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Sample records for profiles tenth edition

  1. Catalogue of Cometary Orbits 1995. Tenth edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, B. G.; Williams, G. V.

    This tenth edition of the Catalogue of Cometary Orbits differs from its predecessors in that it utilizes the new cometary designation system that took effect at the beginning of 1995, adopted by the IAU in August 1994. It contains 1472 orbits for 1444 cometary apparitions and is intended to be complete for comets observed through the end of 1994. Contents: 1. Introduction. 2. General catalogue (long-period and unnumbered periodic comets, numbered periodic comets). 3. Identifications. 4. 1995 elements for numbered periodic comets. 5. Statistical tables (periodic comets of more than one appearance, periodic comets of only one appearance, comets that may be of short period, parabolic and nearly-parabolic orbits in order of i). 6. Correspondence of new-style and old-style designations (by Roman numeral, by letter designation). 7. X/comets.

  2. Proposed amendments to the tenth edition of the staff rules and regulations

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    The implementation of the tenth edition of the Staff Rules and Regulations on 1st January 1996 has highlighted the need for certain drafting amendments, now presented in this document. These initial proposed amendments are presented independently of any changes which might arise from the five-yearly review of the financial conditions of the members of the personnel currently in progress. In accordance with Articles VII 1.07 and 1.08 of the Staff Rules, the proposals set out below have been the subject of discussion within the Standing Concertation Committee. These modifications to the Staff Regulations have been discussed in TREF at its twenty-eighth and twenty-ninth meetings. They are submitted by the Management to Finance Committee for examination and approval, to take effect on 1st January 2000.

  3. Latent Profiles of Reading and Language and Their Association with Standardized Reading Outcomes in Kindergarten through Tenth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foorman, Barbara R.; Petscher, Yaacov; Stanley, Christopher; Truckenmiller, Adrea

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the latent profiles of reading and language skills that characterized 7,752 students in kindergarten through tenth grade and to relate the profiles to norm-referenced reading outcomes. Reading and language skills were assessed with a computer-adaptive assessment administered in the middle of the year…

  4. HMMEditor: a visual editing tool for profile hidden Markov model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Jianlin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Profile Hidden Markov Model (HMM is a powerful statistical model to represent a family of DNA, RNA, and protein sequences. Profile HMM has been widely used in bioinformatics research such as sequence alignment, gene structure prediction, motif identification, protein structure prediction, and biological database search. However, few comprehensive, visual editing tools for profile HMM are publicly available. Results We develop a visual editor for profile Hidden Markov Models (HMMEditor. HMMEditor can visualize the profile HMM architecture, transition probabilities, and emission probabilities. Moreover, it provides functions to edit and save HMM and parameters. Furthermore, HMMEditor allows users to align a sequence against the profile HMM and to visualize the corresponding Viterbi path. Conclusion HMMEditor provides a set of unique functions to visualize and edit a profile HMM. It is a useful tool for biological sequence analysis and modeling. Both HMMEditor software and web service are freely available.

  5. Profiling RNA editing in human tissues: towards the inosinome Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardi, Ernesto; Manzari, Caterina; Mastropasqua, Francesca; Aiello, Italia; D’Erchia, Anna Maria; Pesole, Graziano

    2015-01-01

    Adenine to Inosine RNA editing is a widespread co- and post-transcriptional mechanism mediated by ADAR enzymes acting on double stranded RNA. It has a plethora of biological effects, appears to be particularly pervasive in humans with respect to other mammals, and is implicated in a number of diverse human pathologies. Here we present the first human inosinome atlas comprising 3,041,422 A-to-I events identified in six tissues from three healthy individuals. Matched directional total-RNA-Seq and whole genome sequence datasets were generated and analysed within a dedicated computational framework, also capable of detecting hyper-edited reads. Inosinome profiles are tissue specific and edited gene sets consistently show enrichment of genes involved in neurological disorders and cancer. Overall frequency of editing also varies, but is strongly correlated with ADAR expression levels. The inosinome database is available at: http://srv00.ibbe.cnr.it/editing/. PMID:26449202

  6. Test Review: The Profile of Mood States 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shuqiong; Hsiao, Yu-Yu; Wang, Miao

    2014-01-01

    The "Profile of Mood States 2nd Edition" (POMS 2) was published in 2012 by Multi-Health Systems (MHS) to assess transient feelings and mood among individuals aged 13 years and above. Evolving from the original POMS (McNair, Lorr, & Droppleman, 1971, 1992), the POMS 2 was designed for youth (13-17 years old) and adults (18 years old…

  7. AGS experiments -- 1991, 1992, 1993. Tenth edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depken, J.C.

    1994-04-01

    This report contains: (1) FY 1993 AGS schedule as run; (2) FY 1994--95 AGS schedule; (3) AGS experiments {ge} FY 1993 (as of 30 March 1994); (4) AGS beams 1993; (5) AGS experimental area FY 1991 physics program; (6) AGS experimental area FY 1992 physics program; (7) AGS experimental area FY 1993 physics program; (8) AGS experimental area FY 1994 physics program (planned); (9) a listing of experiments by number; (10) two-page summaries of each experiment; (11) listing of publications of AGS experiments; and (12) listing of AGS experiments.

  8. Responsiveness of the Psychoeducational Profile-Third Edition for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Lin; Chiang, Fu-Mei; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Fu, Chung-Pei; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the responsiveness of the Psychoeducational Profile-third edition (PEP-3) in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). We investigated the responsiveness in terms of three types of scores (i.e., raw scores, developmental ages, and percentile ranks) of the subtests and composites of the PEP-3 and three…

  9. Comprehensive analysis of human small RNA sequencing data provides insights into expression profiles and miRNA editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jing; Wu, Yuliang; Zhang, Xiantong; Liao, Yifang; Sibanda, Vusumuzi Leroy; Liu, Wei; Guo, An-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play key regulatory roles in various biological processes and diseases. A comprehensive analysis of large scale small RNA sequencing data (smRNA-seq) will be very helpful to explore tissue or disease specific miRNA markers and uncover miRNA variants. Here, we systematically analyzed 410 human smRNA-seq datasets, which samples are from 24 tissue/disease/cell lines. We tested the mapping strategies and found that it was necessary to make multiple-round mappings with different mismatch parameters. miRNA expression profiles revealed that on average ∼70% of known miRNAs were expressed at low level or not expressed (RPM 100). About 30% known miRNAs were not expressed in all of our used samples. The miRNA expression profiles were compiled into an online database (HMED, http://bioinfo.life.hust.edu.cn/smallRNA/). Dozens of tissue/disease specific miRNAs, disease/control dysregulated miRNAs and miRNAs with arm switching events were discovered. Further, we identified some highly confident editing sites including 24 A-to-I sites and 23 C-to-U sites. About half of them were widespread miRNA editing sites in different tissues. We characterized that the 2 types of editing sites have different features with regard to location, editing level and frequency. Our analyses for expression profiles, specific miRNA markers, arm switching, and editing sites, may provide valuable information for further studies of miRNA function and biomarker finding.

  10. Colorado River Mile System, Tenths of Miles

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains points representing tenth of miles in the GCMRC river mile system. The points fall along the centerline of the Colorado River from Glen Canyon...

  11. Air Emissions Species Manual. Volume 2. Particulate-matter Species Profiles. Second edition. Final report, April 1988-October 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, G.W.; Waddell, J.T.; Butler, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has several activities that require speciated particulate matter (PM) or volatile organic compound (VOC) profiles from several source categories. In an effort to update the available speciated PM profile data base, EPA initiated studies to update the Receptor Model Source Composition Library (EPA-450/4-85-002) and produce a revision entitled Air Emissions Species Manual - Volume II, Particulate Matter Species Profiles (EPA-450/2-88-003b). Similarly for VOC emissions, EPA performed studies to revise the Volatile Organic Compound Species Data Manual - Second Edition (EPA-450/4-80-015) and provide an updated version in the Air Emissions Species Manual - Volume I, Volatile Organic Compound Species Profiles (EPA-450/2-88-003a). The purpose of this document is to update the PM profiles in the Air Emissions Species Manual, Volume II, with new information obtained from contacts with principal researchers in the field of PM species profiles and source receptor modeling. The profiles are based on data voluntarily submitted by the researchers.

  12. Diesel Technology: Introduction. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joerschke, John D.; Eichhorn, Lane

    This complete teacher edition of a diesel technology course consists of introductory pages, teacher pages, and the student edition. The introductory pages provide these tools: training and competency profile; National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation Crosswalk; instructional/task analysis; basic skills icons and classifications; basic…

  13. The child health and illness profile-adolescent edition: assessing well-being in group homes or institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, Sandra J; Poertner, John

    2002-01-01

    The Child Health and Illness Profile-Adolescent Edition (CHIP-AE), a new standardized instrument, was administered to 63 adolescents living in group homes or institutions. Youth reported high levels of satisfaction with their physical health, resilience and problem-solving skills, and academic achievement. Youth reported low levels of self-esteem, emotional comfort and psychosocial stability, family involvement, and work performance. They also took more risks, had more threats to achievement, and had poorer peer influences than other youth. This study demonstrates the potential usefulness of the CHIP-AE as a tool for assessing the health and well-being of youth living in group homes and institutions. Suggestions for future use of the CHIP-AE are discussed.

  14. Chemogenomic profiling of endogenous PARK2 expression using a genome-edited coincidence reporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Samuel A; Fogel, Adam I; Wang, Chunxin; MacArthur, Ryan; Guha, Rajarshi; Heman-Ackah, Sabrina; Martin, Scott; Youle, Richard J; Inglese, James

    2015-05-15

    Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is a central mediator of mitochondrial quality control and is linked to familial forms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Removal of dysfunctional mitochondria from the cell by Parkin is thought to be neuroprotective, and pharmacologically increasing Parkin levels may be a novel therapeutic approach. We used genome-editing to integrate a coincidence reporter into the PARK2 gene locus of a neuroblastoma-derived cell line and developed a quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) assay capable of accurately detecting subtle compound-mediated increases in endogenous PARK2 expression. Interrogation of a chemogenomic library revealed diverse chemical classes that up-regulate the PARK2 transcript, including epigenetic agents, drugs controlling cholesterol biosynthesis, and JNK inhibitors. Use of the coincidence reporter eliminated wasted time pursuing reporter-biased false positives accounting for ∼2/3 of the actives and, coupled with titration-based screening, greatly improves the efficiency of compound selection. This approach represents a strategy to revitalize reporter-gene assays for drug discovery.

  15. DEVELOPING LISTENING MATERIALS FOR THE TENTH GRADERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Lukman Syafi’i

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The needs survey shows that English listening skill of the students in the tenth graders of Indonesian Islamic High School or Madrasah Aliyah is not well developed. Consequently, the listening instructional materials based on standard of content 2006 used in the classes need to be advanced. The researcher used only one try out of the product, second revision in this study was the seventh step of Borg and Gall model operational product revision. This was done based on the result of the try out, and the final product (the production of the new materials. The development used in this study consists of needs survey, developing the materials, experts and teacher‟s validation, revision, try out, second revision and the final product. The product is found acceptable for the tenth grade students.

  16. Profiles of For-Profit and Nonprofit Education Management Organizations. Fourteenth Edition--2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Gary; Gulosino, Charisse

    2013-01-01

    Annual "Profiles" reports are comprehensive digests of data on education management organizations. Analysis and interpretation of the data in this report are, for the most part, limited to describing general trends over time. The report is intended for a broad audience. Policymakers, educators, school district officials, and school board…

  17. Epitranscriptomic profiling across cell types reveals associations between APOBEC1-mediated RNA editing, gene expression outcomes, and cellular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayon-Estrada, Violeta; Harjanto, Dewi; Hamilton, Claire E; Berchiche, Yamina A; Gantman, Emily Conn; Sakmar, Thomas P; Bulloch, Karen; Gagnidze, Khatuna; Harroch, Sheila; McEwen, Bruce S; Papavasiliou, F Nina

    2017-12-12

    Epitranscriptomics refers to posttranscriptional alterations on an mRNA sequence that are dynamic and reproducible, and affect gene expression in a similar way to epigenetic modifications. However, the functional relevance of those modifications for the transcript, the cell, and the organism remain poorly understood. Here, we focus on RNA editing and show that Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-1 (APOBEC1), together with its cofactor RBM47, mediates robust editing in different tissues. The majority of editing events alter the sequence of the 3'UTR of targeted transcripts, and we focus on one cell type (monocytes) and on a small set of highly edited transcripts within it to show that editing alters gene expression by modulating translation (but not RNA stability or localization). We further show that specific cellular processes (phagocytosis and transendothelial migration) are enriched for transcripts that are targets of editing and that editing alters their function. Finally, we survey bone marrow progenitors and demonstrate that common monocyte progenitor cells express high levels of APOBEC1 and are susceptible to loss of the editing enzyme. Overall, APOBEC1-mediated transcriptome diversification is required for the fine-tuning of protein expression in monocytes, suggesting an epitranscriptomic mechanism for the proper maintenance of homeostasis in innate immune cells. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  18. Assisted editing od SensorML with EDI. A bottom-up scenario towards the definition of sensor profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oggioni, Alessandro; Tagliolato, Paolo; Fugazza, Cristiano; Bastianini, Mauro; Pavesi, Fabio; Pepe, Monica; Menegon, Stefano; Basoni, Anna; Carrara, Paola

    2015-04-01

    Sensor observation systems for environmental data have become increasingly important in the last years. The EGU's Informatics in Oceanography and Ocean Science track stressed the importance of management tools and solutions for marine infrastructures. We think that full interoperability among sensor systems is still an open issue and that the solution to this involves providing appropriate metadata. Several open source applications implement the SWE specification and, particularly, the Sensor Observation Services (SOS) standard. These applications allow for the exchange of data and metadata in XML format between computer systems. However, there is a lack of metadata editing tools supporting end users in this activity. Generally speaking, it is hard for users to provide sensor metadata in the SensorML format without dedicated tools. In particular, such a tool should ease metadata editing by providing, for standard sensors, all the invariant information to be included in sensor metadata, thus allowing the user to concentrate on the metadata items that are related to the specific deployment. RITMARE, the Italian flagship project on marine research, envisages a subproject, SP7, for the set-up of the project's spatial data infrastructure. SP7 developed EDI, a general purpose, template-driven metadata editor that is composed of a backend web service and an HTML5/javascript client. EDI can be customized for managing the creation of generic metadata encoded as XML. Once tailored to a specific metadata format, EDI presents the users a web form with advanced auto completion and validation capabilities. In the case of sensor metadata (SensorML versions 1.0.1 and 2.0), the EDI client is instructed to send an "insert sensor" request to an SOS endpoint in order to save the metadata in an SOS server. In the first phase of project RITMARE, EDI has been used to simplify the creation from scratch of SensorML metadata by the involved researchers and data managers. An interesting by

  19. Air-Emissions-Species Manual. Volume 1. Volatile-organic-compound species profiles. Second edition. Final report, April 1988-October 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, G.W.; Waddell, J.T.; Butler, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has several activities that require speciated particulate matter (PM) or volatile organic compounds (VOC) profiles from several source categories. In an effort to update the available speciated PM-profile data base, EPA initiated studies to update the Receptor Model Source Composition Library and produce a revision entitled Air Emissions Species Manual - Volume II, Particulate Matter Species Profiles. Similarly for VOC emissions, EPA performed studies to revise the Volatile Organic Compound Species Data Manual - Second Edition and provide an updated version in the Air Emissions Species Manual - Volume I, Volatile Organic Compound Species Profiles. The purpose of the document is to update VOC profiles in the Air Emissions Species Manual, Volume I.

  20. Tenth target fabrication specialists` meeting: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foreman, L.R.; Stark, J.C. [comp.

    1995-11-01

    This tenth meeting of specialists in target fabrication for inertial confinement is unique in that it is the first meeting that was completely unclassified. As a result of the new classification, we were able to invite more foreign participation. In addition to participants from the US, UK, and Canada, representatives from France, Japan, and two Russian laboratories attended, about 115 in all. This booklet presents full papers and poster sessions. Indirect and direct drive laser implosions are considered. Typical topics include: polymer or aluminium or resorcinol/formaldehyde shells, laser technology, photon tunneling microscopy as a characterization tool, foams, coatings, hohlraums, and beryllium capsules. Hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, and beryllium are all considered as fuels.

  1. Portuguese adaptation of the Child Health and Illness Profile, Child Edition (CHIP-CE Adaptación portuguesa del perfil de salud infantil (Child Health and Illness Profile, Child Edition, CHIP-CE Adaptação portuguesa do Child Health and Illness Profile, Child Edition (CHIP-CE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alves Rodrigues

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Valid and comprehensive instruments that allow us to obtain self-reports of children’s health and health-related behaviour are invaluable for understanding health and illness trajectories, for health resource planning and for evaluation of policy. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the process of adapting the Child Health and Illness Profile, Child Edition (CHIP-CE, a self-report health status instrument for children aged 6 to 11 years, to Portuguese (Riley et al., 2004. Method: After consensual translation by experts, the CHIP-CE was administered to 255 pupils, mean age 9.93 years, and its internal consistency, construct validity and concurrent validity were evaluated. Results: The CHIP-CE Portuguese version had good internal consistency. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.83 for Satisfaction, 0.79 for Comfort, 0.67 for Resilience, 0.71 for Risk avoidance, 0.77 for Achievement and 0.88 for the total scale. Factor analysis showed a five-factor structure: Satisfaction, Comfort, Resilience, Risk avoidance and Achievement. This was similar to the original version, explaining 40.83% of the total variance. All Satisfaction and Comfort items had factor loadings on their respective domains of at least 0.30, except for 7 items. Conclusions: The properties of the CHIP-CE Portuguese version demonstrate its value for measuring children’s perceptions of their own health and well-being.Encuadramiento: Instrumentos válidos y abarcadores que permitan obtener el autorelato de salud y de comportamientos relacionados con la salud de los niños son de gran valor para comprender la salud y las trayectorias de enfermedad, para el planeamiento de recursos y para la evaluación de políticas en esta área. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio es describir el proceso de adaptación al portugués del Health and Illnes Profile, Child Edition, CHIP-CE, instrumento de autorelato del estado de salud de niños con edades comprendidas entre los 6 y

  2. Chemical Research Society of India – Tenth Anniversary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    The Chemical Research Society of India (CRSI) established in 1999 completes its tenth year during the Tenth National Symposium (NSC-10; February 2008) in Bangalore at the. Indian Institute of Science. The Society has been providing a forum for chemists to dis- cuss and share their research contributions with ...

