B. [ASD Inc. Garden Bay, BC (Canada); Best Theratronics Ltd Ottawa Ontario (Canada); PharmaSpect Ltd., Burnaby BC (Canada)

    2012-12-19

    An inexpensive beam profile monitor is based on the well proven rotating wire method. The monitor can display beam position and shape in real time for particle beams of most energies and beam currents up to 200{mu}A. Beam shape, position cross-section and other parameters are displayed on a computer screen.

  5. Modeling shoreface profile evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stive, M.J.F.; De Vriend, H.J.

    1995-01-01

    Current knowledge of hydro-, sediment and morpho-dynamics in the shoreface environment is insufficient to undertake shoreface-profile evolution modelling on the basis of first physical principles. We propose a simple, panel-type model to map observed behaviour. The internal dynamics are determined

  6. Modelling shoreface profile evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stive, Marcel J.F.; de Vriend, Huib J.

    1995-01-01

    Current knowledge of hydro-, sediment and morpho-dynamics in the shoreface environment is insufficient to undertake shoreface-profile evolution modelling on the basis of first physical principles. We propose a simple, panel-type model to map observed behaviour. The internal dynamics are determined

  7. A temperature profiler

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Peshwe, V.B.; Desa, E.

    An instrument developed for measuring temperature profiles at sea in depth or time scales is described. PC-based programming offers flexibility in setting up the instrument for the mode of operation prior to each cast. A real time clock built...

  8. Country Demographic Profiles: Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD. Population Div.

    This profile of the population of Thailand contains 35 tables of selected demographic information, including size of population and estimates of fertility and mortality, beginning in 1950. An adjusted distribution of the population by age and sex is given for the latest census year, as well as for 1976. Projections of the number of women of…

  9. Polysome Profile Analysis - Yeast

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšek, M.; Valášek, Leoš Shivaya

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 530, č. 2013 (2013), s. 173-181 ISSN 0076-6879 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : grow yeast cultures * polysome profile analysis * sucrose density gradient centrifugation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.194, year: 2013

  10. A Danish Profiling System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Staghøj, Jonas; Svarer, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the statistical model used for profiling new unemployed workers in Denmark. When a worker – during his or her first six months in unemployment – enters the employment office for the first time, this model predicts whether or not he or she will be unemployed for more than six ...

  11. Self-exchange of oxygen behind reflected shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bopp, A.F.; Kern, R.D.; Niki, T.; Stack, G.M.

    1979-01-01

    The rate of isotopic exchange of equimolar mixtures of 32 O 2 + 36 O 2 dilute in Ne-1% Ar was studied over the temperature range 2625 to 3700 K. the reacting gas was analyzed from the reflected shock zone at 20-μs intervals with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Each experimental product profile obtained was compared to the corresponding computer-simulated profile calculation from an atomic mechanism by using previously published rate constants. It was observed that the growth of the exchange product exceeded that predicted by the atomic mechanism at the lower temperatures of this study. However, these differences diminished as the temperature increased. Static analysis of the gas mixtures investigated revealed that H 2 or D 2 if present were at a level of less than 2.5 ppM. Computer simulation of product profiles demonstrated that this impurity level was insufficient to affect the observed rate of product formation. It is proposed that contributions from molecular channels are operative at the lower temperatures while atomic pathways dominate at the higher temperatures

  12. An Access Control Framework for Reflective Middleware

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Huang; Lian-Shan Sun

    2008-01-01

    Reflective middleware opens up the implementation details of middleware platform and applications at runtime for improving the adaptability of middleware-based systems. However, such openness brings new challenges to access control of the middleware-based systems.Some users can access the system via reflective entities, which sometimes cannot be protected by access control mechanisms of traditional middleware. To deliver high adaptability securely, reflective middleware should be equipped with proper access control mechanisms for potential access control holes induced by reflection. One reason of integrating these mechanisms in reflective middleware is that one goal of reflective middleware is to equip applications with reflection capabilities as transparent as possible. This paper studies how to design a reflective J2EE middlewarePKUAS with access control in mind. At first, a computation model of reflective system is built to identify all possible access control points induced by reflection. Then a set of access control mechanisms, including the wrapper of MBeans and a hierarchy of Java class loaders, are equipped for controlling the identified access control points. These mechanisms together with J2EE access control mechanism form the access control framework for PKUAS. The paper evaluates the security and the performance overheads of the framework in quality and quantity.

  13. Perioperative self-reflection among surgical residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peshkepija, Andi N; Basson, Marc D; Davis, Alan T; Ali, Muhammad; Haan, Pam S; Gupta, Rama N; Hardaway, John C; Nebeker, Cody A; McLeod, Michael K; Osmer, Robert L; Anderson, Cheryl I

    2017-09-01

    We studied prevalence and predictors of meaningful self-reflection among surgical residents and with prompting/structured interventions, sought to improve/sustain resident skills. Residents from six programs recorded 1032 narrative self-reflective comments (120 residents), using a web-based platform. If residents identified something learned or to be improved, self-reflection was deemed meaningful. Independent variables PGY level, resident/surgeon gender, study site/Phase1: July2014-August2015 vs. Phase2: September2015-September2016) were analyzed. Meaningful self-reflection was documented in 40.6% (419/1032) of entries. PGY5's meaningfully self-reflected less than PGY1-4's, 26.1% vs. 49.6% (p = 0.002). In multivariate analysis, resident narratives during Phase 2 were 4.7 times more likely to engage in meaningful self-reflection compared to Phase1 entries (p self-reflection, compared to Phase1. Surgical residents uncommonly practice meaningful self-reflection, even when prompted, and PGY5/chief residents reflect less than more junior residents. Substantial/sustained improvements in resident self-reflection can occur with both training and interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Safety profile of dolutegravir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Antonio; Domingo, Pere

    2015-03-01

    Integrase inhibitors are the latest drug family to be added to the therapeutic arsenal against human immunodeficiency virus infection. Drugs in this family that do not require pharmacological boosting are characterized by a very good safety profile. The latest integrase inhibitor to be approved for use is dolutegravir. In clinical trials, dolutegravir has shown an excellent tolerability profile, both in antiretroviral-naïve and previously treated patients. Discontinuation rates due to adverse effects were 2% and 3%, respectively. The most frequent adverse effects were nausea, headache, diarrhea and sleep disturbance. A severe hypersensitivity reaction has been reported in only one patient. In patients coinfected with hepatropic viruses, the safety profile is similar to that in patients without coinfection. The lipid profile of dolutegravir is similar to that of raltegravir and superior to those of Atripla® and darunavir/ritonavir. Dolutegravir induces an early, predictable and non-progressive increase in serum creatinine of around 10% of baseline values in treatment-naïve patients and of 14% in treatment-experienced patients. This increase is due to inhibition of tubular creatinine secretion through the OCT2 receptor and does not lead to a real decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate with algorithms that include serum creatinine. The effect of the combination of dolutegravir plus Kivexa(®) on biomarkers of bone remodeling is lower than that of Atripla(®). Dolutegravir has an excellent tolerability profile with no current evidence of long-term adverse effects. Its use is accompanied by an early and non-progressive increase in serum creatinine due to OCT2 receptor inhibition. In combination with abacavir/lamivudine, dolutegravir has a lower impact than enofovir/emtricitabine/efavirenz on bone remodelling markers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of seismic reflectivity and AVO pattern of BSR using OBS data in the southwestern offshore region of Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, W.B.; Yang, H.R. [Jinwen Univ. of Science and Technology, Hsintien City, Taipei County, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Environment and Property Management; Schnurle, P.; Liu, C.S. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei, Taiwan (China). Inst. of Oceanography; Lee, C.S. [National Taiwan Ocean Univ., Keelung, Taiwan (China). Inst. of Applied Earth Science; Wang, Y.; Chung, S.H.; Chen, S.C. [Ministry of Economic Affairs, Taiwan (China). Central Geological Survey

    2008-07-01

    Regional multi-channel seismic reflection profiles that were conducted in Taiwan from 2003 to 2006 resulted in the identification of a gas hydrate-related bottom simulating reflector (BSR) in the broad southwestern offshore region of Taiwan. In order to understand the regional distribution of methane hydrate bearing layers and explore concentrated hydrate bearing layers, this paper presented a comprehensive analysis of reflection coefficient and amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) pattern of BSR using ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs) seismic data acquired in the southwestern offshore region of Taiwan. The study focused on the analysis and interpretation of airgun array signals recorded by OBSs during 2004 and 2006. Ten profiles of seismic reflection/refraction with a total length of about 140 km and recorded by 50 recovered OBSs were acquired on the active and passive margins in offshore southwestern Taiwan. Amplitudes of the direct water arrival, the multiple, and the BSR were picked interactively for all the OBS lines. A quantitative representation of reflector strength was provided by calculation of reflection coefficients. In general, the seafloor reflection coefficients for the active and passive margins were estimated as 0.1-0.25. The paper presented the data and analysis as well as the results of the study. It was concluded that the results of calculated reflection coefficient of the BSR in offshore southwest Taiwan suggested that inferred hydrate concentration for the passive margin profiles was relatively higher than that for the active margin profiles. 4 refs.

  16. Neutron reflectivity studies of single lipid bilayers supported on planar substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, S.; Orts, W.J.; Berk, N.F.; Majkrzak, C.F. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Koenig, B.W. [National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Neutron reflectivity was used to probe the structure of single phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipid bilayers adsorbed onto a planar silicon surface in an aqueous environment. Fluctuations in the neutron scattering length density profiles perpendicular to the silicon/water interface were determined for different lipids as a function of the hydrocarbon chain length. The lipids were studied in both the gel and liquid crystalline phases by monitoring changes in the specularly-reflected neutron intensity as a function of temperature. Contrast variation of the neutron scattering length density was applied to both the lipid and the solvent. Scattering length density profiles were determined using both model-independent and model-dependent fitting methods. During the reflectivity measurements, a novel experimental set-up was implemented to decrease the incoherent background scattering due to the solvent. Thus, the reflectivity was measured to Q {approx} 0.3{Angstrom}{sup -1}, covering up to seven orders of magnitude in reflected intensity, for PC bilayers in D{sub 2}O and silicon-matched (38% D{sub 2}O/62% H{sub 2}O) water. The kinetics of lipid adsorption at the silicon/water interface were also explored by observing changes in the reflectivity at low Q values under silicon-matched water conditions.

  17. Neutron reflectivity studies of single lipid bilayers supported on planar substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, S.; Orts, W.J.; Berk, N.F.; Majkrzak, C.F.; Koenig, B.W.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron reflectivity was used to probe the structure of single phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipid bilayers adsorbed onto a planar silicon surface in an aqueous environment. Fluctuations in the neutron scattering length density profiles perpendicular to the silicon/water interface were determined for different lipids as a function of the hydrocarbon chain length. The lipids were studied in both the gel and liquid crystalline phases by monitoring changes in the specularly-reflected neutron intensity as a function of temperature. Contrast variation of the neutron scattering length density was applied to both the lipid and the solvent. Scattering length density profiles were determined using both model-independent and model-dependent fitting methods. During the reflectivity measurements, a novel experimental set-up was implemented to decrease the incoherent background scattering due to the solvent. Thus, the reflectivity was measured to Q ∼ 0.3 Angstrom -1 , covering up to seven orders of magnitude in reflected intensity, for PC bilayers in D 2 O and silicon-matched (38% D 2 O/62% H 2 O) water. The kinetics of lipid adsorption at the silicon/water interface were also explored by observing changes in the reflectivity at low Q values under silicon-matched water conditions

  18. Evaluation of retro-reflective coating performance by reflectance and perceived relative brightness measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luse, Kaiva; Pausus, Anete; Karitans, Varis; Ozolins, Maris; Tukisa, Madara, E-mail: kaiva.luse@gmail.com [University of Latvia, Optometry and Vision Science Department, Kengaraga street 8, Riga LV-1063 (Latvia)

    2011-06-23

    Retro-reflective properties of six types and five different colors or retro-reflective materials were discussed in this paper. Reflectance optical indicatrix of samples was determined and compared to obtained psychophyisical data of perceived brightness of human observer. Microscopic structure of the retro-reflective active regions of RR's was studied. Statistically significant differences in reflectivity and brightness of various types and colors of RR's were found.

  19. Evaluation of retro-reflective coating performance by reflectance and perceived relative brightness measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luse, Kaiva; Pausus, Anete; Karitans, Varis; Ozolins, Maris; Tukisa, Madara

    2011-01-01

    Retro-reflective properties of six types and five different colors or retro-reflective materials were discussed in this paper. Reflectance optical indicatrix of samples was determined and compared to obtained psychophyisical data of perceived brightness of human observer. Microscopic structure of the retro-reflective active regions of RR's was studied. Statistically significant differences in reflectivity and brightness of various types and colors of RR's were found.

  20. CVD molybdenum films of high infrared reflectance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carver, G. E.

    1979-01-01

    Molybdenum thin films of high infrared reflectance have been deposited by pyrolytic decomposition of molybdenum carbonyl (Mo(CO)/sub 6/), and by hydrogen reduction of molybdenum pentachloride (MoCl/sub 5/). Reflectance values within 0.7% of the reflectance of supersmooth bulk molybdenum have been attained by annealing films of lower reflectance in both reducing and non-reducing atmospheres. All depositions and anneals proceed at atmospheric pressure, facilitating a continuous, flow-through fabrication. These reflectors combine the high temperature stability of molybdenum thin films with the infrared reflectance of a material such as aluminum. Deposition from Mo(CO)/sub 6/ under oxidizing conditions, and subsequent anneal in a reducing atmosphere, results in films that combine high solar absorptance with low thermal emittance. If anti-reflected, black molybdenum films can serve as highly selective single layer photothermal converters. Structural, compositional, and crystallographic properties have been measured after both deposition and anneal.

