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  1. A comparative analysis of the sociolinguistic profiles of English in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This paper compares the historical and sociolinguistic contexts of English in Kenya and Uganda addressing several questions such as: What are the similarities and differences in the sociolinguistic profiles of English in these two East African countries? How do the roles English plays in Kenya compare to its roles ...

  2. A comparative analysis of the sociolinguistic profiles of English in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How do the roles English plays in Kenya compare to its roles in Uganda? .... rulers (ëchiefsí) as the local level of government, empowering them to tax, dispense .... As Mazrui (1971, 2004) states, to be a Muslim in East Africa is to be a Kiswahili ...

  3. Comparative genomic analysis of Lactobacillus plantarum ZJ316 reveals its genetic adaptation and potential probiotic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Li, Xuan; Gu, Qing; Lou, Xiu-Yu; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Song, Da-Feng; Zhang, Chen

    2016-08-01

    In previous studies, Lactobacillus plantarum ZJ316 showed probiotic properties, such as antimicrobial activity against various pathogens and the capacity to significantly improve pig growth and pork quality. The purpose of this study was to reveal the genes potentially related to its genetic adaptation and probiotic profiles based on comparative genomic analysis. The genome sequence of L. plantarum ZJ316 was compared with those of eight L. plantarum strains deposited in GenBank. BLASTN, Mauve, and MUMmer programs were used for genome alignment and comparison. CRISPRFinder was applied for searching the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs). We identified genes that encode proteins related to genetic adaptation and probiotic profiles, including carbohydrate transport and metabolism, proteolytic enzyme systems and amino acid biosynthesis, CRISPR adaptive immunity, stress responses, bile salt resistance, ability to adhere to the host intestinal wall, exopolysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis, and bacteriocin biosynthesis. Comparative characterization of the L. plantarum ZJ316 genome provided the genetic basis for further elucidating the functional mechanisms of its probiotic properties. ZJ316 could be considered a potential probiotic candidate.

  4. Comparative genomic analysis of Lactobacillus plantarum ZJ316 reveals its genetic adaptation and potential probiotic profiles* #

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Li, Xuan; Gu, Qing; Lou, Xiu-yu; Zhang, Xiao-mei; Song, Da-feng; Zhang, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In previous studies, Lactobacillus plantarum ZJ316 showed probiotic properties, such as antimicrobial activity against various pathogens and the capacity to significantly improve pig growth and pork quality. The purpose of this study was to reveal the genes potentially related to its genetic adaptation and probiotic profiles based on comparative genomic analysis. Methods: The genome sequence of L. plantarum ZJ316 was compared with those of eight L. plantarum strains deposited in GenBank. BLASTN, Mauve, and MUMmer programs were used for genome alignment and comparison. CRISPRFinder was applied for searching the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs). Results: We identified genes that encode proteins related to genetic adaptation and probiotic profiles, including carbohydrate transport and metabolism, proteolytic enzyme systems and amino acid biosynthesis, CRISPR adaptive immunity, stress responses, bile salt resistance, ability to adhere to the host intestinal wall, exopolysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis, and bacteriocin biosynthesis. Conclusions: Comparative characterization of the L. plantarum ZJ316 genome provided the genetic basis for further elucidating the functional mechanisms of its probiotic properties. ZJ316 could be considered a potential probiotic candidate. PMID:27487802

  5. [Comparative analysis of methylation profiles in tissues of oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, J; Su, Y; Liu, Y; Zhang, X Y

    2018-04-09

    Objective: To compare the methylation profiles in tissues of oral leukoplakia (OLK) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) with healthy tissues of oral mucosa, in order to identify the role of DNA methylation played in tumorigenesis. Methods: DNA samples extracted from tissues of 4 healthy oral mucosa, 4 OSCC and 4 OLK collected from patients of the Department of Oral Medicine, Capital Medical University School of Stomatology were examined and compared using Methylation 450 Bead Chip. The genes associated with differentially methylated CpG sites were selected for gene ontology (GO) analysis and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment. Results: Multiple differentially methylated CpG sites were identified by using the above mentioned assay. Hypermethylation constitutes 86.18% (23 290/27 025) of methylation changes in OLK and hypomethylation accounts for 13.82% (3 734/27 025) of methylation changes. Both hypermethylated and hypomethylated CpG sites were markedly increased in OSCC tissue compared with OLK tissue. The majority of differentially methylated CpG sites were located outside CpG islands, with approximately one-fourth in CpG shores flanking the islands, which were considered highly important for gene regulation and tumorigenesis. Pathway analysis revealed that differentially methylated CpG sites in both OLK and OSCC patients shared the same pathway enrichments, most of which were correlated with carcinogenesis and cancer progression (e.g., DNA repair, cell cycle, and apoptosis). Conclusions: In the present study, methylation-associated alterations affect almost all pathways in the cellular network in both OLK and OSCC. OLK and OSCC shared similar methylation changes whether in pathways or genes, indicating that epigenetically they might have the same molecular basis for disease progression.

  6. Comparative analysis of blood and saliva expression profiles in chronic and refractory periodontitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Lin, Ting; He, Hong

    2015-12-24

    This study aimed to identify characteristic representative genes through a comparative analysis of gene expression profiles in the blood and saliva of chronic periodontitis (CP) and refractory periodontitis (RP) patients to provide new treatment strategies that may be helpful in the treatment of different forms of periodontitis. GSE43525 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. In the dataset, thirteen samples were from blood including 4 controls, 4 CP and 5 RP samples, and ten samples were from saliva including 3 controls, 4 CP and 3 RP samples. After comparing the CP and RP samples, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between these two types of periodontitis in the blood and saliva samples were identified by an LIMMA package. Then, functional and pathway enrichment analyses were performed by DAVID and KOBAS, respectively. The significantly associated miRNAs in CP and RP were searched by WebGestalt. In total, 213 DEGs in CP and 45 DEGs in RP were identified. Functional enrichment showed that the DEGs of CP were mainly enriched in ribosome and regulation of apoptosis-related pathways in blood as well as saliva, while the DEGs of RP were significantly enriched in immune responses and response to organic substance-related pathways. Several miRNAs, such as miR-381 and miR-494, were identified as being closely associated with CP. In addition, CD24, EST1, MTSS1, ING3, CCND2 and SYNE2 might be potential targets for diagnosis and treatment of CP. The identified DEGs and miRNAs might be potential targets for the treatment of chronic and refractory periodontitis.

  7. Microbiological profile of chicken carcasses: A comparative analysis using shotgun metagenomic sequencing

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    Alessandra De Cesare

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years metagenomic and 16S rRNA sequencing have completly changed the microbiological investigations of food products. In this preliminary study, the microbiological profile of chicken carcasses collected from animals fed with different diets were tested by using shotgun metagenomic sequencing. A total of 15 carcasses have been collected at the slaughetrhouse at the end of the refrigeration tunnel from chickens reared for 35 days and fed with a control diet (n=5, a diet supplemented with 1500 FTU/kg of commercial phytase (n=5 and a diet supplemented with 1500 FTU/kg of commercial phytase and 3g/kg of inositol (n=5. Ten grams of neck and breast skin were obtained from each carcass and submited to total DNA extraction by using the DNeasy Blood & Tissue Kit (Qiagen. Sequencing libraries have been prepared by using the Nextera XT DNA Library Preparation Kit (Illumina and sequenced in a HiScanSQ (Illumina at 100 bp in paired ends. A number of sequences ranging between 5 and 9 million was obtained for each sample. Sequence analysis showed that Proteobacteria and Firmicutes represented more than 98% of whole bacterial populations associated to carcass skin in all groups but their abundances were different between groups. Moraxellaceae and other degradative bacteria showed a significantly higher abundance in the control compared to the treated groups. Furthermore, Clostridium perfringens showed a relative frequency of abundance significantly higher in the group fed with phytase and Salmonella enterica in the group fed with phytase plus inositol. The results of this preliminary study showed that metagenome sequencing is suitable to investigate and monitor carcass microbiota in order to detect specific pathogenic and/or degradative populations.

  8. Comparing Longitudinal Profile Patterns of Mathematics and Reading in Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten: The Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kang

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare longitudinal patterns from Mathematics and Reading data from the direct child assessment of Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten (ECLS-K, US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics 2006), utilizing Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS). PAMS has been used initially…

  9. Comparative analysis of bacterial profiles in unstimulated and stimulated saliva samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle; Jensen, Allan Bardow

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The microbial profiles of stimulated saliva samples have been shown to differentiate between patients with periodontitis, patients with dental caries, and orally healthy individuals. Saliva was stimulated to allow for easy and rapid collection; however, microbial...

  10. Comparative Analysis of the Brassica napus Root and Leaf Transcript Profiling in Response to Drought Stress

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    Chunqing Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is one of the major abiotic factors affecting Brassica napus (B. napus productivity. In order to identify genes of potential importance to drought stress and obtain a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms regarding the responses of B. napus to dehydration stress, we performed large-scale transcriptome sequencing of B. napus plants under dehydration stress using the Illumina sequencing technology. In this work, a relatively drought tolerant B. napus line, Q2, identified in our previous study, was used. Four cDNA libraries constructed from mRNAs of control and dehydration-treated root and leaf were sequenced by Illumina technology. A total of 6018 and 5377 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified in root and leaf. In addition, 1745 genes exhibited a coordinated expression profile between the two tissues under drought stress, 1289 (approximately 74% of which showed an inverse relationship, demonstrating different regulation patterns between the root and leaf. The gene ontology (GO enrichment test indicated that up-regulated genes in root were mostly involved in “stimulus” “stress” biological process, and activated genes in leaf mainly functioned in “cell” “cell part” components. Furthermore, a comparative network related to plant hormone signal transduction and AREB/ABF, AP2/EREBP, NAC, WRKY and MYC/MYB transcription factors (TFs provided a view of different stress tolerance mechanisms between root and leaf. Some of the DEGs identified may be candidates for future research aimed at detecting drought-responsive genes and will be useful for understanding the molecular mechanisms of drought tolerance in root and leaf of B. napus.

  11. Comparative Analysis of American and European Yachtsman Profile for Better Marketing Placement of Croatia as Tourism Destination

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    Andrijanić Ivo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Countries develop their nautical tourism depending on their nature potentials and resources and in line with their national economic strategies. The main development determinant is a national strategy as the basis of all plans and activities. The nautical tourism development encourages tourism destination development and impacts on economic and social sustainability. Nautical tourism is a specific form of modern tourism trends whose extremely important and highly profitable economic influence is largely visible in numerous multiplicative effects. Renown world researches prove that nautical tourism is one of the most important economic activities in tourism sector, perceived in Croatia as one of the most competitive tourism products. The objective of this paper is to point at the necessity of differentiation of communication strategy and marketing placements towards target markets focused on attracting yachtsmen taking into account their different demographic and sociographic profile. The research and comparative analysis conducted in American and European yacht clubs showed significant differences in selection of tourism destinations based on demographic and sociographic profile of yachtsmen in specific geolocation. The purpose of this work is to prepare the comparative analysis of the European and American yachtsmen profiles, which will serve to create targeted strategic marketing model of attracting foreign yachtsmen in selection of their holiday tourism destination. The conclusions of this research show that Croatia has still not fully capitalized its potential in the nautical tourism sector and that the more comprehensive market segmentation is necessary in the process of planning how to attract foreign yachtsmen.

  12. Soybean (Glycine max) SWEET gene family: insights through comparative genomics, transcriptome profiling and whole genome re-sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Gunvant; Valliyodan, Babu; Deshmukh, Rupesh; Prince, Silvas; Nicander, Bjorn; Zhao, Mingzhe; Sonah, Humira; Song, Li; Lin, Li; Chaudhary, Juhi; Liu, Yang; Joshi, Trupti; Xu, Dong; Nguyen, Henry T

    2015-07-11

    SWEET (MtN3_saliva) domain proteins, a recently identified group of efflux transporters, play an indispensable role in sugar efflux, phloem loading, plant-pathogen interaction and reproductive tissue development. The SWEET gene family is predominantly studied in Arabidopsis and members of the family are being investigated in rice. To date, no transcriptome or genomics analysis of soybean SWEET genes has been reported. In the present investigation, we explored the evolutionary aspect of the SWEET gene family in diverse plant species including primitive single cell algae to angiosperms with a major emphasis on Glycine max. Evolutionary features showed expansion and duplication of the SWEET gene family in land plants. Homology searches with BLAST tools and Hidden Markov Model-directed sequence alignments identified 52 SWEET genes that were mapped to 15 chromosomes in the soybean genome as tandem duplication events. Soybean SWEET (GmSWEET) genes showed a wide range of expression profiles in different tissues and developmental stages. Analysis of public transcriptome data and expression profiling using quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that a majority of the GmSWEET genes were confined to reproductive tissue development. Several natural genetic variants (non-synonymous SNPs, premature stop codons and haplotype) were identified in the GmSWEET genes using whole genome re-sequencing data analysis of 106 soybean genotypes. A significant association was observed between SNP-haplogroup and seed sucrose content in three gene clusters on chromosome 6. Present investigation utilized comparative genomics, transcriptome profiling and whole genome re-sequencing approaches and provided a systematic description of soybean SWEET genes and identified putative candidates with probable roles in the reproductive tissue development. Gene expression profiling at different developmental stages and genomic variation data will aid as an important resource for the soybean research

  13. Comparative Analysis of Click Chemistry Mediated Activity-Based Protein Profiling in Cell Lysates

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    Yinliang Yang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Activity-based protein profiling uses chemical probes that covalently attach to active enzyme targets. Probes with conventional tags have disadvantages, such as limited cell permeability or steric hindrance around the reactive group. A tandem labeling strategy with click chemistry is now widely used to study enzyme targets in situ and in vivo. Herein, the probes are reacted in live cells, whereas the ensuing detection by click chemistry takes place in cell lysates. We here make a comparison of the efficiency of the activity-based tandem labeling strategy by using Cu(I-catalyzed and strain-promoted click chemistry, different ligands and different lysis conditions.

  14. A Comparative Genomic Study in Schizophrenic and in Bipolar Disorder Patients, Based on Microarray Expression Profiling Meta-Analysis

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    Marianthi Logotheti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia affecting almost 1% and bipolar disorder affecting almost 3%–5% of the global population constitute two severe mental disorders. The catecholaminergic and the serotonergic pathways have been proved to play an important role in the development of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other related psychiatric disorders. The aim of the study was to perform and interpret the results of a comparative genomic profiling study in schizophrenic patients as well as in healthy controls and in patients with bipolar disorder and try to relate and integrate our results with an aberrant amino acid transport through cell membranes. In particular we have focused on genes and mechanisms involved in amino acid transport through cell membranes from whole genome expression profiling data. We performed bioinformatic analysis on raw data derived from four different published studies. In two studies postmortem samples from prefrontal cortices, derived from patients with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and control subjects, have been used. In another study we used samples from postmortem orbitofrontal cortex of bipolar subjects while the final study was performed based on raw data from a gene expression profiling dataset in the postmortem superior temporal cortex of schizophrenics. The data were downloaded from NCBI's GEO datasets.

  15. Comparative study on individual aromatase inhibitors on cardiovascular safety profile: a network meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xihe; Liu, Lei; Li, Kai; Li, Wusheng; Zhao, Li; Zou, Huawei

    2015-01-01

    The third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs: anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane) have now become standard adjuvant endocrine treatment for postmenopausal estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer complementing chemotherapy and surgery. Because of the absence of direct head-to-head comparisons of these AIs, an indirect comparison is needed for individual treatment choice. In this network systemic assessment, the cardiovascular (CV) side effects in using anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane based on original studies on AIs vs placebo or tamoxifen were compared. We integrated all available direct and indirect evidences. The odds ratio (OR) of severe CV events for indirect comparisons between exemestane and anastrozole was 1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] =0.49–2.78), letrozole and anastrozole was 1.80 (95% CI =0.40–3.92), and letrozole and exemestane was 1.46 (95% CI =0.34–3.4). OR of subgroup risk for AIs and tamoxifen were all >1 except for thrombolism risk subgroup. The results showed that the total and severe CV risk ranking is letrozole, exemestane, and anastrozole in descending order. None of the AIs showed advantages in CV events than tamoxifen except for thromboembolism event incidence. PMID:26491345

  16. Comparative Analysis of Secretome Profiles of Manganese(II-Oxidizing Ascomycete Fungi.

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    Carolyn A Zeiner

    Full Text Available Fungal secretomes contain a wide range of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes, including cellulases, hemicellulases, pectinases, and lignin-degrading accessory enzymes, that synergistically drive litter decomposition in the environment. While secretome studies of model organisms such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Aspergillus species have greatly expanded our knowledge of these enzymes, few have extended secretome characterization to environmental isolates or conducted side-by-side comparisons of diverse species. Thus, the mechanisms of carbon degradation by many ubiquitous soil fungi remain poorly understood. Here we use a combination of LC-MS/MS, genomic, and bioinformatic analyses to characterize and compare the protein composition of the secretomes of four recently isolated, cosmopolitan, Mn(II-oxidizing Ascomycetes (Alternaria alternata SRC1lrK2f, Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a, Pyrenochaeta sp. DS3sAY3a, and Paraconiothyrium sporulosum AP3s5-JAC2a. We demonstrate that the organisms produce a rich yet functionally similar suite of extracellular enzymes, with species-specific differences in secretome composition arising from unique amino acid sequences rather than overall protein function. Furthermore, we identify not only a wide range of carbohydrate-active enzymes that can directly oxidize recalcitrant carbon, but also an impressive suite of redox-active accessory enzymes that suggests a role for Fenton-based hydroxyl radical formation in indirect, non-specific lignocellulose attack. Our findings highlight the diverse oxidative capacity of these environmental isolates and enhance our understanding of the role of filamentous Ascomycetes in carbon turnover in the environment.

  17. Comparative Analysis of Secretome Profiles of Manganese(II)-Oxidizing Ascomycete Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiner, Carolyn A.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Zink, Erika M.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Chaput, Dominique L.; Haridas, Sajeet; Wu, Si; LaButti, Kurt; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Henrissat, Bernard; Santelli, Cara M.; Hansel, Colleen M.; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2016-07-19

    Fungal secretomes contain a wide range of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes, including cellulases, hemicellulases, pectinases, and lignin-degrading accessory enzymes, that synergistically drive litter decomposition in the environment. While secretome studies of model organisms such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Aspergillus species have greatly expanded our knowledge of these enzymes, few have extended secretome characterization to environmental isolates or conducted side-by-side comparisons of diverse species. Thus, the mechanisms of carbon degradation by many ubiquitous soil fungi remain poorly understood. Here we use a combination of LC-MS/MS, genomic, and bioinformatic analyses to characterize and compare the protein composition of the secretomes of four recently isolated, cosmopolitan, Mn(II)-oxidizing Ascomycetes (Alternaria alternata SRC1lrK2f, Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a, Pyrenochaeta sp. DS3sAY3a, and Paraconiothyrium sporulosum AP3s5-JAC2a). We demonstrate that the organisms produce a rich yet functionally similar suite of extracellular enzymes, with species-specific differences in secretome composition arising from unique amino acid sequences rather than overall protein function. Furthermore, we identify not only a wide range of carbohydrate-active enzymes that can directly oxidize recalcitrant carbon, but also an impressive suite of redox-active accessory enzymes that suggests a role for Fenton-based hydroxyl radical formation in indirect, non-specific lignocellulose attack. Our findings highlight the diverse oxidative capacity of these environmental isolates and enhance our understanding of the role of filamentous Ascomycetes in carbon turnover in the environment.

  18. A Comparative Study of the Analysis, Numerical Modelling and Experimental Test on a Sandwich Panel with Plane and Profiled Facings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Hohan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sandwich panels are remarkable products because they can be as strong as a solid material but with less weight. The analysis that is required to predict the stresses and deflections in panels with flat or lightly profiled facings is that of conventional beam theory but with the addition of shear deformation. Knowing that the profiled sheets bring an increase of the flexural stiffness, formulas showing the calculus of a panel with flat and profiled facings are established. A comparison between the results of a mathematical calculus, an experimental test and a numerical modelling is provided.

  19. A comparative Analysis by SAGE of Gene Expression Profiles of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma and Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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    Jantine W. P. M. van Baal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC are the two main types of esophageal cancer. Despite extensive research the exact molecular basis of these cancers is unclear. Therefore we evaluated the transcriptome of EA in comparison to non-dysplastic Barrett’s esophagus (BE, the metaplastic epithelium that predisposes for EA, and compared the transcriptome of ESCC to normal esophageal squamous epithelium. For obtaining the transcriptomes tissue biopsies were used and serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE was applied. Validation of results by RT-PCR and immunoblotting was performed using tissues of an additional 23 EA and ESCC patients. Over 58,000 tags were sequenced. Between EA and BE 1013, and between ESCC and normal squamous epithelium 1235 tags were significantly differentially expressed (p < 0.05. The most up-regulated genes in EA compared to BE were SRY-box 4 and Lipocalin2, whereas the most down-regulated genes in EA were Trefoil factors and Annexin A10. The most up-regulated genes in ESCC compared to normal squamous epithelium were BMP4, E-Cadherin and TFF3. The results could suggest that the BE expression profile is closer related to normal squamous esophagus then to EA. In addition, several uniquely expressed genes are identified.

  20. Genetic profiles of gastroesophageal cancer: combined analysis using expression array and tiling array--comparative genomic hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isinger-Ekstrand, Anna; Johansson, Jan; Ohlsson, Mattias

    2010-01-01

    15, 13q34, and 12q13, whereas different profiles with gains at 5p15, 7p22, 2q35, and 13q34 characterized gastric cancers. CDK6 and EGFR were identified as putative target genes in cancers of the esophagus and the gastroesophageal junction, with upregulation in one quarter of the tumors. Gains......We aimed to characterize the genomic profiles of adenocarcinomas in the gastroesophageal junction in relation to cancers in the esophagus and the stomach. Profiles of gains/losses as well as gene expression profiles were obtained from 27 gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas by means of 32k high......-resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization and 27k oligo gene expression arrays, and putative target genes were validated in an extended series. Adenocarcinomas in the distal esophagus and the gastroesophageal junction showed strong similarities with the most common gains at 20q13, 8q24, 1q21-23, 5p...

  1. Comparative analysis of regulatory elements between Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae by genome-wide transcription start site profiling.

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    Donghyuk Kim

    Full Text Available Genome-wide transcription start site (TSS profiles of the enterobacteria Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were experimentally determined through modified 5' RACE followed by deep sequencing of intact primary mRNA. This identified 3,746 and 3,143 TSSs for E. coli and K. pneumoniae, respectively. Experimentally determined TSSs were then used to define promoter regions and 5' UTRs upstream of coding genes. Comparative analysis of these regulatory elements revealed the use of multiple TSSs, identical sequence motifs of promoter and Shine-Dalgarno sequence, reflecting conserved gene expression apparatuses between the two species. In both species, over 70% of primary transcripts were expressed from operons having orthologous genes during exponential growth. However, expressed orthologous genes in E. coli and K. pneumoniae showed a strikingly different organization of upstream regulatory regions with only 20% identical promoters with TSSs in both species. Over 40% of promoters had TSSs identified in only one species, despite conserved promoter sequences existing in the other species. 662 conserved promoters having TSSs in both species resulted in the same number of comparable 5' UTR pairs, and that regulatory element was found to be the most variant region in sequence among promoter, 5' UTR, and ORF. In K. pneumoniae, 48 sRNAs were predicted and 36 of them were expressed during exponential growth. Among them, 34 orthologous sRNAs between two species were analyzed in depth, and the analysis showed that many sRNAs of K. pneumoniae, including pleiotropic sRNAs such as rprA, arcZ, and sgrS, may work in the same way as in E. coli. These results reveal a new dimension of comparative genomics such that a comparison of two genomes needs to be comprehensive over all levels of genome organization.

  2. Comparative analysis of von Willebrand factor profiles after implantation of left ventricular assist device and total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, H J; Morgan, J; Arabia, F; Czer, L; Moriguchi, J; Ramzy, D; Esmailian, F; Lam, L; Dunhill, J; Volod, O

    2017-08-01

    Essentials Bleeding is a major source of morbidity during mechanical circulatory support. von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimer loss may contribute to bleeding. Different patterns of VWF multimer loss were seen with the two device types. This is the first report of total artificial heart associated VWF multimer loss. Background Bleeding remains a challenge during mechanical circulatory support and underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Functional von Willebrand factor (VWF) impairment because of loss of high-molecular-weight multimers (MWMs) produces acquired von Willebrand disease (VWD) after left ventricular assist device (LVAD). Little is known about VWF multimers with total artificial hearts (TAHs). Here, VWF profiles with LVADs and TAHs are compared using a VWD panel. Methods VWD evaluations for patients with LVAD or TAH (2013-14) were retrospectively analyzed and included: VWF activity (ristocetin cofactor, VWF:RCo), VWF antigen (VWF:Ag), ratio of VWF:RCo to VWF:Ag, and quantitative VWF multimeric analysis. Results Twelve patients with LVADs and 12 with TAHs underwent VWD evaluation. All had either normal (47.8%) or elevated (52.2%) VWF:RCo, normal (26.1%) or elevated (73.9%) VWF:Ag and 50.0% were disproportional (ratio ≤ 0.7). Multimeric analysis showed abnormal patterns in all patients with LVADs: seven with high MWM loss; five with highest MWM loss. With TAH, 10/12 patients had abnormal patterns: all with highest MWM loss. High MWM loss correlated with presence of LVAD and highest MWM loss with TAH. Increased low MWMs were detected in 22/24. Conclusion Using VWF multimeric analysis, abnormalities after LVAD or TAH were detected that would be missed with measurements of VWF level alone: loss of high MWM predominantly in LVAD, loss of highest MWM in TAH, and elevated levels of low MWM in both. This is the first study to describe TAH-associated highest MWM loss, which may contribute to bleeding. © 2017 International Society on Thrombosis and

  3. A climate profile indicator based comparative analysis of climate change scenarios with regard to maize (Zea mays L.) cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dios, N.; Szenteleki, K.; Ferenczy, A.; Petranyl, G. [Corvinus Univ. of Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Mathematics and Informatics; Hufnagel, L. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Adaptation to Climate Change Research Group

    2009-07-01

    Recent research results let us conclude that climate change might have a significant effect on the yield of wheat, barley, rye, potato and maize, and the borderlines of their area of cultivation might shift 100--150 kilometers to the north. The possible mass occurrence of new aggressive pest, pathogen and weed species in Hungary might also create a problem from plant protection. Maize is one of the most important fodder-plants. Hungary has close to the largest total cultivating area in Europe. Maize is used in many ways, thus being of outstanding economic importance. In Hungary the conditions of maize cultivation are -- except for dry years -- quite favorable in most cultural regions and complex cultivating technologies are available. It also might gain a significant role in the line of new environment-friendly alternative sources of energy. For these reasons, it is important to examine the influence of meteorological factors on maize ecosystems and this examination should include as many climate change scenarios and as long a time series as possible. Using ecological data compiled from scientific literature on pest, pathogen and weed species characteristic in maize cultures in Hungary, we defined monthly climate profile indicators and applied them to complete a comparative analysis of the historical and modelled climate change scenario meteorological data of the city of Debrecen. Our results call attention to a drastic decline of the competitive ability of maize as compared to several C{sub 4} and especially C{sub 3} plants. According to the stricter scenarios, the frequency of potential pest and pathogen damage emergency situations will grow significantly by the end of the century.

  4. Multivariate data analysis as a semi-quantitative tool for interpretive evaluation of comparability or equivalence of aerodynamic particle size distribution profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shuai; Hickey, Anthony J

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the performance of multivariate data analysis, especially orthogonal partial least square (OPLS) analysis, as a semi-quantitative tool to evaluate the comparability or equivalence of aerodynamic particle size distribution (APSD) profiles of orally inhaled and nasal drug products (OINDP). Monte Carlo simulation was employed to reconstitute APSD profiles based on 55 realistic scenarios proposed by the Product Quality Research Institute (PQRI) working group. OPLS analyses with different data pretreatment methods were performed on each of the reconstituted profiles. Compared to unit-variance scaling, equivalence determined based on OPLS analysis with Pareto scaling was shown to be more consistent with the working group assessment. Chi-square statistics was employed to compare the performance of OPLS analysis (Pareto scaling) with that of the combination test (i.e., chi-square ratio statistics and population bioequivalence test for impactor-sized mass) in terms of achieving greater consistency with the working group evaluation. A p value of 0.036 suggested that OPLS analysis with Pareto scaling may be more predictive than the combination test with respect to consistency. Furthermore, OPLS analysis may also be employed to analyze part of the APSD profiles that contribute to the calculation of the mass median aerodynamic diameter. Our results show that OPLS analysis performed on partial deposition sites do not interfere with the performance on all deposition sites.

  5. Comparative gene expression analysis throughout the life cycle of Leishmania braziliensis: diversity of expression profiles among clinical isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Adaui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most of the Leishmania genome is reported to be constitutively expressed during the life cycle of the parasite, with a few regulated genes. Inter-species comparative transcriptomics evidenced a low number of species-specific differences related to differentially distributed genes or the differential regulation of conserved genes. It is of uppermost importance to ensure that the observed differences are indeed species-specific and not simply specific of the strains selected for representing the species. The relevance of this concern is illustrated by current study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We selected 5 clinical isolates of L. braziliensis characterized by their diversity of clinical and in vitro phenotypes. Real-time quantitative PCR was performed on promastigote and amastigote life stages to assess gene expression profiles at seven time points covering the whole life cycle. We tested 12 genes encoding proteins with roles in transport, thiol-based redox metabolism, cellular reduction, RNA poly(A-tail metabolism, cytoskeleton function and ribosomal function. The general trend of expression profiles showed that regulation of gene expression essentially occurs around the stationary phase of promastigotes. However, the genes involved in this phenomenon appeared to vary significantly among the isolates considered. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results clearly illustrate the unique character of each isolate in terms of gene expression dynamics. Results obtained on an individual strain are not necessarily representative of a given species. Therefore, extreme care should be taken when comparing the profiles of different species and extrapolating functional differences between them.

  6. Novel and successful free comments method for sensory characterization of chocolate ice cream: A comparative study between pivot profile and comment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Fernando G A; Esmerino, Erick A; Filho, Elson R Tavares; Ferraz, Juliana P; da Cruz, Adriano G; Bolini, Helena M A

    2016-05-01

    Rapid sensory profiling methods have gained space in the sensory evaluation field. Techniques using direct analysis of the terms generated by consumers are considered easy to perform, without specific training requirements, thus improving knowledge about consumer perceptions on various products. This study aimed to determine the sensory profile of different commercial samples of chocolate ice cream, labeled as conventional and light or diet, using the "comment analysis" and "pivot profile" methods, based on consumers' perceptions. In the comment analysis task, consumers responded to 2 separate open questions describing the sensory attributes they liked or disliked in each sample. In the pivot profile method, samples were served in pairs (consisting of a coded sample and pivot), and consumers indicated the higher and lower intensity attributes in the target sample compared with the pivot. We observed that both methods were able to characterize the different chocolate ice cream samples using consumer perception, with high correlation results and configurational similarity (regression vector coefficient=0.917) between them. However, it is worth emphasizing that comment analysis is performed intuitively by consumers, whereas the pivot profile method showed high analytical and discriminative power even using consumers, proving to be a promising technique for routine application when classical descriptive methods cannot be used. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative analysis of peroxidase profiles in Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra L.): evaluation of leaf growth related isozymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lei; Wang, Chenchen; Huang, Jiabao; Zhang, Jianhua; Mao, Zhonggui; Wang, Haiou

    2013-01-15

    Plant peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7) with different isoforms catalyze various reactions in plant growth and development. However, it is difficult to elucidate the function of each isozyme in one plant. Here, we compared profiles of entire isozyme in young seedling and mature leaves of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra L.) on zymogram and ion exchange chromatography in order to investigate leaf growth related peroxidase isozymes. The results showed that four isozymes were constitutively expressed in kale leaves, whereas other two isozymes were induced in the mature leaves. The Mono Q ion exchange chromatography separated the six isozymes into two major groups due to the difference in their isoelectric points. The results suggested that although there were several isozymes in the leaves of Chinese kale, one isozyme functioned mainly through the leaf development. Two anionic isozymes with molecular weights lower than 32 kDa were considered mature related. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Polysome Profile Analysis - Yeast

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšek, M.; Valášek, Leoš Shivaya

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 530, č. 2013 (2013), s. 173-181 ISSN 0076-6879 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : grow yeast cultures * polysome profile analysis * sucrose density gradient centrifugation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.194, year: 2013

  9. Genetic profiles of gastroesophageal cancer: combined analysis using expression array and tiling array--comparative genomic hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isinger-Ekstrand, Anna; Johansson, Jan; Ohlsson, Mattias

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to characterize the genomic profiles of adenocarcinomas in the gastroesophageal junction in relation to cancers in the esophagus and the stomach. Profiles of gains/losses as well as gene expression profiles were obtained from 27 gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas by means of 32k high......15, 13q34, and 12q13, whereas different profiles with gains at 5p15, 7p22, 2q35, and 13q34 characterized gastric cancers. CDK6 and EGFR were identified as putative target genes in cancers of the esophagus and the gastroesophageal junction, with upregulation in one quarter of the tumors. Gains....../losses and gene expression profiles show strong similarity between cancers in the distal esophagus and the gastroesophageal junction with frequent upregulation of CDK6 and EGFR, whereas gastric cancer displays distinct genetic changes. These data suggest that molecular diagnostics and targeted therapies can...

  10. Comparative expression profiling in grape (Vitis vinifera berries derived from frequency analysis of ESTs and MPSS signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cook Douglas R

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitis vinifera (V. vinifera is the primary grape species cultivated for wine production, with an industry valued annually in the billions of dollars worldwide. In order to sustain and increase grape production, it is necessary to understand the genetic makeup of grape species. Here we performed mRNA profiling using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS and combined it with available Expressed Sequence Tag (EST data. These tag-based technologies, which do not require a priori knowledge of genomic sequence, are well-suited for transcriptional profiling. The sequence depth of MPSS allowed us to capture and quantify almost all the transcripts at a specific stage in the development of the grape berry. Results The number and relative abundance of transcripts from stage II grape berries was defined using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS. A total of 2,635,293 17-base and 2,259,286 20-base signatures were obtained, representing at least 30,737 and 26,878 distinct sequences. The average normalized abundance per signature was ~49 TPM (Transcripts Per Million. Comparisons of the MPSS signatures with available Vitis species' ESTs and a unigene set demonstrated that 6,430 distinct contigs and 2,190 singletons have a perfect match to at least one MPSS signature. Among the matched sequences, ESTs were identified from tissues other than berries or from berries at different developmental stages. Additional MPSS signatures not matching to known grape ESTs can extend our knowledge of the V. vinifera transcriptome, particularly when these data are used to assist in annotation of whole genome sequences from Vitis vinifera. Conclusion The MPSS data presented here not only achieved a higher level of saturation than previous EST based analyses, but in doing so, expand the known set of transcripts of grape berries during the unique stage in development that immediately precedes the onset of ripening. The MPSS dataset also revealed

  11. Comparative gene expression analysis of two mouse models of autism:transcriptome profiling of the BTBR and En2-/- hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Provenzano

    2016-08-01

    correlation network analysis (WGCNA performed on BTBR and En2-/- hippocampal transcriptomes together identified 6 modules significantly enriched in ASD-related genes. Each of these modules showed a specific enrichment profile in neuronal and glial genes, as well as in genes associated to ASD comorbidities such as epilepsy and SCZ. Our data reveal significant transcriptional similarities and differences between the BTBR and En2-/- hippocampus, indicating that transcriptome analysis of ASD mouse models may contribute to identify novel molecular targets for pharmacological studies.

  12. Comparative analysis of methicillin-sensitive and resistant Staphylococcus aureus exposed to emodin based on proteomic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaoyu; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Peng, Yuanxia; Zhan, Ruoting; Xu, Hui; Ge, Xijin

    2017-12-09

    Emodin has a strong antibacterial activity, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However, the mechanism by which emodin induces growth inhibition against MRSA remains unclear. In this study, the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) proteomics approach was used to investigate the modes of action of emodin on a MRSA isolate and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus ATCC29213(MSSA). Proteomic analysis showed that expression levels of 145 and 122 proteins were changed significantly in MRSA and MSSA, respectively, after emodin treatment. Comparative analysis of the functions of differentially expressed proteins between the two strains was performed via bioinformatics tools blast2go and STRING database. Proteins related to pyruvate pathway imbalance induction, protein synthesis inhibition, and DNA synthesis suppression were found in both methicillin-sensitive and resistant strains. Moreover, Interference proteins related to membrane damage mechanism were also observed in MRSA. Our findings indicate that emodin is a potential antibacterial agent targeting MRSA via multiple mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials for comparing the effectiveness and safety profile of treatments with marketing authorization for relapsing multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjigeorgiou, G M; Doxani, C; Miligkos, M; Ziakas, P; Bakalos, G; Papadimitriou, D; Mprotsis, T; Grigoriadis, N; Zintzaras, E

    2013-12-01

    The relative effectiveness and safety profile of the treatments with marketing authorization for relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) are not well known because randomized controlled trials with head-to-head comparisons between these treatments do not exist. Thus, a network of multiple-treatments meta-analysis was performed using four clinical outcomes: 'patients free of relapse', 'patients without disease progression', 'patients without MRI progression' and 'patients with adverse events'. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on MS were systematically searched in PubMed and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trial. The network analysis performed pairwise comparisons between the marketed treatments (Betaferon 250mcg, Avonex 30mcg, Rebif 44mcg, Rebif 22mcg, Aubagio 7 mg, Aubagio 14 mg, Copaxone 20 mg, Tysabri 300 mg, Gilenya 0·5 mg and Novantrone 12 mg/m(2)) using direct and indirect analyses. The analysis included 48 articles, involving 20 455 patients with MS. The direct analysis showed better response for more than one outcome for Gilenya compared with Avonex ('patients free of relapse' and 'patients without MRI progression') and for Betaferon compared with Avonex ('patients without disease progression' and 'patients without MRI progression'). The indirect analysis indicated that Tysabri may have better relative effectiveness compared with the other treatments for two outcomes: 'patients free of relapse' and 'patients without MRI progression'. Regarding 'patients with adverse events', no data were available for all comparisons to make fair inferences. This was an attempt, for the first time, to compare the efficacy and safety profile of existing approved treatments for relapsing MS. Although some treatments have shown better response, the results of the network analysis should be interpreted with caution because of the lack of RCTs with head-to-head comparisons between treatments. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Comparative study on individual aromatase inhibitors on cardiovascular safety profile: a network meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao XH

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Xihe Zhao,1 Lei Liu,2 Kai Li,1 Wusheng Li,1 Li Zhao,1 Huawei Zou1 1Department of Oncology, 2Department of General Surgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs: anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane have now become standard adjuvant endocrine treatment for postmenopausal estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer complementing chemotherapy and surgery. Because of the absence of direct head-to-head comparisons of these AIs, an indirect comparison is needed for individual treatment choice. In this network systemic assessment, the cardiovascular (CV side effects in using anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane based on original studies on AIs vs placebo or tamoxifen were compared. We integrated all available direct and indirect evidences. The odds ratio (OR of severe CV events for indirect comparisons between exemestane and anastrozole was 1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] =0.49–2.78, letrozole and anastrozole was 1.80 (95% CI =0.40–3.92, and letrozole and exemestane was 1.46 (95% CI =0.34–3.4. OR of subgroup risk for AIs and tamoxifen were all >1 except for thrombolism risk subgroup. The results showed that the total and severe CV risk ranking is letrozole, exemestane, and anastrozole in descending order. None of the AIs showed advantages in CV events than tamoxifen except for thromboembolism event incidence. Keywords: CV risk, breast cancer, AI, network meta-analysis

  15. Profile analysis of microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konarski, P.; Iwanejko, I.; Mierzejewska, A.

    2001-01-01

    Depth resolved analyses of several types of microparticles are presented. Particles for secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) depth profile analysis were collected in the working environment of glass plant, steelworks and welding station using eight-stage cascade impactor with particle size range of 0.3 μm to 15 μm. Ion beam sputtering and sample rotation technique allowed to describe morphology i.e. the elemental structure of collected sub-micrometer particles. Also model particles Iriodin 221 (Merck) were depth profiled. The core-shell structure is found for all types of investigated particles. Steelworks particles consist mainly of iron and manganese cores. At the shells of these microparticles: lead, chlorine and fluorine are found. The particles collected in the glass-works consist mainly of lead-zirconium glass cores covered by carbon and copper. Stainless-steel welding particles compose of iron, manganese and chromium cores covered by a shell rich in carbon, chlorine and fluorine. Sample rotation technique applied in SIMS appears to be an effective tool for environmental microparticle morphology studies

  16. Comparing two metabolic profiling approaches (liquid chromatography and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry) for extra-virgin olive oil phenolic compounds analysis: A botanical classification perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajoub, Aadil; Pacchiarotta, Tiziana; Hurtado-Fernández, Elena; Olmo-García, Lucía; García-Villalba, Rocío; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Mayboroda, Oleg A; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría

    2016-01-08

    Over the last decades, the phenolic compounds from virgin olive oil (VOO) have become the subject of intensive research because of their biological activities and their influence on some of the most relevant attributes of this interesting matrix. Developing metabolic profiling approaches to determine them in monovarietal virgin olive oils could help to gain a deeper insight into olive oil phenolic compounds composition as well as to promote their use for botanical origin tracing purposes. To this end, two approaches were comparatively investigated (LC-ESI-TOF MS and GC-APCI-TOF MS) to evaluate their capacity to properly classify 25 olive oil samples belonging to five different varieties (Arbequina, Cornicabra, Hojiblanca, Frantoio and Picual), using the entire chromatographic phenolic profiles combined to chemometrics (principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA)). The application of PCA to LC-MS and GC-MS data showed the natural clustering of the samples, seeing that 2 varieties were dominating the models (Arbequina and Frantoio), suppressing any possible discrimination among the other cultivars. Afterwards, PLS-DA was used to build four different efficient predictive models for varietal classification of the samples under study. The varietal markers pointed out by each platform were compared. In general, with the exception of one GC-MS model, all exhibited proper quality parameters. The models constructed by using the LC-MS data demonstrated superior classification ability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A comparative analysis of methylome profiles of Campylobacter jejuni sheep abortion isolate and gastroenteric strains using PacBio data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy T Mou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of human gastrointestinal disease and small ruminant abortions in the United States. The recent emergence of a highly virulent, tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni subsp. jejuni sheep abortion clone (clone SA in the United States, and that strain’s association with human disease, has resulted in a heightened awareness of the zoonotic potential of this organism. Pacific Biosciences’ Single Molecule, Real-Time sequencing technology was used to explore the variation in the genome-wide methylation patterns of the abortifacient clone SA (IA3902 and phenotypically distinct gastrointestinal-specific C. jejuni strains (NCTC 11168 and 81-176. Several notable differences were discovered that distinguished the methylome of IA3902 from that of 11168 and 81-176: identification of motifs novel to IA3902, genome-specific hypo- and hypermethylated regions, strain level variability in genes methylated, and differences in the types of methylation motifs present in each strain. These observations suggest a possible role of methylation in the contrasting disease presentations of these three C. jejuni strains. In addition, the methylation profiles between IA3902 and a luxS mutant were explored to determine if variations in methylation patterns could be identified that might explain the role of LuxS-dependent methyl recycling in IA3902 abortifacient potential.

  18. Comparative analysis of biological effect of corannulene and graphene on developmental and sleep/wake profile of zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Xu; Feng, DaoFu; Zhang, ShuHui; Zhao, Xin; Chen, DongYan; Zhang, ZhiXiang; Feng, XiZeng

    2017-06-01

    Little is known about the biological effect of non-planar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) such as corannulene on organisms. In this study, we compared the effect of corannulene (non-planar PAH) and graphene (planar PAH) on embryonic development and sleep/wake behaviors of larval zebrafish. First, the toxicity of graded doses of corannulene (1, 10, and 50μg/mL) was tested in developing zebrafish embryos. Corannulene showed minimal developmental toxicity only induced an epiboly delay. Further, a significant decrease in locomotion/increase in sleep was observed in larvae treated with the highest dose (50μg/mL) of corannulene while no significant locomotion alterations were induced by graphene. Finally, the effect of corannulene or graphene on the hypocretin (hcrt) system and sleep/wake regulators such as hcrt, hcrt G-protein coupled receptor (hcrtr), and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase-2 (aanat2) was evaluated. Corannulene increased sleep and reduced locomotor activity and the expression of hcrt and hcrtr mRNA while graphene did not obviously disturb the sleep behavior and gene expression patterns. These results suggest that the corannulene has the potential to cause hypnosis-like behavior in larvae and provides a fundamental comparative understanding of the effects of corannulene and graphene on biology systems. Little is known about the biological effect of non-planar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) such as corannulene on organisms. Here, we compare the effect of corannulene (no-planar PAH) and graphene (planar PAH) on embryonic development and sleep/wake behaviors of larval zebrafish. And we aim to investigate the effect of curvature on biological system. First, toxicity of corannulene over the range of doses (1μg/mL, 10μg/mL and 50μg/mL) was tested in developing zebrafish embryos. Corannulene has minimal developmental toxicity, only incurred epiboly delay. Subsequently, a significant decrease in locomotion/increase in sleep at the highest

  19. Steroid profiling in doping analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, Daniël Henri van de

    2001-01-01

    Profiling androgens in urine samples is used in doping analysis for the detection of abused steroids of endogenous origin. These profiling techniques were originally developed for the analysis of testosterone, mostly by means of the ratio of testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E ratio). A study was

  20. Comparative analysis of root transcriptome profiles of two pairs of drought-tolerant and susceptible rice near-isogenic lines under different drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moumeni Ali

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant roots are important organs to uptake soil water and nutrients, perceiving and transducing of soil water deficit signals to shoot. The current knowledge of drought stress transcriptomes in rice are mostly relying on comparative studies of diverse genetic background under drought. A more reliable approach is to use near-isogenic lines (NILs with a common genetic background but contrasting levels of resistance to drought stress under initial exposure to water deficit. Here, we examined two pairs of NILs in IR64 background with contrasting drought tolerance. We obtained gene expression profile in roots of rice NILs under different levels of drought stress help to identify genes and mechanisms involved in drought stress. Results Global gene expression analysis showed that about 55% of genes differentially expressed in roots of rice in response to drought stress treatments. The number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs increased in NILs as the level of water deficits, increased from mild to severe condition, suggesting that more genes were affected by increasing drought stress. Gene onthology (GO test and biological pathway analysis indicated that activated genes in the drought tolerant NILs IR77298-14-1-2-B-10 and IR77298-5-6-B-18 were mostly involved in secondary metabolism, amino acid metabolism, response to stimulus, defence response, transcription and signal transduction, and down-regulated genes were involved in photosynthesis and cell wall growth. We also observed gibberellic acid (GA and auxin crosstalk modulating lateral root formation in the tolerant NILs. Conclusions Transcriptome analysis on two pairs of NILs with a common genetic background (~97% showed distinctive differences in gene expression profiles and could be effective to unravel genes involved in drought tolerance. In comparison with the moderately tolerant NIL IR77298-5-6-B-18 and other susceptible NILs, the tolerant NIL IR77298-14-1-2-B-10 showed

  1. Domesticated, Genetically Engineered, and Wild Plant Relatives Exhibit Unintended Phenotypic Differences: A Comparative Meta-Analysis Profiling Rice, Canola, Maize, Sunflower, and Pumpkin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Hernández-Terán

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Agronomic management of plants is a powerful evolutionary force acting on their populations. The management of cultivated plants is carried out by the traditional process of human selection or plant breeding and, more recently, by the technologies used in genetic engineering (GE. Even though crop modification through GE is aimed at specific traits, it is possible that other non-target traits can be affected by genetic modification due to the complex regulatory processes of plant metabolism and development. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis profiling the phenotypic consequences of plant breeding and GE, and compared modified cultivars with wild relatives in five crops of global economic and cultural importance: rice, maize, canola, sunflower, and pumpkin. For these five species, we analyzed the literature with documentation of phenotypic traits that are potentially related to fitness for the same species in comparable conditions. The information was analyzed to evaluate whether the different processes of modification had influenced the phenotype in such a way as to cause statistical differences in the state of specific phenotypic traits or grouping of the organisms depending on their genetic origin [wild, domesticated with genetic engineering (domGE, and domesticated without genetic engineering (domNGE]. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that, given that transgenic plants are a construct designed to impact, in many cases, a single trait of the plant (e.g., lepidopteran resistance, the phenotypic differences between domGE and domNGE would be either less (or inexistent than between the wild and domesticated relatives (either domGE or domNGE. We conclude that (1 genetic modification (either by selective breeding or GE can be traced phenotypically when comparing wild relatives with their domesticated relatives (domGE and domNGE and (2 the existence and the magnitude of the phenotypic differences between domGE and domNGE of the same crop

  2. Individual Profiling Using Text Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-15

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2016-0011 Individual Profiling using Text Analysis 140333 Mark Stevenson UNIVERSITY OF SHEFFIELD, DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY Final...REPORT TYPE      Final 3.  DATES COVERED (From - To)      15 Sep 2014 to 14 Sep 2015 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE Individual Profiling using Text Analysis ...consisted of collections of tweets for a number of Twitter users whose gender, age and personality scores are known. The task was to construct some system

  3. Comparative risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niehaus, F.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, the risks of various energy systems are discussed considering severe accidents analysis, particularly the probabilistic safety analysis, and probabilistic safety criteria, and the applications of these criteria and analysis. The comparative risk analysis has demonstrated that the largest source of risk in every society is from daily small accidents. Nevertheless, we have to be more concerned about severe accidents. The comparative risk analysis of five different energy systems (coal, oil, gas, LWR and STEC (Solar)) for the public has shown that the main sources of risks are coal and oil. The latest comparative risk study of various energy has been conducted in the USA and has revealed that the number of victims from coal is 42 as many than victims from nuclear. A study for severe accidents from hydro-dams in United States has estimated the probability of dam failures at 1 in 10,000 years and the number of victims between 11,000 and 260,000. The average occupational risk from coal is one fatal accident in 1,000 workers/year. The probabilistic safety analysis is a method that can be used to assess nuclear energy risks, and to analyze the severe accidents, and to model all possible accident sequences and consequences. The 'Fault tree' analysis is used to know the probability of failure of the different systems at each point of accident sequences and to calculate the probability of risks. After calculating the probability of failure, the criteria for judging the numerical results have to be developed, that is the quantitative and qualitative goals. To achieve these goals, several systems have been devised by various countries members of AIEA. The probabilistic safety ana-lysis method has been developed by establishing a computer program permit-ting to know different categories of safety related information. 19 tabs. (author)

  4. Smoothing internal migration age profiles for comparative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Bernard

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Age patterns are a key dimension to compare migration between countries and over time. Comparative metrics can be reliably computed only if data capture the underlying age distribution of migration. Model schedules, the prevailing smoothing method, fit a composite exponential function, but are sensitive to function selection and initial parameter setting. Although non-parametric alternatives exist, their performance is yet to be established. Objective: We compare cubic splines and kernel regressions against model schedules by assessingwhich method provides an accurate representation of the age profile and best performs on metrics for comparing aggregate age patterns. Methods: We use full population microdata for Chile to perform 1,000 Monte-Carlo simulations for nine sample sizes and two spatial scales. We use residual and graphic analysis to assess model performance on the age and intensity at which migration peaks and the evolution of migration age patterns. Results: Model schedules generate a better fit when (1 the expected distribution of the age profile is known a priori, (2 the pre-determined shape of the model schedule adequately describes the true age distribution, and (3 the component curves and initial parameter values can be correctly set. When any of these conditions is not met, kernel regressions and cubic splines offer more reliable alternatives. Conclusions: Smoothing models should be selected according to research aims, age profile characteristics, and sample size. Kernel regressions and cubic splines enable a precise representation of aggregate migration age profiles for most sample sizes, without requiring parameter setting or imposing a pre-determined distribution, and therefore facilitate objective comparison.

  5. Large-scale identification and comparative analysis of miRNA expression profile in the respiratory tree of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus during aestivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Muyan; Storey, Kenneth B

    2014-02-01

    The sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus withstands high water temperatures in the summer by suppressing its metabolic rate and entering a state of aestivation. We hypothesized that changes in the expression of miRNAs could provide important post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression during hypometabolism via control over mRNA translation. The present study analyzed profiles of miRNA expression in the sea cucumber respiratory tree using Solexa deep sequencing technology. We identified 279 sea cucumber miRNAs, including 15 novel miRNAs specific to sea cucumber. Animals sampled during deep aestivation (DA; after at least 15 days of continuous torpor) were compared with animals from a non-aestivation (NA) state (animals that had passed through aestivation and returned to an active state). We identified 30 differentially expressed miRNAs ([RPM (reads per million) >10, |FC| (|fold change|)≥1, FDR (false discovery rate)<0.01]) during aestivation, which were validated by two other miRNA profiling methods: miRNA microarray and real-time PCR. Among the most prominent miRNA species, miR-124, miR-124-3p, miR-79, miR-9 and miR-2010 were significantly over-expressed during deep aestivation compared with non-aestivation animals, suggesting that these miRNAs may play important roles in metabolic rate suppression during aestivation. High-throughput sequencing data and microarray data have been submitted to the GEO database with accession number: 16902695. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative Dissolution Profiles of Representative Quinolones in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The %Q of Ciprofloxacin(CP) and 3 0 Sparfloxacin(SP) was found to conform entirely to both USP2004 and FDA specifications. Sparfloxacin was found to be unstable due to cloudiness observed in 0.1N HCl medium. The CP and SP showed highest %Q in 0.1M max acetic acid compared to other media. This result has

  7. A comparative analysis of cardiovascular disease risk profiles of five Pacific ethnic groups assessed in New Zealand primary care practice: PREDICT CVD-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Corina; Wells, Sue; Riddell, Tania; Pylypchuk, Romana; Marshall, Roger; Drury, Paul; Elley, Raina; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Gentles, Dudley; Erick-Peletiy, Stephanie; Bell, Fionna; Kerr, Andrew; Jackson, Rod

    2010-11-05

    Data on the cardiovascular disease risk profiles of Pacific peoples in New Zealand is usually aggregated and treated as a single entity. Little is known about the comparability or otherwise of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk between different Pacific groups. To compare CVD risk profiles for the main Pacific ethnic groups assessed in New Zealand primary care practice to determine if it is reasonable to aggregate these data, or if significant differences exist. A web-based clinical decision support system for CVD risk assessment and management (PREDICT) has been implemented in primary care practices in nine PHOs throughout Auckland and Northland since 2002, covering approximately 65% of the population of these regions. Between 2002 and January 2009, baseline CVD risk assessments were carried out on 11,642 patients aged 35-74 years identifying with one or more Pacific ethnic groups (4933 Samoans, 1724 Tongans, 1366 Cook Island Maori, 880 Niueans, 1341 Fijians and 1398 people identified as Other Pacific or Pacific Not Further Defined). Fijians were subsequently excluded from the analyses because of a probable misclassification error that appears to combine Fijian Indians with ethnic Fijians. Prevalences of smoking, diabetes and prior history of CVD, as well as mean total cholesterol/HDL ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and Framingham 5-year CVD risk were calculated for each Pacific group. Age-adjusted risk ratios and mean differences stratified by gender were calculated using Samoans as the reference group. Cook Island women were almost 60% more likely to smoke than Samoan women. While Tongan men had the highest proportion of smoking (29%) among Pacific men, Tongan women had the lowest smoking proportion (10%) among Pacific women. Tongan women and Niuean men and women had a higher burden of diabetes than other Pacific ethnic groups, which were 20-30% higher than their Samoan counterparts. Niuean men and women had lower blood pressure levels than all

  8. Comparative analysis of the gene expression profile of probiotic Lactobacillus casei Zhang with and without fermented milk as a vehicle during transit in a simulated gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jicheng; Zhong, Zhi; Zhang, Wenyi; Bao, Qiuhua; Wei, Aibin; Meng, He; Zhang, Heping

    2012-06-01

    Studies have found that the survival of probiotics could be strongly enhanced with dairy products as delivery vehicles, but the molecular mechanism by which this might occur has seldom been mentioned. In this study, microarray technology was used to detect the gene expression profile of Lactobacillus casei Zhang with and without fermented milk used as a delivery vehicle during transit in simulated gastrointestinal juice. Numerous genes of L. casei Zhang in strain suspension were upregulated compared to those from L. casei Zhang in fermented milk. These data might indicate that L. casei Zhang is stimulated directly without the protection of fermented milk, and the high-level gene expression observed here may be a stress response at the transcriptional level. A large proportion of genes involved in translation and cell division were downregulated in the bacteria that were in strain suspension during transit in simulated intestinal juice. This may impede protein biosynthesis and cell division and partially explain the lower viability of L. casei Zhang during transit in the gastrointestinal tract without the delivery vehicle. Copyright © 2012 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative analysis of methods for gene transcription profiling data derived from different microarray technologies in rat and mouse models of diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bihoreau Marie-Thérèse

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray technologies are widely used to quantify the abundance of transcripts corresponding to thousands of genes. To maximise the robustness of transcriptome results, we have tested the performance and reproducibility of rat and mouse gene expression data obtained with Affymetrix, Illumina and Operon platforms. Results We present a thorough analysis of the degree of reproducibility provided by analysing the transcriptomic profile of the same animals of several experimental groups under different popular microarray technologies in different tissues. Concordant results from inter- and intra-platform comparisons were maximised by testing many popular computational methods for generating fold changes and significances and by only considering oligonucleotides giving high expression levels. The choice of Affymetrix signal extraction technique was shown to have the greatest effect on the concordance across platforms. In both species, when choosing optimal methods, the agreement between data generated on the Affymetrix and Illumina was excellent; this was verified using qRT-PCR on a selection of genes present on all platforms. Conclusion This study provides an extensive assessment of analytical methods best suited for processing data from different microarray technologies and can assist integration of technologically different gene expression datasets in biological systems.

  10. Methanol Extracts of 28 Hieracium Species from the Balkan Peninsula - Comparative LC-MS Analysis, Chemosystematic Evaluation of their Flavonoid and Phenolic Acid Profiles and Antioxidant Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Violeta; Niketić, Marjan; Ušjak, Ljuboš; Nikolić, Dejan; Krunić, Aleksej; Zidorn, Christian; Petrović, Silvana

    2018-01-01

    Hieracium s. str. represents one of the largest and most complex genera of flowering plants. As molecular genetics seems unlikely to disentangle intricate relationships within this reticulate species complex, analysis of flavonoids and phenolic acids, known as good chemosystematic markers, promise to be more reliable. Data about pharmacological activity of Hieracium species are scarce. Evaluation of the chemosystematic significance of flavonoids and phenolic acids of methanol extracts of aerial flowering parts of 28 Hieracium species from the Balkans. Additionally, investigation of antioxidant potentials of the extracts. Comparative qualitative and quantitative analysis of flavonoids and phenolic acids was performed by LC-MS. Multivariate statistical data analysis included non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS), unweighted pair-group arithmetic averages (UPGMA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Antioxidant activity was evaluated using three colorimetric tests. Dominant phenolics in almost all species were luteolin type flavonoids, followed by phenolic acids. Although the investigated Hieracium species share many compounds, the current classification of the genus was supported by nMDS and UPGMA analyses with a good resolution to the group level. Hieracium naegelianum was clearly separated from the other investigated species. Spatial and ecological distances of the samples were likely to influence unexpected differentiation of some groups within H. sect. Pannosa. The vast majority of dominant compounds significantly contributed to differences between taxa. The antioxidant potential of the extracts was satisfactory and in accordance with their phenolics composition. Comparative LC-MS analysis demonstrated that flavonoids and phenolic acids are good indicators of chemosystematic relationships within Hieracium, particularly between non-hybrid species and groups from the same location. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley

  11. Comparative Proteomic Profiling of Mycobacterium bovis and BCG Vaccine Strains

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Ge

    2013-09-01

    BCG is the only licensed human vaccine currently available against TB. Derived from a virulent strain of M. bovis, the vaccine was thought to have struck a balance between reduced virulence and preserved immunogenicity. Nowadays, BCG vaccine strains used in different countries and vaccination programs show clear variations in their genomes and immune protective properties. The aim of this study was to characterize the proteomic profile on Mycobacterium bovis and five BCG strains Pasteur, Tokyo, Danish, Phipps and Birkhaug by Tandem Mass Tag® (TMT®)-labeling quantitative proteomic approach. In total, 420 proteins were identified and 377 of them were quantitated for their relative abundance. We reported the number and relationship of differential expressed proteins in BCG strains compared to M. bovis and investigated their functions by bioinformatics analysis. Several interesting up-regulated and down-regulated protein targets were found. The identified proteins and their quantitative expression profiles provide a basis for further understanding of the cellular biology of M. bovis and BCG vaccine strains, and hopefully would assist in the design of better anti-TB vaccine and drugs.

  12. Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Three Super-Hybrid Rice Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang Peng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of heterosis has significantly increased rice yields. However, its mechanism remains unclear. In this study, comparative transcriptional profiles of three super-hybrid rice combinations, LY2163, LY2186 and LYP9, at the flowering and filling stages, were created using rice whole-genome oligonucleotide microarray. The LY2163, LY2186 and LYP9 hybrids yielded 1193, 1630 and 1046 differentially expressed genes (DGs, accounting for 3.2%, 4.4% and 2.8% of the total number of genes (36,926, respectively, after using the z-test (p < 0.01. Functional category analysis showed that the DGs in each hybrid combination were mainly classified into the carbohydrate metabolism and energy metabolism categories. Further analysis of the metabolic pathways showed that DGs were significantly enriched in the carbon fixation pathway (p < 0.01 for all three combinations. Over 80% of the DGs were located in rice quantitative trait loci (QTLs of the Gramene database, of which more than 90% were located in the yield related QTLs in all three combinations, which suggested that there was a correlation between DGs and rice heterosis. Pathway Studio analysis showed the presence of DGs in the circadian regulatory network of all three hybrid combinations, which suggested that the circadian clock had a role in rice heterosis. Our results provide information that can help to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying rice heterosis.

  13. Comparing the Age Related Mood Profile of Veteran Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robabeh Rostami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Basketball, as an exciting team sport, is very popular among athletes with disabilities. Among psychological skills, mood states as an important variable have been of special interest to researchers. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate and compare profile of mood states (BRUMS of disabled former soldiers who play basketball in different age groups. Methodology: After getting permit to conduct the research, 28 disabled basketball players completed the demographic survey and the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS questionnaire. BRUMS consisted of 24 items in subscales of stress, anger, depression, fatigue, confusion and vigor. The one-way analysis of variance test was used for the data analysis. The significance level was set at P≤0.05. SPSS Statistics 22.0 was used for the analysis of data. Results: The results showed that mood states become less negative with age. However, scores showed a rising trend in the 35-39 age groups (mood of anger with P=0/02 fatigue with P=0/03 and confusion with P=0/04. Conclusion: It seems that examining the psychological variables in relation to age can help develop more effective strategies in physical and mental training programs for disabled players. Keywords: Mood States, Basketball Players, veteran with disabilities, Age

  14. Comparative analysis of distinctive transcriptome profiles with biochemical evidence in bisphenol S- and benzo[a]pyrene-exposed liver tissues of the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jee-Hyun Jung

    Full Text Available Flounder is a promising model species for environmental monitoring of coastal regions. To assess the usefulness of liver transcriptome profiling, juvenile olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus were exposed to two pollutants, bisphenol S (BPS and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP, which have different chemical characteristics and have distinct modes of metabolic action in teleost. Six hours after intraperitoneal injection with BPS (50 mg/kg bw or BaP (20 mg/kg bw, liver transcriptomes were analyzed using the Illumina Hiseq 3000 platform. Interestingly, the transcriptome was highly sensitive and was distinctively expressed in response to each chemical. The primary effect of BPS was significantly increased transcription of egg process and vitellogenesis related genes, including vitellogenins (vtg1, vtg2, zona pellucida sperm-binding proteins (zp3, zp4, and estrogen receptors (erα, erβ, with increases in plasma 17β-estradiol (E2 and vitellogenin (VTG concentrations. Following BaP treatment, detoxification- and biotransformation-related genes such as cyp1a1 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (ugt1a1 were significantly increased, with an increase in EROD activity. In both transcriptomes, mRNA expression of genes involved in antioxidant defense systems was increased, while genes involved in innate immunity were decreased upon BPS or BaP exposure with a decrease in complement activity. This study provides useful insight into the chemical-specific hepatic transcriptional response of P. olivaceus and suggests a basis for further studies examining biomarker application of liver transcriptomes for environmental pollution.

  15. Whole transcriptome analysis of Acinetobacter baumannii assessed by RNA-sequencing reveals different mRNA expression profiles in biofilm compared to planktonic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Rumbo-Feal

    Full Text Available Acinetobacterbaumannii has emerged as a dangerous opportunistic pathogen, with many strains able to form biofilms and thus cause persistent infections. The aim of the present study was to use high-throughput sequencing techniques to establish complete transcriptome profiles of planktonic (free-living and sessile (biofilm forms of A. baumannii ATCC 17978 and thereby identify differences in their gene expression patterns. Collections of mRNA from planktonic (both exponential and stationary phase cultures and sessile (biofilm cells were sequenced. Six mRNA libraries were prepared following the mRNA-Seq protocols from Illumina. Reads were obtained in a HiScanSQ platform and mapped against the complete genome to describe the complete mRNA transcriptomes of planktonic and sessile cells. The results showed that the gene expression pattern of A. baumannii biofilm cells was distinct from that of planktonic cells, including 1621 genes over-expressed in biofilms relative to stationary phase cells and 55 genes expressed only in biofilms. These differences suggested important changes in amino acid and fatty acid metabolism, motility, active transport, DNA-methylation, iron acquisition, transcriptional regulation, and quorum sensing, among other processes. Disruption or deletion of five of these genes caused a significant decrease in biofilm formation ability in the corresponding mutant strains. Among the genes over-expressed in biofilm cells were those in an operon involved in quorum sensing. One of them, encoding an acyl carrier protein, was shown to be involved in biofilm formation as demonstrated by the significant decrease in biofilm formation by the corresponding knockout strain. The present work serves as a basis for future studies examining the complex network systems that regulate bacterial biofilm formation and maintenance.