  3. Evidence of Intercultural Communication Competence in Tenth Grader's Narrative Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero Moya, María Eulalia; Muñoz Ortiz, Liliana; Niño Díaz, Ana María

    2016-01-01

    This action research study explored the effects of an intervention linking both culture and citizenship in a tenth-grade English language class, and aimed at finding evidence of intercultural communicative competence (ICC) skills through the writing of narrative texts in English. Participants were 75 tenth-grade students, between the ages of 14…

  4. Tenth ORNL Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaja, R.E.; Chou, T.L.; Sims, C.S.; Greene, R.T.

    1985-03-01

    The Tenth Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory during April 9-11, 1984. Dosemeter badges from 31 participating organizations were mounted on 40cm Lucite phantoms and exposed to a range of dose equivalents which could be encountered during routine personnel monitoring in mixed radiation fields. The Health Physics Research Reactor served as the only source of radiation for eight of the ten irradiations which included a low (approx. 0.50 mSv) and high (approx. 10.00 mSv) neutron dose equivalent run for each of four shield conditions. Two irradiations were also conducted for which concrete- and Lucite-shield reactor irradiations were gamma-enhanced using a /sup 137/Cs source. Results indicated that some participants had difficulty obtaining measurable indication of neutron and gamma exposures at dose equivalents less than about 0.50 mSv and 0.20 mSv, respectively. Albedo dosemeters provided the best overall accuracy and precision for the neutron measurements. Direct interaction TLD systems showed significant variation in accuracy with incident spectrum, and threshold neutron dosemeters (film and recoil track) underestimated reference values by more than 50%. Gamma dose equivalents estimated in the mixed fields were higher than reference values with TL gamma dosemeters generally yielding more accurate results than film. Under the conditions of this study in which participants had information concerning exposure conditions and radiation field characteristics prior to dosemeter evaluation, only slightly more than half of all reported results met regulatory standards for neutron and gamma accuracy. 19 refs., 2 figs., 29 tabs.

  5. Combinatorics of tenth-order mock theta functions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    016-0305-4. Combinatorics of tenth-order mock theta functions. J K SAREEN and M RANA. ∗ ... 2010 Mathematics Subject Classifications. 11P81, 82 ..... [8] Fine N J, Basic hypergeometric series and applications, in: Mathematical Surveys and.

  6. Gas Tungsten Arc Welding and Plasma Arc Cutting. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition [and] Student Workbook. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Eddie; Knapp, John

    This packet of instructional materials for a gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and plasma arc cutting course is comprised of a teacher edition, student edition, and student workbook. The teacher edition consists of introductory pages and teacher pages. Introductory pages include training and competency profile, state duty/task crosswalk,…

  7. Fundamentals of Welding. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition [and] Student Workbook. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, Clarence; Gregory, Mike; New, Larry

    Teacher and student editions and a student workbook for fundamentals of welding comprise the first of six in a series of competency-based instructional materials for welding programs. Introductory pages in the teacher edition are training and competency profile, instructional/task analysis, basic skills icons and classifications, basic skills…

  8. Residential and Light Commercial HVAC. Teacher Edition and Student Edition. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, David

    This package contains teacher and student editions of a residential and light commercial heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) course of study. The teacher edition contains information on the following: using the publication; national competencies; competency profile; related academic and workplace skills list; tools, equipment, and…

  9. genome editing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-02-11

    Feb 11, 2016 ... The background of this 'linguistic turn' is the discovery of the CRISPR Cas9 system and its possible applications, which are described in two previous publications (Morange. 2015a, b). 2. The early uses of 'editing'. All molecular biologists are familiar with the phenomenon of. RNA editing discovered in the ...

  10. 1H-NMR, 1H-NMR T2-edited, and 2D-NMR in bipolar disorder metabolic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Sumit; Pedrini, Mariana; Rizzo, Lucas B; Zeni-Graiff, Maiara; Mas, Caroline Dal; Cassinelli, Ana Cláudia; Noto, Mariane N; Asevedo, Elson; Cordeiro, Quirino; Pontes, João G M; Brasil, Antonio J M; Lacerda, Acioly; Hayashi, Mirian A F; Poppi, Ronei; Tasic, Ljubica; Brietzke, Elisa

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify molecular alterations in the human blood serum related to bipolar disorder, using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and chemometrics. Metabolomic profiling, employing 1H-NMR, 1H-NMR T2-edited, and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and chemometrics of human blood serum samples from patients with bipolar disorder (n = 26) compared with healthy volunteers (n = 50) was performed. The investigated groups presented distinct metabolic profiles, in which the main differential metabolites found in the serum sample of bipolar disorder patients compared with those from controls were lipids, lipid metabolism-related molecules (choline, myo-inositol), and some amino acids (N-acetyl-L-phenyl alanine, N-acetyl-L-aspartyl-L-glutamic acid, L-glutamine). In addition, amygdalin, α-ketoglutaric acid, and lipoamide, among other compounds, were also present or were significantly altered in the serum of bipolar disorder patients. The data presented herein suggest that some of these metabolites differentially distributed between the groups studied may be directly related to the bipolar disorder pathophysiology. The strategy employed here showed significant potential for exploring pathophysiological features and molecular pathways involved in bipolar disorder. Thus, our findings may contribute to pave the way for future studies aiming at identifying important potential biomarkers for bipolar disorder diagnosis or progression follow-up.

  11. Combinatorics of tenth-order mock theta functions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we provide the combinatorial interpretations of two tenth order mock theta functions which appeared in some identities given in Ramanujan's lost notebook ((1988) Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi). Author Affiliations. J K SAREEN M RANA. Dates. Manuscript received: 2 May 2014; Manuscript revised: 16 ...

  12. Extraction of Vertical Profiles of Atmospheric Variables from Gridded Binary, Edition 2 (GRIB2) Model Output Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-18

    vertical profile analysis , Global Forecast System 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF...convert the output into a readily readable and useable form. It reads in the aforementioned output file from wgrib2 (ETGB_2017081506, in the...report, the line would read ./convertgfs ETGB_2017081506_out Note that some operating systems may not use the “./” before the executable name. Table

  13. United States Air Force Statistical Digest, Fiscal Year 1955. Tenth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1955-09-30

    percentages computed accordingly. Source: Personnel Statistics Division. Directorate Of Statistical "Serv t cea , DeS/Comptroller TABLE IS9 - DISTRIBUTION...19,4) "袋) TYPE OF PERSONNEL BY r0!-:!,lANl) OF ASSIGllMEJrr MOAR MDR MOAR >!DR MaAR MDR MOAR >!DR ~ 4,338 2,T;6 4,630 2,770 4,985 2,920 5,207 2,991...15 50 Airrr.ar. 1 - 1 - 3 - 3 - Note: MQ\\R_ Mobilization Assignt:Ent Reserve; MDR - Mobilization tesi£Illltion Reserve. Source: Personnel Statistics

  14. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (Tenth Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Dagher, L.; Swezey, B.

    2007-12-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States, focusing on consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied from renewable energy sources and how this choice represents a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. The report presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets, on green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, and green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. It also includes a discussion of key market trends and issues.

  15. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (Tenth Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dagher, Leila [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Swezey, Blair [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2007-12-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States, focusing on consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied from renewable energy sources and how this choice represents a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. The report presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets, on green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, and green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. It also includes a discussion of key market trends and issues.

  16. Gerbert of Aurillac: astronomy and geometry in tenth century Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2012-01-01

    Gerbert of Aurillac was the most prominent personality of the tenth century: astronomer, organ builder and music theoretician, mathematician, philosopher, and finally pope with the name of Silvester II (999-1003). Gerbert introduced firstly the arabic numbers in Europe, invented an abacus for speeding the calculations and found a rational approximation for the equilateral triangle area, in the letter to Adelbold here discussed. Gerbert described a semi-sphere to Constantine of Fleury with bui...

  17. Cluster editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böcker, S.; Baumbach, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The Cluster Editing problem asks to transform a graph into a disjoint union of cliques using a minimum number of edge modifications. Although the problem has been proven NP-complete several times, it has nevertheless attracted much research both from the theoretical and the applied side. The prob......The Cluster Editing problem asks to transform a graph into a disjoint union of cliques using a minimum number of edge modifications. Although the problem has been proven NP-complete several times, it has nevertheless attracted much research both from the theoretical and the applied side....... The problem has been the inspiration for numerous algorithms in bioinformatics, aiming at clustering entities such as genes, proteins, phenotypes, or patients. In this paper, we review exact and heuristic methods that have been proposed for the Cluster Editing problem, and also applications...

  18. Public channel cryptography: chaos synchronization and Hilbert's tenth problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Ido; Kopelowitz, Evi; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2008-08-22

    The synchronization process of two mutually delayed coupled deterministic chaotic maps is demonstrated both analytically and numerically. The synchronization is preserved when the mutually transmitted signals are concealed by two commutative private filters, a convolution of the truncated time-delayed output signals or some powers of the delayed output signals. The task of a passive attacker is mapped onto Hilbert's tenth problem, solving a set of nonlinear Diophantine equations, which was proven to be in the class of NP-complete problems [problems that are both NP (verifiable in nondeterministic polynomial time) and NP-hard (any NP problem can be translated into this problem)]. This bridge between nonlinear dynamics and NP-complete problems opens a horizon for new types of secure public-channel protocols.

  19. Tenth workshop on the algorithmic foundations of robotics (WAFR)

    CERN Document Server

    Lozano-Perez, Tomas; Roy, Nicholas; Rus, Daniela; Algorithmic foundations of robotics X

    2013-01-01

    Algorithms are a fundamental component of robotic systems. Robot algorithms process inputs from sensors that provide noisy and partial data, build geometric and physical models of the world, plan high-and low-level actions at different time horizons, and execute these actions on actuators with limited precision. The design and analysis of robot algorithms raise a unique combination of questions from many elds, including control theory, computational geometry and topology, geometrical and physical modeling, reasoning under uncertainty, probabilistic algorithms, game theory, and theoretical computer science. The Workshop on Algorithmic Foundations of Robotics (WAFR) is a single-track meeting of leading researchers in the eld of robot algorithms. Since its inception in 1994, WAFR has been held every other year, and has provided one of the premiere venues for the publication of some of the eld's most important and lasting contributions. This books contains the proceedings of the tenth WAFR, held on June 13{15 201...

  20. Learning Advanced Post-editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alabau, Vicente; Carl, Michael; Casacuberta, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This chapter reports the results of a longitudinal study (LS14) in which the CASMACAT post-editing workbench was tested with interactive translation prediction (ITP). Whereas previous studies with the CASMACAT workbench (Sanchis-Trilles et al., Machine Translation, 2014) or similar systems (Langl...... in uncovering any specific profiles of translators depending on personal factors such as previous experience in post-editing and typing skills. Finally, the aim was also to collect feedback from the post-editors in order to know more about their views regarding this type of technology....

  1. A New Iterative Scheme for the Solution of Tenth Order Boundary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new iterative scheme for the solution of tenth order boundary value problems has been implemented using first-kind Chebychev polynomials as trial functions. The method involves transforming tenth order boundary value problems into a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The trial solution is introduced into ...

  2. Peer Victimization in Fifth Grade and Health in Tenth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Marc N.; Klein, David J.; Tortolero, Susan R.; Mrug, Sylvie; Peskin, Melissa F.; Davies, Susan L.; Schink, Elizabeth T.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Children who experience bullying, a type of peer victimization, show worse mental and physical health cross-sectionally. Few studies have assessed these relationships longitudinally. We examined longitudinal associations of bullying with mental and physical health from elementary to high school, comparing effects of different bullying histories. METHODS: We analyzed data from 4297 children surveyed at 3 time points (fifth, seventh, and tenth grades) in 3 cities. We used multivariable regressions to test longitudinal associations of bullying with mental and physical health by comparing youth who experienced bullying in both the past and present, experienced bullying in the present only, experienced bullying in the past only, or did not experience bullying. RESULTS: Bullying was associated with worse mental and physical health, greater depression symptoms, and lower self-worth over time. Health was significantly worse for children with both past and present bullying experiences, followed by children with present-only experiences, children with past-only experiences, and children with no experiences. For example, 44.6% of children bullied in both the past and present were at the lowest decile of psychosocial health, compared with 30.7% of those bullied in the present only (P = .005), 12.1% of those bullied in the past only (P bullied (P bullying are associated with substantially worse health. Clinicians who recognize bullying when it first starts could intervene to reverse the downward health trajectory experienced by youth who are repeated targets. PMID:24534401

  3. Gerbert of Aurillac: Astronomy and Geometry in Tenth Century Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2013-01-01

    Gerbert of Aurillac was the most prominent personality of the tenth century: astronomer, organ builder and music theoretician, mathematician, philosopher, and finally pope with the name of Silvester II (999-1003). Gerbert introduced firstly the arabic numbers in Europe, invented an abacus for speeding the calculations and found a rational approximation for the equilateral triangle area, in the letter to Adelbold here discussed. Gerbert described a semi-sphere to Constantine of Fleury with built-in sighting tubes, used for astronomical observations. The procedure to identify the star nearest to the North celestial pole is very accurate and still in use in the XII century, when Computatrix was the name of Polaris. For didactical purposes the Polaris would have been precise enough and much less time consuming, but here Gerbert was clearly aligning a precise equatorial mount for a fixed instrument for accurate daytime observations. Through the sighting tubes it was possible to detect equinoxes and solstices by observing the Sun in the corresponding days. The horalogium of Magdeburg was probably a big and fixed-mount nocturlabe, always pointing the star near the celestial pole.

  4. Basic Wiring. Third Edition. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary; Blasingame, Don; Batson, Larry; Ipock, Dan; Carroll, Charles; Friesen, Wade; Fleming, Glenn

    This publication contains both a teacher edition and a student edition of materials for a foundation course in an electrical wiring program. The course introduces basic concepts and skills that are prerequisites to residential wiring and commercial and industrial wiring courses. The contents of the materials are tied to measurable and observable…

  5. Wikipedia editing dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandica, Y.; Carvalho, J.; Sampaio dos Aidos, F.

    2015-01-01

    A model for the probabilistic function followed in editing Wikipedia is presented and compared with simulations and real data. It is argued that the probability of editing is proportional to the editor's number of previous edits (preferential attachment), to the editor's fitness, and to an aging factor. Using these simple ingredients, it is possible to reproduce the results obtained for Wikipedia editing dynamics for a collection of single pages as well as the averaged results. Using a stochastic process framework, a recursive equation was obtained for the average of the number of edits per editor that seems to describe the editing behavior in Wikipedia.

  6. Long-Term Stability of Membership in a Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Third Edition (WISC-III) Subtest Core Profile Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsuk, Ellen R.; Watkins, Marley W.; Canivez, Gary L.

    2006-01-01

    Although often applied in practice, clinically based cognitive subtest profile analysis has failed to achieve empirical support. Nonlinear multivariate subtest profile analysis may have benefits over clinically based techniques, but the psychometric properties of these methods must be studied prior to their implementation and interpretation. The…

  7. Tenth Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress, July 1951

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, Gordon

    1951-07-01

    The document represents the tenth semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period January - June 1951.

  8. Multiplex editing system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a multiplex editing system. The system allows multiple editing of nucleic acid sequences such as genomic sequences, such as knockins of genes of interest in a genome, knockouts of genomic sequences and/or allele replacement. Also provided herein are a method...... for editing nucleic acids and a cell comprising a stably integrated endonuclease....

  9. Dynamic landscape and regulation of RNA editing in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Meng How; Li, Qin; Shanmugam, Raghuvaran; Piskol, Robert; Kohler, Jennefer; Young, Amy N; Liu, Kaiwen Ivy; Zhang, Rui; Ramaswami, Gokul; Ariyoshi, Kentaro; Gupte, Ankita; Keegan, Liam P; George, Cyril X; Ramu, Avinash; Huang, Ni; Pollina, Elizabeth A; Leeman, Dena S; Rustighi, Alessandra; Goh, Y P Sharon; Chawla, Ajay; Del Sal, Giannino; Peltz, Gary; Brunet, Anne; Conrad, Donald F; Samuel, Charles E; O'Connell, Mary A; Walkley, Carl R; Nishikura, Kazuko; Li, Jin Billy

    2017-10-11

    Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is a conserved post-transcriptional mechanism mediated by ADAR enzymes that diversifies the transcriptome by altering selected nucleotides in RNA molecules. Although many editing sites have recently been discovered, the extent to which most sites are edited and how the editing is regulated in different biological contexts are not fully understood. Here we report dynamic spatiotemporal patterns and new regulators of RNA editing, discovered through an extensive profiling of A-to-I RNA editing in 8,551 human samples (representing 53 body sites from 552 individuals) from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project and in hundreds of other primate and mouse samples. We show that editing levels in non-repetitive coding regions vary more between tissues than editing levels in repetitive regions. Globally, ADAR1 is the primary editor of repetitive sites and ADAR2 is the primary editor of non-repetitive coding sites, whereas the catalytically inactive ADAR3 predominantly acts as an inhibitor of editing. Cross-species analysis of RNA editing in several tissues revealed that species, rather than tissue type, is the primary determinant of editing levels, suggesting stronger cis-directed regulation of RNA editing for most sites, although the small set of conserved coding sites is under stronger trans-regulation. In addition, we curated an extensive set of ADAR1 and ADAR2 targets and showed that many editing sites display distinct tissue-specific regulation by the ADAR enzymes in vivo. Further analysis of the GTEx data revealed several potential regulators of editing, such as AIMP2, which reduces editing in muscles by enhancing the degradation of the ADAR proteins. Collectively, our work provides insights into the complex cis- and trans-regulation of A-to-I editing.

  10. Regulated RNA editing and functional epistasis in Shaker potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingleby, Lindsey; Maloney, Rachel; Jepson, James; Horn, Richard; Reenan, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Regulated point modification by an RNA editing enzyme occurs at four conserved sites in the Drosophila Shaker potassium channel. Single mRNA molecules can potentially represent any of 2(4) = 16 permutations (isoforms) of these natural variants. We generated isoform expression profiles to assess sexually dimorphic, spatial, and temporal differences. Striking tissue-specific expression was seen for particular isoforms. Moreover, isoform distributions showed evidence for coupling (linkage) of editing sites. Genetic manipulations of editing enzyme activity demonstrated that a chief determinant of Shaker editing site choice resides not in the editing enzyme, but rather, in unknown factors intrinsic to cells. Characterizing the biophysical properties of currents in nine isoforms revealed an unprecedented feature, functional epistasis; biophysical phenotypes of isoforms cannot be explained simply by the consequences of individual editing effects at the four sites. Our results unmask allosteric communication across disparate regions of the channel protein and between evolved and regulated amino acid changes introduced by RNA editing.