  1. Re-thinking reflection in supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    The paper presents a socio-cultural perspective on supervision in professional education, which challenges the current reflective paradigm and move the debate on reflection in supervision in professional education and learning towards a recognition of context, power dynamics and ideological...... of reflective practice has been formalized by regulatory bodies as a way to develop the professionalism of both individual professional practitioners as students through continuing professional developmental processes. Consequently, reflection is often used as a `tool´ for personal and professional development...... al., 2010). This conceptual paper presents a critical, socio-cultural perspective on the current paradigm or dogma of reflective practice within supervision in professional education and learning. The purpose I to challenge the dogma and critically to analyze and move the debate on reflection...

  2. Detection of temporal changes in insect body reflectance in response to killing agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Nansen

    Full Text Available Computer vision and reflectance-based analyses are becoming increasingly important methods to quantify and characterize phenotypic responses by whole organisms to environmental factors. Here, we present the first study of how a non-destructive and completely non-invasive method, body reflectance profiling, can be used to detect and time stress responses in adult beetles. Based on high-resolution hyperspectral imaging, we acquired time series of average reflectance profiles (70 spectral bands from 434-876 nm from adults in two beetle species, maize weevils (Sitophilus zeamais and larger black flour beetles (Cynaus angustus. For each species, we acquired reflectance data from untreated controls and from individuals exposed continuously to killing agents (an insecticidal plant extract applied to maize kernels or entomopathogenic nematodes applied to soil applied at levels leading to ≈100% mortality. In maize weevils (exposed to hexanic plant extract, there was no significant effect of the on reflectance profiles acquired from adult beetles after 0 and 12 hours of exposure, but a significant treatment response in spectral bands from 434 to 550 nm was detected after 36 to 144 hours of exposure. In larger black flour beetles, there was no significant effect of exposure to entomopathogenic nematodes after 0 to 26 hours of exposure, but a significant response in spectral bands from 434-480 nm was detected after 45 and 69 hours of exposure. Spectral bands were used to develop reflectance-based classification models for each species, and independent validation of classification algorithms showed sensitivity (ability to positively detect terminal stress in beetles and specificity (ability to positively detect healthy beetles of about 90%. Significant changes in body reflectance occurred at exposure times, which coincided with published exposure times and known physiological responses to each killing agent. The results from this study underscore the

  3. Enterohepatic circulation of nonconjugated bilirubin in rats fed with human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, E.M.; Whitington, P.F.; Whitington, S.H.; Rivard, W.A.; Given, G.

    1991-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that enhanced intestinal absorption of bilirubin may contribute to prolonged nonconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in human milk-fed infants, we studied a cross-section of 36 healthy infants and mothers. Milk from mothers and serum from infants were collected at 16.3 +/- 2.4 days. Milk was studied for its effect on the absorption of bilirubin labeled with carbon 14 in rats and compared with buffer and iron-fortified infant formula (Similac With Iron). The percentage of a 1 mg bilirubin dose absorbed by the rat was 25.29 +/- 4.0% when it was administered into the duodenum with buffer, 4.67 +/- 2.4% with Similac formula, and 7.7 +/- 2.9% with human milk. Linear regression analysis, using the infant's serum nonconjugated bilirubin level as the dependent variable and the percentage of (14C)bilirubin absorbed by the rat with the corresponding mother's milk as the independent variable, revealed a significant correlation (r = 0.40; p = 0.016). Inspection of the data suggested that absorptive permissiveness correlated closely with infant serum bilirubin values greater than 24 mumol/L (1.4 mg/dl) (r = 0.55; p = 0.007), whereas in those with bilirubin values less than or equal to 24 mumol/L, there was no apparent correlation. Milk was also analyzed for beta-glucuronidase, nonesterified fatty acids, and the ability to inhibit glucuronosyltransferase activity of rat liver microsomes in vitro, none of which correlated with the infant's serum bilirubin. These data support the theory that enhanced intestinal absorption of bilirubin contributes to the jaundice associated with breast-feeding

  4. Bile Acid Signaling Pathways from the Enterohepatic Circulation to the Central Nervous System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, Kim L.; Kalsbeek, Andries; Soeters, Maarten R.; Eggink, Hannah M.

    2017-01-01

    Bile acids are best known as detergents involved in the digestion of lipids. In addition, new data in the last decade have shown that bile acids also function as gut hormones capable of influencing metabolic processes via receptors such as FXR (farnesoid X receptor) and TGR5 (Takeda G

  5. Autoimmune Hepatitis and Celiac Disease: Case Report Showing an Entero-Hepatic Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Tovoli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder primarily targeting the small bowel, although extraintestinal extensions have been reported. The autoimmune processes can affect the liver with manifestations such as primary biliary cirrhosis and autoimmune hepatitis. We describe a 61-year-old woman with celiac disease and an increased levels of aminotransferases. The persistence of increased levels of aminotransferases after 1 year of gluten-free diet and the positivity for an anti-nuclear and anti-double-strand DNA antibodies led to a misdiagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus-related hepatitis. Based on these findings the patient was placed on steroids, which after a few months were stopped because of the onset of diabetes mellitus. Soon after steroid withdrawal, the patient had a marked increase in aminotransferases and γ-globulins, and a liver biopsy revealed chronic active hepatitis. A course of three months of steroids and azathioprine normalized both biochemical and clinical parameters. Currently the patient is symptom-free and doing well. In conclusion, a hypertransaminasemia persisting after a gluten-free diet should be interpreted as a sign of coexisting autoimmune liver disease. Any autoantibody positivity (in this case to ANA and anti-dsDNA should be carefully considered in order to avoid misdiagnosis delaying appropriate clinical management.

  6. Biliary excretion and enterohepatic recycling of proscillaridin A after oral administration to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, K.E.; Bergdahl, B.; Wettrell, G.; Linkoeping Univ.

    1977-01-01

    A single oral dose of proscillaridin A (1.0-1.5 mg) was given to six patients with T-tube drainage of the common bile duct, and simultaneous samples of bile and plasma were collected at various times during the following 24 hours. Glycoside activity was assayed by the 86 Rb-uptake inhibition technique. Peak activities in plasma (mean 0.80 ng/ml) were attained after 0.5-2h, and in bile (mean 6.9ng/ml) after 1-4h. Subsequently, proscillaridin activity in bile was less than 5ng/ml for the remainder of the sampling period, and 10-100 times higher than that in plasma. Bile samples treated with β-glucuronidase and sulphatase showed 100-200 fold increase in glycoside activity. Deconjugation was also produced by treatment with enteric contents. The results suggest that conjugation of unchanged proscillaridin is a major metabolic route. After excretion in the bile, the conjugates may be split in the intestine and reabsorbed as active glycoside. (orig.) [de

  7. Enterohepatic disposition of rosuvastatin in pigs and the impact of concomitant dosing with cyclosporine and gemfibrozil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Ebba; Lundahl, Anna; Fridblom, Patrik; Hedeland, Mikael; Bondesson, Ulf; Knutson, Lars; Lennernäs, Hans

    2009-12-01

    The hepatobiliary transport and local disposition of rosuvastatin in pig were investigated, along with the impact of concomitant dosing with two known multiple transport inhibitors; cyclosporine and gemfibrozil. Rosuvastatin (80 mg) was administered as an intrajejunal bolus dose in treatments I, II, and III (TI, TII, and TIII, respectively; n = 6 per treatment). Cyclosporine (300 mg) and gemfibrozil (600 mg) were administered in addition to the rosuvastatin dose in TII and TIII, respectively. Cyclosporine was administered as a 2-h intravenous infusion and gemfibrozil as an intrajejunal bolus dose. In treatment IV (TIV, n = 4) 5.9 mg of rosuvastatin was administered as an intravenous bolus dose. The study was conducted using a pig model, which enabled plasma sampling from the portal (VP), hepatic (VH), and femoral veins and bile from the common hepatic duct. The biliary recoveries of the administered rosuvastatin dose were 9.0 +/- 3.5 and 35.7 +/- 15.6% in TI and TIV, respectively. Rosuvastatin was highly transported into bile as shown by the median AUC(bile)/AUC(VH) ratio in TI of 1770 (1640-11,300). Gemfibrozil did not have an effect on the plasma pharmacokinetics of rosuvastatin, most likely because the unbound inhibitor concentrations did not exceed the reported IC(50) values. However, cyclosporine significantly reduced the hepatic extraction of rosuvastatin (TI, 0.89 +/- 0.06; TII, 0.46 +/- 0.13) and increased the AUC(VP) and AUC(VH) by 1.6- and 9.1-fold, respectively. In addition, the biliary exposure and f(e, bile) were reduced by approximately 50%. The strong effect of cyclosporine was in accordance with inhibition of sinusoidal uptake transporters, such as members of the organic anion-transporting polypeptide family, rather than canalicular transporters.

  8. Cognitive reflection vs. calculation in decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Sinayev, Aleksandr; Peters, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Scores on the three-item Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) have been linked with dual-system theory and normative decision making (Frederick, 2005). In particular, the CRT is thought to measure monitoring of System 1 intuitions such that, if cognitive reflection is high enough, intuitive errors will be detected and the problem will be solved. However, CRT items also require numeric ability to be answered correctly and it is unclear how much numeric ability vs. cognitive reflection contributes t...

  9. Cognitive Reflection Versus Calculation in Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandr eSinayev; Ellen ePeters

    2015-01-01

    Scores on the three-item Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) have been linked with dual-system theory and normative decision making (Frederick, 2005). In particular, the CRT is thought to measure monitoring of System 1 intuitions such that, if cognitive reflection is high enough, intuitive errors will be detected and the problem will be solved. However, CRT items also require numeric ability to be answered correctly and it is unclear how much numeric ability vs. cognitive reflection contributes t...

  10. Positive Stress and Reflective Practice Among Entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kati Tikkamäki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While heavy stress loads seem an unavoidable aspect of entrepreneurship, the positive side of stress (often referred to as ‘eustress’ remains a neglected area of research. This paper contributes to entrepreneurship research by linking the research streams of eustress and reflective practice. As a tool for analysing and developing thoughts and actions, reflective practice plays an important role in the interpretative work essential to positive stress experiences. Following an overview of approaches to stress at work, eustress and reflective practice, the paper explores how entrepreneurs experience the role of positive stress and reflective practice in their work and describes the reflective tools utilized by entrepreneurs in promoting eustress. The research process was designed to support reflective dialogue among the 21 Finnish entrepreneurs from different fields who participated in the study, with results based mainly on qualitative interviews. Nine of the interviewed entrepreneurs also kept a positive stress diary, including a three-day physiological measurement analysing their heartbeat variability. The findings suggest that positive stress and reflective practice are intertwined in the experiences of entrepreneurs and illustrate the role of reflective practice as a crucial toolset for promoting positive stress, comprising six reflective tools: studying oneself, changing one’s point of view, putting things into perspective, harnessing a feeling of trust, regulating resources and engaging in dialogue. Individual reflective capabilities vary, and a theory-driven division of reflective practice into individual, social and contextual dimensions is considered useful in understanding those differences. The research offers a starting point for exploring how eustress and reflective practice affect the well-being of entrepreneurs

  11. THE VARIABLE REFLECTION NEBULA CEPHEUS A EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodapp, Klaus W.; Bressert, Eli

    2009-01-01

    We report K'-band imaging observations of the reflection nebula associated with Cepheus A East covering the time interval from 1990 to 2004. Over this time the reflection nebula shows variations of flux distribution, which we interpret as the effect of inhomogeneous and varying extinction in the light path from the illuminating source HW2 to the reflection nebula. The obscuring material is located within typical distances of ∼ 10 AU from the illuminating source.

  12. A Data-Driven Reflectance Model

    OpenAIRE

    Matusik, Wojciech; Pfister, Hanspeter; Brand, Matt; McMillan, Leonard

    2003-01-01

    We present a generative model for isotropic bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) based on acquired reflectance data. Instead of using analytical reflectance models, we represent each BRDF as a dense set of measurements. This allows us to interpolate and extrapolate in the space of acquired BRDFs to create new BRDFs. We treat each acquired BRDF as a single high-dimensional vector taken from a space of all possible BRDFs. We apply both linear (subspace) and non-linear (manif...

  13. The Importance of Reflective Practice in Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Caldwell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reflection is an essential attribute for the development of autonomous, critical, and advanced practitioners (Mantzoukas & Jasper, 2004. According to Chong (2009, “Reflective practice should be a continuous cycle in which experience and reflection on experiences are inter-related” (p. 112. Studies have shown that nurses who take the time to reflect on their daily experiences provide enhanced nursing care, have a better understanding of theiractions, which in return develops their professional skills (Hansebo & Kihlgren, 2001. Reflective practice is the ability to examine ones actions and experiences with the outcome of developing their practice and enhancing clinicalknowledge. Reflective practice affects all levels of nursing, from students, to advanced practice nursing students, aswell as practicing nurses. Reflective practice is an important component of the nursing curriculum. Research has shown the relationship between student nurses and their mentors is vital. In order for reflection to be effective open-mindedness, courage, and a willingness to accept, and act on, criticism must be present (Bulmam, Lathlean, & Gobbi, 2012. This paper will explore the current literature and implications related to reflective practice in nursing.

  14. Reflect: a practical approach to web semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donoghue, S.I.; Horn, Heiko; Pafilisa, E.

    2010-01-01

    To date, adding semantic capabilities to web content usually requires considerable server-side re-engineering, thus only a tiny fraction of all web content currently has semantic annotations. Recently, we announced Reflect (http://reflect.ws), a free service that takes a more practical approach......: Reflect uses augmented browsing to allow end-users to add systematic semantic annotations to any web-page in real-time, typically within seconds. In this paper we describe the tagging process in detail and show how further entity types can be added to Reflect; we also describe how publishers and content...... web technologies....