  16. Comparative Analysis of Muscle Hypertrophy Models Reveals Divergent Gene Transcription Profiles and Points to Translational Regulation of Muscle Growth through Increased mTOR Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo G. Pereira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle mass is a result of the balance between protein breakdown and protein synthesis. It has been shown that multiple conditions of muscle atrophy are characterized by the common regulation of a specific set of genes, termed atrogenes. It is not known whether various models of muscle hypertrophy are similarly regulated by a common transcriptional program. Here, we characterized gene expression changes in three different conditions of muscle growth, examining each condition during acute and chronic phases. Specifically, we compared the transcriptome of Extensor Digitorum Longus (EDL muscles collected (1 during the rapid phase of postnatal growth at 2 and 4 weeks of age, (2 24 h or 3 weeks after constitutive activation of AKT, and (3 24 h or 3 weeks after overload hypertrophy caused by tenotomy of the Tibialis Anterior muscle. We observed an important overlap between significantly regulated genes when comparing each single condition at the two different timepoints. Furthermore, examining the transcriptional changes occurring 24 h after a hypertrophic stimulus, we identify an important role for genes linked to a stress response, despite the absence of muscle damage in the AKT model. However, when we compared all different growth conditions, we did not find a common transcriptional fingerprint. On the other hand, all conditions showed a marked increase in mTORC1 signaling and increased ribosome biogenesis, suggesting that muscle growth is characterized more by translational, than transcriptional regulation.

  17. A statistical approach to plasma profile analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kardaun, O.J.W.F.; McCarthy, P.J.; Lackner, K.; Riedel, K.S.

    1990-05-01

    A general statistical approach to the parameterisation and analysis of tokamak profiles is presented. The modelling of the profile dependence on both the radius and the plasma parameters is discussed, and pertinent, classical as well as robust, methods of estimation are reviewed. Special attention is given to statistical tests for discriminating between the various models, and to the construction of confidence intervals for the parameterised profiles and the associated global quantities. The statistical approach is shown to provide a rigorous approach to the empirical testing of plasma profile invariance. (orig.)

  18. PWR AXIAL BURNUP PROFILE ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.M. Acaglione

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this activity is to develop a representative ''limiting'' axial burnup profile for pressurized water reactors (PWRs), which would encompass the isotopic axial variations caused by different assembly irradiation histories, and produce conservative isotopics with respect to criticality. The effect that the low burnup regions near the ends of spent fuel have on system reactivity is termed the ''end-effect''. This calculation will quantify the end-effects associated with Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies emplaced in a hypothetical 21 PWR waste package. The scope of this calculation covers an initial enrichment range of 3.0 through 5.0 wt% U-235 and a burnup range of 10 through 50 GWd/MTU. This activity supports the validation of the process for ensuring conservative generation of spent fuel isotopics with respect to criticality safety applications, and the use of burnup credit for commercial spent nuclear fuel. The intended use of these results will be in the development of PWR waste package loading curves, and applications involving burnup credit. Limitations of this evaluation are that the limiting profiles are only confirmed for use with the B andW 15 x 15 fuel assembly design. However, this assembly design is considered bounding of all other typical commercial PWR fuel assembly designs. This calculation is subject to the Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (QARD) because this activity supports investigations of items or barriers on the Q-list (YMP 2001)

  19. Expression profiling and comparative sequence derived insights into lipid metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callow, Matthew J.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2001-12-19

    Expression profiling and genomic DNA sequence comparisons are increasingly being applied to the identification and analysis of the genes involved in lipid metabolism. Not only has genome-wide expression profiling aided in the identification of novel genes involved in important processes in lipid metabolism such as sterol efflux, but the utilization of information from these studies has added to our understanding of the regulation of pathways participating in the process. Coupled with these gene expression studies, cross species comparison, searching for sequences conserved through evolution, has proven to be a powerful tool to identify important non-coding regulatory sequences as well as the discovery of novel genes relevant to lipid biology. An example of the value of this approach was the recent chance discovery of a new apolipoprotein gene (apo AV) that has dramatic effects upon triglyceride metabolism in mice and humans.

  20. Bayesian mixture analysis for metagenomic community profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfopoulou, Sofia; Plagnol, Vincent

    2015-09-15

    Deep sequencing of clinical samples is now an established tool for the detection of infectious pathogens, with direct medical applications. The large amount of data generated produces an opportunity to detect species even at very low levels, provided that computational tools can effectively profile the relevant metagenomic communities. Data interpretation is complicated by the fact that short sequencing reads can match multiple organisms and by the lack of completeness of existing databases, in particular for viral pathogens. Here we present metaMix, a Bayesian mixture model framework for resolving complex metagenomic mixtures. We show that the use of parallel Monte Carlo Markov chains for the exploration of the species space enables the identification of the set of species most likely to contribute to the mixture. We demonstrate the greater accuracy of metaMix compared with relevant methods, particularly for profiling complex communities consisting of several related species. We designed metaMix specifically for the analysis of deep transcriptome sequencing datasets, with a focus on viral pathogen detection; however, the principles are generally applicable to all types of metagenomic mixtures. metaMix is implemented as a user friendly R package, freely available on CRAN: http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/metaMix sofia.morfopoulou.10@ucl.ac.uk Supplementary data are available at Bionformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. SIMS depth profile analysis of environmental microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konarski, P.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental and technological research demands chemical characterization of aerosol particles so minute in size, that conventional methods for bulk analyses are simply not applicable. In this work novel application of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for characterization of microparticles suspended in atmosphere of the working environment of glass plant Thomson Polkolor, Piaseczno and steelworks Huta Sendzimira, Cracow is presented. The new technique based on sample rotation in depth profile analysis of sub-micrometer particulate material was performed on SAJW-02 analyser equipped with Balzers 16 mm quadrupole spectrometer and sample rotation manipulator using 5 keV Ar + and O 2 + ion beams. The results were compared with the standard method used on ims-3f Cameca analyser 12 keV O 2 + ion beam. Grain size distributions of aerosol microparticles were estimated using eight-stage cascade impactor with particle size range of 0.2 μm to 15 μm. Elemental concentration and crystalline structure of the collected dust particles were performed using spark source mass spectrometry and X-ray diffraction methods. SIMS depth profile analysis shows that sub-micrometer particles do not have uniform morphology, The core-shell structure has been observed for particles collected in both factories. Presented models show that the steelworks particles consists mainly of iron and manganese cores. At the shells of these microparticles :lead, chlorine and fluorine are found. The cores of glass plant submicrometer particles consists mainly of lead-zirconium glass covered by a shell containing carbon and copper. Sample rotation technique applied SIMS appears to be an effective tool for environmental microparticle morphology studies. (author)

  2. Differential Adverse Event Profiles Associated with BCG as a Preventive Tuberculosis Vaccine or Therapeutic Bladder Cancer Vaccine Identified by Comparative Ontology-Based VAERS and Literature Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangan Xie

    Full Text Available M. bovis strain Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG has been the only licensed live attenuated vaccine against tuberculosis (TB for nearly one century and has also been approved as a therapeutic vaccine for bladder cancer treatment since 1990. During its long time usage, different adverse events (AEs have been reported. However, the AEs associated with the BCG preventive TB vaccine and therapeutic cancer vaccine have not been systematically compared. In this study, we systematically collected various BCG AE data mined from the US VAERS database and PubMed literature reports, identified statistically significant BCG-associated AEs, and ontologically classified and compared these AEs related to these two types of BCG vaccine. From 397 VAERS BCG AE case reports, we identified 64 AEs statistically significantly associated with the BCG TB vaccine and 14 AEs with the BCG cancer vaccine. Our meta-analysis of 41 peer-reviewed journal reports identified 48 AEs associated with the BCG TB vaccine and 43 AEs associated with the BCG cancer vaccine. Among all identified AEs from VAERS and literature reports, 25 AEs belong to serious AEs. The Ontology of Adverse Events (OAE-based ontological hierarchical analysis indicated that the AEs associated with the BCG TB vaccine were enriched in immune system (e.g., lymphadenopathy and lymphadenitis, skin (e.g., skin ulceration and cyanosis, and respiratory system (e.g., cough and pneumonia; in contrast, the AEs associated with the BCG cancer vaccine mainly occurred in the urinary system (e.g., dysuria, pollakiuria, and hematuria. With these distinct AE profiles detected, this study also discovered three AEs (i.e., chills, pneumonia, and C-reactive protein increased shared by the BCG TB vaccine and bladder cancer vaccine. Furthermore, our deep investigation of 24 BCG-associated death cases from VAERS identified the important effects of age, vaccine co-administration, and immunosuppressive status on the final BCG

  3. Nuclear power ecology: comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trofimenko, A.P.; Lips'ka, A.Yi.; Pisanko, Zh.Yi.

    2005-01-01

    Ecological effects of different energy sources are compared. Main actions for further nuclear power development - safety increase and waste management, are noted. Reasons of restrained public position to nuclear power and role of social and political factors in it are analyzed. An attempt is undertaken to separate real difficulties of nuclear power from imaginary ones that appear in some mass media. International actions of environment protection are noted. Risk factors at different energy source using are compared. The results of analysis indicate that ecological influence and risk for nuclear power are of minimum

  4. Criminal Justice. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) contains a competency list verified by expert workers and developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from Ohio. This OCAP identifies the occupational, academic, and employability skills (competencies)…

  5. Poultry Producer. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a comprehensive and verified employer competency list for a poultry producer program. It contains units (with or without subunits), competencies, and competency builders that identify the occupational, academic, and employability…

  6. Graphic Communications. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), which is one of a series of OCAPs developed to identify the skills that Ohio employers deem necessary to entering a given occupation/occupational area, lists the occupational, academic, and employability skills required of individuals entering graphic communications occupations. The…

  7. BANK RATING. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batrancea Ioan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Banks in Romania offers its customers a wide range of products but which involves both risk taking. Therefore researchers seek to build rating models to help managers of banks to risk of non-recovery of loans and interest. In the following we highlight rating Raiffeisen Bank, BCR-ERSTE Bank and Transilvania Bank, based on the models CAAMPL and Stickney making a comparative analysis of the two rating models.

  8. Comparative temporospatial expression profiling of murine amelotin protein during amelogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi-Ganss, Eszter; Nakayama, Yohei; Iwasaki, Kengo; Nakano, Yukiko; Stolf, Daiana; McKee, Marc D; Ganss, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Tooth enamel is formed in a typical biomineralization process under the guidance of specific organic components. Amelotin (AMTN) is a recently identified, secreted protein that is transcribed predominantly during the maturation stage of enamel formation, but its protein expression profile throughout amelogenesis has not been described in detail. The main objective of this study was to define the spatiotemporal expression profile of AMTN during tooth development in comparison with other known enamel proteins. A peptide antibody against AMTN was raised in rabbits, affinity purified and used for immunohistochemical analyses on sagittal and transverse paraffin sections of decalcified mouse hemimandibles. The localization of AMTN was compared to that of known enamel proteins amelogenin, ameloblastin, enamelin, odontogenic ameloblast-associated/amyloid in Pindborg tumors and kallikrein 4. Three-dimensional images of AMTN localization in molars at selected ages were reconstructed from serial stained sections, and transmission electron microscopy was used for ultrastructural localization of AMTN. AMTN was detected in ameloblasts of molars in a transient fashion, declining at the time of tooth eruption. Prominent expression in maturation stage ameloblasts of the continuously erupting incisor persisted into adulthood. In contrast, amelogenin, ameloblastin and enamelin were predominantly found during the early secretory stage, while odontogenic ameloblast-associated/amyloid in Pindborg tumors and kallikrein 4 expression in maturation stage ameloblasts paralleled that of AMTN. Secreted AMTN was detected at the interface between ameloblasts and the mineralized enamel. Recombinant AMTN protein did not mediate cell attachment in vitro. These results suggest a primary role for AMTN in the late stages of enamel mineralization. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Network-based analysis of proteomic profiles

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Limsoon

    2016-01-26

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics is a widely used and powerful tool for profiling systems-wide protein expression changes. It can be applied for various purposes, e.g. biomarker discovery in diseases and study of drug responses. Although RNA-based high-throughput methods have been useful in providing glimpses into the underlying molecular processes, the evidences they provide are indirect. Furthermore, RNA and corresponding protein levels have been known to have poor correlation. On the other hand, MS-based proteomics tend to have consistency issues (poor reproducibility and inter-sample agreement) and coverage issues (inability to detect the entire proteome) that need to be urgently addressed. In this talk, I will discuss how these issues can be addressed by proteomic profile analysis techniques that use biological networks (especially protein complexes) as the biological context. In particular, I will describe several techniques that we have been developing for network-based analysis of proteomics profile. And I will present evidence that these techniques are useful in identifying proteomics-profile analysis results that are more consistent, more reproducible, and more biologically coherent, and that these techniques allow expansion of the detected proteome to uncover and/or discover novel proteins.

  10. Psychological profile of women with infertility: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddar, Shuvabrata; Sanyal, Nilanjana; Mukherjee, Urbi

    2014-01-01

    An endeavour to probe into the psychological profile of infertile women in a comparative stance with the fertile women is not very common. This study is an attempt to explore the possible non-apparent personality factors which contribute to the unexplained pain of infertility. The main objectives of the present study were (a) to examine whether infertile women are different from fertile women in terms of selected psychological variables- narcissistic components, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defensive manoeuvres; and (b) whether the primary infertile women (n=18) are different from the secondary infertile women (n=12) with respect to those variables. A total of 60 individuals (30 infertile women and 30 matched fertile women) were assessed through Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ), Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) and Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40). General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was administered on to the fertile women to rule out the psychiatric morbidity. Findings revealed that infertile women group differed from fertile women group with respect to narcissism, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defense mechanism. The primary infertile group also showed marked difference from the secondary infertile group with respect to those variables. This study endeavours to enrich the knowledge regarding the personality dynamics of infertile women to design psychotherapeutic programme to aid their well-being, help them to cherish the flavour of parenthood and improve their quality of life.

  11. Psychological profile of women with infertility: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuvabrata Poddar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: An endeavour to probe into the psychological profile of infertile women in a comparative stance with the fertile women is not very common. This study is an attempt to explore the possible non-apparent personality factors which contribute to the unexplained pain of infertility. Methods: The main objectives of the present study were (a to examine whether infertile women are different from fertile women in terms of selected psychological variables- narcissistic components, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defensive manoeuvres; and (b whether the primary infertile women (n=18 are different from the secondary infertile women (n=12 with respect to those variables. A total of 60 individuals (30 infertile women and 30 matched fertile women were assessed through Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ, Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI and Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ was administered on to the fertile women to rule out the psychiatric morbidity. Results: Findings revealed that infertile women group differed from fertile women group with respect to narcissism, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defense mechanism. The primary infertile group also showed marked difference from the secondary infertile group with respect to those variables. Conclusions: This study endeavours to enrich the knowledge regarding the personality dynamics of infertile women to design psychotherapeutic programme to aid their well-being, help them to cherish the flavour of parenthood and improve their quality of life.

  12. Application of the maximum entropy method to profile analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, N.; Kalceff, W.; Cline, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: A maximum entropy (MaxEnt) method for analysing crystallite size- and strain-induced x-ray profile broadening is presented. This method treats the problems of determining the specimen profile, crystallite size distribution, and strain distribution in a general way by considering them as inverse problems. A common difficulty faced by many experimenters is their inability to determine a well-conditioned solution of the integral equation, which preserves the positivity of the profile or distribution. We show that the MaxEnt method overcomes this problem, while also enabling a priori information, in the form of a model, to be introduced into it. Additionally, we demonstrate that the method is fully quantitative, in that uncertainties in the solution profile or solution distribution can be determined and used in subsequent calculations, including mean particle sizes and rms strain. An outline of the MaxEnt method is presented for the specific problems of determining the specimen profile and crystallite or strain distributions for the correspondingly broadened profiles. This approach offers an alternative to standard methods such as those of Williamson-Hall and Warren-Averbach. An application of the MaxEnt method is demonstrated in the analysis of alumina size-broadened diffraction data (from NIST, Gaithersburg). It is used to determine the specimen profile and column-length distribution of the scattering domains. Finally, these results are compared with the corresponding Williamson-Hall and Warren-Averbach analyses. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  13. Comparative Time Course Profiles of Phthalate Stereoisomers in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT More efficient models are needed to assess potential carcinogenicity hazard of environmental chemicals. Here we evaluated time course profiles for two reference phthalates, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and its stereoisomer di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), to identify...

  14. Photodegradation of wood and depth profile analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Photochemical degradation is a key process of the weathering that occurs when wood is exposed outdoors. It is also a major cause of the discoloration of wood in indoor applications. The effects of sunlight on the chemical composition of wood are superficial in nature, but estimates of the depth at which photodegradation occurs in wood vary greatly from 80 microm to as much as 2540 mic rom. Better understanding of the photodegradation of wood through depth profile analysis is desirable because it would allow the development of more effective photo-protective treatments that target the surface layers of wood most susceptible to photodegradation. This paper briefly describes fundamental aspects of photodegradation of wood and reviews progress made in the field of depth profile study on the photodegradation of wood. (author)

  15. Comparative Genome Analysis of Basidiomycete Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Morin, Emmanuelle; Nagy, Laszlo; Manning, Gerard; Baker, Scott; Brown, Daren; Henrissat, Bernard; Levasseur, Anthony; Hibbett, David; Martin, Francis; Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-19

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes), make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes the mushrooms, wood rots, symbionts, and plant and animal pathogens. To better understand the diversity of phenotypes in basidiomycetes, we performed a comparative analysis of 35 basidiomycete fungi spanning the diversity of the phylum. Phylogenetic patterns of lignocellulose degrading genes suggest a continuum rather than a sharp dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. Patterns of secondary metabolic enzymes give additional insight into the broad array of phenotypes found in the basidiomycetes. We suggest that the profile of an organism in lignocellulose-targeting genes can be used to predict its nutritional mode, and predict Dacryopinax sp. as a brown rot; Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea as white rots.

  16. Comparative in silico profiling of epigenetic modifiers in human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Mi-Young; Jung, Cho-Rok; Kim, Dae-Soo; Cho, Hyun-Soo

    2018-04-06

    The technology of tissue differentiation from human pluripotent stem cells has attracted attention as a useful resource for regenerative medicine, disease modeling and drug development. Recent studies have suggested various key factors and specific culture methods to improve the successful tissue differentiation and efficient generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells. Among these methods, epigenetic regulation and epigenetic signatures are regarded as an important hurdle to overcome during reprogramming and differentiation. Thus, in this study, we developed an in silico epigenetic panel and performed a comparative analysis of epigenetic modifiers in the RNA-seq results of 32 human tissues. We demonstrated that an in silico epigenetic panel can identify epigenetic modifiers in order to overcome epigenetic barriers to tissue-specific differentiation.

  17. Comparing Clinical Profiles in Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinson's Disease Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R. Farlow

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Greater understanding of differences in baseline impairment and disease progression in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD may improve the interpretation of drug effects and the design of future studies. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of three randomized, double-blind rivastigmine databases (one in PDD, two in AD. Impairment on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog, Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living (ADCS-ADL scale, 10-item Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI-10 and the ADCS-Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC was compared [standardized difference (Cohen's d, similar if Results: Patients with AD or PDD had similar levels of impairment on the ADAS-cog and NPI-10. Scores on the ADCS-ADL scale (standardized difference = 0.47 and the ADAS-cog memory domain (total, 0.33; items, 0.10-0.58 were higher in AD; PDD patients were more impaired in the language (0.23 and praxis (0.34 domains. AD patients receiving placebo showed greater deterioration on the ADAS-cog (0.14 and improvement on the NPI-10 (0.11 compared with patients with PDD. Conclusion: Differing patterns of impairment occur in AD and PDD.

  18. Comparing clinical profiles in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farlow, Martin R; Schmitt, Frederick; Aarsland, Dag; Grossberg, George T; Somogyi, Monique; Meng, Xiangyi

    2013-01-01

    Greater understanding of differences in baseline impairment and disease progression in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) may improve the interpretation of drug effects and the design of future studies. This was a retrospective analysis of three randomized, double-blind rivastigmine databases (one in PDD, two in AD). Impairment on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog), Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living (ADCS-ADL) scale, 10-item Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI-10) and the ADCS-Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC) was compared [standardized difference (Cohen's d), similar if <0.1]. Patients with AD or PDD had similar levels of impairment on the ADAS-cog and NPI-10. Scores on the ADCS-ADL scale (standardized difference = 0.47) and the ADAS-cog memory domain (total, 0.33; items, 0.10-0.58) were higher in AD; PDD patients were more impaired in the language (0.23) and praxis (0.34) domains. AD patients receiving placebo showed greater deterioration on the ADAS-cog (0.14) and improvement on the NPI-10 (0.11) compared with patients with PDD. Differing patterns of impairment occur in AD and PDD.

  19. Genomic profiling of oral squamous cell carcinoma by array-based comparative genomic hybridization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunichi Yoshioka

    Full Text Available We designed a study to investigate genetic relationships between primary tumors of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and their lymph node metastases, and to identify genomic copy number aberrations (CNAs related to lymph node metastasis. For this purpose, we collected a total of 42 tumor samples from 25 patients and analyzed their genomic profiles by array-based comparative genomic hybridization. We then compared the genetic profiles of metastatic primary tumors (MPTs with their paired lymph node metastases (LNMs, and also those of LNMs with non-metastatic primary tumors (NMPTs. Firstly, we found that although there were some distinctive differences in the patterns of genomic profiles between MPTs and their paired LNMs, the paired samples shared similar genomic aberration patterns in each case. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis grouped together 12 of the 15 MPT-LNM pairs. Furthermore, similarity scores between paired samples were significantly higher than those between non-paired samples. These results suggested that MPTs and their paired LNMs are composed predominantly of genetically clonal tumor cells, while minor populations with different CNAs may also exist in metastatic OSCCs. Secondly, to identify CNAs related to lymph node metastasis, we compared CNAs between grouped samples of MPTs and LNMs, but were unable to find any CNAs that were more common in LNMs. Finally, we hypothesized that subpopulations carrying metastasis-related CNAs might be present in both the MPT and LNM. Accordingly, we compared CNAs between NMPTs and LNMs, and found that gains of 7p, 8q and 17q were more common in the latter than in the former, suggesting that these CNAs may be involved in lymph node metastasis of OSCC. In conclusion, our data suggest that in OSCCs showing metastasis, the primary and metastatic tumors share similar genomic profiles, and that cells in the primary tumor may tend to metastasize after acquiring metastasis-associated CNAs.

  20. Comparative analysis of metal samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez M, J.; Ramirez T, J.J.; Sandoval J, A.R.; Villasenor S, P.; Aspiazu F, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Metal wastes were analysed to establish its origin with respect to a set of pieces. The elemental analysis was realized using the PIXE technique (Proton induced X-ray emission). Results are presented. (Author)

  1. Sociological analysis and comparative education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woock, Roger R.

    1981-12-01

    It is argued that comparative education is essentially a derivative field of study, in that it borrows theories and methods from academic disciplines. After a brief humanistic phase, in which history and philosophy were central for comparative education, sociology became an important source. In the mid-50's and 60's, sociology in the United States was characterised by Structural Functionalism as a theory, and Social Survey as a dominant methodology. Both were incorporated into the development of comparative education. Increasingly in the 70's, and certainly today, the new developments in sociology are characterised by an attack on Positivism, which is seen as the philosophical position underlying both functionalism and survey methods. New or re-discovered theories with their attendant methodologies included Marxism, Phenomenological Sociology, Critical Theory, and Historical Social Science. The current relationship between comparative education and social science is one of uncertainty, but since social science is seen to be returning to its European roots, the hope is held out for the development of an integrated social theory and method which will provide a much stronger basis for developments in comparative education.

  2. Comparative Chromatographic Analysis and Pharmacodynamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The laboratory analysis of the Garcinia Kolanuts extracts showed receptors inhibition of Beta adrenergic sites, adenosine, melatonin, opiate, purine, calcium channel L-type and 5HT5A. Conclusion: Garcinia kolanut extract exhibits a combined effects of all the known antiglaucoma drugs used in comparison. NQJHM Vol.

  3. Lag profile inversion method for EISCAT data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Virtanen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The present standard EISCAT incoherent scatter experiments are based on alternating codes that are decoded in power domain by simple summation and subtraction operations. The signal is first digitised and then different lagged products are calculated and decoded in real time. Only the decoded lagged products are saved for further analysis so that both the original data samples and the undecoded lagged products are lost. A fit of plasma parameters can be later performed using the recorded lagged products. In this paper we describe a different analysis method, which makes use of statistical inversion in removing range ambiguities from the lag profiles. An analysis program carrying out both the lag profile inversion and the fit of the plasma parameters has been constructed. Because recording the received signal itself instead of the lagged products allows very flexible data analysis, the program is constructed to use raw data, i.e. IQ-sampled signal recorded from an IF stage of the radar. The program is now capable of analysing standard alternating-coded EISCAT experiments as well as experiments with any other kind of radar modulation if raw data is available. The program calculates the ambiguous lag profiles and is capable of inverting them as such but, for analysis in real time, time integration is needed before inversion. We demonstrate the method using alternating code experiments in the EISCAT UHF radar and specific hardware connected to the second IF stage of the receiver. This method produces a data stream of complex samples, which are stored for later processing. The raw data is analysed with lag profile inversion and the results are compared to those given by the standard method.

  4. Error analysis for mesospheric temperature profiling by absorptive occultation sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Rieder

    Full Text Available An error analysis for mesospheric profiles retrieved from absorptive occultation data has been performed, starting with realistic error assumptions as would apply to intensity data collected by available high-precision UV photodiode sensors. Propagation of statistical errors was investigated through the complete retrieval chain from measured intensity profiles to atmospheric density, pressure, and temperature profiles. We assumed unbiased errors as the occultation method is essentially self-calibrating and straight-line propagation of occulted signals as we focus on heights of 50–100 km, where refractive bending of the sensed radiation is negligible. Throughout the analysis the errors were characterized at each retrieval step by their mean profile, their covariance matrix and their probability density function (pdf. This furnishes, compared to a variance-only estimation, a much improved insight into the error propagation mechanism. We applied the procedure to a baseline analysis of the performance of a recently proposed solar UV occultation sensor (SMAS – Sun Monitor and Atmospheric Sounder and provide, using a reasonable exponential atmospheric model as background, results on error standard deviations and error correlation functions of density, pressure, and temperature profiles. Two different sensor photodiode assumptions are discussed, respectively, diamond diodes (DD with 0.03% and silicon diodes (SD with 0.1% (unattenuated intensity measurement noise at 10 Hz sampling rate. A factor-of-2 margin was applied to these noise values in order to roughly account for unmodeled cross section uncertainties. Within the entire height domain (50–100 km we find temperature to be retrieved to better than 0.3 K (DD / 1 K (SD accuracy, respectively, at 2 km height resolution. The results indicate that absorptive occultations acquired by a SMAS-type sensor could provide mesospheric profiles of fundamental variables such as temperature with

  5. Error analysis for mesospheric temperature profiling by absorptive occultation sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Rieder

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An error analysis for mesospheric profiles retrieved from absorptive occultation data has been performed, starting with realistic error assumptions as would apply to intensity data collected by available high-precision UV photodiode sensors. Propagation of statistical errors was investigated through the complete retrieval chain from measured intensity profiles to atmospheric density, pressure, and temperature profiles. We assumed unbiased errors as the occultation method is essentially self-calibrating and straight-line propagation of occulted signals as we focus on heights of 50–100 km, where refractive bending of the sensed radiation is negligible. Throughout the analysis the errors were characterized at each retrieval step by their mean profile, their covariance matrix and their probability density function (pdf. This furnishes, compared to a variance-only estimation, a much improved insight into the error propagation mechanism. We applied the procedure to a baseline analysis of the performance of a recently proposed solar UV occultation sensor (SMAS – Sun Monitor and Atmospheric Sounder and provide, using a reasonable exponential atmospheric model as background, results on error standard deviations and error correlation functions of density, pressure, and temperature profiles. Two different sensor photodiode assumptions are discussed, respectively, diamond diodes (DD with 0.03% and silicon diodes (SD with 0.1% (unattenuated intensity measurement noise at 10 Hz sampling rate. A factor-of-2 margin was applied to these noise values in order to roughly account for unmodeled cross section uncertainties. Within the entire height domain (50–100 km we find temperature to be retrieved to better than 0.3 K (DD / 1 K (SD accuracy, respectively, at 2 km height resolution. The results indicate that absorptive occultations acquired by a SMAS-type sensor could provide mesospheric profiles of fundamental variables such as temperature with

  6. The Genetic Relationship between Leishmania aethiopica and Leishmania tropica Revealed by Comparing Microsatellite Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krayter, Lena; Schnur, Lionel F; Schönian, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania (Leishmania) aethiopica and L. (L.) tropica cause cutaneous leishmaniases and appear to be related. L. aethiopica is geographically restricted to Ethiopia and Kenya; L. tropica is widely dispersed from the Eastern Mediterranean, through the Middle East into eastern India and in north, east and south Africa. Their phylogenetic inter-relationship is only partially revealed. Some studies indicate a close relationship. Here, eight strains of L. aethiopica were characterized genetically and compared with 156 strains of L. tropica from most of the latter species' geographical range to discern the closeness. Twelve unlinked microsatellite markers previously used to genotype strains of L. tropica were successfully applied to the eight strains of L. aethiopica and their microsatellite profiles were compared to those of 156 strains of L. tropica from various geographical locations that were isolated from human cases of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, hyraxes and sand fly vectors. All the microsatellite profiles were subjected to various analytical algorithms: Bayesian statistics, distance-based and factorial correspondence analysis, revealing: (i) the species L. aethiopica, though geographically restricted, is genetically very heterogeneous; (ii) the strains of L. aethiopica formed a distinct genetic cluster; and (iii) strains of L. aethiopica are closely related to strains of L. tropica and more so to the African ones, although, by factorial correspondence analysis, clearly separate from them. The successful application of the 12 microsatellite markers, originally considered species-specific for the species L. tropica, to strains of L. aethiopica confirmed the close relationship between these two species. The Bayesian and distance-based methods clustered the strains of L. aethiopica among African strains of L. tropica, while the factorial correspondence analysis indicated a clear separation between the two species. There was no correlation between

  7. Blade Profile Optimization of Kaplan Turbine Using CFD Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijaz Bashir Janjua

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of hydro-power as renewable energy source is of prime importance in the world now. Hydropower energy is available in abundant in form of falls, canals rivers, dams etc. It means, there are various types of sites with different parameters like flow rate, heads, etc. Depending upon the sites, water turbines are designed and manufactured to avail hydro-power energy. Low head turbines on runof-river are widely used for the purpose. Low head turbines are classified as reaction turbines. For runof river, depending upon the variety of site data, low head Kaplan turbines are selected, designed and manufactured. For any given site requirement, it becomes very essential to design the turbine runner blades through optimization of the CAD model of blades profile. This paper presents the optimization technique carried out on a complex geometry of blade profile through static and dynamic computational analysis. It is used through change of the blade profile geometry at five different angles in the 3D (Three Dimensional CAD model. Blade complex geometry and design have been developed by using the coordinates point system on the blade in PRO-E /CREO software. Five different blade models are developed for analysis purpose. Based on the flow rate and heads, blade profiles are analyzed using ANSYS software to check and compare the output results for optimization of the blades for improved results which show that by changing blade profile angle and its geometry, different blade sizes and geometry can be optimized using the computational techniques with changes in CAD models.

  8. Blade profile optimization of kaplan turbine using cfd analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janjua, A.B.; Khalil, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Utilization of hydro-power as renewable energy source is of prime importance in the world now. Hydropower energy is available in abundant in form of falls, canals rivers, dams etc. It means, there are various types of sites with different parameters like flow rate, heads, etc. Depending upon the sites, water turbines are designed and manufactured to avail hydro-power energy. Low head turbines on runof-river are widely used for the purpose. Low head turbines are classified as reaction turbines. For runof-river, depending upon the variety of site data, low head Kaplan turbines are selected, designed and manufactured. For any given site requirement, it becomes very essential to design the turbine runner blades through optimization of the CAD model of blades profile. This paper presents the optimization technique carried out on a complex geometry of blade profile through static and dynamic computational analysis. It is used through change of the blade profile geometry at five different angles in the 3D (Three Dimensional) CAD model. Blade complex geometry and design have been developed by using the coordinates point system on the blade in PRO-E /CREO software. Five different blade models are developed for analysis purpose. Based on the flow rate and heads, blade profiles are analyzed using ANSYS software to check and compare the output results for optimization of the blades for improved results which show that by changing blade profile angle and its geometry, different blade sizes and geometry can be optimized using the computational techniques with changes in CAD models. (author)

  9. RENT CONTROL: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue-Mari Maass

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent case law shows that vulnerable, previously disadvantaged private sector tenants are currently facing eviction orders – and consequential homelessness – on the basis that their leases have expired. In terms of the case law it is evident that once their leases have expired, these households do not have access to alternative accommodation. In terms of the Constitution, this group of marginalised tenants have a constitutional right of access to adequate housing and a right to occupy land with legally secure tenure. The purpose of this article is to critically analyse a number of legislative interventions, and specifically rent control, that were imposed in various jurisdictions in order to provide strengthened tenure protection for tenants. The rationale for this analysis is to determine whether the current South African landlord-tenant regime is able to provide adequate tenure protection for vulnerable tenants and therefore in the process of transforming in line with the Constitution. The legal construction of rent control was adopted in pre-1994 South Africa, England and New York City to provide substantive tenure protection for tenants during housing shortages. These statutory interventions in the different private rental markets were justified on the basis that there was a general need to protect tenants against exploitation by landlords. However, the justification for the persistent imposition of rent control in New York City is different since it protects a minority group of financially weak tenants against homelessness. The English landlord-tenant regime highlights the importance of a well-structured social sector that can provide secure, long-term housing options for low-income households who are struggling to access the private rental sector. Additionally, the English rental housing framework shows that if the social sector is functioning as a "safety net" for low-income households, the private sector would be able to uphold

  10. Comparative expression profiling reveals gene functions in female meiosis and gametophyte development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lihua; He, Jiangman; Cai, Hanyang; Lin, Haiyan; Li, Yanqiang; Liu, Renyi; Yang, Zhenbiao; Qin, Yuan

    2014-11-01

    Megasporogenesis is essential for female fertility, and requires the accomplishment of meiosis and the formation of functional megaspores. The inaccessibility and low abundance of female meiocytes make it particularly difficult to elucidate the molecular basis underlying megasporogenesis. We used high-throughput tag-sequencing analysis to identify genes expressed in female meiocytes (FMs) by comparing gene expression profiles from wild-type ovules undergoing megasporogenesis with those from the spl mutant ovules, which lack megasporogenesis. A total of 862 genes were identified as FMs, with levels that are consistently reduced in spl ovules in two biological replicates. Fluorescence-assisted cell sorting followed by RNA-seq analysis of DMC1:GFP-labeled female meiocytes confirmed that 90% of the FMs are indeed detected in the female meiocyte protoplast profiling. We performed reverse genetic analysis of 120 candidate genes and identified four FM genes with a function in female meiosis progression in Arabidopsis. We further revealed that KLU, a putative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, is involved in chromosome pairing during female meiosis, most likely by affecting the normal expression pattern of DMC1 in ovules during female meiosis. Our studies provide valuable information for functional genomic analyses of plant germline development as well as insights into meiosis. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Profile agreement indices in Rietveld and pattern-fitting analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.J.; Fischer, R.X.

    1990-01-01

    Two definitions of profile agreement indices are now in common use for estimating the degree of fit in Rietveld refinement and in structure-independent pattern-fitting methods of powder diffraction analysis. In the original program written by Rietveld, the background was subtracted and the 'non-peak' regions of the pattern were removed from further consideration in a preliminary data-reduction stage prior to structure refinement. However, the agreement indices used in many of the more recent programs retain the background counts in the observed step intensities and include all portions of the pattern in the sums. These latter definitions are strongly dependent on the signal-to-noise ratio and on the relative amount of 'background-only' regions and do not, therefore, provide a sound basis for comparing the degree of fit of peak profile and crystal structure model refinements in the general case. The extent of this dependence is illustrated quantitatively using conventional and synchrotron X-ray and constant-wavelength and time-of-flight neutron data sets with different inherent background levels and peak densities. The unweighted background-corrected peak-only profile agreement index R' p =Σ i vertical strokeY io -Y ic vertical stroke/Σ i vertical strokeY io -Y ib vertical stroke (and, to a lesser extent, its weighted equivalent) is recommended as the most appropriate criterion of fit for comparative work between diffraction patterns of all kinds. (orig.)

  12. First experiences of full-profile analysis with GUISDAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Lehtinen

    Full Text Available In this paper we summarize the theory behind full-profile analysis of IS measurements and report first practical experiences with the GUISDAP (Grand Unified Incoherent Scatter Design and Analysis Package system designed to perform full-profile analysis of any IS measurements efficiently. By fitting whole plasma parameter profiles over the ionosphere, instead of point values of the parameters supposed to be approximately constant over small range intervals, full-profile analysis is free of underlying assumptions about the slow variation of the plasma parameters as a function of range. We define full-profile analysis as a mathematical inversion problem formalism and explain how it differs from the traditional gated analysis. Moreover, we study the bias introduced to traditional analysis results using realistic model ionospheres. By applying the full-profile method to data generated from the model ionospheres, we demonstrate that full-profile analysis is free from this kind of bias. Lastly, an example of analysis of real data by full-profile and gated analyses is shown.

  13. First experiences of full-profile analysis with GUISDAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Lehtinen

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we summarize the theory behind full-profile analysis of IS measurements and report first practical experiences with the GUISDAP (Grand Unified Incoherent Scatter Design and Analysis Package system designed to perform full-profile analysis of any IS measurements efficiently. By fitting whole plasma parameter profiles over the ionosphere, instead of point values of the parameters supposed to be approximately constant over small range intervals, full-profile analysis is free of underlying assumptions about the slow variation of the plasma parameters as a function of range. We define full-profile analysis as a mathematical inversion problem formalism and explain how it differs from the traditional gated analysis. Moreover, we study the bias introduced to traditional analysis results using realistic model ionospheres. By applying the full-profile method to data generated from the model ionospheres, we demonstrate that full-profile analysis is free from this kind of bias. Lastly, an example of analysis of real data by full-profile and gated analyses is shown.

  14. Load profiles analysis for electricity market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Porumb

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of electric power system transition towards smart grids, and the adoption of the electric market schemes, electric utilities are facing the need of a better load profiles understanding for their customers. In this work, some key objectives were addresses, such as definition of the mathematical model for calculating the hourly energy specific, identification of the three target groups for users who have developed consumer profiles, definition of the two types of significant load and assessment of the impact of using consumer profiles on users.

  15. Fractal Analysis of Rock Joint Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audy, Ondřej; Ficker, Tomáš

    2017-10-01

    Surface reliefs of rock joints are analyzed in geotechnics when shear strength of rocky slopes is estimated. The rock joint profiles actually are self-affine fractal curves and computations of their fractal dimensions require special methods. Many papers devoted to the fractal properties of these profiles were published in the past but only a few of those papers employed a convenient computational method that would have guaranteed a sound value of that dimension. As a consequence, anomalously low dimensions were presented. This contribution deals with two computational modifications that lead to sound fractal dimensions of the self-affine rock joint profiles. These are the modified box-counting method and the modified yard-stick method sometimes called the compass method. Both these methods are frequently applied to self-similar fractal curves but the self-affine profile curves due to their self-affine nature require modified computational procedures implemented in computer programs.

  16. Non-invasively predicting differentiation of pancreatic cancer through comparative serum metabonomic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shi; Zhan, Bohan; Feng, Jianghua; Hu, Weize; Lin, Xianchao; Bai, Jianxi; Huang, Heguang

    2017-11-02

    The differentiation of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) could be associated with prognosis and may influence the choices of clinical management. No applicable methods could reliably predict the tumor differentiation preoperatively. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the metabonomic profiling of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma with different differentiations and assess the feasibility of predicting tumor differentiations through metabonomic strategy based on nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. By implanting pancreatic cancer cell strains Panc-1, Bxpc-3 and SW1990 in nude mice in situ, we successfully established the orthotopic xenograft models of PDAC with different differentiations. The metabonomic profiling of serum from different PDAC was achieved and analyzed by using 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy combined with the multivariate statistical analysis. Then, the differential metabolites acquired were used for enrichment analysis of metabolic pathways to get a deep insight. An obvious metabonomic difference was demonstrated between all groups and the pattern recognition models were established successfully. The higher concentrations of amino acids, glycolytic and glutaminolytic participators in SW1990 and choline-contain metabolites in Panc-1 relative to other PDAC cells were demonstrated, which may be served as potential indicators for tumor differentiation. The metabolic pathways and differential metabolites identified in current study may be associated with specific pathways such as serine-glycine-one-carbon and glutaminolytic pathways, which can regulate tumorous proliferation and epigenetic regulation. The NMR-based metabonomic strategy may be served as a non-invasive detection method for predicting tumor differentiation preoperatively.

  17. Molecular profiling--a tool for addressing emerging gaps in the comparative risk assessment of GMOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Jack A; Kurenbach, Brigitta; Quist, David

    2011-10-01

    Assessing the risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is required by both international agreement and domestic legislation. Many view the use of the "omics" tools for profiling classes of molecules as useful in risk assessment, but no consensus has formed on the need or value of these techniques for assessing the risks of all GMOs. In this and many other cases, experts support case-by-case use of molecular profiling techniques for risk assessment. We review the latest research on the applicability and usefulness of molecular profiling techniques for GMO risk assessment. As more and more kinds of GMOs and traits are developed, broader use of molecular profiling in a risk assessment may be required to supplement the comparative approach to risk assessment. The literature-based discussions on the use of profiling appear to have settled on two findings: 1. profiling techniques are reliable and relevant, at least no less so than other techniques used in risk assessment; and 2. although not required routinely, regulators should be aware of when they are needed. The dismissal of routine molecular profiling may be confusing to regulators who then lack guidance on when molecular profiling might be worthwhile. Molecular profiling is an important way to increase confidence in risk assessments if the profiles are properly designed to address relevant risks and are applied at the correct stage of the assessment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparing risk profiles of individuals diagnosed with diabetes by OGTT and HbA1c

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, R.; Vistisen, D.; Witte, D.R.

    2010-01-01

    Glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) has been proposed as an alternative to the oral glucose tolerance test for diagnosing diabetes. We compared the cardiovascular risk profile of individuals identified by these two alternative methods.......Glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) has been proposed as an alternative to the oral glucose tolerance test for diagnosing diabetes. We compared the cardiovascular risk profile of individuals identified by these two alternative methods....

  19. Comparative metabolite profiling of Solanum tuberosum against six wild Solanum species with Colorado potato beetle resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Helen H; Worrall, Kraig; Pelletier, Yvan; De Koeyer, David; Calhoun, Larry A

    2014-09-10

    The Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (CPB) is a coleopteran herbivore that feeds on the foliage on Solanum species, in particular, potato. Six resistant wild Solanum species were identified, and two of these species had low levels of glycoalkaloids. Comparative analysis of the untargeted metabolite profiles of the foliage using UPLC-qTOF-MS was done to find metabolites shared between the wild species but not with Solanum tuberosum (L.) to identify resistance-related metabolites. It was found that only S. tuberosum produced the triose glycoalkaloids solanine and chaconine. Instead, the six wild species produced glycoalkaloids that shared in common tetrose sugar side chains. Additionally, there were non-glycoalkaloid metabolites associated with resistance including hydroxycoumarin and a phenylpropanoid, which were produced in all wild species but not in S. tuberosum.

  20. Comparing cultural profiles of MCR operators with those of non-MCR operators working in domestic Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea

    2015-01-01

    Operation experience of complex socio-technical systems such as Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) shows that most significant events are attributable to human error. Thus, various kinds of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) techniques were used to manage human error for safety-critical tasks. However, a lack of available HRA data is a critical issue in conducting an HRA. For this reason, many researchers have tried to provide HRA data extracted from simulated emergency conditions. Unfortunately, it is still doubtful to directly use these HRA data because different operational cultures may result in different human performances even under a similar task context. From this concern, previous studies claimed that Main Control Room (MCR) operators working in different NPPs share very similar cultural profile. In order to confirm this claim, the culture profiles of operating personnel (i.e., non-MCR and MCR operators) working in domestic NPPs are compared. As a result, although some discrepancies are observed, it is positive to say that operating personnel of NPPs share similar cultural profiles to some extent. This result can be regarded as the first step to provide technical underpinnings that are helpful for understanding human performance data collected from different countries. - Highlights: • National and organizational culture of MCR and non-MCR operators are compared. • Organizational culture profiles are almost identical. • National culture profiles are not quite different overall. • Operating personnel in Nuclear Power Plants seems to share similar cultural profiles

  1. Reproducibility of Cognitive Profiles in Psychosis Using Cluster Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Kathryn E; Baker, Justin T; McCarthy, Julie M; Norris, Lesley A; Öngür, Dost

    2018-04-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is a core symptom dimension that cuts across the psychoses. Recent findings support classification of patients along the cognitive dimension using cluster analysis; however, data-derived groupings may be highly determined by sampling characteristics and the measures used to derive the clusters, and so their interpretability must be established. We examined cognitive clusters in a cross-diagnostic sample of patients with psychosis and associations with clinical and functional outcomes. We then compared our findings to a previous report of cognitive clusters in a separate sample using a different cognitive battery. Participants with affective or non-affective psychosis (n=120) and healthy controls (n=31) were administered the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery, and clinical and community functioning assessments. Cluster analyses were performed on cognitive variables, and clusters were compared on demographic, cognitive, and clinical measures. Results were compared to findings from our previous report. A four-cluster solution provided a good fit to the data; profiles included a neuropsychologically normal cluster, a globally impaired cluster, and two clusters of mixed profiles. Cognitive burden was associated with symptom severity and poorer community functioning. The patterns of cognitive performance by cluster were highly consistent with our previous findings. We found evidence of four cognitive subgroups of patients with psychosis, with cognitive profiles that map closely to those produced in our previous work. Clusters were associated with clinical and community variables and a measure of premorbid functioning, suggesting that they reflect meaningful groupings: replicable, and related to clinical presentation and functional outcomes. (JINS, 2018, 24, 382-390).

  2. Profiling School Shooters: Automatic Text-Based Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair eNeuman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available School shooters present a challenge to both forensic psychiatry and law enforcement agencies. The relatively small number of school shooters, their various charateristics, and the lack of in-depth analysis of all of the shooters prior to the shooting add complexity to our understanding of this problem. In this short paper, we introduce a new methodology for automatically profiling school shooters. The methodology involves automatic analysis of texts and the production of several measures relevant for the identification of the shooters. Comparing texts written by six school shooters to 6056 texts written by a comparison group of male subjects, we found that the shooters' texts scored significantly higher on the Narcissistic Personality dimension as well as on the Humilated and Revengeful dimensions. Using a ranking/priorization procedure, similar to the one used for the automatic identification of sexual predators, we provide support for the validity and relevance of the proposed methodology.

  3. Qualitative Analysis of Commercial Social Network Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, Lester; Wolfson, Ouri; Adjouadi, Malek; Rishe, Naphtali

    Social-networking sites have become an integral part of many users' daily internet routine. Commercial enterprises have been quick to recognize this and are subsequently creating profiles for many of their products and services. Commercial enterprises use social network profiles to target and interact with potential customers as well as to provide a gateway for users of the product or service to interact with each other. Many commercial enterprises use the statistics from their product or service's social network profile to tout the popularity and success of the product or service being showcased. They will use statistics such as number of friends, number of daily visits, number of interactions, and other similar measurements to quantify their claims. These statistics are often not a clear indication of the true popularity and success of the product. In this chapter the term product is used to refer to any tangible or intangible product, service, celebrity, personality, film, book, or other entity produced by a commercial enterprise.

  4. Profile and Risk Factor Analysis of Unintentional Injuries in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhamkar, Rahul; Seth, Bageshree; Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-10-01

    To study the profile and various risk factors associated with unintentional injuries in children. The study is a cross sectional analysis of data collected from 351 children presenting with unintentional injury to a tertiary care hospital in Navi Mumbai, India. Data were collected about variables based on Haddon Phase Factor Matrix - host, environment and agent factors. Proportions for categorical variables across various groups were compared using Chi square test or Fisher's exact test. Logistic regression model was used to evaluate the factors. Falls (36 %) were the most common injuries followed by bites (23 %). Majority of children were school going children (38 %) followed by preschool children (29 %). Forty-seven percent were from lower socioeconomic class. Commonest place of injury was home (48 %) and the commonest time was evening (49 %). Though there was male predominance in injuries, the difference across gender did not vary significantly (p = 0.15). Poisonings were significantly more common in infants and toddlers and in rural population (p risk of bites compared to urban (p Profile of injuries varies widely as per the variations in agent, host and environmental factors. Socio-environmental, economic conditions and infancy-toddler age groups are predisposing risk factors for bites and poisoning. Although rural areas and lower socioeconomic class population are more vulnerable to serious types of injuries, they still lack essential basic medical care.

  5. RNA amplification for successful gene profiling analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ena

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study of clinical samples is often limited by the amount of material available to study. While proteins cannot be multiplied in their natural form, DNA and RNA can be amplified from small specimens and used for high-throughput analyses. Therefore, genetic studies offer the best opportunity to screen for novel insights of human pathology when little material is available. Precise estimates of DNA copy numbers in a given specimen are necessary. However, most studies investigate static variables such as the genetic background of patients or mutations within pathological specimens without a need to assess proportionality of expression among different genes throughout the genome. Comparative genomic hybridization of DNA samples represents a crude exception to this rule since genomic amplification or deletion is compared among different specimens directly. For gene expression analysis, however, it is critical to accurately estimate the proportional expression of distinct RNA transcripts since such proportions directly govern cell function by modulating protein expression. Furthermore, comparative estimates of relative RNA expression at different time points portray the response of cells to environmental stimuli, indirectly informing about broader biological events affecting a particular tissue in physiological or pathological conditions. This cognitive reaction of cells is similar to the detection of electroencephalographic patterns which inform about the status of the brain in response to external stimuli. As our need to understand human pathophysiology at the global level increases, the development and refinement of technologies for high fidelity messenger RNA amplification have become the focus of increasing interest during the past decade. The need to increase the abundance of RNA has been met not only for gene specific amplification, but, most importantly for global transcriptome wide, unbiased amplification. Now gene

  6. Contact traction analysis for profile change during coining process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Kyu; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kang, Heung Seok; Song, Kee Nam

    2002-01-01

    Contact tractions are analysed in the case of the change in contact profile occurring during the coining process of a thin strip material. The changed profile is assumed as a concave circular arc in the central part of the contact region which is smoothly connected with convex circular arcs at both sides, referring to the actual measurement of the coined material. The profile is discretized and the known solutions of singular integral equations are used. Since the contact profile affects the contact traction and relevant tribological behaviour (e.g. wear) as well, an accurate definition of the profile is necessary in the analysis of material failure. Parametric study is conducted with the variation of the radii and distance of the arcs, which defines the height difference between the summits of the arcs. Considered is the contact profile, which can give the negligible variation of the traction in comparison with that before the coining process

  7. Analysis of BSRT Profiles in the LHC at Injection

    CERN Document Server

    Fitterer, M; Papadopoulou, S; Papaphilippou, Y; Redaelli, S

    2017-01-01

    The beam synchrotron radiation telescope (BSRT) at the LHC allows to take profiles of the transverse beam distribution, which can provide useful additional insight in the evolution of the transverse beam distribution. A python class has been developed [1], which allows to read in the BSRT profiles, usually stored in binary format, run different analysis tools and generate plots of the statistical parameters and profiles as well as videos of the the profiles. The detailed analysis will be described in this note. The analysis is based on the data obtained at injection energy (450 GeV) during MD1217 [2] and MD1415 [3] which will be also used as illustrative example. A similar approach is also taken with a MATLAB based analysis described in [4].

  8. The profile analysis of attempted-suicide patients referred to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The profile analysis of attempted-suicide patients referred to Pelonomi ... The main precipitating factors included problematic relationships (55.4%), ... physical – 18.2%), low self-esteem/ worthlessness/hopelessness/humiliation (16.7%), and

  9. A Comparative Study on Error Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Title: A Comparative Study on Error Analysis Subtitle: - Belgian (L1) and Danish (L1) learners’ use of Chinese (L2) comparative sentences in written production Xiaoli Wu, Chun Zhang Abstract: Making errors is an inevitable and necessary part of learning. The collection, classification and analysis...... the occurrence of errors either in linguistic or pedagogical terms. The purpose of the current study is to demonstrate the theoretical and practical relevance of error analysis approach in CFL by investigating two cases - (1) Belgian (L1) learners’ use of Chinese (L2) comparative sentences in written production...... of errors in the written and spoken production of L2 learners has a long tradition in L2 pedagogy. Yet, in teaching and learning Chinese as a foreign language (CFL), only handful studies have been made either to define the ‘error’ in a pedagogically insightful way or to empirically investigate...

  10. Compared sub-bottom profile interpretation in fjords of King George Island and Danco Coast, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, C.; Vilches, L.; Vallejos, C.; Fernandez, R.; Molares, R.

    2015-12-01

    The fjords of the South Shetland Islands (Antarctica) and Danco Coast (Antarctic Peninsula) represent climatic transitional areas (subpolar to polar). The analysis of the distribution of sub-bottom facies helps to understand the prevailing sedimentary and climatic processes. This work seeks to characterize and compare the fjord seismic facies, of the indicated areas, to determine the main sedimentary processes in these regions. Compressed High-Intensity Radiated Pulse (CHIRP) records from 3.5 kHz sub-bottom profiler were obtained from the cruise: NBP0703 (2007); and pinger 3.5 kHz sub-bottom profiler records from the cruises: ECA-50 INACH (2014), and First Colombian Expedition (2015). Several seismic facies were recognized in all studied areas with some variability on their thickness and extent, and indicate the occurrence of similar sedimentary processes. These are: SSD facies (strong to weak intensity, stratified, draped sheet external shape), is interpreted as sedimentary deposits originated from suspended sediments from glaciar plumes and/or ice-rafting. This facies, in general, is thicker in the fjords of King George Island than in the larger fjords of the Danco Coast; on the other hand, within the Danco Coast area, this facies is thinner and more scarce in the smaller fjords and bays. MCM facies (moderate intensity, chaotic and with mounds) is associated with moraine deposits and/or basement. This is present in all areas, being most abundant in the Danco Coast area. WIC facies (weak intensity and chaotic) is interpreted as debris flows, which are present in both regions, but is most common in small fjords or bays in the Danco Coast, perhaps due to higher slopes of the seabed. In this work we discuss the influence of local climate, sediment plumes from the glaciers and other sedimentary processes on the distribution and geometry of the identified seismic facies.

  11. Comparative analysis of Carnaval II Library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Bastos, W. dos

    1981-01-01

    The Carnaval II cross sections library from the french fast reactor calculation system is evaluated in two ways: 1 0 ) a comparative analysis of the calculations system for fast reactors at IEN (Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear) using a 'benchmark' model is done; 2 0 ) a comparative analysis in relation to the french system itself is also done, using calculations realized with two versions of the french library: the SETR-II and the CARNAVAL IV, the first one being anterior and the second one posterior to the Carnaval II version, the one used by IEN. (Author) [pt

  12. Neutron activation analysis-comparative (NAAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, W.H.

    1979-01-01

    A software system for the reduction of comparative neutron activation analysis data is presented. Libraries are constructed to contain the elemental composition and isotopic nuclear data of an unlimited number of standards. Ratios to unknown sample data are performed by standard calibrations. Interfering peak corrections, second-order activation-product corrections, and deconvolution of multiplets are applied automatically. Passive gamma-energy analysis can be performed with the same software. 3 figures

  13. Spectral Analysis of Vector Magnetic Field Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Robert L.; OBrien, Michael S.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the power spectra and cross spectra derived from the three components of the vector magnetic field measured on a straight horizontal path above a statistically stationary source. All of these spectra, which can be estimated from the recorded time series, are related to a single two-dimensional power spectral density via integrals that run in the across-track direction in the wavenumber domain. Thus the measured spectra must obey a number of strong constraints: for example, the sum of the two power spectral densities of the two horizontal field components equals the power spectral density of the vertical component at every wavenumber and the phase spectrum between the vertical and along-track components is always pi/2. These constraints provide powerful checks on the quality of the measured data; if they are violated, measurement or environmental noise should be suspected. The noise due to errors of orientation has a clear characteristic; both the power and phase spectra of the components differ from those of crustal signals, which makes orientation noise easy to detect and to quantify. The spectra of the crustal signals can be inverted to obtain information about the cross-track structure of the field. We illustrate these ideas using a high-altitude Project Magnet profile flown in the southeastern Pacific Ocean.

  14. Cephalometric profile of Bangladeshis: Tweed's analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Md Rizvi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tweed's diagnostic triangle is simple yet provides a definite guideline in treatment planning. The aim of the present study was to establish the Tweed's norms for Bangladeshi people. Methods: The study was conducted for 89 Bangladeshi young adults (45 males and 44 females, aged 19–27 years, having balanced and harmonious facial profiles. Lateral cephalograms taken of these subjects were used for a series of morphometric analyses. Results: All three angular parameters Frankfort-mandibular plane angle (FMA, Frankfort-mandibular incisal angle (FMIA, incise mandibular plane angle (IMPAwere measured and found to be 24.52°, 54.60°, and 100.88°, respectively. The mean FMA has been found to be 24.52° (with a range of 14°–36° which is quite close to Tweed's norm and found to be statistically insignificant. However, IMPA and FMIA values of Bangladeshis found to be statistically significantly different from that of the Caucasians. The linear regression equation of IMPA on FMA was fitted, and the estimated value of IMPA was computed for a given FMA. Conclusion: The results support the idea that treatment objectives of IMPA should be considered according to the facial pattern, i.e., FMA. Ethnic variations of norms cannot be overlooked while outlining goals and planning the treatment.

  15. Dissociative features in posttraumatic stress disorder: A latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Műllerová, Jana; Hansen, Maj; Contractor, Ateka A; Elhai, Jon D; Armour, Cherie

    2016-09-01

    The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) characterizes the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in terms of the individual meeting the criteria for PTSD and additionally reporting symptoms of depersonalization and/or derealization. The current study aimed to examine whether a dissociative PTSD profile may include alternative features of dissociation and whether it could be differentiated from a nondissociative PTSD profile on certain psychopathologies and demographics. Data from 309 trauma-exposed participants, collected through Amazon Mechanical Turk, were subjected to latent profile analysis. Regression analyses were used to examine the predictors of latent classes. Three discrete profiles named Baseline, PTSD, and Dissociative profile were uncovered. All examined features of dissociation were significantly elevated in the Dissociative profile. Anxiety, male sex, being employed, and having a minority racial background significantly predicted the Dissociative profile relative to the PTSD profile. The study points to the importance of alternative symptoms of dissociation in the dissociative PTSD subtype beyond the symptoms of depersonalization and derealization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Comparative analysis of traditional and alternative energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Csikósová

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The presented thesis with designation of Comparing analysis of traditional and alternative energy resources includes, on basisof theoretical information source, research in firm, internal data, trends in company development and market, descriptionof the problem and its application. Theoretical information source is dedicated to the traditional and alternative energy resources,reserves of it, trends in using and development, the balance of it in the world, EU and in Slovakia as well. Analysis of the thesisis reflecting profile of the company and the thermal pump market evaluation using General Electric method. While the companyis implementing, except other products, the thermal pumps on geothermal energy base and surround energy base (air, the missionof the comparing analysis is to compare traditional energy resources with thermal pump from the ecological, utility and economic sideof it. The results of the comparing analysis are resumed in to the SWOT analysis. The part of the thesis includes he questionnaire offerfor effectiveness improvement and customer satisfaction analysis, and expected possibilities of alternative energy resources assistance(benefits from the government and EU funds.

  17. Diagnose Test-Taker's Profile in Terms of Core Profile Patterns: Principal Component (PC) vs. Profile Analysis via MDS (PAMS) Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kang; Davison, Mark L.

    A study was conducted to examine how principal components analysis (PCA) and Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) can be used to diagnose individuals observed score profiles in terms of core profile patterns identified by each method. The standardization sample from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third Edition…

  18. Comparing mixing-length models of the diabatic wind profile over homogeneous terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    2010-01-01

    Models of the diabatic wind profile over homogeneous terrain for the entire atmospheric boundary layer are developed using mixing-length theory and are compared to wind speed observations up to 300 m at the National Test Station for Wind Turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. The measurements are performe...

  19. Comparative Economic Analysis of Beekeeping Using Traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out in Tabora and Katavi regions in the miombo woodlands of Tanzania. The overall objective of the study was to undertake a comparative economic analysis of beekeeping using improved or traditional beehives. Data were collected from 198 beekeepers that were randomly selected from a sampling ...

  20. Comparative analysis of technical efficiencies between compound ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to compare the level of technical efficiency in the compound and non compound farms in Imo state. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 120 food crop farmers from two out of the three agricultural zones in Imo state. Using the Chow (1960) analysis of covariance technique ...

  1. MycoCAP - Mycobacterium Comparative Analysis Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Siew Woh; Ang, Mia Yang; Dutta, Avirup; Tan, Shi Yang; Siow, Cheuk Chuen; Heydari, Hamed; Mutha, Naresh V R; Wee, Wei Yee; Wong, Guat Jah

    2015-12-15

    Mycobacterium spp. are renowned for being the causative agent of diseases like leprosy, Buruli ulcer and tuberculosis in human beings. With more and more mycobacterial genomes being sequenced, any knowledge generated from comparative genomic analysis would provide better insights into the biology, evolution, phylogeny and pathogenicity of this genus, thus helping in better management of diseases caused by Mycobacterium spp.With this motivation, we constructed MycoCAP, a new comparative analysis platform dedicated to the important genus Mycobacterium. This platform currently provides information of 2108 genome sequences of at least 55 Mycobacterium spp. A number of intuitive web-based tools have been integrated in MycoCAP particularly for comparative analysis including the PGC tool for comparison between two genomes, PathoProT for comparing the virulence genes among the Mycobacterium strains and the SuperClassification tool for the phylogenic classification of the Mycobacterium strains and a specialized classification system for strains of Mycobacterium abscessus. We hope the broad range of functions and easy-to-use tools provided in MycoCAP makes it an invaluable analysis platform to speed up the research discovery on mycobacteria for researchers. Database URL: http://mycobacterium.um.edu.my.

  2. Comparative gene expression profiles between heterotic and non-heterotic hybrids of tetraploid Medicago sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nettleton Dan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterosis, the superior performance of hybrids relative to parents, has clear agricultural value, but its genetic control is unknown. Our objective was to test the hypotheses that hybrids expressing heterosis for biomass yield would show more gene expression levels that were different from midparental values and outside the range of parental values than hybrids that do not exhibit heterosis. Results We tested these hypotheses in three Medicago sativa (alfalfa genotypes and their three hybrids, two of which expressed heterosis for biomass yield and a third that did not, using Affymetrix M. truncatula GeneChip arrays. Alfalfa hybridized to approximately 47% of the M. truncatula probe sets. Probe set signal intensities were analyzed using MicroArray Suite v.5.0 (MAS and robust multi-array average (RMA algorithms. Based on MAS analysis, the two heterotic hybrids performed similarly, with about 27% of genes showing differential expression among the parents and their hybrid compared to 12.5% for the non-heterotic hybrid. At a false discovery rate of 0.15, 4.7% of differentially expressed genes in hybrids (~300 genes showed nonadditive expression compared to only 0.5% (16 genes in the non-heterotic hybrid. Of the nonadditively expressed genes, approximately 50% showed expression levels that fell outside the parental range in heterotic hybrids, but only one of 16 showed a similar profile in the non-heterotic hybrid. Genes whose expression differed in the parents were three times more likely to show nonadditive expression than genes whose parental transcript levels were equal. Conclusion The higher proportions of probe sets with expression level that differed from the parental midparent value and that were more extreme than either parental value in the heterotic hybrids compared to a non-heterotic hybrid were also found using RMA. We conclude that nonadditive expression of transcript levels may contribute to heterosis for biomass

  3. Diagnosing MOV problems using comparative trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents the concept of comparative trace analysis and shows it to be very effective in diagnosing motor operated valve (MOV) problems. Comparative trace analysis is simply the process of interpreting simultaneously gathered traces, each presenting a different perspective on the same series of events. The opening and closing of a motor operated valve is such a series of events. The simultaneous traces are obtained using Liberty Technologies' Valve Operation Test and Evaluation System (VOTES)reg-sign. The traces include stem thrust, motor current, motor power factor, motor power, switch actuations, vibration in three different frequency bands, spring pack displacement, and spring pack force. Spare and auxiliary channels enable additional key parameters to be measured, such as differential pressure and stem displacement. Though not specifically illustrated in this paper, the VOTES system also provides for FFT analysis on all traces except switches

  4. The Urine Proteome Profile Is Different in Neuromyelitis Optica Compared to Multiple Sclerosis: A Clinical Proteome Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle H Nielsen

    Full Text Available Inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the CNS comprise a broad spectrum of diseases like neuromyelitis optica (NMO, NMO spectrum disorders (NMO-SD and multiple sclerosis (MS. Despite clear classification criteria, differentiation can be difficult. We hypothesized that the urine proteome may differentiate NMO from MS.The proteins in urine samples from anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4 seropositive NMO/NMO-SD patients (n = 32, patients with MS (n = 46 and healthy subjects (HS, n = 31 were examined by quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS after trypsin digestion and iTRAQ labelling. Immunoglobulins (Ig in the urine were validated by nephelometry in an independent cohort (n = 9-10 pr. groups.The analysis identified a total of 1112 different proteins of which 333 were shared by all 109 subjects. Cluster analysis revealed differences in the urine proteome of NMO/NMO-SD compared to HS and MS. Principal component analysis also suggested that the NMO/NMO-SD proteome profile was useful for classification. Multivariate regression analysis revealed a 3-protein profile for the NMO/NMO-SD versus HS discrimination, a 6-protein profile for NMO/NMO-SD versus MS discrimination and an 11-protein profile for MS versus HS discrimination. All protein panels yielded highly significant ROC curves (AUC in all cases >0.85, p≤0.0002. Nephelometry confirmed the presence of increased Ig-light chains in the urine of patients with NMO/NMO-SD.The urine proteome profile of patients with NMO/NMO-SD is different from MS and HS. This may reflect differences in the pathogenesis of NMO/NMO-SD versus MS and suggests that urine may be a potential source of biomarkers differentiating NMO/NMO-SD from MS.