  11. An Unpublished Byzantine Medical Fragment (Parisinus Suppl. gr. 607: Pharmaceutical Knowledge and Practice in Tenth-Century Constantinople

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Rance

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to introduce, edit and translate an unpublished fragment of Byzantine medical writing. Parisinus suppl. gr. 607 preserves a short and seemingly acephalous anthology of pharmaceutical remedies.  A consideration of recipe collections as a distinctive but hard-to-define species of Byzantine Fachliteratur seeks to integrate this text into recent scholarship concerning a broad category of informal therapeutic writings, which testify to Byzantine drug lore, clinical practice and medicinal book culture. Investigation of the codicological structure clarifies that a secondary hand copied the fragment onto a blank folio in the mid-tenth century, contemporary with the compilation this manuscript in a high socio-cultural and intellectual milieu in Constantinople. Examination of compositional contexts, embracing philological, textual, literary-historical and medical dimensions, suggests a ‘private’ remedy collection indicative of the use of texts in ‘household medicine’. This fragment draws particular attention as one of the earliest surviving specimens, while the codex has escaped the notice of previous inventories of Greek manuscripts with medical content.

  12. [My humble opinion on teaching of acupoints: discussion on The Channels, Collaterals and Acupoints Science, a national plan teaching material of "the tenth five-year plan"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Shu-Wei

    2008-10-01

    Analyze and probe a part of contents in The Channels, Collaterals and Acupoints Science, a national plan teaching material of "the tenth five-year plan", and put forward own opinion on compilation of the teaching materials. Various concepts of acupoints should strive to be strict and terse; location of acupoints should be accurate and conform to clinical practice and reduce errors; the new edition The Channels, Collaterals and Acupoints Science should reasonably select and supplement for extra-ordinary points; increase explanation of the point name, function of acupoints, and association of acupoints; enrich the contents of acupuncture manipulation; reasonably increase and reduce extracts of ancient and modern reports to conform to development of the new age.

  13. Power Technologies Data Book 2003 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aabakken, J.

    2004-06-01

    The 2003 edition of this report, prepared by NREL's Energy Analysis Office, includes up-to-date information on power technologies, including complete technology profiles. The data book also contains charts on electricity restructuring, power technology forecasts and comparisons, electricity supply, electricity capability, electricity generation, electricity demand, prices, economic indicators, environmental indicators, conversion factors, and selected congressional questions and answers.

  14. What kind of alchemy is attested by tenth-century Coptic manuscripts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Tonio Sebastian

    2009-03-01

    This article places the four extant Coptic alchemical manuscripts within the context of the tradition of Coptic scientific texts. One of the manuscripts is a palimpsest written over an erased literary text, apparently in the tenth century. The other three all come from the same library, and are unlikely to be later than the mid-tenth century. Their vocabulary, form and contents are analysed, and the wonderful "machine of the sages" is introduced. It is shown that the texts most likely depend on Arabic alchemical texts, because of the number of Arabic words left in transliteration, and their style. In this case, they are the earliest witnesses to Arabic alchemy.

  15. Digital Video Editing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Terry

    2004-01-01

    Monica Adams, head librarian at Robinson Secondary in Fairfax country, Virginia, states that librarians should have the technical knowledge to support projects related to digital video editing. The process of digital video editing and the cables, storage issues and the computer system with software is described.

  16. The genome editing revolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stella, Stefano; Montoya, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    -Cas system has become the main tool for genome editing in many laboratories. Currently the targeted genome editing technology has been used in many fields and may be a possible approach for human gene therapy. Furthermore, it can also be used to modifying the genomes of model organisms for studying human...

  17. The Relationship between Voting Knowledge and Voting Attitudes of Selected Ninth and Tenth Grade Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Kathleen

    1985-01-01

    A study showed that the acquisition of voting knowledge in a civics class positively influenced ninth- and tenth-grade students' attitudes toward voting. Teachers should give students a solid foundation concerning the electoral process and encourage students to participate in the political process. (RM)

  18. The tenth CRL-Salmonella workshop; 28 and 29 April 2005, Bilthoven, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooijman KA; MGB

    2006-01-01

    The tenth workshop organised by the Community Reference Laboratory for Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella) was held on 28 and 29 April 2005 in Bilthoven, the Netherlands. Participants included representatives of the National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella (NRLs-Salmonella) of the Member States of the

  19. Addendum: Tenth International Symposium on Alcohol Fuels, The road to commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The Tenth International Symposium on ALCOHOL FUELS ``THE ROAD TO COMMERCIALIZATION`` was held at the Broadmoor Hotel, Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA November 7--10, 1993. Twenty-seven papers on the production of alcohol fuels, specifications, their use in automobiles, buses and trucks, emission control, and government policies were presented. Individual papers have been processed separately for entry into the data base.

  20. A New Iterative Scheme for the Solution of Tenth Order Boundary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tonistar

    doi.org/10.4314/njbas.v24i1.12. ISSN 0794-5698. A New Iterative Scheme for the Solution of Tenth Order Boundary Value. Problems Using First-Kind Chebychev Polynomials. 1E.J. Mamadu and 2*I.N. Njoseh. 1Department of Mathematics ...

  1. Highlights of the tenth International Conference on Trichinellosis: past and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dupouy-Camet J.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The Tenth International Conference on trichinellosis, organized by the International Commission on Trichinellosis, gathered together 147 scientists from 34 countries. The 173 presentations ranged over most aspects of this parasitic zoonosis: history, epidemiology, speciation, biology, immunology, biochemistry, human and anima pathology, new diagnostic methods and control.

  2. The Effect of Using the Story-Mapping Technique on Developing Tenth Grade Students' Short Story Writing Skills in EFL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibnian, Salem Saleh Khalaf

    2010-01-01

    The current study aimed at investigating the effect of using the story-mapping technique on developing tenth grade students' short story writing skills in EFL. The study attempted to answer the following questions: (1) What are the short story writing skills needed for tenth grade students in EFL?; and (2) What is the effect of the using the…

  3. CRISPR Genome Editing

    Science.gov (United States)

    A research article about a technique for gene editing known as CRISPR-Cas9. The technique has made it much easier and faster for cancer researchers to study mutations and test new therapeutic targets.

  4. Human cancer tissues exhibit reduced A-to-I editing of miRNAs coupled with elevated editing of their targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Yishay; Buchumenski, Ilana; Levanon, Erez Y; Eisenberg, Eli

    2017-11-20

    A-to-I RNA editing is an important post-transcriptional modification, known to be altered in tumors. It targets dozens of sites within miRNAs, some of which impact miRNA biogenesis and function, as well as many miRNA recognition sites. However, the full extent of the effect of editing on regulation by miRNAs and its behavior in human cancers is still unknown. Here we systematically characterized miRNA editing in 10 593 human samples across 32 cancer types and normal controls. We find that the majority of previously reported sites show little to no evidence for editing in this dataset, compile a list of 58 reliable miRNA editing sites, and study them across normal and cancer samples. Edited miRNA versions tend to suppress expression of known oncogenes, and, consistently, we observe a clear global tendency for hypo-editing in tumors, in strike contrast to the behavior for mRNA editing, allowing an accurate classification of normal/tumor samples based on their miRNA editing profile. In many cancers this profile correlates with patients' survival. Finally, thousands of miRNA binding sites are differentially edited in cancer. Our study thus establishes the important effect of RNA editing on miRNA-regulation in the tumor cell, with prospects for diagnostic and prognostic applications. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. Developing new levels of edit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prono, J.K.

    1997-06-01

    Since 1985, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) staff have had four levels of edit to choose from for technical reports. When a CQI survey showed that both authors and editors felt the levels were not meeting author needs, LANL set about revising them. The goals were to simplify the editing process, focus editing on improving technical clarity, and ensure value added in editing. This paper describes the revision process and product--three author-based levels of edit.

  6. Special Issue: Tenth International Congress on Numerical Methods in Laminar and Turbulent Flow. Issue Edited by Esteban Saatdjian.Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Save Title to My ProfileSet E-Mail Alert javascript:mailTool(60500847, '', '');" id="email" alt="E-Mail" title="E-Mail This Page" />javascript:print();" id="print" alt="Print" title="Print This Page" /> Previous Issue | Next Issue > Full Issue Listing-->Volume 29, Issue 7, Pages 735-895(15 April 1999)PrefaceTenth international congress on numerical methods in laminar and turbulent flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamuro, Takaji; Yoshino, Masato; Ogino, Fumimaru

    1999-04-01

    The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) with the fifteen-velocity model is applied to simulations of isothermal flows in a three-dimensional porous structure. A periodic boundary condition with a pressure difference at the inlet and outlet is presented. Flow characteristics at a pore scale and pressure drops through the porous structure are calculated for various Reynolds numbers. It is found that at high Reynolds numbers, unsteady vortices appear behind bodies and the flow field becomes time-dependent. Calculated pressure drops through the structure are compared with well-known empirical equations based on experimental data. The results agree well with the Blake-Kozeny equation for low Reynolds numbers and with the Ergun equation for high Reynolds numbers. Copyright

  7. Catalogue of Cometary Orbits 1997. 12th edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, B. G.; Williams, G. V.

    Beginning with the tenth edition, the catalogues have utilized the new cometary designation system that took effect at the beginning of 1995. This system was adopted by the IAU in August 1994 in a resolution reproduced on Minor Planet Circ., Nos. 23803 - 23804. This edition contains 1582 orbits for 1548 cometary apparitions and is intended to be complete for comets observed up to September 1997. The presentation of the general tabulation of the orbits has been changed from that in earlier editions in two significant ways. Firstly, the basic orbital data are given on the left-hand pages, while the facing pages contain subsidiary information, notably the references to the original sources of the data. Secondly, the basic data are themselves separated into two parts, with the orbits for single-apparition and multiple-apparition comets listed separately. Contents: 1. Introduction. 2. General catalogue (long-period and unnumbered periodic comets, numbered periodic comets). 3. Identifications. 4. 1997 elements for numbered periodic comets. 5. 1998 - 1999 elements for numbered periodic comets. 6. Statistical tables (numbered periodic comets, unnumbered periodic comets, comets that may be of short period, parabolic and nearly-parabolic orbits in order of i). 7. Correspondence of new-style and old-style designations (by Roman numeral, by letter designation). 8. X/comets.

  8. The chessgame: image, power and the church (late tenth-early twelfth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Cordez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The original in the East, the chessgame was adapted to the Western social and military realities since the tenth century. The codes for the exercise of feudal power were symbolized through the manipulation of its pieces. The analysis of four outside the realm of the chessgame, in the churches of Münster, Aachen, Saint-Denis and Reims, underlines the contribution of chess for the definition of the German Empire and of the French Kingdom.

  9. Songs in the english class: a strategy to encourage tenth graders' oral production

    OpenAIRE

    Cuestas Cifuentes, Marlén

    2009-01-01

    This research project examines a strategy in which English songs are used to encourage oral production of tenth graders. It aims at providing a solution to our students’ low speaking proficiency in the English language and to the complexity of working with a large number of students per class. Students involved in this project provided useful data through their participation in activities using English songs. They had the opportunity of speaking in English about their favorite songs; also, we...

  10. Catalogue of Cometary Orbits 1996. 11th edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, B. G.; Williams, G. V.

    Beginning with the tenth edition, the catalogues have utilized the new cometary designation system that took effect at the beginning of 1995. This system was adopted by the IAU in August 1994 in a resolution reproduced on Minor Planet Circ. Nos. 23803 - 23804. Contents: 1. Introduction. 2. General catalogue (long-period and unnumbered periodic comets, numbered periodic comets). 3. Identifications. 4. 1996 elements for numbered periodic comets. 5. Statistical tables (periodic comets of more than one appearance, periodic comets of only one appearance, comets that may be of short period, parabolic and nearly-parabolic orbits in order of i). 6. Correspondence of new-style and old-style designations (by Roman numeral, by letter designation). 7. X/comets.

  11. Editing Audio with Audacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Walsh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available For those interested in audio, basic sound editing skills go a long way. Being able to handle and manipulate the materials can help you take control of your object of study: you can zoom in and extract particular moments to analyze, process the audio, and upload the materials to a server to compliment a blog post on the topic. On a more practical level, these skills could also allow you to record and package recordings of yourself or others for distribution. That guest lecture taking place in your department? Record it and edit it yourself! Doing so is a lightweight way to distribute resources among various institutions, and it also helps make the materials more accessible for readers and listeners with a wide variety of learning needs. In this lesson you will learn how to use Audacity to load, record, edit, mix, and export audio files. Sound editing platforms are often expensive and offer extensive capabilities that can be overwhelming to the first-time user, but Audacity is a free and open source alternative that offers powerful capabilities for sound editing with a low barrier for entry. For this lesson we will work with two audio files: a recording of Bach’s Goldberg Variations available from MusOpen and another recording of your own voice that will be made in the course of the lesson. This tutorial uses Audacity 2.1.2, released January 2016.

  12. Tenth anniversary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranger, Jill

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The author reflects on her two lesbian ex-lovers and what they have in common: the manner in which they left, each very suddenly, each with a coworker known for only a few months, and both on the 10th anniversary. After a year of grief work and painful soul-searching following the last of these two breakups, the author gained a new level of personal understanding and a balanced lover relationship. That is, despite occasional fears, she has taken the leap of faith and fallen in love again. They may decide to skip their 10th anniversary!

  13. Genome editing: the breakthrough technology for inherited retinal disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew J; Carter, Stephen P; Kennedy, Breandán N

    2017-10-01

    Genetic alterations resulting in a dysfunctional retinal pigment epithelium and/or degenerating photoreceptors cause impaired vision. These juxtaposed cells in the retina of the posterior eye are crucial for the visual cycle or phototransduction. Deficits in these biochemical processes perturb neural processing of images capturing the external environment. Notably, there is a distinct lack of clinically approved pharmacological, cell- or gene-based therapies for inherited retinal disease. Gene editing technologies are rapidly advancing as a realistic therapeutic option. Areas covered: Recent discovery of endonuclease-mediated gene editing technologies has culminated in a surge of investigations into their therapeutic potential. In this review, the authors discuss gene editing technologies and their applicability in treating inherited retinal diseases, the limitations of the technology and the research obstacles to overcome before editing a patient's genome becomes a viable treatment option. Expert opinion: The ability to strategically edit a patient's genome constitutes a treatment revolution. However, concerns remain over the safety and efficacy of either transplanting iPSC-derived retinal cells following ex vivo gene editing, or with direct gene editing in vivo. Ultimately, further refinements to improve efficacy and safety profiles are paramount for gene editing to emerge as a widely available treatment option.

  14. Precision genome editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steentoft, Catharina; Bennett, Eric P; Schjoldager, Katrine Ter-Borch Gram

    2014-01-01

    Precise and stable gene editing in mammalian cell lines has until recently been hampered by the lack of efficient targeting methods. While different gene silencing strategies have had tremendous impact on many biological fields, they have generally not been applied with wide success in the field...... of glycobiology, primarily due to their low efficiencies, with resultant failure to impose substantial phenotypic consequences upon the final glycosylation products. Here, we review novel nuclease-based precision genome editing techniques enabling efficient and stable gene editing, including gene disruption...... by introducing single or double-stranded breaks at a defined genomic sequence. We here compare and contrast the different techniques and summarize their current applications, highlighting cases from the field of glycobiology as well as pointing to future opportunities. The emerging potential of precision gene...

  15. Human Germline Genome Editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormond, Kelly E; Mortlock, Douglas P; Scholes, Derek T; Bombard, Yvonne; Brody, Lawrence C; Faucett, W Andrew; Garrison, Nanibaa' A; Hercher, Laura; Isasi, Rosario; Middleton, Anna; Musunuru, Kiran; Shriner, Daniel; Virani, Alice; Young, Caroline E

    2017-08-03

    With CRISPR/Cas9 and other genome-editing technologies, successful somatic and germline genome editing are becoming feasible. To respond, an American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) workgroup developed this position statement, which was approved by the ASHG Board in March 2017. The workgroup included representatives from the UK Association of Genetic Nurses and Counsellors, Canadian Association of Genetic Counsellors, International Genetic Epidemiology Society, and US National Society of Genetic Counselors. These groups, as well as the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Asia Pacific Society of Human Genetics, British Society for Genetic Medicine, Human Genetics Society of Australasia, Professional Society of Genetic Counselors in Asia, and Southern African Society for Human Genetics, endorsed the final statement. The statement includes the following positions. (1) At this time, given the nature and number of unanswered scientific, ethical, and policy questions, it is inappropriate to perform germline gene editing that culminates in human pregnancy. (2) Currently, there is no reason to prohibit in vitro germline genome editing on human embryos and gametes, with appropriate oversight and consent from donors, to facilitate research on the possible future clinical applications of gene editing. There should be no prohibition on making public funds available to support this research. (3) Future clinical application of human germline genome editing should not proceed unless, at a minimum, there is (a) a compelling medical rationale, (b) an evidence base that supports its clinical use, (c) an ethical justification, and (d) a transparent public process to solicit and incorporate stakeholder input. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved.

  16. Editing faces in videos

    OpenAIRE

    Amberg, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Editing faces in movies is of interest in the special effects industry. We aim at producing effects such as the addition of accessories interacting correctly with the face or replacing the face of a stuntman with the face of the main actor. The system introduced in this thesis is based on a 3D generative face model. Using a 3D model makes it possible to edit the face in the semantic space of pose, expression, and identity instead of pixel space, and due to its 3D nature allows...

  17. Editing tools. Transcribing and encoding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spadini, E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with editing tools and editing platforms, i.e. programs used by editors in order to fulfil one or more tasks in the creation of a scholarly digital edition (SDE). Recurring themes in the field of SDEs are the standardization of XML-TEI markup and the success of documentary digital

  18. Beginning to edit physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, P.W.

    1995-02-01

    A physicist-turned-editor shows you the basics required for copyediting physics papers (physical quantities, symbols, units, scientific notation, the structure of mathematical expressions, the nature of graphs), and points the way to learning enough ``editorial physics`` to begin substantive editing.

  19. The Craft of Editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    To edit is to make a choice, or series of choices. Will I write a rough draft of this essay in longhand, or hammer it out on my computer? If the latter, what font shall I use? Times New Roman, Book Antiqua, or Garamond? Once I get started, what style shall I adopt: realistic, confessional or impr...

  20. Contaminant hydrogeology. 2. edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetter, C.W.

    1999-08-01

    This book is a major revision of the 1993 edition and includes the important practical concepts that have since emerged. Contents include: mass transport in saturated media; transformation, retardation, and attenuation of solutes; flow and mass transport in the vadose zone; multiphase flow; inorganic chemicals in groundwater; organic compounds in groundwater; groundwater and soil monitoring; and site remediation.