  15. Reflection amplifiers in self-regulated learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verpoorten, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Verpoorten, D. (2012). Reflection amplifiers in self-regulated learning. Doctoral thesis. November, 9, 2012, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open Universiteit (CELSTEC). Datawyse / Universitaire Pers Maastricht.

  16. Spiking the expectancy profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Chr.; Loui, Psyche; Vuust, Peter

    Melodic expectations have long been quantified using expectedness ratings. Motivated by statistical learning and sharper key profiles in musicians, we model musical learning as a process of reducing the relative entropy between listeners' prior expectancy profiles and probability distributions...... of a given musical style or of stimuli used in short-term experiments. Five previous probe-tone experiments with musicians and non-musicians are revisited. Exp. 1-2 used jazz, classical and hymn melodies. Exp. 3-5 collected ratings before and after exposure to 5, 15 or 400 novel melodies generated from...... a finite-state grammar using the Bohlen-Pierce scale. We find group differences in entropy corresponding to degree and relevance of musical training and within-participant decreases after short-term exposure. Thus, whereas inexperienced listeners make high-entropy predictions by default, statistical...

  17. Seismic Reflectivity of the Crust in the Northern Salton Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, K.; Fuis, G. S.; Goldman, M.; Persaud, P.; Ryberg, T.; Langenheim, V. E.; Scheirer, D. S.; Rymer, M. J.; Hole, J. A.; Stock, J. M.; Catchings, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Salton Trough in southern California is a tectonically active pull-apart basin that was formed by migrating step-overs between strike-slip faults, of which the San Andreas Fault (SAF) and the Imperial Fault are the current, northernmost examples. The Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) was undertaken to improve our knowledge of fault geometry and seismic velocities within the sedimentary basins and underlying crystalline crust around the SAF. Such data are useful as input for modeling scenarios of strong ground shaking in the surrounding high-population areas. We used pre-stack depth migration of line segments from shot gathers in several seismic profiles that were acquired in the northern part of the SSIP study area (Lines 4 - 7). Our migration approach can be considered as an infinite-frequency approximation of the Fresnel volume pre-stack depth migration method. We use line segments instead of the original waveform data. We demonstrate the method using synthetic data and analyze real data from Lines 4 - 7 to illustrate the relationship between distinct phases in the time domain and their resulting image at depth. We show both normal-moveout reflections from sub-horizontal interfaces and reverse-moveout reflections from steep interfaces, such as faults. Migrated images of dipping faults, such as the SAF and the Pinto Mountain Fault, are presented in this way. The SAF is imaged along Line 4, through the Mecca Hills, as a number of steeply dipping fault segments that collectively form a flower structure, above 5 km depth, that sole into a moderately NE-dipping fault below that depth. The individual migrated reflection packages correlate with mapped surface fault traces in the Mecca Hills. A similar geometry is seen on Line 6, from Palm Springs through Yucca Valley, where fault splays sole or project into a moderately dipping SAF below 10-km depth. We also show and discuss the reflectivity pattern of the middle and lower crust for Lines 4 - 7.

  18. Profile of success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, Jens Jørn; Nørgaard, Anders; Jakobsen, Søren

    1998-01-01

    What management skills must Europe's business leaders improve to achieve business excellence? Which country's leaders are best placed for success? Does the next generation have what it takes to compete? In the second half of their study of the leadership styles that drive business excellence, Jens...... Dahlgaard, Anders Nørgaard and Søren Jakobsen describe an excellent leadership profile that provides the answers....

  19. Global gas company profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report provides a detailed assessment of 60 of the top gas companies form around the world, analysing them according to their internal dynamics and in relation to their competitors. It devotes each chapter to an individual company, providing invaluable insight into the organisation's operational background, financial performance and strategic goals. Using the most up-to-date information available, Global Gas Company Profiles allows you to make detailed analysis of each company's performance and future direction. (author)

  20. Controlling magnetic field profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, J.R.

    1979-04-01

    A method for designing solenoid magnets with controlled field profiles is discussed. The method, originated by D.B. Montgomery, minimizes both the field errors and the power consumption. An NOS time-sharing computer program for the CDC-6600, entitled MAGCOR, was constructed to provide an interactive magnet design capability. Results obtained during the design of magnets for a radial line electron accelerator are presented. 9 figures

  1. Procedure for measuring the solar reflectance of flat or curved roofing assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen [Heat Island Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Stern, Stephanie [Cool Roof Rating Council, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    The widely used methods to measure the solar reflectance of roofing materials include ASTM standards E903 (spectrometer), C1549 (reflectometer), and E1918 (pyranometer). Standard E903 uses a spectrometer with an integrating sphere to measure the solar spectral reflectance of an area approximately 0.1 cm{sup 2}. The solar spectral reflectance is then weighted with a solar spectral irradiance to calculate the solar reflectance. Standard C1549 uses a reflectometer to measure the solar reflectance of an area approximately 5 cm{sup 2}. Both E903 and C1549 are best suited to measurement of the solar reflectance of flat, homogeneous surfaces. Standard E1918 uses a pyranometer to measure the solar reflectance of an area approximately 10 m{sup 2}, and is best applied to large surfaces that may also be rough and/or non-uniform. We describe a technique that uses a pyranometer to measure the solar reflectance of a uniform or variegated sample with diffusely reflective surface of an area of approximately 1 m{sup 2}, and use this technique (referred to as E1918A) to measure the solar reflectances of low- and high-profile tile assemblies. For 10 large (10 m{sup 2}) tile assemblies whose E1918 solar reflectances ranged from 0.10 to 0.50, the magnitude of the difference between the E1918A and E1918 measurements did not exceed 0.02 for unicolor assemblies, and did not exceed 0.03 for multicolor assemblies. (author)

  2. Fitting the IRI F2-profile function to measured profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinisch, B.W.; Huang Xueqin

    1997-01-01

    Comparison with profile data from ionosondes shows that the IRI bottomside F2-profiles can be improved by using better B0 and B1 parameters. The best parameters (in a least-squares sense) can be easily calculated in a numerical procedure from measured profiles presented as a sum of Chebyshev polynomials. 7 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  3. Tectonic characteristics and structural styles of a continental rifted basin: Revelation from deep seismic reflection profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Fushan Depression is a half-graben rifted sub-basin located in the southeast of the Beibuwan Basin, South China Sea. The Paleogene Liushagang sequence is the main hydrocarbon-bearing stratigraphic unit in the sub-basin. Using three-dimensional (3-D seismic data and logging data over the sub-basin, we analyzed structural styles and sedimentary characteristics of the Liushagang sequence. Five types of structural styles were defined: ancient horst, traditional slope, flexure slope-break, faulted slope-break and multiple-stage faults slope, and interpretations for positions, background and development formations of each structural style were discussed. Structural framework across the sub-basin reveals that the most remarkable tectonic setting is represented by the central transfer zone (CTZ which divides the sub-basin into two independent depressions, and two kinds of sequence architectures are summarized: (i the western multi-stage faults slope; (ii the eastern flexure slope break belt. Combined with regional stress field of the Fushan Depression, we got plane combinations of the faults, and finally built up plan distribution maps of structural system for main sequence. Also, we discussed the controlling factors mainly focused on subsidence history and background tectonic activities such as volcanic activity and earthquakes. The analysis of structural styles and tectonic evolution provides strong theoretical support for future prospecting in the Fushan sub-basin and other similar rifted basins of the Beibuwan Basin in South China Sea.

  4. Non-invasive detection of murals with pulsed terahertz reflected imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Minjie; Sun, Wenfeng; Wang, Xinke; Ye, Jiasheng; Wang, Sen; Zhang, Qunxi; Zhang, Yan

    2015-11-01

    Pulsed terahertz reflected imaging technology has been expected to have great potential for the non-invasive analysis of artworks. In this paper, three types of defects hidden in the plaster used to simulate the cases of defects in the murals, have been investigated by a pulsed terahertz reflected imaging system. These preset defects include a circular groove, a cross-shaped slit and a piece of "Y-type" metal plate built in the plaster. With the terahertz reflective tomography, information about defects has been determined involving the thickness from the surface of sample to the built-in defect, the profile and distribution of the defect. Additionally, three-dimensional analyses have been performed in order to reveal the internal structure of defects. Terahertz reflective imaging can be applied to the defect investigation of the murals.

  5. Natural current profiles in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biskamp, D.

    1986-01-01

    It is proposed that a certain class of equilibrium, which follow from an elementary variational principle, are the natural current profiles in tokamaks, to which actual discharge profiles tend to relax. (orig.)

  6. GHGRP Minerals Sector Industrial Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program periodically produces detailed profiles of the various industries that report under the program. The profiles available for download below contain detailed analyses for the Minerals industry.

  7. Phase mixing of Alfvén waves in axisymmetric non-reflective magnetic plasma configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrukhin, N. S.; Ruderman, M. S.; Shurgalina, E. G.

    2018-02-01

    We study damping of phase-mixed Alfvén waves propagating in non-reflective axisymmetric magnetic plasma configurations. We derive the general equation describing the attenuation of the Alfvén wave amplitude. Then we applied the general theory to a particular case with the exponentially divergent magnetic field lines. The condition that the configuration is non-reflective determines the variation of the plasma density along the magnetic field lines. The density profiles exponentially decreasing with the height are not among non-reflective density profiles. However, we managed to find non-reflective profiles that fairly well approximate exponentially decreasing density. We calculate the variation of the total wave energy flux with the height for various values of shear viscosity. We found that to have a substantial amount of wave energy dissipated at the lower corona, one needs to increase shear viscosity by seven orders of magnitude in comparison with the value given by the classical plasma theory. An important result that we obtained is that the efficiency of the wave damping strongly depends on the density variation with the height. The stronger the density decrease, the weaker the wave damping is. On the basis of this result, we suggested a physical explanation of the phenomenon of the enhanced wave damping in equilibrium configurations with exponentially diverging magnetic field lines.

  8. Ground-penetrating radar study of the Cena Bog, Latvia: linkage of reflections with peat moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karušs, J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Present work illustrates results of the ground-penetrating radar (GPR study of the Cena Bog, Latvia. Six sub-horizontal reflections that most probably correspond to boundaries between sediments with different electromagnetic properties were identified. One of the reflections corresponds to bog peat mineral bottom interface but the rest are linked to boundaries within the peat body. The radar profiles are incorporated with sediment cores and studies of peat moisture and ash content, and degree of decomposition. Most of the electromagnetic wave reflections are related to changes in peat moisture content. The obtained data show that peat moisture content changes of at least 3 % are required to cause GPR signal reflection. However, there exist reflections that do not correlate with peat moisture content. As a result, authors disagree with a dominant opinion that all reflections in bogs are solely due to changes in volumetric peat moisture content.

  9. "Keeping SCORE": Reflective Practice through Classroom Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.

    2011-01-01

    Reflective practice means that teachers must subject their own teaching beliefs and practices to critical examination. One way of facilitating reflective practice in ESL teachers is to encourage them to engage in classroom observations as part of their professional development. This paper reports on a case study of a short series of classroom…

  10. Reflections on Teaching Financial Statement Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwistle, Gary

    2015-01-01

    In her 2011 article "Towards a 'scholarship of teaching and learning': The individual and the communal journey," Ursula Lucas calls for more critical reflection on individual teaching experiences and encourages sharing such experiences with the wider academy. In this spirit Gary Entwistle reflects upon his experiences teaching financial…

  11. Mid infrared upconversion spectroscopy using diffuse reflectance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Nicolai Højer; Kehlet, Louis M.; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin

    2014-01-01

    specifically that upconversion methods can be deployed using a diffuse reflectance setup where the test sample is irradiated by a thermal light source, i.e. a globar. The diffuse reflectance geometry is particularly well suited when a transmission setup cannot be used. This situation may happen for highly...

  12. Talking Online: Reflecting on Online Communication Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greener, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the value and constraints of varied online communication tools from web 2.0 to e-mail in a higher education (HE) teaching and learning context, where these tools are used to support or be the main focus of learning. Design/methodology/approach: A structured reflection is produced with the aid of…

  13. Teacher Reflective Practice in Jesuit High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Joseph H.

    2010-01-01

    Teachers who engage in reflective practice are more effective and may encourage higher student achievement. The purpose of this study is to explore and describe the methods that teachers use in order to engage in reflective practice. Further, it is essential to gain an understanding of how schools, including Jesuit high schools, promote reflective…

  14. Reflections of a Latino Associate Professor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero, Anthony A.

    2018-01-01

    The following reflection essay is about my experiences as a Latino Associate Professor who focuses on criminology, youth violence, juvenile justice, and the associated disparities with race, ethnicity, and immigration. I reflect about the "race and justice" job market, pursuing and establishing a Latina/o Criminology working group, often…

  15. Exploring Reflective Means to Handle Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Nikunj

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism has become widespread in the university teaching environment. This article presents practical wisdom from several years of experience handling plagiarism in two Information Systems (IS) courses with the exploratory use of reflective means such as dialogues and essays. There has been very little work on the use of reflective approaches…

  16. The strong reflecting property and Harrington's Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Yong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we characterize the strong reflecting property for $L$-cardinals for all $\\omega_n$, characterize Harrington's Principle $HP(L)$ and its generalization and discuss the relationship between the strong reflecting property for $L$-cardinals and Harrington's Principle $HP(L)$.