  5. Initial development of an automated task analysis profiling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgensen, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    A program for automated task analysis is described. Called TAPS (task analysis profiling system), the program accepts normal English prose and outputs skills, knowledges, attitudes, and abilities (SKAAs) along with specific guidance and recommended ability measurement tests for nuclear power plant operators. A new method for defining SKAAs is presented along with a sample program output

  6. Comparative genomic mapping of the bovine Fragile Histidine Triad (FHIT tumour suppressor gene: characterization of a 2 Mb BAC contig covering the locus, complete annotation of the gene, analysis of cDNA and of physiological expression profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boussaha Mekki

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Fragile Histidine Triad gene (FHIT is an oncosuppressor implicated in many human cancers, including vesical tumors. FHIT is frequently hit by deletions caused by fragility at FRA3B, the most active of human common fragile sites, where FHIT lays. Vesical tumors affect also cattle, including animals grazing in the wild on bracken fern; compounds released by the fern are known to induce chromosome fragility and may trigger cancer with the interplay of latent Papilloma virus. Results The bovine FHIT was characterized by assembling a contig of 78 BACs. Sequence tags were designed on human exons and introns and used directly to select bovine BACs, or compared with sequence data in the bovine genome database or in the trace archive of the bovine genome sequencing project, and adapted before use. FHIT is split in ten exons like in man, with exons 5 to 9 coding for a 149 amino acids protein. VISTA global alignments between bovine genomic contigs retrieved from the bovine genome database and the human FHIT region were performed. Conservation was extremely high over a 2 Mb region spanning the whole FHIT locus, including the size of introns. Thus, the bovine FHIT covers about 1.6 Mb compared to 1.5 Mb in man. Expression was analyzed by RT-PCR and Northern blot, and was found to be ubiquitous. Four cDNA isoforms were isolated and sequenced, that originate from an alternative usage of three variants of exon 4, revealing a size very close to the major human FHIT cDNAs. Conclusion A comparative genomic approach allowed to assemble a contig of 78 BACs and to completely annotate a 1.6 Mb region spanning the bovine FHIT gene. The findings confirmed the very high level of conservation between human and bovine genomes and the importance of comparative mapping to speed the annotation process of the recently sequenced bovine genome. The detailed knowledge of the genomic FHIT region will allow to study the role of FHIT in bovine cancerogenesis

  7. Comparative genomic mapping of the bovine Fragile Histidine Triad (FHIT) tumour suppressor gene: characterization of a 2 Mb BAC contig covering the locus, complete annotation of the gene, analysis of cDNA and of physiological expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uboldi, Cristina; Guidi, Elena; Roperto, Sante; Russo, Valeria; Roperto, Franco; Di Meo, Giulia Pia; Iannuzzi, Leopoldo; Floriot, Sandrine; Boussaha, Mekki; Eggen, André; Ferretti, Luca

    2006-05-23

    The Fragile Histidine Triad gene (FHIT) is an oncosuppressor implicated in many human cancers, including vesical tumors. FHIT is frequently hit by deletions caused by fragility at FRA3B, the most active of human common fragile sites, where FHIT lays. Vesical tumors affect also cattle, including animals grazing in the wild on bracken fern; compounds released by the fern are known to induce chromosome fragility and may trigger cancer with the interplay of latent Papilloma virus. The bovine FHIT was characterized by assembling a contig of 78 BACs. Sequence tags were designed on human exons and introns and used directly to select bovine BACs, or compared with sequence data in the bovine genome database or in the trace archive of the bovine genome sequencing project, and adapted before use. FHIT is split in ten exons like in man, with exons 5 to 9 coding for a 149 amino acids protein. VISTA global alignments between bovine genomic contigs retrieved from the bovine genome database and the human FHIT region were performed. Conservation was extremely high over a 2 Mb region spanning the whole FHIT locus, including the size of introns. Thus, the bovine FHIT covers about 1.6 Mb compared to 1.5 Mb in man. Expression was analyzed by RT-PCR and Northern blot, and was found to be ubiquitous. Four cDNA isoforms were isolated and sequenced, that originate from an alternative usage of three variants of exon 4, revealing a size very close to the major human FHIT cDNAs. A comparative genomic approach allowed to assemble a contig of 78 BACs and to completely annotate a 1.6 Mb region spanning the bovine FHIT gene. The findings confirmed the very high level of conservation between human and bovine genomes and the importance of comparative mapping to speed the annotation process of the recently sequenced bovine genome. The detailed knowledge of the genomic FHIT region will allow to study the role of FHIT in bovine cancerogenesis, especially of vesical papillomavirus-associated cancers of

  8. Comparing effects of perfusion and hydrostatic pressure on gene profiles of human chondrocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ge; Mayer-Wagner, Susanne; Schröder, Christian; Woiczinski, Matthias; Blum, Helmut; Lavagi, Ilaria; Krebs, Stefan; Redeker, Julia I; Hölzer, Andreas; Jansson, Volkmar; Betz, Oliver; Müller, Peter E

    2015-09-20

    Hydrostatic pressure and perfusion have been shown to regulate the chondrogenic potential of articular chondrocytes. In order to compare the effects of hydrostatic pressure plus perfusion (HPP) and perfusion (P) we investigated the complete gene expression profiles of human chondrocytes under HPP and P. A simplified bioreactor was constructed to apply loading (0.1 MPa for 2 h) and perfusion (2 ml) through the same piping by pressurizing the medium directly. High-density monolayer cultures of human chondrocytes were exposed to HPP or P for 4 days. Controls (C) were maintained in static cultures. Gene expression was evaluated by sequencing (RNAseq) and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Both treatments changed gene expression levels of human chondrocytes significantly. Specifically, HPP and P increased COL2A1 expression and decreased COL1A1 and MMP-13 expression. Despite of these similarities, RNAseq revealed a list of cartilage genes including ACAN, ITGA10 and TNC, which were differentially expressed by HPP and P. Of these candidates, adhesion related molecules were found to be upregulated in HPP. Both HPP and P treatment had beneficial effects on chondrocyte differentiation and decreased catabolic enzyme expression. The study provides new insight into how hydrostatic pressure and perfusion enhance cartilage differentiation and inhibit catabolic effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. National Launch System comparative economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, A.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from an analysis of economic benefits (or losses), in the form of the life cycle cost savings, resulting from the development of the National Launch System (NLS) family of launch vehicles. The analysis was carried out by comparing various NLS-based architectures with the current Shuttle/Titan IV fleet. The basic methodology behind this NLS analysis was to develop a set of annual payload requirements for the Space Station Freedom and LEO, to design launch vehicle architectures around these requirements, and to perform life-cycle cost analyses on all of the architectures. A SEI requirement was included. Launch failure costs were estimated and combined with the relative reliability assumptions to measure the effects of losses. Based on the analysis, a Shuttle/NLS architecture evolving into a pressurized-logistics-carrier/NLS architecture appears to offer the best long-term cost benefit.

  10. Ion induced optical emission for surface and depth profile analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, C.W.

    1977-01-01

    Low-energy ion bombardment of solid surfaces results in the emission of infrared, visible, and ultraviolet radiation produced by inelastic ion-solid collision processes. The emitted optical radiation provides important insight into low-energy particle-solid interactions and provides the basis for an analysis technique which can be used for surface and depth profile analysis with high sensitivity. The different kinds of collision induced optical radiation emitted as a result of low-energy particle-solid collisions are reviewed. Line radiation arising from excited states of sputtered atoms or molecules is shown to provide the basis for surface and depth profile analysis. The spectral characteristics of this type of radiation are discussed and applications of the ion induced optical emission technique are presented. These applications include measurements of ion implant profiles, detection sensitivities for submonolayer quantities of impurities on elemental surfaces, and the detection of elemental impurities on complex organic substrates

  11. Consumer profile analysis for different types of meat in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriba-Perez, Carmen; Baviera-Puig, Amparo; Buitrago-Vera, Juan; Montero-Vicente, Luis

    2017-07-01

    It is important to analyse the consumer profile of each type of meat to better adapt the marketing mix to each one. To this end, we examined the average consumption frequency of different types of meat based on two methodologies: consumer segmentation using the food-related lifestyle (FRL) framework, giving rise to 4 segments, and analysis of socio-demographic profiles. The variables used were: sex, age, educational level, social class, number of people in the household, presence of children younger than 18 in the home, geographical area and habitual residence. Beef was the only meat type significant in both analyses. Turkey meat only appeared as significant in the FRL analysis. The other meats (chicken, pork, rabbit and lamb) were only significant in the sociodemographic variables analysis. From the outcomes we may conclude that there is no single consumer profile, which rather depends on the type of meat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Construction of the first compendium of chemical-genetic profiles in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and comparative compendium approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sangjo [Bioinformatics Lab, Healthcare Group, SK Telecom, 9-1, Sunae-dong, Pundang-gu, Sungnam-si, Kyunggi-do 463-784 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Minho [Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hyeshik [Department of Biological Science, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanakro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Miyoung [Department of New Drug Discovery and Development, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Han-Oh [Bioneer Corp., 8-11 Munpyeongseo-ro, Daedeok-gu, Daejeon 306-220 (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Youn-Sig [Department of Applied Biology, Gyeongsang National University, 501 Jinju-daero, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Hye-jeong [Aging Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dongsup [Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Sung-Ook [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Inha University Hospital, 7-206 Sinheung-dong, Jung-gu, Incheon 400-711 (Korea, Republic of); Hoe, Kwang-Lae [Department of New Drug Discovery and Development, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Uk [Aging Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •The first compendium of chemical-genetic profiles form fission yeast was generated. •The first HTS of drug mode-of-action in fission yeast was performed. •The first comparative chemical genetic analysis between two yeasts was conducted. -- Abstract: Genome-wide chemical genetic profiles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae since the budding yeast deletion library construction have been successfully used to reveal unknown mode-of-actions of drugs. Here, we introduce comparative approach to infer drug target proteins more accurately using two compendiums of chemical-genetic profiles from the budding yeast S. cerevisiae and the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. For the first time, we established DNA-chip based growth defect measurement of genome-wide deletion strains of S. pombe, and then applied 47 drugs to the pooled heterozygous deletion strains to generate chemical-genetic profiles in S. pombe. In our approach, putative drug targets were inferred from strains hypersensitive to given drugs by analyzing S. pombe and S. cerevisiae compendiums. Notably, many evidences in the literature revealed that the inferred target genes of fungicide and bactericide identified by such comparative approach are in fact the direct targets. Furthermore, by filtering out the genes with no essentiality, the multi-drug sensitivity genes, and the genes with less eukaryotic conservation, we created a set of drug target gene candidates that are expected to be directly affected by a given drug in human cells. Our study demonstrated that it is highly beneficial to construct the multiple compendiums of chemical genetic profiles using many different species. The fission yeast chemical-genetic compendium is available at (http://pombe.kaist.ac.kr/compendium)

  13. Comparative transcript profiling of the fertile and sterile flower buds of pol CMS in B. napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hong; Yang, Zonghui; Yi, Bin; Wen, Jing; Shen, Jinxiong; Tu, Jinxing; Ma, Chaozhi; Fu, Tingdong

    2014-04-03

    The Polima (pol) system of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and its fertility restoration gene Rfp have been used in hybrid breeding in Brassica napus, which has greatly improved the yield of rapeseed. However, the mechanism of the male sterility transition in pol CMS remains to be determined. To investigate the transcriptome during the male sterility transition in pol CMS, a near-isogenic line (NIL) of pol CMS was constructed. The phenotypic features and sterility stage were confirmed by anatomical analysis. Subsequently, we compared the genomic expression profiles of fertile and sterile young flower buds by RNA-Seq. A total of 105,481,136 sequences were successfully obtained. These reads were assembled into 112,770 unigenes, which composed the transcriptome of the bud. Among these unigenes, 72,408 (64.21%) were annotated using public protein databases and classified into functional clusters. In addition, we investigated the changes in expression of the fertile and sterile buds; the RNA-seq data showed 1,148 unigenes had significantly different expression and they were mainly distributed in metabolic and protein synthesis pathways. Additionally, some unigenes controlling anther development were dramatically down-regulated in sterile buds. These results suggested that an energy deficiency caused by orf224/atp6 may inhibit a series of genes that regulate pollen development through nuclear-mitochondrial interaction. This results in the sterility of pol CMS by leading to the failure of sporogenous cell differentiation. This study may provide assistance for detailed molecular analysis and a better understanding of pol CMS in B. napus.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Terrorists’ Communication Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Alexandrovich Zhuravliev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a wide-spread approach in a research literature to regard terrorism as a communicative process. From this point of view, the author offers a comparative analysis of the three most common communication strategies of terrorist groups, including transforming the role of the mass media, the Internet and a combined approach. The author also argues that a particular communication strategy determines a structure of a terrorist organization.

  15. Ingredient classification according to the digestible amino acid profile: an exploratory analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DE Faria Filho

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed: 1 to classify ingredients according to the digestible amino acid (AA profile; 2 to determine ingredients with AA profile closer to the ideal for broiler chickens; and 3 to compare digestible AA profiles from simulated diets with the ideal protein profile. The digestible AA levels of 30 ingredients were compiled from the literature and presented as percentages of lysine according to the ideal protein concept. Cluster and principal component analyses (exploratory analyses were used to compose and describe groups of ingredients according to AA profiles. Four ingredient groups were identified by cluster analysis, and the classification of the ingredients within each of these groups was obtained from a principal component analysis, showing 11 classes of ingredients with similar digestible AA profiles. The ingredients with AA profiles closer to the ideal protein were meat and bone meal 45, fish meal 60 and wheat germ meal, all of them constituting Class 1; the ingredients from the other classes gradually diverged from the ideal protein. Soybean meal, which is the main protein source for poultry, showed good AA balance since it was included in Class 3. On the contrary, corn, which is the main energy source in poultry diets, was classified in Class 8. Dietary AA profiles were improved when corn and/or soybean meal were partially or totally replaced in the simulations by ingredients with better AA balance.

  16. Embedded Hyperchaotic Generators: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoudi, Said; Tanougast, Camel; Azzaz, Mohamad Salah; Dandache, Abbas

    In this paper, we present a comparative analysis of FPGA implementation performances, in terms of throughput and resources cost, of five well known autonomous continuous hyperchaotic systems. The goal of this analysis is to identify the embedded hyperchaotic generator which leads to designs with small logic area cost, satisfactory throughput rates, low power consumption and low latency required for embedded applications such as secure digital communications between embedded systems. To implement the four-dimensional (4D) chaotic systems, we use a new structural hardware architecture based on direct VHDL description of the forth order Runge-Kutta method (RK-4). The comparative analysis shows that the hyperchaotic Lorenz generator provides attractive performances compared to that of others. In fact, its hardware implementation requires only 2067 CLB-slices, 36 multipliers and no block RAMs, and achieves a throughput rate of 101.6 Mbps, at the output of the FPGA circuit, at a clock frequency of 25.315 MHz with a low latency time of 316 ns. Consequently, these good implementation performances offer to the embedded hyperchaotic Lorenz generator the advantage of being the best candidate for embedded communications applications.

  17. Comparative study of the electron density profiles in the compact torus plasma merging experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashiya, Hitoshi; Asaka, Takeo; Katsurai, Makoto

    2003-01-01

    Following two previous papers on the comparative studies of the electron density distributions for a single compact torus (CT) and a spherical tokamak (ST), and for the a single ST and a merged ST, a comparative study on the dynamics of the electron density profile and after the CT and ST plasma merging process was performed. The sharpness of the peak in the electron density profile around the mid-plane just after the merging of CT with a low safety factor (q value) such as RFP or spheromak is found to be related to the speed of the magnetic axis during the plasma merging process. It is also found that the electron density gradient near the plasma edge in a high q ST is larger than that of a low q CT. High q ST is found to be provided with the magnetic structure which is able to sustain a large thermal pressure by a strong j x B force. Despite these differences in the electron density profile between CT and ST during merging, the confinement characteristics evaluated from the number of electrons confined within the magnetic separatrix after the completion of the merging is almost similar between in the merging CT and in the merging ST. For all configurations, the electron density profiles after the completion of the merging are analogous to those of the corresponding single configuration produced without the merging process. (author)

  18. 1991 comparative analysis of tritium in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, W.J.; Mundschenk, H.

    1992-06-01

    For environmental monitoring of radioactive materials, the competent authorities of the States and Federal Government of Germany continuously perform measurements and make their results accessible to the public in an appropriate way. In order to guarantee the comparability of measured values and a high degree of reliability of the applied methods, the authorities in charge of carrying out such tasks are obliged to take part in the comparative analyses (ring tests) organized by the central offices of the Federal Government. Therefore, the aim of this comparative analysis performed by order of the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Protection and Reactor Safety consists mainly in providing the measuring offices in charge of monitoring waters, with samples with known tritium contents in order to get an overview of the accuracy of currently used processes; check the accuracy of the determinations performed, and, if necessary, detect and eliminate systematic errors; check, in particular by means of the samples T2 and T3, the calibration of the measuring devices and, if necessary, make corrections. To this effect, the comparative analysis fulfills the function of quality control of the processes used in environmental monitoring. (orig./BBR) [de

  19. p-adic analysis compared with real

    CERN Document Server

    Katok, Svetlana

    2007-01-01

    The book gives an introduction to p-adic numbers from the point of view of number theory, topology, and analysis. Compared to other books on the subject, its novelty is both a particularly balanced approach to these three points of view and an emphasis on topics accessible to undergraduates. In addition, several topics from real analysis and elementary topology which are not usually covered in undergraduate courses (totally disconnected spaces and Cantor sets, points of discontinuity of maps and the Baire Category Theorem, surjectivity of isometries of compact metric spaces) are also included in the book. They will enhance the reader's understanding of real analysis and intertwine the real and p-adic contexts of the book. The book is based on an advanced undergraduate course given by the author. The choice of the topic was motivated by the internal beauty of the subject of p-adic analysis, an unusual one in the undergraduate curriculum, and abundant opportunities to compare it with its much more familiar real...

  20. Psychobehavioral Profiles to Assist Tailoring of Interventions for Patients With Hypertension: Latent Profile Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Rika; Nolan, Robert P

    2018-05-11

    Practice guidelines advocate combining pharmacotherapy with lifestyle counseling for patients with hypertension. To allow for appropriate tailoring of interventions to meet individual patient needs, a comprehensive understanding of baseline patient characteristics is essential. However, few studies have empirically assessed behavioral profiles of hypertensive patients in Web-based lifestyle counseling programs. The objectives of this study were to (1) specify baseline psychobehavioral profiles of patients with hypertension who were enrolled in a Web-based lifestyle counseling trial, and (2) examine mean differences among the identified profile groups in demographics, psychological distress, self-reported self-care behaviors, physiological outcomes, and program engagement to determine prognostic implications. Participants (N=264; mean age 57.5 years; 154/264, 58.3% female; 193/264, 73.1% white) were recruited into a longitudinal, double-blind, randomized controlled trial, designed to evaluate an online lifestyle intervention for hypertensive patients. A series of latent profile analyses identified psychobehavioral profiles, indicated by baseline measures of mood, motivation, and health behaviors. Mean differences between profile groups were then explored. A 2-class solution provided the best model fit (the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) is 10,133.11; sample-size adjusted BIC is 10,006.54; Lo-Mendell-Rubin likelihood ratio test is 65.56, P=.001). The 2 profile groups were (1) adaptive adjustment, marked by low distress, high motivation, and somewhat satisfactory engagement in health behaviors and (2) affectively distressed, marked by clinically significant distress. At baseline, on average, affectively distressed patients had lower income, higher body mass index, and endorsed higher stress compared with their adaptive adjustment counterparts. At 12-months post intervention, treatment effects were sustained for systolic blood pressure and Framingham risk index

  1. A multi-model analysis of vertical ozone profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Jonson

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A multi-model study of the long-range transport of ozone and its precursors from major anthropogenic source regions was coordinated by the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP under the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP. Vertical profiles of ozone at 12-h intervals from 2001 are available from twelve of the models contributing to this study and are compared here with observed profiles from ozonesondes. The contributions from each major source region are analysed for selected sondes, and this analysis is supplemented by retroplume calculations using the FLEXPART Lagrangian particle dispersion model to provide insight into the origin of ozone transport events and the cause of differences between the models and observations.

    In the boundary layer ozone levels are in general strongly affected by regional sources and sinks. With a considerably longer lifetime in the free troposphere, ozone here is to a much larger extent affected by processes on a larger scale such as intercontinental transport and exchange with the stratosphere. Such individual events are difficult to trace over several days or weeks of transport. This may explain why statistical relationships between models and ozonesonde measurements are far less satisfactory than shown in previous studies for surface measurements at all seasons. The lowest bias between model-calculated ozone profiles and the ozonesonde measurements is seen in the winter and autumn months. Following the increase in photochemical activity in the spring and summer months, the spread in model results increases, and the agreement between ozonesonde measurements and the individual models deteriorates further.

    At selected sites calculated contributions to ozone levels in the free troposphere from intercontinental transport are shown. Intercontinental transport is identified based on differences in model calculations with unperturbed emissions and

  2. Comparative Study of Fatty Acids Profile in Eleven Wild Mushrooms of Boletacea and Russulaceae Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, Marija V; Mitic, Violeta D; Jovanovic, Olga P; Stankov Jovanovic, Vesna P; Nikolic, Jelena S; Petrovic, Goran M; Stojanovic, Gordana S

    2018-01-01

    Eleven species of wild mushrooms which belong to Boletaceae and Russulaceae families were examined by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis for the presence of fatty acids. As far as we know, the fatty acid profiles of B. purpureus and B. rhodoxanthus were described for the first time. Twenty-six fatty acids were determined. Linoleic (19.5 - 72%), oleic (0.11 - 64%), palmitic (5.9 - 22%) and stearic acids (0.81 - 57%) were present in the highest contents. In all samples, unsaturated fatty acids dominate. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering was used to display the correlation between the fatty acids and their relationships with the mushroom species. Based on the fatty acids profile in the samples, the mushrooms can be divided into two families: Boletaceae and Russulaceae families, using cluster analysis. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  3. Thermal buckling comparative analysis using Different FE (Finite Element) tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banasiak, Waldemar; Labouriau, Pedro [INTECSEA do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Burnett, Christopher [INTECSEA UK, Surrey (United Kingdom); Falepin, Hendrik [Fugro Engineers SA/NV, Brussels (Belgium)

    2009-12-19

    High operational temperature and pressure in offshore pipelines may lead to unexpected lateral movements, sometimes call lateral buckling, which can have serious consequences for the integrity of the pipeline. The phenomenon of lateral buckling in offshore pipelines needs to be analysed in the design phase using FEM. The analysis should take into account many parameters, including operational temperature and pressure, fluid characteristic, seabed profile, soil parameters, coatings of the pipe, free spans etc. The buckling initiation force is sensitive to small changes of any initial geometric out-of-straightness, thus the modeling of the as-laid state of the pipeline is an important part of the design process. Recently some dedicated finite elements programs have been created making modeling of the offshore environment more convenient that has been the case with the use of general purpose finite element software. The present paper aims to compare thermal buckling analysis of sub sea pipeline performed using different finite elements tools, i.e. general purpose programs (ANSYS, ABAQUS) and dedicated software (SAGE Profile 3D) for a single pipeline resting on an the seabed. The analyses considered the pipeline resting on a flat seabed with a small levels of out-of straightness initiating the lateral buckling. The results show the quite good agreement of results of buckling in elastic range and in the conclusions next comparative analyses with sensitivity cases are recommended. (author)

  4. Comparative Effects of Injectable and Oral Hormonal Contraceptives on Lipid Profile

    OpenAIRE

    Adebayor Adegoke; Pascal C. Eneh; Roseanne Okafor; Benjamin N. Okolonkwo; Solomon A. Braide; Chukwubike U.Okeke; Holy Brown; Ngozika B. Okwandu

    2012-01-01

    Background and AimsThe continual use of hormonal contraceptives among women within reproductive age has been on the increase. The effects of these contraceptives on lipid metabolism vary depending on the type of hormonal contraceptive. This study was carried out among Nigerian women, to compare theeffects of injectable hormonal contraceptives to that of combined oral contraceptives on lipid profile (triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low density lipo-pro...

  5. Comparative Genome Analysis of Enterobacter cloacae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wing-Yee; Wong, Chi-Fat; Chung, Karl Ming-Kar; Jiang, Jing-Wei; Leung, Frederick Chi-Ching

    2013-01-01

    The Enterobacter cloacae species includes an extremely diverse group of bacteria that are associated with plants, soil and humans. Publication of the complete genome sequence of the plant growth-promoting endophytic E. cloacae subsp. cloacae ENHKU01 provided an opportunity to perform the first comparative genome analysis between strains of this dynamic species. Examination of the pan-genome of E. cloacae showed that the conserved core genome retains the general physiological and survival genes of the species, while genomic factors in plasmids and variable regions determine the virulence of the human pathogenic E. cloacae strain; additionally, the diversity of fimbriae contributes to variation in colonization and host determination of different E. cloacae strains. Comparative genome analysis further illustrated that E. cloacae strains possess multiple mechanisms for antagonistic action against other microorganisms, which involve the production of siderophores and various antimicrobial compounds, such as bacteriocins, chitinases and antibiotic resistance proteins. The presence of Type VI secretion systems is expected to provide further fitness advantages for E. cloacae in microbial competition, thus allowing it to survive in different environments. Competition assays were performed to support our observations in genomic analysis, where E. cloacae subsp. cloacae ENHKU01 demonstrated antagonistic activities against a wide range of plant pathogenic fungal and bacterial species. PMID:24069314

  6. Symptom Profiles in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome or Functional Abdominal Pain Compared With Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varni, James W; Shulman, Robert J; Self, Mariella M; Nurko, Samuel; Saps, Miguel; Saeed, Shehzad A; Bendo, Cristiane B; Patel, Ashish S; Dark, Chelsea Vaughan; Zacur, George M; Pohl, John F

    2015-09-01

    Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures of gastrointestinal symptoms are recommended to determine treatment effects for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional abdominal pain (FAP). Study objectives were to compare the symptom profiles of pediatric patients with IBS or FAP with healthy controls and with each other using the PedsQL Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Gastrointestinal Worry Scales, and to establish clinical interpretability of PRO scale scores through identification of minimal important difference (MID) scores. Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Worry Scales were completed in a 9-site study by 154 pediatric patients and 161 parents (162 families; IBS n = 46, FAP n = 119). Gastrointestinal Symptoms Scales measuring stomach pain, stomach discomfort when eating, food and drink limits, trouble swallowing, heartburn and reflux, nausea and vomiting, gas and bloating, constipation, blood in poop, and diarrhea were administered along with Gastrointestinal Worry Scales. A matched sample of 447 families with healthy children completed the scales. Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Worry Scales distinguished between patients with IBS or FAP compared with healthy controls (P 1.50) for symptoms indicative of IBS or FAP, demonstrating a broad multidimensional gastrointestinal symptom profile and clinical interpretability with MID scores for individual PRO scales. Patients with IBS manifested more symptoms of constipation, gas and bloating, and diarrhea than patients with FAP. Patients with IBS or FAP manifested a broad gastrointestinal symptom profile compared with healthy controls with large differences, indicating the critical need for more effective interventions to bring patient functioning within the range of healthy functioning.

  7. Seminal Fluid Analysis And Biophysical Profile: Findings And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seminal Fluid Analysis And Biophysical Profile: Findings And Relevance In Infertile Males In Ilorin, Nigeria. EK Oghagbon, AAG Jimoh, SA Adebisi. Abstract. To determine if there was a bearing of body mass index (BMI) on male infertility, a cross-sectional study of males of infertile couples, attending our infertility clinic was ...

  8. Graphic Communications--Commercial Photography. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a current comprehensive and verified employer competency program list for graphic communications--commercial photography. Each unit (with or without subunits) contains competencies and competency builders that identify the…

  9. Microarray analysis of the gene expression profile in triethylene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microarray analysis of the gene expression profile in triethylene glycol dimethacrylate-treated human dental pulp cells. ... Conclusions: Our results suggest that TEGDMA can change the many functions of hDPCs through large changes in gene expression levels and complex interactions with different signaling pathways.

  10. Comparative analysis of gene expression profiles of OPN signalling ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    were orally treated with the high-fat emulsion (10 mL/kg) by gavage once a day ... 4 weeks, and drinking water was offered with 10% ethanol. Drinking water ..... detected by Rat Genome 230 2.0 Array and dark grey colour represents RT-PCR.

  11. Level of Differentiation of Vocational Interests Profiles: Comparative Study by Age and Schooling in a Brazilian Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Porto Noronha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vocational interests can be defined as standards of preference, aversion or indifference to professional activities, but little is known about the factors involved in their development. From this perspective, this study attempted to clarify which variable, age or schooling, better fit comparisons of profile differentiation index. To this end, we analyzed the Escala de Aconselhamento Profissional (Professional Counseling Scale responses of 6,824 Brazilian students between 14 and 50 years old with various levels of education. Differentiation of the interest profile was observed by subtraction between dimensions with lower and higher scores. Normality of the distributions was verified and then Analysis of Variance and Tukey’s post hoc test were conducted in relation to groups of age and schooling. The results suggest that schooling is a more appropriate variable to compare the differentiation of interests. The implications and limitations of this study are discussed, and suggestions for future studies are given.

  12. Greenfields and acquisitions: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae MARINESCU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares greenfields and acquisitions as foreign direct investment (FDI alternatives used by transnational corporations (TNCs. First, the determinants leading to the choice of companies between the two modes of entry into a foreign market are laid out. Then, specific features of each alternative are highlighted, by contrasting the advantages and disadvantages of both types of FDI. Based on this analysis, some conclusions are drawn in the end concerning the most important factors that influence the decision of a company whether to choose a greenfield investment or an acquisition.

  13. Comparative analysis of proliferation resistance assessment methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaki, Naoyuki; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Inoue, Naoko; Osabe, Takeshi

    2005-01-01

    Comparative analysis of the methodologies was performed based on the discussions in the international workshop on 'Assessment Methodology of Proliferation Resistance for Future Nuclear Energy Systems' held in Tokyo, on March 2005. Through the workshop and succeeding considerations, it is clarified that the proliferation resistance assessment methodologies are affected by the broader nuclear options being pursued and also by the political situations of the state. Even the definition of proliferation resistance, despite the commonality of fundamental issues, derives from perceived threat and implementation circumstances inherent to the larger programs. Deep recognitions of the 'difference' among communities would help us to make further essential and progressed discussion with harmonization. (author)

  14. Proteomic Profiling Comparing the Effects of Different Heat Treatments on Camel (Camelus dromedarius) Milk Whey Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabdelkamel, Hicham; Masood, Afshan; Alanazi, Ibrahim O; Alzahrani, Dunia A; Alrabiah, Deema K; AlYahya, Sami A; Alfadda, Assim A

    2017-03-28

    Camel milk is consumed in the Middle East because of its high nutritional value. Traditional heating methods and the duration of heating affect the protein content and nutritional quality of the milk. We examined the denaturation of whey proteins in camel milk by assessing the effects of temperature on the whey protein profile at room temperature (RT), moderate heating at 63 °C, and at 98 °C, for 1 h. The qualitative and quantitative variations in the whey proteins before and after heat treatments were determined using quantitative 2D-difference in gel electrophoresis (DIGE)-mass spectrometry. Qualitative gel image analysis revealed a similar spot distribution between samples at RT and those heated at 63 °C, while the spot distribution between RT and samples heated at 98 °C differed. One hundred sixteen protein spots were determined to be significantly different ( p protein spots were decreased in common in both the heat-treated samples and an additional 25 spots were further decreased in the 98 °C sample. The proteins with decreased abundance included serum albumin, lactadherin, fibrinogen β and γ chain, lactotransferrin, active receptor type-2A, arginase-1, glutathione peroxidase-1 and, thiopurine S, etc. Eight protein spots were increased in common to both the samples when compared to RT and included α-lactalbumin, a glycosylation-dependent cell adhesion molecule. Whey proteins present in camel milk were less affected by heating at 63 °C than at 98 °C. This experimental study showed that denaturation increased significantly as the temperature increased from 63 to 98 °C.

  15. Binary similarity measures for fingerprint analysis of qualitative metabolomic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, Anita; Andrić, Filip; Bajusz, Dávid; Héberger, Károly

    2018-01-01

    Contemporary metabolomic fingerprinting is based on multiple spectrometric and chromatographic signals, used either alone or combined with structural and chemical information of metabolic markers at the qualitative and semiquantitative level. However, signal shifting, convolution, and matrix effects may compromise metabolomic patterns. Recent increase in the use of qualitative metabolomic data, described by the presence (1) or absence (0) of particular metabolites, demonstrates great potential in the field of metabolomic profiling and fingerprint analysis. The aim of this study is a comprehensive evaluation of binary similarity measures for the elucidation of patterns among samples of different botanical origin and various metabolomic profiles. Nine qualitative metabolomic data sets covering a wide range of natural products and metabolomic profiles were applied to assess 44 binary similarity measures for the fingerprinting of plant extracts and natural products. The measures were analyzed by the novel sum of ranking differences method (SRD), searching for the most promising candidates. Baroni-Urbani-Buser (BUB) and Hawkins-Dotson (HD) similarity coefficients were selected as the best measures by SRD and analysis of variance (ANOVA), while Dice (Di1), Yule, Russel-Rao, and Consonni-Todeschini 3 ranked the worst. ANOVA revealed that concordantly and intermediately symmetric similarity coefficients are better candidates for metabolomic fingerprinting than the asymmetric and correlation based ones. The fingerprint analysis based on the BUB and HD coefficients and qualitative metabolomic data performed equally well as the quantitative metabolomic profile analysis. Fingerprint analysis based on the qualitative metabolomic profiles and binary similarity measures proved to be a reliable way in finding the same/similar patterns in metabolomic data as that extracted from quantitative data.

  16. Protein Comparability Assessments and Potential Applicability of High Throughput Biophysical Methods and Data Visualization Tools to Compare Physical Stability Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Alsenaidy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this review, some of the challenges and opportunities encountered during protein comparability assessments are summarized with an emphasis on developing new analytical approaches to better monitor higher-order protein structures. Several case studies are presented using high throughput biophysical methods to collect protein physical stability data as function of temperature, agitation, ionic strength and/or solution pH. These large data sets were then used to construct empirical phase diagrams (EPDs, radar charts, and comparative signature diagrams (CSDs for data visualization and structural comparisons between the different proteins. Protein samples with different sizes, post-translational modifications, and inherent stability are presented: acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1 mutants, different glycoforms of an IgG1 mAb prepared by deglycosylation, as well as comparisons of different formulations of an IgG1 mAb and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF. Using this approach, differences in structural integrity and conformational stability profiles were detected under stress conditions that could not be resolved by using the same techniques under ambient conditions (i.e., no stress. Thus, an evaluation of conformational stability differences may serve as an effective surrogate to monitor differences in higher-order structure between protein samples. These case studies are discussed in the context of potential utility in protein comparability studies.

  17. Protein comparability assessments and potential applicability of high throughput biophysical methods and data visualization tools to compare physical stability profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsenaidy, Mohammad A; Jain, Nishant K; Kim, Jae H; Middaugh, C Russell; Volkin, David B

    2014-01-01

    In this review, some of the challenges and opportunities encountered during protein comparability assessments are summarized with an emphasis on developing new analytical approaches to better monitor higher-order protein structures. Several case studies are presented using high throughput biophysical methods to collect protein physical stability data as function of temperature, agitation, ionic strength and/or solution pH. These large data sets were then used to construct empirical phase diagrams (EPDs), radar charts, and comparative signature diagrams (CSDs) for data visualization and structural comparisons between the different proteins. Protein samples with different sizes, post-translational modifications, and inherent stability are presented: acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1) mutants, different glycoforms of an IgG1 mAb prepared by deglycosylation, as well as comparisons of different formulations of an IgG1 mAb and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF). Using this approach, differences in structural integrity and conformational stability profiles were detected under stress conditions that could not be resolved by using the same techniques under ambient conditions (i.e., no stress). Thus, an evaluation of conformational stability differences may serve as an effective surrogate to monitor differences in higher-order structure between protein samples. These case studies are discussed in the context of potential utility in protein comparability studies.

  18. Comparative Analysis of 37 Acinetobacter Bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dann Turner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Acinetobacter are ubiquitous in the environment and the multiple-drug resistant species A. baumannii is of significant clinical concern. This clinical relevance is currently driving research on bacterial viruses infecting A. baumannii, in an effort to implement phage therapy and phage-derived antimicrobials. Initially, a total of 42 Acinetobacter phage genome sequences were available in the international nucleotide sequence databases, corresponding to a total of 2.87 Mbp of sequence information and representing all three families of the order Caudovirales and a single member of the Leviviridae. A comparative bioinformatics analysis of 37 Acinetobacter phages revealed that they form six discrete clusters and two singletons based on genomic organisation and nucleotide sequence identity. The assignment of these phages to clusters was further supported by proteomic relationships established using OrthoMCL. The 4067 proteins encoded by the 37 phage genomes formed 737 groups and 974 orphans. Notably, over half of the proteins encoded by the Acinetobacter phages are of unknown function. The comparative analysis and clustering presented enables an updated taxonomic framing of these clades.

  19. Immunological profile in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis after treatment switch to rituximab and compared with healthy controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre de Flon

    Full Text Available To investigate changes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF immunological profile after treatment switch from first-line injectables to rituximab in patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS, and to compare the profile in MS patients with healthy controls (HC.Cerebrospinal fluid from 70 patients with clinically stable RRMS and 55 HC was analysed by a multiplex electrochemiluminescence method for a broad panel of cytokines and immunoactive substances before, and over a two-year period after, treatment switch to rituximab. After quality assessment of data, using a predefined algorithm, 14 analytes were included in the final analysis.Ten of the 14 analytes differed significantly in MS patients compared with HC at baseline. Levels of IP-10 (CXCL10, IL-12/23p40, IL-6, sVCAM1, IL-15, sICAM1 and IL-8 (CXCL8 decreased significantly after treatment switch to rituximab. The cytokines IP-10 and IL-12/IL-23p40 displayed the largest difference versus HC at baseline and also the largest relative reduction after therapy switch to rituximab.We found significant changes in the immunological profile after therapy switch to rituximab in RRMS in the direction towards the values of HC. IP-10 and IL12/IL-23p40 deserve further studies as part of the immunopathogenesis of MS as well as for the mode of action of rituximab in MS.

  20. Comparative genome analysis of Basidiomycete fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Henrissat, Bernard; Nagy, Laszlo; Brown, Daren; Held, Benjamin; Baker, Scott; Blanchette, Robert; Boussau, Bastien; Doty, Sharon L.; Fagnan, Kirsten; Floudas, Dimitris; Levasseur, Anthony; Manning, Gerard; Martin, Francis; Morin, Emmanuelle; Otillar, Robert; Pisabarro, Antonio; Walton, Jonathan; Wolfe, Ken; Hibbett, David; Grigoriev, Igor

    2013-08-07

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes), make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes symbionts, pathogens, and saprotrophs including the majority of wood decaying and ectomycorrhizal species. To better understand the genetic diversity of this phylum we compared the genomes of 35 basidiomycetes including 6 newly sequenced genomes. These genomes span extremes of genome size, gene number, and repeat content. Analysis of core genes reveals that some 48percent of basidiomycete proteins are unique to the phylum with nearly half of those (22percent) found in only one organism. Correlations between lifestyle and certain gene families are evident. Phylogenetic patterns of plant biomass-degrading genes in Agaricomycotina suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. Based on phylogenetically-informed PCA analysis of wood decay genes, we predict that that Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea have properties similar to white rot species, although neither has typical ligninolytic class II fungal peroxidases (PODs). This prediction is supported by growth assays in which both fungi exhibit wood decay with white rot-like characteristics. Based on this, we suggest that the white/brown rot dichotomy may be inadequate to describe the full range of wood decaying fungi. Analysis of the rate of discovery of proteins with no or few homologs suggests the value of continued sequencing of basidiomycete fungi.

  1. Comparative molecular analysis of old olive ( Olea europaea L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We compared the genetic profiles of six old olive cultivars from an Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey to 15 modern Turkish olive cultivars from different geographical origins. The RAPD profiles successfully clarified the molecular relationships among the genotypes tested. Seventeen RAPD primers generated 153 ...

  2. Profile analysis of neutron powder diffraction data at ISIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, W.I.F.; Ibberson, R.M.; Matthewman, J.C.

    1992-05-01

    The aim of this manual is to document the current suite of time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction profile refinement programs available to ISIS users. Aspects of data collation and normalisation specific to the individual diffraction instruments are dealt with elsewhere. It will be assumed the user has produced a suitable data file (.DAT file) containing the profile data consisting of point by point values of the corrected diffraction profile across the pattern. The analysis of neutron powder diffraction data at ISIS by profile refinement utilises a suite of ''in-house'' written and supported programs based on the Cambridge Crystallography Subroutine Library (CCSL). A quick scan through the CCSL manual will give the user a general feel for the procedure to adopt in the use of the library and hence of the profile codes. The instructions documented in this handbook are complementary to those in the more specialist CCSL manual, and consequently go into no great detail regarding technical details of any of the CCSL routines. The programs may be run from each individual user account, for example [USER01], once the appropriate login procedure has been set-up by the instrument scientists. The programs are mostly activated by one line commands and only a basic knowledge of a VAX editor should be required; details can be found in the ''VAX primer'' available from Computer Support. (Author)

  3. Strength analysis of welded corners of PVC window profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postawa, P.; Stachowiak, T.; Gnatowski, A.

    2017-08-01

    The article presents the results of researches which main purpose was to define the influence of welding parameters on strength of welded corners of PVC window profile. PVC profiles of a branded name GENEO® produced by Rehau Company were used for this research. The profiles were made by using a co-extrusion method. The surface of the profile was made of PVC mixture with no additives. Its main task was to get a smooth surface resistant to a smudge. The use of an unfilled polyester provides an aesthetic look and improves the resistance of extrudate to water getting into inner layers. The profile's inner layers have been filled up with glass fibre in order to improve its stiffness and mechanical properties. Window frames with cut corners used for this research, were produced on technological line of EUROCOLOR Company based in Pyskowice (Poland). The main goal of this analysis was to evaluate the influence of the main welding parameter (temperature upsetting) on hardness of welds we received in whole process. A universal testing machine was used for the research.

  4. Comparative Assessment of the Cleft Profile by Patients with Cleft Lip and Palate, Cleft Surgeons, and Lay People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Tian; Ma, Lian; Wang, Zhi

    2015-10-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to compare subjective assessments among patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP), cleft surgeons, and lay people regarding the soft tissue lateral profile of CLP patients. We also investigated the correlations between subjective assessments and photogrammetric measurements. A total of 150 CLP patients who wished to have treatment for their unattractive appearance were randomly selected. A standard lateral profile color photograph was taken. Panels of three cleft surgeons, ten CLP patients, and ten lay people were selected to be assessors. They rated nasal tip projection, nasolabial esthetics, upper and lower lip esthetics, and the profile for each photograph. Three angular measurements (nasal prominence angle, nasolabial angle, and lip angle) were measured for each photograph. Kendall's coefficient of concordance and logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. Kendall's coefficient of concordance of nasal tip projection, nasolabial esthetics, upper and lower lip esthetics, and the profile were 0.734, 0.683, 0.828, and 0.747, respectively (p lay people (p lay people have similar attitudes to the appearance of CLP patients. Upper and lower lip esthetics is associated with the assessment of the cleft profile that is provided by CLP patients, cleft surgeons, and lay people. In addition, nasal tip projection is another determining factor for lay people. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  5. Hawaiian propolis: comparative analysis and botanical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Saori; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kumazaw, Shigenori

    2014-02-01

    Propolis is a resinous mixture of substances collected and processed from various botanical sources by honeybees (Apis mellifera). We recently obtained Hawaiian propolis, the study of which, to our knowledge, has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to analyze the composition of Hawaiian propolis and to identify its botanical origin. A comparative analysis of Hawaiian and Okinawan propolis and of the glandular trichomes on Macaranga tanarius fruit (the botanical origin of Okinawan propolis) was performed using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution-electrospray mass spectrometry. Hawaiian propolis contained nine prenylflavonoids that were also isolated from Okinawan propolis. In conclusion, we suggest that the botanical origin of Hawaiian propolis is M. tanarius, the same as that of Okinawan propolis.

  6. Construction QA/QC systems: comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willenbrock, J.H.; Shepard, S.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis which compares the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) systems adopted in the highway, nuclear power plant, and U.S. Navy construction areas with the traditional quality control approach used in building construction is presented. Full participation and support by the owner as well as the contractor and AE firm are required if a QA/QC system is to succeed. Process quality control, acceptance testing and quality assurance responsibilities must be clearly defined in the contract documents. The owner must audit these responsibilities. A contractor quality control plan, indicating the tasks which will be performed and the fact that QA/QC personnel are independent of project time/cost pressures should be submitted for approval. The architect must develop realistic specifications which consider the natural variability of material. Acceptance criteria based on the random sampling technique should be used. 27 refs

  7. Further Examining Berry's Model: The Applicability of Latent Profile Analysis to Acculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Rina S.; Merz, Erin L.; Solórzano, Martha T.; Roesch, Scott C.

    2013-01-01

    This study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to identify acculturation profiles. A three-profile solution fit the data best, and comparisons on demographic and psychosocial outcomes as a function of profile yielded expected results. The findings support using LPA as a parsimonious way to model acculturation without anticipating profiles in…

  8. Ultra-low energy Ar+ beam applied for SIMS depth profile analysis of layered nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konarski, P.; Mierzejewska, A.; Iwanejko, I.

    2001-01-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) depth profile analyses of flat layered nanostructures: 10 nm Ta 2 O 3 /Ta and 20 nm (10 x B 4 C/Mo)/Si as well as microparticles of core (illite) - shell (rutile) structure, performed with the use of ultra-low energy ion beam (180-880 eV, Ar + ), are presented. The profiles were obtained using 'mesa' scanning technique and also sample rotation. Depth profile resolution below 1 nanometer was obtained for flat nanostructures. Presented experimental results are compared with Monte Carlo sputtering simulations of analysed structures. A method of finding beam energy, optimal for the best resolution SIMS depth profile analysis, is suggested. (author)

  9. Comparative Analysis of Students’ Media Competences Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fedorov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzed the results of survey of university students’ media literacy competence (on the base of a classification of indicators of media literacy competence of the audience as an effective tool for comparative analysis of the levels of development of media competence of students of the control and experimental groups: the level of media competence of students who have a one-year training course in the framework of media literacy education courses four times higher than in similar indicators in the control group. Analysis of the results of this survey confirmed the general trend of media contacts of student audience – its orientation to entertainment genres of audiovisual media, visually appealing; positive, active, unmarried, childless, educated, highly qualified characters (primarily – male characters aged 19 to 35 years. These heroes are characteristic optimism, independence, intelligence, emotion. They have an excellent command of the life situation and have a positive impact on the development progress of the plot of a media text.

  10. Comparative transcriptional profiling of tildipirosin-resistant and sensitive Haemophilus parasuis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Zhixin; Fu, Shulin; Yang, Bing; Liu, Qianying; Ahmed, Saeed; Xu, Lei; Xiong, Jincheng; Cao, Jiyue; Qiu, Yinsheng

    2017-08-08

    Numerous studies have been conducted to examine the molecular mechanism of Haemophilus parasuis resistance to antibiotic, but rarely to tildipirosin. In the current study, transcriptional profiling was applied to analyse the variation in gene expression of JS0135 and tildipirosin-resistant JS32. The growth curves showed that JS32 had a higher growth rate but fewer bacteria than JS0135. The cell membranes of JS32 and a resistant clinical isolate (HB32) were observed to be smoother than those of JS0135. From the comparative gene expression profile 349 up- and 113 downregulated genes were observed, covering 37 GO and 63 KEGG pathways which are involved in biological processes (11), cellular components (17), molecular function (9), cellular processes (1), environmental information processing (4), genetic information processing (9) and metabolism (49) affected in JS32. In addition, the relative overexpression of genes of the metabolism pathway (HAPS_RS09315, HAPS_RS09320), ribosomes (HAPS_RS07815) and ABC transporters (HAPS_RS10945) was detected, particularly the metabolism pathway, and verified with RT-qPCR. Collectively, the gene expression profile in connection with tildipirosin resistance factors revealed unique and highly resistant determinants of H. parasuis to macrolides that warrant further attention due to the significant threat of bacterial resistance.

  11. Photometric analysis of esthetically pleasant and unpleasant facial profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Helena Nunes da Rocha; Guimarães, Thamirys Correia; Belo, Ivana Mara Lira; da Matta, Edgard Norões Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    To identify which linear, angular and proportionality measures could influence a profile to be considered esthetically pleasant or unpleasant, and to assess sexual dimorphism. 150 standardized facial profile photographs of dental students of both sexes were obtained and printed on photographic paper. Ten plastic surgeons, ten orthodontists and ten layperson answered a questionnaire characterizing each profile as pleasant, acceptable or unpleasant. With the use of a score system, the 15 most pleasant and unpleasant profiles of each sex were selected. The photographs were scanned into AutoCAD computer software. Linear, angular and proportion measurements were obtained using the software tools. The average values between groups were compared by the Student's t-test and the Mann-Whitney test at a significance level of 5%. The linear measures LL-S, LL-H, LL-E, LL-B and Pn-H showed statistically significant differences (p < 0.05). Statistical differences were also found in the angular measures G'.Pn.Pg', G'.Sn.Pg' and Sn.Me'.C and in the proportions G'-Sn:Sn-Me' and Sn-Gn':Gn'-C (p < 0.05). Differences between sexes were found for the linear measure Ala-Pn, angles G'-Pg'.N-Pn, Sn.Me'.C, and proportions Gn'-Sn:Sn-Me' and Ala-Pn:N'-Sn. (p < 0.05). The anteroposterior position of the lower lip, the amount of nose that influences the profile, facial convexity, total vertical proportion and lip-chin proportion appear to influence pleasantness of facial profile. Sexual dimorphism was identified in nasal length, nasofacial and lower third of the face angles, total vertical and nasal height/length proportions.

  12. Chloride ingress profiles measured by electron probe micro analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole mejlhede; Coats, Alison M.; Glasser, Fred P.

    1996-01-01

    Traditional techniques for measuring chloride ingress profiles do not apply well to high performance cement paste systems; the geometric resolution of the traditional measuring techniques is too low. In this paper measurements by Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) are presented. EPMA is demonst......Traditional techniques for measuring chloride ingress profiles do not apply well to high performance cement paste systems; the geometric resolution of the traditional measuring techniques is too low. In this paper measurements by Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) are presented. EPMA...... is demonstated to determine chloride ingress in cement paste on a micrometer scale. Potential chloride ingress routes such as cracks or the paste-aggregate interface may also be characterized by EPMA. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd...

  13. Profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Profiles is a synthetic overview of more than 100 national energy markets in the world, providing insightful facts and key energy statistics. A Profile is structured around 6 main items and completed by key statistics: Ministries, public agencies, energy policy are concerned; main companies in the oil, gas, electricity and coal sectors, status, shareholders; reserve, production, imports and exports, electricity and refining capacities; deregulation of prices, subsidies, taxes; consumption trends by sector, energy market shares; main energy projects, production and consumption prospects. Statistical Profiles are present in about 3 pages the main data and indicators on oil, gas, coal and electricity. (A.L.B.)

  14. Secondary neutral mass spectrometry depth profile analysis of silicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmann, P.; Kopnarski, M.; Oechsner, H.

    1985-01-01

    The Direct Bombardment Mode (DBM) of Secondary Neutral Mass Spectrometry (SNMS) has been applied for depth profile analysis of two different multilayer systems containing metal silicides. Due to the extremely high depth resolution obtained with low energy SNMS structural details down to only a few atomic distances are detected. Stoichiometric information on internal oxides and implanted material is supplied by the high quantificability of SNMS. (Author)

  15. Gait profile score and movement analysis profile in patients with Parkinson's disease during concurrent cognitive load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speciali, Danielli S.; Oliveira, Elaine M.; Cardoso, Jefferson R.; Correa, João C. F.; Baker, Richard; Lucareli, Paulo R. G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gait disorders are common in individuals with Parkinson's Disease (PD) and the concurrent performance of motor and cognitive tasks can have marked effects on gait. The Gait Profile Score (GPS) and the Movement Analysis Profile (MAP) were developed in order to summarize the data of kinematics and facilitate understanding of the results of gait analysis. Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of the GPS and MAP in the quantification of changes in gait during a concurrent cognitive load while walking in adults with and without PD. Method: Fourteen patients with idiopathic PD and nine healthy subjects participated in the study. All subjects performed single and dual walking tasks. The GPS/MAP was computed from three-dimensional gait analysis data. Results: Differences were found between tasks for GPS (PGait Variable Score (GVS) (pelvic rotation, knee flexion-extension and ankle dorsiflexion-plantarflexion) (Pgait impairment during the dual task and suggest that GPS/MAP may be used to evaluate the effects of concurrent cognitive load while walking in patients with PD. PMID:25054382

  16. On the analysis of line profile variations: A statistical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCandliss, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    This study is concerned with the empirical characterization of the line profile variations (LPV), which occur in many of and Wolf-Rayet stars. The goal of the analysis is to gain insight into the physical mechanisms producing the variations. The analytic approach uses a statistical method to quantify the significance of the LPV and to identify those regions in the line profile which are undergoing statistically significant variations. Line positions and flux variations are then measured and subject to temporal and correlative analysis. Previous studies of LPV have for the most part been restricted to observations of a single line. Important information concerning the range and amplitude of the physical mechanisms involved can be obtained by simultaneously observing spectral features formed over a range of depths in the extended mass losing atmospheres of massive, luminous stars. Time series of a Wolf-Rayet and two of stars with nearly complete spectral coverage from 3940 angstrom to 6610 angstrom and with spectral resolution of R = 10,000 are analyzed here. These three stars exhibit a wide range of both spectral and temporal line profile variations. The HeII Pickering lines of HD 191765 show a monotonic increase in the peak rms variation amplitude with lines formed at progressively larger radii in the Wolf-Rayet star wind. Two times scales of variation have been identified in this star: a less than one day variation associated with small scale flickering in the peaks of the line profiles and a greater than one day variation associated with large scale asymmetric changes in the overall line profile shapes. However, no convincing period phenomena are evident at those periods which are well sampled in this time series

  17. Comparative genomic analysis of multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan F

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Fen Pan,1 Hong Zhang,1 Xiaoyan Dong,2 Weixing Ye,3 Ping He,4 Shulin Zhang,4 Jeff Xianchao Zhu,5 Nanbert Zhong1,2,6 1Department of Clinical Laboratory, Shanghai Children’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China; 2Department of Respiratory, Shanghai Children’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China; 3Shanghai Personal Biotechnology Co., Ltd, Shanghai, China; 4Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China; 5Zhejiang Bioruida Biotechnology co. Ltd, Zhejiang, China; 6New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, NY, USA Introduction: Multidrug resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae has emerged as a serious problem to public health. A further understanding of the genetic diversity in antibiotic-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates is needed. Methods: We conducted whole-genome resequencing for 25 pneumococcal strains isolated from children with different antimicrobial resistance profiles. Comparative analysis focus on detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and insertions and deletions (indels was conducted. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis was applied to investigate the genetic relationship among these strains. Results: The genome size of the isolates was ~2.1 Mbp, covering >90% of the total estimated size of the reference genome. The overall G+C% content was ~39.5%, and there were 2,200–2,400 open reading frames. All isolates with different drug resistance profiles harbored many indels (range 131–171 and SNPs (range 16,103–28,128. Genetic diversity analysis showed that the variation of different genes were associated with specific antibiotic resistance. Known antibiotic resistance genes (pbps, murMN, ciaH, rplD, sulA, and dpr were identified, and new genes (regR, argH, trkH, and PTS-EII closely related with antibiotic resistance were found, although these genes were primarily annotated

  18. Comparative Analysis of the Arabidopsis Pollen Transcriptome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honys, David; Twell, D.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 132, - (2003), s. 640ů652 ISSN 0032-0889 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5038207 Grant - others:Royal Society(GB) NATO Postdoctoral Fellowship (to D.H.) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910; CEZ:MSM 113100003 Keywords : transcriptome profiling * Arabidopsis pollen * male gametophyte Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.634, year: 2003

  19. Predictive and comparative analysis of Ebolavirus proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Qian; Pei, Jimin; Grishin, Nick V

    2015-01-01

    Ebolavirus is the pathogen for Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever (EHF). This disease exhibits a high fatality rate and has recently reached a historically epidemic proportion in West Africa. Out of the 5 known Ebolavirus species, only Reston ebolavirus has lost human pathogenicity, while retaining the ability to cause EHF in long-tailed macaque. Significant efforts have been spent to determine the three-dimensional (3D) structures of Ebolavirus proteins, to study their interaction with host proteins, and to identify the functional motifs in these viral proteins. Here, in light of these experimental results, we apply computational analysis to predict the 3D structures and functional sites for Ebolavirus protein domains with unknown structure, including a zinc-finger domain of VP30, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalytic domain and a methyltransferase domain of protein L. In addition, we compare sequences of proteins that interact with Ebolavirus proteins from RESTV-resistant primates with those from RESTV-susceptible monkeys. The host proteins that interact with GP and VP35 show an elevated level of sequence divergence between the RESTV-resistant and RESTV-susceptible species, suggesting that they may be responsible for host specificity. Meanwhile, we detect variable positions in protein sequences that are likely associated with the loss of human pathogenicity in RESTV, map them onto the 3D structures and compare their positions to known functional sites. VP35 and VP30 are significantly enriched in these potential pathogenicity determinants and the clustering of such positions on the surfaces of VP35 and GP suggests possible uncharacterized interaction sites with host proteins that contribute to the virulence of Ebolavirus. PMID:26158395

  20. Predictive and comparative analysis of Ebolavirus proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Qian; Pei, Jimin; Grishin, Nick V

    2015-01-01

    Ebolavirus is the pathogen for Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever (EHF). This disease exhibits a high fatality rate and has recently reached a historically epidemic proportion in West Africa. Out of the 5 known Ebolavirus species, only Reston ebolavirus has lost human pathogenicity, while retaining the ability to cause EHF in long-tailed macaque. Significant efforts have been spent to determine the three-dimensional (3D) structures of Ebolavirus proteins, to study their interaction with host proteins, and to identify the functional motifs in these viral proteins. Here, in light of these experimental results, we apply computational analysis to predict the 3D structures and functional sites for Ebolavirus protein domains with unknown structure, including a zinc-finger domain of VP30, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalytic domain and a methyltransferase domain of protein L. In addition, we compare sequences of proteins that interact with Ebolavirus proteins from RESTV-resistant primates with those from RESTV-susceptible monkeys. The host proteins that interact with GP and VP35 show an elevated level of sequence divergence between the RESTV-resistant and RESTV-susceptible species, suggesting that they may be responsible for host specificity. Meanwhile, we detect variable positions in protein sequences that are likely associated with the loss of human pathogenicity in RESTV, map them onto the 3D structures and compare their positions to known functional sites. VP35 and VP30 are significantly enriched in these potential pathogenicity determinants and the clustering of such positions on the surfaces of VP35 and GP suggests possible uncharacterized interaction sites with host proteins that contribute to the virulence of Ebolavirus.

  1. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LIPID PROFILE IN SEDENTARY AND ACTIVE ADULT FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhasini Sanda

    2018-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Lipids and lipoproteins are essential constituents of the body and their activities assist in maintenance of body homeostasis. Sedentary lifestyle has been shown to lead to inactivity, which could lead to lipid disorders. Hyperlipidaemias is one of the major independent risk factor, which affects the cardiovascular system adversely resulting eventually damage to various organs most notably heart, kidneys and brain. The present study is therefore designed to ascertain the effect of sedentary lifestyle on lipid status of sedentary adult females when compared to that of the lipid status of active adult females. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study comprised of Group I - 50 sedentary adult females and Group II - 50 active adult females aged between 30 to 60 years. The subjects selected in both groups were matched for age and dietary habits. The subjects with hypertension, diabetes, smokers, pregnancy and subjects with Body Mass Index (BMI greater than 30 are excluded. After overnight fasting of 12 to 14 hours, 5 mL of blood is collected from the subjects and fasting Total Serum Cholesterol (TC, Total Serum Triglycerides (TG, HDL cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL cholesterol (LDL-C and total serum cholesterol/HDL-C ratio are measured and data is statistically analysed. RESULTS The evaluation of lipid profile patterns in above subjects showed hypercholesterolaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, increased LDLC and total serum cholesterol/HDL-C ratio in sedentary adult females and also decreased HDL-C levels in them when compared to the normal healthy lipid profile patterns in active adult females. A statistically significant increased lipid profiles (P-value <0.001 was observed in the sedentary adult females than in active adult females. CONCLUSION This study shows that sedentary lifestyle predisposes to hyperlipidaemias, one of the major risk factor of cardiovascular disease and lack of exercise worsens the situation.

  2. Burn, freeze, or photo-ablate?: comparative symptom profile in Barrett's dysplasia patients undergoing endoscopic ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Kanwar Rupinder S.; Gross, Seth A.; Greenwald, Bruce D.; Hemminger, Lois L.; Wolfsen, Herbert C.

    2009-06-01

    Background: There are few data available comparing endoscopic ablation methods for Barrett's esophagus with high-grade dysplasia (BE-HGD). Objective: To determine differences in symptoms and complications associated with endoscopic ablation. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: Two tertiary care centers in USA. Patients: Consecutive patients with BE-HGD Interventions: In this pilot study, symptoms profile data were collected for BE-HGD patients among 3 endoscopic ablation methods: porfimer sodium photodynamic therapy, radiofrequency ablation and low-pressure liquid nitrogen spray cryotherapy. Main Outcome Measurements: Symptom profiles and complications from the procedures were assessed 1-8 weeks after treatment. Results: Ten BE-HGD patients were treated with each ablation modality (30 patients total; 25 men, median age: 69 years (range 53-81). All procedures were performed in the clinic setting and none required subsequent hospitalization. The most common symptoms among all therapies were chest pain, dysphagia and odynophagia. More patients (n=8) in the porfimer sodium photodynamic therapy group reported weight loss compared to radio-frequency ablactation (n=2) and cryotherapy (n=0). Four patients in the porfimer sodium photodynamic therapy group developed phototoxicity requiring medical treatment. Strictures, each requiring a single dilation, were found in radiofrequency ablactation (n=1) and porfimer sodium photodynamic therapy (n=2) patients. Limitations: Small sample size, non-randomized study. Conclusions: These three endoscopic therapies are associated with different types and severity of post-ablation symptoms and complications.

  3. Adverse metabolic risk profiles in Greenlandic Inuit children compared to Danish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munch-Andersen, T; Sorensen, K; Andersen, L B; Aachmann-Andersen, N J; Aksglaede, L; Juul, A; Helge, J W

    2013-06-01

    During recent decades, the prevalence of metabolic morbidity has increased rapidly in adult Greenlandic Inuit. To what extent this is also reflected in the juvenile Inuit population is unknown. The objective was, therefore, in the comparison with Danish children, to evaluate metabolic profiles in Greenlandic Inuit children from the capital in the southern and from the northern most villages 187 Inuit and 132 Danish children were examined with anthropometrics, pubertal staging, fasting blood samples, and a maximal aerobic test. Both Inuit children living in Nuuk and the northern villages had significantly higher glucose, total cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1 levels, and diastolic blood pressure compared with Danish children after adjustment for differences in adiposity and aerobic fitness levels. The Inuit children living in Nuuk had significantly higher BMI, body fat %, HbA1 c, and significantly lower aerobic fitness and ApoA1 levels than northern living Inuit children. Greenlandic Inuit children had adverse metabolic health profile compared to the Danish children, the differences where more pronounced in Inuit children living in Nuuk. The tendencies toward higher prevalence of diabetes and metabolic morbidity in the adult Greenlandic Inuit population may also be present in the Inuit children population. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  4. A Comparative Analysis of Outstanding Claim Reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlata Djuric

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The key processes in the business of insurance companies which define the financial viability of their business activities, as the most important element, are the adequate amount of technical reserves. A qualitative assessment of the technical reserves level is the basic support to the management of the key business processes and proper strategic and financial decision-making in order to maximize the viability, profitability, competitiveness, and further development of the company. Based on the data on the operations of an insurance company, within a single line of insurance, different, in practice, most frequently used methods were applied in order to determine the deviation amplitude of the projected amounts from the actual claims. Another direction of research focuses on actuarial practice in non-life insurance companies operating in the territory of the Republic of Serbia. The comparative analysis of the obtained projection points to the fact that the chosen methods, commonly used in actuarial practice in the Republic of Serbia, should be monitored and reviewed. The results of the multidirectional research and detection of the existing problems provide a useful framework and a stimulating mechanism, as well as the guidelines to improve the operations and better positioning of insurance in the commercial and economic environment of the Republic of Serbia.