  1. Retrospective correction of frequency drift in spectral editing: The GABA editing example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, Jan Willem; Marenco, Stefano; Berman, Karen F; Shen, Jun

    2017-08-01

    GABA levels can be measured using proton MRS with a two-step editing sequence. However due to the low concentration of GABA, long acquisition time is usually needed to achieve sufficient SNR to detect small differences in many psychiatric disorders. During this long scan time the frequency offset of the measured voxel can change because of magnetic field drift and patient movement. This drift will change the frequency of the editing pulse relative to that of metabolites, leading to errors in quantification. In this article we describe a retrospective method to correct for frequency drift in spectral editing. A series of reference signals for each metabolite was generated for a range of frequency offsets and then averaged together based on the history of frequency changes over the scan. These customized basis sets were used to fit the in vivo data. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of the correction method and the remarkable robustness of a GABA editing technique with a top hat editing profile in the presence of frequency drift. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Technology and use of lignite. Proceedings of the tenth biennial lignite symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kube, W. R.; Gronhovd, G. H. [comps.

    1979-01-01

    The symposium on the technology and use of lignite was sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the University of North Dakota, and held at Grand Forks, North Dakota, May 30-31, 1979. Twenty-one papers from the proceedings of this tenth biennial lignite symposium have been entered into EDB and ERA and three also into EAPA. The papers discuss lignite deposits in the USA, mining plans, gasification and in-situ gasification, and combustion in fossil-fuel power plants. (LTN)

  3. Materials Presented at the MU-SPIN Tenth Annual Users' Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, James L., Jr.; Shukla, Pooja

    2000-01-01

    The Minority University-Space Interdisciplinary Network (MU-SPIN) Program and NASA's Minority University Research and Education Division (MURED) both reached their 10th anniversaries. In honor of this occasion, the 2000 Annual Users' Conference held at Morris Brown College in Atlanta, Georgia, September 11-15, 2000, was the first to be jointly hosted by MU-SPIN and MURED. With the theme 'Celebrating Our Tenth Year With Our Eyes on the Prize,' the conference provided a national forum for showcasing successful MU-SPIN and MURED Program (MUREP) experiences to enhance faculty/student development in areas of scientific and technical research and education.

  4. Fan edits and the legacy of The Phantom Edit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Wille

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A fan edit can generally be defined as an alternative version of a film or television text created by a fan. It offers a different viewing experience, much as a song remix offers a different listening experience. The contemporary wave of fan edits has emerged during the remix zeitgeist of digital media and at a time when digital video editing technology has become more affordable and popular. The increasing number of alternative versions of films and the works of revisionist Hollywood filmmakers such as George Lucas have contributed to a greater public understanding of cinema as a fluid medium instead of one that exists in a fixed form. The Phantom Edit (2000, a seminal fan edit based on Lucas's Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace (1999, inspired new ranks of fan editors. However, critics have misunderstood fan edits as merely the work of disgruntled fans. In order to provide a critical and historical basis for studies in fan editing as a creative practice, I examine previous interpretations of fan edits in the context of relevant contemporary works, and I use an annotated chronology of The Phantom Edit to trace its influence on subsequent fan editing communities and uncover their relationship with intellectual property disputes.

  5. Idiopathic Ninth, Tenth, and Twelfth Cranial Nerve Palsy with Ipsilateral Headache: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Seung-Ho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This case report is to report the effect of Korean traditional treatment for idiopathic ninth, tenth, and twelfth cranial nerve palsy with ipsilateral headache. Methods: The medical history and imaging and laboratory test of a 39-year-old man with cranial palsy were tested to identify the cause of disease. A 0.2-mL dosage of Hwangyeonhaedoktang pharmacopuncture was administered at CV23 and CV17, respectively. Acupuncture was applied at P06, Li05, TE05, and G37 on the right side of the body. Zhuapiandutongbang (左偏頭痛方 was administered at 30 minutes to 1 hour after mealtime three times a day. The symptoms were investigated using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. Results: The results of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, computed tomography (CT, and laboratory tests were normal. The medical history showed no trauma, other illnesses, family history of diseases, medications, smoking, drinking and so on. All symptoms disappeared at the 10th day of treatment. Conclusion: Korean traditional treatment such as acupuncture, pharmcopuncture, and herbal medicine for the treatment of ninth, tenth, and twelfth cranial nerve palsy of unknown origin is suggested to be effective even though this conclusion is based on a single.

  6. Video Editing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlecht, Leslie E.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This is a proposal for a general use system based, on the SGI IRIS workstation platform, for recording computer animation to videotape. In addition, this system would provide features for simple editing and enhancement. Described here are a list of requirements for the system, and a proposed configuration including the SGI VideoLab Integrator, VideoMedia VLAN animation controller and the Pioneer rewritable laserdisc recorder.

  7. UN-EDITED VERSION

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    67

    1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. UN-EDITED VERSION ...

  8. Revising and editing for translators

    CERN Document Server

    Mossop, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Revising and Editing for Translators provides guidance and learning materials for translation students learning to edit texts written by others, and professional translators wishing to improve their self-revision ability or learning to revise the work of others. Editing is understood as making corrections and improvements to texts, with particular attention to tailoring them to the given readership. Revising is this same task applied to draft translations. The linguistic work of editors and revisers is related to the professional situations in which they work. Mossop offers in-depth coverage of a wide range of topics, including copyediting, style editing, structural editing, checking for consistency, revising procedures and principles, and translation quality assessment. This third edition provides extended coverage of computer aids for revisers, and of the different degrees of revision suited to different texts. The inclusion of suggested activities and exercises, numerous real-world examples, a proposed gra...

  9. Poschl-Teller potentials based solution to Hilbert's tenth problem Pöschl-Teller potentials based solution to Hilbert's tenth problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ospina

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypercomputers compute functions or numbers, or more generally solve problems or carry out tasks, that cannot be computed or solved by a Turing machine. An adaptation of Tien D. Kieu¿s quantum hypercomputational algorithm is carried out for the dynamical algebra su(1, 1 of the Poschl-Teller potentials. The classically incomputable problem that is resolved with this hypercomputational algorithm is Hilbert¿s tenth problem. We indicated that an essential mathematical condition of these algorithms is the existence of infinitedimensional unitary irreducible representations of low dimensional dynamical algebras that allow the construction of coherent states of the Barut-Girardello type. In addition, we presented as a particular case of our hypercomputational algorithm on Poschl-Teller potentials, the hypercomputational algorithm on an infinite square well presented previously by the authors.Los hipercomputadores computan funciones o números, o en general solucionan problemas que no pueden ser computados o solucionados por una máquina de Turing. Se presenta una adaptación del algoritmo cuántico hipercomputacional propuesto por Tien D. Kieu, al álgebra dinámica su(1, 1 realizada en los potenciales Pöschl-Teller. El problema clásicamente incomputable que se resuelve con este algoritmo hipercomputacional es el d´ecimo problema de Hilbert. Se señala que una condición matemática fundamental para estos algoritmos es la existencia de una representación unitaria infinito dimensional irreducible de álgebras de baja dimensión que admitan la construcción de estados coherentes del tipo Barut-Girardello. Adicionalmente se presenta como caso límite del algoritmo propuesto sobre los potenciales Pöschl-Teller, el algoritmo hipercomputacional sobre la caja de potencial infinita construido previamente por los autores.

  10. REDIdb: the RNA editing database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardi, Ernesto; Regina, Teresa Maria Rosaria; Brennicke, Axel; Quagliariello, Carla

    2007-01-01

    The RNA Editing Database (REDIdb) is an interactive, web-based database created and designed with the aim to allocate RNA editing events such as substitutions, insertions and deletions occurring in a wide range of organisms. The database contains both fully and partially sequenced DNA molecules for which editing information is available either by experimental inspection (in vitro) or by computational detection (in silico). Each record of REDIdb is organized in a specific flat-file containing a description of the main characteristics of the entry, a feature table with the editing events and related details and a sequence zone with both the genomic sequence and the corresponding edited transcript. REDIdb is a relational database in which the browsing and identification of editing sites has been simplified by means of two facilities to either graphically display genomic or cDNA sequences or to show the corresponding alignment. In both cases, all editing sites are highlighted in colour and their relative positions are detailed by mousing over. New editing positions can be directly submitted to REDIdb after a user-specific registration to obtain authorized secure access. This first version of REDIdb database stores 9964 editing events and can be freely queried at http://biologia.unical.it/py_script/search.html.

  11. Genome Editing Tools in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Bashir, Tufail; Hashem, Abeer; Abd Allah, Elsayed Fathi; Bae, Hanhong

    2017-12-19

    Genome editing tools have the potential to change the genomic architecture of a genome at precise locations, with desired accuracy. These tools have been efficiently used for trait discovery and for the generation of plants with high crop yields and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Due to complex genomic architecture, it is challenging to edit all of the genes/genomes using a particular genome editing tool. Therefore, to overcome this challenging task, several genome editing tools have been developed to facilitate efficient genome editing. Some of the major genome editing tools used to edit plant genomes are: Homologous recombination (HR), zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), pentatricopeptide repeat proteins (PPRs), the CRISPR/Cas9 system, RNA interference (RNAi), cisgenesis, and intragenesis. In addition, site-directed sequence editing and oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis have the potential to edit the genome at the single-nucleotide level. Recently, adenine base editors (ABEs) have been developed to mutate A-T base pairs to G-C base pairs. ABEs use deoxyadeninedeaminase (TadA) with catalytically impaired Cas9 nickase to mutate A-T base pairs to G-C base pairs.

  12. Proceedings of the of the Tenth Workshop on Language Descriptions, Tools and Applications (LDTA 2010)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus

    2010-01-01

    -Louis Giavitto ("A Domain Specific Language for Complex Natural & Artificial Systems Simulations") and the 11 contributed papers that were selected for presentation and the proceedings by the programme committee from 30 submissions (i.e., 37% acceptance rate). Every submission was reviewed by at least three......This volume contains the proceedings of the Tenth Workshop on Language Descriptions, Tools and Applications (LDTA 2010), held in Paphos, Cyprus on March 28--29, 2010. LDTA is a two-day satellite event of ETAPS (European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software) organized in cooperation...... of programming languages. Tools and techniques presented at LDTA are usually applicable in the context of "Language Workbenches" or "Meta Programming Systems" or simply as parts of advanced programming environments or IDEs. These proceedings include an extended abstract based on the invited talk by Jean...

  13. Structure-mediated modulation of mRNA abundance by A-to-I editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brümmer, Anneke; Yang, Yun; Chan, Tracey W; Xiao, Xinshu

    2017-11-02

    RNA editing introduces single nucleotide changes to RNA, thus potentially diversifying gene expression. Recent studies have reported significant changes in RNA editing profiles in disease and development. The functional consequences of these widespread alterations remain elusive because of the unknown function of most RNA editing sites. Here, we carry out a comprehensive analysis of A-to-I editomes in human populations. Surprisingly, we observe highly similar editing profiles across populations despite striking differences in the expression levels of ADAR genes. Striving to explain this discrepancy, we uncover a functional mechanism of A-to-I editing in regulating mRNA abundance. We show that A-to-I editing stabilizes RNA secondary structures and reduces the accessibility of AGO2-miRNA to target sites in mRNAs. The editing-dependent stabilization of mRNAs in turn alters the observed editing levels in the stable RNA repertoire. Our study provides valuable insights into the functional impact of RNA editing in human cells.

  14. With this Special Edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Antonio Martínez Molina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With this Special Edition, the refereed Scientific Magazine, published in February 2017, presents a nourished and multidisciplinary theme, from the relationship of Environmental Education, in this ecological sharing man-environment; the social responsibility from the Management environment and the motivational values ​​conducive to the teaching performance in the different educational levels. Twenty-five (25 articles, generated from research production in university environments at the International level, are a signature of the quality of articles / essays presented in this Special Edition. Several reasons motivate the literary pen of our authors, adjusting to the rhythm of the times and the use of new technologies; and in correspondence with the care of the environment, this way of disseminating and making visible the scientific contents of humanistic and social court, support the care and protection of the forests, being an online production, in the Cloud. Thanks to the support of the Instituto Internacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Tecnológico Educativo INDTEC, CA, Scientific Magazine has been able to develop from the cooperative work of the people who compose its different committees: Editorial Academic Committee, Academic Scientific Committee and the Arbitrators in the review and valuation of the quality of the articles. With these assets, the Scientific Magazine, opening to the general public and especially to the academic new intellectual horizons.

  15. Natural Hazards, Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhban, Badaoui

    Natural disaster loss is on the rise, and the vulnerability of the human and physical environment to the violent forces of nature is increasing. In many parts of the world, disasters caused by natural hazards such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, drought, wildfires, intense windstorms, tsunami, and volcanic eruptions have caused the loss of human lives, injury, homelessness, and the destruction of economic and social infrastructure. Over the last few years, there has been an increase in the occurrence, severity, and intensity of disasters, culminating with the devastating tsunami of 26 December 2004 in South East Asia.Natural hazards are often unexpected or uncontrollable natural events of varying magnitude. Understanding their mechanisms and assessing their distribution in time and space are necessary for refining risk mitigation measures. This second edition of Natural Hazards, (following a first edition published in 1991 by Cambridge University Press), written by Edward Bryant, associate dean of science at Wollongong University, Australia, grapples with this crucial issue, aspects of hazard prediction, and other issues. The book presents a comprehensive analysis of different categories of hazards of climatic and geological origin.

  16. Annotation in Digital Scholarly Editions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, P.; Haentjens Dekker, R.

    2016-01-01

    Annotation in digital scholarly editions (of historical documents, literary works, letters, etc.) has long been recognized as an important desideratum, but has also proven to be an elusive ideal. In so far as annotation functionality is available, it is usually developed for a single edition and

  17. Investigating Predictors of Listening Comprehension in Third-, Seventh-, and Tenth-Grade Students: A Dominance Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Spencer, Mercedes; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This study rank ordered the contributive importance of several predictors of listening comprehension for third, seventh, and tenth graders. Principal components analyses revealed that a three-factor solution with fluency, reasoning, and working memory components provided the best fit across grade levels. Dominance analyses indicated that fluency…

  18. Putting the "th" in Tenths: Providing Place-Value Labels Helps Reveal the Structure of Our Base-10 Numeral System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehr, Abbey M.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany

    2017-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that providing labels helps children notice key features of examples. Much less is known about how different labels impact children's ability to make inferences about the structure underlying mathematical notation. We tested the impact of labeling decimals such as 0.34 using formal place-value labels ("3 tenths and 4…

  19. 77 FR 66084 - Tenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems-Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Tenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to...

  20. A Longitudinal Investigation of Direct and Indirect Links between Reading Skills in Kindergarten and Reading Comprehension in Tenth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Christopher T.; Petscher, Yaacov; Catts, Hugh

    2018-01-01

    In this study, researchers examined the extent to which several fundamental measures of reading proficiency from kindergarten students (N = 3180) were linked to reading comprehension in tenth grade while controlling for third grade vocabulary and oral reading fluency. Analyses tested the direct and indirect relations between and among…

  1. Applying a Multiple Group Causal Indicator Modeling Framework to the Reading Comprehension Skills of Third, Seventh, and Tenth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Wagner, Richard K.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates the utility of applying a causal indicator modeling framework to investigate important predictors of reading comprehension in third, seventh, and tenth grade students. The results indicated that a 4-factor multiple indicator multiple indicator cause (MIMIC) model of reading comprehension provided adequate fit at each grade…

  2. Oxyacetylene Welding and Oxyfuel Cutting. Third Edition. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition [and] Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, John; Harper, Eddie

    This Oklahoma curriculum guide, which includes a teacher edition, a student edition, and a student workbook, provides three units for a course on oxyacetylene welding, oxyfuel cutting, and cutting done with alternative fuels such as MAPP, propane, and natural gas. The three units are: "Oxyacetylene Welding"; "Oxyfuel Cutting";…

  3. Tool steels. 5. edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, G.; Krauss, G.; Kennedy, R.

    1998-12-31

    The revision of this authoritative work contains a significant amount of new information from the past nearly two decades presented in an entirely new outline, making this a must have reference for engineers involved in tool-steel production, as well as in the selection and use of tool steels in metalworking and other materials manufacturing industries. The chapter on tool-steel manufacturing includes new production processes, such as electroslag refining, vacuum arc remelting, spray deposition processes (Osprey and centrifugal spray), and powder metal processing. The seven chapters covering tool-steel types in the 4th Edition have been expanded to 11 chapters covering nine main groups of tool steels as well as other types of ultrahigh strength steels sometimes used for tooling. Each chapter discusses in detail processing, composition, and applications specific to the particular group. In addition, two chapters have been added covering surface modification and trouble shooting production and performance problems.

  4. The profile of tuberculosis infection at the Babcock University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death from any single pathogen and it has consistently continued to be a major public health challenge globally. Data show that Nigeria ranks tenth among the 22 high tuberculosis burden countries. Aim: This study intends to describe the profile of tuberculosis infections in ...

  5. DEVELOPING ONLINE READING SUPPLEMENTARYMATERIALSFOR THE TENTH GRADERS OF SMAN 3 PROBOLINGGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reny Windi Astuti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Reading is very important in learning a foreign language. Reading is also the interaction between reader and text. As the hardest skill for foreign language learners, reading requires rich background and knowledge of the language. Curriculum 2013 strongly suggeststhe teachers and students use textbook which government has developed. The researchers findthat English for the tenth graders does not have adequate reading materials. Based on the need analysis done by the researcher, the teacher has to add some other materials outside of the book to accommodate students in learning reading. Therefore, there should be adequate reading materials for English language learners. The purpose of this research was to develop online reading supplementary material based on curriculum 2013 that could be useful for English teachers. This study was carried toR&D (Research and Development. This paper presented; (1 supplementary materials which could be used by the students through online based, and (2 how to develop online reading supplementary materials. By considering these theories, it is hoped that the teachers and scholars can have theoretical insight in developing online reading supplementary materials.

  6. IMPROVING THE TENTH-YEAR STUDENTS’ WRITING ABILITY AT MA MAMBAUS SHOLIHIN GRESIK THROUGH MIND MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zaini Miftah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at developing mind mapping strategy to improve the tenth-year students’ writing ability at Madrasah Aliyah (MA Mambaus Sholihin Gresik and focused on solving the problem of how the students generate and organize ideas for writing a topic. The design of the study is collaborative classroom action research. Both the researcher and his collaborator work together in cyclic activities – planning, implementing, observing and reflecting on the data gained from the teaching and learning process – which runs into three cycles, each of which covers four meetings. The findings show that by implementing mind mapping with the proper model developed, the students’ ability in writing a descriptive text improves. It is indicated by the improvement of the percentage of the students achieving the score greater than or equal to 65 and of the percentage of the students’ involvement in the writing activities during the implementation of mind mapping in the instructional process in Cycle I, II, and III. The improvement of the students’ ability in writing a descriptive text can be reached but it should follow the procedures of the proper model of mind mapping developed.