  17. Timing the total reflection of light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvat, Dominique; Bonnet, Christophe; Dunseath, Kevin; Emile, Olivier; Le Floch, Albert

    2005-01-01

    We have identified for the first time the absolute delay at total reflection, envisioned by Newton. We show that there are in fact two divergent Wigner delays, depending on the polarisation of the incident light. These measurements give a new insight on the passage from total reflection to refraction

  18. Reflection in Medical Diagnosis: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Mamede

    2017-06-01

    Discussion: Reflective reasoning can be a powerful tool to reduce diagnostic errors and increase diagnostic performance. For this to happen, reflection should be triggered for diagnosis verification and needs to interfere with initial diagnostic reasoning, which requires confrontation with evidence from the case.

  19. "Dear Diary" Revisited: Reflecting on Collaborative Journaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Catrina A.; Ricker, Britta; Christensen, Julia; Heller, Elizabeth; Kagan, Emily; Osano, Philip M.; Long, Lindsay; Turner, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The genesis of this article was a request from the "Journal of Geography in Higher Education" to provide a reflection piece about our article 'Dear Diary: Early Career Geographers Collectively Reflect on their Qualitative Field Research Experiences' (2011) that won the journal's biennial award for 2009-2011. This request has afforded us…

  20. How Reflective Is the Academic Essay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclellan, Effie

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent of reflection in academic essays. Forty essays, all previously deemed to be of merit quality, were analysed in terms of three elements of reflection--how the educational issue is conceptualized; what the issue means for practice; and how practice might be changed to resolve the problematic. Each…

  1. Synthesis of national risk profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The methodology used and results obtained in computing the national risk profile for carbon fibers (CF) released after an aircraft accident (fire or explosion) are presented. The computation was performed by use of twenty-six individual conditional risk profiles, together with the extrapolation of these profiles to other U.S. airports. The risk profile was obtained using 1993 CF utilization forecasts, but numbers of facilities were taken from 1972 and 1975 census data, while losses were expressed in 1977 dollars.

  2. Global Explorers Journaling and Reflection Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bennion

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that journaling will increase reflection and improve program outcomes (Bain, et al, 1999; Duerden, et al, 2012 This study involved a partnership with a non-profit, Global Explorers (GEx, which provides international immersion experiences for youth. Their programs are designed to teach youth participants principles of leadership, environmental awareness, service, and science. This study, which tested whether teaching journaling techniques to youth program facilitators would have a positive impact on participant outcomes, addressed the following hypotheses: 1 Greater training in reflective thinking among participants would be associated with higher outcome scores, and 2 Participants in the intervention group (facilitators trained in journaling pedagogy would show greater increases in reflective thinking than comparison group members. Results based on participant self-assessment were significant in testing the first hypothesis; reflective thinking is positively associated with outcome measures, but the intervention group did not show increases in reflective thinking.

  3. Particle reflection and TFTR neutral beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Grisham, L.R.; Kugel, H.W.; O'Connor, T.E.; Newman, R.A.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.

    1992-04-01

    Determination of two critical neutral beam parameters, power and divergence, are affected by the reflection of a fraction of the incident energy from the surface of the measuring calorimeter. On the TFTR Neutral Beam Test Stand, greater than 30% of the incident power directed at the target chamber calorimeter was unaccounted for. Most of this loss is believed due to reflection from the surface of the flat calorimeter, which was struck at a near grazing incidence (12 degrees). Beamline calorimeters, of a ''V''-shape design, while retaining the beam power, also suffer from reflection effects. Reflection, in this latter case, artificially peaks the power toward the apex of the ''V'', complicating the fitting technique, and increasing the power density on axis by 10 to 20%; an effect of import to future beamline designers. Agreement is found between measured and expected divergence values, even with 24% of the incident energy reflected

  4. Fracture diagnostics with tube wave reflection logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medlin, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the Tube Wave Reflection Log (TWRL) which is acoustic logging method which provides information about the height, location and conductivity of hydraulically induced fractures behind perforated casing. The TWRL tool consists of a transmitter and closely spaced receiver. The transmitter is driven with a short, low frequency tone burst to generate long wavelength tube waves which are little attenuated in unperforated casing. They are partially reflected when they pass perforated intervals communicating with a hydraulically induced fracture. The tool listens for such reflections for 0.1 seconds following each excitation burst. As the tool is moved uphole at logging speed, the transmitter is excited at each foot of depth. VDL displays of the TWRL records provide reflection traces whose projections define the uppermost and lower-most perforations communicating with the fracture. The strength of the reflections depends on the ease of fluid flow into the fracture and thus, is an indicator of fracture conductivity

  5. Ultraviolet reflectance by the cere of raptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougeot, François; Arroyo, Beatriz E

    2006-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) signals have been shown to play key roles in social and sexual signalling in birds. Using a spectrophotometer, we analysed the colour of the cere (skin above the beak) of a diurnal raptor, the Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus), and show that it reflects in the UV part of the spectrum. The cere is a well-known sexual signal in raptors, with carotenoid based pigmentation being indicative of quality. We thus hypothesized that UV reflectance also signals quality. Accordingly, we found that in our sample of wild males, the location of the UV peak was related to the orangeness of cere and correlated with male body mass and condition (mass corrected for size). Also, males with brighter UV were mated to females that laid earlier, as expected if UV reflectance relates to a male's quality and attractiveness. Future studies should investigate the relationships between UV reflectance and carotenoid pigmentation of cere, and test how UV reflectance influences mate choice. PMID:17148356

  6. Sutherland models for complex reflection groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crampe, N.; Young, C.A.S.

    2008-01-01

    There are known to be integrable Sutherland models associated to every real root system, or, which is almost equivalent, to every real reflection group. Real reflection groups are special cases of complex reflection groups. In this paper we associate certain integrable Sutherland models to the classical family of complex reflection groups. Internal degrees of freedom are introduced, defining dynamical spin chains, and the freezing limit taken to obtain static chains of Haldane-Shastry type. By considering the relation of these models to the usual BC N case, we are led to systems with both real and complex reflection groups as symmetries. We demonstrate their integrability by means of new Dunkl operators, associated to wreath products of dihedral groups

  7. Mode profiling of optical fibers at high laser powers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Carøe; Pedersen, David Bue; Simonsen, R.B.

    2008-01-01

    of the focused spot can be determined. The analyser is based on the principle of a rotating wire being swept though the laser beam, while the reflected signal is recorded [1]. By changing the incident angle of the rotating rod from 0° to 360° in relation to the fiber, the full profile of the laser beam...... is obtained. Choosing a highly reflective rod material and a sufficiently high rotation speed, these measurements can be done with high laser powers, without any additional optical elements between the fiber and analyzer. The performance of the analyzer was evaluated by coupling laser light into different...

  8. Born reflection kernel analysis and wave-equation reflection traveltime inversion in elastic media

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Tengfei; Cheng, Jiubing

    2017-01-01

    Elastic reflection waveform inversion (ERWI) utilize the reflections to update the low and intermediate wavenumbers in the deeper part of model. However, ERWI suffers from the cycle-skipping problem due to the objective function of waveform residual

  9. Reflecting on reflection in interprofessional education: implications for theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Phillip G

    2009-05-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) involves learning, and learning requires reflection. Educators need to "reflect more on reflection" if they are to be effective teachers in ensuring the learning outcomes essential for teamwork and interprofessional practice (IPP), including incorporating both theory and practice into the development of educational interventions. First, this discussion surveys the IPE-relevant literature on reflection, and then defines and refines the multidimensional concept of reflection as it relates to IPE in developing and implementing teamwork learning programs and experiences. Second, specific methods to promote reflection are presented and explored, including self-assessments, journaling, and written papers. Actual samples from student journals and assignments provide examples of the impacts of using these methods on participant reflection and learning. Finally, implications for an expanded understanding and application of reflection for IPE will be discussed, and recommendations made for educational practice and research in this area.

  10. Cultural competence: reflections on patient autonomy and patient good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leever, Martin G

    2011-07-01

    Terms such as 'cultural competence' and 'transcultural nursing' have comfortably taken their place in the lexicon of health care. Their high profile is a reflection of the diversity of western societies and health care's commitment to provide care that is responsive to the values and beliefs of all who require treatment. However, the relationship between cultural competence and familiar ethical concepts such as patient autonomy has been an uneasy one. This article explores the moral foundations of cultural competence, ultimately locating them in patient autonomy and patient good. The discussion of patient good raises questions about the moral relevance of a value's rootedness in a particular culture. I argue that the moral justification for honoring cultural values has more to do with the fact that patients are strongly committed to them than it does with their cultural rootedness. Finally, I suggest an organizational approach to cultural competence that emphasizes overall organizational preparedness.

  11. Forsmark site investigation. Reflection seismic studies in the Forsmark area, 2004: Stage 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhlin, Christopher; Palm, Hans [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    2005-06-15

    Reflection seismic data were acquired in the Fall of 2004 in the Forsmark area, located about 140 km north of Stockholm, Sweden. The Forsmark area has been targeted by SKB as a possible storage site for spent nuclear fuel. About 25 km of high resolution (nominal source and receiver spacing of maximum 10 m and a minimum of 160 active channels) seismic data were acquired along 10 profiles, varying in length from about 1 km to over 4 km. Three of these profiles are extensions of profiles that were acquired in 2002 (Stage 1). While the 2002 Stage 1 profiles were geared towards acquiring data from within the relatively undeformed lens, the current study focused on acquiring data from the boundaries of the lens. Data acquisition was also concentrated towards the western part of the candidate area. Data were acquired using a combination of the same explosive source as in Stage 1 (1575 g of explosives) and the VIBSIST mechanical source consisting of an industrial hammer mounted on a tractor. Earlier tests in Laxemar had shown that the VIBSIST source gives comparable data to the explosive source and is less expensive. It can also be used in areas where explosives are prohibited, such as close to the nuclear power plant. At present, the source cannot be used in the terrain, therefore an explosive component is still required. About 80% of the 2100 source points were activated using the VIBSIST system. Stacked sections from the new profiles are generally consistent with the Stage 1 results. Reflections from the prominent south dipping A1 reflector can be observed on most profiles, however, it is not clear if it can be traced all the way to the surface. Neither is it clearly observed below the power plant, suggesting its lateral extent is limited to the west. Instead, a gently east dipping reflector (B8) is interpreted below the power plant. Reflections consistent with the A2 reflector are also found on two profiles, but cannot be traced very far to the south, suggesting that

  12. Obtaining local reflectivity at two-way travel time by filtering acoustic reflection data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slob, E.C.; Zhang, L.; Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Mihai Popovici, A.; Fomel, S.

    2017-01-01

    A modified implementation of Marchenko redatuming leads to a filter that removes internal multiples from reflection data. It produces local reflectivity at two-way travel time. The method creates new primary reflections resulting from emitted events that eliminate internal multiples. We call these

  13. Reflective Practice for Psychology Students: The Use of Reflective Journal Feedback in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Andreina; Dell'Aversana, Giuseppina

    2017-01-01

    Reflective journals have emerged as an effective means of monitoring and developing reflective practice in higher education, as part of a wider metacognitive strategy to transform traditional learning approaches. In addition, assessment procedures of reflective journals appear to be an important factor in enhancing commitment to learning and…

  14. Library search with regular reflectance IR spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staat, H.; Korte, E.H.; Lampen, P.

    1989-01-01

    Characterisation in situ for coatings and other surface layers is generally favourable, but a prerequisite for precious items such as art objects. In infrared spectroscopy only reflection techniques are applicable here. However for attenuated total reflection (ATR) it is difficult to obtain the necessary optical contact of the crystal with the sample, when the latter is not perfectly plane or flexible. The measurement of diffuse reflectance demands a scattering sample and usually the reflectance is very poor. Therefore in most cases one is left with regular reflectance. Such spectra consist of dispersion-like feature instead of bands impeding their interpretation in the way the analyst is used to. Furthermore for computer search in common spectral libraries compiled from transmittance or absorbance spectra a transformation of the reflectance spectra is needed. The correct conversion is based on the Kramers-Kronig transformation. This somewhat time - consuming procedure can be speeded up by using appropriate approximations. A coarser conversion may be obtained from the first derivative of the reflectance spectrum which resembles the second derivative of a transmittance spectrum. The resulting distorted spectra can still be used successfully for the search in peak table libraries. Experiences with both transformations are presented. (author)

  15. Assessing reflective thinking and approaches to learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Louise; Musolino, Gina M

    2011-01-01

    Facilitation of reflective practice is critical for the ongoing demands of health care practitioners. Reflective thinking concepts, grounded in the work of Dewey and Schön, emphasize critical reflection to promote transformation in beliefs and learning necessary for reflective practice. The Reflective Thinking Questionnaire (QRT) and Revised Study Process Questionnaire (RSPQ-2F) assess skill aspects of professional reasoning, with promise for measuring changes over time. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and responsiveness and the model validity of reflective thinking and approaches to learning measures for U.S. health professions students enrolled in entry-level occupational (MOT) and physical therapy (DPT) programs. This measurement study addressed reliability and responsiveness of two measures, the QRT and RSPQ-2F, for graduate health professionals. A convenience sample of 125 MOT and DPT students participated in the two-measure, test-retest investigation, with electronic data collection. Outcomes support the stability of the four-scale QRT (ICC 0.63 to 0.82) and the two-scale RSPQ-2F (ICC 0.91 and 0.87). Descriptive data supporting responsiveness are presented. With noted limitations, the results support the use of the QRT and RSPQ-2F measures to assess changes in reflective thinking and approaches to learning. Measurement of these learning outcomes furthers our understanding and knowledge about instructional strategies, development of professional reasoning, and fostering of self-directed learning within MOT and DPT programs.

  16. Total internal reflection effect on gyrotropic interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushchenko, Alexander G.; Glushchenko, Eugene P.; Zhukov, Sergey V.