  5. Comparative analysis of safety related site characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan

    2010-12-01

    This document presents a comparative analysis of site characteristics related to long-term safety for the two candidate sites for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark (municipality of Oesthammar) and in Laxemar (municipality of Oskarshamn) from the point of view of site selection. The analyses are based on the updated site descriptions of Forsmark /SKB 2008a/ and Laxemar /SKB 2009a/, together with associated updated repository layouts and designs /SKB 2008b and SKB 2009b/. The basis for the comparison is thus two equally and thoroughly assessed sites. However, the analyses presented here are focussed on differences between the sites rather than evaluating them in absolute terms. The document serves as a basis for the site selection, from the perspective of long-term safety, in SKB's application for a final repository. A full evaluation of safety is made for a repository at the selected site in the safety assessment SR-Site /SKB 2011/, referred to as SR-Site main report in the following

  6. Comparative analysis of safety related site characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan (ed.)

    2010-12-15

    This document presents a comparative analysis of site characteristics related to long-term safety for the two candidate sites for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark (municipality of Oesthammar) and in Laxemar (municipality of Oskarshamn) from the point of view of site selection. The analyses are based on the updated site descriptions of Forsmark /SKB 2008a/ and Laxemar /SKB 2009a/, together with associated updated repository layouts and designs /SKB 2008b and SKB 2009b/. The basis for the comparison is thus two equally and thoroughly assessed sites. However, the analyses presented here are focussed on differences between the sites rather than evaluating them in absolute terms. The document serves as a basis for the site selection, from the perspective of long-term safety, in SKB's application for a final repository. A full evaluation of safety is made for a repository at the selected site in the safety assessment SR-Site /SKB 2011/, referred to as SR-Site main report in the following

  7. Comparative analysis of franchising in international markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Maja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing role of franchising at the global level requires its further improvement. This business model has great business potential, especially in the Serbian market, given the current underdevelopment and inaccessibility of information. At the core of our research, we outlined the characteristics of this business model, its impact on business development and at the same time we tried to draw the attention of domestic business entities to the benefits of franchising as a modern way of doing business. We start our research with a focus on the comparative analysis of Serbia, as a very poorly developed market. We then discuss the concept of franchising in Europe, with a special focus on Poland as a country that is ready to export franchising systems, and we continue by providing comparisons with the world's largest markets, namely, the USA and Canada. In this paper, we tried to elaborate on the economic viability of this project, as well as the increasing expansion and importance franchising has been experiencing in the last few years. Emphasis is placed on the use of franchise in many areas of business where there is the possibility of implementing both business models.

  8. Dose profile analysis of small fields in intensity modulated radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medel B, E. [IMSS, Centro Medico Nacional Manuel Avila Camacho, Calle 2 Nte. 2004, Barrio de San Francisco, 72090 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Tejeda M, G.; Romero S, K., E-mail: romsakaren@gmail.com [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Av. San Claudio y 18 Sur, Ciudad Universitaria, 72570 Puebla, Pue.(Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Small field dosimetry is getting a very important worldwide task nowadays. The use of fields of few centimeters is more common with the introduction of sophisticated techniques of radiation therapy, as Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT). In our country the implementation of such techniques is just getting started and whit it the need of baseline data acquisition. The dosimetry under small field conditions represents a challenge for the physicists community. In this work, a dose profile analysis was done, using various types of dosimeters for further comparisons. This analysis includes the study of quality parameters as flatness, symmetry, penumbra, and other in-axis measurements. (Author)

  9. MetaComp: comprehensive analysis software for comparative meta-omics including comparative metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Peng; Yang, Longshu; Guo, Xiao; Wang, Zhe; Guo, Jiangtao; Wang, Xiaoqi; Zhu, Huaiqiu

    2017-10-02

    During the past decade, the development of high throughput nucleic sequencing and mass spectrometry analysis techniques have enabled the characterization of microbial communities through metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics and metabolomics data. To reveal the diversity of microbial communities and interactions between living conditions and microbes, it is necessary to introduce comparative analysis based upon integration of all four types of data mentioned above. Comparative meta-omics, especially comparative metageomics, has been established as a routine process to highlight the significant differences in taxon composition and functional gene abundance among microbiota samples. Meanwhile, biologists are increasingly concerning about the correlations between meta-omics features and environmental factors, which may further decipher the adaptation strategy of a microbial community. We developed a graphical comprehensive analysis software named MetaComp comprising a series of statistical analysis approaches with visualized results for metagenomics and other meta-omics data comparison. This software is capable to read files generated by a variety of upstream programs. After data loading, analyses such as multivariate statistics, hypothesis testing of two-sample, multi-sample as well as two-group sample and a novel function-regression analysis of environmental factors are offered. Here, regression analysis regards meta-omic features as independent variable and environmental factors as dependent variables. Moreover, MetaComp is capable to automatically choose an appropriate two-group sample test based upon the traits of input abundance profiles. We further evaluate the performance of its choice, and exhibit applications for metagenomics, metaproteomics and metabolomics samples. MetaComp, an integrative software capable for applying to all meta-omics data, originally distills the influence of living environment on microbial community by regression analysis

  10. Effect of prenatal mindfulness training on depressive symptom severity through 18-months postpartum: A latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Jennifer N; Roubinov, Danielle; Bush, Nicole R; Coleman-Phox, Kimberly; Vieten, Cassandra; Laraia, Barbara; Adler, Nancy E; Epel, Elissa

    2018-02-28

    We examined whether prenatal mindfulness training was associated with lower depressive symptoms through 18-months postpartum compared to treatment as usual (TAU). A controlled, quasi-experimental trial compared prenatal mindfulness training (MMT) to TAU. We collected depressive symptom data at post-intervention, 6-, and 18-months postpartum. Latent profile analysis identified depressive symptom profiles, and multinomial logistic regression examined whether treatment condition predicted profile. Three depressive symptom severity profiles emerged: none/minimal, mild, and moderate. Adjusting for relevant covariates, MMT participants were less likely than TAU participants to be in the moderate profile than the none/minimal profile (OR = 0.13, 95% CI = 0.03-0.54, p = .005). Prenatal mindfulness training may have benefits for depressive symptoms during the transition to parenthood. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Comparative Analysis of Virtual Education Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet KURT

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in order to make comparative analysis of virtual education applications. The research is conducted in survey model. The study group consists of total 300 institutes providing virtual education in the fall, spring and summer semesters of 2004; 246 in USA, 10 in Australia, 3 in South Africa, 10 in India, 21 in UK, 6 in Japan, 4 in Turkey. The information has been collected by online questionnaire sent to the target mass by e-mail. The questionnaire has been developed in two information categories as personal information and institutes and their virtual education applications. The English web design of the online questionnaire and the database has been prepared by Microsoft ASP codes which is the script language of Microsoft Front Page editor and has been tested on personal web site. The questionnaire has been pre applied in institutions providing virtual education in Australia. The English text of the questionnaire and web site design have been sent to educational technology and virtual education specialists in the countries of the study group. With the feedback received, the spelling mistakes have been corrected and concept and language validity have been completed. The application of the questionnaire has taken 40 weeks during March-November 2004. Only 135 institutes have replied. Two of the questionnaires have been discharged because they included mistaken coding, names of the institutions and countries. Valid 133 questionnaires cover approximately 44% of the study group. Questionnaires saved in the online database have been transferred to Microsoft Excel and then to SPSS by external database connection. In regards of the research objectives, the data collected has been analyzed on computer and by using SPSS statistics package program. In data analysis frequency (f, percentage (% and arithmetic mean ( have been used. In comparisons of country, institute, year, and other variables, che-square test, independent t

  12. A comparative analysis of influenza vaccination programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Bansal

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The threat of avian influenza and the 2004-2005 influenza vaccine supply shortage in the United States have sparked a debate about optimal vaccination strategies to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality caused by the influenza virus. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We present a comparative analysis of two classes of suggested vaccination strategies: mortality-based strategies that target high-risk populations and morbidity-based strategies that target high-prevalence populations. Applying the methods of contact network epidemiology to a model of disease transmission in a large urban population, we assume that vaccine supplies are limited and then evaluate the efficacy of these strategies across a wide range of viral transmission rates and for two different age-specific mortality distributions. We find that the optimal strategy depends critically on the viral transmission level (reproductive rate of the virus: morbidity-based strategies outperform mortality-based strategies for moderately transmissible strains, while the reverse is true for highly transmissible strains. These results hold for a range of mortality rates reported for prior influenza epidemics and pandemics. Furthermore, we show that vaccination delays and multiple introductions of disease into the community have a more detrimental impact on morbidity-based strategies than mortality-based strategies. CONCLUSIONS: If public health officials have reasonable estimates of the viral transmission rate and the frequency of new introductions into the community prior to an outbreak, then these methods can guide the design of optimal vaccination priorities. When such information is unreliable or not available, as is often the case, this study recommends mortality-based vaccination priorities.

  13. Mindfulness and Psychological Health Outcomes: A Latent Profile Analysis among Military Personnel and College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Adrian J; Pearson, Matthew R; Kelley, Michelle L

    2018-02-01

    Previous research on trait mindfulness facets using person-centered analyses (e.g., latent profile analysis [LPA]) has identified four distinct mindfulness profiles among college students: a high mindfulness group (high on all facets of the Five-Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire [FFMQ]), a judgmentally observing group (highest on observing, but low on non-judging of inner experience and acting with awareness), a non-judgmentally aware group (high on non-judging of inner experience and acting with awareness, but very low on observing), and a low mindfulness group (low on all facets of the FFMQ). In the present study, we used LPA to identify distinct mindfulness profiles in a community based sample of U.S. military personnel (majority veterans; n = 407) and non-military college students ( n = 310) and compare these profiles on symptoms of psychological health outcomes (e.g., suicidality, PTSD, anxiety, rumination) and percentage of participants exceeding clinically significant cut-offs for depressive symptoms, substance use, and alcohol use. In the subsample of college students, we replicated previous research and found four distinct mindfulness profiles; however, in the military subsample we found three distinct mindfulness profiles (a combined low mindfulness/judgmentally observing class). In both subsamples, we found that the most adaptive profile was the "high mindfulness" profile (i.e., demonstrated the lowest scores on all psychological symptoms and the lowest probability of exceeding clinical cut-offs). Based on these findings, we purport that the comprehensive examination of an individual's mindfulness profile could help clinicians tailor interventions/treatments that capitalize on individual's specific strengths and work to address their specific deficits.

  14. Comparative heart failure profile over a 3-year period in a Romanian general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop D

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Dana Pop,1 Oana Maria Penciu,1 Adela Viviana Sitar-Taut,2 Dumitru Tudor Zdrenghea11Department of Cardiology, Clinical Rehabilitation Hospital, "Iuliu Hatieganu" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; 2"Babes-Bolyai" University, Cluj-Napoca, RomaniaBackground: Heart failure (HF has become an increasingly significant public health problem, associated with repeated hospitalizations, high costs, low quality of life, and decreased survival rate. The progress of the disease may be slowed if treatment is administered in accordance with current guidelines.Objectives: To compare the clinical profile of HF patients in a Romanian general hospital over a 3-year period.Methods and results: We studied two cohorts of patients admitted in the cardiology department of a rehabilitation hospital with a diagnosis of chronic HF New York Heart Association class II–IV. The first, in 2006, included 415 patients, 67.08 ± 10.59 years; the second, in 2009, included 500 patients, 67.31 ± 11.27 years. Considering all patients, the left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF was not statistically different in the two cohorts. Compared to the 2006 cohort, the 2009 female cohort had higher LVEF (60.49% ± 13.41% vs 64.42% ± 13.79%, P < 0.05, while males over 65 years of age had lower LVEF (52.75% ± 15.02% vs 54.37% ± 15.23%, P = NS. For females, the probability of having LVEF ,45% was higher in 2006 (odds ratio = 1.573. HF with preserved LVEF was more common in females, both in 2006 (78.2% vs 54.2% and 2009 (87.2% vs 57.3%. In the 2009 cohort, LVEF was higher both in young patients (59.08% ± 14.22% vs 55.35% ± 14.92% and patients ≥ than 75 years of age (62.28% ± 13.81% vs 56.79% ± 14.81% compared to the 2006 cohort. Ischemic heart disease was the main underlying cause for HF in both cohorts.Conclusion: HF appeared to have the same clinical profile over a 3-year period. Females diagnosed with HF showed higher rates of preserved LVEF.Keywords: heart

  15. Comparative Metabolite Profiling of Triterpenoid Saponins and Flavonoids in Flower Color Mutations of Primula veris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Lysanne; Kammerer, Dietmar R.; Stintzing, Florian C.; Spring, Otmar

    2017-01-01

    Primula veris L. is an important medicinal plant with documented use for the treatment of gout, headache and migraine reaching back to the Middle Ages. Triterpenoid saponins from roots and flowers are used in up-to-date phytotherapeutic treatment of bronchitis and colds due to their expectorant and secretolytic effects. In addition to the wild type plants with yellow petals, a red variant and an intermediate orange form of Primula veris L. have recently been found in a natural habitat. The secondary metabolite profiles of roots, leaves and flowers of these rare variants were investigated and compared with the wild type metabolome. Two flavonoids, six flavonoid glycosides, four novel methylated flavonoid glycosides, five anthocyanins and three triterpenoid saponins were identified in alcoholic extracts from the petals, leaves and roots of the three variants by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detection (DAD)/mass spectrometry (MSn) analyses. Anthocyanins were detected in the petals of the red and orange variety, but not in the wild type. No other effects on the metabolite profiles of the three varieties have been observed. The possibility is discussed that a regulatory step of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway may have been affected by mutation thus triggering color polymorphism in the petals. PMID:28098796

  16. Comparative Serum Fatty Acid Profiles of Captive and Free-Ranging Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Bettina; Heinrich, Sonja K.; Reyers, Fred; Mienie, Lodewyk J.

    2016-01-01

    Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) are highly specialised large felids, currently listed as vulnerable on the IUCN red data list. In captivity, they are known to suffer from a range of chronic non-infectious diseases. Although low heterozygosity and the stress of captivity have been suggested as possible causal factors, recent studies have started to focus on the contribution of potential dietary factors in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Fatty acids are an important component of the diet, not only providing a source of metabolisable energy, but serving other important functions in hormone production, cellular signalling as well as providing structural components in biological membranes. To develop a better understanding of lipid metabolism in cheetahs, we compared the total serum fatty acid profiles of 35 captive cheetahs to those of 43 free-ranging individuals in Namibia using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The unsaturated fatty acid concentrations differed most remarkably between the groups, with all of the polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, except arachidonic acid and hypogeic acid, detected at significantly lower concentrations in the serum of the free-ranging animals. The influence of age and sex on the individual fatty acid concentrations was less notable. This study represents the first evaluation of the serum fatty acids of free-ranging cheetahs, providing critical information on the normal fatty acid profiles of free-living, healthy individuals of this species. The results raise several important questions about the potential impact of dietary fatty acid composition on the health of cheetahs in captivity. PMID:27992457

  17. Comparative Serum Fatty Acid Profiles of Captive and Free-Ranging Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordiffe, Adrian S W; Wachter, Bettina; Heinrich, Sonja K; Reyers, Fred; Mienie, Lodewyk J

    2016-01-01

    Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) are highly specialised large felids, currently listed as vulnerable on the IUCN red data list. In captivity, they are known to suffer from a range of chronic non-infectious diseases. Although low heterozygosity and the stress of captivity have been suggested as possible causal factors, recent studies have started to focus on the contribution of potential dietary factors in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Fatty acids are an important component of the diet, not only providing a source of metabolisable energy, but serving other important functions in hormone production, cellular signalling as well as providing structural components in biological membranes. To develop a better understanding of lipid metabolism in cheetahs, we compared the total serum fatty acid profiles of 35 captive cheetahs to those of 43 free-ranging individuals in Namibia using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The unsaturated fatty acid concentrations differed most remarkably between the groups, with all of the polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, except arachidonic acid and hypogeic acid, detected at significantly lower concentrations in the serum of the free-ranging animals. The influence of age and sex on the individual fatty acid concentrations was less notable. This study represents the first evaluation of the serum fatty acids of free-ranging cheetahs, providing critical information on the normal fatty acid profiles of free-living, healthy individuals of this species. The results raise several important questions about the potential impact of dietary fatty acid composition on the health of cheetahs in captivity.

  18. Comparative transcriptome profiling of chilling stress responsiveness in grafted watermelon seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinhua; Zhang, Man; Liu, Guang; Yang, Xingping; Hou, Xilin

    2016-12-01

    Rootstock grafting may improve the resistance of watermelon plants to low temperatures. However, information regarding the molecular responses of rootstock grafted plants to chilling stress is limited. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of chilling tolerance in grafted plants, the transcriptomic responses of grafted watermelon under chilling stress were analyzed using RNA-seq analysis. Sequencing data were used for digital gene expression (DGE) analysis to characterize the transcriptomic responses in grafted watermelon seedlings. A total of 702 differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) were found in rootstock grafted (RG) watermelon relative to self-grafted (SG) watermelon; among these genes, 522 genes were up-regulated and 180 were down-regulated. Additionally, 164 and 953 genes were found to specifically expressed in RG and SG seedlings under chilling stress, respectively. Functional annotations revealed that up-regulated DEGs are involved in protein processing, plant-pathogen interaction and the spliceosome, whereas down-regulated DEGs are associated with photosynthesis. Moreover, 13 DEGs were randomly selected for quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. The expression profiles of these 13 DEGs were consistent with those detected by the DGE analysis, supporting the reliability of the DGE data. This work provides additional insight into the molecular basis of grafted watermelon responses to chilling stress. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Profiles of adolescent religiousness using latent profile analysis: Implications for psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Gregory S; Bray, Bethany C; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2017-03-01

    Prior research has documented robust associations between adolescent religiousness/spirituality (R/S) and psychopathology outcomes including externalizing and internalizing symptomatology, yet no previous studies have examined these associations with adolescent R/S profiles using a person-centred approach. We examined whether there are identifiable subgroups characterized by unique multidimensional patterns of R/S experiences and how these experiences may be related to externalizing and internalizing symptomatology. The sample consisted of 220 Appalachian adolescents between 12 and 18 years old who were primarily White and primarily Christian. Latent profile analysis revealed three profiles of adolescent R/S: high religiousness (28.4%), introjectors (47.6%), and low religiousness (24.0%). These profiles were differentially related to internalizing and externalizing symptomatology such that the high religiousness group was significantly lower than the introjectors with respect to internalizing and externalizing symptomatology and lower than the low religiousness group in externalizing symptomatology. Implications and suggestions for future research using person-centred approaches to better understand differential developmental trajectories of religious development are provided. Statement of contribution What is already known Prior research has demonstrated a negative relationship between adolescent religiousness and spirituality (R/S) and psychopathology. Numerous studies document the differential relationships between aspects of R/S and psychopathology; however, few have done so from a person-centred perspective. There are several theories that outline how R/S to study R/S when paying specific attention to culture. Saroglou's Big Four dimensions of religion (believing, bonding, behaving, and belonging) posits that these four dimensions (1) are able to delimit religion from proximal constructs; (2) translate major distinct dimensions of religiousness; (3) can be

  20. Comparative chemoreactome analysis of dexketoprofen, ketoprofen, and diclofenac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yu. Torshin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 is the main targeted protein of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID; nevertheless, the latter substantially differ in pharmacological properties.Objective: to establish the spectrum of pharmacological actions of dexketoprofen, ketoprofen, and diclofenac, by using a chemoreactome analysis.Material and methods. A chemoinformation analysis was used to determine a list of the chemical structures closest to dexketoprofen. For each molecule, the investigators extracted the results of experimental measurements of the rheological properties of this molecule from databases and a chemoreactome analysis was carried out. The comparative chemoreactome analysis of the molecule of dexketoprofen and control molecules (ketoprofen, diclofenac could assess the biological activity of the studied molecule.Results and discussion. Unlike the molecules of comparison, dexketoprofen was found to be able to accumulate mainly in muscles, adipose tissue, and adrenal glands. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of dexketoprofen can be carried out via modulation not only of the metabolism of prostaglandins, but also that of leukotrienes and encephalins, as well as via inhibition of metalloproteinases and glutamate receptors. In addition, the analysis showed a considerable difference in the interaction profiles of dexketoprofen, ketoprofen, and diclofenac with cytochrome P450 enzymes. Dexketoprofen can enhance the efficacy of anti-arrhythmic and antiadrenergic agents, whereas ketoprofen and diclofenac are able to negatively affect the metabolism of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D.Conclusion. The chemoreactome analysis could identify the promising vasodilatory, antiplatelet, antidiabetic, and antitumor effects of dexketoprofen in addition to its main action. 

  1. Comparative Transcriptomic Profiling and Gene Expression for Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease in the Dog and Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg R. Markby

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Myxomatous mitral valve disease is the single most important mitral valve disease in both dogs and humans. In the case of the dog it is ubiquitous, such that all aged dogs will have some evidence of the disease, and for humans it is known as Barlow’s disease and affects up to 3% of the population, with an expected increase in prevalence as the population ages. Disease in the two species show many similarities and while both have the classic myxomatous degeneration only in humans is there extensive fibrosis. This dual pathology of the human disease markedly affects the valve transcriptome and the difference between the dog and human is dominated by changes in genes associated with fibrosis. This review will briefly examine the comparative valve pathology and then, in more detail, the transcriptomic profiling and gene expression reported so far for both species.

  2. Schizosaccharomyces pombe Polysome Profile Analysis and RNA Purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Dieter A; Bähler, Jürg; Wise, Jo Ann

    2017-04-03

    Polysome profile analysis is widely used by investigators studying the mechanism and regulation of translation. The method described here uses high-velocity centrifugation of whole cell extracts on linear sucrose gradients to separate 40S and 60S ribosomal subunits from 80S monosomes and polysomes. Cycloheximide is included in the lysis buffer to "freeze" polysomes by blocking translation. After centrifugation, the gradient is fractionated and RNA (and/or protein) is prepared from each fraction for subsequent analysis of individual species using northern or western blots. The entire RNA population in each fraction can be analyzed by hybridization to microarrays or by high-throughput RNA sequencing, and the proteins present can be identified by mass spectrometry analysis. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  3. Human Capital Development: Comparative Analysis of BRICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardichvili, Alexandre; Zavyalova, Elena; Minina, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article is to conduct macro-level analysis of human capital (HC) development strategies, pursued by four countries commonly referred to as BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China). Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is based on comparisons of macro indices of human capital and innovativeness of the economy and a…

  4. PROFILE ANALYSIS OF THE EMPLOYEES OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor NISTORESCU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we tried to deliver a profile analysis of the employees from the commercial banks. The banking sector is especially important because it has to finance the entire economy, and therefore it needs competent and well-motivated people. As methodology we realized a survey on a representative number of employees of commercial banks. We used questionnaires measuring motivational factors, the orientation to tasks vs. people questionnaire, the potential leadership questionnaire, the Belbin self-knowledge questionnaire. The results showed that the employee from the Romanian commercial banks has a strong work-ethic and is highly motivated.

  5. Depth profile and interface analysis in the nm-range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oswald, S.; Reiche, R.; Zier, M.; Baunack, S.; Wetzig, K.

    2005-01-01

    In modern technology, thin films are shrinking more and more to a thickness of few nanometers. Analytical investigations of such thin films using the traditional sputter depth profiling, sputtering in combination with surface-analytical techniques, have limitations due to physical effects especially for very thin films. These limitations are pointed out and some alternatives are discussed. Non-destructive analysis with angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is demonstrated to be a useful method for such investigations. Both qualitative and quantitative results can be obtained even for complex layer structures. Nevertheless, there are also limitations of this method and some alternatives or complementary methods are considered

  6. Proteome profiling analysis of human ovarian cancer serum samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cognetti, F.; Citro, G.

    2009-01-01

    Mass Spectrometry represents a powerful tool in cancer research to discovery of potential bio markers through peak identification from serum profiling. By using high resolution MALDITOF and bioinformatic analysis almost 400 serum sample homogeneously distributed between biopsy confirmed ovarian cancer and high risk serum samples were analyzed. Each serum sample run in duplicate and whole serum sample preparation procedure has been performed by Hamilton Star Robot in order to reduce bias and the replicates with a low Pearson coefficient are removed. After automated reverse phase magnetic beads separation the samples were tested in MALDI-TOF

  7. Utilization of ACL Injury Biomechanical and Neuromuscular Risk Profile Analysis to Determine the Effectiveness of Neuromuscular Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Timothy E; Ford, Kevin R; Xu, Yingying Y; Khoury, Jane; Myer, Gregory D

    2016-12-01

    The widespread use of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention interventions has not been effective in reducing the injury incidence among female athletes who participate in high-risk sports. The purpose of this study was to determine if biomechanical and neuromuscular factors that contribute to the knee abduction moment (KAM), a predictor of future ACL injuries, could be used to characterize athletes by a distinct factor. Specifically, we hypothesized that a priori selected biomechanical and neuromuscular factors would characterize participants into distinct at-risk profiles. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 624 female athletes who participated in jumping, cutting, and pivoting sports underwent testing before their competitive season. During testing, athletes performed drop-jump tasks from which biomechanical measures were captured. Using data from these tasks, latent profile analysis (LPA) was conducted to identify distinct profiles based on preintervention biomechanical and neuromuscular measures. As a validation, we examined whether the profile membership was a significant predictor of the KAM. LPA using 6 preintervention biomechanical measures selected a priori resulted in 3 distinct profiles, including a low (profile 1), moderate (profile 2), and high (profile 3) risk for ACL injuries. Athletes with profiles 2 and 3 had a significantly higher KAM compared with those with profile 1 (P risk profiles. Three distinct risk groups were identified based on differences in the peak KAM. These findings demonstrate the existence of discernable groups of athletes that may benefit from injury prevention interventions. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT identifier: NCT01034527. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Comparing the Musculoskeletal Profile of the Elderly With and Without History of Falling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzeh Hasanvand

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of current study was to study and compare the musculoskeletal profile of the elderly with and without the history of falling living at nursing homes in Rasht, Iran. Methods & Materials: A total of 54 elderly men and women, aged 60 years and older participated in this study. Of them, 16 (fall group experienced a fall in the previous year [Mean(SD of age: 79(9.90 years; height: 1.51(0.103 m; and weight: 60.03(11.12 kg] and 38 (no fall group had no history of falling [Mean(SD of age: 70.16(8.16 years; height: 1.56(0.11 m; and weight 65.6(14.93 kg]. The foot arch, distance between femoral condyles, kyphosis, lordosis, flexibility and the ability to walk were measured by ruler, caliper, flexible ruler, sit and reach test, and functional gait assessment questionnaires, respectively. Data analysis was done through independent t-test using SPSS. Study significance level was set at 0.05. Results: In the fall group the mean(SD of measured variables were as follows: body mass index (BMI: 25.95(3.35 kg/m2; foot arch: 9.94(4.34 mm; flexibility: 8.25(6.38 cm, lordosis: 20.86(9.48 degree; kyphosis: 35.07(14.98 degree. And in no fall group, the same variables were as follows: BMI: 26.87(5.12 kg/m2; foot arch: 10.95(5.60 mm; flexibility: 8.16(5.24 cm; lordosis 26.66(14.78 degree; and kyphosis: 41.11(9.84 degree. These variables were not significantly different between the groups; however, the functional gait assessment and distance between femoral condyles test showed significant differences. In the group with a history of fall, the functional gait assessment and distance between femoral condyles were 12.50(7.07 and 2.74(2.38 cm and in the group without a history of fall functional gait assessment and distance between femoral condyles were 23.63(5.49 and 1.20(1.4 cm, respectively. According to the results, in the fall group, the distance between femoral condyles was more and the performance level was less (P≤0.05. Conclusion

  9. Metabolic Profiling of Primary and Secondary Biosynthetic Pathways in Angiosperms: Comparative Metabonomics and Applications of Hyphenated LC-NMR and LC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, Kayla Anne

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation was to advance plant metabolomics through optimization of biological experimental design, sampling and sample preparation, data acquisition and pre-processing, and multivariable data analysis. The analytical platform most employed for comparative metabonomics was nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Liquid-chromatography (LC) coupled to NMR and mass spectrometry (MS) extended metabolic profile coverage from primary into secondary metabolic pathways. Comparative p...

  10. MANAGEMENT AND COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DATASET ENSEMBLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geveci, Berk [Senior Director, Scientific Computing

    2010-05-17

    The primary Phase I technical objective was to develop a prototype that demonstrates the functionality of all components required for an end-to-end meta-data management and comparative visualization system.

  11. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SOME TECHNIQUES IN THE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES OBE

    25, No. 1, March 2006. Ayotamuno, Kogbara and Agunwamba 15. COMPARATIVE .... Option 0, was the Control (no treatment employed) ..... induce an enormous proliferation of microbial ... oxygen and nutrients imposed the greatest limitation ...

  12. Comparative Analysis of Competitive Strategy Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Maina A. S. Waweru

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents research findings on Competitive Strategy Implementation which compared the levels of strategy implementation achieved by different generic strategy groups, comprising firms inclined towards low cost leadership, differentiation or dual strategic advantage. The study sought to determine the preferences for use of implementation armaments and compared how such armaments related to the level of implementation achieved. Respondents comprised 71 top executives from 59 companies...

  13. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Coronal Loops Using Seismology of Damped Kink Oscillations and Forward Modeling of EUV Intensity Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, D. J.; Anfinogentov, S. A.; Goddard, C. R.; Nakariakov, V. M.

    2018-06-01

    The shape of the damping profile of kink oscillations in coronal loops has recently allowed the transverse density profile of the loop to be estimated. This requires accurate measurement of the damping profile that can distinguish the Gaussian and exponential damping regimes, otherwise there are more unknowns than observables. Forward modeling of the transverse intensity profile may also be used to estimate the width of the inhomogeneous layer of a loop, providing an independent estimate of one of these unknowns. We analyze an oscillating loop for which the seismological determination of the transverse structure is inconclusive except when supplemented by additional spatial information from the transverse intensity profile. Our temporal analysis describes the motion of a coronal loop as a kink oscillation damped by resonant absorption, and our spatial analysis is based on forward modeling the transverse EUV intensity profile of the loop under the isothermal and optically thin approximations. We use Bayesian analysis and Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling to apply our spatial and temporal models both individually and simultaneously to our data and compare the results with numerical simulations. Combining the two methods allows both the inhomogeneous layer width and density contrast to be calculated, which is not possible for the same data when each method is applied individually. We demonstrate that the assumption of an exponential damping profile leads to a significantly larger error in the inferred density contrast ratio compared with a Gaussian damping profile.

  14. Comparing Results from Constant Comparative and Computer Software Methods: A Reflection about Qualitative Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putten, Jim Vander; Nolen, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared qualitative research results obtained by manual constant comparative analysis with results obtained by computer software analysis of the same data. An investigated about issues of trustworthiness and accuracy ensued. Results indicated that the inductive constant comparative data analysis generated 51 codes and two coding levels…

  15. A better coefficient of determination for genetic profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hong; Goddard, Michael E; Wray, Naomi R; Visscher, Peter M

    2012-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies have facilitated the construction of risk predictors for disease from multiple Single Nucleotide Polymorphism markers. The ability of such "genetic profiles" to predict outcome is usually quantified in an independent data set. Coefficients of determination (R(2) ) have been a useful measure to quantify the goodness-of-fit of the genetic profile. Various pseudo-R(2) measures for binary responses have been proposed. However, there is no standard or consensus measure because the concept of residual variance is not easily defined on the observed probability scale. Unlike other nongenetic predictors such as environmental exposure, there is prior information on genetic predictors because for most traits there are estimates of the proportion of variation in risk in the population due to all genetic factors, the heritability. It is this useful ability to benchmark that makes the choice of a measure of goodness-of-fit in genetic profiling different from that of nongenetic predictors. In this study, we use a liability threshold model to establish the relationship between the observed probability scale and underlying liability scale in measuring R(2) for binary responses. We show that currently used R(2) measures are difficult to interpret, biased by ascertainment, and not comparable to heritability. We suggest a novel and globally standard measure of R(2) that is interpretable on the liability scale. Furthermore, even when using ascertained case-control studies that are typical in human disease studies, we can obtain an R(2) measure on the liability scale that can be compared directly to heritability. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Parent Prevention Communication Profiles and Adolescent Substance Use: A Latent Profile Analysis and Growth Curve Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hye Jeong; Miller-Day, Michelle; Shin, YoungJu; Hecht, Michael L.; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Krieger, Janice L.; Lee, JeongKyu; Graham, John W.

    2017-01-01

    This current study identifies distinct parent prevention communication profiles and examines whether youth with different parental communication profiles have varying substance use trajectories over time. Eleven schools in two rural school districts in the Midwestern United States were selected, and 784 students were surveyed at three time points from the beginning of 7th grade to the end of 8th grade. A series of latent profile analyses were performed to identify discrete profiles/subgroups of substance-specific prevention communication (SSPC). The results revealed a 4-profile model of SSPC: Active-Open, Passive-Open, Active-Silent, and Passive-Silent. A growth curve model revealed different rates of lifetime substance use depending on the youth’s SSPC profile. These findings have implications for parenting interventions and tailoring messages for parents to fit specific SSPC profiles. PMID:29056872

  17. Comparing the prevalence and the risk profile for antenatal depressive symptoms across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbani, Irene E; Rucci, Paola; Iapichino, Elena; Quartieri Bollani, Marta; Cauli, Gilla; Ceruti, Mara R; Gala, Costanzo; Bassi, Mariano

    2017-11-01

    Although several studies have analyzed the risk factors of antenatal and post-partum depression, evidence on the prevalence and the risk profile for antenatal depressive symptoms (ADS) between native-born and different groups of non-native born women living in the same country is scant. The aim of this article is to compare the prevalence and the risk profile for ADS across geographical areas in women recruited from two large hospitals of North-western Italy. The presence of ADS was defined as an Edinburgh Post-natal Depression Scale (EPDS) score ≥12 or a Beck Depression Inventory, Short Form (BDI-SF) score ≥9 or the presence of suicidal ideation/behavior. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of ADS were calculated using logistic regression models. The prevalence of ADS was 12.4% among Italian women and ranged from 11.4% in other European to 44.7% in North-African women. Crude ORs of ADS were OR = 3.3 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2-8.8) for Asian, 3.3 (95% CI, 1.9-5.6) for South-American and 5.7 (95% CI, 3.4-9.6) for North-African women. Marital problems, at-risk pregnancy, past psychiatric history, pharmacological treatment, psychological treatment, financial problems, change in residence and number of children were significantly associated with ADS in multivariate analyses, regardless of women's origin. After adjusting for these variables, the OR of ADS remained significant for South-American and North-African women. Our results demonstrate that the risk of ADS varies across geographical areas of origin and is highest among North-African women. The risk factors identified should be assessed in routine obstetric care to inform decisions about interventions to prevent post-partum depression and its consequences on the mothers and the newborns.

  18. Comparative Studies on the Dissolution Profiles of Oral Ibuprofen Suspension and Commercial Tablets using Biopharmaceutical Classification System Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Leyva, J. C.; García-Flores, M.; Valladares-Méndez, A.; Orozco-Castellanos, L. M.; Martínez-Alfaro, M.

    2012-01-01

    In vitro dissolution studies for solid oral dosage forms have recently widened the scope to a variety of special dosage forms such as suspensions. For class II drugs, like Ibuprofen, it is very important to have discriminative methods for different formulations in physiological conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, which will identify different problems that compromise the drug bioavailability. In the present work, two agitation speeds have been performed in order to study ibuprofen suspension dissolution. The suspensions have been characterised relatively to particle size, density and solubility. The dissolution study was conducted using the following media: buffer pH 7.2, pH 6.8, 4.5 and 0.1 M HCl. For quantitative analysis, the UV/Vis spectrophotometry was used because this methodology had been adequately validated. The results show that 50 rpm was the adequate condition to discriminate the dissolution profile. The suspension kinetic release was found to be dependent on pH and was different compared to tablet release profile at the same experimental conditions. The ibuprofen release at pH 1.0 was the slowest. PMID:23626386

  19. Strategies for comparing gene expression profiles from different microarray platforms: application to a case-control experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severgnini, Marco; Bicciato, Silvio; Mangano, Eleonora; Scarlatti, Francesca; Mezzelani, Alessandra; Mattioli, Michela; Ghidoni, Riccardo; Peano, Clelia; Bonnal, Raoul; Viti, Federica; Milanesi, Luciano; De Bellis, Gianluca; Battaglia, Cristina

    2006-06-01

    Meta-analysis of microarray data is increasingly important, considering both the availability of multiple platforms using disparate technologies and the accumulation in public repositories of data sets from different laboratories. We addressed the issue of comparing gene expression profiles from two microarray platforms by devising a standardized investigative strategy. We tested this procedure by studying MDA-MB-231 cells, which undergo apoptosis on treatment with resveratrol. Gene expression profiles were obtained using high-density, short-oligonucleotide, single-color microarray platforms: GeneChip (Affymetrix) and CodeLink (Amersham). Interplatform analyses were carried out on 8414 common transcripts represented on both platforms, as identified by LocusLink ID, representing 70.8% and 88.6% of annotated GeneChip and CodeLink features, respectively. We identified 105 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) on CodeLink and 42 DEGs on GeneChip. Among them, only 9 DEGs were commonly identified by both platforms. Multiple analyses (BLAST alignment of probes with target sequences, gene ontology, literature mining, and quantitative real-time PCR) permitted us to investigate the factors contributing to the generation of platform-dependent results in single-color microarray experiments. An effective approach to cross-platform comparison involves microarrays of similar technologies, samples prepared by identical methods, and a standardized battery of bioinformatic and statistical analyses.

  20. Wellness Model of Supervision: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, A. Stephen; Sangganjanavanich, Varunee Faii; Balkin, Richard S.; Oliver, Marvarene; Smith, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study compared the effectiveness of the Wellness Model of Supervision (WELMS; Lenz & Smith, 2010) with alternative supervision models for developing wellness constructs, total personal wellness, and helping skills among counselors-in-training. Participants were 32 master's-level counseling students completing their…

  1. Comparative Distributions of Hazard Modeling Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Abdul Wajid

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the comparison among the distributions used in hazard analysis. Simulation technique has been used to study the behavior of hazard distribution modules. The fundamentals of Hazard issues are discussed using failure criteria. We present the flexibility of the hazard modeling distribution that approaches to different distributions.

  2. Comparative metabolic profiling of mce1 operon mutant vs wild-type Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Adriano; Medina-Cleghorn, Daniel; Marjanovic, Olivera; Nomura, Daniel K; Riley, Lee W

    2015-11-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis disrupted in a 13-gene operon (mce1) accumulates free mycolic acids (FM) in its cell wall and causes accelerated death in mice. Here, to more comprehensively analyze differences in their cell wall lipid composition, we used an untargeted metabolomics approach to compare the lipid profiles of wild-type and mce1 operon mutant strains. By liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we identified >400 distinct lipids significantly altered in the mce1 mutant compared to wild type. These lipids included decreased levels of saccharolipids and glycerophospholipids, and increased levels of alpha-, methoxy- and keto mycolic acids (MA), and hydroxyphthioceranic acid. The mutant showed reduced expression of mmpL8, mmpL10, stf0, pks2 and papA2 genes involved in transport and metabolism of lipids recognized to induce proinflammatory response; these lipids were found to be decreased in the mutant. In contrast, the transcripts of mmpL3, fasI, kasA, kasB, acpM and RV3451 involved in MA transport and metabolism increased; MA inhibits inflammatory response in macrophages. Since the mce1 operon is known to be regulated in intracellular M. tuberculosis, we speculate that the differences we observed in cell wall lipid metabolism and composition may affect host response to M. tuberculosis infection and determine the clinical outcome of such an infection. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT MODELS

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Kaur*

    2017-01-01

    No geek is unfamiliar with the concept of software development life cycle (SDLC). This research deals with the various SDLC models covering waterfall, spiral, and iterative, agile, V-shaped, prototype model. In the modern era, all the software systems are fallible as they can’t stand with certainty. So, it is tried to compare all aspects of the various models, their pros and cons so that it could be easy to choose a particular model at the time of need

  4. Microstructure of a tribosphenic molar - comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    ŠPOUTIL, František

    2010-01-01

    The proposed thesis concerns in the study of tribosphenic molar, the key apomorphy of mammalian clade, mainly in structure and development of its enamel coat. As the main model species served us European vespertilionid bat Myotis myotis. The aims of this thesis are: (1) to describe structure and microstructure of enamel in tribosphenic molars in detail; (2) to compare it with unicuspid teeth of the same dentition; (3) to describe mineralization process and enamel maturation in insectivorous d...

  5. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Soybean Flowering Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chol-Hee; Wong, Chui E.; Singh, Mohan B.; Bhalla, Prem L.

    2012-01-01

    Flowering is an important agronomic trait that determines crop yield. Soybean is a major oilseed legume crop used for human and animal feed. Legumes have unique vegetative and floral complexities. Our understanding of the molecular basis of flower initiation and development in legumes is limited. Here, we address this by using a computational approach to examine flowering regulatory genes in the soybean genome in comparison to the most studied model plant, Arabidopsis. For this comparison, a genome-wide analysis of orthologue groups was performed, followed by an in silico gene expression analysis of the identified soybean flowering genes. Phylogenetic analyses of the gene families highlighted the evolutionary relationships among these candidates. Our study identified key flowering genes in soybean and indicates that the vernalisation and the ambient-temperature pathways seem to be the most variant in soybean. A comparison of the orthologue groups containing flowering genes indicated that, on average, each Arabidopsis flowering gene has 2-3 orthologous copies in soybean. Our analysis highlighted that the CDF3, VRN1, SVP, AP3 and PIF3 genes are paralogue-rich genes in soybean. Furthermore, the genome mapping of the soybean flowering genes showed that these genes are scattered randomly across the genome. A paralogue comparison indicated that the soybean genes comprising the largest orthologue group are clustered in a 1.4 Mb region on chromosome 16 of soybean. Furthermore, a comparison with the undomesticated soybean (Glycine soja) revealed that there are hundreds of SNPs that are associated with putative soybean flowering genes and that there are structural variants that may affect the genes of the light-signalling and ambient-temperature pathways in soybean. Our study provides a framework for the soybean flowering pathway and insights into the relationship and evolution of flowering genes between a short-day soybean and the long-day plant, Arabidopsis. PMID:22679494

  6. Comparative analysis of vestibular ecomorphology in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Roger B J; Starmer-Jones, Ethan; Close, Roger A; Walsh, Stig A

    2017-12-01

    The bony labyrinth of vertebrates houses the semicircular canals. These sense rotational accelerations of the head and play an essential role in gaze stabilisation during locomotion. The sizes and shapes of the semicircular canals have hypothesised relationships to agility and locomotory modes in many groups, including birds, and a burgeoning palaeontological literature seeks to make ecological interpretations from the morphology of the labyrinth in extinct species. Rigorous tests of form-function relationships for the vestibular system are required to support these interpretations. We test the hypothesis that the lengths, streamlines and angles between the semicircular canals are related to body size, wing kinematics and flying style in birds. To do this, we applied geometric morphometrics and multivariate phylogenetic comparative methods to a dataset of 64 three-dimensional reconstructions of the endosseous labyrinth obtained using micro-computed tomography scanning of bird crania. A strong relationship between centroid size of the semicircular canals and body size indicates that larger birds have longer semicircular canals compared with their evolutionary relatives. Wing kinematics related to manoeuvrability (and quantified using the brachial index) explain a small additional portion of the variance in labyrinth size. We also find strong evidence for allometric shape change in the semicircular canals of birds, indicating that major aspects of the shape of the avian labyrinth are determined by spatial constraints. The avian braincase accommodates a large brain, a large eye and large semicircular canals compared with other tetrapods. Negative allometry of these structures means that the restriction of space within the braincase is intense in small birds. This may explain our observation that the angles between planes of the semicircular canals of birds deviate more strongly from orthogonality than those of mammals, and especially from agile, gliding and flying

  7. Comparative Analysis of Investment Decision Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieva Kekytė

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of financial markets resulted new challenges for both investors and investment issues. This increased demand for innovative, modern investment and portfolio management decisions adequate for market conditions. Financial market receives special attention, creating new models, includes financial risk management and investment decision support systems.Researchers recognize the need to deal with financial problems using models consistent with the reality and based on sophisticated quantitative analysis technique. Thus, role mathematical modeling in finance becomes important. This article deals with various investments decision-making models, which include forecasting, optimization, stochatic processes, artificial intelligence, etc., and become useful tools for investment decisions.

  8. A comparative study of the work involved in measuring profiles using ion chambers, a linear diode array and film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rykers, K.L.; RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC; Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, NSW; Geso, M.; Brown, G.M.; Olilver, L.D.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The usefulness of film to perform dosimetric measurement is a topic often discussed and not clearly agreed upon. While single point measurement detectors give consistent and reliable results for physically wedged fields they cannot be easily used to measure intensity modulated fields. In this work a method of using film to measure profiles for dynamically wedged (DW) fields is presented. The method of positioning film for the subsequent generation of a conversion function to allow for the variation in films' response with energy is outlined. Furthermore, the profiles determined by film measurement are compared with those measured with single point measurement detector and an array of silicon diodes. Both Leavitt et. al. 8 and Weber et. al. 7 have reported on the successful use of the linear diode array (LDA) in measuring dynamic wedge data. This claim will be investigated. The film used in this work was Kodak X-Omat V. The solid water was RW3 with high water equivalency in the range from 137 CS to 50 MV for photons and electrons. All films were processed in an automatic processor. Both the Wellhoefer and the Scanditronix RFA 300 densitometers were used to take film readings. Wedged field and open field profiles measurements were taken in water using both the Wellhoefer IC-10 chamber, the Scanditronix RFA 300 RK chamber and the Scanditronix LDA . The energy investigated was 6 MV at 1.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0 cm for a Varian 2100C machine. More consistent density readings were obtained when films were processed with the edge of the film that was parallel to the beam axis was fed into the processor first; rather than when the beam incident edge was fed into the processor first. Comparing the position of the central axis (CAX) of open films from the geometric method developed in this work to the software determined CAX (as available with the Wellhoefer software), it was found that the difference in CAX positions varied between -0.03 to +0.04 cm at 2.5 cm

  9. A comparative analysis of capacity adequacy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorman, Gerard; Botterud, Audun; Wolfgang, Ove

    2007-06-01

    In this paper a stochastic dynamic optimization model is used to analyze the effect of different generation adequacy policies in restructured power systems. The expansion decisions of profit-maximizing investors are simulated under a number of different market designs: Energy Only with and without a price cap, Capacity Payment, Capacity Obligation, Capacity Subscription, and Demand Elasticity. The results show that the overall social welfare is reduced compared to a centralized social welfare optimization for all policies except Capacity Subscription and Demand Elasticity. In particular, an energy only market with a low price cap leads to a significant increase in involuntary load shedding. Capacity payments and obligations give additional investment incentives and more generating capacity, but also result in a considerable transfer of wealth from consumers to producers due to the capacity payments. Increased demand elasticity increases social welfare, but also results in a transfer from producers to consumers, compared to the theoretical social welfare optimum. In contrast, the capacity subscription policy increases the social welfare, and both producers and consumers benefit. This is possible because capacity subscription explicitly utilizes differences in consumers' preferences for uninterrupted supply. This advantage must be weighed against the cost of implementation, which is not included in the model.

  10. Comparing structural decomposition analysis and index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekstra, Rutger; Van den Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    To analyze and understand historical changes in economic, environmental, employment or other socio-economic indicators, it is useful to assess the driving forces or determinants that underlie these changes. Two techniques for decomposing indicator changes at the sector level are structural decomposition analysis (SDA) and index decomposition analysis (IDA). For example, SDA and IDA have been used to analyze changes in indicators such as energy use, CO 2 -emissions, labor demand and value added. The changes in these variables are decomposed into determinants such as technological, demand, and structural effects. SDA uses information from input-output tables while IDA uses aggregate data at the sector-level. The two methods have developed quite independently, which has resulted in each method being characterized by specific, unique techniques and approaches. This paper has three aims. First, the similarities and differences between the two approaches are summarized. Second, the possibility of transferring specific techniques and indices is explored. Finally, a numerical example is used to illustrate differences between the two approaches

  11. Comparative analysis of the biochemistry undergraduate courses in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Granjeiro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The economic and social development of Brazil during the recent decades has contributed to the installation of several new undergraduate and graduate study programs, as is the case of the undergraduate biochemistry programs at UFV, UFSJ and UEM. The new biochemical professionals are being prepared to work mainly in Industries, research Institutes, government agencies and Universities in all fields that involve Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. The aim of this study was to conduct a comparative analysis of the courses in Biochemistry in Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Comparative analysis of the course units of the UFV, UFSJ and UEM programs, centered on the curricula contents and organization and on the profiles of the students in terms of parameters such as the number of admissions and the graduation completion rates. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The UFV and UEM programs present a very similar distribution of workload over the biological, exact sciences, humanities, biochemical specialties and technological applications. The UFSJ program presents higher workloads in the areas of biological sciences and technological applications. No significant differences in the distribution of the workloads of mandatory and optional disciplines, complementary activities and supervised activities were detected. Over the past five years there was a decrease in the number of students that abandoned the programs, despite the increased retention time in the three courses. Most graduated students at both UFV and UFSJ continue their academic career toward the Master or Doctor degrees. CONCLUSION: Little difference between the study programs analyzed. This is somewhat surprising if one considers the fact that individual conception of each program was based on different local conditions and needs, which indeed justify small differences. The similarity of the programs, on the other hand, reflects the universality of the biochemical sciences and their broad

  12. Bisphenol A alters gut microbiome: Comparative metagenomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Keng-Po; Chung, Yan-Tung; Li, Rong; Wan, Hin-Ting; Wong, Chris Kong-Chu

    2016-11-01

    Mounting evidence has shown that an alteration of the gut microbiota is associated with diet, and plays an important role in animal health and metabolic diseases. However, little is known about the influence of environmental contaminants on the gut microbial community. Bisphenol A (BPA), which is widely used for manufacturing plastic products, has recently been classified as an environmental obesogen. Although many studies have demonstrated the metabolic-disrupting effects of BPA on liver and pancreatic functions, the possible effects of this synthetic compound on the metabolic diversity of the intestinal microbiota is unknown. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis on caecum samples of CD-1 mice, the present study aimed to test the hypothesis that dietary BPA intake may influence the gut microbiota composition and functions, an important attributing factor to development of the metabolic syndrome. A high-fat diet (HFD) and high-sucrose diet (HSD) were included as the positive controls for comparing the changes in the intestinal microbial profiles. Our results demonstrated a significant reduction of species diversity in the gut microbiota of BPA-fed mice. Alpha and beta diversity analyses showed that dietary BPA intake led to a similar gut microbial community structure as that induced by HFD and HSD in mice. In addition, comparative analysis of the microbial communities revealed that both BPA and a HFD favored the growth of Proteobacteria, a microbial marker of dysbiosis. Consistently, growth induction of the family Helicobacteraceae and reduction of the Firmicutes and Clostridia populations were observed in the mice fed BPA or a HFD. Collectively, our study highlighted that the effects of dietary BPA intake on the shift of microbial community structure were similar to those of a HFD and HSD, and revealed microbial markers for the development of diseases associated with an unstable microbiota. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Multilayer analysis using SIMS: interpretation of profiles at interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aucouturier, M.; Grattepain, C.; Tromson-Carli, A.; Barbe, M.; Cohen-Solal, G.; Marfaing, Y.; Chevrier, F.; Gall, H. le; Imhoff, D.

    1993-01-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is a well adapted analytical method for the chemical characterization of concentration profiles in layered or multilayered materials, particularly concerning the more or less abrupt interfaces bounding those layers. It is known that the fiability and accuracy of the interface characterization may be affected by methodological factors, which alter the depth resolution such as: macroscopical or microscopical initial roughness of the substrate and/or of the layers, ion-induced roughening, effects of differential sputtering of the various elements, transitory stage of the primary ion beam implantation, ion beam induced accelerated diffusion, balistic mixing or segregation; etc.. This communication describes several examples of SIMS analysis performed on metal multilayers (Co/Cu) and on epitaxial semiconductor layers (CdTe/GaAs), focussing the interest on the particular analytical problems raised by the initial roughness and the ion induced roughening effect. The interpretation of the measured profiles, the influence of analytical parameters (such as the nature of the primary ion beam, sputtering conditions, detected ion species), and the limitations of profilometry roughness measurements, are discussed. Solutions are proposed in order to improve the depth resolution of interface characterization, including a tentative modelization of roughness effects. (orig.)

  14. Nonlinear analysis of RED - a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Kai; Wang Xiaofan; Xi Yugeng

    2004-01-01

    Random Early Detection (RED) is an active queue management (AQM) mechanism for routers on the Internet. In this paper, performance of RED and Adaptive RED are compared from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics. In particular, we reveal the relationship between the performance of the network and its nonlinear dynamical behavior. We measure the maximal Lyapunov exponent and Hurst parameter of the average queue length of RED and Adaptive RED, as well as the throughput and packet loss rate of the aggregate traffic on the bottleneck link. Our simulation scenarios include FTP flows and Web flows, one-way and two-way traffic. In most situations, Adaptive RED has smaller maximal Lyapunov exponents, lower Hurst parameters, higher throughput and lower packet loss rate than that of RED. This confirms that Adaptive RED has better performance than RED

  15. Comparative analysis of some search engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo O. Edosomwan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We compared the information retrieval performances of some popular search engines (namely, Google, Yahoo, AlltheWeb, Gigablast, Zworks and AltaVista and Bing/MSN in response to a list of ten queries, varying in complexity. These queries were run on each search engine and the precision and response time of the retrieved results were recorded. The first ten documents on each retrieval output were evaluated as being ‘relevant’ or ‘non-relevant’ for evaluation of the search engine’s precision. To evaluate response time, normalised recall ratios were calculated at various cut-off points for each query and search engine. This study shows that Google appears to be the best search engine in terms of both average precision (70% and average response time (2 s. Gigablast and AlltheWeb performed the worst overall in this study.

  16. Comparative analysis of Goodwin's business cycle models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonova, A. O.; Reznik, S.; Todorov, M. D.

    2016-10-01

    We compare the behavior of solutions of Goodwin's business cycle equation in the form of neutral delay differential equation with fixed delay (NDDE model) and in the form of the differential equations of 3rd, 4th and 5th orders (ODE model's). Such ODE model's (Taylor series expansion of NDDE in powers of θ) are proposed in N. Dharmaraj and K. Vela Velupillai [6] for investigation of the short periodic sawthooth oscillations in NDDE. We show that the ODE's of 3rd, 4th and 5th order may approximate the asymptotic behavior of only main Goodwin's mode, but not the sawthooth modes. If the order of the Taylor series expansion exceeds 5, then the approximate ODE becomes unstable independently of time lag θ.

  17. Nonlinear analysis of RED - a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Kai; Wang Xiaofan E-mail: xfwang@sjtu.edu.cn; Xi Yugeng

    2004-09-01

    Random Early Detection (RED) is an active queue management (AQM) mechanism for routers on the Internet. In this paper, performance of RED and Adaptive RED are compared from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics. In particular, we reveal the relationship between the performance of the network and its nonlinear dynamical behavior. We measure the maximal Lyapunov exponent and Hurst parameter of the average queue length of RED and Adaptive RED, as well as the throughput and packet loss rate of the aggregate traffic on the bottleneck link. Our simulation scenarios include FTP flows and Web flows, one-way and two-way traffic. In most situations, Adaptive RED has smaller maximal Lyapunov exponents, lower Hurst parameters, higher throughput and lower packet loss rate than that of RED. This confirms that Adaptive RED has better performance than RED.

  18. A Comparative Analysis of Crime Guns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E. Collins

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Information is limited on how firearms move from legal possession to illegal possession and use in criminal activities, largely because of data collection capacity and a lack of recent, exhaustive recovery data across jurisdictions. This article includes both an analysis of firearms trace data and prisoner interviews across multiple jurisdictions: New Orleans, Louisiana, Prince George’s County, Maryland, and Chicago, Illinois. Findings indicate that recoveries and trace successes vary across jurisdictions and by type of crime. Jurisdiction regulations were associated with the proportion of guns purchased in state and time to recovery but not with purchaser characteristics. Interviews from imprisoned offenders in two jurisdictions revealed the most common method of obtaining a crime gun was to steal it or buy it off the street.

  19. Comparative Modal Analysis of Sieve Hardware Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    The CMTB Thwacker hardware operates as a testbed analogue for the Flight Thwacker and Sieve components of CHIMRA, a device on the Curiosity Rover. The sieve separates particles with a diameter smaller than 150 microns for delivery to onboard science instruments. The sieving behavior of the testbed hardware should be similar to the Flight hardware for the results to be meaningful. The elastodynamic behavior of both sieves was studied analytically using the Rayleigh Ritz method in conjunction with classical plate theory. Finite element models were used to determine the mode shapes of both designs, and comparisons between the natural frequencies and mode shapes were made. The analysis predicts that the performance of the CMTB Thwacker will closely resemble the performance of the Flight Thwacker within the expected steady state operating regime. Excitations of the testbed hardware that will mimic the flight hardware were recommended, as were those that will improve the efficiency of the sieving process.

  20. Comparative performances analysis of neonatal ventilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldoli, Ilaria; Tognarelli, Selene; Scaramuzzo, Rosa T; Ciantelli, Massimiliano; Cecchi, Francesca; Gentile, Marzia; Sigali, Emilio; Ghirri, Paolo; Boldrini, Antonio; Menciassi, Arianna; Laschi, Cecilia; Cuttano, Armando

    2015-02-08

    Mechanical ventilation is a therapeutic action for newborns with respiratory diseases but may have side effects. Correct equipment knowledge and training may limit human errors. We aimed to test different neonatal mechanical ventilators' performances by an acquisition module (a commercial pressure sensor plus an isolated chamber and a dedicated software). The differences (ΔP) between peak pressure values and end-expiration pressure were investigated for each ventilator. We focused on discrepancies among measured and imposed pressure data. A statistical analysis was performed. We investigated the measured/imposed ΔP relation. The ΔP do not reveal univocal trends related to ventilation setting parameters and the data distributions were non-Gaussian. Measured ΔP represent a significant parameter in newborns' ventilation, due to the typical small volumes. The investigated ventilators showed different tendencies. Therefore, a deep specific knowledge of the intensive care devices is mandatory for caregivers to correctly exploit their operating principles.

  1. Comparative analysis of cystatin superfamily in platyhelminths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijiang Guo

    Full Text Available The cystatin superfamily is comprised of cysteine proteinase inhibitors and encompasses at least 3 subfamilies: stefins, cystatins and kininogens. In this study, the platyhelminth cystatin superfamily was identified and grouped into stefin and cystatin subfamilies. The conserved domain of stefins (G, QxVxG was observed in all members of platyhelminth stefins. The three characteristics of cystatins, the cystatin-like domain (G, QxVxG, PW, a signal peptide, and one or two conserved disulfide bonds, were observed in platyhelminths, with the exception of cestodes, which lacked the conserved disulfide bond. However, it is noteworthy that cestode cystatins had two tandem repeated domains, although the second tandem repeated domain did not contain a cystatin-like domain, which has not been previously reported. Tertiary structure analysis of Taenia solium cystatin, one of the cestode cystatins, demonstrated that the N-terminus of T. solium cystatin formed a five turn α-helix, a five stranded β-pleated sheet and a hydrophobic edge, similar to the structure of chicken cystatin. Although no conserved disulfide bond was found in T. solium cystatin, the models of T. solium cystatin and chicken cystatin corresponded at the site of the first disulfide bridge of the chicken cystatin. However, the two models were not similar regarding the location of the second disulfide bridge of chicken cystatin. These results showed that T. solium cystatin and chicken cystatin had similarities and differences, suggesting that the biochemistry of T. solium cystatin could be similar to chicken cystatin in its inhibitory function and that it may have further functional roles. The same results were obtained for other cestode cystatins. Phylogenetic analysis showed that cestode cystatins constituted an independent clade and implied that cestode cystatins should be considered to have formed a new clade during evolution.

  2. Comparing cancer vs normal gene expression profiles identifies new disease entities and common transcriptional programs in AML patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapin, Nicolas; Bagger, Frederik Otzen; Jendholm, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression profiling has been used extensively to characterize cancer, identify novel subtypes, and improve patient stratification. However, it has largely failed to identify transcriptional programs that differ between cancer and corresponding normal cells and has not been efficient in iden......-karyotype AML, which allowed for the generation of a highly prognostic survival signature. Collectively, our CvN method holds great potential as a tool for the analysis of gene expression profiles of cancer patients....

  3. Comparative Proteomic Profiling and Biomarker Identification of Traditional Chinese Medicine-Based HIV/AIDS Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Li; Liu, Ye-Fang; Jiang, Cen; Zeng, Shao-Qian; Su, Yue; Wu, Wen-Jun; Liu, Xi-Yang; Wang, Jian; Liu, Ying; Su, Chen; Li, Bai-Xue; Feng, Quan-Sheng

    2018-03-08

    Given the challenges in exploring lifelong therapy with little side effect for human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) cases, there is increasing interest in developing traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatments based on specific TCM syndrome. However, there are few objective and biological evidences for classification and diagnosis of HIV/AIDS TCM syndromes to date. In this study, iTRAQ-2DLC-MS/MS coupled with bioinformatics were firstly employed for comparative proteomic profiling of top popular TCM syndromes of HIV/AIDS: accumulation of heat-toxicity (AHT) and Yang deficiency of spleen and kidney (YDSK). It was found that for the two TCM syndromes, the identified differential expressed proteins (DEPs) as well as their biological function distributions and participation in signaling pathways were significantly different, providing biological evidence for the classification of HIV/AIDS TCM syndromes. Furthermore, the TCM syndrome-specific DEPs were confirmed as biomarkers based on western blot analyses, including FN1, GPX3, KRT10 for AHT and RBP4, ApoE, KNG1 for YDSK. These biomarkers also biologically linked with the specific TCM syndrome closely. Thus the clinical and biological basis for differentiation and diagnosis of HIV/AIDs TCM syndromes were provided for the first time, providing more opportunities for stable exertion and better application of TCM efficacy and superiority in HIV/AIDS treatment.

  4. Comparative Gene Expression Profiling in Human Cumulus Cells according to Ovarian Gonadotropin Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Assou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In in vitro fertilization cycles, both HP-hMG and rFSH gonadotropin treatments are widely used to control human follicle development. The objectives of this study are (i to characterize and compare gene expression profiles in cumulus cells (CCs of periovulatory follicles obtained from patients stimulated with HP-hMG or rFSH in a GnRH antagonist cycle and (ii to examine their relationship with in vitro embryo development, using Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays. Genes that were upregulated in HP-hMG-treated CCs are involved in lipid metabolism (GM2A and cell-to-cell interactions (GJA5. Conversely, genes upregulated in rFSH-treated CCs are implicated in cell assembly and organization (COL1A1 and COL3A1. Interestingly, some genes specific to each gonadotropin treatment (NPY1R and GM2A for HP-hMG; GREM1 and OSBPL6 for rFSH were associated with day 3 embryo quality and blastocyst grade at day 5, while others (STC2 and PTX3 were related to in vitro embryo quality in both gonadotropin treatments. These genes may prove valuable as biomarkers of in vitro embryo quality.

  5. Comparative expression profiling of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves systemically infected with three fruit tree viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardick, Christopher

    2007-08-01

    Plant viruses cause a wide array of disease symptoms and cytopathic effects. Although some of these changes are virus specific, many appear to be common even among diverse viruses. Currently, little is known about the underlying molecular determinants. To identify gene expression changes that are concomitant with virus symptoms, we performed comparative expression profiling experiments on Nicotiana benthamiana leaves infected with one of three different fruit tree viruses that produce distinct symptoms: Plum pox potyvirus (PPV; leaf distortion and mosaic), Tomato ringspot nepovirus (ToRSV; tissue necrosis and general chlorosis), and Prunus necrotic ringspot ilarvirus (PNRSV; subtle chlorotic mottling). The numbers of statistically significant genes identified were consistent with the severity of the observed symptoms: 1,082 (ToRSV), 744 (PPV), and 89 (PNRSV). In all, 56% of the gene expression changes found in PPV-infected leaves also were altered by ToRSV, 87% of which changed in the same direction. Both PPV- and ToRSV-infected leaves showed widespread repression of genes associated with plastid functions. PPV uniquely induced the expression of large numbers of cytosolic ribosomal genes whereas ToRSV repressed the expression of plastidic ribosomal genes. How these and other observed expression changes might be associated with symptom development are discussed.

  6. Identification of metabolic profiling of cell culture of licorice compared with its native one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Shuli; Guo, Songbo; Gao, Wenyuan; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Liming; Li, Xinglin

    2013-04-01

    Glycyrrhiza uralensis has long been used as a flavoring and sweetening agent in food products. In the last ten years, suspensions of Glycyrhiza cells have been successfully established. However, there is no report of full metabolic profiling research on these cells. To identify their composition we used HPLC-DAD coupled with ESI(+/-)-MS (n) to compare the constituents of cultured Glycyrhiza (CG) cells with those the native cells (NG). We identified 60 compounds including flavonoids, phenols, and triterpenoids. Among these compounds, 42 occurred both in NG and CG, nine were present in NG only and nine were present in CG alone. The number of the triterpenoid aglycones without glycones in CG was smaller than that in NG. The number of flavanone, isoflavone, isoflavan, and benzenoid compounds was also smaller in CG than that in NG, whereas the number of pterocarpans was much higher. Although differences existed between CG and NG, the extract of CG was similar to that of NG. With the development of cell suspension culture-based biotransformation, cell culture of Glycyrrhiza has the potential to be more profitable than field cultivation in some areas.