  7. Modeling and Analysis of Structural Dynamics for a One-Tenth Scale Model NGST Sunshield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, John; Lienard, Sebastien; Brodeur, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    New modeling and analysis techniques have been developed for predicting the dynamic behavior of the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) sunshield. The sunshield consists of multiple layers of pretensioned, thin-film membranes supported by deployable booms. Modeling the structural dynamic behavior of the sunshield is a challenging aspect of the problem due to the effects of membrane wrinkling. A finite element model of the sunshield was developed using an approximate engineering approach, the cable network method, to account for membrane wrinkling effects. Ground testing of a one-tenth scale model of the NGST sunshield were carried out to provide data for validating the analytical model. A series of analyses were performed to predict the behavior of the sunshield under the ground test conditions. Modal analyses were performed to predict the frequencies and mode shapes of the test article and transient response analyses were completed to simulate impulse excitation tests. Comparison was made between analytical predictions and test measurements for the dynamic behavior of the sunshield. In general, the results show good agreement with the analytical model correctly predicting the approximate frequency and mode shapes for the significant structural modes.

  8. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Guatemala. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it....

  9. Clinical Applications of Genome Editing to HIV Cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cathy X; Cannon, Paula M

    2016-12-01

    Despite significant advances in HIV drug treatment regimens, which grant near-normal life expectancies to infected individuals who have good virological control, HIV infection itself remains incurable. In recent years, novel gene- and cell-based therapies have gained increasing attention due to their potential to provide a functional or even sterilizing cure for HIV infection with a one-shot treatment. A functional cure would keep the infection in check and prevent progression to AIDS, while a sterilizing cure would eradicate all HIV viruses from the patient. Genome editing is the most precise form of gene therapy, able to achieve permanent genetic disruption, modification, or insertion at a predesignated genetic locus. The most well-studied candidate for anti-HIV genome editing is CCR5, an essential coreceptor for the majority of HIV strains, and the lack of which confers HIV resistance in naturally occurring homozygous individuals. Genetic disruption of CCR5 to treat HIV has undergone clinical testing, with seven completed or ongoing trials in T cells and hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and has shown promising safety and potential efficacy profiles. Here we summarize clinical findings of CCR5 editing for HIV therapy, as well as other genome editing-based approaches under pre-clinical development. The anticipated development of more sophisticated genome editing technologies should continue to benefit HIV cure efforts.

  10. A-to-I RNA editing is developmentally regulated and generally adaptive for sexual reproduction in Neurospora crassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiquan; Li, Yang; Chen, Daipeng; Qi, Zhaomei; Wang, Qinhu; Wang, Jianhua; Jiang, Cong; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2017-09-12

    Although fungi lack adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes, adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing was reported recently in Fusarium graminearum during sexual reproduction. In this study, we profiled the A-to-I editing landscape and characterized its functional and adaptive properties in the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa A total of 40,677 A-to-I editing sites were identified, and approximately half of them displayed stage-specific editing or editing levels at different sexual stages. RNA-sequencing analysis with the Δstc-1 and Δsad-1 mutants confirmed A-to-I editing occurred before ascus development but became more prevalent during ascosporogenesis. Besides fungal-specific sequence and secondary structure preference, 63.5% of A-to-I editing sites were in the coding regions and 81.3% of them resulted in nonsynonymous recoding, resulting in a significant increase in the proteome complexity. Many genes involved in RNA silencing, DNA methylation, and histone modifications had extensive recoding, including sad-1, sms-3, qde-1, and dim-2. Fifty pseudogenes harbor premature stop codons that require A-to-I editing to encode full-length proteins. Unlike in humans, nonsynonymous editing events in N. crassa are generally beneficial and favored by positive selection. Almost half of the nonsynonymous editing sites in N. crassa are conserved and edited in Neurospora tetrasperma Furthermore, hundreds of them are conserved in F. graminearum and had higher editing levels. Two unknown genes with editing sites conserved between Neurospora and Fusarium were experimentally shown to be important for ascosporogenesis. This study comprehensively analyzed A-to-I editing in N. crassa and showed that RNA editing is stage-specific and generally adaptive, and may be functionally related to repeat induced point mutation and meiotic silencing by unpaired DNA.

  11. Marine botany. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawes, C.J. [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Marine plants are a diverse group that include unicellular algae, seaweeds, seagrasses, salt marshes, and mangrove forests. They carry out a variety of ecological functions and serve as the primary producers in coastal wetlands and oceanic waters. The theme that connects such a wide variety of plants is their ecology, which was also emphasized in the 1981 edition. The goal of this revision is to present taxonomic, physiological, chemical, and ecological aspects of marine plants, their adaptations, and how abiotic and biotic factors interact in their communities. The data are presented in a concise, comparative manner in order to identify similarities and differences between communities such as salt marsh and mangroves or subtidal seaweeds and seagrasses. To accomplish this, the text is organized into five chapters that introduce the marine habitats, consider abiotic and biotic factors, and anthropogenic influences on the communities followed by seven chapters that deal with microalgae, seaweeds, salt marshes, mangroves, seagrasses, and coral reefs. Two appendixes are included; one presents simple field techniques and the other is a summary of seaweed uses.

  12. Posttranscriptional recoding by RNA editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The posttranscriptional recoding of nuclear RNA transcripts has emerged as an important regulatory mechanism during eukaryotic gene expression. In particular the deamination of adenosine to inosine (interpreted by the translational machinery as a guanosine) is a frequent event that can recode the meaning of amino acid codons in translated exons, lead to structural changes in the RNA fold, or may affect splice consensus or regulatory sequence sites in noncoding exons or introns and modulate the biogenesis of small RNAs. The molecular mechanism of how the RNA editing machinery and its substrates recognize and interact with each other is not understood well enough to allow for the ab initio delineation of bona fide RNA editing sites. However, progress in the identification of various physiological modification sites and their characterization has given important insights regarding molecular features and events critical for productive RNA editing reactions. In addition, structural studies using components of the RNA editing machinery and together with editing competent substrate molecules have provided information on the chemical mechanism of adenosine deamination within the context of RNA molecules. Here, I give an overview of the process of adenosine deamination RNA editing and describe its relationship to other RNA processing events and its currently established roles in gene regulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Editörlerden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Sakarya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sevgili okurlar2015 yılının bu son sayısında size dergimizle ilgili bazı özet bilgileri vermek ve son gelişmeleri paylaşmak istiyoruz. Türkiye Halk Sağlığı Dergisinde 2015 yılı içinde, 14 orijinal makale, 1 meta analiz ve 2 kısa rapor olmak üzere toplam 17 araştırma makalesi yayımlanmıştır. Ayrıca 3 editöre mektup, 1 tartışma ve 1 alandan notlar yazısını sizlere ulaştırdık. Daha önceki yıllarla karşılaştırdığımızda yayımlanan yazı sayısı açısından değil ama yazıların niteliği olarak bir ilerleme olduğunu söyleyebiliriz.  Yazıların niteliğinin artırılması ile ilgili çabalarımız sürmekte. Bu amaçla dergimiz editörleri 18.Ulusal Halk Sağlığı Kongresi’nde yazarlık ile ilgili bir kurs düzenlediler. Diğer taraftan dergimizin kurumsal altyapısında önemli değişiklikler yapıldı. Derginin görünürlüğünü ve standartlarını yükseltmek için uluslararası dizinlere girme çabalarını sürdürüyoruz. İlk olarak “Açık Erişim Dergileri Dizini  (DOAJ- The Directory of Open Access Journals başvuru hazırlıklarımız tamamlandı. DOAJ 10,000 den fazla açık erişimli hakemli dergilerin dizinini oluşturan, merkezi İsveç-Lund üniversitesinde olan bir kurum. Bu üyeliğin Dergimizin görünürlüğünü artıracağını ve dış denetimler için bir referans olacağını düşünüyoruz. İkinci olarak çok önem verdiğimiz etik konusunda kurumsallaşmamızı sağlayacak “Yayın Etiği Komitesi” (Committee on Publication Ethics- COPE başvurusu için çalışmalar tamamlandı. COPE hakemli dergi editörleri ve yayımcılarının oluşturduğu bir komite ve böylelikle yayımcılıkla ilgili uluslararası standartları izleyeceğimizi garanti altına almış oluyoruz. COPE kuralları aynı zamanda “Dünya Tıbbi Editörler Birliği (WAME, DOAJ standartları ile de birlikte değerlendirilen bir kurum.Ayrıca  Kasım 2015 ayı itibari ile dergimizin

  14. Treasures ... of black wood, brilliantly polished : five examples of Taino sculpture from the tenth-sixteenth century Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanna Ostapkowicz; Alex Wiedenhoeft; Christopher Bronk Ramsey; Erika Ribechini; Samuel Wilson; Fiona Brock; Tom Higham

    2011-01-01

    Five wooden sculptures from the pre-contact Caribbean, long held in museum collections, are here dated and given a context for the first time. The examples studied were made from dense Guaiacum wood, carved, polished and inlaid with shell fastened with resin. Dating the heartwood, sapwood and resins takes key examples of ‘Classic’ Ta´ýno art back to the tenth century...

  15. A Dominance Analysis Approach to Determining Predictor Importance in Third, Seventh, and Tenth Grade Reading Comprehension Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Elizabeth; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate and rank order by importance the contributions of various cognitive predictors to reading comprehension in third, seventh, and tenth graders. An exploratory factor analysis revealed that for third grade, the best fit was a four-factor solution including Fluency, Verbal Reasoning, Nonverbal Reasoning, and Working Memory factors. For seventh and tenth grade, three-factor solutions with Fluency, Reasoning, and Working Memory factors were the best fit. The three and four-factor models were used in separate dominance analyses for each grade to rank order the factors by predictive importance to reading comprehension. Results indicated that Fluency and Verbal Reasoning were the most important predictors of third grade reading comprehension. For seventh grade, Fluency and Reasoning were the most important predictors. By tenth grade, Reasoning was the most important predictor of reading comprehension. Working Memory was the least predictive of reading comprehension across all grade levels. These results suggest that inferential reasoning skills become an important contributor to reading comprehension at increasing grade levels.

  16. A Dominance Analysis Approach to Determining Predictor Importance in Third, Seventh, and Tenth Grade Reading Comprehension Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Elizabeth; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate and rank order by importance the contributions of various cognitive predictors to reading comprehension in third, seventh, and tenth graders. An exploratory factor analysis revealed that for third grade, the best fit was a four-factor solution including Fluency, Verbal Reasoning, Nonverbal Reasoning, and Working Memory factors. For seventh and tenth grade, three-factor solutions with Fluency, Reasoning, and Working Memory factors were the best fit. The three and four-factor models were used in separate dominance analyses for each grade to rank order the factors by predictive importance to reading comprehension. Results indicated that Fluency and Verbal Reasoning were the most important predictors of third grade reading comprehension. For seventh grade, Fluency and Reasoning were the most important predictors. By tenth grade, Reasoning was the most important predictor of reading comprehension. Working Memory was the least predictive of reading comprehension across all grade levels. These results suggest that inferential reasoning skills become an important contributor to reading comprehension at increasing grade levels. PMID:26346315

  17. Promoting Tenth Graders’ Reading Comprehension of Academic Texts in the English Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiroga Carrillo Claudia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on an action research project conducted in a public school in Bogotá, Colombia, with tenth grade students. We decided to develop it because of the students’ needs as well as the emphasis of the PEI (Proyecto educativo Institucional = School Institutional Project, which is based on the requisite of improving reading comprehension. The project focused on the implementation of four lesson plans in which five reading strategies were applied. They were reading speed, non-text information, word attack skills, text attack and discursive strategies. Data collection was conducted by using observation, journals, interviews and questionnaires. These instruments provided information about the level of improvement in reading comprehension and evidenced advances in the students’ performance when they read an academic text in English. El presente artículo trata sobre un proyecto de investigación-acción llevado a cabo en un colegio público de Bogotá, Colombia, con estudiantes de décimo grado. Decidimos desarrollarlo tanto por las necesidades de los estudiantes como por el énfasis del PEI (Proyecto Educativo Institucional, el cual se basa en el mejoramiento de la comprensión lectora. El proyecto se centró en el desarrollo de cuatro sesiones de clase en las que se fomentó el uso de cinco estrategias: velocidad de lectura, información no textual, abordaje de palabras, abordaje del texto y estrategias discursivas. La recolección de datos se realizó a través de la observación, diarios de campo, entrevistas y cuestionarios. Estos instrumentos suministraron información sobre el progreso en la comprensión de lectura y evidenciaron avances en el desempeño de los estudiantes al abordar un texto académico en inglés.

  18. Predicting RNA hyper-editing with a novel tool when unambiguous alignment is impossible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKerrow, Wilson H; Savva, Yiannis A; Rezaei, Ali; Reenan, Robert A; Lawrence, Charles E

    2017-07-10

    Repetitive elements are now known to have relevant cellular functions, including self-complementary sequences that form double stranded (ds) RNA. There are numerous pathways that determine the fate of endogenous dsRNA, and misregulation of endogenous dsRNA is a driver of autoimmune disease, particularly in the brain. Unfortunately, the alignment of high-throughput, short-read sequences to repeat elements poses a dilemma: Such sequences may align equally well to multiple genomic locations. In order to differentiate repeat elements, current alignment methods depend on sequence variation in the reference genome. Reads are discarded when no such variations are present. However, RNA hyper-editing, a possible fate for dsRNA, introduces enough variation to distinguish between repeats that are otherwise identical. To take advantage of this variation, we developed a new algorithm, RepProfile, that simultaneously aligns reads and predicts novel variations. RepProfile accurately aligns hyper-edited reads that other methods discard. In particular we predict hyper-editing of Drosophila melanogaster repeat elements in vivo at levels previously described only in vitro, and provide validation by Sanger sequencing sixty-two individual cloned sequences. We find that hyper-editing is concentrated in genes involved in cell-cell communication at the synapse, including some that are associated with neurodegeneration. We also find that hyper-editing tends to occur in short runs. Previous studies of RNA hyper-editing discarded ambiguously aligned reads, ignoring hyper-editing in long, perfect dsRNA - the perfect substrate for hyper-editing. We provide a method that simulation and Sanger validation show accurately predicts such RNA editing, yielding a superior picture of hyper-editing.

  19. The Genomic Landscape and Clinical Relevance of A-to-I RNA Editing in Human Cancers | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is a widespread post-transcriptional mechanism, but its genomic landscape and clinical relevance in cancer have not been investigated systematically. We characterized the global A-to-I RNA editing profiles of 6,236 patient samples of 17 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas and revealed a striking diversity of altered RNA-editing patterns in tumors relative to normal tissues. We identified an appreciable number of clinically relevant editing events, many of which are in noncoding regions.

  20. Laser beam shaping theory and techniques, second edition

    CERN Document Server

    Dickey, Fred M

    2014-01-01

    Laser Beam Shaping: Theory and Techniques addresses the theory and practice of every important technique for lossless beam shaping. Complete with experimental results as well as guidance on when beam shaping is practical and when each technique is appropriate, the Second Edition is updated to reflect significant developments in the field. This authoritative text:Features new chapters on axicon light ring generation systems, laser-beam-splitting (fan-out) gratings, vortex beams, and microlens diffusersDescribes the latest advances in beam profile measurement technology and laser beam shaping using diffractive diffusersContains new material on wavelength dependence, channel integrators, geometrical optics, and optical softwareLaser Beam Shaping: Theory and Techniques, Second Edition not only provides a working understanding of the fundamentals, but also offers insight into the potential application of laser-beam-profile shaping in laser system design.

  1. Standards of specialized diabetes care. Edited by Dedov II, Shestakova MV (6th edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ivanovich Dedov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dear Colleagues!We are glad to present the 6th Edition of Standards of Diabetes Care. These evidence-based guidelines were designed to standardize and facilitate diabetes care in all regions of the Russian Federation. The Standards are updated on the regular basis to incorporate new data and relevant recommendations from national and international clinical societies, including World Health Organization Guidelines (WHO, 2011, International Diabetes Federation (IDF, 2011, American Diabetes Association (ADA, 2013, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE, 2009, International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD, 2009 and Russian Association of Endocrinologists (RAE, 2011, 2012. Current edition of the “Standards” also integrates results of completed randomized clinical trials (ADVANCE, ACCORD, VADT, UKPDS, etc., as well as findings from the national studies of diabetes mellitus (DM, conducted in close partnership with a number of Russian hospitals.Latest data indicates that prevalence of DM increased during the last decade more than two-fold, reaching some 371 million patients by 2013. According to the current estimation by the International Diabetes Federation, every tenth inhabitant of the planet will be suffering from DM by 2030. These observations resulted in the UN Resolution 61/225 passed on 20.12.2006 that encouraged all Member States “to develop national policies for the prevention, treatment and care of diabetes”.Like many other countries, Russian Federation experiences a sharp rise in the prevalence of DM. According to Russian State Diabetes Register, there are at least 3.799 million patients with DM in this country. However, the epidemiological survey conducted by the Federal Endocrinology Research Centre during 2002-2010 suggests that actual prevalence is 3 to 4 times greater than the officially recognized and, by this estimate, amounts to 9-10 million persons, comprising 7% of the

  2. Connectivity editing for quadrilateral meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chihan

    2011-12-01

    We propose new connectivity editing operations for quadrilateral meshes with the unique ability to explicitly control the location, orientation, type, and number of the irregular vertices (valence not equal to four) in the mesh while preserving sharp edges. We provide theoretical analysis on what editing operations are possible and impossible and introduce three fundamental operations to move and re-orient a pair of irregular vertices. We argue that our editing operations are fundamental, because they only change the quad mesh in the smallest possible region and involve the fewest irregular vertices (i.e., two). The irregular vertex movement operations are supplemented by operations for the splitting, merging, canceling, and aligning of irregular vertices. We explain how the proposed high-level operations are realized through graph-level editing operations such as quad collapses, edge flips, and edge splits. The utility of these mesh editing operations are demonstrated by improving the connectivity of quad meshes generated from state-of-art quadrangulation techniques.

  3. Connectivity editing for quadrilateral meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chihan

    2011-12-12

    We propose new connectivity editing operations for quadrilateral meshes with the unique ability to explicitly control the location, orientation, type, and number of the irregular vertices (valence not equal to four) in the mesh while preserving sharp edges. We provide theoretical analysis on what editing operations are possible and impossible and introduce three fundamental operations to move and re-orient a pair of irregular vertices. We argue that our editing operations are fundamental, because they only change the quad mesh in the smallest possible region and involve the fewest irregular vertices (i.e., two). The irregular vertex movement operations are supplemented by operations for the splitting, merging, canceling, and aligning of irregular vertices. We explain how the proposed highlevel operations are realized through graph-level editing operations such as quad collapses, edge flips, and edge splits. The utility of these mesh editing operations are demonstrated by improving the connectivity of quad meshes generated from state-of-art quadrangulation techniques. © 2011 ACM.

  4. Magic squares in the tenth century twoAarabic treatises by Anṭākī and Būzjānī

    CERN Document Server

    Sesiano, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    This volume contains the texts and translations of two Arabic treatises on magic squares, which are undoubtedly the most important testimonies on the early history of that science. It is divided into the three parts: the first and most extensive is on tenth-century construction methods, the second is the translations of the texts, and the third contains the original Arabic texts, which date back to the tenth century. .