    2018-02-01

    This article considers the physical features of total internal reflection at gyrotropic and isotropic interfaces for two cases: electrical gyrotropy (plasma) and magnetic gyrotropy (ferrite). It is shown that the plasma magnetization may lead to the formation of the total internal reflection effect, which does not occur in isotropic plasma. The threshold values of the magnetic field, which are necessary for the total internal reflection effect, are determined. The total internal reflection effect on a ferrite-dielectric interface for waves emanating from different angles is observed in various frequency ranges and magnetization fields. The study points out the possibility of changing the total internal reflection angle value in large limits due to a change in the external magnetic field magnitude. The calculation results of the total internal reflection angle dependence on the external magnetic field magnitude are presented. The formulas are elaborated for calculating the total internal reflection angles of different interfaces for gyrotropic and isotropic media. The generalized formulas are defined for calculating the Doppler effect in the gyrotropic media. The study demonstrates how the velocity of the media interface affects the limiting angle of total internal refection.

  17. Deflagration Wave Profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-03

    Shock initiation in a plastic-bonded explosives (PBX) is due to hot spots. Current reactive burn models are based, at least heuristically, on the ignition and growth concept. The ignition phase occurs when a small localized region of high temperature (or hot spot) burns on a fast time scale. This is followed by a growth phase in which a reactive front spreads out from the hot spot. Propagating reactive fronts are deflagration waves. A key question is the deflagration speed in a PBX compressed and heated by a shock wave that generated the hot spot. Here, the ODEs for a steady deflagration wave profile in a compressible fluid are derived, along with the needed thermodynamic quantities of realistic equations of state corresponding to the reactants and products of a PBX. The properties of the wave profile equations are analyzed and an algorithm is derived for computing the deflagration speed. As an illustrative example, the algorithm is applied to compute the deflagration speed in shock compressed PBX 9501 as a function of shock pressure. The calculated deflagration speed, even at the CJ pressure, is low compared to the detonation speed. The implication of this are briefly discussed.

  18. Profile analysis of microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konarski, P.; Iwanejko, I.; Mierzejewska, A.

    2001-01-01

    Depth resolved analyses of several types of microparticles are presented. Particles for secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) depth profile analysis were collected in the working environment of glass plant, steelworks and welding station using eight-stage cascade impactor with particle size range of 0.3 μm to 15 μm. Ion beam sputtering and sample rotation technique allowed to describe morphology i.e. the elemental structure of collected sub-micrometer particles. Also model particles Iriodin 221 (Merck) were depth profiled. The core-shell structure is found for all types of investigated particles. Steelworks particles consist mainly of iron and manganese cores. At the shells of these microparticles: lead, chlorine and fluorine are found. The particles collected in the glass-works consist mainly of lead-zirconium glass cores covered by carbon and copper. Stainless-steel welding particles compose of iron, manganese and chromium cores covered by a shell rich in carbon, chlorine and fluorine. Sample rotation technique applied in SIMS appears to be an effective tool for environmental microparticle morphology studies

  19. Autoantibody profiling in APS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggenbuck, D; Somma, V; Schierack, P; Borghi, M O; Meroni, P L

    2014-10-01

    The international consensus for the classification of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) requires clinical and laboratory criteria to be considered at an equal level for diagnosing APS. Thus, detection of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) being a hallmark of APS has been the object of intensive investigation over the past 40 years. However, appropriate detection of aPL still remains a laboratory challenge due to their heterogeneity comprising autoantibodies reactive to different phospholipid-binding plasma proteins, such as beta-2 glycoprotein I (β2GPI) and prothrombin. The relevance of aPL interacting with phospholipids other than cardiolipin (CL, diphosphatidylglycerol), such as phosphatidylserine (PS), remains elusive with regard to the diagnosis of APS. Recently, the concept of aPL profiling has been introduced to assess the risk of thrombotic complications in patients with APS. New assay techniques, apart from enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) recommended by the international consensus for the classification of APS, have been proposed for multiplexing of aPL testing. Line immunoassays (LIAs) employing a novel hydrophobic solid phase for the simultaneous detection of different aPL seem to be an intriguing alternative. We evaluated a novel multiplex LIA employing a hydrophobic membrane coated with different phospholipid (PL)-binding proteins or PLs. The performance characteristics of this new multiplexing assay technique demonstrated its usefulness for aPL profiling. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  20. Glue Film Thickness Measurements by Spectral Reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, B.R.

    2010-01-01

    Spectral reflectance was used to determine the thickness of thin glue layers in a study of the effect of the glue on radiance and reflectance measurements of shocked-tin substrates attached to lithium fluoride windows. Measurements based on profilometry of the components were found to be inaccurate due to flatness variations and deformation of the tin substrate under pressure during the gluing process. The accuracy of the spectral reflectance measurements were estimated to be ±0.5 (micro)m, which was sufficient to demonstrate a convincing correlation between glue thickness and shock-generated light.

  1. Personal Professional Reflection as Interdisciplinary Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezvan Oksana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Consideration of professional reflection as interdisciplinary problem is the necessary condition of quality analysis for personal professional becoming. Personal becoming in a profession is related to forming the necessary professional skills of a person, behaviour stereotypes which is the area of pedagogics. Reflection processes are inalienable part of self-knowledge of a person which result must lead to his self-perfection (including professional one and studying within the psychology increasingly. Thus the aim of the article is to ground the determination of professional reflection as an interdisciplinary problem in pedagogics and psychology.

  2. Glue Film Thickness Measurements by Spectral Reflectance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. R. Marshall

    2010-09-20

    Spectral reflectance was used to determine the thickness of thin glue layers in a study of the effect of the glue on radiance and reflectance measurements of shocked-tin substrates attached to lithium fluoride windows. Measurements based on profilometry of the components were found to be inaccurate due to flatness variations and deformation of the tin substrate under pressure during the gluing process. The accuracy of the spectral reflectance measurements were estimated to be ±0.5 μm, which was sufficient to demonstrate a convincing correlation between glue thickness and shock-generated light.

  3. Researching critical reflection in management education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjaer, Bente; Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2016-01-01

    Critical reflection for professionals involves the ability to learn directly from their practice experience, so that they can improve their own work in an ongoing and flexible way. By examining the fundamental bases of what they do systematically, critical reflection can also function as a form...... to deal with change and critical reflection provides one method for being able to incorporate changes in a way which allows individuals to preserve a sense of what is fundamentally important to them as professionals. Since many different professionals work together in most organisations, research...... of education, management, health and social work....

  4. INFLUENCE OF LASER BEAM PROFILE ON LIGHT SCATTERING BY HUMAN SKIN DURING PHOTOMETRY BY ELLIPSOIDAL REFLECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Bezuglyi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The correct accounting of laser emitter parameters for improvement of diagnostic authenticity of methods of optical biomedical diagnostic is important problem for applied biophotonic tasks. The purpose of the current research is estimation of influence of energy distribution profile in transversal section of laser beam on light scattering by human skin layers at photometry by ellipsoidal reflectors.Biomedical photometer with ellipsoidal reflectors for investigation of biological tissue specimens in transmitted and reflected light uses laser probing radiation with infinitely thin, Gauss-type and uniform cross-section profile. Distribution of beams with denoted profiles, which consist of 20 million photons with wavelength 632.8 nm, was modeled by using of Monte-Carlo simulation in human skin layers (corneous layer, epidermis, derma and adipose tissue of various anatomic thickness and with ellipsoidal reflectors with focal parameter equal to 16.875 mm and eccentricity of 0.66.The modeling results represent that illuminance distribution in zones of photometric imaging is significantly influenced by the laser beam cross-section profile for various thickness of corneous layer and epidermis in transmitted and reflected light, and also derma in reflected light. Illuminance distribution for adipose tissue in reflected and transmitted light, and also derma in transmitted light, practically do not depend of laser beam profile for anatomic thicknesses, which are appropriate for human skin on various sections of body.There are represented results of modified Monte-Carlo simulation method for biomedical photometer with ellipsoidal reflectors during biometry of human skin layers. For highly scattered corneous layer and epidermis the illumination of middle and external rings of photometric images changes depending from the laser beam profile for more than 50 % in transmitted and 30 % in reflected light. For weakly scattering skin layers (derma and adipose layer

  5. A Remote Sensing Approach to Estimate Vertical Profile Classes of Phytoplankton in a Eutrophic Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Xue

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The extension and frequency of algal blooms in surface waters can be monitored using remote sensing techniques, yet knowledge of their vertical distribution is fundamental to determine total phytoplankton biomass and understanding temporal variability of surface conditions and the underwater light field. However, different vertical distribution classes of phytoplankton may occur in complex inland lakes. Identification of the vertical profile classes of phytoplankton becomes the key and first step to estimate its vertical profile. The vertical distribution profile of phytoplankton is based on a weighted integral of reflected light from all depths and is difficult to determine by reflectance data alone. In this study, four Chla vertical profile classes (vertically uniform, Gaussian, exponential and hyperbolic were found to occur in three in situ vertical surveys (28 May, 19–24 July and 10–12 October in a shallow eutrophic lake, Lake Chaohu. We developed and validated a classification and regression tree (CART to determine vertical phytoplankton biomass profile classes. This was based on an algal bloom index (Normalized Difference algal Bloom Index, NDBI applied to both in situ remote sensing reflectance (Rrs and MODIS Rayleigh-corrected reflectance (Rrc data in combination with data of local wind speed. The results show the potential of retrieving Chla vertical profiles information from integrated information sources following a decision tree approach.

  6. Does high antibiotic consumption still reflect bad practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levent, T; Delfosse, F; Lambiotte, F; Dezorzi, S; Gosteau, L; Vasseur, M

    2012-07-01

    The authors had for aim to assess the quality of antibiotic prescription in an intensive care unit because of their high rate of consumption. A prospective 5-month study was made of the first 50 prescriptions of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, teicoplanin, vancomycin, and imipenem. Treatment was considered adequate at day 5 if the indication was relevant, with the right doses, and if the prescription was adapted to the antibiogram. Fifty treatments were evaluated (38 patients included). Eighty-four percent (42/50) was adequate at day 5. Glycopeptides and fluoroquinolones accounted for 2/3 of prescriptions. The absence of de-escalation was the most common mistake. The severity of presentations was evident with a mean SSI at 68 (22-113), and a mean BMI at 28 (18.5 - 50). Eighty-four percent (32/38) of patients were exposed to invasive devices, 47% died in the ICU. Most prescriptions were adequate. The patient profile could explain the high rate of antibiotic consumption. Bacteriological monitoring revealed an increased prevalence of resistant bacteria, which could explain a high rate of consumption along with adaptation of the dose to overweight. De-escalation, using aminosides more frequently, and shorter prescribed courses of fluoroquinolones should improve consumption rates does not always reflect bad practices, but may be adequate when considering bacterial ecology and patient profile. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Digital reflection holography based systems development for MEMS testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay Raj; Liansheng, Sui; Asundi, Anand

    2010-05-01

    MEMS are tiny mechanical devices that are built onto semiconductor chips and are measured in micrometers and nanometers. Testing of MEMS device is an important part in carrying out their functional assessment and reliability analysis. Development of systems based on digital holography (DH) for MEMS inspection and characterization is presented in this paper. Two DH reflection systems, table-top and handheld types, are developed depending on the MEMS measurement requirements and their capabilities are presented. The methodologies for the systems are developed for 3D profile inspection and static & dynamic measurements, which is further integrated with in-house developed software that provides the measurement results in near real time. The applications of the developed systems are demonstrated for different MEMS devices for 3D profile inspection, static deformation/deflection measurements and vibration analysis. The developed systems are well suitable for the testing of MEMS and Microsystems samples, with full-field, static & dynamic inspection as well as to monitor micro-fabrication process.

  8. Reflected ray retrieval from radio occultation data using radio holographic filtering of wave fields in ray space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Gorbunov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Linear and non-linear representations of wave fields constitute the basis of modern algorithms for analysis of radio occultation (RO data. Linear representations are implemented by Fourier Integral Operators, which allow for high-resolution retrieval of bending angles. Non-linear representations include Wigner Distribution Function (WDF, which equals the pseudo-density of energy in the ray space. Representations allow for filtering wave fields by suppressing some areas of the ray space and mapping the field back from the transformed space to the initial one. We apply this technique to the retrieval of reflected rays from RO observations. The use of reflected rays may increase the accuracy of the retrieval of the atmospheric refractivity. Reflected rays can be identified by the visual inspection of WDF or spectrogram plots. Numerous examples from COSMIC data indicate that reflections are mostly observed over oceans or snow, in particular over Antarctica. We introduce the reflection index that characterizes the relative intensity of the reflected ray with respect to the direct ray. The index allows for the automatic identification of events with reflections. We use the radio holographic estimate of the errors of the retrieved bending angle profiles of reflected rays. A comparison of indices evaluated for a large base of events including the visual identification of reflections indicated a good agreement with our definition of reflection index.

  9. Reflected ray retrieval from radio occultation data using radio holographic filtering of wave fields in ray space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunov, Michael E.; Cardellach, Estel; Lauritsen, Kent B.

    2018-03-01

    Linear and non-linear representations of wave fields constitute the basis of modern algorithms for analysis of radio occultation (RO) data. Linear representations are implemented by Fourier Integral Operators, which allow for high-resolution retrieval of bending angles. Non-linear representations include Wigner Distribution Function (WDF), which equals the pseudo-density of energy in the ray space. Representations allow for filtering wave fields by suppressing some areas of the ray space and mapping the field back from the transformed space to the initial one. We apply this technique to the retrieval of reflected rays from RO observations. The use of reflected rays may increase the accuracy of the retrieval of the atmospheric refractivity. Reflected rays can be identified by the visual inspection of WDF or spectrogram plots. Numerous examples from COSMIC data indicate that reflections are mostly observed over oceans or snow, in particular over Antarctica. We introduce the reflection index that characterizes the relative intensity of the reflected ray with respect to the direct ray. The index allows for the automatic identification of events with reflections. We use the radio holographic estimate of the errors of the retrieved bending angle profiles of reflected rays. A comparison of indices evaluated for a large base of events including the visual identification of reflections indicated a good agreement with our definition of reflection index.