  7. Comparative Transcriptome Profiling of Rice Near-Isogenic Line Carrying Xa23 under Infection of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Rezwan; Wang, Chunlian; Qin, Tengfei; Xu, Feifei; Tang, Yongchao; Gao, Ying; Ji, Zhiyuan; Zhao, Kaijun

    2018-03-02

    Bacterial blight, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae ( Xoo ), is an overwhelming disease in rice-growing regions worldwide. Our previous studies revealed that the executor R gene Xa23 confers broad-spectrum disease resistance to all naturally occurring biotypes of Xoo . In this study, comparative transcriptomic profiling of two near-isogenic lines (NILs), CBB23 (harboring Xa23 ) and JG30 (without Xa23 ), before and after infection of the Xoo strain, PXO99 A , was done by RNA sequencing, to identify genes associated with the resistance. After high throughput sequencing, 1645 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between CBB23 and JG30 at different time points. Gene Ontlogy (GO) analysis categorized the DEGs into biological process, molecular function, and cellular component. KEGG analysis categorized the DEGs into different pathways, and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis was the most prominent pathway, followed by biosynthesis of plant hormones, flavonoid biosynthesis, and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis. Further analysis led to the identification of differentially expressed transcription factors (TFs) and different kinase responsive genes in CBB23, than that in JG30. Besides TFs and kinase responsive genes, DEGs related to ethylene, jasmonic acid, and secondary metabolites were also identified in both genotypes after PXO99 A infection. The data of DEGs are a precious resource for further clarifying the network of Xa23 -mediated resistance.

  8. Prospective molecular profiling of canine cancers provides a clinically relevant comparative model for evaluating personalized medicine (PMed trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Paoloni

    Full Text Available Molecularly-guided trials (i.e. PMed now seek to aid clinical decision-making by matching cancer targets with therapeutic options. Progress has been hampered by the lack of cancer models that account for individual-to-individual heterogeneity within and across cancer types. Naturally occurring cancers in pet animals are heterogeneous and thus provide an opportunity to answer questions about these PMed strategies and optimize translation to human patients. In order to realize this opportunity, it is now necessary to demonstrate the feasibility of conducting molecularly-guided analysis of tumors from dogs with naturally occurring cancer in a clinically relevant setting.A proof-of-concept study was conducted by the Comparative Oncology Trials Consortium (COTC to determine if tumor collection, prospective molecular profiling, and PMed report generation within 1 week was feasible in dogs. Thirty-one dogs with cancers of varying histologies were enrolled. Twenty-four of 31 samples (77% successfully met all predefined QA/QC criteria and were analyzed via Affymetrix gene expression profiling. A subsequent bioinformatics workflow transformed genomic data into a personalized drug report. Average turnaround from biopsy to report generation was 116 hours (4.8 days. Unsupervised clustering of canine tumor expression data clustered by cancer type, but supervised clustering of tumors based on the personalized drug report clustered by drug class rather than cancer type.Collection and turnaround of high quality canine tumor samples, centralized pathology, analyte generation, array hybridization, and bioinformatic analyses matching gene expression to therapeutic options is achievable in a practical clinical window (<1 week. Clustering data show robust signatures by cancer type but also showed patient-to-patient heterogeneity in drug predictions. This lends further support to the inclusion of a heterogeneous population of dogs with cancer into the preclinical

  9. Discovery and comparative profiling of microRNAs in representative monopodial bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis and sympodial bamboo (Dendrocalamus latiflorus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansheng Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: According to the growth pattern of bamboo, sympodial bamboo and monopodial bamboo are considered as two mainly kinds of bamboo. They have different phenotypes and different characteristics in developmental stage. Much attention had been paid on the study of bamboo cultivation, processing, physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, which had made great progresses in the last decade, especially for the highlighted achievement of the bamboo genomics. However, there is no information available on concerning comparative profiling of miRNAs between sympodial bamboo and monopodial bamboo, which might play important roles in the regulation of bamboo development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified the profiles of small RNAs using leaf tissues from one sympodial bamboo i.e. moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis and another monopodial bamboo i.e. ma bamboo (Dendrocalamus latiflorus. The result showed that there were 19,295,759 and 11,513,888 raw sequence reads, in which 92 and 69 conserved miRNAs, as well as 95 and 62 novel miRNAs were identified in moso bamboo and ma bamboo, respectively. The ratio of high conserved miRNA families in ma bamboo is more than that in moso bamboo. In addition, a total of 49 and 106 potential targets were predicted in moso bamboo and ma bamboo, respectively, in which several targets for novel miRNAs are transcription factors that play important roles in plant development. More importantly, annotation of differentially expressed target genes was performed based on the analysis of pathway and gene ontology terms enrichment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides the first large-scale sight of discovery and comparative characterization of miRNAomes between two representative bamboos belonged to sympodial bamboo and monopodial bamboo, respectively. Although it will be necessary to validate the function of miRNAs through more experimental research in further, these results lay a foundation for

  10. Proteomic profile of culture filtrate from the Brazilian vaccine strain Mycobacterium bovis BCG Moreau compared to M. bovis BCG Pasteur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degrave Wim M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG is currently the only available vaccine against tuberculosis (TB and comprises a heterogeneous family of sub-strains with genotypic and phenotypic differences. The World Health Organization (WHO affirms that the characterization of BCG sub-strains, both on genomic and proteomic levels, is crucial for a better comprehension of the vaccine. In addition, these studies can contribute in the development of a more efficient vaccine against TB. Here, we combine two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE and mass spectrometry to analyse the proteomic profile of culture filtrate proteins (CFPs from M. bovis BCG Moreau, the Brazilian vaccine strain, comparing it to that of BCG Pasteur. CFPs are considered of great importance given their dominant immunogenicity and role in pathogenesis, being available for interaction with host cells since early infection. Results The 2DE proteomic map of M. bovis BCG Moreau CFPs in the pH range 3 - 8 allowed the identification of 158 spots corresponding to 101 different proteins, identified by MS/MS. Comparison to BCG Pasteur highlights the great similarity between these BCG strains. However, quantitative analysis shows a higher expression of immunogenic proteins such as Rv1860 (BCG1896, Apa, Rv1926c (BCG1965c, Mpb63 and Rv1886c (BCG1923c, Ag85B in BCG Moreau when compared to BCG Pasteur, while some heat shock proteins, such as Rv0440 (BCG0479, GroEL2 and Rv0350 (BCG0389, DnaK, show the opposite pattern. Conclusions Here we report the detailed 2DE profile of CFPs from M. bovis BCG Moreau and its comparison to BCG Pasteur, identifying differences that may provide relevant information on vaccine efficacy. These findings contribute to the detailed characterization of the Brazilian vaccine strain against TB, revealing aspects that may lead to a better understanding of the factors leading to BCG's variable protective efficacy against TB.

  11. Obesogenic family types identified through latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Brian C; VazquezBenitez, Gabriela; Patnode, Carrie D; Hearst, Mary O; Sherwood, Nancy E; Parker, Emily D; Sirard, John; Pasch, Keryn E; Lytle, Leslie

    2011-10-01

    Obesity may cluster in families due to shared physical and social environments. This study aims to identify family typologies of obesity risk based on family environments. Using 2007-2008 data from 706 parent/youth dyads in Minnesota, we applied latent profile analysis and general linear models to evaluate associations between family typologies and body mass index (BMI) of youth and parents. Three typologies described most families with 18.8% "Unenriched/Obesogenic," 16.9% "Risky Consumer," and 64.3% "Healthy Consumer/Salutogenic." After adjustment for demographic and socioeconomic factors, parent BMI and youth BMI Z-scores were higher in unenriched/obesogenic families (BMI difference = 2.7, p typology. In contrast, parent BMI and youth BMI Z-scores were similar in the risky consumer families relative to those in healthy consumer/salutogenic type. We can identify family types differing in obesity risks with implications for public health interventions.

  12. The national psychological/personality profile of Romanians: An in depth analysis of the regional national psychological/personality profile of Romanians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David, D.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we perform an in depth analysis of the national psychological/personality profile of Romanians. Following recent developments in the field (see Rentfrow et al., 2013; 2015, we study the regional national psychological/personality profile of Romanians, based on the Big Five model (i.e., NEO PI/R. Using a representative sample (N1 = 1000, we performed a cluster analysis and identified two bipolar personality profiles in the population: cluster 1, called “Factor X-”, characterized by high neuroticism and low levels of extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, and cluster 2, called “Factor X+”, characterized by the opposite configuration in personality traits, low neuroticism and high levels of extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. The same two cluster pattern/solution emerged in other samples (N = 2200, with other Big Five-based instruments, and by using various methods of data (e.g., direct vs. reversed item score, controlling for item desirability and cluster (i.e., with and without “running means” analyses. These two profiles are quite evenly distributed in the overall population, but also across all geographical regions. Moreover, comparing the distribution of the five personality traits, we found just few small differences between the eight geographical divisions that we used for our analysis. These results suggest that the regional national psychological/personality profile of Romania is quite homogenous. Directions for harnessing the potential of both personality profiles are presented to the reader. Other implications based on the bipolar and fractal structure of the personality profile are discussed from an interdisciplinary perspective.

  13. Comparative Clinical Profile of Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Patients With and Without Joint Hypermobility Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blair P Grubb

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autonomic dysfunction is common in patients with the joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS. However, there is a paucity of reported data on clinical features of Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS in patients suffering from JHS.Methods: This retrospective study was approved by our local Institutional Review Board (IRB. Over a period of 10 years, 26 patients of POTS were identified for inclusion in this study. All these patients had features of Joint Hypermobility Syndrome (by Brighton criterion. A comparison group of 39 patients with other forms of POTS were also followed in the autonomic clinic during the same time. We present a descriptive report on the comparative clinical profile of the clinical features of Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia patients with and without Joint Hypermobility syndrome. The data is presented as a mean±SD and percentages wherever applicable.Results: Out of 65 patients, 26 patients (all females, 20 Caucasians had POTS and JHS. The mean age at presentation of POTS was 24±13 (range 10-53 years vs 41±12 (range 19-65 years, P=0.0001, Migraine was a common co morbidity 73 vs 29% p=0,001. In two patients POTS was precipitated by pregnancy, and in three by surgery, urinary tract infection and a viral syndrome respectively. The common clinical features were fatigue (58%, orthostatic palpitations (54%, presyncope (58%, and syncope (62%.Conclusion: Patients with POTS and JHS appear to become symptomatic at an earlier age compared to POTS patients without JHS. In addition patients with JHS had a greater incidence of migraine and syncope than their non JHS counterparts.

  14. Within and between whorls: comparative transcriptional profiling of Aquilegia and Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Voelckel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The genus Aquilegia is an emerging model system in plant evolutionary biology predominantly because of its wide variation in floral traits and associated floral ecology. The anatomy of the Aquilegia flower is also very distinct. There are two whorls of petaloid organs, the outer whorl of sepals and the second whorl of petals that form nectar spurs, as well as a recently evolved fifth whorl of staminodia inserted between stamens and carpels. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We designed an oligonucleotide microarray based on EST sequences from a mixed tissue, normalized cDNA library of an A. formosa x A. pubescens F2 population representing 17,246 unigenes. We then used this array to analyze floral gene expression in late pre-anthesis stage floral organs from a natural A. formosa population. In particular, we tested for gene expression patterns specific to each floral whorl and to combinations of whorls that correspond to traditional and modified ABC model groupings. Similar analyses were performed on gene expression data of Arabidopsis thaliana whorls previously obtained using the Ath1 gene chips (data available through The Arabidopsis Information Resource. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our comparative gene expression analyses suggest that 1 petaloid sepals and petals of A. formosa share gene expression patterns more than either have organ-specific patterns, 2 petals of A. formosa and A. thaliana may be independently derived, 3 staminodia express B and C genes similar to stamens but the staminodium genetic program has also converged on aspects of the carpel program and 4 staminodia have unique up-regulation of regulatory genes and genes that have been implicated with defense against microbial infection and herbivory. Our study also highlights the value of comparative gene expression profiling and the Aquilegia microarray in particular for the study of floral evolution and ecology.

  15. Comparative Analysis of VERA Depletion Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jinsu; Kim, Wonkyeong; Choi, Sooyoung; Lee, Hyunsuk; Lee, Deokjung

    2016-01-01

    Each code has its own solver for depletion, which can produce different depletion calculation results. In order to produce reference solutions for depletion calculation comparison, sensitivity studies should be preceded for each depletion solver. The sensitivity tests for burnup interval, number of depletion zones, and recoverable energy per fission (Q-value) were performed in this paper. For the comparison of depletion calculation results, usually the multiplication factors are compared as a function of burnup. In this study, new comparison methods have been introduced by using the number density of isotope or element, and a cumulative flux instead of burnup. In this paper, optimum depletion calculation options are determined through the sensitivity study of the burnup intervals and the number of depletion intrazones. Because the depletion using CRAM solver performs well for large burnup intervals, smaller number of burnup steps can be used to produce converged solutions. It was noted that the depletion intra-zone sensitivity is only pin-type dependent. The 1 and 10 depletion intra-zones for the normal UO2 pin and gadolinia rod, respectively, are required to obtain the reference solutions. When the optimized depletion calculation options are used, the differences of Q-values are found to be a main cause of the differences of solutions. In this paper, new comparison methods were introduced for consistent code-to-code comparisons even when different kappa libraries were used in the depletion calculations

  16. Comparative economic analysis: Anaerobic digester case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusk, P.D.

    1991-01-01

    An economic guide is developed to assess the value of anaerobic digesters used on dairy farms. Two varieties of anaerobic digesters, a conventional mixed-tank mesophilic and an innovative earthen psychrophilic, are comparatively evaluated using a cost-effectiveness index. The two case study examples are also evaluated using three other investment merit statistics: simple payback period, net present value, and internal rate of return. Life-cycle savings are estimated for both varieties, with sensitivities considered for investment risk. The conclusion is that an earthen psychrophilic digester can have a significant economic advantage over a mixed-tank mesophilic digester because of lower capital cost and reduced operation and maintenance expenses. Because of this economic advantage, additional projects are being conducted in North Carolina to increase the rate of biogas utilization. The initial step includes using biogas for milk cooling at the dairy farm where the existing psychrophilic digester is located. Further, a new project is being initiated for electricity production with thermal reclaim at a swine operation

  17. CARBON SEQUESTRATION: A METHODS COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher J. Koroneos; Dimitrios C. Rovas

    2008-01-01

    All human activities are related with the energy consumption. Energy requirements will continue to rise, due to the modern life and the developing countries growth. Most of the energy demand emanates from fossil fuels. Fossil fuels combustion has negative environmental impacts, with the CO 2 production to be dominating. The fulfillment of the Kyoto protocol criteria requires the minimization of CO 2 emissions. Thus the management of the CO 2 emissions is an urgent matter. The use of appliances with low energy use and the adoption of an energy policy that prevents the unnecessary energy use, can play lead to the reduction of carbon emissions. A different route is the introduction of ''clean'' energy sources, such as renewable energy sources. Last but not least, the development of carbon sequestration methods can be promising technique with big future potential. The objective of this work is the analysis and comparison of different carbon sequestration and deposit methods. Ocean deposit, land ecosystems deposit, geological formations deposit and radical biological and chemical approaches will be analyzed

  18. Microarray analysis of gene expression profiles in ripening pineapple fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koia, Jonni H; Moyle, Richard L; Botella, Jose R

    2012-12-18

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical fruit crop of significant commercial importance. Although the physiological changes that occur during pineapple fruit development have been well characterized, little is known about the molecular events that occur during the fruit ripening process. Understanding the molecular basis of pineapple fruit ripening will aid the development of new varieties via molecular breeding or genetic modification. In this study we developed a 9277 element pineapple microarray and used it to profile gene expression changes that occur during pineapple fruit ripening. Microarray analyses identified 271 unique cDNAs differentially expressed at least 1.5-fold between the mature green and mature yellow stages of pineapple fruit ripening. Among these 271 sequences, 184 share significant homology with genes encoding proteins of known function, 53 share homology with genes encoding proteins of unknown function and 34 share no significant homology with any database accession. Of the 237 pineapple sequences with homologs, 160 were up-regulated and 77 were down-regulated during pineapple fruit ripening. DAVID Functional Annotation Cluster (FAC) analysis of all 237 sequences with homologs revealed confident enrichment scores for redox activity, organic acid metabolism, metalloenzyme activity, glycolysis, vitamin C biosynthesis, antioxidant activity and cysteine peptidase activity, indicating the functional significance and importance of these processes and pathways during pineapple fruit development. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the microarray expression results for nine out of ten genes tested. This is the first report of a microarray based gene expression study undertaken in pineapple. Our bioinformatic analyses of the transcript profiles have identified a number of genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in the pineapple fruit ripening process. This study extends our knowledge of the molecular basis of pineapple fruit

  19. Digital Elevation Profile: A Complex Tool for the Spatial Analysis of Hiking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura TÎRLĂ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the current attributions of mountain geomorphology is to provide information for tourism purposes, such as the spatial analysis of hiking trails. Therefore, geomorphic tools are indispensable for terrain analyses. Elevation profile is one of the most adequate tools for assessing the morphometric patterns of the hiking trails. In this study we tested several applications in order to manage raw data, create profile graphs and obtain the morphometric parameters of five hiking trails in the Căpățânii Mountains (South Carpathians, Romania. Different data complexity was explored: distance, elevation, cumulative gain or loss, slope etc. Furthermore, a comparative morphometric analysis was performed in order to emphasize the multiple possibilities provided by the elevation profile. Results show that GPS Visualizer, Geocontext and in some manner Google Earth are the most adequate applications that provide high-quality elevation profiles and detailed data, with multiple additional functions, according to user's needs. The applied tools and techniques are very useful for mountain route planning, elaborating mountain guides, enhancing knowledge about specific trails or routes, or assessing the landscape and tourism value of a mountain area.

  20. Comparative Analysis of Official Tourist Destination Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Tapia León

    2017-07-01

    take relevance as communication strategies to improve the promotion of a tourist destination. Among the functions performed by the municipal decentralized autonomous governments (GAD are regulate, control and promote the development of cantonal tourism. Most municipalities have their website where they display tourism information, but very few have an exclusive website to publish tourism information. In addition, as shown in this paper, the tourist information provided is very low. The method that was used in this research was the content analysis through a systematic, objective and quantitative analysis. The study was carried out through a direct observation of the municipal websites in Ecuador and their counterparts in Colombia and Spain. The results showed that the vast majority of municipal GADs own websites but very few are the websites that are making appropriate use of the services that an exclusive web destined to the tourism could offer.  Ecuador should work harder to improve its tourism promotion on the Web if it really wants to become a tourist power as posed by the Ecuadorian government.

  1. Comparative Genomics and Transcriptomic Analysis of Mycobacterium Kansasii

    KAUST Repository

    Alzahid, Yara

    2014-04-01

    The group of Mycobacteria is one of the most intensively studied bacterial taxa, as they cause the two historical and worldwide known diseases: leprosy and tuberculosis. Mycobacteria not identified as tuberculosis or leprosy complex, have been referred to by ‘environmental mycobacteria’ or ‘Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Mycobacterium kansasii (M. kansasii) is one of the most frequent NTM pathogens, as it causes pulmonary disease in immuno-competent patients and pulmonary, and disseminated disease in patients with various immuno-deficiencies. There have been five documented subtypes of this bacterium, by different molecular typing methods, showing that type I causes tuberculosis-like disease in healthy individuals, and type II in immune-compromised individuals. The remaining types are said to be environmental, thereby, not causing any diseases. The aim of this project was to conduct a comparative genomic study of M. kansasii types I-V and investigating the gene expression level of those types. From various comparative genomics analysis, provided genomics evidence on why M. kansasii type I is considered pathogenic, by focusing on three key elements that are involved in virulence of Mycobacteria: ESX secretion system, Phospholipase c (plcb) and Mammalian cell entry (Mce) operons. The results showed the lack of the espA operon in types II-V, which renders the ESX- 1 operon dysfunctional, as espA is one of the key factors that control this secretion system. However, gene expression analysis showed this operon to be deleted in types II, III and IV. Furthermore, plcB was found to be truncated in types III and IV. Analysis of Mce operons (1-4) show that mce-1 operon is duplicated, mce-2 is absent and mce-3 and mce-4 is present in one copy in M. kansasii types I-V. Gene expression profiles of type I-IV, showed that the secreted proteins of ESX-1 were slightly upregulated in types II-IV when compared to type I and the secreted forms of ESX-5 were highly down

  2. Distinctive serum protein profiles involving abundant proteins in lung cancer patients based upon antibody microarray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Wei-Min; Haab, Brian B; Hanash, Samir M; Kuick, Rork; Orchekowski, Randal P; Misek, David E; Qiu, Ji; Greenberg, Alissa K; Rom, William N; Brenner, Dean E; Omenn, Gilbert S

    2005-01-01

    Cancer serum protein profiling by mass spectrometry has uncovered mass profiles that are potentially diagnostic for several common types of cancer. However, direct mass spectrometric profiling has a limited dynamic range and difficulties in providing the identification of the distinctive proteins. We hypothesized that distinctive profiles may result from the differential expression of relatively abundant serum proteins associated with the host response. Eighty-four antibodies, targeting a wide range of serum proteins, were spotted onto nitrocellulose-coated microscope slides. The abundances of the corresponding proteins were measured in 80 serum samples, from 24 newly diagnosed subjects with lung cancer, 24 healthy controls, and 32 subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Two-color rolling-circle amplification was used to measure protein abundance. Seven of the 84 antibodies gave a significant difference (p < 0.01) for the lung cancer patients as compared to healthy controls, as well as compared to COPD patients. Proteins that exhibited higher abundances in the lung cancer samples relative to the control samples included C-reactive protein (CRP; a 13.3 fold increase), serum amyloid A (SAA; a 2.0 fold increase), mucin 1 and α-1-antitrypsin (1.4 fold increases). The increased expression levels of CRP and SAA were validated by Western blot analysis. Leave-one-out cross-validation was used to construct Diagonal Linear Discriminant Analysis (DLDA) classifiers. At a cutoff where all 56 of the non-tumor samples were correctly classified, 15/24 lung tumor patient sera were correctly classified. Our results suggest that a distinctive serum protein profile involving abundant proteins may be observed in lung cancer patients relative to healthy subjects or patients with chronic disease and may have utility as part of strategies for detecting lung cancer

  3. Comparative analysis of laparoscopic low rectal resections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. Chernikovsky

    2015-01-01

    to 9.3 versus 6.2 in Group1. ULAR required consumables costing an average of 45 000 rubles more than did ISR. Conclusion. Both surgical procedures are comparable in the duration of a surgical intervention, the volume of intraoperative blood loss, and the quality of TME. ULAR with a reservoir is functionally more preferential.  

  4. Allograft materials in phalloplasty: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Mark P; Komlo, Caroline; Defrain, Molly

    2013-09-01

    Allograft use has increased recently with the rising use of allograft materials in breast surgery. There are few data that compare the performance of the various allograft materials in this application, despite marketing efforts by the manufacturers to present one allograft material as superior to another. Phalloplasty is a procedure that uses allografts for penis girth augmentation. Preparation of these grafts differs with each manufacturer. We report our experience with 3 different types of allografts for this procedure. This allows for the comparison of these materials in their performance with a single model. Forty-seven patients who underwent penis girth enhancement with allograft material were reviewed. All patients underwent circumferential grafting to the shaft of the penis at the level of Buck's fascia. Graft materials included AlloDerm (n = 9), Belladerm (n = 20), and Repriza (n = 21). Charts were reviewed for material type, presence and type of infection, wound exposure, and graft loss with attention to the type of allograft material that was used. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 120 months with an average of 11.25 months. Infection, defined as an open wound with graft exposure, occurred in 20 (42%) of 47 patients. Of these, graft exposure only occurred in 17 (36%) patients, whereas 3 (6%) patients sustained total graft loss. Graft exposure or loss occurred in 3 patients who had AlloDerm, 9 patients with Belladerm, and 8 patients with Repriza. No patients with AlloDerm sustained graft loss, whereas 2 patients with Belladerm and 1 patient with Repriza sustained graft loss. There were no statistical differences among these graft types with regard to infection or graft loss. Three different brands of allograft material were used in 1 surgical procedure and followed up for their performance with regard to exposure and infection. In this model, there is no difference in the rate of infection in these materials despite their different methods of preparation

  5. Profiling the SO2 Plume from Volcan Turrialba: Ticosonde Balloon Measurements Compared with OMI and OMPS Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkirk, H. B.; Krotkov, N. A.; Li, C.; Morris, G.; Diaz, J. A.; Carn, S. A.; Voemel, H.; Nord, P. M.; Larson, K.

    2014-12-01

    The summit of Volcan Turrialba (elev. 3340 m) lies less than 50 km upstream in the prevailing easterlies from the Ticosonde balloon launch site at San Jose, Costa Rica, where ECC ozone sondes have been launched regularly since 2005. In 2006 we began to see telltale notches in the ozone profiles in the altitude range between 2 and 6 km. Given the proximity of Turrialba, it seemed likely that SO2 in the volcano's plume was interfering in the chemical reaction in the ECC ozone sonde used to detect ozone. In early 2010, fumarolic activity in the Turrialba crater increased strongly, and the profile notches in our soundings increased in frequency as well, consistent with this hypothesis. In February 2012 we tested a dual ECC sonde system, where an additional sonde is flown on the same payload using a selective SO2 filter. The difference of the measurements in the dual sonde is a direct measure of the amount of SO2 encountered. This first dual sonde passed through the plume, and the data indicated a tropospheric SO2 column of 1.4 DU, comparing favorably with a total column of 1.7 DU in the OMI 3-km linear fit (LF) product at the sonde profile location and at nearly the same time. We are now launching dual sondes on a regular basis with 18 launches in the first 12 months through July 2014; 11 of these have detectable SO2 signals. These soundings have great potential for validation of the Aura OMI and the Suomi-NPP OMPS retrievals of SO2. Here we present the sonde measurements and compare them with two satellite datasets: the Aura OMI Linear Fit (LF) product and the Suomi-NPP OMPS Principal Components Analysis (PCA) boundary layer product. The PCA algorithm reduces retrieval noise and artifacts by more accurately accounting for various interferences in SO2 retrievals such as O3 absorption and rotational Raman scattering. The comparisons with the in situ observations indicate a significant improvement of the PCA algorithm in capturing relatively weak volcanic SO2 signals.

  6. Profiling the SO2 Plume from Volcan Turrialba: Ticosonde Balloon Measurements Compared with OMI and OMPS Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkirk, Henry; Krotkov, Nickolay; Li, Can; Morris, Gary (Inventor); Diaz, Jorge Andres; Carn, Simon; Vomel, Holger; Corrales, Ernesto; Nord, Paul; Larson, Kelsey

    2014-01-01

    The summit of Volcan Turrialba (elev. 3340 m) lies less than 50 km upstream in the prevailing easterlies from the Ticosonde balloon launch site at San Jose, Costa Rica, where ECC ozone sondes have been launched regularly since 2005. In 2006 we began to see telltale notches in the ozone profiles in the altitude range between 2 and 6 km. Given the proximity of Turrialba, it seemed likely that SO2 in the volcano's plume was interfering in the chemical reaction in the ECC ozone sonde used to detect ozone. In early 2010, fumarolic activity in the Turrialba crater increased strongly, and the profile notches in our soundings increased in frequency as well, consistent with this hypothesis. In February 2012 we tested a dual ECC sonde system, where an additional sonde is flown on the same payload using a selective SO2 filter. The difference of the measurements in the dual sonde is a direct measure of the amount of SO2 encountered. This first dual sonde passed through the plume, and the data indicated a tropospheric SO2 column of 1.4 DU, comparing favorably with a total column of 1.7 DU in the OMI 3-km linear fit (LF) product at the sonde profile location and at nearly the same time. We are now launching dual sondes on a regular basis with 18 launches in the first 12 months through July 2014; 11 of these have detectable SO2 signals. These soundings have great potential for validation of the Aura OMI and the Suomi-NPP OMPS retrievals of SO2. Here we present the sonde measurements and compare them with two satellite datasets: the Aura OMI Linear Fit (LF) product and the Suomi-NPP OMPS Principal Components Analysis (PCA) boundary layer product. The PCA algorithm reduces retrieval noise and artifacts by more accurately accounting for various interferences in SO2 retrievals such as O3 absorption and rotational Raman scattering. The comparisons with the in situ observations indicate a significant improvement of the PCA algorithm in capturing relatively weak volcanic SO2 signals.

  7. The compare psychological profiles of people based on MMPI-2’s scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Habibi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of screening and identifying people at risk of mental disorders in order to determine the prevalence of mental disorders and carry out activities to the prevention and treatment, the present study aimed to compare psychological profiles of people based on MMPI-2’s scales according to birth order, age and educational level in general population of 18-80 years old. Current study is analytical- cross sectional. Statistical population included all Iranian people between 18 to 80 years old who had minimum 8 classes of education and had no history of mental illness or brain injury. Among this population, 1418 individuals were selected by ratio sampling method from Tehran, Isfahan, Mashhad, Tabriz and Shiraz cities and they were assessed by Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory (MMPI-2. Results showed there is significant difference between people according to their age in scales of L (Lying, D (Depression, Ma (Mania, Pt (Psychastenia, Sc(Schizophrenia, and Si(Social Introversion, and there was significant difference based on level of education in scales of F (Infrequency, K (Defensiveness, Pa (Paranoia, Pt (Psychastenia, Sc (Schizophrenia and Si (Social Introversion. However, there was no significant differences between individuals based on birth order in validity and clinical scale of MMPI-2. Education and age are important factors which can influence mental health. It can be inferred that people with high level of education in comparison of people with low educational level have fewer mental disorders and higher mental wellbeing. Furthermore, people of different ages show different patterns of mental disorders.

  8. Analysis of tidal currents in the North Sea from shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindenes, Håvard; Orvik, Kjell Arild; Søiland, Henrik; Wehde, Henning

    2018-06-01

    North Sea tidal currents are determined by applying harmonic analysis to ship-borne acoustic Doppler current profiler data recorded from 1999 to 2016, covering large areas of the northern North Sea. Direct current measurement data sets of this magnitude are rare in the otherwise well investigated North Sea, and thus it is a valuable asset in studying and expanding our understanding of its tidal currents and circulation in general. The harmonic analysis is applied to a least squares fit of the current observations at a set of knot points. Results from the harmonic analysis compare favorably to tidal parameters estimated from observations from moored instruments. The analysis shows that the tides are characterized by strong semi-diurnal component, with amplitudes of the principal Lunar constituent ranging from 1.6 cm/s in the Skagerrak to 67 cm/s in the Fair Isle Channel. Diurnal tides are found to be approximately one fifth the strength of the predominant semi-diurnal constituent. Output from a regional barotropic tide model compares well to tidal current determined from the harmonic analysis of the Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler data.

  9. Analysis of lipid profile in lipid storage myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguennouz, M'hammed; Beccaria, Marco; Purcaro, Giorgia; Oteri, Marianna; Micalizzi, Giuseppe; Musumesci, Olimpia; Ciranni, Annmaria; Di Giorgio, Rosa Maria; Toscano, Antonio; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-09-01

    Lipid dysmetabolism disease is a condition in which lipids are stored abnormally in organs and tissues throughout the body, causing muscle weakness (myopathy). Usually, the diagnosis of this disease and its characterization goes through dosage of Acyl CoA in plasma accompanied with evidence of droplets of intra-fibrils lipids in the patient muscle biopsy. However, to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of lipid storage diseases, it is useful to identify the nature of lipids deposited in muscle fiber. In this work fatty acids and triglycerides profile of lipid accumulated in the muscle of people suffering from myopathies syndromes was characterized. In particular, the analyses were carried out on the muscle biopsy of people afflicted by lipid storage myopathy, such as multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, and neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy, and by the intramitochondrial lipid storage dysfunctions, such as deficiencies of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II enzyme. A single step extraction and derivatization procedure was applied to analyze fatty acids from muscle tissues by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector and with an electronic impact mass spectrometer. Triglycerides, extracted by using n-hexane, were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer equipped with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface. The most representative fatty acids in all samples were: C16:0 in the 13-24% range, C18:1n9 in the 20-52% range, and C18:2n6 in the 10-25% range. These fatty acids were part of the most representative triglycerides in all samples. The data obtained was statistically elaborated performing a principal component analysis. A satisfactory discrimination was obtained among the different diseases. Using component 1 vs component 3 a 43.3% of total variance was explained. Such results suggest the important role that lipid profile characterization can have in supporting a correct

  10. Prospective molecular profiling of canine cancers provides a clinically relevant comparative model for evaluating personalized medicine (PMed) trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoloni, Melissa; Webb, Craig; Mazcko, Christina; Cherba, David; Hendricks, William; Lana, Susan; Ehrhart, E J; Charles, Brad; Fehling, Heather; Kumar, Leena; Vail, David; Henson, Michael; Childress, Michael; Kitchell, Barbara; Kingsley, Christopher; Kim, Seungchan; Neff, Mark; Davis, Barbara; Khanna, Chand; Trent, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Molecularly-guided trials (i.e. PMed) now seek to aid clinical decision-making by matching cancer targets with therapeutic options. Progress has been hampered by the lack of cancer models that account for individual-to-individual heterogeneity within and across cancer types. Naturally occurring cancers in pet animals are heterogeneous and thus provide an opportunity to answer questions about these PMed strategies and optimize translation to human patients. In order to realize this opportunity, it is now necessary to demonstrate the feasibility of conducting molecularly-guided analysis of tumors from dogs with naturally occurring cancer in a clinically relevant setting. A proof-of-concept study was conducted by the Comparative Oncology Trials Consortium (COTC) to determine if tumor collection, prospective molecular profiling, and PMed report generation within 1 week was feasible in dogs. Thirty-one dogs with cancers of varying histologies were enrolled. Twenty-four of 31 samples (77%) successfully met all predefined QA/QC criteria and were analyzed via Affymetrix gene expression profiling. A subsequent bioinformatics workflow transformed genomic data into a personalized drug report. Average turnaround from biopsy to report generation was 116 hours (4.8 days). Unsupervised clustering of canine tumor expression data clustered by cancer type, but supervised clustering of tumors based on the personalized drug report clustered by drug class rather than cancer type. Collection and turnaround of high quality canine tumor samples, centralized pathology, analyte generation, array hybridization, and bioinformatic analyses matching gene expression to therapeutic options is achievable in a practical clinical window (strategies may aid cancer drug development.

  11. Coping profiles, perceived stress and health-related behaviors: a cluster analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Julie; Trouillet, Raphael; Maneveau, Anaïs; Ninot, Grégory; Neveu, Dorine

    2015-03-01

    Using cluster analytical procedure, this study aimed (i) to determine whether people could be differentiated on the basis of coping profiles (or unique combinations of coping strategies); and (ii) to examine the relationships between these profiles and perceived stress and health-related behaviors. A sample of 578 French students (345 females, 233 males; M(age)= 21.78, SD(age)= 2.21) completed the Perceived Stress Scale-14 ( Bruchon-Schweitzer, 2002), the Brief COPE ( Muller and Spitz, 2003) and a series of items measuring health-related behaviors. A two-phased cluster analytic procedure (i.e. hierarchical and non-hierarchical-k-means) was employed to derive clusters of coping strategy profiles. The results yielded four distinctive coping profiles: High Copers, Adaptive Copers, Avoidant Copers and Low Copers. The results showed that clusters differed significantly in perceived stress and health-related behaviors. High Copers and Avoidant Copers displayed higher levels of perceived stress and engaged more in unhealthy behavior, compared with Adaptive Copers and Low Copers who reported lower levels of stress and engaged more in healthy behaviors. These findings suggested that individuals' relative reliance on some strategies and de-emphasis on others may be a more advantageous way of understanding the manner in which individuals cope with stress. Therefore, cluster analysis approach may provide an advantage over more traditional statistical techniques by identifying distinct coping profiles that might best benefit from interventions. Future research should consider coping profiles to provide a deeper understanding of the relationships between coping strategies and health outcomes and to identify risk groups. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. A comparative study of the fatty acid profiles in commercial sheep cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar, C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to characterize the FA profile of sheep cheese marketed in Chile. Fifty-eight cheeses were collected from supermarkets of 5 different Chilean cities including 34 sheep cheeses, 7 from goat’s milk, 11 from cow’s milk, 4 from a mixture of sheep, goat and cow’s milk and 2 from a mixture of sheep and cow’s milk. Compared to the cow and goat cheese (3.4 and 2.5 g·100g−1, the sheep cheese (3.8 g·100g−1 contained higher contents of C18:1t. The saturated and polyunsatured FA contents were greater in goat cheese than in sheep and cow cheese. The n6/n3 ratio was greater in goat (6.1 cheese than in sheep and cow cheese (3.8 and 5.2. The atherogenicity index was unaffected by cheese type, however, the thrombogenic index was lower in sheep cheese (2.8 than in goat and cow cheese (3.1 and 2.9. The n6/n3 ratio and thrombogenic index were lower in Chilean sheep cheese than in those imported from Europe. The fatty acid profile of cheese can be used to differentiate animal species from which the cheese is made and to some extent the geographical origin that may give some insight as to animal feed and production management.Este estudio fue llevado a cabo para caracterizar el perfil de AG de quesos de oveja que se comercializan en Chile. Cincuenta y ocho quesos fueron recogidos de supermercados de 5 ciudades de Chile de los cuales 34 fueron de oveja, 7 de cabra, 11 de vaca, 4 de mezcla de leche de oveja, cabra y vaca y 2 de mezcla de leche de oveja y vaca. Comparado con quesos de vaca y cabra (3.4 y 2.5 g·100g−1, los quesos de oveja (3.8 g·100g−1 presentaron mayor contenido de C18:1t. Los AG saturados y poliinsaturados tuvieron concentraciones más altas en los quesos de cabra que en los quesos de oveja y vaca. La relación n6/n3 fue más alta en quesos de cabra (6.1 que en quesos de oveja y vaca (3.8 y 5.2. El índice aterogénico no fue afectado por el tipo de queso, sin embargo, el índice trombogénico fue

  13. Automatic Metaphase Finding by Inter-Chromosome Extrema Profile Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vega-Alvarado, Leticia

    2001-01-01

    ...-level inter-chromosome coarseness features in microscopic images of metaphase spreads, and allows to quantity the texture of the cytological objects analysing the intensity profile between chromosome...

  14. Bacterial profiling of White Plague Disease in a comparative coral species framework.

    KAUST Repository

    Roder, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs are threatened throughout the world. A major factor contributing to their decline is outbreaks and propagation of coral diseases. Due to the complexity of coral-associated microbe communities, little is understood in terms of disease agents, hosts and vectors. It is known that compromised health in corals is correlated with shifts in bacterial assemblages colonizing coral mucus and tissue. However, general disease patterns remain, to a large extent, ambiguous as comparative studies over species, regions, or diseases are scarce. Here, we compare bacterial assemblages of samples from healthy (HH) colonies and such displaying signs of White Plague Disease (WPD) of two different coral species (Pavona duerdeni and Porites lutea) from the same reef in Koh Tao, Thailand, using 16S rRNA gene microarrays. In line with other studies, we found an increase of bacterial diversity in diseased (DD) corals, and a higher abundance of taxa from the families that include known coral pathogens (Alteromonadaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Vibrionaceae). In our comparative framework analysis, we found differences in microbial assemblages between coral species and coral health states. Notably, patterns of bacterial community structures from HH and DD corals were maintained over species boundaries. Moreover, microbes that differentiated the two coral species did not overlap with microbes that were indicative of HH and DD corals. This suggests that while corals harbor distinct species-specific microbial assemblages, disease-specific bacterial abundance patterns exist that are maintained over coral species boundaries.

  15. Profiling Chilean Suicide Note-Writers through Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ceballos-Espinoza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Suicides account for 2000 deaths in Chile each year. With a suicide rate of 11.3, it is classified as a country with high suicide risk. Aims: to identify personality and cognitive characteristics of the group of Chilean suicides that left suicide notes, through a content analysis. Methods: descriptive field study with an ex post facto design. All suicides registered between 2010 and 2012 by the Investigations Police of Chile were analyzed, obtaining 203 suicide notes from 96 cases. The Darbonne categories for content analysis were used with the inter-judge method. Results: The mean age of the suicides was 44.2 (SD = 18.53. Most of the notes were addressed to family members (51.7%. The most expressed reasons were marital- or interpersonal-related (24.6%; another 23.6% expressed a lack of purpose or hopelessness (including depression, wish to die, low self-esteem. The most frequent content expressed were instructions (about money, children, and funeral. All of the notes showed logical thinking and were written with coherence and clarity. Notably 42% of the notes were marked by affections of fondness, love or dependence of others. Regarding attitudes, the most common were of escape or farewell (42.4%, followed by fatalism, hopelessness, frustration or tiredness (40%. 24 statistically significant differences were found throughout the categories of analysis, according to cohorts of age, marital status and sex. Conclusions: the findings contribute to the profiling of Chilean suicides and to the implementation of suicide prevention programs

  16. Angular photogrammetric soft tissue facial profile analysis of Bangladeshi young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna Akter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Angular photogrammetric soft tissue facial profile analysis provides a permanent record for the actual appearance of a person, which would also serve to establish an ideal esthetic treatment goal. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the average angular variables that define the soft tissue facial profile of a Bangladeshi sample. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out at Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics of Dhaka Dental College and Hospital, Bangladesh, from July to December 2015. Soft tissue facial profiles of 200 participants (100 males and 100 females between 18 and 25 years of age, with a dental Class I occlusal relationship and harmonious soft tissue profile, were selected by convenience sampling among students, doctors, and patients of Dhaka Dental College. Standardized photographs of 200 samples were taken in the natural head position. The photographic records were analyzed with the software for Windows, Microsoft Visio 2007, Standard Edition. All data were analyzed through standard methods using Statistical Package for the Statistical Package for Social Science Software (SPSS Version-20, IBM Corp, USA. Results: The average angular measurements for nasofrontal, total facial angle, facial angle, upper lip angle, projection of lower lip to chin, and mentolabial angle were wider in females. The mean value for nose tip angle, nasolabial angle, nasomental angle, and projection of upper lip to chin angle was higher in males compared to females. Nasofrontal angle (G-N-Nd (P = 0.000 and mentolabial angle (Li-Sm-Pg (P = 0.001 showed statistically significant differences. The greatest variability was found for mentolabial angle. Conclusion: The study of angular photogrammetric soft tissue facial profile analysis of Bangladeshi young adults contributes to the establishment of standardized normal values for the population. This study provides data which can be used in treatment

  17. Comparative analysis of thermal behavior in hollow nuclear fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Beatriz M. dos; Alvim, Antonio C.M.

    2017-01-01

    The increase in energy demand in Brazil and in the world is a real problem and several solutions are being considered to mitigate it. Maximization of energy generation, within the safety standards of fuel resources already known, is one of them. In this respect, nuclear energy is a crucial technology to sustain energy demand on several countries. Performances of a solid cylindrical and an annular rod have been verified and compared; where it has been proven that the annular rod can reach a higher nominal power in relation to the solid one. In this paper, the temperature profiles of two distinct nuclear fuel pellets, one of them annular and the other in the shape of a hollow biconcave disc (like the cross section of a red blood cell), were compared to analyze the efficiency and safety of both. The finite differences method allowed the evaluation of the thermal behavior of these pellets, where one specific physical condition was analyzed, regarding convection and conduction at the lateral edges. The results show that the temperature profile of the hollow biconcave disc pellet is lower, about 70 deg C below, when compared to the temperature profile of the annular pellet, considering the same simulation parameters for both pellets. (author)

  18. Comparative analysis of thermal behavior in hollow nuclear fuel pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Beatriz M. dos; Alvim, Antonio C.M., E-mail: bmachado@nuclear.ufrj.br, E-mail: aalvim@gmail.com [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-11-01

    The increase in energy demand in Brazil and in the world is a real problem and several solutions are being considered to mitigate it. Maximization of energy generation, within the safety standards of fuel resources already known, is one of them. In this respect, nuclear energy is a crucial technology to sustain energy demand on several countries. Performances of a solid cylindrical and an annular rod have been verified and compared; where it has been proven that the annular rod can reach a higher nominal power in relation to the solid one. In this paper, the temperature profiles of two distinct nuclear fuel pellets, one of them annular and the other in the shape of a hollow biconcave disc (like the cross section of a red blood cell), were compared to analyze the efficiency and safety of both. The finite differences method allowed the evaluation of the thermal behavior of these pellets, where one specific physical condition was analyzed, regarding convection and conduction at the lateral edges. The results show that the temperature profile of the hollow biconcave disc pellet is lower, about 70 deg C below, when compared to the temperature profile of the annular pellet, considering the same simulation parameters for both pellets. (author)

  19. An Evaluation of Centrographic Analysis as Compared with Conventional Cephalometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A B Nehete

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion : Individuals belonging to same sample group and with well-balanced skeletal and soft tissue profiles and normal occlusion demonstrated wide variations in craniofacial structure as evaluated with centrographic analysis and routinely used conventional cephalometric measurements.

  20. Comparative study of heparin-binding proteins profile of Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Ramteke

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The experiment was conducted to study the total seminal plasma protein (TSPP and heparin-binding proteins (HBPs in relation to initial semen quality of buffalo bull. Materials and Methods: Semen from two Murrah buffalo bulls (bull no. 605 and 790 with mass motility of ≥3+ were used for the study and categorized into three groups (Group I- Mass motility 3+, Group II- Mass motility 4+ and Group III- Mass motility 5+. Seminal plasma from semen was separated by centrifugation. HBPs was isolated and purified from heparin-agarose affinity column by modified elution buffer. TSPP and isolated HBPs concentration was estimated by Lowry’s method. The purified HBPs were resolved on Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to check the protein profile of two bulls. Results: The mean values of TSPP concentrations in bull no. 605 and 790 in Group I, II and III were 30.64±0.12, 31.66±0.09, 32.53±0.19 and 28.51±0.09, 29.49±0.15, 30.45±0.17 mg/mL, respectively. The mean values of HBPs concentrations in bull no. 605 and 790 in Group I, II and III were 3.11±0.07, 3.32±0.06, 3.46±0.08 and 2.51±0.08, 2.91±0.05, 3.10±0.03 mg/mL, respectively. Both the values of TSPP and HBPs were significantly higher (p<0.01 in bull no. 605 when compared to 790 in all the three groups. 31 kDa HBP was more intensely present in bull no. 605, thus may indicate its superiority over bull no. 790 in relation to fertility potential. Conclusion: TSPP and HBPs shows variation in concentration with respect to initial semen quality. Furthermore, presence of fertility related 31 kDa HBPs in one of the bull may be an indication of high fertility of a bull. In future, in-vivo and in-vitro correlative study on larger basis is needed for the establishment of fertility-related HBPs in semen which might establish criteria for selection of buffalo bull with high fertility potential.

  1. Genes associated with thermosensitive genic male sterility in rice identified by comparative expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yufang; Li, Qiaofeng; Wang, Zhizheng; Wang, Yang; Ma, Rui; Zhu, Lili; He, Guangcun; Chen, Rongzhi

    2014-12-16

    Thermosensitive genic male sterile (TGMS) lines and photoperiod-sensitive genic male sterile (PGMS) lines have been successfully used in hybridization to improve rice yields. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying male sterility transitions in most PGMS/TGMS rice lines are unclear. In the recently developed TGMS-Co27 line, the male sterility is based on co-suppression of a UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene (Ugp1), but further study is needed to fully elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved. Microarray-based transcriptome profiling of TGMS-Co27 and wild-type Hejiang 19 (H1493) plants grown at high and low temperatures revealed that 15462 probe sets representing 8303 genes were differentially expressed in the two lines, under the two conditions, or both. Environmental factors strongly affected global gene expression. Some genes important for pollen development were strongly repressed in TGMS-Co27 at high temperature. More significantly, series-cluster analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between TGMS-Co27 plants grown under the two conditions showed that low temperature induced the expression of a gene cluster. This cluster was found to be essential for sterility transition. It includes many meiosis stage-related genes that are probably important for thermosensitive male sterility in TGMS-Co27, inter alia: Arg/Ser-rich domain (RS)-containing zinc finger proteins, polypyrimidine tract-binding proteins (PTBs), DEAD/DEAH box RNA helicases, ZOS (C2H2 zinc finger proteins of Oryza sativa), at least one polyadenylate-binding protein and some other RNA recognition motif (RRM) domain-containing proteins involved in post-transcriptional processes, eukaryotic initiation factor 5B (eIF5B), ribosomal proteins (L37, L1p/L10e, L27 and L24), aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs), eukaryotic elongation factor Tu (eEF-Tu) and a peptide chain release factor protein involved in translation. The differential expression of 12 DEGs that are important for pollen

  2. Comparing LiDAR-Generated to ground- surveyed channel cross-sectional profiles in a forested mountain stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian C. Dietterick; Russell White; Ryan Hilburn

    2012-01-01

    Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) holds promise to provide an alternative to traditional ground-based survey methods for stream channel characterization and some change detection purposes, even under challenging landscape conditions. This study compared channel characteristics measured at 53 ground-surveyed and LiDAR-derived crosssectional profiles located...

  3. A recycling pathway for cyanogenic glycosides evidenced by the comparative metabolic profiling in three cyanogenic plant species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pičmanová, Martina; Neilson, Elizabeth H.; Motawia, Mohammed S.

    2015-01-01

    nitrogen at specific developmental stages. To investigate the presence of putative turnover products of cyanogenic glycosides, comparative metabolic profiling using LC-MS/MS and HR-MS complemented by ion-mobility mass spectrometry was carried out in three cyanogenic plant species: cassava, almond...

  4. Depth profile analysis of thin TiOxNy films using standard ion beam analysis techniques and HERDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markwitz, A.; Dytlewski, N.; Cohen, D.

    1999-01-01

    Ion beam assisted deposition is used to fabricate thin titanium oxynitride films (TiO x N y ) at Industrial Research (typical film thickness 100nm). At the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences, the thin films are analysed using non-destructive standard ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques. High-resolution titanium depth profiles are measured with RBS using 1.5MeV 4 He + ions. Non-resonant nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) is performed for investigating the amounts of O and N in the deposited films using the reactions 16 O(d,p) 17 O at 920 keV and 14 N(d,α) 12 C at 1.4 MeV. Using a combination of these nuclear techniques, the stoichiometry as well as the thickness of the layers is revealed. However, when oxygen and nitrogen depth profiles are required for investigating stoichiometric changes in the films, additional nuclear analysis techniques such as heavy ion elastic recoil detection (HERDA) have to be applied. With HERDA, depth profiles of N, O, and Ti are measured simultaneously. In this paper comparative IBA measurement s of TiO x N y films with different compositions are presented and discussed

  5. Analysis of protein profiles using fuzzy clustering methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karemore, Gopal Raghunath; Ukendt, Sujatha; Rai, Lavanya

    The tissue protein profiles of healthy volunteers and volunteers with cervical cancer were recorded using High Performance Liquid Chromatography combined with Laser Induced Fluorescence  technique  (HPLC-LIF)  developed  in  our  lab.      We analyzed      the protein profile data using different...

  6. A profile and analysis of willow growers in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenqvist, H.; Roos, A.; Ling, E.; Hektor, B.

    1999-01-01

    Willow plantations on Swedish farmland increased considerably between 1991 and 1996. The main driving forces behind this development were (1) the 1991 introduction of an agriculture deregulation policy in Sweden which created lower grain prices and simultaneously introduced compensation for set-aside land and subsidies for willow plantations on surplus arable land, (2) higher taxes on fossil fuels, and (3) the existence of a biofuel market in Sweden based on forest fuels. This paper presents a statistical study of 1,158 willow growers in southern and central-eastern Sweden. The resulting profile of growers will help policy makers and agents in the bioenergy business design information campaigns and marketing strategies. Willow growers are described according to geographical distribution, willow parcel sizes, farm sizes, and farm types. They are compared with the population of farmers who are not growing willow. Willow growers are more often between 50-65 years of age, and they have larger farms than non-willow growers. They are less often focused on animal and milk production and more often on cereal and food crop production than are other farmers. (author)

  7. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Hymenolepis diminuta Cysticercoid and Adult Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sulima

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cestodiases are common parasitic diseases of animals and humans. As cestodes have complex lifecycles, hexacanth larvae, metacestodes (including cysticercoids, and adults produce proteins allowing them to establish invasion and to survive in the hostile environment of the host. Hymenolepis diminuta is the most commonly used model cestode in experimental parasitology. The aims of the present study were to perform a comparative proteomic analysis of two consecutive developmental stages of H. diminuta (cysticercoid and adult and to distinguish proteins which might be characteristic for each of the stages from those shared by both stages. Somatic proteins of H. diminuta were isolated from 6-week-old cysticercoids and adult tapeworms. Cysticercoids were obtained from experimentally infected beetles, Tenebrio molitor, whereas adult worms were collected from experimentally infected rats. Proteins were separated by GeLC-MS/MS (one dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Additionally protein samples were digested in-liquid and identified by LC-MS/MS. The identified proteins were classified according to molecular function, cellular components and biological processes. Our study showed a number of differences and similarities in the protein profiles of cysticercoids and adults; 233 cysticercoid and 182 adult proteins were identified. From these proteins, 131 were present only in the cysticercoid and 80 only in the adult stage samples. Both developmental stages shared 102 proteins; among which six represented immunomodulators and one is a potential drug target. In-liquid digestion and LC-MS/MS complemented and confirmed some of the GeLC-MS/MS identifications. Possible roles and functions of proteins identified with both proteomic approaches are discussed.

  8. Comparative analysis of metagenomes of Italian top soil improvers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigliucci, Federica; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Tozzoli, Rosangela; Michelacci, Valeria; Morabito, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Biosolids originating from Municipal Waste Water Treatment Plants are proposed as top soil improvers (TSI) for their beneficial input of organic carbon on agriculture lands. Their use to amend soil is controversial, as it may lead to the presence of emerging hazards of anthropogenic or animal origin in the environment devoted to food production. In this study, we used a shotgun metagenomics sequencing as a tool to perform a characterization of the hazards related with the TSIs. The samples showed the presence of many virulence genes associated to different diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes as well as of different antimicrobial resistance-associated genes. The genes conferring resistance to Fluoroquinolones was the most relevant class of antimicrobial resistance genes observed in all the samples tested. To a lesser extent traits associated with the resistance to Methicillin in Staphylococci and genes conferring resistance to Streptothricin, Fosfomycin and Vancomycin were also identified. The most represented metal resistance genes were cobalt-zinc-cadmium related, accounting for 15–50% of the sequence reads in the different metagenomes out of the total number of those mapping on the class of resistance to compounds determinants. Moreover the taxonomic analysis performed by comparing compost-based samples and biosolids derived from municipal sewage-sludges treatments divided the samples into separate populations, based on the microbiota composition. The results confirm that the metagenomics is efficient to detect genomic traits associated with pathogens and antimicrobial resistance in complex matrices and this approach can be efficiently used for the traceability of TSI samples using the microorganisms’ profiles as indicators of their origin. - Highlights: • Sludge- and green- based biosolids analysed by metagenomics. • Biosolids may introduce microbial hazards in the food chain. • Metagenomics enables tracking biosolids’ sources.

  9. Comparative analysis of metagenomes of Italian top soil improvers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gigliucci, Federica, E-mail: Federica.gigliucci@libero.it [Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena, 299 00161 Rome (Italy); Department of Sciences, University Roma,Tre, Viale Marconi, 446, 00146 Rome (Italy); Brambilla, Gianfranco; Tozzoli, Rosangela; Michelacci, Valeria; Morabito, Stefano [Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena, 299 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2017-05-15

    Biosolids originating from Municipal Waste Water Treatment Plants are proposed as top soil improvers (TSI) for their beneficial input of organic carbon on agriculture lands. Their use to amend soil is controversial, as it may lead to the presence of emerging hazards of anthropogenic or animal origin in the environment devoted to food production. In this study, we used a shotgun metagenomics sequencing as a tool to perform a characterization of the hazards related with the TSIs. The samples showed the presence of many virulence genes associated to different diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes as well as of different antimicrobial resistance-associated genes. The genes conferring resistance to Fluoroquinolones was the most relevant class of antimicrobial resistance genes observed in all the samples tested. To a lesser extent traits associated with the resistance to Methicillin in Staphylococci and genes conferring resistance to Streptothricin, Fosfomycin and Vancomycin were also identified. The most represented metal resistance genes were cobalt-zinc-cadmium related, accounting for 15–50% of the sequence reads in the different metagenomes out of the total number of those mapping on the class of resistance to compounds determinants. Moreover the taxonomic analysis performed by comparing compost-based samples and biosolids derived from municipal sewage-sludges treatments divided the samples into separate populations, based on the microbiota composition. The results confirm that the metagenomics is efficient to detect genomic traits associated with pathogens and antimicrobial resistance in complex matrices and this approach can be efficiently used for the traceability of TSI samples using the microorganisms’ profiles as indicators of their origin. - Highlights: • Sludge- and green- based biosolids analysed by metagenomics. • Biosolids may introduce microbial hazards in the food chain. • Metagenomics enables tracking biosolids’ sources.

  10. Activity-Based Profiling of Retaining β-Glucosidases: A Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, Martin D.; Walvoort, Marthe T. C.; Li, Kah-Yee; Kallemeijn, Wouter W.; Donker-Koopman, Wilma E.; Boot, Rolf G.; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.; Codée, Jeroen D. C.; van der Marel, Gijsbert A.; Overkleeft, Herman S.

    2011-01-01

    Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) is a versatile strategy to report on enzyme activity in vitro, in situ, and in vivo. The development and use of ABPP tools and techniques has met with considerable success in monitoring physiological processes involving esterases and proteases. Activity-based

  11. Activity-Based Profiling of Retaining beta-Glucosidases : A Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, Martin D.; Walvoort, Marthe T. C.; Li, Kah-Yee; Kallemeijn, Wouter W.; Donker-Koopman, Wilma E.; Boot, Rolf G.; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.; Codee, Jeroen D. C.; van der Marel, Gijsbert A.; Overkleeft, Herman S.

    2011-01-01

    Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) is a versatile strategy to report on enzyme activity in vitro, in situ, and in vivo. The development and use of ABPP tools and techniques has met with considerable success in monitoring physiological processes involving esterases and proteases. Activity-based

  12. Activity-Based Profiling of Retaining β-Glucosidases : A Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, Martin D.; Walvoort, Marthe T.C.; Li, Kah-Yee; Kallemeijn, Wouter W.; Donker-Koopman, Wilma E.; Boot, Rolf G.; Aerts, Johannes M.F.G.; Codée, Jeroen D.C.; Marel, Gijsbert A. van der; Overkleeft, Herman S.

    2011-01-01

    Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) is a versatile strategy to report on enzyme activity in vitro, in situ, and in vivo. The development and use of ABPP tools and techniques has met with considerable success in monitoring physiological processes involving esterases and proteases. Activity-based

  13. A comparative study of the fatty acid profiles in commercial sheep cheeses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguilar, C.; Toro-Mujica, P.; Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to characterize the FA profile of sheep cheese marketed in Chile. Fifty-eight cheeses were collected from supermarkets of 5 different Chilean cities including 34 sheep cheeses, 7 from goat's milk, 11 from cow's milk, 4 from a mixture of sheep, goat and cow's milk...

  14. Microarray gene expression profiling and analysis in renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhukhan Provash

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the most common cancer in adult kidney. The accuracy of current diagnosis and prognosis of the disease and the effectiveness of the treatment for the disease are limited by the poor understanding of the disease at the molecular level. To better understand the genetics and biology of RCC, we profiled the expression of 7,129 genes in both clear cell RCC tissue and cell lines using oligonucleotide arrays. Methods Total RNAs isolated from renal cell tumors, adjacent normal tissue and metastatic RCC cell lines were hybridized to affymatrix HuFL oligonucleotide arrays. Genes were categorized into different functional groups based on the description of the Gene Ontology Consortium and analyzed based on the gene expression levels. Gene expression profiles of the tissue and cell line samples were visualized and classified by singular value decomposition. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to confirm the expression alterations of selected genes in RCC. Results Selected genes were annotated based on biological processes and clustered into functional groups. The expression levels of genes in each group were also analyzed. Seventy-four commonly differentially expressed genes with more than five-fold changes in RCC tissues were identified. The expression alterations of selected genes from these seventy-four genes were further verified using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Detailed comparison of gene expression patterns in RCC tissue and RCC cell lines shows significant differences between the two types of samples, but many important expression patterns were preserved. Conclusions This is one of the initial studies that examine the functional ontology of a large number of genes in RCC. Extensive annotation, clustering and analysis of a large number of genes based on the gene functional ontology revealed many interesting gene expression patterns in RCC. Most

  15. Mineral profile of Ghanaian dried tobacco leaves and local snuff. A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addo, M.A.; Gbadago, J.K.; Affum, H.A.; Okley, G.M.; Adom, T.; Ahmed, K.

    2008-01-01

    The concentration of thirty-four elements each in Ghanaian dried tobacco leaves and snuff (powdered tobacco) have been determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The concentration of Hg, Cr, As and Cd in both set of samples were found to be in excess of WHO limits for drinking water, thus indicating potential toxicity of the samples. Cr, Cd, Sb and Cu were two to eight times high, whilst As and Hg were comparable in powdered tobacco and tobacco leaves. The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of elemental concentrations and the toxicological strengths in both tobacco leaves and tobacco powder. The results indicated that the toxicity of the snuff was higher than the tobacco. This indicated strongly that from the medical point of view, the level of toxic accumulation in users might be potentially high in the tobacco powder compared to the leaves. Thus, education of the Ghanaian public on the threshold value of toxic elements contained in both set of samples was suggested to safeguard users against these addictives. (author)

  16. Molecular and Cellular Profiling of Scalp Psoriasis Reveals Differences and Similarities Compared to Skin Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, Juan; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Shemer, Avner; Oliva, Margeaux

    2016-01-01

    Scalp psoriasis shows a variable clinical spectrum and in many cases poses a great therapeutic challenge. However, it remains unknown whether the immune response of scalp psoriasis differs from understood pathomechanisms of psoriasis in other skin areas. We sought to determine the cellular and molecular phenotype of scalp psoriasis by performing a comparative analysis of scalp and skin using lesional and nonlesional samples from 20 Caucasian subjects with untreated moderate to severe psoriasis and significant scalp involvement and 10 control subjects without psoriasis. Our results suggest that even in the scalp, psoriasis is a disease of the inter-follicular skin. The immune mechanisms that mediate scalp psoriasis were found to be similar to those involved in skin psoriasis. However, the magnitude of dysregulation, number of differentially expressed genes, and enrichment of the psoriatic genomic fingerprint were more prominent in skin lesions. Furthermore, the scalp transcriptome showed increased modulation of several gene-sets, particularly those induced by interferon-gamma, compared with that of skin psoriasis, which was mainly associated with activation of TNFα/L-17/IL-22-induced keratinocyte response genes. We also detected differences in expression of gene-sets involving negative regulation, epigenetic regulation, epidermal differentiation, and dendritic cell or Th1/Th17/Th22-related T-cell processes. PMID:26849645

  17. Comparative leaf proteomic profiling of salt-treated natural variants of Imperata cylindrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Jhih Shih

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica (L. Beauv. var. major (Nees Hubb. is one of the top-ten weeds worldwide. It is also a C4 medicinal plant. In particular, an ecotype from Chuwei (CW mangrove forest was found to be salt tolerant. Comparative proteomic analysis using two-dimensional (2D-difference in gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS was carried out to identify responsive leaf proteins in the CW ecotype and salt-intolerant Sarlun (SL population following three days of 150 mM sodium chloride salt stress treatment. We identified five photosynthesis proteins including Rubisco small subunit, uncharacterized protein LOC100194054, Cyt b6-f, oxygen-evolving enhancer 2, and photosystem I reaction center subunit IV which were significantly up- or down-regulated by salt stress in CW ecotype but not SL population. Gene ontology enrichment analysis showed that photosynthesis was over-represented. The mass spectrometry proteomics data were deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD008482. Taken together, our proteomic study identified differentially accumulated proteins which provide additional evidence of ecophysiological variation in two natural variants of I. cylindrica.

  18. Measurement of temporal asymmetries of glucose consumption using linear profiles: reproducibility and comparison with visual analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matheja, P.; Kuwert, T.; Schaefers, M.; Schaefers, K.; Schober, O.; Diehl, B.; Stodieck, S.R.G.; Ringelstein, E.B.; Schuierer, G.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of our study was to test the reproducibility of this method and to compare its diagnostic performance to that of visual analysis in patients with complex partial seizures (CPS). Regional cerebral glucose consumption (rCMRGLc) was measured interictally in 25 CPS patients and 10 controls using F-18-deoxyglucose and the positron emission tomography (PET) camera ECAT EXACT 47. The PET scans were visually analyzed for the occurrence of unilateral temporal hypometabolism. Furthermore, rCMRGLc was quantified on six contiguous coronal planes by manually tracing maximal values of temporal glucose consumption, thus creating line profiles of temporal glucose consumption for each side. Indices of asymmetry (ASY) were then calculated from these line profiles in four temporal regions and compared to the corresponding 95% confidence intervals of the control data. All analyses were performed by two observers independently from each other and without knowledge of the clinical findings. The agreement between the two observers with regard to focus lateralization was 96% on visual analysis and 100% on quantitative analysis. There was an excellent agreement with regard to focus lateralization between visual and quantitative evaluation. (orig.) [de

  19. Web User Profiling Based on Browsing Behavior Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fan , Xiao-Xi; Chow , Kam-Pui; Xu , Fei

    2014-01-01

    Part 1: Internet Crime Investigations; International audience; Determining the source of criminal activity requires a reliable means to estimate a criminal’s identity. One way to do this is to use web browsing history to build a profile of an anonymous user. Since an individual’s web use is unique, matching the web use profile to known samples provides a means to identify an unknown user. This paper describes a model for web user profiling and identification. Two aspects of browsing behavior ...

  20. Zero-profile anchored cage reduces risk of postoperative dysphagia compared with cage with plate fixation after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, ShanWen; Liang, ZhuDe; Wei, Wu; Ning, JinPei

    2017-04-01

    To compare the rate of postoperative dysphagia between zero-profile anchored cage fixation (ZPC group) and cage with plate fixation (CP group) after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). A meta-analysis of cohort studies between zero-profile anchored cage and conventional cage with plate fixation after ACDF for the treatment of cervical diseases from 2008 to May 2016. An extensive search of studies was performed in PubMed, Medline, Embase, Cochrane library and Google Scholar. Dysphagia rate was extracted. Data analysis was conducted with RevMan 5.2. Sixteen trials involving 1066 patients were included in this meta-analysis. The results suggested that the ZPC group were associated with lower incidences of dysphagia than the CP group at postoperative immediately, 2 weeks, 2, 3, 6 and 12 months. In subgroup analysis, although significant differences were only found in the mild dysphagia at 3 and 6 months postoperatively and in the moderate dysphagia at 2 weeks after surgery; the ZPC group had a lower rate of postoperative dysphagia than the CCP group in short, medium and long term follow-up periods. Zero-profile anchored cage had a lower risk of postoperative dysphagia than cage with plate.