  5. Editörden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir Arıcan

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Değerli Adli Bilimci’ler, Dergimizin ilk baskısının yapıldığı 1996 yılından 2006 yılı sonuna kadar 11 ciltten oluşan dizisini ara vermeden kesintisiz olarak yayınlanma başarısını gösteren Adli Tıp Bülteni Yayın Kurulu adına saygı ile selamlıyoruz. Dergimizin 12. cildinin ilk sayısı, yayın kurulundaki görev değişikliği ile elinize ulaşıyor. “Adli Tıp Bülteni”ni tüm olumsuz koşullara karşın, siz alana emek veren adli bilimcilerin de büyük desteği ile yayın hayatım başarı ile sürdürdü. Bu başarıda başta editörlerimiz sayın Prof. Dr. Serpil Salaçin ve sayın Prof. Dr. Şebnem Korur Fincancı ile yayın kurulunda görev almış meslektaşlarımıza teşekkür ediyor ve desteklerinin artarak devam edeceğini ümit ediyoruz. Adli Tıp Bülteni, ilk editörü sayın Prof. Dr. Serpil Salaçin’in bültenin 1. sayısında belirttiği amaca uygun olarak, her geçen gün daha da güçlenerek yayın hayatını sürdürmektedir. Yayın akışında zaman zaman kesintiler olsa da, amacı doğrultusunda “alanındaki bilgi akışını sağlama ve bilimsel gelişmelerin önemli bir parçası olma özelliğini” Adli Tıp Uzmanları Derneği’nin resmi bilimsel yayın organı kimliği ile devam ettirmektedir. Hedefleri doğrultusunda uluslararası indekslerce taranan bir dergi olma yolunda ilk adımını atan dergimizin bu alandaki çalışmaları sayın Prof. Dr. Şebnem Korur Fincancı tarafından yürütülmektedir. Görevini genç meslektaşına devretmiş olsa da alanımızdaki uluslar arası deneyimi ile Adli Tıp Bülteni’ni çok farklı noktalara taşıyacağı inancındayım. Bu alanda yapacağı katkılardan dolayı sayın hocama biz kez daha teşekkür etmek istiyorum. Bundan böyle Adli Tıp Bülteni’ne yayınlanmak üzere gönderdiğiniz çalışmalarınızın değerlendirmesini daha hızlı yapabilmek ve baskı aşamasına getirmek amacı ile iletişimi elektronik ortamda yapmaya

  6. Understanding Editing Behaviors in Multilingual Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suin; Park, Sungjoon; Hale, Scott A; Kim, Sooyoung; Byun, Jeongmin; Oh, Alice H

    2016-01-01

    Multilingualism is common offline, but we have a more limited understanding of the ways multilingualism is displayed online and the roles that multilinguals play in the spread of content between speakers of different languages. We take a computational approach to studying multilingualism using one of the largest user-generated content platforms, Wikipedia. We study multilingualism by collecting and analyzing a large dataset of the content written by multilingual editors of the English, German, and Spanish editions of Wikipedia. This dataset contains over two million paragraphs edited by over 15,000 multilingual users from July 8 to August 9, 2013. We analyze these multilingual editors in terms of their engagement, interests, and language proficiency in their primary and non-primary (secondary) languages and find that the English edition of Wikipedia displays different dynamics from the Spanish and German editions. Users primarily editing the Spanish and German editions make more complex edits than users who edit these editions as a second language. In contrast, users editing the English edition as a second language make edits that are just as complex as the edits by users who primarily edit the English edition. In this way, English serves a special role bringing together content written by multilinguals from many language editions. Nonetheless, language remains a formidable hurdle to the spread of content: we find evidence for a complexity barrier whereby editors are less likely to edit complex content in a second language. In addition, we find that multilinguals are less engaged and show lower levels of language proficiency in their second languages. We also examine the topical interests of multilingual editors and find that there is no significant difference between primary and non-primary editors in each language.

  7. Understanding Editing Behaviors in Multilingual Wikipedia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suin Kim

    Full Text Available Multilingualism is common offline, but we have a more limited understanding of the ways multilingualism is displayed online and the roles that multilinguals play in the spread of content between speakers of different languages. We take a computational approach to studying multilingualism using one of the largest user-generated content platforms, Wikipedia. We study multilingualism by collecting and analyzing a large dataset of the content written by multilingual editors of the English, German, and Spanish editions of Wikipedia. This dataset contains over two million paragraphs edited by over 15,000 multilingual users from July 8 to August 9, 2013. We analyze these multilingual editors in terms of their engagement, interests, and language proficiency in their primary and non-primary (secondary languages and find that the English edition of Wikipedia displays different dynamics from the Spanish and German editions. Users primarily editing the Spanish and German editions make more complex edits than users who edit these editions as a second language. In contrast, users editing the English edition as a second language make edits that are just as complex as the edits by users who primarily edit the English edition. In this way, English serves a special role bringing together content written by multilinguals from many language editions. Nonetheless, language remains a formidable hurdle to the spread of content: we find evidence for a complexity barrier whereby editors are less likely to edit complex content in a second language. In addition, we find that multilinguals are less engaged and show lower levels of language proficiency in their second languages. We also examine the topical interests of multilingual editors and find that there is no significant difference between primary and non-primary editors in each language.

  8. An updated review of the concept of eLearning. Tenth anniversary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José GARCÍA-PEÑALVO

    2015-04-01

    perspective of our research group GRIAL (Research Group in InterAction and eLearning, coinciding with the tenth anniversary of the “Current status of e-learning systems” paper.

  9. The tenth anniversary of the Björn Ekwall memorial foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walum, Eric; Tähti, Hanna; Kolman, Ada

    2011-09-01

    The Björn Ekwall Memorial Foundation (BEMF) was initiated by the Scandinavian Society for Cell Toxicology in 2001, to honour the memory of Dr Björn Ekwall (1940-2000) and to establish a prize, the Björn Ekwall Memorial Award. The prize is awarded to scientists who have significantly contributed to the field of cell toxicology, and whose work is contributing toward the replacement of animal experiments by alternative toxicity tests. Over the past 10 years, the Björn Ekwall Memorial Award has been presented annually. Björn Ekwall, an outstanding Swedish cell toxicologist, was one of the pioneers in the development and application of alternative methods to animal tests in toxicology. All his scientific work was devoted to in vitro toxicology, and in particular, to the use of cultured human cells for the screening of toxic chemicals. In the middle of the 1980s, he initiated the international Multicentre Evaluation of In Vitro Cytotoxicity (MEIC) project, to evaluate the usefulness of in vitro tests for the estimation of human acute systemic toxicity. To prove his "basal cytotoxicity concept", he established the MEMO database, in which data on the acutely toxic human blood concentrations of drugs and chemicals were collated from the literature and from clinical studies. He also initiated another project, Evaluation-Guided Development of In Vitro Toxicity and Toxicokinetic Tests (EDIT). The ideas from the EDIT project, together with those from the MEIC project, became the basis for today's international EU projects, e.g. ACuteTox, Sens-it-iv and ReProTect. In this article, 10 years after the start of the BEMF, the scientific achievements of each of the award winners in the field of in vitro toxicology are presented, together with a brief synopsis of their careers. 2011 FRAME.

  10. Human coding RNA editing is generally nonadaptive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guixia; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2014-01-01

    Impairment of RNA editing at a handful of coding sites causes severe disorders, prompting the view that coding RNA editing is highly advantageous. Recent genomic studies have expanded the list of human coding RNA editing sites by more than 100 times, raising the question of how common advantageous RNA editing is. Analyzing 1,783 human coding A-to-G editing sites, we show that both the frequency and level of RNA editing decrease as the importance of a site or gene increases; that during evolution, edited As are more likely than unedited As to be replaced with Gs but not with Ts or Cs; and that among nonsynonymously edited As, those that are evolutionarily least conserved exhibit the highest editing levels. These and other observations reveal the overall nonadaptive nature of coding RNA editing, despite the presence of a few sites in which editing is clearly beneficial. We propose that most observed coding RNA editing results from tolerable promiscuous targeting by RNA editing enzymes, the original physiological functions of which remain elusive. PMID:24567376

  11. Beginning XML, 5th Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Fawcett, Joe; Quin, Liam R E

    2012-01-01

    A complete update covering the many advances to the XML language The XML language has become the standard for writing documents on the Internet and is constantly improving and evolving. This new edition covers all the many new XML-based technologies that have appeared since the previous edition four years ago, providing you with an up-to-date introductory guide and reference. Packed with real-world code examples, best practices, and in-depth coverage of the most important and relevant topics, this authoritative resource explores both the advantages and disadvantages of XML and addresses the mo

  12. Introducing ZBrush 3rd Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Learn ZBrush inside and out with this updated new edition Get totally comfortable sculpting in a digital environment with the latest edition of this bestselling beginner's guide to ZBrush. Fully updated for the newest version of the software, ZBrush 4R3, this book dispels any fears you might have about the difficulty of using ZBrush and soon has you creating realistic, cartoon, and organic models with flair. Learn all the essentials, as you complete fun tutorials on painting, meshes, organic scripting, hard surface sculpting, lighting, rendering, and more. Introduces you to ZBrush, the sculpt

  13. Language Editing at Astronomy & Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J.

    2011-07-01

    In 2002, the A&A Board of Directors voted that all articles must be written in English and decided to improve the overall quality of the language in the articles with the help of a team of language editors. This article reviews the general advantages of editing the English expression and describes both the aims of this effort and its place in the full publication process. This is followed by the Guide to language editing that has been available on the Journal's website for several years now.

  14. Boneless Pose Editing and Animation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Hansen, Kristian Evers; Erleben, Kenny

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a pose editing and animation method for triangulated surfaces based on a user controlled partitioning of the model into deformable parts and rigid parts which are denoted handles. In our pose editing system, the user can sculpt a set of poses simply by transforming...... problem in order to obtain the interpolation weights. While the system can be used simply for building poses, it is also an animation system. The user can specify a path for a given constraint and the model is animated correspondingly....

  15. Handbook of ecotoxicology, second edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    2003-01-01

    Handbook of Ecotoxicology, Second Edition focuses on toxic substances and how they affect ecosystems worldwide. It presents methods for quantifying and measuring ecotoxicological effects in the field and in the lab, as well as methods for estimating, predicting, and modeling in ecotoxicology studies. Completely revised and updated with 18 new chapters, this second edition includes contributions from over 75 international experts. Also, a Technical Review Board reviewed all manuscripts for accuracy and currency. This authoritative work is the definitive reference for students, researchers, consultants, and other professionals in the environmental sciences, toxicology, chemistry, biology, and ecology - in academia, industry, and government.

  16. Delivery technologies for genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hao; Kauffman, Kevin J; Anderson, Daniel G

    2017-06-01

    With the recent development of CRISPR technology, it is becoming increasingly easy to engineer the genome. Genome-editing systems based on CRISPR, as well as transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), are becoming valuable tools for biomedical research, drug discovery and development, and even gene therapy. However, for each of these systems to effectively enter cells of interest and perform their function, efficient and safe delivery technologies are needed. This Review discusses the principles of biomacromolecule delivery and gene editing, examines recent advances and challenges in non-viral and viral delivery methods, and highlights the status of related clinical trials.

  17. Shielded Metal Arc Pipe Welding. Teacher Edition. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, Clarence; And Others

    This second edition of the shielded metal arc pipe welding curriculum guide presents both basic and advanced pipe welding skills. All specifications for procedure and welder qualification are presented according to national standards. The standards also include the test position for both groove and fillet pipe welding. The guide contains three…

  18. Gas Metal Arc Welding and Flux-Cored Arc Welding. Third Edition. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition [and] Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, John; Harper, Eddie

    This packet, containing a teacher's edition, a student edition, and a student workbook, introduces students to high deposition welding and processes for "shielding" a weld. In addition to general information, the teacher edition consists of introductory pages and teacher pages, as well as unit information that corresponds to the…

  19. RNA editing machinery in plant organelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Junjie; Zhang, Qunxia; Yin, Ping

    2017-10-23

    RNA editing is a type of post-transcriptional modification that includes nucleotide insertion/deletion or conversion. Different categories of RNA editing have been widely observed in distinct RNAs from divergent organisms. In flowering plants, RNA editing usually alters cytidine to uridine in plastids and mitochondria, playing important roles in various plant developmental processes, including organelle biogenesis, adaptation to environmental changes, and signal transduction. Numerous studies have demonstrated that a number of factors are involved in plant RNA editing, such as pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins, multiple organelle RNA editing factors (MORF, also known as RIP), organelle RNA recognition motif (ORRM) containing proteins, protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase 1 (PPO1) and organelle zinc finger 1 (OZ1). These factors play diverse roles in plant RNA editing due to their distinct characteristics. In this review, we discuss the functional roles of the individual editing factors and their associations in plant RNA editing.

  20. A Computational Framework for Vertical Video Editing

    OpenAIRE

    Gandhi, Vineet; Ronfard, Rémi

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Vertical video editing is the process of digitally editing the image within the frame as opposed to horizontal video editing, which arranges the shots along a timeline. Vertical editing can be a time-consuming and error-prone process when using manual key-framing and simple interpolation. In this paper, we present a general framework for automatically computing a variety of cinematically plausible shots from a single input video suitable to the special case of live per...

  1. Human Genome Editing and Ethical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Singh, Bahadur

    2016-04-01

    Editing human germline genes may act as boon in some genetic and other disorders. Recent editing of the genome of the human embryo with the CRISPR/Cas9 editing tool generated a debate amongst top scientists of the world for the ethical considerations regarding its effect on the future generations. It needs to be seen as to what transformation human gene editing brings to humankind in the times to come.

  2. Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry. Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzin, Norman K., Ed.; Lincoln, Yvonna S., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry, Third Edition," the second volume in the paperback version of "The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, 3rd Edition," consists of Part III of the handbook ("Strategies of Inquiry"). "Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry, Third Edition" presents the major tactics--historically, the research methods--that…

  3. RNA Editing in Pathogenesis of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal, Bora E; Sharma, Shraddha; Hashemikhabir, Seyedsasan; Janga, Sarath Chandra

    2017-07-15

    Several adenosine or cytidine deaminase enzymes deaminate transcript sequences in a cell type or environment-dependent manner by a programmed process called RNA editing. RNA editing enzymes catalyze A>I or C>U transcript alterations and have the potential to change protein coding sequences. In this brief review, we highlight some recent work that shows aberrant patterns of RNA editing in cancer. Transcriptome sequencing studies reveal increased or decreased global RNA editing levels depending on the tumor type. Altered RNA editing in cancer cells may provide a selective advantage for tumor growth and resistance to apoptosis. RNA editing may promote cancer by dynamically recoding oncogenic genes, regulating oncogenic gene expression by noncoding RNA and miRNA editing, or by transcriptome scale changes in RNA editing levels that may affect innate immune signaling. Although RNA editing markedly increases complexity of the cancer cell transcriptomes, cancer-specific recoding RNA editing events have yet to be discovered. Epitranscriptomic changes by RNA editing in cancer represent a novel mechanism contributing to sequence diversity independently of DNA mutations. Therefore, RNA editing studies should complement genome sequence data to understand the full impact of nucleic acid sequence alterations in cancer. Cancer Res; 77(14); 3733-9. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Money and Schools. Fifth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David C.; Crampton, Faith E.; Wood, R. Craig

    2012-01-01

    In the new edition of this essential, all-inclusive text, the authors provide more important research for future principals and others enrolled in graduate-level school finance courses. Written in a style that is highly readable, the book offers strong connections to real-world experiences. Readers get both a broad overview of funding concepts and…

  5. Veterinary Microbiology, 3rd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterinary Microbiology, Third Edition is organized into four sections and begins with an updated and expanded introductory section on infectious disease pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. The second section covers bacterial and fungal pathogens, and the third section describes viral d...

  6. Medical writing, revising and editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Morten

    2006-01-01

    The globalization of science makes medical writing, editing and revision a rapidly growing field of linguistic study and practice. Medical science texts are written according to uniform, general guidelines and medical genres have become highly conventionalized in terms of structure and linguistic...