  10. Total reflection x-ray fluorescence - an approach to nanoanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klockenkaemper, R.

    2000-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA) is a powerful tool used for industrial production, geological prospecting and for environmental control. However, the method suffers from a lack of sensitivity so that analyses are restricted to microanalytical investigations. That means: the sample amount needed for analysis is above some 10 micrograms, concentrations to be determined have to be on the μg/ml level, and thin layers to be characterized must be of micrometer thickness. In contrast to conventional XRFA, total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is extremely sensitive and even allows nano-analytical investigations. Three different ways can be taken: (i) use of minute sample amounts of only 10 nano-grams, (ii) determination of extreme traces below ng/ml and (iii) surface analysis and depth profiling of shallow layers with nano-meter thickness. In this lecture, the basic physical phenomena of total reflection and standing waves are outlined. The experimental equipment for TXRF is sketched out and commercially available instruments of different manufacturers are compared. Furthermore, examples are given for the three kinds of nano-analytical applications: ultra-micro, analysis, ultra trace analysis and mono- and thin-layer analysis. (author)

  11. Peer group reflection helps clinical teachers to critically reflect on their teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerboom, Tobias B B; Jaarsma, Debbie; Dolmans, Diana H J M; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; Mastenbroek, Nicole J J M; Van Beukelen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Student evaluations can help clinical teachers to reflect on their teaching skills and find ways to improve their teaching. Studies have shown that the mere presentation of student evaluations is not a sufficient incentive for teachers to critically reflect on their teaching. We evaluated and compared the effectiveness of two feedback facilitation strategies that were identical except for a peer reflection meeting. In this study, 54 clinical teachers were randomly assigned to two feedback strategies. In one strategy, a peer reflection was added as an additional step. All teachers completed a questionnaire evaluating the strategy that they had experienced. We analysed the reflection reports and the evaluation questionnaire. Both strategies stimulated teachers to reflect on feedback and formulate alternative actions for their teaching practice. The teachers who had participated in the peer reflection meeting showed deeper critical reflection and more concrete plans to change their teaching. All feedback strategies were considered effective by the majority of the teachers. Strategies with student feedback and self-assessment stimulated reflection on teaching and helped clinical teachers to formulate plans for improvement. A peer reflection meeting seemed to enhance reflection quality. Further research should establish whether it can have lasting effects on teaching quality.

  12. Supporting Teacher Reflection through Online Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiening Ruan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this case study was to investigate online discussion as a means to promote critical reflection. The study was conducted during a semester-long graduate course on issues related to literacy instructional strategies. The participants in the study were four reading education candidates. During the semester they participated in online discussion about course readings and reflected on their own teaching experiences. The data sources were the online discussion postings, responses to questionnaires, and interviews. The results suggest that technology-mediated discussion strengthens the learning community, facilitates sharing of professional experience among participants, and enhances teacher reflection. The results also point to the multi-faceted nature of teacher reflection.

  13. Spectral reflectance relationships to leaf water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripple, William J.

    1986-01-01

    Spectral reflectance data were collected from detached snapbean leaves in the laboratory with a multiband radiometer. Four experiments were designed to study the spectral response resulting from changes in leaf cover, relative water content of leaves, and leaf water potential. Spectral regions included in the analysis were red (630-690 nm), NIR (760-900 nm), and mid-IR (2.08-2.35 microns). The red and mid-IR bands showed sensitivity to changes in both leaf cover and relative water content of leaves. The NIR was only highly sensitive to changes in leaf cover. Results provided evidence that mid-IR reflectance was governed primarily by leaf moisture content, although soil reflectance was an important factor when leaf cover was less than 100 percent. High correlations between leaf water potentials and reflectance were attributed to covariances with relative water content of leaves and leaf cover.

  14. Reflective Self-Regenerative Systems Architecture Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pu, Carlton; Blough, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we develop the Reflective Self-Regenerative Systems (RSRS) architecture in detail, describing the internal structure of each component and the mutual invocations among the components...

  15. Force Reflection Algorithms for Exoskeleton Controllers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bryfogle, Mark

    1991-01-01

    This research effort investigated the kinematics and dynamics of open chain, serial linkage mechanisms with specific emphasis placed upon the application of this linkage as a force reflecting exoskeleton mechanism...

  16. Telerobotic Control Architecture Including Force-Reflection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murphy, Mark

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the implementation of a telerobotic control architecture to manipulate a standard six-degree-of-freedom robot via a unique seven-degree-of-freedom force-reflecting exoskeleton...

  17. Automatic specular reflections removal for endoscopic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ke; Wang, Bin; Gao, Yuan

    2017-07-01

    Endoscopy imaging is utilized to provide a realistic view about the surfaces of organs inside the human body. Owing to the damp internal environment, these surfaces usually have a glossy appearance showing specular reflections. For many computer vision algorithms, the highlights created by specular reflections may become a significant source of error. In this paper, we present a novel method for restoration of the specular reflection regions from a single image. Specular restoration process starts with generating a substitute specular-free image with RPCA method. Then the specular removed image was obtained by taking the binary weighting template of highlight regions as the weighting for merging the original specular image and the substitute image. The modified template was furthermore discussed for the concealment of artificial effects in the edge of specular regions. Experimental results on the removal of the endoscopic image with specular reflections demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method comparing to the existing methods.

  18. Four-Mirror Freeform Reflective Imaging Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Central Objectives: The research involves a revelation of the solution space for revolutionary families of four-mirror freeform reflective imaging systems. A...

  19. Elastic reflection waveform inversion with variable density

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Zhenchun; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Guo, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Elastic full waveform inversion (FWI) provides a better description of the subsurface than those given by the acoustic assumption. However it suffers from a more serious cycle skipping problem compared with the latter. Reflection waveform inversion

  20. Reflective self-awareness and conscious states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Troels W; Nowak, Markus; Lou, Hans C

    2002-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis has shown precuneus, angular gyri, anterior cingulate gyri, and adjacent structures to be highly metabolically active in support of resting consciousness. We hypothesize that these regions constitute a functional network of reflective self-awareness thought to be a core...... function of consciousness. Seven normal volunteers were asked to think intensely on how they would describe the personality traits and physical appearance of themselves and a neutral reference person known to all the subjects (the Danish Queen). During each of the four conditions cerebral blood flow...... during reflective self-awareness. The commonality between the neural networks of the resting conscious state and self-awareness reflects the phenomenological concept of a fundamental contribution of reflective self-awareness to the contents and coherence of the conscious state....

  1. Developing teachers through research: reflections on method

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    was decided upon as the best means of reflecting teachers' under- standing of ... Through the use of language (communication) people critically under- stand a ... strategies and assessment exercises without looking at them as part of a whole ...

  2. Reflection Negative Kernels and Fractional Brownian Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palle E. T. Jorgensen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we study the connection of fractional Brownian motion, representation theory and reflection positivity in quantum physics. We introduce and study reflection positivity for affine isometric actions of a Lie group on a Hilbert space E and show in particular that fractional Brownian motion for Hurst index 0 < H ≤ 1 / 2 is reflection positive and leads via reflection positivity to an infinite dimensional Hilbert space if 0 < H < 1 / 2 . We also study projective invariance of fractional Brownian motion and relate this to the complementary series representations of GL 2 ( R . We relate this to a measure preserving action on a Gaussian L 2 -Hilbert space L 2 ( E .

  3. Monolithically integrated 8-channel WDM reflective modulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stopinski, S.T.; Malinowski, M.; Piramidowicz, R.; Smit, M.K.; Leijtens, X.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this work the design and characterization of a monolithically integrated photonic circuit acting as a reflective modulator for eight WDM channels is presented. The chip was designed and fabricated in a generic integration technology

  4. Salinity and spectral reflectance of soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, A.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1991-01-01

    The basic spectral response related to the salt content of soils in the visible and reflective IR wavelengths is analyzed in order to explore remote sensing applications for monitoring processes of the earth system. The bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) was determined at 10 nm of increments over the 520-2320-nm spectral range. The effect of salts on reflectance was analyzed on the basis of 162 spectral measurements. MSS and TM bands were simulated within the measured spectral region. A strong relationship was found in variations of reflectance and soil characteristics pertaining to salinization and desalinization. Although the individual MSS bands had high R-squared values and 75-79 percent of soil/treatment combinations were separable, there was a large number of soil/treatment combinations not distinguished by any of the four highly correlated MSS bands under consideration.

  5. "Comparatography", History and Policy Quotation: Some Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, David

    2014-01-01

    This paper revisits the question of the importance of a historical dimension in comparative inquiry and reflects on some problems in what is termed "comparatography", the writing of comparative education.

  6. Specular Reflection of Sunlight from Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnai, T.; Marshak, A.

    2018-02-01

    The Deep Space Gateway vantage point offers advantages in observing specular reflection from water surfaces or ice crystals in clouds. Such data can give information on clouds and atmospheric aerosols, and help test algorithms of future exoplanet characterization.

  7. The Absolute Reflectance and New Calibration Site of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunzhao; Wang, Zhenchao; Cai, Wei; Lu, Yu

    2018-05-01

    How bright the Moon is forms a simple but fundamental and important question. Although numerous efforts have been made to answer this question such as use of sophisticated electro-optical measurements and suggestions for calibration sites, the answer is still debated. An in situ measurement with a calibration panel on the surface of the Moon is crucial for obtaining the accurate absolute reflectance and resolving the debate. China’s Chang’E-3 (CE-3) “Yutu” rover accomplished this type of measurement using the Visible-Near Infrared Spectrometer (VNIS). The measurements of the VNIS, which were at large emission and phase angles, complement existing measurements for the range of photometric geometry. The in situ reflectance shows that the CE-3 landing site is very dark with an average reflectance of 3.86% in the visible bands. The results are compared with recent mission instruments: the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC), the Spectral Profiler (SP) on board the SELENE, the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) on board the Chandrayaan-1, and the Chang’E-1 Interference Imaging Spectrometer (IIM). The differences in the measurements of these instruments are very large and indicate inherent differences in their absolute calibration. The M3 and IIM measurements are smaller than LROC WAC and SP, and the VNIS measurement falls between these two pairs. When using the Moon as a radiance source for the on-orbit calibration of spacecraft instruments, one should be cautious about the data. We propose that the CE-3 landing site, a young and homogeneous surface, should serve as the new calibration site.

  8. Specialized Color Targets for Spectral Reflectance Reconstruction of Magnified Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruschwitz, Jennifer D. T.

    Digital images are used almost exclusively instead of film to capture visual information across many scientific fields. The colorimetric color representation within these digital images can be relayed from the digital counts produced by the camera with the use of a known color target. In image capture of magnified images, there is currently no reliable color target that can be used at multiple magnifications and give the user a solid understanding of the color ground truth within those images. The first part of this dissertation included the design, fabrication, and testing of a color target produced with optical interference coated microlenses for use in an off-axis illumination, compound microscope. An ideal target was designed to increase the color gamut for colorimetric imaging and provide the necessary "Block Dye" spectral reflectance profiles across the visible spectrum to reduce the number of color patches necessary for multiple filter imaging systems that rely on statistical models for spectral reflectance reconstruction. There are other scientific disciplines that can benefit from a specialized color target to determine the color ground truth in their magnified images and perform spectral estimation. Not every discipline has the luxury of having a multi-filter imaging system. The second part of this dissertation developed two unique ways of using an interference coated color mirror target: one that relies on multiple light-source angles, and one that leverages a dynamic color change with time. The source multi-angle technique would be used for the microelectronic discipline where the reconstructed spectral reflectance would be used to determine a dielectric film thickness on a silicon substrate, and the time varying technique would be used for a biomedical example to determine the thickness of human tear film.

  9. Reflection seismic investigations of western Canadian coalfields. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, D.C.; Bertram, M.B.

    1983-03-01

    High resolution reflection seismic studies using a seisgun surface source were undertaken at four sites in Alberta. The objective of the project was to test the feasibility of the seismic method for the exploration and evaluation of coal deposits in a range of environments in western Canada. At Camrose, coherent reflections from a coal zone 70-110 m below the surface were recorde along a 5 km profile. Variations in reflection amplitude and character were interpreted in terms of two main seams. Channel washouts, faults with throws of 5 m or greater, and effects of differential compaction were resolved. Studies at a foothills site showed that good data can be obtained in structurally disturbed areas with mild deformation. At this site, faults with vertical throws of up to 40 m were delineated. In the mountain region, studies indicated that the seismic method is not appropriate in areas with strong deformation. Deep weathering, variable topography and rapid lateral changes in reflector dip were the main reasons for poor data quality. The seisgun is a threshold seismic source which performs well in areas with a shallow water table and a zone of interest within 350 m of the surface. Its effectiveness decreases dramatically if the overburden is both thick and dry. Careful selection of field geometry and recording parameters is critical. In data processing, important aspects are the careful muting of first breaks and evaluation of short and long wavelength weathering statics corrections. A computer program listing for static correction analysis is included. The seismic method is very appropriate for evaluation of Plains and Foothills coal deposits in Alberta. It can provide continuous subsurface coverage between drillholes and therefore reduce the density of drillholes required to delineate a prospective area. 29 refs., 33 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. High {Tc} superconductivity: Symmetries and reflections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S.C.