  1. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN THE FUNDAMENTAL AND TECHNICAL ANALYSIS OF STOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Petrusheva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the world of investing and trading, in order to have a definite advantage and constantly create profit, you need to have a strategic approach. Generally speaking, the two main schools of thought and strategies in financial markets are fundamental and technical analysis. Fundamental and technical analysis differ in several aspects, such as the way of functioning and execution, the time horizon used, the tools used and their objective. These differences lead to certain advantages and disadvantages of each of the analyses. Fundamental and technical analysis are also a subject of critical reviews by the academic and scientific community and many of these reviews concern the methods of their application, i.e. the possibility of combining the two analyses and using them complementarily to fully utilize their strengths and advantages.

  2. YersiniaBase: a genomic resource and analysis platform for comparative analysis of Yersinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shi Yang; Dutta, Avirup; Jakubovics, Nicholas S; Ang, Mia Yang; Siow, Cheuk Chuen; Mutha, Naresh Vr; Heydari, Hamed; Wee, Wei Yee; Wong, Guat Jah; Choo, Siew Woh

    2015-01-16

    Yersinia is a Gram-negative bacteria that includes serious pathogens such as the Yersinia pestis, which causes plague, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Yersinia enterocolitica. The remaining species are generally considered non-pathogenic to humans, although there is evidence that at least some of these species can cause occasional infections using distinct mechanisms from the more pathogenic species. With the advances in sequencing technologies, many genomes of Yersinia have been sequenced. However, there is currently no specialized platform to hold the rapidly-growing Yersinia genomic data and to provide analysis tools particularly for comparative analyses, which are required to provide improved insights into their biology, evolution and pathogenicity. To facilitate the ongoing and future research of Yersinia, especially those generally considered non-pathogenic species, a well-defined repository and analysis platform is needed to hold the Yersinia genomic data and analysis tools for the Yersinia research community. Hence, we have developed the YersiniaBase, a robust and user-friendly Yersinia resource and analysis platform for the analysis of Yersinia genomic data. YersiniaBase has a total of twelve species and 232 genome sequences, of which the majority are Yersinia pestis. In order to smooth the process of searching genomic data in a large database, we implemented an Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX)-based real-time searching system in YersiniaBase. Besides incorporating existing tools, which include JavaScript-based genome browser (JBrowse) and Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST), YersiniaBase also has in-house developed tools: (1) Pairwise Genome Comparison tool (PGC) for comparing two user-selected genomes; (2) Pathogenomics Profiling Tool (PathoProT) for comparative pathogenomics analysis of Yersinia genomes; (3) YersiniaTree for constructing phylogenetic tree of Yersinia. We ran analyses based on the tools and genomic data in YersiniaBase and the

  3. Mesenchymal stem cells display different gene expression profiles compared to hyaline and elastic chondrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhai, Li-Jie; Zhao, Ke-Qing; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Feng, Ya; Xing, Shuang-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Cartilage has a poor intrinsic repair capacity, requiring surgical intervention to effect biological repair. Tissue engineering technologies or regenerative medicine strategies are currently being employed to address cartilage repair. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered to be an excellent cell source for this application. However, the different gene expression profiles between the MSCs and differentiated cartilage remain unclear. In this report, we first examined the gene expression ...

  4. Evidence-based annotation of the malaria parasite's genome using comparative expression profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingyao Zhou

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental problem in systems biology and whole genome sequence analysis is how to infer functions for the many uncharacterized proteins that are identified, whether they are conserved across organisms of different phyla or are phylum-specific. This problem is especially acute in pathogens, such as malaria parasites, where genetic and biochemical investigations are likely to be more difficult. Here we perform comparative expression analysis on Plasmodium parasite life cycle data derived from P. falciparum blood, sporozoite, zygote and ookinete stages, and P. yoelii mosquito oocyst and salivary gland sporozoites, blood and liver stages and show that type II fatty acid biosynthesis genes are upregulated in liver and insect stages relative to asexual blood stages. We also show that some universally uncharacterized genes with orthologs in Plasmodium species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and humans show coordinated transcription patterns in large collections of human and yeast expression data and that the function of the uncharacterized genes can sometimes be predicted based on the expression patterns across these diverse organisms. We also use a comprehensive and unbiased literature mining method to predict which uncharacterized parasite-specific genes are likely to have roles in processes such as gliding motility, host-cell interactions, sporozoite stage, or rhoptry function. These analyses, together with protein-protein interaction data, provide probabilistic models that predict the function of 926 uncharacterized malaria genes and also suggest that malaria parasites may provide a simple model system for the study of some human processes. These data also provide a foundation for further studies of transcriptional regulation in malaria parasites.

  5. Comparative genomic analysis of Vibrio parahaemolyticus: serotype conversion and virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Ana I

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common cause of foodborne disease. Beginning in 1996, a more virulent strain having serotype O3:K6 caused major outbreaks in India and other parts of the world, resulting in the emergence of a pandemic. Other serovariants of this strain emerged during its dissemination and together with the original O3:K6 were termed strains of the pandemic clone. Two genomes, one of this virulent strain and one pre-pandemic strain have been sequenced. We sequenced four additional genomes of V. parahaemolyticus in this study that were isolated from different geographical regions and time points. Comparative genomic analyses of six strains of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from Asia and Peru were performed in order to advance knowledge concerning the evolution of V. parahaemolyticus; specifically, the genetic changes contributing to serotype conversion and virulence. Two pre-pandemic strains and three pandemic strains, isolated from different geographical regions, were serotype O3:K6 and either toxin profiles (tdh+, trh- or (tdh-, trh+. The sixth pandemic strain sequenced in this study was serotype O4:K68. Results Genomic analyses revealed that the trh+ and tdh+ strains had different types of pathogenicity islands and mobile elements as well as major structural differences between the tdh pathogenicity islands of the pre-pandemic and pandemic strains. In addition, the results of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis showed that 94% of the SNPs between O3:K6 and O4:K68 pandemic isolates were within a 141 kb region surrounding the O- and K-antigen-encoding gene clusters. The "core" genes of V. parahaemolyticus were also compared to those of V. cholerae and V. vulnificus, in order to delineate differences between these three pathogenic species. Approximately one-half (49-59% of each species' core genes were conserved in all three species, and 14-24% of the core genes were species-specific and in different

  6. Examining Combinations of Social Physique Anxiety and Motivation Regulations Using Latent Profile Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich-French, Sarah; Cox, Anne E.; Cooper, Brittany Rhoades

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has used cluster analysis to examine how social physique anxiety (SPA) combines with motivation in physical education. This study utilized a more advanced analytic approach, latent profile analysis (LPA), to identify profiles of SPA and motivation regulations. Students in grades 9-12 (N = 298) completed questionnaires at two time…

  7. WISC-R Subtest Pattern Stability and Learning Disabilities: A Profile Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealor, David J.; Abrams, Pamela F.

    Profile analysis was performed on Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) scores of 29 learning disabled students (6-10 years old) in a Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD) program, to determine whether subtest patterns for initial and re-evaluation WISC-R administrations would differ significantly. Profile analysis was applied…

  8. Flash Study Analysis and the Music Learning Pro-Files Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremata, Radio; Pignato, Joseph; Powell, Bryan; Smith, Gareth Dylan

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the Music Learning Profiles Project, and its methodological approach, flash study analysis. Flash study analysis is a method that draws heavily on extant qualitative approaches to education research, to develop broad understandings of music learning in diverse contexts. The Music Learning Profiles Project (MLPP) is an…

  9. Acute Myeloid Leukemia: analysis of epidemiological profile and survival rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Mariana Cardoso; da Silva, Denise Bousfield; Freund, Ana Paula Ferreira; Dacoregio, Juliana Shmitz; Costa, Tatiana El Jaick Bonifácio; Costa, Imaruí; Faraco, Daniel; Silva, Maurício Laerte

    2016-01-01

    To describe the epidemiological profile and the survival rate of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in a state reference pediatric hospital. Clinical-epidemiological, observational, retrospective, descriptive study. The study included new cases of patients with AML, diagnosed between 2004 and 2012, younger than 15 years. Of the 51 patients studied, 84% were white; 45% were females and 55%, males. Regarding age, 8% were younger than 1 year, 47% were aged between 1 and 10 years, and 45% were older than 10 years. The main signs/symptoms were fever (41.1%), asthenia/lack of appetite (35.2%), and hemorrhagic manifestations (27.4%). The most affected extra-medullary site was the central nervous system (14%). In 47% of patients, the white blood cell (WBC) count was below 10,000/mm(3) at diagnosis. The minimal residual disease (MRD) was less than 0.1%, on the 15th day of treatment in 16% of the sample. Medullary relapse occurred in 14% of cases. When comparing the bone marrow MRD with the vital status, it was observed that 71.42% of the patients with type M3 AML were alive, as were 54.05% of those with non-M3 AML. The death rate was 43% and the main proximate cause was septic shock (63.6%). In this study, the majority of patients were male, white, and older than 1 year. Most patients with WBC count <10,000/mm(3) at diagnosis lived. Overall survival was higher in patients with MRD <0.1%. The prognosis was better in patients with AML-M3. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Measuring populism: comparing two methods of content analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooduijn, M.; Pauwels, T.

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of populism - particularly over time and space - has received only scarce attention. In this research note two different ways to measure populism are compared: a classical content analysis and a computer-based content analysis. An analysis of political parties in the United Kingdom,

  11. Human glioblastoma-associated microglia/monocytes express a distinct RNA profile compared to human control and murine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulzewsky, Frank; Arora, Sonali; de Witte, Lot; Ulas, Thomas; Markovic, Darko; Schultze, Joachim L; Holland, Eric C; Synowitz, Michael; Wolf, Susanne A; Kettenmann, Helmut

    2016-08-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive brain tumor in adults. It is strongly infiltrated by microglia and peripheral monocytes that support tumor growth. In the present study we used RNA sequencing to compare the expression profile of CD11b(+) human glioblastoma-associated microglia/monocytes (hGAMs) to CD11b(+) microglia isolated from non-tumor samples. Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis showed a clear separation of the two sample groups and we identified 334 significantly regulated genes in hGAMs. In comparison to human control microglia hGAMs upregulated genes associated with mitotic cell cycle, cell migration, cell adhesion, and extracellular matrix organization. We validated the expression of several genes associated with extracellular matrix organization in samples of human control microglia, hGAMs, and the hGAMs-depleted fraction via qPCR. The comparison to murine GAMs (mGAMs) showed that both cell populations share a significant fraction of upregulated transcripts compared with their respective controls. These genes were mostly related to mitotic cell cycle. However, in contrast to murine cells, human GAMs did not upregulate genes associated to immune activation. Comparison of human and murine GAMs expression data to several data sets of in vitro-activated human macrophages and murine microglia showed that, in contrast to mGAMs, hGAMs share a smaller overlap to these data sets in general and in particular to cells activated by proinflammatory stimulation with LPS + INFγ or TNFα. Our findings provide new insights into the biology of human glioblastoma-associated microglia/monocytes and give detailed information about the validity of murine experimental models. GLIA 2016 GLIA 2016;64:1416-1436. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. CloVR-Comparative: automated, cloud-enabled comparative microbial genome sequence analysis pipeline

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Sonia; Arze, Cesar; Adkins, Ricky S.; Crabtree, Jonathan; Riley, David; Vangala, Mahesh; Galens, Kevin; Fraser, Claire M.; Tettelin, Herv?; White, Owen; Angiuoli, Samuel V.; Mahurkar, Anup; Fricke, W. Florian

    2017-01-01

    Background The benefit of increasing genomic sequence data to the scientific community depends on easy-to-use, scalable bioinformatics support. CloVR-Comparative combines commonly used bioinformatics tools into an intuitive, automated, and cloud-enabled analysis pipeline for comparative microbial genomics. Results CloVR-Comparative runs on annotated complete or draft genome sequences that are uploaded by the user or selected via a taxonomic tree-based user interface and downloaded from NCBI. ...

  13. Cluster analysis for DNA methylation profiles having a detection threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegmund Kimberly D

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA methylation, a molecular feature used to investigate tumor heterogeneity, can be measured on many genomic regions using the MethyLight technology. Due to the combination of the underlying biology of DNA methylation and the MethyLight technology, the measurements, while being generated on a continuous scale, have a large number of 0 values. This suggests that conventional clustering methodology may not perform well on this data. Results We compare performance of existing methodology (such as k-means with two novel methods that explicitly allow for the preponderance of values at 0. We also consider how the ability to successfully cluster such data depends upon the number of informative genes for which methylation is measured and the correlation structure of the methylation values for those genes. We show that when data is collected for a sufficient number of genes, our models do improve clustering performance compared to methods, such as k-means, that do not explicitly respect the supposed biological realities of the situation. Conclusion The performance of analysis methods depends upon how well the assumptions of those methods reflect the properties of the data being analyzed. Differing technologies will lead to data with differing properties, and should therefore be analyzed differently. Consequently, it is prudent to give thought to what the properties of the data are likely to be, and which analysis method might therefore be likely to best capture those properties.

  14. Comparative proteome analysis of human epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagné Jean-Philippe

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelial ovarian cancer is a devastating disease associated with low survival prognosis mainly because of the lack of early detection markers and the asymptomatic nature of the cancer until late stage. Using two complementary proteomics approaches, a differential protein expression profile was carried out between low and highly transformed epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines which realistically mimic the phenotypic changes observed during evolution of a tumour metastasis. This investigation was aimed at a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying differentiation, proliferation and neoplastic progression of ovarian cancer. Results The quantitative profiling of epithelial ovarian cancer model cell lines TOV-81D and TOV-112D generated using iTRAQ analysis and two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry revealed some proteins with altered expression levels. Several of these proteins have been the object of interest in cancer research but others were unrecognized as differentially expressed in a context of ovarian cancer. Among these, series of proteins involved in transcriptional activity, cellular metabolism, cell adhesion or motility and cytoskeleton organization were identified, suggesting their possible role in the emergence of oncogenic pathways leading to aggressive cellular behavior. Conclusion The differential protein expression profile generated by the two proteomics approaches combined to complementary characterizations studies will open the way to more exhaustive and systematic representation of the disease and will provide valuable information that may be helpful to uncover the molecular mechanisms related to epithelial ovarian cancer.

  15. Angular photogrammetric analysis of the soft-tissue facial profile of Indian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Saravana Pandian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Soft-tissue analysis has become an important component of orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. Photographic evaluation of an orthodontic patient is a very close representation of the appearance of the person. The previously established norms for soft-tissue analysis will vary for different ethnic groups. Thus, there is a need to develop soft-tissue facial profile norms pertaining to Indian ethnic groups. Aim and Objectives: The aim of this study is to establish the angular photogrammetric standards of soft-tissue facial profile for Indian males and females and also to compare sexual dimorphism present between them. Materials and Methods: The lateral profile photographs of 300 random participants (150 males and 150 females between ages 18 and 25 years were taken and analyzed using FACAD tracing software. Inclusion criteria were angles Class I molar occlusion with acceptable crowding and proclination, normal growth and development with well-aligned dental arches, and full complements of permanent teeth irrespective of third molar status. This study was conducted in Indian population, and samples were taken from various cities across India. Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out, and sexual dimorphism was evaluated by Student's t-test between males and females. Results: The results of the present study showed statistically significant (P < 0.05 gender difference in 5 parameters out of 12 parameters in Indian population. Conclusion: In the present study, soft-tissue facial measurements were established by means of photogrammetric analysis to facilitate orthodontists to carry out more quantitative evaluation and make disciplined decisions. The mean values obtained can be used for comparison with records of participants with the same characteristics by following this photogrammetric technique.

  16. Comparative transcriptional profiling of human Merkel cells and Merkel cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchet, Nicolas; Coquart, Nolwenn; Lebonvallet, Nicolas; Le Gall-Ianotto, Christelle; Mogha, Ariane; Fautrel, Alain; Boulais, Nicholas; Dréno, Brigitte; Martin, Ludovic; Hu, Weiguo; Galibert, Marie-Dominique; Misery, Laurent

    2014-12-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is believed to be derived from Merkel cells after infection by Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) and other poorly understood events. Transcriptional profiling using cDNA microarrays was performed on cells from MCPy-negative and MCPy-positive Merkel cell carcinomas and isolated normal Merkel cells. This microarray revealed numerous significantly upregulated genes and some downregulated genes. The extensive list of genes that were identified in these experiments provides a large body of potentially valuable information of Merkel cell carcinoma carcinogenesis and could represent a source of potential targets for cancer therapy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Comparative Metagenomic Profiling of Symbiotic Bacterial Communities Associated with Ixodes persulcatus, Ixodes pavlovskyi and Dermacentor reticulatus Ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurilshikov, Alexander; Livanova, Natalya N; Fomenko, Nataliya V; Tupikin, Alexey E; Rar, Vera A; Kabilov, Marsel R; Livanov, Stanislav G; Tikunova, Nina V

    2015-01-01

    Ixodes persulcatus, Ixodes pavlovskyi, and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks inhabiting Western Siberia are responsible for the transmission of a number of etiological agents that cause human and animal tick-borne diseases. Because these ticks are abundant in the suburbs of large cities, agricultural areas, and popular tourist sites and frequently attack people and livestock, data regarding the microbiomes of these organisms are required. Using metagenomic 16S profiling, we evaluate bacterial communities associated with I. persulcatus, I. pavlovskyi, and D. reticulatus ticks collected from the Novosibirsk region of Russia. A total of 1214 ticks were used for this study. DNA extracted from the ticks was pooled according to tick species and sex. Sequencing of the V3-V5 domains of 16S rRNA genes was performed using the Illumina Miseq platform. The following bacterial genera were prevalent in the examined communities: Acinetobacter (all three tick species), Rickettsia (I. persulcatus and D. reticulatus) and Francisella (D. reticulatus). B. burgdorferi sensu lato and B. miyamotoi sequences were detected in I. persulcatus and I. pavlovskyi but not in D. reticulatus ticks. The pooled samples of all tick species studied contained bacteria from the Anaplasmataceae family, although their occurrence was low. DNA from A. phagocytophilum and Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis was first observed in I. pavlovskyi ticks. Significant inter-species differences in the number of bacterial taxa as well as intra-species diversity related to tick sex were observed. The bacterial communities associated with the I. pavlovskyi ticks displayed a higher biodiversity compared with those of the I. persulcatus and D. reticulatus ticks. Bacterial community structure was also diverse across the studied tick species, as shown by permutational analysis of variance using the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity metric (p = 0.002). Between-sex variation was confirmed by PERMANOVA testing in I. persulcatus (p = 0

  18. Comparative Metagenomic Profiling of Symbiotic Bacterial Communities Associated with Ixodes persulcatus, Ixodes pavlovskyi and Dermacentor reticulatus Ticks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kurilshikov

    Full Text Available Ixodes persulcatus, Ixodes pavlovskyi, and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks inhabiting Western Siberia are responsible for the transmission of a number of etiological agents that cause human and animal tick-borne diseases. Because these ticks are abundant in the suburbs of large cities, agricultural areas, and popular tourist sites and frequently attack people and livestock, data regarding the microbiomes of these organisms are required. Using metagenomic 16S profiling, we evaluate bacterial communities associated with I. persulcatus, I. pavlovskyi, and D. reticulatus ticks collected from the Novosibirsk region of Russia. A total of 1214 ticks were used for this study. DNA extracted from the ticks was pooled according to tick species and sex. Sequencing of the V3-V5 domains of 16S rRNA genes was performed using the Illumina Miseq platform. The following bacterial genera were prevalent in the examined communities: Acinetobacter (all three tick species, Rickettsia (I. persulcatus and D. reticulatus and Francisella (D. reticulatus. B. burgdorferi sensu lato and B. miyamotoi sequences were detected in I. persulcatus and I. pavlovskyi but not in D. reticulatus ticks. The pooled samples of all tick species studied contained bacteria from the Anaplasmataceae family, although their occurrence was low. DNA from A. phagocytophilum and Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis was first observed in I. pavlovskyi ticks. Significant inter-species differences in the number of bacterial taxa as well as intra-species diversity related to tick sex were observed. The bacterial communities associated with the I. pavlovskyi ticks displayed a higher biodiversity compared with those of the I. persulcatus and D. reticulatus ticks. Bacterial community structure was also diverse across the studied tick species, as shown by permutational analysis of variance using the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity metric (p = 0.002. Between-sex variation was confirmed by PERMANOVA testing in I

  19. Cardiovascular health profile of elite female football players compared to untrained controls before and after short-term football training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel; Ørntoft, Christina Øyangen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study examined the intermittent exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile in elite female football players in comparison to untrained young women, as well as a subgroup subjected to football training 2x1 h · week(-1) for 16 weeks. Twenty-seven Danish national team players...... weeks of football training with 26 and 46% increases in TAPSE and E/A ratio, respectively, reaching levels comparable to ET. In summary, elite female football players have a superior cardiovascular health profile and intermittent exercise performance compared to untrained controls, but short...... (elite trained, ET) and 28 untrained women (UT) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-scanning (DXA), comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography, treadmill and Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 2 (IE2) testing. Eight women in UT were also tested after the football training period. Maximal oxygen...

  20. Comparative metabolic profiling of Haberlea rhodopensis, Thellungiella halophyla, and Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eBenina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Haberlea rhodopensis is a resurrection species with extreme resistance to drought stress and desiccation but also with ability to withstand low temperatures and freezing stress. In order to identify biochemical strategies which contribute to Haberlea’s remarkable stress tolerance, the metabolic reconfiguration of H. rhodopensis during low temperature (4°C and subsequent return to optimal temperatures was investigated and compared with that of the stress tolerant Thellungiella halophyla and the stress sensitive A. thaliana. The effect of the low temperature treatment in the three species was confirmed by gene expression of low-temperature- and dehydration-inducible genes. Metabolic analysis by GC-MS revealed intrinsic differences in the metabolite levels of the three species even at 21°C. H. rhodopensis had significantly more raffinose, melibiose, trehalose, myo-inositol, sorbitol, and galactinol than the other two species. A. thaliana had the highest levels of putrescine and fumarate, while T. halophila had much higher levels of several amino acids, including alanine, asparagine, beta-alanine, histidine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, serine, threonine, and valine. In addition, the three species responded differently to the low temperature treatment and the subsequent recovery, especially with regard to the sugar metabolism. Chilling induced accumulation of maltose in Haberlea and raffinose in A. thaliana, but raffinose levels in low temperature exposed Arabidopsis were still much lower than these in unstressed Haberlea. While all species accumulated sucrose during chilling, that accumulation was transient in Haberlea and Arabidopsis but sustained in T. halophila after the return to optimal temperature. In T. halophila, the levels of proline and hydroxyproline drastically increased upon recovery. Collectively, these results show inherent. differences in the metabolomes under the ambient temperature and the strategies to respond to low

  1. A Comparative Assessment of Biological Effects and Chemical Profile of Italian Asphodeline lutea Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Melucci

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to highlight the therapeutic potential of Asphodeline lutea (AL, a wild edible plant of the Mediterranean diet. Roots, aerial parts, and flowers of AL at two different phenological stages were collected from three locations in Italy. The inhibitory activities of extracts on strategic enzymes linked to human diseases were assessed. The antioxidant properties were evaluated in vitro, using six standard bioassays. The phenolic and anthraquinone profiles were also established using HPLC-PDA. Zinc, cadmium, lead, and copper contents were also determined. All the samples inhibited acetylcholinesterase (from 1.51 to 2.20 mg GALAEs/g extract, tyrosinase (from 7.50 to 25.3 mg KAEs/g extract, and α-amylase (from 0.37 to 0.51 mmol ACAEs/g extract. Aloe-emodin and physcion were present in all parts, while rhein was not detected. The phenolic profile and the heavy metals composition of specimens gathered from three different regions of Italy were different. It can be argued that samples collected near the street can contain higher concentrations of heavy metals. The experimental data confirm that the A. lutea species could be considered as a potential source of bioactive metabolites, and its consumption could play a positive and safe role in human health maintenance.

  2. Comparative transcriptional profiling of the axolotl limb identifies a tripartite regeneration-specific gene program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Knapp

    Full Text Available Understanding how the limb blastema is established after the initial wound healing response is an important aspect of regeneration research. Here we performed parallel expression profile time courses of healing lateral wounds versus amputated limbs in axolotl. This comparison between wound healing and regeneration allowed us to identify amputation-specific genes. By clustering the expression profiles of these samples, we could detect three distinguishable phases of gene expression - early wound healing followed by a transition-phase leading to establishment of the limb development program, which correspond to the three phases of limb regeneration that had been defined by morphological criteria. By focusing on the transition-phase, we identified 93 strictly amputation-associated genes many of which are implicated in oxidative-stress response, chromatin modification, epithelial development or limb development. We further classified the genes based on whether they were or were not significantly expressed in the developing limb bud. The specific localization of 53 selected candidates within the blastema was investigated by in situ hybridization. In summary, we identified a set of genes that are expressed specifically during regeneration and are therefore, likely candidates for the regulation of blastema formation.

  3. Density profiles of small Dirac operator eigenvalues for two color QCD at nonzero chemical potential compared to matrix models

    OpenAIRE

    Akemann, G; Bittner, E; Lombardo, M; Markum, H; Pullirsch, R

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the eigenvalue spectrum of the staggered Dirac matrix in two color QCD at finite chemical potential. The profiles of complex eigenvalues close to the origin are compared to a complex generalization of the chiral Gaussian Symplectic Ensemble, confirming its predictions for weak and strong non-Hermiticity. They differ from the QCD symmetry class with three colors by a level repulsion from both the real and imaginary axis.

  4. Density profiles of small Dirac operator eigenvalues for two color QCD at nonzero chemical potential compared to matrix models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akemann, Gernot; Bittner, Elmar; Lombardo, Maria-Paola; Markum, Harald; Pullirsch, Rainer

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the eigenvalue spectrum of the staggered Dirac matrix in two color QCD at finite chemical potential. The profiles of complex eigenvalues close to the origin are compared to a complex generalization of the chiral Gaussian Symplectic Ensemble, confirming its predictions for weak and strong non-Hermiticity. They differ from the QCD symmetry class with three colors by a level repulsion from both the real and imaginary axis

  5. Comparative gene expression profiling of in vitro differentiated megakaryocytes and erythroblasts identifies novel activatory and inhibitory platelet membrane proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macaulay, Iain C.; Tijssen, Marloes R.; Thijssen-Timmer, Daphne C.; Gusnanto, Arief; Steward, Michael; Burns, Philippa; Langford, Cordelia F.; Ellis, Peter D.; Dudbridge, Frank; Zwaginga, Jaap-Jan; Watkins, Nicholas A.; van der Schoot, C. Ellen; Ouwehand, Willem H.

    2007-01-01

    To identify previously unknown platelet receptors we compared the transcriptomes of in vitro differentiated megakaryocytes (MKs) and erythroblasts (EBs). RNA was obtained from purified, biologically paired MK and EB cultures and compared using cDNA microarrays. Bioinformatical analysis of

  6. Pathway analysis of kidney cancer using proteomics and metabolic profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiehn Oliver

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the sixth leading cause of cancer death and is responsible for 11,000 deaths per year in the US. Approximately one-third of patients present with disease which is already metastatic and for which there is currently no adequate treatment, and no biofluid screening tests exist for RCC. In this study, we have undertaken a comprehensive proteomic analysis and subsequently a pathway and network approach to identify biological processes involved in clear cell RCC (ccRCC. We have used these data to investigate urinary markers of RCC which could be applied to high-risk patients, or to those being followed for recurrence, for early diagnosis and treatment, thereby substantially reducing mortality of this disease. Results Using 2-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analysis, we identified 31 proteins which were differentially expressed with a high degree of significance in ccRCC as compared to adjacent non-malignant tissue, and we confirmed some of these by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, and comparison to published transcriptomic data. When evaluated by several pathway and biological process analysis programs, these proteins are demonstrated to be involved with a high degree of confidence (p values Conclusion Extensive pathway and network analysis allowed for the discovery of highly significant pathways from a set of clear cell RCC samples. Knowledge of activation of these processes will lead to novel assays identifying their proteomic and/or metabolomic signatures in biofluids of patient at high risk for this disease; we provide pilot data for such a urinary bioassay. Furthermore, we demonstrate how the knowledge of networks, processes, and pathways altered in kidney cancer may be used to influence the choice of optimal therapy.

  7. Processing methods for differential analysis of LC/MS profile data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orešič Matej

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC/MS has been widely used in proteomics and metabolomics research. In this context, the technology has been increasingly used for differential profiling, i.e. broad screening of biomolecular components across multiple samples in order to elucidate the observed phenotypes and discover biomarkers. One of the major challenges in this domain remains development of better solutions for processing of LC/MS data. Results We present a software package MZmine that enables differential LC/MS analysis of metabolomics data. This software is a toolbox containing methods for all data processing stages preceding differential analysis: spectral filtering, peak detection, alignment and normalization. Specifically, we developed and implemented a new recursive peak search algorithm and a secondary peak picking method for improving already aligned results, as well as a normalization tool that uses multiple internal standards. Visualization tools enable comparative viewing of data across multiple samples. Peak lists can be exported into other data analysis programs. The toolbox has already been utilized in a wide range of applications. We demonstrate its utility on an example of metabolic profiling of Catharanthus roseus cell cultures. Conclusion The software is freely available under the GNU General Public License and it can be obtained from the project web page at: http://mzmine.sourceforge.net/.

  8. Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Organization Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Organization Development Interventions on Organizational Leadership and Management Practice: A Case Of Green Earth Program (GEP) ... Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa.

  9. Taxation and Gender Equity: A Comparative Analysis of Direct and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-06-10

    Jun 10, 2010 ... Taxation and Gender Equity: A Comparative Analysis of Direct and Indirect Taxes in Developing and Developed Countries ... This highly original book is essential reading for everyone concerned with equality in taxation.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Kernel Methods for Statistical Shape Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rathi, Yogesh; Dambreville, Samuel; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2006-01-01

    .... In this work, we perform a comparative analysis of shape learning techniques such as linear PCA, kernel PCA, locally linear embedding and propose a new method, kernelized locally linear embedding...

  11. comparative analysis of some existing kinetic models with proposed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IGNATIUS NWIDI

    two statistical parameters namely; linear regression coefficient of correlation (R2) and ... Keynotes: Heavy metals, Biosorption, Kinetics Models, Comparative analysis, Average Relative Error. 1. ... If the flow rate is low, a simple manual batch.

  12. A Comparative Analysis of Motivations for Occupational Choice or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Comparative Analysis of Motivations for Occupational Choice or Preference between ... The results showed that these factors (external influence, extrinsic ... are drawn, and recommendations made for career counselling of students.

  13. Analogy of ISSR and RAPD markers for comparative analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analogy of ISSR and RAPD markers for comparative analysis of genetic diversity among different Jatropha curcas genotypes. S Gupta, M Srivastava, GP Mishra, PK Naik, RS Chauhan, SK Tiwari, M Kumar, R Singh ...

  14. Comparative analysis of wholesale and retail frozen fish marketing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of wholesale and retail frozen fish marketing in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria. ... from each market giving 30 retail marketers and 30 wholesale marketers. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  15. Bluetooth security attacks comparative analysis, attacks, and countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Haataja, Keijo; Pasanen, Sanna; Toivanen, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    This overview of Bluetooth security examines network vulnerabilities and offers a comparative analysis of recent security attacks. It also examines related countermeasures and proposes a novel attack that works against all existing Bluetooth versions.

  16. Comparative analysis of direct and indirect property investment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of direct and indirect property investment returns in Abuja. ... in property shares is more risky than commercial property due to the risk ... of the stock market, it was discovered that there is a strong positive relationship ...

  17. Comparative Analysis on Chemical Composition of Bentonite Clays ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-12

    Sep 12, 2017 ... Comparative Analysis on Chemical Composition of Bentonite Clays. Obtained from Ashaka and ... versatile material for geotechnical engineering and as well as their demand for ..... A PhD thesis submitted to the Chemical ...

  18. Comparative analysis of crayfish marketing in selected markets of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of crayfish marketing in selected markets of Akwa Ibom and Abia States, Nigeria. ... It specifically looked at market integration, costs and return, marketing margin, marketing ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  19. Profiling physical activity motivation based on self-determination theory: a cluster analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friederichs, Stijn Ah; Bolman, Catherine; Oenema, Anke; Lechner, Lilian

    2015-01-01

    In order to promote physical activity uptake and maintenance in individuals who do not comply with physical activity guidelines, it is important to increase our understanding of physical activity motivation among this group. The present study aimed to examine motivational profiles in a large sample of adults who do not comply with physical activity guidelines. The sample for this study consisted of 2473 individuals (31.4% male; age 44.6 ± 12.9). In order to generate motivational profiles based on motivational regulation, a cluster analysis was conducted. One-way analyses of variance were then used to compare the clusters in terms of demographics, physical activity level, motivation to be active and subjective experience while being active. Three motivational clusters were derived based on motivational regulation scores: a low motivation cluster, a controlled motivation cluster and an autonomous motivation cluster. These clusters differed significantly from each other with respect to physical activity behavior, motivation to be active and subjective experience while being active. Overall, the autonomous motivation cluster displayed more favorable characteristics compared to the other two clusters. The results of this study provide additional support for the importance of autonomous motivation in the context of physical activity behavior. The three derived clusters may be relevant in the context of physical activity interventions as individuals within the different clusters might benefit most from different intervention approaches. In addition, this study shows that cluster analysis is a useful method for differentiating between motivational profiles in large groups of individuals who do not comply with physical activity guidelines.

  20. An Inducible Operon Is Involved in Inulin Utilization in Lactobacillus plantarum Strains, as Revealed by Comparative Proteogenomics and Metabolic Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntin, Nirunya; Hongpattarakere, Tipparat; Ritari, Jarmo; Douillard, François P; Paulin, Lars; Boeren, Sjef; Shetty, Sudarshan A; de Vos, Willem M

    2017-01-15

    The draft genomes of Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from Asian fermented foods, infant feces, and shrimp intestines were sequenced and compared to those of well-studied strains. Among 28 strains of L. plantarum, variations in the genomic features involved in ecological adaptation were elucidated. The genome sizes ranged from approximately 3.1 to 3.5 Mb, of which about 2,932 to 3,345 protein-coding sequences (CDS) were predicted. The food-derived isolates contained a higher number of carbohydrate metabolism-associated genes than those from infant feces. This observation correlated to their phenotypic carbohydrate metabolic profile, indicating their ability to metabolize the largest range of sugars. Surprisingly, two strains (P14 and P76) isolated from fermented fish utilized inulin. β-Fructosidase, the inulin-degrading enzyme, was detected in the supernatants and cell wall extracts of both strains. No activity was observed in the cytoplasmic fraction, indicating that this key enzyme was either membrane-bound or extracellularly secreted. From genomic mining analysis, a predicted inulin operon of fosRABCDXE, which encodes β-fructosidase and many fructose transporting proteins, was found within the genomes of strains P14 and P76. Moreover, pts1BCA genes, encoding sucrose-specific IIBCA components involved in sucrose transport, were also identified. The proteomic analysis revealed the mechanism and functional characteristic of the fosRABCDXE operon involved in the inulin utilization of L. plantarum The expression levels of the fos operon and pst genes were upregulated at mid-log phase. FosE and the LPXTG-motif cell wall anchored β-fructosidase were induced to a high abundance when inulin was present as a carbon source. Inulin is a long-chain carbohydrate that may act as a prebiotic, which provides many health benefits to the host by selectively stimulating the growth and activity of beneficial bacteria in the colon. While certain lactobacilli can catabolize

  1. Comparative Transcriptome Profile of the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Fertile Floral Buds of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyong Mei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radish cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS has been widely used for breeding in Raphanus and Brassica genera. However, the detailed regulation network of the male sterility remains to be determined. Our previous work has shown that the abnormalities in a CMS radish appeared shortly after the tetrad stage when microspores were malformed and the tapetal cells grew abnormally large. In this work, histological analysis shows that anthers are at the tetrad stage when the radish buds are about 1.5 mm in length. Furthermore, a high throughput RNA sequencing technology was employed to characterize the transcriptome of radish buds with length about 1.5 mm from two CMS lines possessing the CMS-inducing orf138 gene and corresponding near-isogenic maintainer lines. A total of 67,140 unigenes were functionally annotated. Functional terms for these genes are significantly enriched in 55 Gene Ontology (GO groups and 323 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways. The transcriptome detected transcripts for 72 out of a total of 79 protein genes encoded in the chloroplast genome from radish. In contrast, the radish mitochondrial genome contains 34 protein genes, but only 16 protein transcripts were detected from the transcriptome. The transcriptome comparison between CMS and near-isogenic maintainer lines revealed 539 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, indicating that the false positive rate for comparative transcriptome profiling was clearly decreased using two groups of CMS/maintainer lines with different nuclear background. The level of 127 transcripts was increased and 412 transcripts were decreased in the CMS lines. No change in levels of transcripts except CMS-inducing orf138 was identified from the mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. Some DEGs which would be associated with the CMS, encoding MYB and bHLH transcription factors, pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR proteins, heat shock transcription factors (HSFs and heat shock proteins (HSPs, are

  2. Standardization: using comparative maintenance costs in an economic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Roger Nelson

    1987-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis investigates the use of comparative maintenance costs of functionally interchangeable equipments in similar U.S. Navy shipboard applications in an economic analysis of standardization. The economics of standardization, life-cycle costing, and the Navy 3-M System are discussed in general. An analysis of 3-M System maintenance costs for a selected equipment, diesel engines, is conducted. The potential use of comparative ma...

  3. Do women who choose to become surrogate mothers have different psychological profiles compared to a normative female sample?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizitz, Todd D; McCullaugh, Joseph; Rabin, Alexa

    2013-03-01

    Surrogate mothers are routinely assessed for their suitability to function in the role of surrogacy. Such assessments often include psychological testing including the Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory-revised (MMPI-2). There has been a paucity of research detailing the personality structures of these women, especially with the MMPI-2. The current study examined the validity and clinical profiles of surrogate mothers (N=43) compared to a non-patient, normative reference sample of women (N=40) using their MMPI-2 results. This study examined between group differences among the 68 scales of the MMPI-2. Independent-sample t-tests were conducted for each of the scales, with those violating homogeneity of variance assessed with a non-parametric, Mann-Whitney U test. The findings demonstrated that surrogate mothers produce profiles with lower values than normative samples across several MMPI-2 scales. For this unique group, elevations were observed on scales that assess profile validity, views on traditional gender roles, repression, ego strength, social obligation and duties, and contained hostility, relative to the normative group. The findings provide an initial examination of the profiles of surrogate mothers on the MMPI-2. The findings revealed that the psychological suitability of surrogate mother candidates appear to be a composite of being both tough-minded and sensitive, sufficiently resilient to manage the role of surrogacy, and aware of the importance of emotional boundary-setting related to pre-natal attachment. Copyright © 2012 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Generalized pixel profiling and comparative segmentation with application to arteriovenous malformation segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, D; Pižurica, A; Bellens, R; De Bock, J; Shang, Y; Goossens, B; Vansteenkiste, E; Philips, W

    2012-07-01

    Extraction of structural and geometric information from 3-D images of blood vessels is a well known and widely addressed segmentation problem. The segmentation of cerebral blood vessels is of great importance in diagnostic and clinical applications, with a special application in diagnostics and surgery on arteriovenous malformations (AVM). However, the techniques addressing the problem of the AVM inner structure segmentation are rare. In this work we present a novel method of pixel profiling with the application to segmentation of the 3-D angiography AVM images. Our algorithm stands out in situations with low resolution images and high variability of pixel intensity. Another advantage of our method is that the parameters are set automatically, which yields little manual user intervention. The results on phantoms and real data demonstrate its effectiveness and potentials for fine delineation of AVM structure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Travel and Tourism Marketing. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for travel and tourism occupations. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and competency…

  6. Risk Profiles of Children Entering Residential Care: A Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagaman, Jessica L.; Trout, Alexandra L.; Chmelka, M. Beth; Thompson, Ronald W.; Reid, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Children in residential care are a heterogeneous population, presenting various combinations of risks. Existing studies on these children suggest high variability across multiple domains (e.g., academics, behavior). Given this heterogeneity, it is important to begin to identify the combinations and patterns of multiple risks, or risk profiles,…

  7. Problems of job-profile for risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compes, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    There is no job-profile for the risk analyst. It would be his job to detect and classify accident risks, i.e. make a diagnosis and type rationalization, and to subsequently analyse them with respect to their frequency and probability as well as to the extent of damage caused. (DG) [de

  8. Hospitality and Facility Care Services. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for hospitality and facility care occupations. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and…

  9. Statistical analysis of the profile of consumer Internet services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzhenovskii Sergei Valentinovich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to the construction of the Russian Internet user profile. Statistical methods of summary, grouping and the graphical representation of information about Internet consumer by socio-demographic characteristics and settlement are used. RLMS at 2005-2012 years are the information base.

  10. Analysis of Bridge Player Profiles According to Their Intelligence Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilir, Fatma Pervin; Sirin, Yeliz

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to figure out profiles of bridge players and analyzing them according to their intelligence areas. The sample of the study is consist of 100 volunteers out of 200 bridge players who have attended "Çukurova open double bridge championship" in Adana, Turkey at February 2016. Data have been collected via…

  11. A Comparative Proteome Profile of Female Mouse Gonads Suggests a Tight Link between the Electron Transport Chain and Meiosis Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Cong; Li, Mingrui; Zhang, Pan; Guo, Yueshuai; Zhang, Hao; Zheng, Bo; Teng, Hui; Zhou, Tao; Guo, Xuejiang; Huo, Ran

    2018-01-01

    Generation of haploid gametes by meiosis is a unique property of germ cells and is critical for sexual reproduction. Leaving mitosis and entering meiosis is a key step in germ cell development. Several inducers or intrinsic genes are known to be important for meiotic initiation, but the regulation of meiotic initiation, especially at the protein level, is still not well understood. We constructed a comparative proteome profile of female mouse fetal gonads at specific time points (11.5, 12.5, and 13.5 days post coitum), spanning a critical window for initiation of meiosis in female germ cells. We identified 3666 proteins, of which 473 were differentially expressed. Further bioinformatics analysis showed that these differentially expressed proteins were enriched in the mitochondria, especially in the electron transport chain and, notably, 9 proteins in electron transport chain Complex I were differentially expressed. We disrupted the mitochondrial electron transport chain function by adding the complex I inhibitor, rotenone to 11.5 days post coitum female gonads cultured in vitro. This treatment resulted in a decreased proportion of meiotic germ cells, as assessed by staining for histone γH2AX. Rotenone treatment also caused decreased ATP levels, increased reactive oxygen species levels and failure of the germ cells to undergo premeiotic DNA replication. These effects were partially rescued by adding Coenzyme Q10. Taken together, our results suggested that a functional electron transport chain is important for meiosis initiation. Our characterization of the quantitative proteome of female gonads provides an inventory of proteins, useful for understanding the mechanisms of meiosis initiation and female fertility. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Yak Follicular Fluid during Estrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Guo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The breeding of yaks is highly seasonal, there are many crucial proteins involved in the reproduction control program, especially in follicular development. In order to isolate differential proteins between mature and immature follicular fluid (FF of yak, the FF from yak follicles with different sizes were sampled respectively, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE of the proteins was carried out. After silver staining, the Image Master 2D platinum software was used for protein analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS was performed for differential protein identification. The expression level of transferrin and enolase superfamily member 1 (ENOSF1 was determined by Western blotting for verification analysis. The results showed that 2-DE obtained an electrophoresis map of proteins from mature and immature yak FF with high resolution and repeatability. A comparison of protein profiles identified 12 differently expressed proteins, out of which 10 of them were upregulated while 2 were downregulated. Western blotting showed that the expression of transferrin and ENOSF1 was enhanced with follicular development. Both the obtained protein profiles and the differently expressed proteins identified in this study provided experimental data related to follicular development during yak breeding seasons. This study also laid the foundation for understanding the microenvironment during oocyte development.

  13. Multifractal analysis of vertical profiles of soil penetration resistance at the field scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Siqueira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil penetration resistance (PR is widely used as an indirect indicator of soil strength. Soil PR is linked to basic soil properties and correlated to root growth and plant production, and as such it is extensively used as a practical tool for assessing soil compaction and to evaluate the effects of soil management. This study investigates how results from multifractal analysis can quantify key elements of depth-dependent soil PR profiles and how this information can be used at the field scale. We analysed multifractality of 50 PR vertical profiles, measured from 0 to 60 cm depth and randomly located on a 6.5 ha sugar cane field in northeastern Brazil. The scaling property of each profile was typified by singularity, and Rényi spectra estimated by the method of moments. The Hurst exponent was used to parameterize the autocorrelation of the vertical PR data sets. The singularity and Rènyi spectra showed that the vertical PR data sets exhibited a well-defined multifractal structure. Hurst exponent values were close to 1, ranging from 0.944 to 0.988, indicating strong persistence in PR variation with soil depth. Also, the Hurst exponent was negatively and significantly correlated to coefficient of variation (CV, skewness and maximum values of the depth-dependent PR. Multifractal analysis added valuable information to describe the spatial arrangement of depth-dependent penetrometer data sets, which was not taken into account by classical statistical indices. Multifractal parameters were mapped over the experimental field and compared with mean and maximum values of PR. Combination of spatial variability survey and multifractal analysis appear to be useful to manage soil compaction.

  14. Multifractal analysis of vertical profiles of soil penetration resistance at the field scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, G. M.; Silva, E. F. F.; Montenegro, A. A. A.; Vidal Vázquez, E.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.

    2013-07-01

    Soil penetration resistance (PR) is widely used as an indirect indicator of soil strength. Soil PR is linked to basic soil properties and correlated to root growth and plant production, and as such it is extensively used as a practical tool for assessing soil compaction and to evaluate the effects of soil management. This study investigates how results from multifractal analysis can quantify key elements of depth-dependent soil PR profiles and how this information can be used at the field scale. We analysed multifractality of 50 PR vertical profiles, measured from 0 to 60 cm depth and randomly located on a 6.5 ha sugar cane field in northeastern Brazil. The scaling property of each profile was typified by singularity, and Rényi spectra estimated by the method of moments. The Hurst exponent was used to parameterize the autocorrelation of the vertical PR data sets. The singularity and Rènyi spectra showed that the vertical PR data sets exhibited a well-defined multifractal structure. Hurst exponent values were close to 1, ranging from 0.944 to 0.988, indicating strong persistence in PR variation with soil depth. Also, the Hurst exponent was negatively and significantly correlated to coefficient of variation (CV), skewness and maximum values of the depth-dependent PR. Multifractal analysis added valuable information to describe the spatial arrangement of depth-dependent penetrometer data sets, which was not taken into account by classical statistical indices. Multifractal parameters were mapped over the experimental field and compared with mean and maximum values of PR. Combination of spatial variability survey and multifractal analysis appear to be useful to manage soil compaction.

  15. Genomic outlier profile analysis: mixture models, null hypotheses, and nonparametric estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debashis; Chinnaiyan, Arul M

    2009-01-01

    In most analyses of large-scale genomic data sets, differential expression analysis is typically assessed by testing for differences in the mean of the distributions between 2 groups. A recent finding by Tomlins and others (2005) is of a different type of pattern of differential expression in which a fraction of samples in one group have overexpression relative to samples in the other group. In this work, we describe a general mixture model framework for the assessment of this type of expression, called outlier profile analysis. We start by considering the single-gene situation and establishing results on identifiability. We propose 2 nonparametric estimation procedures that have natural links to familiar multiple testing procedures. We then develop multivariate extensions of this methodology to handle genome-wide measurements. The proposed methodologies are compared using simulation studies as well as data from a prostate cancer gene expression study.

  16. Quantitative Analysis of Human Pluripotency and Neural Specification by In-Depth (PhosphoProteomic Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyas Singec

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Controlled differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs can be utilized for precise analysis of cell type identities during early development. We established a highly efficient neural induction strategy and an improved analytical platform, and determined proteomic and phosphoproteomic profiles of hESCs and their specified multipotent neural stem cell derivatives (hNSCs. This quantitative dataset (nearly 13,000 proteins and 60,000 phosphorylation sites provides unique molecular insights into pluripotency and neural lineage entry. Systems-level comparative analysis of proteins (e.g., transcription factors, epigenetic regulators, kinase families, phosphorylation sites, and numerous biological pathways allowed the identification of distinct signatures in pluripotent and multipotent cells. Furthermore, as predicted by the dataset, we functionally validated an autocrine/paracrine mechanism by demonstrating that the secreted protein midkine is a regulator of neural specification. This resource is freely available to the scientific community, including a searchable website, PluriProt.

  17. A Comparative Analysis of Charter Schools and Traditional Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jodi Renee Abbott

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this descriptive research study was to compare charter and traditional public schools on the academic knowledge of fifth grade students as measured by Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS) in a suburb of a large southwestern city. This analysis also compared charter and traditional public schools on AYP status. It was…

  18. comparative analysis of the compressive strength of hollow

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-04-02

    Apr 2, 2016 ... Previous analysis showed that cavity size and number on one hand and combinations thickness affect the compressive strength of hollow sandcrete blocks. Series arrangement of the cavities is common but parallel arrangement has been recommended. This research performed a comparative analysis of ...

  19. A Comparative Analysis of Fuzzy Inference Engines in Context of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fuzzy inference engine has found successful applications in a wide variety of fields, such as automatic control, data classification, decision analysis, expert engines, time series prediction, robotics, pattern recognition, etc. This paper presents a comparative analysis of three fuzzy inference engines, max-product, max-min ...

  20. The Constant Comparative Analysis Method Outside of Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Sheila M.

    2013-01-01

    This commentary addresses the gap in the literature regarding discussion of the legitimate use of Constant Comparative Analysis Method (CCA) outside of Grounded Theory. The purpose is to show the strength of using CCA to maintain the emic perspective and how theoretical frameworks can maintain the etic perspective throughout the analysis. My…

  1. Religious Education in Russia: A Comparative and Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinkova, Alexandra; Vermeer, Paul

    2018-01-01

    RE in Russia has been recently introduced as a compulsory regular school subject during the last year of elementary school. The present study offers a critical analysis of the current practice of Russian RE by comparing it with RE in Sweden, Denmark and Britain. This analysis shows that Russian RE is ambivalent. Although it is based on a…

  2. The Sensitivity Analysis of Axial Pressure Tube Creep Profile for Dryout Power in PHWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Euiseung; Kim, Youngae [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The Stern Laboratory performed the CHF tests with only one axial pressure tube creep profile per 3.3%, 5.1% peak crept channel and made CHF correlation including creep factor from the CHF test results. Wolsong nuclear power plants also have utilized the same CHF correlation derived by CNL. Pressure tube diameter creep rate is function of fast neutron, coolant temperature, and coolant pressure in a channel. It means that various axial pressure tube creep profiles exist in PHWR due to the history of operating conditions. Usually, CHF correlation is used during ROP(Regional Overpower Protection) Trip Setpoint Analysis or Safety Analysis in PHWR. The sensitivity analysis for CHF effects using various creep profiles is needed. This paper summarizes the comparison results of dryout power between CHF test creep profile and estimated creep profiles of Wolsong units. The effect of axial pressure tube creep profile for dryout power in fuel channel is evaluated by using Stern Lab. CHF test creep profile and 380 channel creep profiles of Wolsong. The dryout powers at 3.3% and 5.1% test conditions are slightly smaller when using 380 Wolsong channels creep profiles. These also show that the simulated dryout powers maintain consistency regardless of flow conditions.

  3. Postprandial lipemia detects the effect of soy protein on cardiovascular disease risk compared with the fasting lipid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Antonio S; Santo, Ariana M; Browne, Richard W; Burton, Harold; Leddy, John J; Horvath, Steven M; Horvath, Peter J

    2010-12-01

    Studies examining the effect of soy protein on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors have not taken advantage of the postprandial state as an adjunct to the fasting lipid profile. The American Heart Association has acknowledged the efficacy of soy protein in reducing CVD risk factors to be limited. We hypothesized that the postprandial state would be more sensitive to any favorable changes associated with consuming soy protein compared with the fasting lipid profile. Furthermore, the presence of isoflavones in soy would enhance this effect. Thirty sedentary males aged 18-30 years were randomly assigned to milk protein (Milk), isoflavone-poor soy (Soy-), or isoflavone-rich soy (Soy+). Usual diets were supplemented with 25 g/day of protein for 28 days. Serum samples were collected before and after supplementation in a fasted state and postprandially at 30, 60, 120, 240, and 360 min after a high-fat, 1,000 kcal shake. Triacylglycerol (TAG), total cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids, apolipoproteins B-100 and A-I and glucose concentrations were quantified. Fasting concentrations were not different after any protein supplementation. Postprandial TAG and TAG AUC increased after Soy-consumption supporting the postprandial state as a more sensitive indicator of soy ingestion effects on CVD risk factors compared with the fasting lipid profile. Furthermore, the absence of isoflavones in soy protein may have deleterious consequences on purported cardio-protective effects.

  4. Analysis of plasmid profiling as a method for rapid differentiation of food-associated Clostridium perfringens strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M K; Iwanejko, L A; Longden, M S

    1989-09-01

    Plasmid analysis of over 120 strains of Clostridium perfringens, isolated during food-poisoning incidents and from animal carcasses and food constituents with no association with food poisoning, showed the potential of plasmid profiling as a means of differentiating epidemiologically related strains. On average 65% of freshly isolated strains contained one or more plasmids which could be used in the analysis. Comparison of profiles of strains from unrelated sources or unrelated strains from the same source showed a particularly wide variety of plasmid profiles. Thus the possibility that epidemiologically-unrelated strains might possess similar profiles appears to be very low in this organism. Analysis of serologically-related strains from the same source revealed similar plasmid profiles in all the plasmid-bearing strains examined. A high proportion (71%) of fresh and well-characterized food-poisoning strains possessed plasmids of 6.2 kb in size (compared with 19% of non-food-poisoning strains). The possible role of these plasmids is discussed, since the structural gene encoding the enterotoxin type A was not present on any of the plasmids in the food-poisoning strains tested.

  5. ASSESSMENT OF BACTERIAL BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCTION THROUGH AXISYMMETRICAL DROP SHAPE-ANALYSIS BY PROFILE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERVEGT, W; VANDERMEI, HC; BUSSCHER, HJ

    Axisymmetric drop shape analysis by profile (ADSA-P) is a technique developed in colloid and surface science to simultaneously determine the contact angle and liquid surface tension from the profile of a droplet resting on a solid surface. In this paper is described how ADSA-P can be employed to

  6. Bacterial profiling of White Plague Disease in a comparative coral species framework.

    KAUST Repository

    Roder, Cornelia; Arif, Chatchanit; Bayer, Till; Aranda, Manuel; Daniels, Camille Arian; Shibl, Ahmed A.; Chavanich, Suchana; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2014-01-01

    agents, hosts and vectors. It is known that compromised health in corals is correlated with shifts in bacterial assemblages colonizing coral mucus and tissue. However, general disease patterns remain, to a large extent, ambiguous as comparative studies

  7. Meta-analysis of Cancer Gene Profiling Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Janine; Winter, Christof; Schroeder, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The simultaneous measurement of thousands of genes gives the opportunity to personalize and improve cancer therapy. In addition, the integration of meta-data such as protein-protein interaction (PPI) information into the analyses helps in the identification and prioritization of genes from these screens. Here, we describe a computational approach that identifies genes prognostic for outcome by combining gene profiling data from any source with a network of known relationships between genes.

  8. Enhanced Phosphoproteomic Profiling Workflow For Growth Factor Signaling Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylvester, Marc; Burbridge, Mike; Leclerc, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Background Our understanding of complex signaling networks is still fragmentary. Isolated processes have been studied extensively but cross-talk is omnipresent and precludes intuitive predictions of signaling outcomes. The need for quantitative data on dynamic systems is apparent especially for our...... understanding of pathological processes. In our study we create and integrate data on phosphorylations that are initiated by several growth factor receptors. We present an approach for quantitative, time-resolved phosphoproteomic profiling that integrates the important contributions by phosphotyrosines. Methods...

  9. Investigative Psychology: Offender Profiling and the Analysis of Criminal Action

    OpenAIRE

    Canter, David V.; Youngs, Donna E.

    2009-01-01

    For many years Offender Profiling has caught the popular imagination, being drawn on by law enforcement throughout the world. But until the development of Investigative Psychology ‘profiling’ was based on little more than the informed personal expertise of experienced detectives. Spearheaded by David Canter and his associates throughout the world the new discipline of Investigative Psychology has emerged out of a quarter century of research and involvement in many actual cases. \\ud This groun...

  10. Analysis of publicly disclosed information in Facebook profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Farahbakhsh, Reza; Han, Xiao; Cuevas, Angel; Crespi, Noel

    2017-01-01

    Facebook, the most popular Online social network is a virtual environment where users share information and are in contact with friends. Apart from many useful aspects, there is a large amount of personal and sensitive information publicly available that is accessible to external entities/users. In this paper we study the public exposure of Facebook profile attributes to understand what type of attributes are considered more sensitive by Facebook users in terms of privacy, and thus are rarely...

  11. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EFFECTS OF SMOKING ON LIPID PROFILE AMONG HEALTHY SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish I

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Coronary artery disease forms a major non-communicable disease in both developed and developing countries. In western countries, older age groups are affected whereas in our country India, it is common among younger age group. Many risk factors have been evaluated. Cigarette smoking contributes for major risk factor for coronary artery disease, atherosclerosis and peripheral vascular disorders. Mechanism of causing coronary artery disease is multifactorial, it has major adverse effects on lipid profile and homocysteine levels which are again risk factors for coronary artery disease. Hence, this study was undertaken to compare the effects of smoking cigarettes/beedis on lipid profile among smokers and non-smokers. MATERIALS AND METHODS It was a case - control study carried out on 50 healthy smokers and 50 healthy age and weight matched non-smokers attending the medicine OPD of Basaveshwara Medical College, Chitradurga from January to April 2017. Subjects in both groups were in the age range of 25-35 yrs., with no history of alcohol abuse, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hepatic impairment, renal disease or history of drug intake which alter the lipid profile. RESULTS The mean serum total cholesterol, serum triglycerides, serum LDL- cholesterol & serum VLDL-cholesterol were significantly higher while antiatherogenic serum HDL cholesterol were significantly lower in smokers when compared with non-smokers and it was statistically significant (p<0.001. CONCLUSION Present study shows a statistically significant relationship between cigarette smoking and increased lipid profile. Thus, chronic smokers are at the significant risk of developing Coronary Heart Disease. So, smokers should be counselled and encouraged to quit smoking and adopt a healthier life style.

  12. Domain-oriented functional analysis based on expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greene Jonathan

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Co-regulation of genes may imply involvement in similar biological processes or related function. Many clusters of co-regulated genes have been identified using microarray experiments. In this study, we examined co-regulated gene families using large-scale cDNA microarray experiments on the human transcriptome. Results We present a simple model, which, for each probe pair, distills expression changes into binary digits and summarizes the expression of multiple members of a gene family as the Family Regulation Ratio. The set of Family Regulation Ratios for each protein family across multiple experiments is called a Family Regulation Profile. We analyzed these Family Regulation Profiles using Pearson Correlation Coefficients and derived a network diagram portraying relationships between the Family Regulation Profiles of gene families that are well represented on the microarrays. Our strategy was cross-validated with two randomly chosen data subsets and was proven to be a reliable approach. Conclusion This work will help us to understand and identify the functional relationships between gene families and the regulatory pathways in which each family is involved. Concepts presented here may be useful for objective clustering of protein functions and deriving a comprehensive protein interaction map. Functional genomic approaches such as this may also be applicable to the elucidation of complex genetic regulatory networks.

  13. Metabolic Profiling of Adiponectin Levels in Adults: Mendelian Randomization Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Maria Carolina; Barros, Aluísio J D; Ferreira, Diana L Santos; Casas, Juan Pablo; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Menon, Usha; Gaunt, Tom R; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Freitas, Deise F; Oliveira, Isabel O; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Fourkala, Evangelia; Lawlor, Debbie A; Hingorani, Aroon D

    2017-12-01

    Adiponectin, a circulating adipocyte-derived protein, has insulin-sensitizing, anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic, and cardiomyocyte-protective properties in animal models. However, the systemic effects of adiponectin in humans are unknown. Our aims were to define the metabolic profile associated with higher blood adiponectin concentration and investigate whether variation in adiponectin concentration affects the systemic metabolic profile. We applied multivariable regression in ≤5909 adults and Mendelian randomization (using cis -acting genetic variants in the vicinity of the adiponectin gene as instrumental variables) for analyzing the causal effect of adiponectin in the metabolic profile of ≤37 545 adults. Participants were largely European from 6 longitudinal studies and 1 genome-wide association consortium. In the multivariable regression analyses, higher circulating adiponectin was associated with higher high-density lipoprotein lipids and lower very-low-density lipoprotein lipids, glucose levels, branched-chain amino acids, and inflammatory markers. However, these findings were not supported by Mendelian randomization analyses for most metabolites. Findings were consistent between sexes and after excluding high-risk groups (defined by age and occurrence of previous cardiovascular event) and 1 study with admixed population. Our findings indicate that blood adiponectin concentration is more likely to be an epiphenomenon in the context of metabolic disease than a key determinant. © 2017 The Authors.

  14. MODELLING AND VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF A ROAD PROFILE MEASURING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. B. Patel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available During a vehicle development program, load data representing severe customer usage is required. The dilemma faced by a design engineer during the design process is that during the initial stage, only predicted loads estimated from historical targets are available, whereas the actual loads are available only at the fag end of the process. At the same time, changes required, if any, are easier and inexpensive during the initial stages of the design process whereas they are extremely costly in the latter stages of the process. The use of road profiles and vehicle models to predict the load acting on the whole vehicle is currently being researched. This work hinges on the ability to accurately measure road profiles. The objective of the work is to develop an algorithm, using MATLAB Simulink software, to convert the input signals into measured road profile. The algorithm is checked by the MATLAB Simulink 4 degrees of freedom half car model. To make the whole Simulink model more realistic, accelerometer and laser sensor properties are introduced. The present work contains the simulation of the mentioned algorithm with a half car model and studies the results in distance, time, and the frequency domain.

  15. Expression profiling of human renal carcinomas with functional taxonomic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Background Molecular characterization has contributed to the understanding of the inception, progression, treatment and prognosis of cancer. Nucleic acid array-based technologies extend molecular characterization of tumors to thousands of gene products. To effectively discriminate between tumor sub-types, reliable laboratory techniques and analytic methods are required. Results We derived mRNA expression profiles from 21 human tissue samples (eight normal kidneys and 13 kidney tumors) and two pooled samples using the Affymetrix GeneChip platform. A panel of ten clustering algorithms combined with four data pre-processing methods identified a consensus cluster dendrogram in 18 of 40 analyses and of these 16 used a logarithmic transformation. Within the consensus dendrogram the expression profiles of the samples grouped according to tissue type; clear cell and chromophobe carcinomas displayed distinctly different gene expression patterns. By using a rigorous statistical selection based method we identified 355 genes that showed significant (p Matrix Organization and Adhesion. Conclusions Affymetrix GeneChip profiling differentiated clear cell and chromophobe carcinomas from one another and from normal kidney cortex. Clustering methods that used logarithmic transformation of data sets produced dendrograms consistent with the sample biology. Functional taxonomy provided a practical approach to the interpretation of gene expression data. PMID:12356337

  16. Expression profiling of human renal carcinomas with functional taxonomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madore Steven J

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular characterization has contributed to the understanding of the inception, progression, treatment and prognosis of cancer. Nucleic acid array-based technologies extend molecular characterization of tumors to thousands of gene products. To effectively discriminate between tumor sub-types, reliable laboratory techniques and analytic methods are required. Results We derived mRNA expression profiles from 21 human tissue samples (eight normal kidneys and 13 kidney tumors and two pooled samples using the Affymetrix GeneChip platform. A panel of ten clustering algorithms combined with four data pre-processing methods identified a consensus cluster dendrogram in 18 of 40 analyses and of these 16 used a logarithmic transformation. Within the consensus dendrogram the expression profiles of the samples grouped according to tissue type; clear cell and chromophobe carcinomas displayed distinctly different gene expression patterns. By using a rigorous statistical selection based method we identified 355 genes that showed significant (p Conclusions Affymetrix GeneChip profiling differentiated clear cell and chromophobe carcinomas from one another and from normal kidney cortex. Clustering methods that used logarithmic transformation of data sets produced dendrograms consistent with the sample biology. Functional taxonomy provided a practical approach to the interpretation of gene expression data.

  17. Comparing Visual and Statistical Analysis of Multiple Baseline Design Graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Katie; Dickenson, Tammiee S; Miller, Bridget; McGrath, Kathleen V

    2018-04-01

    A growing number of statistical analyses are being developed for single-case research. One important factor in evaluating these methods is the extent to which each corresponds to visual analysis. Few studies have compared statistical and visual analysis, and information about more recently developed statistics is scarce. Therefore, our purpose was to evaluate the agreement between visual analysis and four statistical analyses: improvement rate difference (IRD); Tau-U; Hedges, Pustejovsky, Shadish (HPS) effect size; and between-case standardized mean difference (BC-SMD). Results indicate that IRD and BC-SMD had the strongest overall agreement with visual analysis. Although Tau-U had strong agreement with visual analysis on raw values, it had poorer agreement when those values were dichotomized to represent the presence or absence of a functional relation. Overall, visual analysis appeared to be more conservative than statistical analysis, but further research is needed to evaluate the nature of these disagreements.