  7. Editörden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şebnem Korur Fincancı

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Değerli Meslektaşlarım, Bu yılın ilk sayısında bir değişiklik gözünüze çarpmış olabilir. Adli Tıp Bülteni artık Türk Tıp Dizini’nde yer almamaktadır ve yer almadığına dair bildirim ilk sayımız basıldıktan sonra elimize ulaşmış olsa da, Adli Tıp Uzmanları Derneğinin başkanları ve dergimizin editörü olarak benim hakkımda yapılmış olan başvuru üzerine hakkımızda yapılan soruşturmalar sırasında, bir başka kişiye verilmiş olan e-posta yanıtından öğrenmiş olmamız dolayısıyla, anılan ibareye geçen sayımızda yer vermemiş idik. Bu süreci paylaşmak gerektiğini düşünüyorum. Türk Tıp Dizini 1997 yılında yaptığımız başvuru sonucu iki taraflı bir sözleşme ile yayın hakkı verdiğimiz kurumsal bir yapılanmadır. Sözleşme 1997 yılında yapılmış olmasına karşın, ilk çıkmaya başladığı 1996 yılından itibaren dergimiz dizinlenmiştir. Sözleşme hükümlerinde, katılım iznini veren taraf olarak sözleşmeyi imzalayan Adli Tıp Bülteni ile ilgili: a\tYayım/yayın haklarını kullanma iznini dergi sahipleri dışında TÜBİTAK’a da verdiğini kabul ettiği, b\tİzin veren taraf olarak süreli yayında söz konusu derginin TÜBİTAK tarafından dizinlendiği belirtilecek ve Türk Tıp Dizini’nin çıkacak olan her sayı için dergisinde bir sayfalık tanıtıya yer vereceği, c\tTürk Tıp Dizini koşullarına uyulmadığı takdirde önce uyarılmak koşulu ile derginin dizinden çıkarılabileceği, d\tİki nüsha tanzim edilen bu sözleşmenin taraflarca imzalandığı, ilk yılın sonunda aksi beyanda bulunulmadığı takdirde ikinci yıl bitimine kadar devam edeceği, e\tSözleşmeden doğan uyuşmazlıklarda Ankara Mahkemeleri ve İcra Dairelerinin yetkili olduğu belirtilmiştir. İlk yılın sonunda aksi beyanda bulunulmadığı takdirde sözleşmenin devam edeceği bildirilmiş olup, Türk Tıp Dizini koşullarına uyulmadığında önce uyar

  8. Explorations of Tenth-Grade STS[E] Curricula across Three Provincial Political Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Christina Ann

    This thesis focuses on explorations of science, technology, society and the environment (i.e., STS[E]) outcomes/expectations in tenth-grade level science curricula across three Canadian provinces (i.e., Alberta, Manitoba & Ontario) with distinctive provincial political environments at the time of curriculum construction and/or implementation. Document analysis, discourse analysis and a range of theoretical frameworks (i.e., Levinson, 2010; Pedretti & Nazir, 2011 & Krathwohl, 2002) were used to aid in explorations of STS[E] curriculum segments and discourses in each provincial region. More detailed analysis and thematic exploration is presented for each unit associated with climate change as some interesting patterns emerged following initial analysis. My findings are presented as three comparative case studies and represent a small and original contribution to the large body of scholarly research devoted to studies of STS[E] education, where each province represents a unique case that has been explored regarding some aspects the STS[E] curriculum outcomes/expectations and general political culture as well as some other theoretical factors. Findings from this study indicate that Alberta's STS[E] outcomes may be related to Levinson's (2010) 'deliberative' citizenship focus. The following currents from Pedretti and Nazir (2011) appear to be emphasized: logical reasoning, historical, application & design and socio-cultural aligned outcomes when STS[E] is considered as an entity separate from the Alberta curriculum combination of STS and Knowledge. Ontario's STS[E] expectations may align with Levinson's (2010) 'deliberative' or in some select cases a 'deliberative'/'praxis' framework category with some emphasis related to logical reasoning and socio-cultural awareness (Pedretti & Nazir, 2011) in their STS[E] curriculum. The Manitoba STS[E] outcomes may be aligned with a more 'deliberative' approach with some associations that could intersect with the framework

  9. Diesel Technology: Safety Skills. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellum, Mary

    Teacher and student editions of this document are one in a series of competency-based instructional materials for diesel technology programs. The series aligns with the medium/heavy diesel duty truck task list used by the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence in the certification of medium/heavy duty truck technicians. Introductory…

  10. Diesel Technology: Steering and Suspension. Second Edition. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Roger; Scarberry, Terry; Tesch, Carl; Kellum, Mary

    These teacher and student editions on steering and suspension are part of the diesel mechanics series of instructional materials. The series aligns with the medium/heavy duty truck task list developed by the National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation and used by the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence in the…

  11. Comprehensive analysis of RNA-Seq data reveals extensive RNA editing in a human transcriptome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Zhiyu; Cheng, Yanbing; Tan, Bertrand Chin-Ming

    2012-01-01

    RNA editing is a post-transcriptional event that recodes hereditary information. Here we describe a comprehensive profile of the RNA editome of a male Han Chinese individual based on analysis of ∼767 million sequencing reads from poly(A)(+), poly(A)(-) and small RNA samples. We developed a comput......RNA editing is a post-transcriptional event that recodes hereditary information. Here we describe a comprehensive profile of the RNA editome of a male Han Chinese individual based on analysis of ∼767 million sequencing reads from poly(A)(+), poly(A)(-) and small RNA samples. We developed...

  12. The RNA Editing Factor SlORRM4 Is Required for Normal Fruit Ripening in Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongfang; Zhu, Guoning; Li, Rui; Yan, Shijie; Fu, Daqi; Zhu, Benzhong; Tian, Huiqin; Luo, Yunbo; Zhu, Hongliang

    2017-12-01

    RNA editing plays a key posttranscriptional role in gene expression. Existing studies on cytidine-to-uridine RNA editing in plants have focused on maize (Zea mays), rice (Oryza sativa), and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, the importance and regulation of RNA editing in several critical agronomic processes are not well understood, a notable example of which is fruit ripening. Here, we analyzed the expression profile of 33 RNA editing factors and identified 11 putative tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening-related factors. A rapid virus-induced gene silencing assay indicated that the organelle RNA recognition motif-containing protein SlORRM4 affected tomato fruit ripening. Knocking out SlORRM4 expression using a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 genome editing strategy delayed tomato fruit ripening by lowering respiratory rate and ethylene production. Additionally, the expression of numerous genes associated with fruit ripening and mitochondrial functions changed significantly when SlORRM4 was knocked out. Moreover, the loss of SlORRM4 function significantly reduced RNA editing of many mitochondrial transcripts, leading to low-level expression of some core subunits that are critical for mitochondrial complex assembly (i.e. Nad3, Cytc1, and COX II). Taken together, these results indicate that SlORRM4 is involved in RNA editing of transcripts in ripening fruit that influence mitochondrial function and key aspects of fruit ripening. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Editing site analysis in a gymnosperm mitochondrial genome reveals similarities with angiosperm mitochondrial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmans, Michael Lee; Chaw, Shu-Miaw; Lin, Ching-Ping; Shih, Arthur Chun-Chieh; Wu, Yu-Wei; Mulligan, R Michael

    2010-10-01

    Sequence analysis of organelle genomes and comprehensive analysis of C-to-U editing sites from flowering and non-flowering plants have provided extensive sequence information from diverse taxa. This study includes the first comprehensive analysis of RNA editing sites from a gymnosperm mitochondrial genome, and utilizes informatics analyses to determine conserved features in the RNA sequence context around editing sites. We have identified 565 editing sites in 21 full-length and 4 partial cDNAs of the 39 protein-coding genes identified from the mitochondrial genome of Cycas taitungensis. The information profiles and RNA sequence context of C-to-U editing sites in the Cycas genome exhibit similarity in the immediate flanking nucleotides. Relative entropy analyses indicate that similar regions in the 5' flanking 20 nucleotides have information content compared to angiosperm mitochondrial genomes. These results suggest that evolutionary constraints exist on the nucleotide sequences immediately adjacent to C-to-U editing sites, and similar regions are utilized in editing site recognition.

  14. Learning styles and types of multiple intelligences in dental students in their first and tenth semester. Monterrey, Mexico, 2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Solís-Soto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays the incorporation and validation of learning styles and multiple intelligences enable teachers to obtain positive results in academic performance. This new approach has allowed to appreciate personal differences in dental students and strengthen their underdeveloped aspects, improving teaching and learning skills. Objective: To compare learning styles and multiple intelligences in a sample of Mexican dental students in their first and tenth semester. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study using questionnaires on learning styles (Honey-Alonso and Gardner’s multiple intelligences was performed. The study was applied to 123 students in their first semester and 157 in their tenth semester at the School of Dentistry at Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, evaluating differences between age and sex. Results: Logical-Mathematical intelligence (p=0.044 and Kinesthetic-Corporal intelligence (p=0.042 showed significant differences between students of both semesters, with intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligences being more prevalent. Within learning styles, the prevalent were Reflexive and Theoretical, showing a significant difference between semesters (p=0.005. Conclusion: The most prevalent learning styles in both groups were Reflexive and Theoretical, with no difference between both sexes. The most prevalent types of multiple intelligences in both sexes and groups were interpersonal and intrapersonal.

  15. Applying a Multiple Group Causal Indicator Modeling Framework to the Reading Comprehension Skills of Third, Seventh, and Tenth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Wagner, Richard K.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates the utility of applying a causal indicator modeling framework to investigate important predictors of reading comprehension in third, seventh, and tenth grade students. The results indicated that a 4-factor multiple indicator multiple indicator cause (MIMIC) model of reading comprehension provided adequate fit at each grade level. This model included latent predictor constructs of decoding, verbal reasoning, nonverbal reasoning, and working memory and accounted for a large portion of the reading comprehension variance (73% to 87%) across grade levels. Verbal reasoning contributed the most unique variance to reading comprehension at all grade levels. In addition, we fit a multiple group 4-factor MIMIC model to investigate the relative stability (or variability) of the predictor contributions to reading comprehension across development (i.e., grade levels). The results revealed that the contributions of verbal reasoning, nonverbal reasoning, and working memory to reading comprehension were stable across the three grade levels. Decoding was the only predictor that could not be constrained to be equal across grade levels. The contribution of decoding skills to reading comprehension was higher in third grade and then remained relatively stable between seventh and tenth grade. These findings illustrate the feasibility of using MIMIC models to explain individual differences in reading comprehension across the development of reading skills. PMID:25821346

  16. Statistical Physics Approaches to RNA Editing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Ralf

    2012-02-01

    The central dogma of molecular Biology states that DNA is transcribed base by base into RNA which is in turn translated into proteins. However, some organisms edit their RNA before translation by inserting, deleting, or substituting individual or short stretches of bases. In many instances the mechanisms by which an organism recognizes the positions at which to edit or by which it performs the actual editing are unknown. One model system that stands out by its very high rate of on average one out of 25 bases being edited are the Myxomycetes, a class of slime molds. In this talk we will show how the computational methods and concepts from statistical Physics can be used to analyze DNA and protein sequence data to predict editing sites in these slime molds and to guide experiments that identified previously unknown types of editing as well as the complete set of editing events in the slime mold Physarum polycephalum.

  17. Progress and prospects in plant genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kangquan; Gao, Caixia; Qiu, Jin-Long

    2017-07-31

    The emergence of sequence-specific nucleases that enable genome editing is revolutionizing basic and applied biology. Since the introduction of CRISPR-Cas9, genome editing has become widely used in transformable plants for characterizing gene function and improving traits, mainly by inducing mutations through non-homologous end joining of double-stranded breaks generated by CRISPR-Cas9. However, it would be highly desirable to perform precision gene editing in plants, especially in transformation-recalcitrant species. Recently developed Cas9 variants, novel RNA-guided nucleases and base-editing systems, and DNA-free CRISPR-Cas9 delivery methods now provide great opportunities for plant genome engineering. In this Review Article, we describe the current status of plant genome editing, focusing on newly developed genome editing tools and methods and their potential applications in plants. We also discuss the specific challenges facing plant genome editing, and future prospects.

  18. CAUSEL: an epigenome- and genome-editing pipeline for establishing function of noncoding GWAS variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spisák, Sándor; Lawrenson, Kate; Fu, Yanfang

    2015-01-01

    a general pipeline in which candidate functional SNPs are first evaluated by fine mapping, epigenomic profiling, and epigenome editing, and then interrogated for causal function by using genome editing to create isogenic cell lines followed by phenotypic characterization. To validate this approach, we...... analyzed the 6q22.1 prostate cancer risk locus and identified rs339331 as the top-scoring SNP. Epigenome editing confirmed that the rs339331 region possessed regulatory potential. By using transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-mediated genome editing, we created a panel of isogenic 22Rv1...... prostate cancer cell lines representing all three genotypes (TT, TC, CC) at rs339331. Introduction of the 'T' risk allele increased transcription of the regulatory factor 6 (RFX6) gene, increased homeobox B13 (HOXB13) binding at the rs339331 region, and increased deposition of the enhancer-associated H3K4...

  19. PREFACE: Tenth International Conference on Topics in Astroparticle and Underground Physics (TAUP2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kunio; Suzuki, Atsuto; Mitsui, Tadao

    2008-07-01

    The tenth meeting of the TAUP Workshop Series, TAUP 2007, was organized by the Research Center for Neutrino Science, Tohoku University. In TAUP 2007 all the various aspects of Astroparticle Physics have been covered, from Cosmology and Dark Constituents, to Gravitational Waves, to Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics, to High Energy Astrophysics, to Cosmic Rays and Gamma-Rays Astronomy. New and important scientific results were presented and debated in the plenary review talks and in a very large number of contributions in topical parallel sessions. As editors of these proceedings, we hope that this volume, which contains most of the talks and contributions presented at TAUP 2007, will provide a detailed state-of-the-art account of the various facets of Astroparticle Physics. We thank all the invited speakers, conveners, and contributors who made this possible. Full coverage of the transparencies presented at the conference can be found on the website http://www.awa.tohoku.ac.jp/taup2007. The TAUP 2007 Organizing Committee thanks IUPAP/PaNAGIC, Sendai Tourism and Convention Bureau, COE program: Exploring New Science by Bridging Particle-Matter Hierarchy, SEIKO EG&G, and REPIC corporation for sponsoring the Conference, and Sendai Civic Auditorium, where the meeting was held, for their hospitality. We wish to thank Alessandro Bottino, Junpei Shirai, Fumihiko Suekane, David Sinclair, Takaaki Kajita, Takeo Moroi, Masaki Mori, Masahiro Kawasaki, Yoshihito Gando, Sei Yoshida, Kyoko Tamae, Sanshiro Enomoto, Alexandre Kozlov, Yasuhiro Kishimoto, Itaru Shimizu, Kengo Nakamura, Haruo Ikeda, and Kyo Nakajima for their invaluable contribution in the scientific shaping of the conference and in the preparation of the present volume. The Organizing Committee is grateful to the members of the International Advisory Committee and of the TAUP Steering Committee for assistance and advice on the scientific program. Very special thanks are due to Ms Rika Bizen, Mr Fujio Miura, Ms Akemi

  20. Editing as a psychological practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, John

    2006-06-01

    The experience of the Jungian analyst in the role of editor of manuscripts by creative colleagues is examined. Historical precedents include Michael Fordham's editorial correspondence with Jung around the latter's synchronicity essay; Jung's handling of manuscripts submitted by Sabina Spielrein to the Jahrbuch für psychoanalytische und psychopathologische Forschungen and various authors to the Zentralblatt für Psychotherapie und ihre Grenzgebiete, and the author's close editing of a paper submitted by Andrew Samuels to the Journal of Analytical Psychology. In addition to mustering an adequate amount of generosity, erudition, and availability, the analytic editor must know how to clarify a psychological argument and to gauge the psychological impact of the written text. Notwithstanding transference/countertransference phenomena that can emerge around issues of competition, envy, and territoriality when author and editor are also fellow-authors working in the same field, the editor needs to be comfortable about serving as the author's selfobject and midwife. From an analytic perspective, although communicating decisions about the best way to put ideas into words can sometimes attract transference to the editor, the more profound transference that analysts experience in the editing situation is toward the text being edited, which helps to motivate donated time spent caring for journal manuscripts.

  1. In search of beneficial coding RNA editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guixia; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2015-02-01

    RNA editing is a posttranscriptional modification that can lead to a change in the encoded protein sequence of a gene. Although a few cases of mammalian coding RNA editing are known to be functionally important, the vast majority of over 2,000 A-to-I editing sites that have been identified from the coding regions of the human genome are likely nonadaptive, representing tolerable promiscuous targeting of editing enzymes. Finding the potentially tiny fraction of beneficial editing sites from the sea of mostly nearly neutral editing is a difficult but important task. Here, we propose and provide evidence that evolutionarily conserved or "hardwired" residues that experience high-level nonsynonymous RNA editing in a species are enriched with beneficial editing. This simple approach allows the prediction of sites where RNA editing is functionally important. We suggest that priority be given to these candidates in future characterizations of the functional and fitness consequences of RNA editing. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Comparison of Insertional RNA Editing in Myxomycetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cai; Frankhouser, David; Bundschuh, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    RNA editing describes the process in which individual or short stretches of nucleotides in a messenger or structural RNA are inserted, deleted, or substituted. A high level of RNA editing has been observed in the mitochondrial genome of Physarum polycephalum. The most frequent editing type in Physarum is the insertion of individual Cs. RNA editing is extremely accurate in Physarum; however, little is known about its mechanism. Here, we demonstrate how analyzing two organisms from the Myxomycetes, namely Physarum polycephalum and Didymium iridis, allows us to test hypotheses about the editing mechanism that can not be tested from a single organism alone. First, we show that using the recently determined full transcriptome information of Physarum dramatically improves the accuracy of computational editing site prediction in Didymium. We use this approach to predict genes in the mitochondrial genome of Didymium and identify six new edited genes as well as one new gene that appears unedited. Next we investigate sequence conservation in the vicinity of editing sites between the two organisms in order to identify sites that harbor the information for the location of editing sites based on increased conservation. Our results imply that the information contained within only nine or ten nucleotides on either side of the editing site (a distance previously suggested through experiments) is not enough to locate the editing sites. Finally, we show that the codon position bias in C insertional RNA editing of these two organisms is correlated with the selection pressure on the respective genes thereby directly testing an evolutionary theory on the origin of this codon bias. Beyond revealing interesting properties of insertional RNA editing in Myxomycetes, our work suggests possible approaches to be used when finding sequence motifs for any biological process fails. PMID:22383871

  3. Doing Business Economy Profile 2015 : Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2015 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Guatemala. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2015 is the 12th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it....

  4. Connectivity editing for quad-dominant meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chihan

    2013-08-01

    We propose a connectivity editing framework for quad-dominant meshes. In our framework, the user can edit the mesh connectivity to control the location, type, and number of irregular vertices (with more or fewer than four neighbors) and irregular faces (non-quads). We provide a theoretical analysis of the problem, discuss what edits are possible and impossible, and describe how to implement an editing framework that realizes all possible editing operations. In the results, we show example edits and illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of different strategies for quad-dominant mesh design. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Operational Transformation In Co-Operative Editing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep Kaur

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative Editing Systems in real-time allows a virtual team to view and edit a shared document at the same time. The document shared must be synchronized in order to ensure consistency for all the participants. This paper describes the Operational Transformation the evolution of its techniques its various applications major issues and achievements. In addition this paper will present working of a platform where two users can edit a code programming file at the same time.

  6. Therapeutic Gene Editing Safety and Specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, Christopher T; Scharenberg, Andrew M

    2017-10-01

    Therapeutic gene editing is significant for medical advancement. Safety is intricately linked to the specificity of the editing tools used to cut at precise genomic targets. Improvements can be achieved by thoughtful design of nucleases and repair templates, analysis of off-target editing, and careful utilization of viral vectors. Advancements in DNA repair mechanisms and development of new generations of tools improve targeting of specific sequences while minimizing risks. It is important to plot a safe course for future clinical trials. This article reviews safety and specificity for therapeutic gene editing to spur dialogue and advancement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Graph edit distance from spectral seriation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Kelly, Antonio; Hancock, Edwin R

    2005-03-01

    This paper is concerned with computing graph edit distance. One of the criticisms that can be leveled at existing methods for computing graph edit distance is that they lack some of the formality and rigor of the computation of string edit distance. Hence, our aim is to convert graphs to string sequences so that string matching techniques can be used. To do this, we use a graph spectral seriation method to convert the adjacency matrix into a string or sequence order. We show how the serial ordering can be established using the leading eigenvector of the graph adjacency matrix. We pose the problem of graph-matching as a maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) alignment of the seriation sequences for pairs of graphs. This treatment leads to an expression in which the edit cost is the negative logarithm of the a posteriori sequence alignment probability. We compute the edit distance by finding the sequence of string edit operations which minimizes the cost of the path traversing the edit lattice. The edit costs are determined by the components of the leading eigenvectors of the adjacency matrix and by the edge densities of the graphs being matched. We demonstrate the utility of the edit distance on a number of graph clustering problems.