    1999-01-01

    This is a talk given at the Symposium Symmetries and Reflections, dedicated to Prof. C.N. Yang's retirement. In this talk, the author reflects on his personal interaction with Prof. Yang since his graduate career at SUNY Stony Brook, and his profound impact on his understanding of theoretical physics. He also reviews the SO(5) theory of high T c superconductivity and shows how his collaboration with Prof. Yang in 1990 lead to the foundation of this idea

  11. Radar reflection off extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Stasielak, J; Bertaina, M; Blümer, J; Chiavassa, A; Engel, R; Haungs, A; Huege, T; Kampert, K -H; Klages, H; Kleifges, M; Krömer, O; Ludwig, M; Mathys, S; Neunteufel, P; Pekala, J; Rautenberg, J; Riegel, M; Roth, M; Salamida, F; Schieler, H; Šmída, R; Unger, M; Weber, M; Werner, F; Wilczyński, H; Wochele, J

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of detecting extensive air showers by the radar technique. Considering a bistatic radar system and different shower geometries, we simulate reflection of radio waves off the static plasma produced by the shower in the air. Using the Thomson cross-section for radio wave reflection, we obtain the time evolution of the signal received by the antennas. The frequency upshift of the radar echo and the power received are studied to verify the feasibility of the radar detection technique.

  12. Light reflection models for computer graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, D P

    1989-04-14

    During the past 20 years, computer graphic techniques for simulating the reflection of light have progressed so that today images of photorealistic quality can be produced. Early algorithms considered direct lighting only, but global illumination phenomena with indirect lighting, surface interreflections, and shadows can now be modeled with ray tracing, radiosity, and Monte Carlo simulations. This article describes the historical development of computer graphic algorithms for light reflection and pictorially illustrates what will be commonly available in the near future.

  13. Simulation Tool for GNSS Ocean Surface Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Per; von Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Durgonics, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    GNSS coherent and incoherent reflected signals have the potential of deriving large scale parameters of ocean surfaces, as barotropic variability, eddy currents and fronts, Rossby waves, coastal upwelling, mean ocean surfaceheights, and patterns of the general ocean circulation. In the reflection...... zone the measurements may deriveparameters as sea surface roughness, winds, waves, heights and tilts from the spectral measurements. Previous measurements from the top of mountains and airplanes have shown such results leading.The coming satellite missions, CYGNSS, COSMIC-2, and GEROS...

  14. Identifying diffraction effects in measured reflectances

    OpenAIRE

    Holzschuch , Nicolas; Pacanowski , Romain

    2015-01-01

    International audience; There are two different physical models connecting the micro-geometry of a surface and its physical reflectance properties (BRDF). The first, Cook-Torrance, assumes geometrical optics: light is reflected and masked by the micro-facets. In this model, the BRDF depends on the probability distribution of micro-facets normals. The second, Church-Takacs, assumes diffraction by the micro-geometry. In this model, the BRDF depends on the power spectral distribution of the surf...

  15. Analysis of neutron reflectivity data: maximum entropy, Bayesian spectral analysis and speckle holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivia, D.S.; Hamilton, W.A.; Smith, G.S.

    1991-01-01

    The analysis of neutron reflectivity data to obtain nuclear scattering length density profiles is akin to the notorious phaseless Fourier problem, well known in many fields such as crystallography. Current methods of analysis culminate in the refinement of a few parameters of a functional model, and are often preceded by a long and laborious process of trial and error. We start by discussing the use of maximum entropy for obtained 'free-form' solutions of the density profile, as an alternative to the trial and error phase when a functional model is not available. Next we consider a Bayesian spectral analysis approach, which is appropriate for optimising the parameters of a simple (but adequate) type of model when the number of parameters is not known. Finally, we suggest a novel experimental procedure, the analogue of astronomical speckle holography, designed to alleviate the ambiguity problems inherent in traditional reflectivity measurements. (orig.)

  16. Optical Reflectance Measurements for Commonly Used Reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecek, Martin; Moses, William W.

    2008-08-01

    When simulating light collection in scintillators, modeling the angular distribution of optical light reflectance from surfaces is very important. Since light reflectance is poorly understood, either purely specular or purely diffuse reflectance is generally assumed. In this paper we measure the optical reflectance distribution for eleven commonly used reflectors. A 440 nm, output power stabilized, un-polarized laser is shone onto a reflector at a fixed angle of incidence. The reflected light's angular distribution is measured by an array of silicon photodiodes. The photodiodes are movable to cover 2pi of solid angle. The light-induced current is, through a multiplexer, read out with a digital multimeter. A LabVIEW program controls the motion of the laser and the photodiode array, the multiplexer, and the data collection. The laser can be positioned at any angle with a position accuracy of 10 arc minutes. Each photodiode subtends 6.3deg, and the photodiode array can be positioned at any angle with up to 10 arc minute angular resolution. The dynamic range for the current measurements is 10 5:1. The measured light reflectance distribution was measured to be specular for several ESR films as well as for aluminum foil, mostly diffuse for polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tape and titanium dioxide paint, and neither specular nor diffuse for Lumirrorreg, Melinexreg and Tyvekreg. Instead, a more complicated light distribution was measured for these three materials.

  17. Reflective and refractive objects for mixed reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Martin; Traxler, Christoph; Winklhofer, Christoph; Wimmer, Michael

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we present a novel rendering method which integrates reflective or refractive objects into a differential instant radiosity (DIR) framework usable for mixed-reality (MR) applications. This kind of objects are very special from the light interaction point of view, as they reflect and refract incident rays. Therefore they may cause high-frequency lighting effects known as caustics. Using instant-radiosity (IR) methods to approximate these high-frequency lighting effects would require a large amount of virtual point lights (VPLs) and is therefore not desirable due to real-time constraints. Instead, our approach combines differential instant radiosity with three other methods. One method handles more accurate reflections compared to simple cubemaps by using impostors. Another method is able to calculate two refractions in real-time, and the third method uses small quads to create caustic effects. Our proposed method replaces parts in light paths that belong to reflective or refractive objects using these three methods and thus tightly integrates into DIR. In contrast to previous methods which introduce reflective or refractive objects into MR scenarios, our method produces caustics that also emit additional indirect light. The method runs at real-time frame rates, and the results show that reflective and refractive objects with caustics improve the overall impression for MR scenarios.

  18. Properties of interstellar dust in reflection nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellgren, K.

    1988-01-01

    Observations of interstellar dust in reflection nebulae are the closest analog in the interstellar medium to studies of cometary dust in our solar system. The presence of a bright star near the reflection nebula dust provides the opportunity to study both the reflection and emission characteristics of interstellar dust. At 0.1 to 1 micrometer, the reflection nebula emission is due to starlight scattered by dust. The albedo and scattering phase function of the dust is determined from observations of the scattered light. At 50 to 200 micrometers, thermal emission from the dust in equilibrium with the stellar radiation field is observed. The derived dust temperature determines the relative values of the absorption coefficient of the dust at wavelengths where the stellar energy is absorbed and at far infrared wavelengths where the absorbed energy is reradiated. These emission mechanisms directly relate to those seen in the near and mid infrared spectra of comets. In a reflection nebula the dust is observed at much larger distances from the star than in our solar system, so that the equilibrium dust temperature is 50 K rather than 300 K. Thus, in reflection nebulae, thermal emission from dust is emitted at 50 to 200 micrometer

  19. Petroleum software profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A profile of twenty-two software packages designed for petroleum exploration and production was provided. Some focussed on the oil and gas engineering industry, and others on mapping systems containing well history files and well data summaries. Still other programs provided accounting systems designed to address the complexities of the oil and gas industry. The software packages reviewed were developed by some of the best-known groups involved in software development for the oil and gas industry, including among others, Geoquest, the Can Tek Group, Applied Terravision Systems Inc., Neotechnology Consultants Ltd., (12) OGCI Software Inc., Oracle Energy, Production Revenue Information Systems Management, Virtual Computing Services Ltd., and geoLogic Systems Ltd

  20. Lebanon: country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfleet, P

    1988-05-01

    A brief profile of Lebanon's economy, people, health, culture and political situation is presented. Lebanon has an estimated 3.5 million people, with a Maronite Christian elite, a Muslim Shiite majority, and Muslim Sunnis and Druze groups. The infant mortality is estimated at 41/1000; literacy is 69% among women and 86% among men; life expectancy was 66 years, 10 years ago. The economy, previously thriving on banking, manufacturing and agriculture, is now decimated, and Lebanon's once active tourist industry, based on elegant facilities in Beirut and neighboring beaches and ski slopes, is the victim of 15 years of civil strife. Israel has invaded, supporting Maronite Christians, Syria has invaded in support Muslim and Druze militias, and Iran has aggressively supported Shiite factions.

  1. Paper, Profile, Petrarch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    , the antique lexicon). By working them out together on the same sheet, the boundaries erode between whittling lines of poetry and carving blocks of stone. Unlike previous attempts to connect Michelangelo's architecture and poetry, this paper focuses on the materiality of the paper as a meeting point between...... the question of what might be discovered by looking closer at these three paper modani (Corpus 536, 538, 539). The verses on the modani are merely fragments and revisions, part of a lineage of multiple and incomplete sources. At the same time, as 1:1 scaled templates, the modani empowered in a unique way...... Michelangelo's well-known propensity toward the fragmentation and re-assembly of the profile line. What emerges is how the paper enabled parallel processes of iteration, cutting and substitution, each operating within rather strict formal boundaries (for the poem, the Petrarchan sonnet; for the architecture...

  2. Quantum spill-out in few-nanometer metal gaps: Effect on gap plasmons and reflectance from ultrasharp groove arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjølstrup, Enok Johannes Haahr; Søndergaard, Thomas; Pedersen, Thomas Garm

    2018-01-01

    Plasmons in ultranarrow metal gaps are highly sensitive to the electron density profile at the metal surfaces. Using a quantum mechanical approach and assuming local response, we study the effects of electron spill-out on gap plasmons and reflectance from ultrasharp metal grooves.We demonstrate...... the reflectance from arrays of ultrasharp metal grooves. These findings are explained in terms of enhanced gap plasmon absorption taking place inside the gap 1–2 °A from the walls and delocalization near the groove bottom. Reflectance calculations taking spill-out into account are shown to be in much better...

  3. Shotgun microbial profiling of fossil remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Ermini, Luca; Jónsson, Hákon

    2014-01-01

    the specimen of interest, but instead reflect environmental organisms that colonized the specimen after death. Here, we characterize the microbial diversity recovered from seven c. 200- to 13 000-year-old horse bones collected from northern Siberia. We use a robust, taxonomy-based assignment approach...... to identify the microorganisms present in ancient DNA extracts and quantify their relative abundance. Our results suggest that molecular preservation niches exist within ancient samples that can potentially be used to characterize the environments from which the remains are recovered. In addition, microbial...... community profiling of the seven specimens revealed site-specific environmental signatures. These microbial communities appear to comprise mainly organisms that colonized the fossils recently. Our approach significantly extends the amount of useful data that can be recovered from ancient specimens using...

  4. Three dimensional energy profile:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowsari, Reza; Zerriffi, Hisham

    2011-01-01

    The provision of adequate, reliable, and affordable energy has been considered as a cornerstone of development. More than one-third of the world's population has a very limited access to modern energy services and suffers from its various negative consequences. Researchers have been exploring various dimensions of household energy use in order to design strategies to provide secure access to modern energy services. However, despite more than three decades of effort, our understanding of household energy use patterns is very limited, particularly in the context of rural regions of the developing world. Through this paper, the past and the current trends in the field of energy analysis are investigated. The literature on rural energy and energy transition in developing world has been explored and the factors affecting households' decisions on energy use are listed. The and the factors affecting households' decisions on energy use are listed. The gaps identified in the literature on rural household energy analysis provide a basis for developing an alternative model that can create a more realistic view of household energy use. The three dimensional energy profile is presented as a new conceptual model for assessment of household energy use. This framework acts as a basis for building new theoretical and empirical models of rural household energy use. - Highlights: ► Reviews literature on household energy, energy transitions and decision-making in developing countries. ► Identifies gaps in rural household energy analysis and develops a new conceptual framework. ► The 3-d energy profile provides a holistic view of household energy system characteristics. ► Illustrates the use of the framework for understanding household energy transitions.

  5. Seismic stratigraphy, some examples from Indian Ocean, interpretation of reflection data in interactive mode

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, K.S.

    the sedimentary layers on the basis of density-velocity contrasts. The surfaces may indicate unconformities or conformities. Eventually the method provides image of the sedimentary strata with internal surfaces and basaltic basement and occasionally its... underneath along a profile. Earth scientists will interpret these images in terms of stratigraphy. In simple terminology the seismic stratigraphy can be defined as a viewing of seismic reflection data with a geological approach. Total...

  6. Observations of the R Reflector and Sediment Interface Reflection at the Shallow Water 󈧊 Central Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-28

    line array position of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) during the SWARM experiment by 26 km, and southeast of the AMCOR borehole No. 6010...guided by the stratigraphic constraints provided by closely spaced 50 m chirp seismic reflection profiles that provide pseudo three-dimensional... array is at the center of set of stations at location M. c Geometry showing source position R/V KNORR with respect to the receiving array and the

  7. The Romanian International Profile and the Trade Connections with Mercosur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Sergiu Pirju

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to analyze the international profile of the Rumania and its trade connections with Mercosur Organization. It is also presented the Romanian infrastructure of business, the income level in Rumania, a cross cultural profile of the two regions, the national politics and the degree of openness to the European Union profile. The way to select foreign countries and markets involves a complex process in which each country is evaluated, the cross cultural study is the one who entice the importance of proximity as a key factor that can ensure the success of commercial activities between the exporting country and the country of the destination of the goods. The statistic hypotheses is: European Union membership affects the trade of Romania and its extremely high uncertainty avoidance is reflected in the reduced international competitiveness.