  18. Controlled meteorological (CMET free balloon profiling of the Arctic atmospheric boundary layer around Spitsbergen compared to ERA-Interim and Arctic System Reanalyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Roberts

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Observations from CMET (Controlled Meteorological balloons are analysed to provide insights into tropospheric meteorological conditions (temperature, humidity, wind around Svalbard, European High Arctic. Five Controlled Meteorological (CMET balloons were launched from Ny-Ålesund in Svalbard (Spitsbergen over 5–12 May 2011 and measured vertical atmospheric profiles over coastal areas to both the east and west. One notable CMET flight achieved a suite of 18 continuous soundings that probed the Arctic marine boundary layer (ABL over a period of more than 10 h. Profiles from two CMET flights are compared to model output from ECMWF Era-Interim reanalysis (ERA-I and to a high-resolution (15 km Arctic System Reanalysis (ASR product. To the east of Svalbard over sea ice, the CMET observed a stable ABL profile with a temperature inversion that was reproduced by ASR but not captured by ERA-I. In a coastal ice-free region to the west of Svalbard, the CMET observed a stable ABL with strong wind shear. The CMET profiles document increases in ABL temperature and humidity that are broadly reproduced by both ASR and ERA-I. The ASR finds a more stably stratified ABL than observed but captured the wind shear in contrast to ERA-I. Detailed analysis of the coastal CMET-automated soundings identifies small-scale temperature and humidity variations with a low-level flow and provides an estimate of local wind fields. We demonstrate that CMET balloons are a valuable approach for profiling the free atmosphere and boundary layer in remote regions such as the Arctic, where few other in situ observations are available for model validation.

  19. A chemical profiling strategy for semi-quantitative analysis of flavonoids in Ginkgo extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Wang, An-Qi; Li, Xue-Jing; Fan, Xue; Yin, Shan-Shan; Lan, Ke

    2016-05-10

    Flavonoids analysis in herbal products is challenged by their vast chemical diversity. This work aimed to develop a chemical profiling strategy for the semi-quantification of flavonoids using extracts of Ginkgo biloba L. (EGB) as an example. The strategy was based on the principle that flavonoids in EGB have an almost equivalent molecular absorption coefficient at a fixed wavelength. As a result, the molecular-contents of flavonoids were able to be semi-quantitatively determined by the molecular-concentration calibration curves of common standards and recalculated as the mass-contents with the characterized molecular weight (MW). Twenty batches of EGB were subjected to HPLC-UV/DAD/MS fingerprinting analysis to test the feasibility and reliability of this strategy. The flavonoid peaks were distinguished from the other peaks with principle component analysis and Pearson correlation analysis of the normalized UV spectrometric dataset. Each flavonoid peak was subsequently tentatively identified by the MS data to ascertain their MW. It was highlighted that the flavonoids absorption at Band-II (240-280 nm) was more suitable for the semi-quantification purpose because of the less variation compared to that at Band-I (300-380 nm). The semi-quantification was therefore conducted at 254 nm. Beyond the qualitative comparison results acquired by common chemical profiling techniques, the semi-quantitative approach presented the detailed compositional information of flavonoids in EGB and demonstrated how the adulteration of one batch was achieved. The developed strategy was believed to be useful for the advanced analysis of herbal extracts with a high flavonoid content without laborious identification and isolation of individual components. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of claustral neurons by comparative gene expression profiling and dye-injection analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiya eWatakabe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The identity of the claustrum as a part of cerebral cortex, and in particular of the adjacent insular cortex, has been investigated by connectivity features and patterns of gene expression. In the present paper, we mapped the cortical and claustral expression of several cortical genes in rodent and macaque monkey brains (nurr1, latexin, cux2, and netrinG2 to further assess shared features between cortex and claustrum. In mice, these genes were densely expressed in the claustrum, but very sparsely in the cortex and not present in the striatum. To test whether the cortical vs. claustral cell types can be distinguished by co-expression of these genes, we performed a panel of double ISH in mouse and macaque brain. NetrinG2 and nurr1 genes were co-expressed across entire cortex and claustrum, but cux2 and nurr1 were co-expressed only in the insular cortex and claustrum. Latexin was expressed, in the macaque, only in the claustrum. The nurr1+ claustral neurons expressed VGluT1, a marker for cortical glutamatergic cells and send cortical projections. Taken together, our data suggest a partial commonality between claustral neurons and a subtype of cortical neurons in the monkey brain. Moreover, in the embryonic (E110 macaque brain, many nurr1+ neurons were scattered in the white matter between the claustrum and the insular cortex, possibly representing their migratory history. In a second set of experiments, we injected Lucifer Yellow intracellularly in mouse and rat slices to investigate whether dendrites of insular and claustral neurons can cross the border of the two brain regions. Dendrites of claustral neurons did not invade the overlying insular territory. In summary, gene expression profile of the claustrum is similar to that of the neocortex, in both rodent and macaque brains, but with modifications in density of expression and cellular co-localization of specific genes.

  1. Differential clinical profile of candesartan compared to other angiotensin receptor blockers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimlichman R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Relu Cernes1,2, Margarita Mashavi1,3, Reuven Zimlichman1,31The Brunner Institute for Cardiovascular Research, Wolfson Medical Center and Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; 2Department of Nephrology, Wolfson Medical Center, Holon, Israel; 3Department of Medicine, Wolfson Medical Center, Holon, IsraelAbstract: The advantages of blood pressure (BP control on the risks of heart failure and stroke are well established. The renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in volume homeostasis and BP regulation and is a target for several groups of antihypertensive drugs. Angiotensin II receptor blockers represent a major class of antihypertensive compounds. Candesartan cilexetil is an angiotensin II type 1 (AT[1] receptor antagonist (angiotensin receptor blocker [ARB] that inhibits the actions of angiotensin II on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Oral candesartan 8–32 mg once daily is recommended for the treatment of adult patients with hypertension. Clinical trials have demonstrated that candesartan cilexetil is an effective agent in reducing the risk of cardiovascular mortality, stroke, heart failure, arterial stiffness, renal failure, retinopathy, and migraine in different populations of adult patients including patients with coexisting type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, or kidney impairment. Clinical evidence confirmed that candesartan cilexetil provides better antihypertensive efficacy than losartan and is at least as effective as telmisartan and valsartan. Candesartan cilexetil, one of the current market leaders in BP treatment, is a highly selective compound with high potency, a long duration of action, and a tolerability profile similar to placebo. The most important and recent data from clinical trials regarding candesartan cilexetil will be reviewed in this article.Keywords: angiotensin receptor blockers, candesartan, candesartan cilexetil, clinical trials, efficacy studies, safety, blood pressure

  2. Comparative transcriptome profiling of two Tibetan wild barley genotypes in responses to low potassium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbin Zeng

    Full Text Available Potassium (K deficiency is one of the major factors affecting crop growth and productivity. Development of low-K tolerant crops is an effective approach to solve the nutritional deficiency in agricultural production. Tibetan annual wild barley is rich in genetic diversity and can grow normally under poor soils, including low-K supply. However, the molecular mechanism about low K tolerance is still poorly understood. In this study, Illumina RNA-Sequencing was performed using two Tibetan wild barley genotypes differing in low K tolerance (XZ153, tolerant and XZ141, sensitive, to determine the genotypic difference in transcriptome profiling. We identified a total of 692 differentially expressed genes (DEGs in two genotypes at 6 h and 48 h after low-K treatment, including transcription factors, transporters and kinases, oxidative stress and hormone signaling related genes. Meanwhile, 294 low-K tolerant associated DEGs were assigned to transporter and antioxidant activities, stimulus response, and other gene ontology (GO, which were mainly involved in starch and sucrose metabolism, lipid metabolism and ethylene biosynthesis. Finally, a hypothetical model of low-K tolerance mechanism in XZ153 was presented. It may be concluded that wild barley accession XZ153 has a higher capability of K absorption and use efficiency than XZ141 under low K stress. A rapid response to low K stress in XZ153 is attributed to its more K uptake and accumulation in plants, resulting in higher low K tolerance. The ethylene response pathway may account for the genotypic difference in low-K tolerance.

  3. Asthmatics exhibit altered oxylipin profiles compared to healthy individuals after subway air exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna L Lundström

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Air pollutants such as particulate matter (PM and oxidants are important factors in causing exacerbations in asthmatics, and the source and composition of pollutants greatly affects pathological implications.This randomized crossover study investigated responses of the respiratory system to Stockholm subway air in asthmatics and healthy individuals. Eicosanoids and other oxylipins were quantified in the distal lung to provide a measure of shifts in lipid mediators in association with exposure to subway air relative to ambient air.Sixty-four oxylipins representing the cyclooxygenase (COX, lipoxygenase (LOX and cytochrome P450 (CYP metabolic pathways were screened using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL-fluid. Validations through immunocytochemistry staining of BAL-cells were performed for 15-LOX-1, COX-1, COX-2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ. Multivariate statistics were employed to interrogate acquired oxylipin and immunocytochemistry data in combination with patient clinical information.Asthmatics and healthy individuals exhibited divergent oxylipin profiles following exposure to ambient and subway air. Significant changes were observed in 8 metabolites of linoleic- and α-linolenic acid synthesized via the 15-LOX pathway, and of the COX product prostaglandin E(2 (PGE(2. Oxylipin levels were increased in healthy individuals following exposure to subway air, whereas asthmatics evidenced decreases or no change.Several of the altered oxylipins have known or suspected bronchoprotective or anti-inflammatory effects, suggesting a possible reduced anti-inflammatory response in asthmatics following exposure to subway air. These observations may have ramifications for sensitive subpopulations in urban areas.

  4. Asthmatics exhibit altered oxylipin profiles compared to healthy individuals after subway air exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Susanna L; Levänen, Bettina; Nording, Malin; Klepczynska-Nyström, Anna; Sköld, Magnus; Haeggström, Jesper Z; Grunewald, Johan; Svartengren, Magnus; Hammock, Bruce D; Larsson, Britt-Marie; Eklund, Anders; Wheelock, Åsa M; Wheelock, Craig E

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Air pollutants such as particulate matter (PM) and oxidants are important factors in causing exacerbations in asthmatics, and the source and composition of pollutants greatly affects pathological implications. This randomized crossover study investigated responses of the respiratory system to Stockholm subway air in asthmatics and healthy individuals. Eicosanoids and other oxylipins were quantified in the distal lung to provide a measure of shifts in lipid mediators in association with exposure to subway air relative to ambient air. Sixty-four oxylipins representing the cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolic pathways were screened using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)-fluid. Validations through immunocytochemistry staining of BAL-cells were performed for 15-LOX-1, COX-1, COX-2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Multivariate statistics were employed to interrogate acquired oxylipin and immunocytochemistry data in combination with patient clinical information. Asthmatics and healthy individuals exhibited divergent oxylipin profiles following exposure to ambient and subway air. Significant changes were observed in 8 metabolites of linoleic- and α-linolenic acid synthesized via the 15-LOX pathway, and of the COX product prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). Oxylipin levels were increased in healthy individuals following exposure to subway air, whereas asthmatics evidenced decreases or no change. Several of the altered oxylipins have known or suspected bronchoprotective or anti-inflammatory effects, suggesting a possible reduced anti-inflammatory response in asthmatics following exposure to subway air. These observations may have ramifications for sensitive subpopulations in urban areas.

  5. Comparing Profile of Temperament and Character Dimensions in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Mood Disorder and Control Group in the Iranian Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahram hajirezaei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to compare the profile of Temperament and Character dimensions in patients with major depressive disorder and bipolar mood disorder and control group.Methods: In this causal-comparative study the population consisted of two clinical groups (major depressive disorder and bipolar mood disorder and a non-clinical group. The sample was 193 subjects (77 patients with major depressive disorder, 86 patients with bipolar mood disorder, and 30 normal people with an age range of 18-65 years and the mean age of 40.1. They were selected from Roozbeh psychiatric hospital using available sampling method. Tools used in this research included Temperament and Character Inventory-140 and General Health Questionnaire-28. Collected data were analyzed by statistical methods of independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences-22 software.Result: The results of comparing the groups showed that there was a significant difference among groups in dimensions of Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Persistence, Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness (P <0.05. The results showed that only in the Novelty Seeking dimension, the mean was different in males and females (P <0.05.Conclusion: In general, our results showed that patients with major depressive disorder and bipolar mood disorder have different personality profile in some dimensions of Temperament and Character compared with control group.

  6. Growth curve analysis for plasma profiles using smoothing splines. Final report, January 1993--January 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imre, K.

    1995-07-01

    In this project, we parameterize the shape and magnitude of the temperature and density profiles on JET and the temperature profiles on TFTR. The key control variables for the profiles were tabulated and the response functions were estimated. A sophisticated statistical analysis code was developed to fit the plasma profiles. Our analysis indicate that the JET density shape depends primarily on bar n/B t for Ohmic heating, bar n for L-mode and I p for H-mode. The temperature profiles for JET are mainly determined by q 95 for the case of Ohmic heating, and by B t and P/bar n for the L-mode. For the H-mode the shape depends on the type of auxiliary heating, Z eff , N bar n, q 95 , and P

  7. Genome-wide comparative analysis of four Indian Drosophila species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sujata; Khanna, Radhika

    2017-12-01

    Comparative analysis of multiple genomes of closely or distantly related Drosophila species undoubtedly creates excitement among evolutionary biologists in exploring the genomic changes with an ecology and evolutionary perspective. We present herewith the de novo assembled whole genome sequences of four Drosophila species, D. bipectinata, D. takahashii, D. biarmipes and D. nasuta of Indian origin using Next Generation Sequencing technology on an Illumina platform along with their detailed assembly statistics. The comparative genomics analysis, e.g. gene predictions and annotations, functional and orthogroup analysis of coding sequences and genome wide SNP distribution were performed. The whole genome of Zaprionus indianus of Indian origin published earlier by us and the genome sequences of previously sequenced 12 Drosophila species available in the NCBI database were included in the analysis. The present work is a part of our ongoing genomics project of Indian Drosophila species.

  8. Comparative analysis of hospital energy use: pacific northwest and scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burpee, Heather; McDade, Erin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to establish the potential for significant energy reduction in hospitals in the United States by providing evidence of Scandinavian operational precedents with high Interior Environmental Quality (IEQ) and substantially lower energy profiles than comparable U.S. facilities. These facilities set important precedents for design teams seeking operational examples for achieving aggressive energy and interior environmental quality goals. This examination of operational hospitals is intended to offer hospital owners, designers, and building managers a strong case and concrete framework for strategies to achieve exceptionally high performing buildings. Energy efficient hospitals have the potential to significantly impact the U.S.'s overall energy profile, and key stakeholders in the hospital industry need specific, operationally grounded precedents in order to successfully implement informed energy reduction strategies. This study is an outgrowth of previous research evaluating high quality, low energy hospitals that serve as examples for new high performance hospital design, construction, and operation. Through extensive interviews, numerous site visits, the development of case studies, and data collection, this team has established thorough qualitative and quantitative analyses of several contemporary hospitals in Scandinavia and the Pacific Northwest. Many Scandinavian hospitals demonstrate a low energy profile, and when analyzed in comparison with U.S. hospitals, such Scandinavian precedents help define the framework required to make significant changes in the U.S. hospital building industry. Eight hospitals, four Scandinavian and four Pacific Northwest, were quantitatively compared using the Environmental Protection Agency's Portfolio Manager, allowing researchers to answer specific questions about the impact of energy source and architectural and mechanical strategies on energy efficiency in operational hospitals. Specific architectural, mechanical

  9. Comparative Analysis of the Main Business Intelligence Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra RUSANEANU

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, Business Intelligence solutions are the main tools for analyzing and monitoring the company’s performance at any organizational level. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the most powerful Business Intelligence solutions using a set of technical features such as infrastructure of the platform, development facilities, complex analysis tools, interactive dashboards and scorecards, mobile integration and complex implementation of performance management methodologies.

  10. A comparative study of lipid profile and autonomic functions in vegetarian and non-vegetarian postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunima Chaudhuri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of dyslipedaemia, autonomic dysfunction leading to cardiovascular diseases, increases with menopause and an ageing population. Autonomic dysfunction as measured by lower heart rate variability is an established risk factor for cardiac death. Diet and nutrition have been extensively investigated as risk factors for major cardiovascular diseases and are also linked to other cardiovascular risk factors. Objectives: To compare lipid profile and autonomic functions of postmenopausal women on vegetarian and non- vegetarian diet. Materials and Methods: 120 Postmenopausal women (menopausal duration and age-matched without any gross systemic disease from an Industrial population were selected. Sixty women were on vegetarian diet and 60 on non-vegetarian diet. BMI and waist/hip ratios were calculated, lipid profile was analyzed, and autonomic function tests were carried out. A comparison was done between the two groups using Students t test. Pearson′s correlation coefficient was calculated between the independent variable (lipid profile parameters and the dependent variables (deep breath test, valsalva ratio, 30:15 ratio, OTT, IHG, CPT to understand the effect of lipid profile on autonomic control of heart. Results : Significant increases in total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, cholesterol/HDL ratio were noticed in women on non-vegetarian diet. Results of autonomic function tests, i.e. valsalva ratio, deep breath test, 30: 15R-R intervals ratio, isometric hand grip test, cold pressor test, and orthostatic tolerance test were significantly worsened in postmenopausal women on non-vegetarian diet. Conclusion: Dietary factors may be an important cause of alteration of lipid metabolism. Increased cholesterol decreases heart rate variability and increased LDL cholesterol decreases baroreceptor sensitivity thereby worsening autonomic functions in postmenopausal women.

  11. Comorbidity profiles of psoriasis in Taiwan: A latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Yi; Hu, Hsiao-Yun; Li, Chung-Pin; Chou, Yiing-Jeng; Chang, Yun-Ting

    2018-01-01

    Psoriasis is associated with many comorbidities. An understanding of these comorbidity patterns can help foster better care of patients with psoriasis. To identify the heterogeneity of psoriasis comorbidities using latent class analysis (LCA). LCA was used to empirically identify psoriasis comorbidity patterns in a nationwide sample of 110,729 incident cases of psoriasis (2002-2012) from the National Health Insurance database in Taiwan. The mean age of incident psoriasis was 46.1 years. Hypertension (28.8%), dyslipidemia (18.9%), and chronic liver disease/cirrhosis/hepatitis (18.1%) were the top three comorbidities in patients with psoriasis. LCA identified four distinct comorbidity classes among these patients, including 9.9% of patients in the "multi-comorbidity" class, 17.9% in the "metabolic syndrome" class, 11.3% in the "hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)" class, and 60.9% in the "relatively healthy" class. Psoriatic arthritis was evenly distributed among each class. Relative to membership in the "relative healthy" class, an increase of one year of age had a higher probability of membership in the "multi-comorbidity" (odds ratio [OR], 1.25), "metabolic syndrome" (OR, 1.11), or "hypertension and COPD" (OR, 1.34) classes. Relative to membership in the "relative healthy" class, compared to women, men had a higher probability of membership in the "multi-comorbidity" (OR, 1.39), "metabolic syndrome" (OR, 1.77), or "hypertension and COPD" (OR, 1.22) classes. We observed four distinct classes of psoriasis comorbidities, including the "multi-comorbidity", "metabolic syndrome", "hypertension and COPD", and "relatively healthy" classes, as well as the clustering of liver diseases with metabolic syndrome and clustering of COPD with hypertension.

  12. A comparative study of three different gene expression analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jae Young; Han, Hyung Soo; Lee, Seon Duk; Lee, Hanna; Lee, Dong Eun; Ahn, Jae Yun; Ryoo, Hyun Wook; Seo, Kang Suk; Kim, Jong Kun

    2017-12-04

    TNF-α regulates immune cells and acts as an endogenous pyrogen. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is one of the most commonly used methods for gene expression analysis. Among the alternatives to PCR, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) shows good potential in terms of specificity and sensitivity. However, few studies have compared RT-PCR and LAMP for human gene expression analysis. Therefore, in the present study, we compared one-step RT-PCR, two-step RT-LAMP and one-step RT-LAMP for human gene expression analysis. We compared three gene expression analysis methods using the human TNF-α gene as a biomarker from peripheral blood cells. Total RNA from the three selected febrile patients were subjected to the three different methods of gene expression analysis. In the comparison of three gene expression analysis methods, the detection limit of both one-step RT-PCR and one-step RT-LAMP were the same, while that of two-step RT-LAMP was inferior. One-step RT-LAMP takes less time, and the experimental result is easy to determine. One-step RT-LAMP is a potentially useful and complementary tool that is fast and reasonably sensitive. In addition, one-step RT-LAMP could be useful in environments lacking specialized equipment or expertise.

  13. CloVR-Comparative: automated, cloud-enabled comparative microbial genome sequence analysis pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Sonia; Arze, Cesar; Adkins, Ricky S; Crabtree, Jonathan; Riley, David; Vangala, Mahesh; Galens, Kevin; Fraser, Claire M; Tettelin, Hervé; White, Owen; Angiuoli, Samuel V; Mahurkar, Anup; Fricke, W Florian

    2017-04-27

    The benefit of increasing genomic sequence data to the scientific community depends on easy-to-use, scalable bioinformatics support. CloVR-Comparative combines commonly used bioinformatics tools into an intuitive, automated, and cloud-enabled analysis pipeline for comparative microbial genomics. CloVR-Comparative runs on annotated complete or draft genome sequences that are uploaded by the user or selected via a taxonomic tree-based user interface and downloaded from NCBI. CloVR-Comparative runs reference-free multiple whole-genome alignments to determine unique, shared and core coding sequences (CDSs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Output includes short summary reports and detailed text-based results files, graphical visualizations (phylogenetic trees, circular figures), and a database file linked to the Sybil comparative genome browser. Data up- and download, pipeline configuration and monitoring, and access to Sybil are managed through CloVR-Comparative web interface. CloVR-Comparative and Sybil are distributed as part of the CloVR virtual appliance, which runs on local computers or the Amazon EC2 cloud. Representative datasets (e.g. 40 draft and complete Escherichia coli genomes) are processed in genomics projects, while eliminating the need for on-site computational resources and expertise.

  14. Genome-Wide Characterization of Major Intrinsic Proteins in Four Grass Plants and Their Non-Aqua Transport Selectivity Profiles with Comparative Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abul Kalam Azad

    Full Text Available Major intrinsic proteins (MIPs, commonly known as aquaporins, transport not only water in plants but also other substrates of physiological significance and heavy metals. In most of the higher plants, MIPs are divided into five subfamilies (PIPs, TIPs, NIPs, SIPs and XIPs. Herein, we identified 68, 42, 38 and 28 full-length MIPs, respectively in the genomes of four monocot grass plants, specifically Panicum virgatum, Setaria italica, Sorghum bicolor and Brachypodium distachyon. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the grass plants had only four MIP subfamilies including PIPs, TIPs, NIPs and SIPs without XIPs. Based on structural analysis of the homology models and comparing the primary selectivity-related motifs [two NPA regions, aromatic/arginine (ar/R selectivity filter and Froger's positions (FPs] of all plant MIPs that have been experimentally proven to transport non-aqua substrates, we predicted the transport profiles of all MIPs in the four grass plants and also in eight other plants. Groups of MIP subfamilies based on ar/R selectivity filter and FPs were linked to the non-aqua transport profiles. We further deciphered the substrate selectivity profiles of the MIPs in the four grass plants and compared them with their counterparts in rice, maize, soybean, poplar, cotton, Arabidopsis thaliana, Physcomitrella patens and Selaginella moellendorffii. In addition to two NPA regions, ar/R filter and FPs, certain residues, especially in loops B and C, contribute to the functional distinctiveness of MIP groups. Expression analysis of transcripts in different organs indicated that non-aqua transport was related to expression of MIPs since most of the unexpressed MIPs were not predicted to facilitate the transport of non-aqua molecules. Among all MIPs in every plant, TIP (BdTIP1;1, SiTIP1;2, SbTIP2;1 and PvTIP1;2 had the overall highest mean expression. Our study generates significant information for understanding the diversity, evolution, non

  15. Diclofenac topical solution compared with oral diclofenac: a pooled safety analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roth SH

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sanford H Roth1, Philip Fuller21Arizona Research and Education, Arthritis Laboratory, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA; 2Medical Affairs, Covidien, Hazelwood, MO, USABackground: Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID formulations, which produce less systemic exposure compared with oral formulations, are an option for the management of osteoarthritis (OA. However, the overall safety and efficacy of these agents compared with oral or systemic therapy remains controversial.Methods: Two 12-week, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, controlled, multicenter studies compared the safety and efficacy profiles of diclofenac topical solution (TDiclo with oral diclofenac (ODiclo. Each study independently showed that TDiclo had similar efficacy to ODiclo. To compare the safety profiles of TDiclo and ODiclo, a pooled safety analysis was performed for 927 total patients who had radiologically confirmed symptomatic OA of the knee. This pooled analysis included patients treated with TDiclo, containing 45.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, and those treated with ODiclo. Safety assessments included monitoring of adverse events (AEs, recording of vital signs, dermatologic evaluation of the study knee, and clinical laboratory evaluation.Results: AEs occurred in 312 (67.1% patients using TDiclo versus 298 (64.5% of those taking ODiclo. The most common AE with TDiclo was dry skin at the application site (24.1% vs 1.9% with ODiclo; P < 0.0001. Fewer gastrointestinal (25.4% vs 39.0%; P < 0.0001 and cardiovascular (1.5% vs 3.5%; P = 0.055 AEs occurred with TDiclo compared with ODiclo. ODiclo was associated with significantly greater increases in liver enzymes and creatinine, and greater decreases in creatinine clearance and hemoglobin (P < 0.001 for all.Conclusions: These findings suggest that TDiclo represents a useful alternative to oral NSAID therapy in the management of OA, with a more favorable safety profile.Keywords: diclofenac, gastropathy

  16. A comparative biochemical profile of some cyprinids fish in Dukan Lake, Kurdistan-Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeez, Darya Mohammed; Mohammed, Sarbaz Ibrahim

    2017-09-01

    The present study was carried out to demonstrate the baseline values for some serum biochemical parameters for 64 adult freshwater fish including seven species belong to family Cyprinidae, have been collected in Dukan Lake, Kurdistan region-Iraq. Fishes were weighed, measured, and collect blood for blood chemistry. Serum biochemical analyses were determined using (Cobas C 311) full automatic chemical analyzer. The result of comparative study of serum biochemical parameters of all Cyprinidae species showed that serum glucose was (459.10±106.99 mg/dl) and direct bilirubin was (0.056±0.021mg/dl) in Barbus grypus, serum total protein (3.511± 0.0484gm/dl) and HDL (133.11±0.4231mg/dl) in Cyprinus carpio, serum cholesterol (338.33±43.923 mg/dl) and LDL (86.11±11.871mg/dl) in Carassius carassius, serum triglyceride (420.0±28.8mg/dl) and ALK (113.93±20.65U/L) in Chondrostoma regium, serum AST and serum ALT in Capoeta trutta, were significantly higher when compared to other species. In a conclusion there is variation in biochemical values among species of same family.

  17. A new method to identify the foot of continental slope based on an integrated profile analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ziyin; Li, Jiabiao; Li, Shoujun; Shang, Jihong; Jin, Xiaobin

    2017-06-01

    A new method is proposed to identify automatically the foot of the continental slope (FOS) based on the integrated analysis of topographic profiles. Based on the extremum points of the second derivative and the Douglas-Peucker algorithm, it simplifies the topographic profiles, then calculates the second derivative of the original profiles and the D-P profiles. Seven steps are proposed to simplify the original profiles. Meanwhile, multiple identification methods are proposed to determine the FOS points, including gradient, water depth and second derivative values of data points, as well as the concave and convex, continuity and segmentation of the topographic profiles. This method can comprehensively and intelligently analyze the topographic profiles and their derived slopes, second derivatives and D-P profiles, based on which, it is capable to analyze the essential properties of every single data point in the profile. Furthermore, it is proposed to remove the concave points of the curve and in addition, to implement six FOS judgment criteria.

  18. Comparative proteomics and protein profile related to phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in germinated Oryza sativa 'KDML105' and Thai brown rice 'Mali Daeng' for better nutritional value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksup, Sarunyaporn; Pongpakpian, Sarintip; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Cha-Um, Suriyan; Supaibulwatana, Kanyaratt

    2018-01-01

    Brown rice (BR) and germinated brown rice (GBR) are considered as prime sources of carbohydrate and bioactive compounds for more than half of the populations worldwide. Several studies have reported on the proteomics of BR and GBR; however, the proteomic profiles related to the synthesis of bioactive compounds are less well documented. In the present study, BR and GBR were used in a comparative analysis of the proteomic and bioactive compound profiles for two famous Thai rice varieties: Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML) and Mali Daeng (MD). The proteomes of KDML and MD revealed differences in the expression patterns of proteins after germination. Total phenolic compound content, anthocyanin contents and antioxidant activity of red rice MD was approximately 2.6-, 2.2- and 9.2-fold higher, respectively, compared to that of the white rice KDML. Moreover, GBR of MD showed higher total anthocyanin content and greater antioxidant activity, which is consistent with the increase expression of several proteins involved in the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and protection against oxidative stress. Red rice MD exhibits higher nutrient values compared to white rice KDML and the appropriate germination of brown rice could represent a method for improving health-related benefits. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Indian Ocean surface winds from NCMRWF analysis as compared

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The quality of the surface wind analysis at the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (NCMRWF), New Delhi over the tropical Indian Ocean and its improvement in 2001 are examined by comparing it with in situ buoy measurements and satellite derived surface winds from NASA QuikSCAT satellite (QSCT) ...

  20. Comparative analysis of solid waste management in 20 cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, D.C.; Rodic-Wiersma, L.; Scheinberg, A.; Velis, C.A.; Alabaster, G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the ‘lens’ of integrated and sustainable waste management (ISWM) to analyse the new data set compiled on 20 cities in six continents for the UN-Habitat flagship publication Solid Waste Management in the World’s Cities. The comparative analysis looks first at waste generation rates

  1. A comparative analysis of the perception and understanding of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative analysis of the perception and understanding of physical education and school sport among South African children aged 6-15 years. ... specifically with regard to 'feeling' about PE and SS, 'values' (importance) of PE and SS, 'comparison' of PE and SS with other school subjects and 'self-rating' on PE and SS.

  2. COGNAT: a web server for comparative analysis of genomic neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchuk, Olesya I; Konovalov, Kirill A; Perekhvatov, Vadim V; Skulachev, Konstantin V; Dibrova, Daria V; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y

    2017-11-22

    In prokaryotic genomes, functionally coupled genes can be organized in conserved gene clusters enabling their coordinated regulation. Such clusters could contain one or several operons, which are groups of co-transcribed genes. Those genes that evolved from a common ancestral gene by speciation (i.e. orthologs) are expected to have similar genomic neighborhoods in different organisms, whereas those copies of the gene that are responsible for dissimilar functions (i.e. paralogs) could be found in dissimilar genomic contexts. Comparative analysis of genomic neighborhoods facilitates the prediction of co-regulated genes and helps to discern different functions in large protein families. We intended, building on the attribution of gene sequences to the clusters of orthologous groups of proteins (COGs), to provide a method for visualization and comparative analysis of genomic neighborhoods of evolutionary related genes, as well as a respective web server. Here we introduce the COmparative Gene Neighborhoods Analysis Tool (COGNAT), a web server for comparative analysis of genomic neighborhoods. The tool is based on the COG database, as well as the Pfam protein families database. As an example, we show the utility of COGNAT in identifying a new type of membrane protein complex that is formed by paralog(s) of one of the membrane subunits of the NADH:quinone oxidoreductase of type 1 (COG1009) and a cytoplasmic protein of unknown function (COG3002). This article was reviewed by Drs. Igor Zhulin, Uri Gophna and Igor Rogozin.

  3. Comparative Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Of Solar Photovoltaic Power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Of Solar Photovoltaic Power System And Diesel Generator System For Remote Residential Application In Nigeria. ... like capital cost, and diesel fuel costs are varied. The results show the photovoltaic system to be more cost-effective at low-power ranges of electrical energy supply.

  4. Initial implementation of a comparative data analysis ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosdocimi, Francisco; Chisham, Brandon; Pontelli, Enrico; Thompson, Julie D; Stoltzfus, Arlin

    2009-07-03

    Comparative analysis is used throughout biology. When entities under comparison (e.g. proteins, genomes, species) are related by descent, evolutionary theory provides a framework that, in principle, allows N-ary comparisons of entities, while controlling for non-independence due to relatedness. Powerful software tools exist for specialized applications of this approach, yet it remains under-utilized in the absence of a unifying informatics infrastructure. A key step in developing such an infrastructure is the definition of a formal ontology. The analysis of use cases and existing formalisms suggests that a significant component of evolutionary analysis involves a core problem of inferring a character history, relying on key concepts: "Operational Taxonomic Units" (OTUs), representing the entities to be compared; "character-state data" representing the observations compared among OTUs; "phylogenetic tree", representing the historical path of evolution among the entities; and "transitions", the inferred evolutionary changes in states of characters that account for observations. Using the Web Ontology Language (OWL), we have defined these and other fundamental concepts in a Comparative Data Analysis Ontology (CDAO). CDAO has been evaluated for its ability to represent token data sets and to support simple forms of reasoning. With further development, CDAO will provide a basis for tools (for semantic transformation, data retrieval, validation, integration, etc.) that make it easier for software developers and biomedical researchers to apply evolutionary methods of inference to diverse types of data, so as to integrate this powerful framework for reasoning into their research.

  5. A comparative analysis of protected area planning and management frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Per Nilsen; Grant Tayler

    1997-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the Recreation Opportunity Spectrum (ROS), Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC), a Process for Visitor Impact Management (VIM), Visitor Experience and Resource Protection (VERP), and the Management Process for Visitor Activities (known as VAMP) decision frameworks examines their origins; methodology; use of factors, indicators, and standards;...

  6. A Comparative Analysis of Method Books for Class Jazz Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kevin E.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare instructional topics and teaching approaches included in selected class method books for jazz pedagogy through content analysis methodology. Frequency counts for the number of pages devoted to each defined instructional content category were compiled and percentages of pages allotted to each…

  7. Comparative analysis of transformed potato microtubers and its non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rapid progress of transgenic biotechnology has significantly promoted the development and production of genetically modified (GM) crops. The aim of this study was to compare some compositional analysis and genetic variation of transformed potato microtubers (Solanum tuberosum L. Desiree) line (which harbor ...

  8. a comparative analysis of first day neonatal mortality between

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Journal Vol. 90 No. 11 November 2013. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF FIRST DAY NEONATAL MORTALITY BETWEEN ADOLESCENTS AND ADULT. FEMALES GIVING BIRTH AT LIGULA HOSPITAL IN MTWARA, SOUTH EASTERN TANZANIA 2008 – 2009. A. Ramaiya, MSc, Ifakara Health ...

  9. A Comparative Analysis of Three Unique Theories of Organizational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Carol C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present three classical theories on organizational learning and conduct a comparative analysis that highlights their strengths, similarities, and differences. Two of the theories -- experiential learning theory and adaptive -- generative learning theory -- represent the thinking of the cognitive perspective, while…

  10. Comparative urine analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and multivariate statistics : Method development, evaluation, and application to proteinuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemperman, Ramses F. J.; Horvatovich, Peter L.; Hoekman, Berend; Reijmers, Theo H.; Muskiet, Frits A. J.; Bischoff, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    We describe a platform for the comparative profiling of urine using reversed-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and multivariate statistical data analysis. Urinary compounds were separated by gradient elution and subsequently detected by electrospray Ion-Trap MS. The lower limit

  11. Comparative profiling of sarcoplasmic phosphoproteins in ovine muscle with different color stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Li, Zheng; Li, Xin; Xin, Jianzeng; Wang, Ying; Li, Guixia; Wu, Liguo; Shen, Qingwu W; Zhang, Dequan

    2018-02-01

    The phosphorylation of sarcoplasmic proteins in postmortem muscles was investigated in relationship to color stability in the present study. Although no difference was observed in the global phosphorylation level of sarcoplasmic proteins, difference was determined in the phosphorylation levels of individual protein bands from muscles with different color stability. Correlation analysis and liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) identification of phosphoproteins showed that most of the color stability-related proteins were glycolytic enzymes. Interestingly, the phosphorylation level of myoglobin was inversely related to meat color stability. As the phosphorylation of myoglobin increased, color stability based on a ∗ value decreased and metMb content increased. In summary, the study revealed that protein phosphorylation might play a role in the regulation of meat color stability probably by regulating glycolysis and the redox stability of myoglobin, which might be affected by the phosphorylation of myoglobin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. MTL genotypes, phenotypic switching, and susceptibility profiles of Candida parapsilosis species group compared to Lodderomyces elongisporus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin Döğen

    Full Text Available Reference isolates of Candida parapsilosis (n = 8, Candida metapsilosis (n = 6, Candida orthopsilosis (n = 7, and Lodderomyces elongisporus (n = 11 were analyzed to gain insight into their pathobiology and virulence mechanisms. Initial evaluation using BBL Chromagar Candida medium misidentified L. elongisporus isolates as C. albicans. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of isolate MTL idiomorphs revealed that all C. parapsilosis isolates were MTLa homozygous and no MTL α1, α2, a1, or a2 gene was detected in L. elongisporus isolates. For C. orthopsilosis, two isolates were MTLa homozygous and five were MTL-heterozygous. Similarly, one C. metapsilosis isolate was MTLα homozygous whereas five were MTL-heterozygous. Isolate phenotypic switching analysis revealed potential phenotypic switching in the MTLα homozygous C. metapsilosis isolate, resulting in concomitant elongated cell formation. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of fluconazole (FLC and FK506, alone or in combination, were determined by checkerboard assay, with data analyzed using the fractional inhibitory concentration index model. Synergistic or additive effects of these compounds were commonly observed in C. parapsilosis and L. elongisporus isolates. No killer activity was observed in the studied isolates, as determined phenotypically. No significant difference in virulence was seen for the four species in a Galleria mellonella model (P > 0.05. In conclusion, our results demonstrated phenotypic switching of C. metapsilosis CBS 2315 and that FLC and FK506 represent a promising drug combination against C. parapsilosis and L. elongisporus. The findings of the present study contribute to our understanding of the biology, diagnosis, and new possible treatments of the C. parapsilosis species group and L. elongisporus.

  13. Repeat profile analysis in an x-ray department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassey, C.E.; Ojo, O.O.; Akpabio, I.

    1991-01-01

    The repeat profile of an x-ray department in a developing country was analysed monthly between July 1989 and June 1990. Results showed an average repeat rate of 3.7% for the period of study. The main causes of film repetition were: equipment fault, 33.9%; radiographer's fault, 27.4%; film fault, 19.3%; processing fault, 10.8% and patient's fault, 8.6%. The average repeat rate in the first 6 months of study reduced by 50% in the last 6 months. This was due to the effectiveness of implementation of corrective actions. The overall repeat rate was found to correlate well with both the equipment fault and radiographer's fault with correlation coefficients, r, of 0.94 and 0.91, respectively. It is expected that a further reduction in the repeat rate will be obtained after the introduction of quality assurance programmes. (author)

  14. Development Of The Computer Code For Comparative Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purwadi, Mohammad Dhandhang

    2001-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis with Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is an importance utilization of a nuclear research reactor, and this should be accelerated and promoted in application and its development to raise the utilization of the reactor. The application of Comparative NAA technique in GA Siwabessy Multi Purpose Reactor (RSG-GAS) needs special (not commercially available yet) soft wares for analyzing the spectrum of multiple elements in the analysis at once. The application carried out using a single spectrum software analyzer, and comparing each result manually. This method really degrades the quality of the analysis significantly. To solve the problem, a computer code was designed and developed for comparative NAA. Spectrum analysis in the code is carried out using a non-linear fitting method. Before the spectrum analyzed, it was passed to the numerical filter which improves the signal to noise ratio to do the deconvolution operation. The software was developed using the G language and named as PASAN-K The testing result of the developed software was benchmark with the IAEA spectrum and well operated with less than 10 % deviation

  15. Direct infusion electrospray ionization–ion mobility–mass spectrometry for comparative profiling of fatty acids based on stable isotope labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leng, Jiapeng, E-mail: jpleng@126.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Guan, Qing [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FUSCC), Shanghai 200032 (China); Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Sun, Tuanqi, E-mail: tuanqisun@163.com [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FUSCC), Shanghai 200032 (China); Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Wang, Haoyang [National Center for Organic Mass Spectrometry in Shanghai, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032 (China); Cui, Jianlan; Liu, Qinghao [Department of Chemical Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Zhang, Zhixu; Zhang, Manyu [Agilent Technologies China Co., Ltd, Shanghai 200080 (China); Guo, Yinlong, E-mail: ylguo@sioc.ac.cn [National Center for Organic Mass Spectrometry in Shanghai, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2015-08-05

    A rapid method for fatty acids (FAs) comparative profiling based on carboxyl-specific stable isotope labeling (SIL) and direct infusion electrospray ionization–ion mobility–mass spectrometry (ESI–IM–MS) is established. The design of the method takes advantage of the three-dimensional characteristics of IM–MS including drift time, m/z and ion intensity, for comparison of d0-/d6-2,4-dimethoxy-6-piperazin-1-yl pyrimidine (DMPP)-labeled FAs. In particular, without chromatographic separation, the method allowed direct FAs profiling in complex samples due to the advantageous priority of DMPP in signal enhancement as well as the extra resolution that IM–MS offered. Additionally, the d0-/d6-DMPP-labeled FAs showed expected features, including very similar drift times, 6 Da mass deviations, specific reporter ions, similar MS responses, and adherence to the drift time rule regarding the influence of carbon chain length and unsaturation on relative drift times. Therefore, the introduction of isotope analogs minimized the matrix effect and variations in quantification and ensured accurate identification of non-targeted FAs by those typical features. Peak intensity ratios between d0-/d6-DMPP-labeled ions were subsequently used in relative quantification for the detected FAs. The established strategy has been applied successfully in the rapid profiling of trace free FAs between normal and cancerous human thyroid tissues. Sixteen free FAs were found with the increased level with a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) compared to the normal tissue samples. The integrated SIL technique and ESI–IM–MS are expected to serve as an alternative tool for high-throughput analysis of FAs in complex samples. - Highlights: • A novel method based on IM–MS and SIL was developed for FAs comparative profiling. • Without LC separation, the method allowed direct infusion profiling of FAs in complex samples. • Both of the efficiency and accuracy for FAs analyses

  16. Granulometric profiling of aeolian dust deposits by automated image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, György; Újvári, Gábor; Kovács, János; Jakab, Gergely; Kiss, Klaudia; Szalai, Zoltán

    2016-04-01

    Determination of granulometric parameters is of growing interest in the Earth sciences. Particle size data of sedimentary deposits provide insights into the physicochemical environment of transport, accumulation and post-depositional alterations of sedimentary particles, and are important proxies applied in paleoclimatic reconstructions. It is especially true for aeolian dust deposits with a fairly narrow grain size range as a consequence of the extremely selective nature of wind sediment transport. Therefore, various aspects of aeolian sedimentation (wind strength, distance to source(s), possible secondary source regions and modes of sedimentation and transport) can be reconstructed only from precise grain size data. As terrestrial wind-blown deposits are among the most important archives of past environmental changes, proper explanation of the proxy data is a mandatory issue. Automated imaging provides a unique technique to gather direct information on granulometric characteristics of sedimentary particles. Granulometric data obtained from automatic image analysis of Malvern Morphologi G3-ID is a rarely applied new technique for particle size and shape analyses in sedimentary geology. Size and shape data of several hundred thousand (or even million) individual particles were automatically recorded in this study from 15 loess and paleosoil samples from the captured high-resolution images. Several size (e.g. circle-equivalent diameter, major axis, length, width, area) and shape parameters (e.g. elongation, circularity, convexity) were calculated by the instrument software. At the same time, the mean light intensity after transmission through each particle is automatically collected by the system as a proxy of optical properties of the material. Intensity values are dependent on chemical composition and/or thickness of the particles. The results of the automated imaging were compared to particle size data determined by three different laser diffraction instruments

  17. IMG: the integrated microbial genomes database and comparative analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Victor M.; Chen, I-Min A.; Palaniappan, Krishna; Chu, Ken; Szeto, Ernest; Grechkin, Yuri; Ratner, Anna; Jacob, Biju; Huang, Jinghua; Williams, Peter; Huntemann, Marcel; Anderson, Iain; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2012-01-01

    The Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) system serves as a community resource for comparative analysis of publicly available genomes in a comprehensive integrated context. IMG integrates publicly available draft and complete genomes from all three domains of life with a large number of plasmids and viruses. IMG provides tools and viewers for analyzing and reviewing the annotations of genes and genomes in a comparative context. IMG's data content and analytical capabilities have been continuously extended through regular updates since its first release in March 2005. IMG is available at http://img.jgi.doe.gov. Companion IMG systems provide support for expert review of genome annotations (IMG/ER: http://img.jgi.doe.gov/er), teaching courses and training in microbial genome analysis (IMG/EDU: http://img.jgi.doe.gov/edu) and analysis of genomes related to the Human Microbiome Project (IMG/HMP: http://www.hmpdacc-resources.org/img_hmp). PMID:22194640

  18. Cardiovascular health profile of elite female football players compared to untrained controls before and after short-term football training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel; Orntoft, Christina; Bendiksen, Mads; Johansen, Lars; Horton, Joshua; Hansen, Peter Riis; Krustrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the intermittent exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile in elite female football players in comparison to untrained young women, as well as a subgroup subjected to football training 2x1 h · week(-1) for 16 weeks. Twenty-seven Danish national team players (elite trained, ET) and 28 untrained women (UT) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-scanning (DXA), comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography, treadmill and Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 2 (IE2) testing. Eight women in UT were also tested after the football training period. Maximal oxygen uptake rate (VO2max), peak ventilation and peak lactate were 40, 18 and 51% higher (Pfootball elevated VO2max and Yo-Yo IE2 performance by 16 and 40%, respectively, and lowered fat mass by 6%. Cardiac function was markedly improved by 16 weeks of football training with 26 and 46% increases in TAPSE and E/A ratio, respectively, reaching levels comparable to ET. In summary, elite female football players have a superior cardiovascular health profile and intermittent exercise performance compared to untrained controls, but short-term football training can markedly improve the cardiovascular health status.

  19. Extended aroma extract dilution analysis profile of Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata pulp essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonathan Asikin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Shiikuwasha pulp is an important raw material for producing citrus essential oils. The volatile aroma composition of pulp essential oil was evaluated using gas chromatography (GC methods, and its aroma profile was assessed using GC-olfactometry with an extended aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA technique in regard to alterations of odor strength and sensorial perception throughout serial dilution steps. The essential oil comprised a mixture of 55 aroma compounds, including monoterpene hydrocarbon, sesquiterpene hydrocarbon, alcohol, aldehyde, ester, and oxide compounds. The predominant compounds were limonene [57.36% (4462.80 mg/100 g of pulp] and γ-terpinene [25.14% (1956.21 mg/100 g of pulp]. However, linalool was identified as one of the key aroma components providing the highest flavor dilution factor in AEDA, whilst three sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (δ-elemene, germacrene B, and bicyclosesquiphellandrene and two esters (heptyl acetate and decyl acetate had superior relative flavor activities. The extended AEDA profile identified variations in assessed odor perceptions, intensity, and duration of aroma components over dilution, whereas the 12 most odor-active compounds showed comparable odor strengths.

  20. TEGS-CN: A Statistical Method for Pathway Analysis of Genome-wide Copy Number Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yen-Tsung; Hsu, Thomas; Christiani, David C

    2014-01-01

    The effects of copy number alterations make up a significant part of the tumor genome profile, but pathway analyses of these alterations are still not well established. We proposed a novel method to analyze multiple copy numbers of genes within a pathway, termed Test for the Effect of a Gene Set with Copy Number data (TEGS-CN). TEGS-CN was adapted from TEGS, a method that we previously developed for gene expression data using a variance component score test. With additional development, we extend the method to analyze DNA copy number data, accounting for different sizes and thus various numbers of copy number probes in genes. The test statistic follows a mixture of X (2) distributions that can be obtained using permutation with scaled X (2) approximation. We conducted simulation studies to evaluate the size and the power of TEGS-CN and to compare its performance with TEGS. We analyzed a genome-wide copy number data from 264 patients of non-small-cell lung cancer. With the Molecular Signatures Database (MSigDB) pathway database, the genome-wide copy number data can be classified into 1814 biological pathways or gene sets. We investigated associations of the copy number profile of the 1814 gene sets with pack-years of cigarette smoking. Our analysis revealed five pathways with significant P values after Bonferroni adjustment (number data, and causal mechanisms of the five pathways require further study.

  1. Comprehensive analysis of the transcriptional profile of the Mediator complex across human cancer types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syring, Isabella; Klümper, Niklas; Offermann, Anne; Braun, Martin; Deng, Mario; Boehm, Diana; Queisser, Angela; von Mässenhausen, Anne; Brägelmann, Johannes; Vogel, Wenzel; Schmidt, Doris; Majores, Michael; Schindler, Anne; Kristiansen, Glen; Müller, Stefan C; Ellinger, Jörg; Shaikhibrahim, Zaki; Perner, Sven

    2016-04-26

    The Mediator complex is a key regulator of gene transcription and several studies demonstrated altered expressions of particular subunits in diverse human diseases, especially cancer. However a systematic study deciphering the transcriptional expression of the Mediator across different cancer entities is still lacking.We therefore performed a comprehensive in silico cancer vs. benign analysis of the Mediator complex subunits (MEDs) for 20 tumor entities using Oncomine datasets. The transcriptional expression profiles across almost all cancer entities showed differentially expressed MEDs as compared to benign tissue. Differential expression of MED8 in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and MED12 in lung cancer (LCa) were validated and further investigated by immunohistochemical staining on tissue microarrays containing large numbers of specimen. MED8 in clear cell RCC (ccRCC) associated with shorter survival and advanced TNM stage and showed higher expression in metastatic than primary tumors. In vitro, siRNA mediated MED8 knockdown significantly impaired proliferation and motility in ccRCC cell lines, hinting at a role for MED8 to serve as a novel therapeutic target in ccRCC. Taken together, our Mediator complex transcriptome proved to be a valid tool for identifying cancer-related shifts in Mediator complex composition, revealing that MEDs do exhibit cancer specific transcriptional expression profiles.

  2. Quantitative image analysis of cellular heterogeneity in breast tumors complements genomic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yinyin; Failmezger, Henrik; Rueda, Oscar M; Ali, H Raza; Gräf, Stefan; Chin, Suet-Feung; Schwarz, Roland F; Curtis, Christina; Dunning, Mark J; Bardwell, Helen; Johnson, Nicola; Doyle, Sarah; Turashvili, Gulisa; Provenzano, Elena; Aparicio, Sam; Caldas, Carlos; Markowetz, Florian

    2012-10-24

    Solid tumors are heterogeneous tissues composed of a mixture of cancer and normal cells, which complicates the interpretation of their molecular profiles. Furthermore, tissue architecture is generally not reflected in molecular assays, rendering this rich information underused. To address these challenges, we developed a computational approach based on standard hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections and demonstrated its power in a discovery and validation cohort of 323 and 241 breast tumors, respectively. To deconvolute cellular heterogeneity and detect subtle genomic aberrations, we introduced an algorithm based on tumor cellularity to increase the comparability of copy number profiles between samples. We next devised a predictor for survival in estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer that integrated both image-based and gene expression analyses and significantly outperformed classifiers that use single data types, such as microarray expression signatures. Image processing also allowed us to describe and validate an independent prognostic factor based on quantitative analysis of spatial patterns between stromal cells, which are not detectable by molecular assays. Our quantitative, image-based method could benefit any large-scale cancer study by refining and complementing molecular assays of tumor samples.

  3. Analysis of plasmid genes by phylogenetic profiling and visualization of homology relationships using Blast2Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazzicalupo Marco

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic methods are well-established bioinformatic tools for sequence analysis, allowing to describe the non-independencies of sequences because of their common ancestor. However, the evolutionary profiles of bacterial genes are often complicated by hidden paralogy and extensive and/or (multiple horizontal gene transfer (HGT events which make bifurcating trees often inappropriate. In this context, plasmid sequences are paradigms of network-like relationships characterizing the evolution of prokaryotes. Actually, they can be transferred among different organisms allowing the dissemination of novel functions, thus playing a pivotal role in prokaryotic evolution. However, the study of their evolutionary dynamics is complicated by the absence of universally shared genes, a prerequisite for phylogenetic analyses. Results To overcome such limitations we developed a bioinformatic package, named Blast2Network (B2N, allowing the automatic phylogenetic profiling and the visualization of homology relationships in a large number of plasmid sequences. The software was applied to the study of 47 completely sequenced plasmids coming from Escherichia, Salmonella and Shigella spps. Conclusion The tools implemented by B2N allow to describe and visualize in a new way some of the evolutionary features of plasmid molecules of Enterobacteriaceae; in particular it helped to shed some light on the complex history of Escherichia, Salmonella and Shigella plasmids and to focus on possible roles of unannotated proteins. The proposed methodology is general enough to be used for comparative genomic analyses of bacteria.

  4. Profile analysis of after-effects experienced during exposure to several virtual reality environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Robert S.; Jones, Marshall B.; Lilienthal, Michael G.; Harm, Deborah L.

    1994-01-01

    Motion sickness symptoms are an unwanted by-product of exposure to virtual environments. This problem is not new and was reported in the early flight simulators and experiments on ego motions and vection. The cardinal symptom of motion sickness is, of course, vomiting, but this symptom is ordinarily preceded by a variety of other symptoms. In his classic studies of motion sickness conducted before and during World War II, G. R. Wendt introduced a three point scale to score motion sickness beyond a vomit/no vomit dichotomy. Later, Navy scientists developed a Motion Sickness Questionnaire (MSQ), originally for use in a slowly rotating room. In the last 20 years the MSQ has been used in a series of studies of air, sea, and space sickness. Only recently, however, has it been appreciated that symptom patterns in the MSQ are not uniform but vary with the way sickness is induced. In seasickness, for example, nausea is the most prominent symptom. In Navy simulators, however, the most common symptom is eye strain, especially when cathode ray tubes are employed in the simulation. The latter result was obtained in a survey of over 1,500 pilot exposures. Using this database, Essex scientists conducted a factor analysis of the MSQ. We found that signs and symptoms of motion sickness fell mainly into three clusters: 1) oculomotor disturbance, 2) nausea and related neurovegetative problems, and 3) disorientation, ataxia, and vertigo. We have since rescored the MSQ results obtained in Navy simulators in terms of these three components. We have also compared these and other profiles obtained from three different vitual reality systems to profiles obtained in sea sickness, space sickness, and alcohol intoxication. We will show examples of these various profiles and point out simularities and differences among them which indicate aspects of what might be called 'virtual-reality sickness'.

  5. SU-F-T-478: Effect of Deconvolution in Analysis of Mega Voltage Photon Beam Profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthukumaran, M [Apollo Speciality Hospitals, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India); Manigandan, D [Fortis Cancer Institute, Mohali, Punjab (India); Murali, V; Chitra, S; Ganapathy, K [Apollo Speciality Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India); Vikraman, S [JAYPEE HOSPITAL- RADIATION ONCOLOGY, Noida, UTTAR PRADESH (India)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To study and compare the penumbra of 6 MV and 15 MV photon beam profiles after deconvoluting different volume ionization chambers. Methods: 0.125cc Semi-Flex chamber, Markus Chamber and PTW Farmer chamber were used to measure the in-plane and cross-plane profiles at 5 cm depth for 6 MV and 15 MV photons. The profiles were measured for various field sizes starting from 2×2 cm till 30×30 cm. PTW TBA scan software was used for the measurements and the “deconvolution” functionality in the software was used to remove the volume averaging effect due to finite volume of the chamber along lateral and longitudinal directions for all the ionization chambers. The predicted true profile was compared and the change in penumbra before and after deconvolution was studied. Results: After deconvoluting the penumbra decreased by 1 mm for field sizes ranging from 2 × 2 cm till 20 x20 cm. This is observed for along both lateral and longitudinal directions. However for field sizes from 20 × 20 till 30 ×30 cm the difference in penumbra was around 1.2 till 1.8 mm. This was observed for both 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams. The penumbra was always lesser in the deconvoluted profiles for all the ionization chambers involved in the study. The variation in difference in penumbral values were in the order of 0.1 till 0.3 mm between the deconvoluted profile along lateral and longitudinal directions for all the chambers under study. Deconvolution of the profiles along longitudinal direction for Farmer chamber was not good and is not comparable with other deconvoluted profiles. Conclusion: The results of the deconvoluted profiles for 0.125cc and Markus chamber was comparable and the deconvolution functionality can be used to overcome the volume averaging effect.

  6. Psychosocial Profile of Women with Premenstrual Syndrome and Healthy Controls: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinstäuber, Maria; Schmelzer, Katarina; Ditzen, Beate; Andersson, Gerhard; Hiller, Wolfgang; Weise, Cornelia

    2016-12-01

    According to modern bio-psychosocial theories of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), the aim of this study is to investigate systematically associations between selected psychosocial factors and premenstrual symptoms in different menstrual cycle phases. Several psychosocial variables were assessed, in a sample of German women with PMS (N = 90) and without premenstrual complaints (N = 48) during the follicular and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Presence of PMS was indicated by analysis of contemporary daily ratings of premenstrual symptom severity and impairment for one menstrual cycle. Regarding perceived chronic stress (ƞ 2  = 0.34), self-efficacy (ƞ 2  = 0.12), and two dimensions of self-silencing (0.06 ≤ ƞ 2  ≤ 0.11) analyses revealed only a significant effect of group. Regarding body dissatisfaction and somatosensory amplification, a significant effect of group (0.07 ≤ ƞ 2  ≤ 0.16) and additionally a group by menstrual cycle phase interaction (ƞ 2  = 0.06) was identified. Regarding relationship quality, a significant effect of menstrual cycle phase (ƞ 2  = 0.08) and a group by menstrual cycle phase interaction (ƞ 2  = 0.06) was demonstrated. In respect to sexual contentment, acceptance of premenstrual symptoms, and the remaining two dimensions of self-silencing statistical analyses revealed no effects at all. Linear multiple regression analysis revealed that 20 % of the variance in PMS symptom severity was explained by the psychosocial variables investigated. Body dissatisfaction (ß = 0.26, p = 0.018) and the divided self-dimension of self-silencing (ß = 0.35, p = 0.016) were significant correlates of PMS severity. Results of this study are consistent with previous research and additionally show patterns of associations between specific psychosocial factors and PMS in dependence of menstrual cycle phase that have not been researched before. The role of the psychosocial variables we

  7. Functional Status, Quality of Life, and Costs Associated With Fibromyalgia Subgroups: A Latent Profile Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Juan V; Forero, Carlos G; Cerdà-Lafont, Marta; Peñarrubia-María, María Teresa; Fernández-Vergel, Rita; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I; Ruíz, José M; Rozadilla-Sacanell, Antoni; Sirvent-Alierta, Elena; Santo-Panero, Pilar; García-Campayo, Javier; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Pérez-Aranda, Adrián; Rubio-Valera, María

    2016-10-01

    Although fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) is considered a heterogeneous condition, there is no generally accepted subgroup typology. We used hierarchical cluster analysis and latent profile analysis to replicate Giesecke's classification in Spanish FM patients. The second aim was to examine whether the subgroups differed in sociodemographic characteristics, functional status, quality of life, and in direct and indirect costs. A total of 160 FM patients completed the following measures for cluster derivation: the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, the Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and the Control over Pain subscale. Pain threshold was measured with a sphygmomanometer. In addition, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire-Revised, the EuroQoL-5D-3L, and the Client Service Receipt Inventory were administered for cluster validation. Two distinct clusters were identified using hierarchical cluster analysis ("hypersensitive" group, 69.8% and "functional" group, 30.2%). In contrast, the latent profile analysis goodness-of-fit indices supported the existence of 3 FM patient profiles: (1) a "functional" profile (28.1%) defined as moderate tenderness, distress, and pain catastrophizing; (2) a "dysfunctional" profile (45.6%) defined by elevated tenderness, distress, and pain catastrophizing; and (3) a "highly dysfunctional and distressed" profile (26.3%) characterized by elevated tenderness and extremely high distress and catastrophizing. We did not find significant differences in sociodemographic characteristics between the 2 clusters or among the 3 profiles. The functional profile was associated with less impairment, greater quality of life, and lower health care costs. We identified 3 distinct profiles which accounted for the heterogeneity of FM patients. Our findings might help to design tailored interventions for FM patients.

  8. Comparative mRNA and microRNA expression profiling of three genitourinary cancers reveals common hallmarks and cancer-specific molecular events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianxin Li

    Full Text Available Genome-wide gene expression profile using deep sequencing technologies can drive the discovery of cancer biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Such efforts are often limited to profiling the expression signature of either mRNA or microRNA (miRNA in a single type of cancer.Here we provided an integrated analysis of the genome-wide mRNA and miRNA expression profiles of three different genitourinary cancers: carcinomas of the bladder, kidney and testis.Our results highlight the general or cancer-specific roles of several genes and miRNAs that may serve as candidate oncogenes or suppressors of tumor development. Further comparative analyses at the systems level revealed that significant aberrations of the cell adhesion process, p53 signaling, calcium signaling, the ECM-receptor and cell cycle pathways, the DNA repair and replication processes and the immune and inflammatory response processes were the common hallmarks of human cancers. Gene sets showing testicular cancer-specific deregulation patterns were mainly implicated in processes related to male reproductive function, and general disruptions of multiple metabolic pathways and processes related to cell migration were the characteristic molecular events for renal and bladder cancer, respectively. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that tumors with the same histological origins and genes with similar functions tended to group together in a clustering analysis. By assessing the correlation between the expression of each miRNA and its targets, we determined that deregulation of 'key' miRNAs may result in the global aberration of one or more pathways or processes as a whole.This systematic analysis deciphered the molecular phenotypes of three genitourinary cancers and investigated their variations at the miRNA level simultaneously. Our results provided a valuable source for future studies and highlighted some promising genes, miRNAs, pathways and processes that may be useful for diagnostic or

  9. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Cultivated and Wild Watermelon during Fruit Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shaogui; Sun, Honghe; Zhang, Haiying; Liu, Jingan; Ren, Yi; Gong, Guoyi; Jiao, Chen; Zheng, Yi; Yang, Wencai; Fei, Zhangjun; Xu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] is an important vegetable crop world-wide. Watermelon fruit quality is a complex trait determined by various factors such as sugar content, flesh color and flesh texture. Fruit quality and developmental process of cultivated and wild watermelon are highly different. To systematically understand the molecular basis of these differences, we compared transcriptome profiles of fruit tissues of cultivated watermelon 97103 and wild watermelon PI296341-FR. We identified 2,452, 826 and 322 differentially expressed genes in cultivated flesh, cultivated mesocarp and wild flesh, respectively, during fruit development. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of these genes indicated that biological processes and metabolic pathways related to fruit quality such as sweetness and flavor were significantly changed only in the flesh of 97103 during fruit development, while those related to abiotic stress response were changed mainly in the flesh of PI296341-FR. Our comparative transcriptome profiling analysis identified critical genes potentially involved in controlling fruit quality traits including α-galactosidase, invertase, UDP-galactose/glucose pyrophosphorylase and sugar transporter genes involved in the determination of fruit sugar content, phytoene synthase, β-carotene hydroxylase, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase genes involved in carotenoid metabolism, and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase, cellulose synthase, pectinesterase, pectinesterase inhibitor, polygalacturonase inhibitor and α-mannosidase genes involved in the regulation of flesh texture. In addition, we found that genes in the ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathway including ACC oxidase, ethylene receptor and ethylene responsive factor showed highly ripening-associated expression patterns, indicating a possible role of ethylene in fruit development and ripening of watermelon, a non-climacteric fruit. Our analysis provides

  10. Genie in a blotter: A comparative study of LSD and LSD analogues' effects and user profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coney, Leigh D; Maier, Larissa J; Ferris, Jason A; Winstock, Adam R; Barratt, Monica J

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to describe self-reported patterns of use and effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) analogues (AL-LAD, 1P-LSD, and ETH-LAD) and the characteristics of those who use them. An anonymous self-selected online survey of people who use drugs (Global Drug Survey 2016; N = 96,894), which measured perceived drug effects of LSD and its analogues. Most LSD analogue users (91%) had also tried LSD. The proportion of U.K. and U.S. respondents reporting LSD analogue use in the last 12 months was higher than for LSD only. LSD analogue users described the effects as psychedelic (93%), over half (55%) obtained it online, and almost all (99%) reported an oral route of administration. The modal duration (8 hr) and time to peak (2 hr) of LSD analogues were not significantly different from LSD. Ratings for pleasurable high, strength of effect, comedown, urge to use more drugs, value for money, and risk of harm following use were significantly lower for LSD analogues compared with LSD. LSD analogues were reported as similar in time to peak and duration as LSD but weaker in strength, pleasurable high, and comedown. Future studies should seek to replicate these findings with chemical confirmation and dose measurement. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Two Contrasting Barley Genotypes under Salinity Stress during the Seedling Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runhong Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect crop productivity. Identification of the potential novel genes responsible for salt tolerance in barley will contribute to understanding the molecular mechanism of barley responses to salt stress. We compared changes in transcriptome between Hua 11 (a salt-tolerant genotype and Hua 30 (a salt sensitive genotype in response to salt stress at the seedling stage using barley cDNA microarrays. In total, 557 and 247 salt-responsive genes were expressed exclusively in the shoot and root tissue of the salt-tolerant genotype, respectively. Among these genes, a number of signal-related genes, transcription factors and compatible solutes were identified and some of these genes were carefully discussed. Notably, a LysM RLK was firstly found involved in salt stress response. Moreover, key enzymes in the pathways of jasmonic acid biosynthesis, lipid metabolism and indole-3-acetic acid homeostasis were specifically affected by salt stress in salt tolerance genotype. These salt-responsive genes and biochemical pathways identified in this study could provide further information for understanding the mechanisms of salt tolerance in barley.