  8. Profile of intimate partner violence in Family Health Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafael, Ricardo de Mattos Russo; Moura, Anna Tereza Miranda Soares de; Tavares, Jeane Marques Cunha; Ferreira, Renata Evelin Moreno; Camilo, Glauce Gomes da Silva; Neto, Mercedes

    2017-01-01

    To estimate the profile of intimate partner violence involving women in a scenario of Family Health Strategy in the municipality of Nova Iguaçu (Rio de Janeiro). A transversal study was conducted in four units with a sample of 640 women between the ages of 25 to 64. The phenomena of violence was determined using the tool Revised Conflict Tactics Scales, validated for Brazil. Statistical analysis took into consideration an estimation of prevalence in the calculation of the p values. The situations of violence and the sociodemographic profiles demonstrated a statistically significant relationship with the variables of educational level and housing conditions. Age, ethnicity and economic class demonstrated an association with certain types of violence, varying in type and severity. The study investigated the profile of these situations of violence and enabled reflection regarding the approaches adopted by the Family Health Strategy teams.

  9. Profile of intimate partner violence in Family Health Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Mattos Russo Rafael

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To estimate the profile of intimate partner violence involving women in a scenario of Family Health Strategy in the municipality of Nova Iguaçu (Rio de Janeiro. Method: A transversal study was conducted in four units with a sample of 640 women between the ages of 25 to 64. The phenomena of violence was determined using the tool Revised Conflict Tactics Scales, validated for Brazil. Statistical analysis took into consideration an estimation of prevalence in the calculation of the p values. Results: The situations of violence and the sociodemographic profiles demonstrated a statistically significant relationship with the variables of educational level and housing conditions. Age, ethnicity and economic class demonstrated an association with certain types of violence, varying in type and severity. Conclusion: The study investigated the profile of these situations of violence and enabled reflection regarding the approaches adopted by the Family Health Strategy teams.

  10. Social Disadvantage, Severe Child Abuse, and Biological Profiles in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chioun; Coe, Christopher L; Ryff, Carol D

    2017-09-01

    Guided by the stress process model and the life course perspective, we hypothesize: (1) that childhood abuse is concentrated, in terms of type and intensity, among socially disadvantaged individuals, and (2) that experiencing serious abuse contributes to poor biological profiles in multiple body systems in adulthood. Data came from the Biomarker subsample of Midlife in the United States (2004-2006). We used latent class analysis to identify distinct profiles of childhood abuse, each reflecting a combination of type and severity. Results indicate that disadvantaged groups, women, and those from disadvantaged families are at greater risk of experiencing more severe and multiple types of abuse. Those with more severe and multifaceted childhood abuse show greater physiological dysregulation. Childhood abuse experiences partially accounted for the social status differences in physiological profiles. Our findings underscore that differential exposure to serious childhood stressors plays a significant role in gender and class inequalities in adult health.

  11. Beam profile measurements on RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, R.; Michnoff, R.; Moore, T.; Shea, T.; Tepikian, S.

    2000-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Lab was commissioned during the summer of 1999. Transverse beam profiles on RHIC are measured with ionization profile monitors (IPMs). An IPM measures beam profiles by collecting the electrons liberated by residual gas ionization by the beam. The detector is placed in the gap of a dipole magnet to force the electrons to travel in straight lines from the beamline center to the collector. One IPM was tested and it measured the profiles of a single gold bunch containing 10 8 ions on consecutive turns. We show an example of one of these profiles giving transverse emittance. Also several profiles are combined into a mountain-range plot which shows betatron oscillations at injection

  12. Characterizing the reflectivity of handheld display devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peter; Badano, Aldo

    2014-08-01

    With increased use of handheld and tablet display devices for viewing medical images, methods for consistently measuring reflectivity of the devices are needed. In this note, the authors report on the characterization of diffuse reflections for handheld display devices including mobile phones and tablets using methods recommended by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 18 (TG18). The authors modified the diffuse reflectance coefficient measurement method outlined in the TG18 report. The authors measured seven handheld display devices (two phones and five tablets) and three workstation displays. The device was attached to a black panel with Velcro. To study the effect of the back surface on the diffuse reflectance coefficient, the authors created Styrofoam masks with different size square openings and placed it in front of the device. Overall, for each display device, measurements of illuminance and reflected luminance on the display screen were taken. The authors measured with no mask, with masks of varying size, and with display-size masks, and calculated the corresponding diffuse reflectance coefficient. For all handhelds, the diffuse reflectance coefficient measured with no back panel were lower than measurements performed with a mask. The authors found an overall increase in reflectivity as the size of the mask decreases. For workstations displays, diffuse reflectance coefficients were higher when no back panel was used, and higher than with masks. In all cases, as luminance increased, illuminance increased, but not at the same rate. Since the size of handheld displays is smaller than that of workstation devices, the TG18 method suffers from a dependency on illumination condition. The authors show that the diffuse reflection coefficients can vary depending on the nature of the back surface of the illuminating box. The variability in the diffuse coefficient can be as large as 20% depending on the size of the mask. For all measurements

  13. Competency profile of Fitness Instructor

    OpenAIRE

    Peterová, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Title: COMPETENCY PROFILE OF FITNESS INSTRUCTOR Objectives: The aim of this work is to find out competencies of fitness instructor and make a competency profile, containing competencies, which are important for excellent fitness instructor. Methods: I applied the method of interview and the method of research in my thesis. The interview was used to make a list of competencies of fitness instructor. The research was applied in the final part of making competency profile, for an attestation of ...

  14. Institutional Profiles: Some Strategic Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans van Vught

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we argue that both internal and external pressures and conditions urge contemporary higher education institutions to carefully think through their institutional profiles positions in domestic and global higher education contexts. We subsequently analyse strategic positioning from the strategic management literature and offer four tools — mapping, multi-dimensional ranking, benchmarking and degree profiling — to assist higher education institutions in their profiling and positioning strategies.

  15. Reflection seismic studies over the end-glacial Burträsk fault, Skellefteå, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Juhlin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reflection seismic data were acquired along a ca. 22 km long profile over the end-glacial Burträsk fault with a nominal receiver and source spacing of 20 m. A steeply dipping reflection can be correlated to the Burträsk fault, indicating that the fault dips at about 55° to the southeast near the surface. The reflection from the fault is rather poorly imaged, probably due to a lateral offset in the fault of about 1 km at this location and the crookedness of the seismic profile in the vicinity of the fault. A more pronounced steeply dipping reflection is observed about 4 km southeast of the Burträsk fault. Based on its correlation with a topographic low at the surface this reflection is interpreted to originate from a fracture zone. There are no signs of large displacements along this zone as the glacial ice receded, but earthquakes could be associated with it today. Other reflections on the processed seismic section may originate from changes in lithological variations in the supra-crustal rocks or from intrusions of more mafic rock. Constraints on the fault geometry provided by the reflection seismic data will help determine what stresses were required to activate the fault when the major rupture along it occurred ca. 9500 years ago.

  16. Anxiety and Mood Clinical Profile following Sport-related Concussion: From Risk Factors to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandel, Natalie; Reynolds, Erin; Cohen, Paul E; Gillie, Brandon L; Kontos, Anthony P

    2017-08-01

    Conceptual models for assessing and treating sport-related concussion (SRC) have evolved from a homogenous approach to include different clinical profiles that reflect the heterogeneous nature of this injury and its effects. There are six identified clinical profiles, or subtypes from SRC, and one such clinical profile is the anxiety/mood profile. Athletes with this profile experience predominant emotional disturbance and anxiety following SRC. The purpose of this targeted review was to present an overview of the empirical evidence to support factors contributing to the anxiety/mood profile, along with methods of evaluation and treatment of this clinical profile following SRC. We discuss the potential underlying mechanisms and risk factors for this clinical profile, describe comprehensive assessments to evaluate concussed athletes with an anxiety/mood clinical profile, and explore behavioral and other interventions for treating these athletes. Although there is limited, but growing empirical evidence for the anxiety/mood clinical profile following SRC, understanding this clinical profile is germane for clinicians who are treating athletes with emotional sequelae after SRC.

  17. Reflectance, illumination, and appearance in color constancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, John J; Parraman, Carinna; Rizzi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    We studied color constancy using a pair of identical 3-D Color Mondrian displays. We viewed one 3-D Mondrian in nearly uniform illumination, and the other in directional, nonuniform illumination. We used the three dimensional structures to modulate the light falling on the painted surfaces. The 3-D structures in the displays were a matching set of wooden blocks. Across Mondrian displays, each corresponding facet had the same paint on its surface. We used only 6 chromatic, and 5 achromatic paints applied to 104 block facets. The 3-D blocks add shadows and multiple reflections not found in flat Mondrians. Both 3-D Mondrians were viewed simultaneously, side-by-side. We used two techniques to measure correlation of appearance with surface reflectance. First, observers made magnitude estimates of changes in the appearances of identical reflectances. Second, an author painted a watercolor of the 3-D Mondrians. The watercolor's reflectances quantified the changes in appearances. While constancy generalizations about illumination and reflectance hold for flat Mondrians, they do not for 3-D Mondrians. A constant paint does not exhibit perfect color constancy, but rather shows significant shifts in lightness, hue and chroma in response to the structure in the nonuniform illumination. Color appearance depends on the spatial information in both the illumination and the reflectances of objects. The spatial information of the quanta catch from the array of retinal receptors generates sensations that have variable correlation with surface reflectance. Models of appearance in humans need to calculate the departures from perfect constancy measured here. This article provides a dataset of measurements of color appearances for computational models of sensation.

  18. Reflectance, illumination, and appearance in color constancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. McCann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied color constancy using a pair of identical 3-D Color Mondrian displays. We viewed one 3-D Mondrian in nearly uniform illumination, and the other in directional, nonuniform illumination. We used the three dimensional structures to modulate the light falling on the painted surfaces. The 3-D structures in the displays were a matching set of wooden blocks. Across Mondrian displays, each corresponding facet had the same paint on its surface. We used only 6 chromatic, and 5 achromatic paints applied to 104 block facets. The 3-D blocks add shadows and multiple reflections not found in flat Mondrians. Both 3-D Mondrians were viewed simultaneously, side-by-side. We used two techniques to measure correlation of appearance with surface reflectance. First, observers made magnitude estimates of changes in the appearances of identical reflectances. Second, an author painted a watercolor of the 3-D Mondrians. The watercolor’s reflectances quantified the changes in appearances. While constancy generalizations about illumination and reflectance hold for flat Mondrians, they do not for 3-D Mondrians. A constant paint does not exhibit perfect color constancy, but rather shows significant shifts in lightness, hue and chroma in response to the structure in the nonuniform illumination. Color appearance depends on the spatial information in both the illumination and the reflectances of objects. The spatial information of the quanta catch from the array of retinal receptors generates sensations that have variable correlation with surface reflectance. Models of appearance in humans need to calculate the departures from perfect constancy measured here. This article provides a dataset of measurements of color appearances for computational models of sensation.

  19. Neural activity associated with self-reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwig, Uwe; Kaffenberger, Tina; Schell, Caroline; Jäncke, Lutz; Brühl, Annette B

    2012-05-24

    Self-referential cognitions are important for self-monitoring and self-regulation. Previous studies have addressed the neural correlates of self-referential processes in response to or related to external stimuli. We here investigated brain activity associated with a short, exclusively mental process of self-reflection in the absence of external stimuli or behavioural requirements. Healthy subjects reflected either on themselves, a personally known or an unknown person during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The reflection period was initialized by a cue and followed by photographs of the respective persons (perception of pictures of oneself or the other person). Self-reflection, compared with reflecting on the other persons and to a major part also compared with perceiving photographs of one-self, was associated with more prominent dorsomedial and lateral prefrontal, insular, anterior and posterior cingulate activations. Whereas some of these areas showed activity in the "other"-conditions as well, self-selective characteristics were revealed in right dorsolateral prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortex for self-reflection; in anterior cingulate cortex for self-perception and in the left inferior parietal lobe for self-reflection and -perception. Altogether, cingulate, medial and lateral prefrontal, insular and inferior parietal regions show relevance for self-related cognitions, with in part self-specificity in terms of comparison with the known-, unknown- and perception-conditions. Notably, the results are obtained here without behavioural response supporting the reliability of this methodological approach of applying a solely mental intervention. We suggest considering the reported structures when investigating psychopathologically affected self-related processing.

  20. Self-reflection Orients Visual Attention Downward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Tong, Yu; Li, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated abstract concepts associated with spatial location (e.g., God in the Heavens) could direct visual attention upward or downward, because thinking about the abstract concepts activates the corresponding vertical perceptual symbols. For self-concept, there are similar metaphors (e.g., "I am above others"). However, whether thinking about the self can induce visual attention orientation is still unknown. Therefore, the current study tested whether self-reflection can direct visual attention. Individuals often display the tendency of self-enhancement in social comparison, which reminds the individual of the higher position one possesses relative to others within the social environment. As the individual is the agent of the attention orientation, and high status tends to make an individual look down upon others to obtain a sense of pride, it was hypothesized that thinking about the self would lead to a downward attention orientation. Using reflection of personality traits and a target discrimination task, Study 1 found that, after self-reflection, visual attention was directed downward. Similar effects were also found after friend-reflection, with the level of downward attention being correlated with the likability rating scores of the friend. Thus, in Study 2, a disliked other was used as a control and the positive self-view was measured with above-average judgment task. We found downward attention orientation after self-reflection, but not after reflection upon the disliked other. Moreover, the attentional bias after self-reflection was correlated with above-average self-view. The current findings provide the first evidence that thinking about the self could direct visual-spatial attention downward, and suggest that this effect is probably derived from a positive self-view within the social context.