  12. Integrating Multiple Analytical Datasets to Compare Metabolite Profiles of Mouse Colonic-Cecal Contents and Feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Grapov, Dmitry; Jackson, Matthew I; Fahrmann, Johannes; Fiehn, Oliver; Combs, Gerald F

    2015-09-11

    The pattern of metabolites produced by the gut microbiome comprises a phenotype indicative of the means by which that microbiome affects the gut. We characterized that phenotype in mice by conducting metabolomic analyses of the colonic-cecal contents, comparing that to the metabolite patterns of feces in order to determine the suitability of fecal specimens as proxies for assessing the metabolic impact of the gut microbiome. We detected a total of 270 low molecular weight metabolites in colonic-cecal contents and feces by gas chromatograph, time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography, quadrapole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF). Of that number, 251 (93%) were present in both types of specimen, representing almost all known biochemical pathways related to the amino acid, carbohydrate, energy, lipid, membrane transport, nucleotide, genetic information processing, and cancer-related metabolism. A total of 115 metabolites differed significantly in relative abundance between both colonic-cecal contents and feces. These data comprise the first characterization of relationships among metabolites present in the colonic-cecal contents and feces in a healthy mouse model, and shows that feces can be a useful proxy for assessing the pattern of metabolites to which the colonic mucosum is exposed.

  13. Integrating Multiple Analytical Datasets to Compare Metabolite Profiles of Mouse Colonic-Cecal Contents and Feces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Zeng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of metabolites produced by the gut microbiome comprises a phenotype indicative of the means by which that microbiome affects the gut. We characterized that phenotype in mice by conducting metabolomic analyses of the colonic-cecal contents, comparing that to the metabolite patterns of feces in order to determine the suitability of fecal specimens as proxies for assessing the metabolic impact of the gut microbiome. We detected a total of 270 low molecular weight metabolites in colonic-cecal contents and feces by gas chromatograph, time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography, quadrapole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF. Of that number, 251 (93% were present in both types of specimen, representing almost all known biochemical pathways related to the amino acid, carbohydrate, energy, lipid, membrane transport, nucleotide, genetic information processing, and cancer-related metabolism. A total of 115 metabolites differed significantly in relative abundance between both colonic-cecal contents and feces. These data comprise the first characterization of relationships among metabolites present in the colonic-cecal contents and feces in a healthy mouse model, and shows that feces can be a useful proxy for assessing the pattern of metabolites to which the colonic mucosum is exposed.

  14. Comparative gene expression profiling of P. falciparum malaria parasites exposed to three different histone deacetylase inhibitors.

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    Katherine T Andrews

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors are being intensively pursued as potential new drugs for a range of diseases, including malaria. HDAC inhibitors are also important tools for the study of epigenetic mechanisms, transcriptional control, and other important cellular processes. In this study the effects of three structurally related antimalarial HDAC inhibitors on P. falciparum malaria parasite gene expression were compared. The three hydroxamate-based compounds, trichostatin A (TSA, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; Vorinostat® and a 2-aminosuberic acid derivative (2-ASA-9, all caused profound transcriptional effects, with ~2-21% of genes having >2-fold altered expression following 2 h exposure to the compounds. Only two genes, alpha tubulin II and a hydrolase, were up-regulated by all three compounds after 2 h exposure in all biological replicates examined. The transcriptional changes observed after 2 h exposure to HDAC inhibitors were found to be largely transitory, with only 1-5% of genes being regulated after removing the compounds and culturing for a further 2 h. Despite some structural similarity, the three inhibitors caused quite diverse transcriptional effects, possibly reflecting subtle differences in mode of action or cellular distribution. This dataset represents an important contribution to our understanding of how HDAC inhibitors act on malaria parasites and identifies alpha tubulin II as a potential transcriptional marker of HDAC inhibition in malaria parasites that may be able to be exploited for future development of HDAC inhibitors as new antimalarial agents.

  15. Different cognitive profiles for single compared with recurrent fallers without dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstey, Kaarin J; Wood, Joanne; Kerr, Graham; Caldwell, Haley; Lord, Stephen R

    2009-07-01

    Relationships between self-reported retrospective falls and cognitive measures (executive function, reaction time [RT], processing speed, working memory, visual attention) were examined in a population based sample of older adults (n = 658). Two of the choice RT tests involved inhibiting responses to either targets of a specific color or location with hand and foot responses. Potentially confounding demographic variables, medical conditions, and postural sway were controlled for in logistic regression models, excluding participants with possible cognitive impairment. A factor analysis of cognitive measures extracted factors measuring RT, accuracy and inhibition, and visual search. Single fallers did not differ from nonfallers in terms of health, sway or cognitive function, except that they performed worse on accuracy and inhibition. In contrast, recurrent fallers performed worse than nonfallers on all measures. Results suggest that occasional falls in late life may be associated with subtle age-related changes in the prefrontal cortex leading to failures of executive control, whereas recurrent falling may result from more advanced brain ageing that is associated with generalized cognitive decline. 2009 American Psychological Association

  16. Comparative phytochemical profiling of different soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr genotypes using GC–MS

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    Salem S. Alghamdi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate the proximate, phenolic and flavonoids contents and phytochemicals present in seeds of twenty four soybeans (Glycine max (L. Merr genotypes to explore their nutritional and medicinal values. Crude protein composition ranged between 35.63 and 43.13% in Argentinian and USA (Clark genotypes, respectively. Total phenolic content varied from 1.15 to 1.77 mg GAE/g, whereas flavonoids varied from 0.68 to 2.13 mg QE/g. The GC–MS analysis resulted identification of 88 compounds categorized into aldehydes (5, ketones (13, alcohols (5, carboxylic acids (7, esters (13, alkanes (2, heterocyclic compounds (19, phenolic compound (9, sugar moiety (7 ether (4 and amide (3, one Alkene and one fatty acid ester. Indonesian genotypes (Ijen and Indo-1 had the highest phenolic compounds than others genotype having antioxidant activities, while the Australian genotype contains the maximum in esters compounds. The major phytocompounds identified in majority of genotypes were Phenol, 2,6-dimethoxy-, 2-Methoxy-4-vinylphenol, 3,5-Dimethoxyacetophenone, 1,2-cyclopentanedione and Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester. The presence of phytochemicals with strong pharmacological actions like antimicrobial and antioxidants activities could be considered as sources of quality raw materials for food and pharmaceutical industries. This study further set a platform for isolating and understanding the characteristics of each compound for it pharmacological properties.

  17. Comparative biodistribution profile of [131I]VIP and [131I]VIP10-28

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    Maria Tereza Colturato

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Various tumor cells express significantly higher amounts of VIP receptors (VIPR that provided the basis for the clinical use of radiolabeled VIP for the in vivo localization of tumors. This work studied the labeling of VIP and VIP10-28 with iodine-131 to compare the biological distribution of the labeled compounds in Nuce mice and the affinity for tumor cells. Both VIP and VIP10-28 peptides contain two tyrosine residues, in positions 10 and 22, that are theoretically equally susceptible to radioiodination employing oxidative electrophilic substitution using oxidizing agents like Chloramine T. Radiochemical purity of the reaction mixture was determined by electrophoresis and HPLC. The VIP peptide and the fragment were labeled with radioiodine with good radiochemical yield (above 96%. Suitable, but important differences can be observed in biological distribution studies. Comparatively, blood clearance was faster for labeled VIP and perhaps because of this, the uptake in tumor was lower, especially during the first hour. These differences observed in the biological distribution of the compounds can be related to the lipophilicity of the labeled compounds.Várias células tumorais expressam significantemente uma alta quantidade de receptores VIP (VIPR que determinam a base para o uso clínico de VIP radiomarcado para localização de tumores in vivo. Foi estudado neste trabalho a marcação do VIP e do fragmento VIP10-28 com iodo-131 comparando a distribuição biológica dos compostos marcados em camundongos Nude e sua afinidade pelas células tumorais. Ambos os peptídeos, VIP e VIP10-28. contém dois resíduos de tirosina nas posições 10 e 22, que teoricamente são igualmente susceptíveis pela substituição eletrofílica oxidativa do radioiodo utilizando Cloramina T como agente oxidante. A pureza radioquímica da mistura de reação foi determinada por eletroforese e cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE. O VIP e fragmento foram

  18. Comparative transcriptome profiling of the early infection of wheat roots by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici.

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    Lirong Yang

    Full Text Available Take-all, which is caused by the fungal pathogen, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt, is an important soil-borne root rot disease of wheat occurring worldwide. However, the genetic basis of Ggt pathogenicity remains unclear. In this study, transcriptome sequencing for Ggt in axenic culture and Ggt-infected wheat roots was performed using Illumina paired-end sequencing. Approximately 2.62 and 7.76 Gb of clean reads were obtained, and 87% and 63% of the total reads were mapped to the Ggt genome for RNA extracted from Ggt in culture and infected roots, respectively. A total of 3,258 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified with 2,107 (65% being 2-fold up-regulated and 1,151 (35% being 2-fold down-regulated between Ggt in culture and Ggt in infected wheat roots. Annotation of these DEGs revealed that many were associated with possible Ggt pathogenicity factors, such as genes for guanine nucleotide-binding protein alpha-2 subunit, cellulase, pectinase, xylanase, glucosidase, aspartic protease and gentisate 1, 2-dioxygenase. Twelve DEGs were analyzed for expression by qRT-PCR, and could be generally divided into those with high expression only early in infection, only late in infection and those that gradually increasing expression over time as root rot developed. This indicates that these possible pathogenicity factors may play roles during different stages of the interaction, such as signaling, plant cell wall degradation and responses to plant defense compounds. This is the first study to compare the transcriptomes of Ggt growing saprophytically in axenic cultures to it growing parasitically in infected wheat roots. As a result, new candidate pathogenicity factors have been identified, which can be further examined by gene knock-outs and other methods to assess their true role in the ability of Ggt to infect roots.

  19. Correlation of Klebsiella pneumoniae comparative genetic analyses with virulence profiles in a murine respiratory disease model.

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    Ramy A Fodah

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae is a bacterial pathogen of worldwide importance and a significant contributor to multiple disease presentations associated with both nosocomial and community acquired disease. ATCC 43816 is a well-studied K. pneumoniae strain which is capable of causing an acute respiratory disease in surrogate animal models. In this study, we performed sequencing of the ATCC 43816 genome to support future efforts characterizing genetic elements required for disease. Furthermore, we performed comparative genetic analyses to the previously sequenced genomes from NTUH-K2044 and MGH 78578 to gain an understanding of the conservation of known virulence determinants amongst the three strains. We found that ATCC 43816 and NTUH-K2044 both possess the known virulence determinant for yersiniabactin, as well as a Type 4 secretion system (T4SS, CRISPR system, and an acetonin catabolism locus, all absent from MGH 78578. While both NTUH-K2044 and MGH 78578 are clinical isolates, little is known about the disease potential of these strains in cell culture and animal models. Thus, we also performed functional analyses in the murine macrophage cell lines RAW264.7 and J774A.1 and found that MGH 78578 (K52 serotype was internalized at higher levels than ATCC 43816 (K2 and NTUH-K2044 (K1, consistent with previous characterization of the antiphagocytic properties of K1 and K2 serotype capsules. We also examined the three K. pneumoniae strains in a novel BALB/c respiratory disease model and found that ATCC 43816 and NTUH-K2044 are highly virulent (LD50<100 CFU while MGH 78578 is relatively avirulent.

  20. Comparative transcriptome profiling of potassium starvation responsiveness in two contrasting watermelon genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Molin; Huang, Yuan; Zhong, Yaqin; Kong, Qiusheng; Xie, Junjun; Niu, Mengliang; Xu, Yong; Bie, Zhilong

    2014-02-01

    Potassium (K) is one of the essential nutrients for crops, and K⁺ deficiency highly restricts crop yield and quality. Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] is an economically important crop that often suffers from K⁺ deficiency. To elucidate the underlying tolerance mechanism of watermelon to K⁺ deficiency and to improve K efficiency of watermelon and other crops in the future, two watermelon genotypes, namely, YS and 8424, that exhibit contrasting K efficiencies were studied to compare their response mechanisms to K⁺ deficiency. YS was more tolerant of K⁺ deficiency and displayed less inhibited root growth than 8424. Roots of YS and 8424 seedlings with or without K⁺ supply were harvested at 6 and 120 h after treatment (HAT), and their transcriptomes were analyzed by Illumina RNA sequencing. Different regulation mechanisms of the root K⁺-uptake genes for short- and long-term stress were observed. Genes involved in jasmonic acid and reactive oxygen species production; Ca²⁺ and receptor-like kinase signaling; lignin biosynthesis; and other stress-related genes were repressed in YS, whereas a large number of such stress-related genes were induced in 8424 at 120 HAT. These results suggested that repressed defense and stress response can save energy for better root growth in YS, which can facilitate K⁺ uptake and increase K efficiency and tolerance to K⁺ deficiency. This study presents the first global root transcriptome in watermelon and provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying tolerance to K⁺ deficiency of K-efficient watermelon genotypes.

  1. Characterization and comparative profiling of the small RNA transcriptomes in the Hemipteran insect Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Wenjun; Zhou, Lei; Li, Sanhe; Liu, Kai; Yang, Guocai; Chen, Zhijun; Liu, Kai; Xu, Huashan; Li, Peide; Hussain, Saddam; You, Aiqing

    2016-12-20

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small RNAs involved in various biological processes through negative regulation of mRNAs at the post-transcriptional level. The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), is one of the most serious and destructive insect pests of rice. In the present study, two small RNA libraries of virulent N. lugens populations (Biotype I survives on susceptive rice variety TN1 and Biotype Y survives on moderately resistant rice variety YHY15) were constructed and sequenced using the high-throughput sequencing technology in order to identify the relationship between miRNAs of N.lugens and adaptation of BPH pests to rice resistance. In total 15,758,632 and 11,442,592 reads, corresponding to 3,144,026 and 2,550,049 unique sequences, were obtained in the two libraries (BPH-TN1 and BPH-YHY15 libraries), respectively. A total of 41 potential novel miRNAs were predicted in the two libraries, and 26 miRNAs showed significantly differential expression between two libraries. All miRNAs were significantly up-regulated in the BPH-TN1 library. Target genes likely regulated by these differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted using computational prediction. The functional annotation of target genes performed by Gene Ontology enrichment (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis (KEGG) indicated that a majority of differential miRNAs were involved in "Metabolism" pathway. These results provided an understanding of the role of miRNAs in BPH to adaptability of BPH on rice resistance, and will be useful in developing new control strategies for host defense against BPH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Dilemmas of Transfer Pricing Comparability Analysis in Manufacturing Entities. Polish-Czech Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulik-Górecka, Aleksandra

    2018-06-01

    Modern manufacturing entities often operate in capital groups, and their role is sometimes limited to the function of cost centers. From the legal point of view, however, they are separate entities obliged to apply transfer pricing regulations. Meeting the requirements of the arm's length principle can be very difficult at this time, given the relationships and conflicts of interest in the capital group. Complexity increases in capital groups operating in different countries, due to differences in tax regulations. The main purpose of the paper is to demonstrate that the need to valuate the sale of finished goods to a manufacturing entity, which is a subject to a different tax jurisdiction, may lead to a problem of compliance with the arm's length principle. In addition, the paper proposes a methodology for comparability analysis that may be used by manufacturing entities to defend conditions of setting transfer pricing. The paper presents the different functional profiles of manufacturing entities and points out the difficulties that they may encounter when preparing the comparability analysis. It has also been noted that there are differences in transfer pricing regulations in different countries, for example by analyzing Polish and Czech regulations. The lack of uniform benchmarking legislation can cause inconsistencies in the selection of comparable data, resulting in differences in transfer pricing. The paper uses the method of legal regulation review and analysis of results of published studies concerning the scope of transfer pricing and comparability analysis. The paper also adopts a case study analysis.

  3. Analysis of spectra from portable handheld gamma-ray spectrometry for terrain comparative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Flávio; Lima, Marco; Sanjurjo-Sánchez, Jorge; Alves, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Geological characteristics can have impacts on societal development by, e.g., geotechnical issues and radiological hazard levels. Due to urban sprawl, there is an increasing need for detailed geological assessment. In this work are analysed data from portable handheld gamma-ray spectra (K, eU and eTh) obtained in granitic and Silurian metaclastic outcrops as well as in an profile, roughly N–S, on soil covered terrains transecting a mapped contact between these rock types (the profile's northern extremity is at locations mapped as granite). Estimations from gamma-ray spectra were studied by univariate and multivariate analyses. K, eU and eTh values were higher on granite in relation to Silurian metaclastic rocks. The northern extremity of the profile showed clearly higher contents of eTh and this contrast was supported by univariate statistical tools (normality plot and Wilk–Shapiro test; boxplots). A ternary plot with the contribution of the elements to gamma-ray absorbed dose showed the separation of granite from Silurian metaclastic rocks with the former being nearer the eTh vertex. The points in the northern extremity of the profile are nearer the eTh vertex than the other points on the profile. These visual suggestions were supported by hierarchical cluster analysis, which was able to differentiate between granite and metaclastic outcrops and separate portions of the profile located on different terrains. Portable gamma-ray spectrometry showed, hence, the potential to distinguish granite and metaclastic terrains at a scale useful for engineering works. These results can also be useful for a first comparative zoning of radiological hazards (which are higher for granite). - Highlights: • Contents of K, eU and eTh were estimated by portable gamma-ray spectra. • Spectra were acquired on a profile across a soil covered granite/metaclastic contact. • Spectra were also collected on granite and Silurian metaclastic outcrops. • Obtained estimations were

  4. Comparative secretome analysis of rat stomach under different nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia L. Senin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The fact that gastric surgery is at the moment the most effective treatment to fight against obesity highlights the relevance of gastric derived proteins as potential targets to treat this pathology. Taking advantage of a previously established gastric explant model for endocrine studies, the proteomic analysis of gastric secretome was performed. To validate this gastric explant system for proteomic analysis, the identification of ghrelin, a classical gastric derived peptide, was performed by MS. In addition, the differential analysis of gastric secretomes under differential nutritional status (control feeding vs fasting vs re-feeding was performed. The MS identified proteins are showed in the present manuscript. The data supplied in this article is related to the research article entitled “Comparative secretome analysis of rat stomach under different nutritional status” [1].

  5. Comparative Profiling of coral symbiont communities from the Caribbean, Indo-Pacific, and Arabian Seas

    KAUST Repository

    Arif, Chatchanit

    2014-12-01

    differences in health and disease demonstrate that coral species share common microbial footprints in phenotypically similar diseases that are conserved between regional seas. Moreover, corals harbor bacteria that are species-specific and distinct from the diseased microbial footprints. The existence of conserved coral disease microbiomes allows for cataloging diseases based on bacterial assemblage over coral species boundaries and will greatly facilitate future comparative analyses.

  6. Hot and cold water infusion aroma profiles of Hibiscus sabdariffa: fresh compared with dried.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Rodrigues, M M; Balaban, M O; Marshall, M R; Rouseff, R L

    2011-03-01

    Calyxes from the Roselle plant (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) were used to prepare cold (22 °C for 4 h) and hot (98 °C for 16 min) infusions/teas from both fresh and dried forms. Aroma volatiles were extracted using static headspace SPME and analyzed using GC-MS and GC-O with 2 different columns (DB-5 and DB-Wax). Totals of 28, 25, 17, and 16 volatiles were identified using GC-MS in the dried hot extract (DHE), dried cold extract (DCE), fresh hot extract (FHE), and fresh cold extract (FCE) samples, respectively. In terms of total GC-MS peak areas DHE ≫ DCE > FHE ≫ FCE. Nonanal, decanal, octanal, and 1-octen-3-ol were among the major volatiles in all 4 beverage types. Thirteen volatiles were common to all 4 teas. Furfural and 5-methyl furfural were detected only in dried hibiscus beverages whereas linalool and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol were detected only in beverages from fresh hibiscus. In terms of aroma active volatiles, 17, 16, 13, and 10 aroma active volatiles were detected for DHE, DCE, FHE, and FCE samples, respectively. The most intense aroma volatiles were 1-octen-3-one and nonanal with a group of 4 aldehydes and 3 ketones common to all samples. Dried samples contained dramatically higher levels of lipid oxidation products such as hexanal, nonanal, and decanal. In fresh hibiscus extracts, linalool (floral, citrus) and octanal (lemon, citrus) were among the highest intensity aroma compounds but linalool was not detected in any of the dried hibiscus extracts. Hibiscus teas/infusions are one of the highest volume specialty botanical products in international commerce. The beverage is consumed for both sensory pleasure and health attributes and is prepared a number of ways throughout the world. Although color and taste attributes have been examined, little information is known about its aroma volatiles and no other study has compared extractions from both fresh and dried as well as extraction temperature differences. This is also, apparently, the first study to identify

  7. Comparing the Genetic Diversity and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Campylobacter jejuni Recovered from Cattle and Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonhee Cha

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni, a leading cause of gastroenteritis in humans, is a foodborne pathogen that can reside in chickens, pigs, and cattle. Because resistance to fluoroquinolones and macrolides, which are commonly used to treat human infections, has emerged in C. jejuni, it is imperative to continously monitor resistance patterns and examine the genetic variation in strains from human infections and animal reservoirs. Our previous study of C. jejuni from human campylobacteriosis cases showed a significantly higher rate of tetracycline resistance compared to national trends, and identified multilocus sequence type (ST-982 and a history of cattle contact to be associated with tetracycline resistance. To further investigate these associations, we conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the frequency of antimicrobial resistance and examine the genetic diversity of C. jejuni recovered from 214 cattle at three Michigan herds. Overall, the prevalence of C. jejuni was 69.2% (range: 58.6–83.8% for the three farms, and 83.7% (n = 113 of isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobials. Resistance to only tetracycline predominated among the cattle isolates (n = 89; 65.9% with most resistant strains belonging to ST-459 (96.5% or ST-982 (86.4%. Among the 22 STs identified, STs 459 and 982 were more prevalent in one feedlot, which reported the use of chlortetracycline in feed upon arrival of a new herd. PCR-based fingerprinting demonstrated that the ST-982 isolates from cattle and humans had identical banding patterns, suggesting the possibility of interspecies transmission. Resistance to macrolides (1.5% and ciprofloxacin (16.3% was also observed; 14 of the 22 ciprofloxacin resistant isolates represented ST-1244. Together, these findings demonstrate a high prevalence of antimicrobial resistant C. jejuni in cattle and identify associations with specific genotypes. Continuous monitoring and identification of risk factors for resistance emergence

  8. Advances in X-ray powder diffraction profile analysis and its application in ceramic material studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.

    1988-01-01

    This dissertation is concerned with the following major aspects: (1) the development of necessary computer codes to carry out X-ray powder diffraction profile analysis (XPDPA) calculations; (2) the establishment of a general reference material (GRM) which greatly extends the application of XPDPA and the study of the application of the GRM in profile analysis; (3) the determination of the coherent diffracting domain size and the lattice residual microstrain for some shock-modified and jet-milled materials. A computer code for diffraction profile refinement, XRAYL, fits a diffraction profile with any one of five mathematical functions, either as symmetric or asymmetric (split mode) forms. The resulting patterns meet the requirements for successful profile analysis of microstrain and crystallite size. Powder diffraction profile analysis requires an instrument calibration standard to correct data for instrumental profiles due to the system optics. A general reference material, LaB 6 , has been established. The pattern of this LaB 6 powder can be used to generate a reference pattern for any other substance. Through three applications, it has been shown that this LaB 6 sample can be used to remove the instrumental broadenings and gives reasonable size and strain estimates in the profile analysis of other materials. Many previous studies have shown that the solid state reactivity and physical properties of some ceramic materials can be substantially enhanced. XPDPA techniques have been used to study the plastic deformation and the reduction of crystallite size for eight shock-modified ceramic materials. The size and strain values of these materials are correlated with shock parameters

  9. Profound Effect of Profiling Platform and Normalization Strategy on Detection of Differentially Expressed MicroRNAs – A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Swanhild U.; Kaiser, Sebastian; Wagner, Carola; Thirion, Christian; Pfaffl, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Adequate normalization minimizes the effects of systematic technical variations and is a prerequisite for getting meaningful biological changes. However, there is inconsistency about miRNA normalization performances and recommendations. Thus, we investigated the impact of seven different normalization methods (reference gene index, global geometric mean, quantile, invariant selection, loess, loessM, and generalized procrustes analysis) on intra- and inter-platform performance of two distinct and commonly used miRNA profiling platforms. Methodology/Principal Findings We included data from miRNA profiling analyses derived from a hybridization-based platform (Agilent Technologies) and an RT-qPCR platform (Applied Biosystems). Furthermore, we validated a subset of miRNAs by individual RT-qPCR assays. Our analyses incorporated data from the effect of differentiation and tumor necrosis factor alpha treatment on primary human skeletal muscle cells and a murine skeletal muscle cell line. Distinct normalization methods differed in their impact on (i) standard deviations, (ii) the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, (iii) the similarity of differential expression. Loess, loessM, and quantile analysis were most effective in minimizing standard deviations on the Agilent and TLDA platform. Moreover, loess, loessM, invariant selection and generalized procrustes analysis increased the area under the ROC curve, a measure for the statistical performance of a test. The Jaccard index revealed that inter-platform concordance of differential expression tended to be increased by loess, loessM, quantile, and GPA normalization of AGL and TLDA data as well as RGI normalization of TLDA data. Conclusions/Significance We recommend the application of loess, or loessM, and GPA normalization for miRNA Agilent arrays and qPCR cards as these normalization approaches showed to (i) effectively reduce standard deviations, (ii) increase sensitivity and accuracy of

  10. Evaluating the risks of clinical research: direct comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rid, Annette; Abdoler, Emily; Roberson-Nay, Roxann; Pine, Daniel S; Wendler, David

    2014-09-01

    Many guidelines and regulations allow children and adolescents to be enrolled in research without the prospect of clinical benefit when it poses minimal risk. However, few systematic methods exist to determine when research risks are minimal. This situation has led to significant variation in minimal risk judgments, raising concern that some children are not being adequately protected. To address this concern, we describe a new method for implementing the widely endorsed "risks of daily life" standard for minimal risk. This standard defines research risks as minimal when they do not exceed the risks posed by daily life activities or routine examinations. This study employed a conceptual and normative analysis, and use of an illustrative example. Different risks are composed of the same basic elements: Type, likelihood, and magnitude of harm. Hence, one can compare the risks of research and the risks of daily life by comparing the respective basic elements with each other. We use this insight to develop a systematic method, direct comparative analysis, for implementing the "risks of daily life" standard for minimal risk. The method offers a way of evaluating research procedures that pose the same types of risk as daily life activities, such as the risk of experiencing anxiety, stress, or other psychological harm. We thus illustrate how direct comparative analysis can be applied in practice by using it to evaluate whether the anxiety induced by a respiratory CO2 challenge poses minimal or greater than minimal risks in children and adolescents. Direct comparative analysis is a systematic method for applying the "risks of daily life" standard for minimal risk to research procedures that pose the same types of risk as daily life activities. It thereby offers a method to protect children and adolescents in research, while ensuring that important studies are not blocked because of unwarranted concerns about research risks.

  11. Living network meta-analysis compared with pairwise meta-analysis in comparative effectiveness research: empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakopoulou, Adriani; Mavridis, Dimitris; Furukawa, Toshi A; Cipriani, Andrea; Tricco, Andrea C; Straus, Sharon E; Siontis, George C M; Egger, Matthias; Salanti, Georgia

    2018-02-28

    To examine whether the continuous updating of networks of prospectively planned randomised controlled trials (RCTs) ("living" network meta-analysis) provides strong evidence against the null hypothesis in comparative effectiveness of medical interventions earlier than the updating of conventional, pairwise meta-analysis. Empirical study of the accumulating evidence about the comparative effectiveness of clinical interventions. Database of network meta-analyses of RCTs identified through searches of Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews until 14 April 2015. Network meta-analyses published after January 2012 that compared at least five treatments and included at least 20 RCTs. Clinical experts were asked to identify in each network the treatment comparison of greatest clinical interest. Comparisons were excluded for which direct and indirect evidence disagreed, based on side, or node, splitting test (Pmeta-analyses were performed for each selected comparison. Monitoring boundaries of statistical significance were constructed and the evidence against the null hypothesis was considered to be strong when the monitoring boundaries were crossed. A significance level was defined as α=5%, power of 90% (β=10%), and an anticipated treatment effect to detect equal to the final estimate from the network meta-analysis. The frequency and time to strong evidence was compared against the null hypothesis between pairwise and network meta-analyses. 49 comparisons of interest from 44 networks were included; most (n=39, 80%) were between active drugs, mainly from the specialties of cardiology, endocrinology, psychiatry, and rheumatology. 29 comparisons were informed by both direct and indirect evidence (59%), 13 by indirect evidence (27%), and 7 by direct evidence (14%). Both network and pairwise meta-analysis provided strong evidence against the null hypothesis for seven comparisons, but for an additional 10 comparisons only network meta-analysis provided

  12. Living network meta-analysis compared with pairwise meta-analysis in comparative effectiveness research: empirical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakopoulou, Adriani; Mavridis, Dimitris; Furukawa, Toshi A; Cipriani, Andrea; Tricco, Andrea C; Straus, Sharon E; Siontis, George C M; Egger, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine whether the continuous updating of networks of prospectively planned randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (“living” network meta-analysis) provides strong evidence against the null hypothesis in comparative effectiveness of medical interventions earlier than the updating of conventional, pairwise meta-analysis. Design Empirical study of the accumulating evidence about the comparative effectiveness of clinical interventions. Data sources Database of network meta-analyses of RCTs identified through searches of Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews until 14 April 2015. Eligibility criteria for study selection Network meta-analyses published after January 2012 that compared at least five treatments and included at least 20 RCTs. Clinical experts were asked to identify in each network the treatment comparison of greatest clinical interest. Comparisons were excluded for which direct and indirect evidence disagreed, based on side, or node, splitting test (Pmeta-analysis. The frequency and time to strong evidence was compared against the null hypothesis between pairwise and network meta-analyses. Results 49 comparisons of interest from 44 networks were included; most (n=39, 80%) were between active drugs, mainly from the specialties of cardiology, endocrinology, psychiatry, and rheumatology. 29 comparisons were informed by both direct and indirect evidence (59%), 13 by indirect evidence (27%), and 7 by direct evidence (14%). Both network and pairwise meta-analysis provided strong evidence against the null hypothesis for seven comparisons, but for an additional 10 comparisons only network meta-analysis provided strong evidence against the null hypothesis (P=0.002). The median time to strong evidence against the null hypothesis was 19 years with living network meta-analysis and 23 years with living pairwise meta-analysis (hazard ratio 2.78, 95% confidence interval 1.00 to 7.72, P=0.05). Studies directly comparing

  13. Quantification and Analysis of Suspended Sediments Concentration Using Mobile and Static Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angga Dwinovantyo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP can be used not only for measuring ocean currents, but also for quantifying suspended sediment concentrations (SSC from acoustic backscatter strength based on sonar principle. Suspended sediment has long been recognized as the largest sources of sea contaminant and must be considered as one of the important parameters in water quality of seawater. This research was to determine SSC from measured acoustic backscattered intensity of static and mobile ADCP. In this study, vertically mounted 400 kHz and 750 kHz static ADCP were deployed in Lembeh Strait, North Sulawesi. A mobile ADCP 307.2 kHz was also mounted on the boat and moved to the predefined cross-section, accordingly. The linear regression analysis of echo intensity measured by ADCP and by direct measurement methods showed that ADCP is a reliable method to measure SSC with correlation coefficient (r 0.92. Higher SSC was observed in low water compared to that in high water and near port area compared to those in observed areas. All of this analysis showed that the combination of static and mobile ADCP methods produces reasonably good spatial and temporal data of SSC.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Resonant Converters for Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuchev Stoyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The following paperwork presents a comparative analysis of multiphase resonant converters for applications in energy storage systems. Models of the examined converters are developed in the software environments of MATLAB and LTspice. Results from the simulation examination of the converters during charging of supercapacitors and rechargeable batteries are presented. These results are compared to results obtained from experimental examination of the converters via a laboratory stand. For the purposes of the experimental examination, a control system is developed on the base of a virtual instrument in LabVIEW. The advantages and disadvantages of the different converters are discussed.

  15. Alcohol: view 2000 - comparative analysis gasoline versus alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, P.G. da; Vasconcelos, C.R. de

    1990-01-01

    The comparative analysis between alcohol and gas reveals the pros and the cons of the use of each one of those energy sources, taking as a basis an analysis of the world supply and demand of oil, and of PETROBRAS sceneries, including price expectancies for next decade, and the repercussion of PROALCOOL during its existence in the country. Regarding competitiveness, gas and the energy substitute hydrous alcohol are analyzed jointly, as an energy policy for carburetant fuels, taking into account aspects related with both the direct and the indirect cost of each energy source, as well as the benefits provided by then both. (author)

  16. Stokes profile analysis and vector magnetic fields. I. Inversion of photospheric lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skumanich, A.; Lites, B.W.

    1987-01-01

    Improvements are proposed for the Auer et al. (1977) method for the analytic inversion of Stokes profiles via nonlinear least squares. The introduction of additional physics into the Mueller absorption matrix (by including damping wings and magnetooptical birefringence, and by decoupling the intensity profile from the three-vector polarization profile in the analysis) is found to result in a more robust inversion method, providing more reliable and accurate estimates of sunspot vector magnetic fields without significant loss of economy. The method is applied to sunspot observations obtained with the High Altitude Observatory polarimeter. 29 references

  17. Cluster analysis of residential heat load profiles and the role of technical and household characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    2016-01-01

    of the temporality of the energy demand is needed. This paper contributes to this by focusing on the daily load profiles of energy demand for heating of Danish dwellings with heat pumps. Based on hourly recordings from 139 dwellings and employing cluster and regression analysis, the paper explores patterns...... (typologies) in daily heating load profiles and how these relate to socio-economic and technical characteristics of the included households. The study shows that the load profiles vary according to the external load conditions. Two main clusters were identified for both weekdays and weekends and across load...

  18. Comparative Proteomic Profile of the Human Umbilical Cord Blood Exosomes between Normal and Preeclampsia Pregnancies with High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruizhe Jia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that are involved in several biological processes. The roles of proteins from human umbilical cord blood exosomes in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia remains poorly understood. Methods: In this study, we used high-resolution LC-MS/MS technologies to construct a comparative proteomic profiling of human umbilical cord blood exosomes between normal and preeclamptic pregnancies. Results: A total of 221 proteins were detected in human umbilical cord blood exosomes, with 14 upregulated and 15 downregulated proteins were definitively identified between preeclamptic and control pregnancies. Further bioinformatics analysis (Gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis indicated that these differentially expressed proteins correlate with enzyme regulator activity, binding, extracellular region, cell part, biological regulation, cellular process and complement and coagulation cascades occurring during pathological changes of preeclampsia. Conclusion: Our results show significantly altered expression profiles of proteins in human umbilical cord blood exosomes between normal and preeclampsia pregnancies. These proteins may be involved in the etiology of preeclampsia.

  19. A Latent Profile Analysis of Latino Parenting: The Infusion of Cultural Values on Family Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Ayón, Cecilia; Williams, Lela Rankin; Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Ayers, Stephanie; Kiehne, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to (a) examine how acculturation and social support inform Latinos’ parenting behaviors, controlling for gender and education; (b) describe parenting styles among Latino immigrants while accounting for cultural elements; and (c) test how these parenting styles are associated with family conflict. A 3 step latent profile analysis with the sample (N = 489) revealed best fit with a 4 profile model (n = 410) of parenting: family parenting (n = 268, 65%), child...

  20. A simple analysis of the stable field profile in the supercritical TEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle; Jeppsson, B.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical investigation supported by numerical calculations has been performed of the stable field profile in a supercritical diffusion-stabilized n-GaAs transferred electron amplifier (TEA) with ohmic contacts. In the numerical analysis, the field profile is determined by solving the steady......}{2}} (n_{0}L)^{frac{1}{2}}. Those results contribute to the understanding of the highn_{0}L-product switch and the stability of the supercritical TEA....

  1. Comparing the democratic value of Facebook discussions across the profiles of Spanish political candidates during the 2011 General Election

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Valera Ordaz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the democratic value of user-generated comments on the Facebook profiles of three Spanish candidates during the Spanish General Election campaign of 2011 through a content analysis that operationalizes deliberative democracy. The findings show that these online spaces do not meet deliberative standards, but that they still serve democratic functions, such as citizen self-expression, democratic socialization and reinforcement of social cohesion among party activists and sympathizers. Moreover, results indicate that democratic value might vary depending on the size of the party where talk takes place. Political conversation on the walls of hegemonic candidates who belong to big consolidated political parties is mostly oriented towards self-expression and features some ideological diversity, so that individuals are sporadically confronted with diversity. For its part, talk on the Facebook profile of the minor candidate lacks fundamental disagreement but includes more in-group interaction, allowing minority ideological spheres for the cultivation of social cohesion and the construction of collective narratives in favorable discursive conditions.

  2. Comparative analysis of some brushless motors based on catalog data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Kalapish

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Brushless motors (polyphased AC induction, synchronous and brushless DC motors have no alternatives in modern electric drives. They possess highly efficient and very wide range of speeds. The objective of this paper is to represent some relation between the basic parameters and magnitudes of electrical machines. This allows to be made a comparative analysis and a choice of motor concerning each particular case based not only on catalogue data or price for sale.

  3. Initial Implementation of a comparative Data Analysis Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Prosdocimi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis is used throughout biology. When entities under comparison (e.g. proteins, genomes, species are related by descent, evolutionary theory provides a framework that, in principle, allows N-ary comparisons of entities, while controlling for non-independence due to relatedness. Powerful software tools exist for specialized applications of this approach, yet it remains under-utilized in the absence of a unifying informatics infrastructure. A key step in developing such an infrastructure is the definition of a formal ontology. The analysis of use cases and existing formalisms suggests that a significant component of evolutionary analysis involves a core problem of inferring a character history, relying on key concepts: “Operational Taxonomic Units” (OTUs, representing the entities to be compared; “character-state data” representing the observations compared among OTUs; “phylogenetic tree”, representing the historical path of evolution among the entities; and “transitions”, the inferred evolutionary changes in states of characters that account for observations. Using the Web Ontology Language (OWL, we have defined these and other fundamental concepts in a Comparative Data Analysis Ontology (CDAO. CDAO has been evaluated for its ability to represent token data sets and to support simple forms of reasoning. With further development, CDAO will provide a basis for tools (for semantic transformation, data retrieval, validation, integration, etc. that make it easier for software developers and biomedical researchers to apply evolutionary methods of inference to diverse types of data, so as to integrate this powerful framework for reasoning into their research.

  4. Initial Implementation of a Comparative Data Analysis Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Prosdocimi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis is used throughout biology. When entities under comparison (e.g. proteins, genomes, species are related by descent, evolutionary theory provides a framework that, in principle, allows N-ary comparisons of entities, while controlling for non-independence due to relatedness. Powerful software tools exist for specialized applications of this approach, yet it remains under-utilized in the absence of a unifying informatics infrastructure. A key step in developing such an infrastructure is the definition of a formal ontology. The analysis of use cases and existing formalisms suggests that a significant component of evolutionary analysis involves a core problem of inferring a character history, relying on key concepts: “Operational Taxonomic Units” (OTUs, representing the entities to be compared; “character-state data” representing the observations compared among OTUs; “phylogenetic tree”, representing the historical path of evolution among the entities; and “transitions”, the inferred evolutionary changes in states of characters that account for observations. Using the Web Ontology Language (OWL, we have defined these and other fundamental concepts in a Comparative Data Analysis Ontology (CDAO. CDAO has been evaluated for its ability to represent token data sets and to support simple forms of reasoning. With further development, CDAO will provide a basis for tools (for semantic transformation, data retrieval, validation, integration, etc. that make it easier for software developers and biomedical researchers to apply evolutionary methods of inference to diverse types of data, so as to integrate this powerful framework for reasoning into their research.

  5. Institutional arrangements of Currency Boards - Comparative Macroeconomic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lubomira Anastassova

    1999-01-01

    This paper is concentrated on the comparative macroeconomic analysis of the differences stemming from the extent to which the institutional framework of the currency board arrangement is implemented in the legal and regulatory systems in the different countries. The main objective of taking into consideration and examining the currency board institutional arrangements is to distinguish between the impact that currency board countries and countries with pegged exchange rate have on different m...

  6. COMPETITIVE SOCIAL POSITION OF THE COUNTRY: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Chornodid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the essence of the country's competitive position, a comparative analysis according to international indexes and indicators is provided. Also the competitive social benefits of the country are described. The real situation of the competitive social benefits is considered on international standards and assessments. The estimation of the position of Ukraine is given in terms of freedom, network readiness index, the index of competitiveness of travel and tourism.

  7. Managing health care in the digital world: a comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cucciniello, Maria; Lapsley, Irvine; Nasi, Greta

    2016-01-01

    Recently, most reforms affecting healthcare systems have focused on improving the quality of care and containing costs. This has led many scholars to advocate the adoption of Health Information systems, especially electronic medical records, by highlighting their potential benefits. This study is based on a comparative analysis using a multiple method approach to examine the implementation of the same electronic medical record system at two different hospitals. Its findings offer insights int...

  8. Dimeric spectra analysis in Microsoft Excel: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, A Ghanadzadeh; Moghadam, M; Zakerhamidi, M S

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to introduce the reader to an Add-in implementation, Decom. This implementation provides the whole processing requirements for analysis of dimeric spectra. General linear and nonlinear decomposition algorithms were integrated as an Excel Add-in for easy installation and usage. In this work, the results of several samples investigations were compared to those obtained by Datan. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. UHPLC-PDA-ESI-TOF/MS metabolic profiling of Arctostaphylos pungens and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi. A comparative study of phenolic compounds from leaf methanolic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panusa, Alessia; Petrucci, Rita; Marrosu, Giancarlo; Multari, Giuseppina; Gallo, Francesca Romana

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to get a rapid metabolic fingerprinting and to gain insight into the metabolic profiling of Arctostaphylos pungens H. B. K., a plant morphologically similar to Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. (bearberry) but with a lower arbutin (Arb) content. According to the European Pharmacopoeia the Arb content in the dried leaf of A. uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. must be at least 7% (wt/wt) but other species, like A. pungens, are unintentionally or fraudulently marketed instead of it. Therefore, methanolic leaf extracts of nine A. uva-ursi and six A. pungens samples labeled and marketed as "bearberry leaf" have been analyzed. A five-minute gradient with a UHPLC-PDA-ESI-TOF/MS on an Acquity BEH C18 (50×2.1 mm i.d.) 1.7 μm analytical column has been used for the purpose. A comprehensive assignment of secondary metabolites has been carried out in a comparative study of the two species. Among twenty-nine standards of natural compounds analyzed, fourteen have been identified, while other fifty-five metabolites have been tentatively assigned. Moreover, differences in both metabolic fingerprinting and profiling have been evidenced by statistical multivariate analysis. Specifically, main variations have been observed in the relative content for Arb, as expected, and for some galloyl derivative like tetra- and pentagalloylglucose more abundant in A. uva-ursi than in A. pungens. Furthermore, differences in flavonols profile, especially in myricetin and quercetin glycosilated derivatives, were observed. Based on principal component analysis myricetrin, together with a galloyl arbutin isomer and a disaccharide are herein proposed as distinctive metabolites for A. pungens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Meta-analysis methods for combining multiple expression profiles: comparisons, statistical characterization and an application guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lun-Ching; Lin, Hui-Min; Sibille, Etienne; Tseng, George C

    2013-12-21

    As high-throughput genomic technologies become accurate and affordable, an increasing number of data sets have been accumulated in the public domain and genomic information integration and meta-analysis have become routine in biomedical research. In this paper, we focus on microarray meta-analysis, where multiple microarray studies with relevant biological hypotheses are combined in order to improve candidate marker detection. Many methods have been developed and applied in the literature, but their performance and properties have only been minimally investigated. There is currently no clear conclusion or guideline as to the proper choice of a meta-analysis method given an application; the decision essentially requires both statistical and biological considerations. We performed 12 microarray meta-analysis methods for combining multiple simulated expression profiles, and such methods can be categorized for different hypothesis setting purposes: (1) HS(A): DE genes with non-zero effect sizes in all studies, (2) HS(B): DE genes with non-zero effect sizes in one or more studies and (3) HS(r): DE gene with non-zero effect in "majority" of studies. We then performed a comprehensive comparative analysis through six large-scale real applications using four quantitative statistical evaluation criteria: detection capability, biological association, stability and robustness. We elucidated hypothesis settings behind the methods and further apply multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) and an entropy measure to characterize the meta-analysis methods and data structure, respectively. The aggregated results from the simulation study categorized the 12 methods into three hypothesis settings (HS(A), HS(B), and HS(r)). Evaluation in real data and results from MDS and entropy analyses provided an insightful and practical guideline to the choice of the most suitable method in a given application. All source files for simulation and real data are available on the author's publication website.

  11. k-Nearest Neighbors Algorithm in Profiling Power Analysis Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Martinasek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Power analysis presents the typical example of successful attacks against trusted cryptographic devices such as RFID (Radio-Frequency IDentifications and contact smart cards. In recent years, the cryptographic community has explored new approaches in power analysis based on machine learning models such as Support Vector Machine (SVM, RF (Random Forest and Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP. In this paper, we made an extensive comparison of machine learning algorithms in the power analysis. For this purpose, we implemented a verification program that always chooses the optimal settings of individual machine learning models in order to obtain the best classification accuracy. In our research, we used three datasets, the first containing the power traces of an unprotected AES (Advanced Encryption Standard implementation. The second and third datasets are created independently from public available power traces corresponding to a masked AES implementation (DPA Contest v4. The obtained results revealed some interesting facts, namely, an elementary k-NN (k-Nearest Neighbors algorithm, which has not been commonly used in power analysis yet, shows great application potential in practice.

  12. The Social Profile of Students in Basic General Education in Ecuador: A Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, Olga Elizabeth Minchala; Stefos, Efstathios

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the social profile of students who are enrolled in Basic General Education in Ecuador. Both a descriptive and multidimensional statistical analysis was carried out based on the data provided by the National Survey of Employment, Unemployment and Underemployment in 2015. The descriptive analysis shows the…

  13. A method based on temporal concept analysis for detecting and profiling human trafficking suspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelmans, J.; Elzinga, P.; Viaene, S.; Dedene, G.; Hamza, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Human trafficking and forced prostitution are a serious problem for the Amsterdam-Amstelland police (the Netherlands). In this paper, we present a method based on Temporal Concept Analysis for detecting and profiling human trafficking suspects. Using traditional Formal Concept Analysis, we first

  14. Comparative analysis of the mitochondrial genomes in gastropods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arquez, Moises; Uribe, Juan Esteban; Castro, Lyda Raquel

    2012-01-01

    In this work we presented a comparative analysis of the mitochondrial genomes in gastropods. Nucleotide and amino acids composition was calculated and a comparative visual analysis of the start and termination codons was performed. The organization of the genome was compared calculating the number of intergenic sequences, the location of the genes and the number of reorganized genes (breakpoints) in comparison with the sequence that is presumed to be ancestral for the group. In order to calculate variations in the rates of molecular evolution within the group, the relative rate test was performed. In spite of the differences in the size of the genomes, the amino acids number is conserved. The nucleotide and amino acid composition is similar between Vetigastropoda, Ceanogastropoda and Neritimorpha in comparison to Heterobranchia and Patellogastropoda. The mitochondrial genomes of the group are very compact with few intergenic sequences, the only exception is the genome of Patellogastropoda with 26,828 bp. Start codons of the Heterobranchia and Patellogastropoda are very variable and there is also an increase in genome rearrangements for these two groups. Generally, the hypothesis of constant rates of molecular evolution between the groups is rejected, except when the genomes of Caenogastropoda and Vetigastropoda are compared.

  15. Identification of conserved regulatory elements by comparative genome analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jareborg Niclas

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For genes that have been successfully delineated within the human genome sequence, most regulatory sequences remain to be elucidated. The annotation and interpretation process requires additional data resources and significant improvements in computational methods for the detection of regulatory regions. One approach of growing popularity is based on the preferential conservation of functional sequences over the course of evolution by selective pressure, termed 'phylogenetic footprinting'. Mutations are more likely to be disruptive if they appear in functional sites, resulting in a measurable difference in evolution rates between functional and non-functional genomic segments. Results We have devised a flexible suite of methods for the identification and visualization of conserved transcription-factor-binding sites. The system reports those putative transcription-factor-binding sites that are both situated in conserved regions and located as pairs of sites in equivalent positions in alignments between two orthologous sequences. An underlying collection of metazoan transcription-factor-binding profiles was assembled to facilitate the study. This approach results in a significant improvement in the detection of transcription-factor-binding sites because of an increased signal-to-noise ratio, as demonstrated with two sets of promoter sequences. The method is implemented as a graphical web application, ConSite, which is at the disposal of the scientific community at http://www.phylofoot.org/. Conclusions Phylogenetic footprinting dramatically improves the predictive selectivity of bioinformatic approaches to the analysis of promoter sequences. ConSite delivers unparalleled performance using a novel database of high-quality binding models for metazoan transcription factors. With a dynamic interface, this bioinformatics tool provides broad access to promoter analysis with phylogenetic footprinting.

  16. Clinical Implications of Cluster Analysis-Based Classification of Acute Decompensated Heart Failure and Correlation with Bedside Hemodynamic Profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Ahmad

    Full Text Available Classification of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF is based on subjective criteria that crudely capture disease heterogeneity. Improved phenotyping of the syndrome may help improve therapeutic strategies.To derive cluster analysis-based groupings for patients hospitalized with ADHF, and compare their prognostic performance to hemodynamic classifications derived at the bedside.We performed a cluster analysis on baseline clinical variables and PAC measurements of 172 ADHF patients from the ESCAPE trial. Employing regression techniques, we examined associations between clusters and clinically determined hemodynamic profiles (warm/cold/wet/dry. We assessed association with clinical outcomes using Cox proportional hazards models. Likelihood ratio tests were used to compare the prognostic value of cluster data to that of hemodynamic data.We identified four advanced HF clusters: 1 male Caucasians with ischemic cardiomyopathy, multiple comorbidities, lowest B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP levels; 2 females with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, few comorbidities, most favorable hemodynamics; 3 young African American males with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, most adverse hemodynamics, advanced disease; and 4 older Caucasians with ischemic cardiomyopathy, concomitant renal insufficiency, highest BNP levels. There was no association between clusters and bedside-derived hemodynamic profiles (p = 0.70. For all adverse clinical outcomes, Cluster 4 had the highest risk, and Cluster 2, the lowest. Compared to Cluster 4, Clusters 1-3 had 45-70% lower risk of all-cause mortality. Clusters were significantly associated with clinical outcomes, whereas hemodynamic profiles were not.By clustering patients with similar objective variables, we identified four clinically relevant phenotypes of ADHF patients, with no discernable relationship to hemodynamic profiles, but distinct associations with adverse outcomes. Our analysis suggests that ADHF classification using

  17. A latent profile analysis of childhood trauma in women with bulimia nervosa: Associations with borderline personality disorder psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzinger, Linsey M; Haukebo, Justine E; Simonich, Heather; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Cao, Li; Lavender, Jason M; Mitchell, James E; Engel, Scott G; Crosby, Ross D

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to empirically examine naturally occurring groups of individuals with bulimia nervosa (BN) based on their childhood trauma (CT) histories and to compare these groups on a clinically relevant external validator, borderline personality disorder (BPD) psychopathology. This study examined the relationship between CT and BPD psychopathology among 133 women with BN using latent profile analysis (LPA) to classify participants based on histories of CT. Participants completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I/P), the Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines-Revised (DIB-R), and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). The LPA revealed four trauma profiles: low/no trauma, emotional trauma, sexual trauma, and polytrauma. Results indicated that the sexual and polytrauma profiles displayed significantly elevated scores on the DIB-R and that the low/no and emotional trauma profiles did not differ significantly on the DIB-R. Secondary analyses revealed elevated levels of a composite CT score among those with both BN and BPD psychopathology compared to those with BN only. These findings suggest that both childhood sexual abuse and the additive effects of childhood polytrauma may be linked to BPD psychopathology in BN. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:689-694). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Comparative analysis as a basic research orientation: Key methodological problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N P Narbut

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To date, the Sociological Laboratory of the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia has accumulated a vast experience in the field of cross-cultural studies reflected in the publications based on the results of mass surveys conducted in Moscow, Maikop, Beijing, Guangzhou, Prague, Belgrade, and Pristina. However, these publications mainly focus on the comparisons of the empirical data rather than methodological and technical issues, that is why the aim of this article is to identify key problems of the comparative analysis in cross-cultural studies that become evident only if you conduct an empirical research yourself - from the first step of setting the problem and approving it by all the sides (countries involved to the last step of interpreting and comparing the data obtained. The authors are sure that no sociologist would ever doubt the necessity and importance of comparative analysis in the broadest sense of the word, but at the same time very few are ready to discuss its key methodological challenges and prefer to ignore them completely. We summarize problems of the comparative analysis in sociology as follows: (1 applying research techniques to the sample in another country - both in translating and adapting them to different social realities and worldview (in particular, the problematic status of standardization and qualitative approach; (2 choosing “right” respondents to question and relevant cases (cultures to study; (3 designing the research scheme, i.e. justifying the sequence of steps (what should go first - methodology or techniques; (4 accepting the procedures that are correct within one country for cross-cultural work (whether or not that is an appropriate choice.

  19. Analysis of microRNA profile of Anopheles sinensis by deep sequencing and bioinformatic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xinyu; Zhou, Xiaojian; Zhou, Shuisen; Wang, Jingwen; Hu, Wei

    2018-03-12

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs widely identified in many mosquitoes. They are reported to play important roles in development, differentiation and innate immunity. However, miRNAs in Anopheles sinensis, one of the Chinese malaria mosquitoes, remain largely unknown. We investigated the global miRNA expression profile of An. sinensis using Illumina Hiseq 2000 sequencing. Meanwhile, we applied a bioinformatic approach to identify potential miRNAs in An. sinensis. The identified miRNA profiles were compared and analyzed by two approaches. The selected miRNAs from the sequencing result and the bioinformatic approach were confirmed with qRT-PCR. Moreover, target prediction, GO annotation and pathway analysis were carried out to understand the role of miRNAs in An. sinensis. We identified 49 conserved miRNAs and 12 novel miRNAs by next-generation high-throughput sequencing technology. In contrast, 43 miRNAs were predicted by the bioinformatic approach, of which two were assigned as novel. Comparative analysis of miRNA profiles by two approaches showed that 21 miRNAs were shared between them. Twelve novel miRNAs did not match any known miRNAs of any organism, indicating that they are possibly species-specific. Forty miRNAs were found in many mosquito species, indicating that these miRNAs are evolutionally conserved and may have critical roles in the process of life. Both the selected known and novel miRNAs (asi-miR-281, asi-miR-184, asi-miR-14, asi-miR-nov5, asi-miR-nov4, asi-miR-9383, and asi-miR-2a) could be detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) in the sequenced sample, and the expression patterns of these miRNAs measured by qRT-PCR were in concordance with the original miRNA sequencing data. The predicted targets for the known and the novel miRNAs covered many important biological roles and pathways indicating the diversity of miRNA functions. We also found 21 conserved miRNAs and eight counterparts of target immune pathway genes in An. sinensis

  20. Construction of phylogenetic trees by kernel-based comparative analysis of metabolic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, S June; Joung, Je-Gun; Chang, Jeong-Ho; Zhang, Byoung-Tak

    2006-06-06

    To infer the tree of life requires knowledge of the common characteristics of each species descended from a common ancestor as the measuring criteria and a method to calculate the distance between the resulting values of each measure. Conventional phylogenetic analysis based on genomic sequences provides information about the genetic relationships between different organisms. In contrast, comparative analysis of metabolic pathways in different organisms can yield insights into their functional relationships under different physiological conditions. However, evaluating the similarities or differences between metabolic networks is a computationally challenging problem, and systematic methods of doing this are desirable. Here we introduce a graph-kernel method for computing the similarity between metabolic networks in polynomial time, and use it to profile metabolic pathways and to construct phylogenetic trees. To compare the structures of metabolic networks in organisms, we adopted the exponential graph kernel, which is a kernel-based approach with a labeled graph that includes a label matrix and an adjacency matrix. To construct the phylogenetic trees, we used an unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean, i.e., a hierarchical clustering algorithm. We applied the kernel-based network profiling method in a comparative analysis of nine carbohydrate metabolic networks from 81 biological species encompassing Archaea, Eukaryota, and Eubacteria. The resulting phylogenetic hierarchies generally support the tripartite scheme of three domains rather than the two domains of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. By combining the kernel machines with metabolic information, the method infers the context of biosphere development that covers physiological events required for adaptation by genetic reconstruction. The results show that one may obtain a global view of the tree of life by comparing the metabolic pathway structures using meta-level information rather than sequence

  1. Construction of phylogenetic trees by kernel-based comparative analysis of metabolic networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Jeong-Ho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To infer the tree of life requires knowledge of the common characteristics of each species descended from a common ancestor as the measuring criteria and a method to calculate the distance between the resulting values of each measure. Conventional phylogenetic analysis based on genomic sequences provides information about the genetic relationships between different organisms. In contrast, comparative analysis of metabolic pathways in different organisms can yield insights into their functional relationships under different physiological conditions. However, evaluating the similarities or differences between metabolic networks is a computationally challenging problem, and systematic methods of doing this are desirable. Here we introduce a graph-kernel method for computing the similarity between metabolic networks in polynomial time, and use it to profile metabolic pathways and to construct phylogenetic trees. Results To compare the structures of metabolic networks in organisms, we adopted the exponential graph kernel, which is a kernel-based approach with a labeled graph that includes a label matrix and an adjacency matrix. To construct the phylogenetic trees, we used an unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean, i.e., a hierarchical clustering algorithm. We applied the kernel-based network profiling method in a comparative analysis of nine carbohydrate metabolic networks from 81 biological species encompassing Archaea, Eukaryota, and Eubacteria. The resulting phylogenetic hierarchies generally support the tripartite scheme of three domains rather than the two domains of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Conclusion By combining the kernel machines with metabolic information, the method infers the context of biosphere development that covers physiological events required for adaptation by genetic reconstruction. The results show that one may obtain a global view of the tree of life by comparing the metabolic pathway

  2. Analysis of chemical profiles of insect adhesion secretions by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitz, Manuela [Institute of Organic Chemistry, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 8, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Gerhardt, Heike [Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 8, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Schmitt, Christian; Betz, Oliver [Institute of Evolution and Ecology, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 28, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Albert, Klaus, E-mail: klaus.albert@uni-tuebingen.de [Institute of Organic Chemistry, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 8, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Lämmerhofer, Michael, E-mail: michael.laemmerhofer@uni-tuebingen.de [Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 8, 72076 Tübingen (Germany)

    2015-01-07

    Highlights: • Adhesion secretions of desert locust analyzed by GC–MS. • Insect secretions are composed of apolar and polar constituents. • Sampling simplified with contact SPME as compared to solvent sampling. • Thin-film SPME-GC–MS revealed complex alkane patterns for insect secretions. • Differences in tarsal (feet) secretions and samples from tibiae (upper legs) identified. - Abstract: This article reports on the chemical analysis of molecular profiles of tarsal secretions of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria (Forsskål, 1775) by gas chromatography hyphenated with quadrupol mass spectrometry (GC–MS) as well as {sup 1}H-nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR) spectroscopy. Special focus of this study was to elaborate on sampling methods which enable selective microscale extraction of insect secretions in a spatially controlled manner, in particular tarsal adhesive secretions and secretions located on cuticle surfaces at the tibia. Various solvent sampling procedures and contact solid-phase microextraction (SPME) methods were compared in terms of comprehensiveness and extraction efficiencies as measured by signal intensities in GC–MS. Solvent sampling with water as extraction solvent gave access to the elucidation of chemical profiles of polar compound classes such as amino acids and carbohydrates, but is extremely tedious. Contact SPME on the other hand can be regarded as a simplified and more elegant alternative, in particular for the lipophilic compound fraction. Many proteinogenic amino acids and ornithine as well as carbohydrate monomers arabinose, xylose, glucose, and galactose were detected in tarsal secretions after acid hydrolysis of aqueous extracts. Qualitatively similar but quantitatively significantly different molecular profiles were found for the lipid fraction which contained mainly n-alkanes and internally branched monomethyl-, dimethyl-, and trimethyl-alkanes in the C23–C49 range as well as long chain fatty acids and

  3. Analysis of chemical profiles of insect adhesion secretions by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitz, Manuela; Gerhardt, Heike; Schmitt, Christian; Betz, Oliver; Albert, Klaus; Lämmerhofer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Adhesion secretions of desert locust analyzed by GC–MS. • Insect secretions are composed of apolar and polar constituents. • Sampling simplified with contact SPME as compared to solvent sampling. • Thin-film SPME-GC–MS revealed complex alkane patterns for insect secretions. • Differences in tarsal (feet) secretions and samples from tibiae (upper legs) identified. - Abstract: This article reports on the chemical analysis of molecular profiles of tarsal secretions of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria (Forsskål, 1775) by gas chromatography hyphenated with quadrupol mass spectrometry (GC–MS) as well as 1 H-nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR) spectroscopy. Special focus of this study was to elaborate on sampling methods which enable selective microscale extraction of insect secretions in a spatially controlled manner, in particular tarsal adhesive secretions and secretions located on cuticle surfaces at the tibia. Various solvent sampling procedures and contact solid-phase microextraction (SPME) methods were compared in terms of comprehensiveness and extraction efficiencies as measured by signal intensities in GC–MS. Solvent sampling with water as extraction solvent gave access to the elucidation of chemical profiles of polar compound classes such as amino acids and carbohydrates, but is extremely tedious. Contact SPME on the other hand can be regarded as a simplified and more elegant alternative, in particular for the lipophilic compound fraction. Many proteinogenic amino acids and ornithine as well as carbohydrate monomers arabinose, xylose, glucose, and galactose were detected in tarsal secretions after acid hydrolysis of aqueous extracts. Qualitatively similar but quantitatively significantly different molecular profiles were found for the lipid fraction which contained mainly n-alkanes and internally branched monomethyl-, dimethyl-, and trimethyl-alkanes in the C23–C49 range as well as long chain fatty acids and aldehydes

  4. Quantitative evaluation of fluctuation error in X-ray diffraction profiles with fractal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurose, Masashi; Hirose, Yukio; Sasaki, Toshihiko; Yoshioka, Yasuo.

    1995-01-01

    A method of the fractal analysis was applied to the diffraction profiles for its quantitative evaluation. The fractal dimension was analyzed according to both Box counting method and FFT method. The relationship between the fractal dimension and the measurement criteria in X-ray diffraction analysis was discussed with diffraction data obtained under various conditions of the measurement. It was concluded that the fractal analysis is effective for the quantitative evaluation of diffraction data. Box counting method is suitable for evaluation of a whole profile, and FFT method is for that of a fundamental profile. The range of desirable condition of measurement is 1.0≤D≤1.2, where D is a fractal dimension. The appropriate range of measurement becomes 0.01≤Sw/HVB≤0.03, where Sw is the step width and the HVB is the half-value breadth. Stresses with higher precision were obtained from measurements under this new criteria. (author)

  5. Mission-profile-based stress analysis of bond-wires in SiC power modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel mission-profile-based reliability analysis approach for stress on bond wires in Silicon Carbide (SiC) MOSFET power modules using statistics and thermo-mechanical FEM analysis. In the proposed approach, both the operational and environmental thermal stresses are taken...... into account. The approach uses a two-dimension statistical analysis of the operating conditions in a real one-year mission profile sampled at time frames 5 minutes long. For every statistical bin corresponding to a given operating condition, the junction temperature evolution is estimated by a thermal network...... and the mechanical stress on bond wires is consequently extracted by finite-element simulations. In the final step, the considered mission profile is translated in a stress sequence to be used for Rainflow counting calculation and lifetime estimation....

  6. Analysis of gene expression profile microarray data in complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wulin; Song, Yiyan; Mo, Chengqiang; Jiang, Shuangjian; Wang, Zhongxing

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to predict key genes and proteins associated with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) using bioinformatics analysis. The gene expression profiling microarray data, GSE47603, which included peripheral blood samples from 4 patients with CRPS and 5 healthy controls, was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in CRPS patients compared with healthy controls were identified using the GEO2R online tool. Functional enrichment analysis was then performed using The Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery online tool. Protein‑protein interaction (PPI) network analysis was subsequently performed using Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interaction Genes database and analyzed with Cytoscape software. A total of 257 DEGs were identified, including 243 upregulated genes and 14 downregulated ones. Genes in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) family were most significantly differentially expressed. Enrichment analysis demonstrated that signaling pathways, including immune response, cell motion, adhesion and angiogenesis were associated with CRPS. PPI network analysis revealed that key genes, including early region 1A binding protein p300 (EP300), CREB‑binding protein (CREBBP), signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3, STAT5A and integrin α M were associated with CRPS. The results suggest that the immune response may therefore serve an important role in CRPS development. In addition, genes in the HLA family, such as HLA‑DQB1 and HLA‑DRB1, may present potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of CRPS. Furthermore, EP300, its paralog CREBBP, and the STAT family genes, STAT3 and STAT5 may be important in the development of CRPS.

  7. Plasma metabolic profiling analysis of toxicity induced by brodifacoum using metabonomics coupled with multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hui; Qiao, Zheng; Shen, Baohua; Xiang, Ping; Shen, Min

    2016-10-01

    Brodifacoum is one of the most widely used rodenticides for rodent control and eradication; however, human and animal poisoning due to primary and secondary exposure has been reported since its development. Although numerous studies have described brodifacoum induced toxicity, the precise mechanism still needs to be explored. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) coupled with an ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was applied to characterize the metabolic profile of brodifacoum induced toxicity and discover potential biomarkers in rat plasma. The toxicity of brodifacoum was dose-dependent, and the high-dose group obviously manifested toxicity with subcutaneous hemorrhage. The blood brodifacoum concentration showed a positive relation to the ingestion dose in toxicological analysis. Significant changes of twenty-four metabolites were identified and considered as potential toxicity bio