  8. VANET '13: Proceeding of the Tenth ACM International Workshop on Vehicular Inter-networking, Systems, and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gozalvez, J.; Kargl, Frank; Mittag, J.; Kravets, R.; Tsai, M.; Unknown, [Unknown

    This year marks a very important date for the ACM international workshop on Vehicular inter-networking, systems, and applications as ACM VANET celebrates now its 10th edition. Starting in 2004 as "ACM international workshop on Vehicular ad hoc networks" already the change in title indicates that

  9. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fourth Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, D.B; Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Klett, M.G.; Engleman, R.R.

    1998-11-01

    Robust progress has been made in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in January 1994. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultra high efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 6 describe the four major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. The section on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells has been added to reflect their emergence as a significant fuel cell technology. Phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cell technology description sections have been updated from the previous edition. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed with proven cell designs, focusing instead on advancing the system surrounding the fuel cell to lower life cycle costs. Section 7, Fuel Cell Systems, has been significantly revised to characterize near-term and next-generation fuel cell power plant systems at a conceptual level of detail. Section 8 provides examples of practical fuel cell system calculations. A list of fuel cell URLs is included in the Appendix. A new index assists the reader in locating specific information quickly.

  10. Comprehensive analysis of RNA-Seq data reveals extensive RNA editing in a human transcriptome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Zhiyu; Cheng, Yanbing; Tan, Bertrand Chin-Ming

    2012-01-01

    RNA editing is a post-transcriptional event that recodes hereditary information. Here we describe a comprehensive profile of the RNA editome of a male Han Chinese individual based on analysis of ∼767 million sequencing reads from poly(A)(+), poly(A)(-) and small RNA samples. We developed...

  11. Insider's Guide to Graduate Programs in Clinical and Counseling Psychology. 2006/2007 Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Tracy J.; Norcross, John C.; Sayette, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    Now in its 2006-2007 edition, this perennial bestseller is the resource students count on for the most current information on applying to doctoral programs in clinical or counseling psychology. The Insider's Guide presents up-to-date facts on 300 accredited programs in the United States and Canada. Each program's profile includes admissions…

  12. RNAEditor: easy detection of RNA editing events and the introduction of editing islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, David; Weirick, Tyler; Dimmeler, Stefanie; Uchida, Shizuka

    2017-11-01

    RNA editing of adenosine residues to inosine ('A-to-I editing') is the most common RNA modification event detectible with RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). While not directly detectable, inosine is read by next-generation sequencers as guanine. Therefore, mapping RNA-seq reads to their corresponding reference genome can detect potential editing events by identifying 'A-to-G' conversions. However, one must exercise caution when searching for editing sites, as A-to-G conversions also arise from sequencing errors as well as mutations. To address these complexities, several algorithms and software products have been developed to accurately identify editing events. Here, we survey currently available methods to analyze RNA editing events and introduce a new easy-to-use bioinformatics tool 'RNAEditor' for the detection of RNA editing events. During the development of RNAEditor, we noticed editing often happened in clusters, which we named 'editing islands'. We developed a clustering algorithm to find editing islands and included it in RNAEditor. RNAEditor is freely available at http://rnaeditor.uni-frankfurt.de. We anticipate that RNAEditor will provide biologists with an easy-to-use tool for studying RNA editing events and the newly defined editing islands. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. GPU Computing Gems Emerald Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Wen-mei W

    2011-01-01

    ".the perfect companion to Programming Massively Parallel Processors by Hwu & Kirk." -Nicolas Pinto, Research Scientist at Harvard & MIT, NVIDIA Fellow 2009-2010 Graphics processing units (GPUs) can do much more than render graphics. Scientists and researchers increasingly look to GPUs to improve the efficiency and performance of computationally-intensive experiments across a range of disciplines. GPU Computing Gems: Emerald Edition brings their techniques to you, showcasing GPU-based solutions including: Black hole simulations with CUDA GPU-accelerated computation and interactive display of

  14. Hackers Heroes of the Computer Revolution - 25th Anniversary Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, Steven

    2010-01-01

    This 25th anniversary edition of Steven Levy's classic book traces the exploits of the computer revolution's original hackers -- those brilliant and eccentric nerds from the late 1950s through the early '80s who took risks, bent the rules, and pushed the world in a radical new direction. With updated material from noteworthy hackers such as Bill Gates, Mark Zuckerberg, Richard Stallman, and Steve Wozniak, Hackers is a fascinating story that begins in early computer research labs and leads to the first home computers. Levy profiles the imaginative brainiacs who found clever and unorthodox sol

  15. A study of clinico-demographic profile of patients with dissociative disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SK Shah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To study the clinical and socio demographic profile of patients with dissociative disorder and their comorbid mental illness. Materials and methods Fifty-one patients of dissociative disorder presenting to emergency and outpatient department of Psychiatry at College of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital during the period from Jan to March 2012 were included. International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems tenth edition, diagnostic criteria for research (ICD-10, DCR was used. Results Out of 51 patients, the majority 24 (47.1%, were in the age group 15-29. However the age of presentation ranged from 9-45 years. The females were more, 44 (86.3% as compared to males 7 (13.7%. The majority of patients had low level of education with none of the patients having education above intermediate level. The majority of patients, 27(52.9% belonged to lower middle class. 49% of the patients presented with dissociative convulsions, 15.7% with dissociative motor disorders, 15.7% with dissociative stupor, 11.8% with dissociative anesthesia and sensory loss and 7.8% with trance and possession disorder. Depressive illness was found co-morbid with dissociative disorder in 33.3%, borderline personality disorder in 9.8% and histrionic personality disorder in 7.8%. There was history of immediate stressful events that supposedly precipitated the event in 76.5%. Conclusion Dissociative disorder mainly affects young female of lower socio-economic and educational status with history of immediate stressful life events precipitating the illness. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2012, Vol-8, No-3, 30-35 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v8i3.8683

  16. Science and stewardship to protect and sustain wilderness values: Tenth World Wilderness Congress symposium; 2013, 4-10 October, Salamanca, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan Watson; Stephen Carver; Zdenka Krenova; Brooke McBride

    2015-01-01

    The Tenth World Wilderness Congress (WILD10) met in Salamanca, Spain in 2013. The symposium on science and stewardship to protect and sustain wilderness values was the largest of multiple symposia held in conjunction with the Congress. This symposium was organized and sponsored by the Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute, the Wildland Research Institute of the...

  17. Learning to Fly: Family-Oriented Literacy Education in Schools. Celebrating the Tenth Anniversary of Hamburg's Family Literacy Project 2004-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabkin, Gabriele, Ed.; Roche, Stephen, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    This book was published to mark the tenth anniversary of Hamburg's award-winning Family Literacy project (FLY). It includes contributions from key stakeholders--academics, teachers, parents and children--participating in the conceptualization and implementation of FLY in the city of Hamburg. FLY mainly targets people from socially disadvantaged…

  18. Ethical and policy issues in the clinical translation of stem cells: report of a focus session at the ISSCR Tenth Annual Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kazuto; Kimmelman, Jonathan; Robert, Jason; Sipp, Douglas; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2012-12-07

    Alongside the scientific barriers to the clinical translation of stem cell research are ethical and regulatory hurdles. Some of these challenges described by the Ethics and Public Policy Committee at the ISSCR Tenth Annual Meeting are presented here. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Selectively Constrained RNA Editing Regulation Crosstalks with piRNA Biogenesis in Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-Zhuang; Chen, Jia-Yu; Liu, Chu-Jun; Peng, Jiguang; Wee, Yin Rei; Han, Xiaorui; Wang, Chenqu; Zhong, Xiaoming; Shen, Qing Sunny; Liu, Hsuan; Cao, Huiqing; Chen, Xiao-Wei; Tan, Bertrand Chin-Ming; Li, Chuan-Yun

    2015-12-01

    Although millions of RNA editing events have been reported to modify hereditary information across the primate transcriptome, evidence for their functional significance remains largely elusive, particularly for the vast majority of editing sites in noncoding regions. Here, we report a new mechanism for the functionality of RNA editing-a crosstalk with PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) biogenesis. Exploiting rhesus macaque as an emerging model organism closely related to human, in combination with extensive genome and transcriptome sequencing in seven tissues of the same animal, we deciphered accurate RNA editome across both long transcripts and the piRNA species. Superimposing and comparing these two distinct RNA editome profiles revealed 4,170 editing-bearing piRNA variants, or epiRNAs, that primarily derived from edited long transcripts. These epiRNAs represent distinct entities that evidence an intersection between RNA editing regulations and piRNA biogenesis. Population genetics analyses in a macaque population of 31 independent animals further demonstrated that the epiRNA-associated RNA editing is maintained by purifying selection, lending support to the functional significance of this crosstalk in rhesus macaque. Correspondingly, these findings are consistent in human, supporting the conservation of this mechanism during the primate evolution. Overall, our study reports the earliest lines of evidence for a crosstalk between selectively constrained RNA editing regulation and piRNA biogenesis, and further illustrates that such an interaction may contribute substantially to the diversification of the piRNA repertoire in primates. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  20. Correction to Mathieu D, Marroni A, Kot J: Tenth European Consensus Conference on Hyperbaric Medicine: recommendations for accepted and non-accepted clinical indications and practice of hyperbaric oxygen treatment. Diving Hyperb Med. 2017 Mar;47(1):24-32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Daniel; Marroni, Alessandro; Kot, Jacek

    2017-06-01

    Consistent with the Committee on Publication Ethics guidelines, we the above authors are initiating a partial retraction and correction of our paper: Mathieu D, Marroni A, Kot J: Tenth European Consensus Conference on Hyperbaric Medicine: recommendations for accepted and non-accepted clinical indications and practice of hyperbaric oxygen treatment. Diving Hyperb Med. 2017 Mar;47(1):24-32. We wish to make the following statement: "Regardless of the strict process of editing and proof-reading of tables included in the above-mentioned publication, we received some comments from readers which showed us that imperfect layout of Table 1 and incorrect layout of Table 2 changed significantly the conclusions which could be drawn from them. Table 1 described the relation between strength of recommendations given by the Jury of the Consensus Conference and the level of evidence based on the GRADE system. There should be a clear and straight relation showing that Level 1 "strong recommendation" should be based on GRADE A "high level of evidence (LOE)", Level 2 "weak recommendation" should be based on GRADE B "moderate LOE", Level 3 "neutral recommendation" should be based on GRADE C "low LOE" and finally no recommendation should be given when only GRADE D "very low LOE" are present. Note that there is no change to the content of the table, but only visual representation of this relationship. Table 2 has been incorrectly printed. In fact, there is no GRADE A LOE. All X marks placed in the column A should be moved to the right, to GRADE B LOE. In the same way, all X marks placed in the column B should be moved to the right, to GRADE C LOE. We voluntarily retract these tables from the above-mentioned publication, expressing our regret for the situation."

  1. The Aldine Edition of Aristotle's De Sensu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David Kristian

    2006-01-01

    This small article examines the quality of and the textual foundation for the først printed edition ever of Aristotle's De Sensu et Sensibilibus, that is, Aldus Manutius' (1497).......This small article examines the quality of and the textual foundation for the først printed edition ever of Aristotle's De Sensu et Sensibilibus, that is, Aldus Manutius' (1497)....

  2. Applications of genome editing in insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect genome editing was first reported 1991 in Drosophila melanogaster but the technology used was not portable to other species. Not until the recent development of facile, engineered DNA endonuclease systems has gene editing become widely available to insect scientists. Most applications in inse...

  3. Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities. Fourth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Diane F.

    2011-01-01

    The fourth edition of "Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities" critically examines the breadth of research on this complex and controversial topic, with the principal aim of helping the reader to understand where sex differences are found--and where they are not. Since the publication of the third edition, there have been many exciting and…

  4. Accounting for Independent Schools. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Independent Schools, Boston, MA.

    This is a thoroughly revised edition of the 1969 publication, "Accounting for Independent Schools," a guide that attempted to codify basic accounting principles and practices for specific application to independent schools. The focus of the second edition is more on refining practices than on initiating them, and more on extending the managerial…

  5. Novel modes of RNA editing in mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Sandrine; Valach, Matus; Aoulad-Aissa, Mohamed; Otto, Christian; Burger, Gertraud

    2016-06-02

    Gene structure and expression in diplonemid mitochondria are unparalleled. Genes are fragmented in pieces (modules) that are separately transcribed, followed by the joining of module transcripts to contiguous RNAs. Some instances of unique uridine insertion RNA editing at module boundaries were noted, but the extent and potential occurrence of other editing types remained unknown. Comparative analysis of deep transcriptome and genome data from Diplonema papillatum mitochondria reveals ∼220 post-transcriptional insertions of uridines, but no insertions of other nucleotides nor deletions. In addition, we detect in total 114 substitutions of cytosine by uridine and adenosine by inosine, amassed into unusually compact clusters. Inosines in transcripts were confirmed experimentally. This is the first report of adenosine-to-inosine editing of mRNAs and ribosomal RNAs in mitochondria. In mRNAs, editing causes mostly amino-acid additions and non-synonymous substitutions; in ribosomal RNAs, it permits formation of canonical secondary structures. Two extensively edited transcripts were compared across four diplonemids. The pattern of uridine-insertion editing is strictly conserved, whereas substitution editing has diverged dramatically, but still rendering diplonemid proteins more similar to other eukaryotic orthologs. We posit that RNA editing not only compensates but also sustains, or even accelerates, ultra-rapid evolution of genome structure and sequence in diplonemid mitochondria. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Investigating RNA editing factors from trypanosome mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphasizheva, Inna; Zhang, Liye; Aphasizhev, Ruslan

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondrial U-insertion/deletion mRNA editing is carried out by two principal multiprotein assemblies, enzymatic RNA editing core (RECC) and RNA editing substrate binding (RESC) complexes, and a plethora of auxiliary factors. An integral part of mitochondrial gene expression, editing receives inputs from primary mRNA and gRNA precursor processing pathways, and generates substrates for mRNA polyadenylation and translation. Although nearly all RECC-embedded enzymes have been implicated in specific editing reactions, the majority of proteins that populate the RESC are also essential for generating edited mRNAs. However, lack of recognizable motifs in RESC subunits limits the prowess of bioinformatics in guiding biochemical experiments and elucidating their specific biological functions. In this chapter, we describe a generic workflow for investigating mitochondrial mRNA editing in Trypanosoma brucei and focus on several methods that proved instrumental is assigning definitive functions to editing factors lacking known signature sequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. On Mesh Editing, Manifold Learning, and Diffusion Wavelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustamov, R. M.

    We spell out a formal equivalence between the naive Laplacian editing and semi-supervised learning by bi-Laplacian Regularized Least Squares. This allows us to write the solution to Laplacian mesh editing in a ‘closed’ form, based on which we introduce the Generalized Linear Editing (GLE). GLE has both naive Laplacian editing and gradient based editing as special cases. GLE allows using diffusion wavelets for mesh editing. We present preliminary experiments, and shortly discuss connections to segmentation.

  8. In vitro apolipoprotein B mRNA editing: identification of a 27S editing complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H C; Kuo, S R; Backus, J W; Harris, S G; Sparks, C E; Sparks, J D

    1991-01-01

    Specific apolipoprotein B (apoB) mRNA editing can be performed in vitro on apoB RNA substrates. Native gels and glycerol gradient sedimentation have been used to determine the physical properties of the in vitro editing activity in rat liver cytosolic S100 extracts. ApoB RNA substrates were progressively assembled as 27S complexes for 3 hr with similar kinetics as seen for the accumulation of edited RNA. Assembly was not observed on RNAs from apoB deletion constructs that did not support editing. The 27S complex contained both edited and unedited RNA sequences. Inhibition of 27S complex assembly by vanadyl-ribonucleoside complexes was accompanied by inhibition of editing. Based on these data, we propose that the 27S complex is the in vitro "editosome," A "mooring sequence" model for RNA recognition and editosome assembly has been proposed involving RNA sequences flanking the edited nucleotide. Images PMID:1996349

  9. Genetic Architectures of Quantitative Variation in RNA Editing Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Tongjun; Gatti, Daniel M; Srivastava, Anuj; Snyder, Elizabeth M; Raghupathy, Narayanan; Simecek, Petr; Svenson, Karen L; Dotu, Ivan; Chuang, Jeffrey H; Keller, Mark P; Attie, Alan D; Braun, Robert E; Churchill, Gary A

    2016-02-01

    RNA editing refers to post-transcriptional processes that alter the base sequence of RNA. Recently, hundreds of new RNA editing targets have been reported. However, the mechanisms that determine the specificity and degree of editing are not well understood. We examined quantitative variation of site-specific editing in a genetically diverse multiparent population, Diversity Outbred mice, and mapped polymorphic loci that alter editing ratios globally for C-to-U editing and at specific sites for A-to-I editing. An allelic series in the C-to-U editing enzyme Apobec1 influences the editing efficiency of Apob and 58 additional C-to-U editing targets. We identified 49 A-to-I editing sites with polymorphisms in the edited transcript that alter editing efficiency. In contrast to the shared genetic control of C-to-U editing, most of the variable A-to-I editing sites were determined by local nucleotide polymorphisms in proximity to the editing site in the RNA secondary structure. Our results indicate that RNA editing is a quantitative trait subject to genetic variation and that evolutionary constraints have given rise to distinct genetic architectures in the two canonical types of RNA editing. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  10. Editing inducer elements increases A-to-I editing efficiency in the mammalian transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Chammiran; Widmark, Albin; Rigardt, Ditte; Öhman, Marie

    2017-10-23

    Adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing has been shown to be an essential event that plays a significant role in neuronal function, as well as innate immunity, in mammals. It requires a structure that is largely double-stranded for catalysis but little is known about what determines editing efficiency and specificity in vivo. We have previously shown that some editing sites require adjacent long stem loop structures acting as editing inducer elements (EIEs) for efficient editing. The glutamate receptor subunit A2 is edited at the Q/R site in almost 100% of all transcripts. We show that efficient editing at the Q/R site requires an EIE in the downstream intron, separated by an internal loop. Also, other efficiently edited sites are flanked by conserved, highly structured EIEs and we propose that this is a general requisite for efficient editing, while sites with low levels of editing lack EIEs. This phenomenon is not limited to mRNA, as non-coding primary miRNAs also use EIEs to recruit ADAR to specific sites. We propose a model where two regions of dsRNA are required for efficient editing: first, an RNA stem that recruits ADAR and increases the local concentration of the enzyme, then a shorter, less stable duplex that is ideal for efficient and specific catalysis. This discovery changes the way we define and determine a substrate for A-to-I editing. This will be important in the discovery of novel editing sites, as well as explaining cases of altered editing in relation to disease.

  11. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fifth Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy and Environmental Solutions

    2000-10-31

    Progress continues in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in November 1998. Uppermost, polymer electrolyte fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and solid oxide fuel cells have been demonstrated at commercial size in power plants. The previously demonstrated phosphoric acid fuel cells have entered the marketplace with more than 220 power plants delivered. Highlighting this commercial entry, the phosphoric acid power plant fleet has demonstrated 95+% availability and several units have passed 40,000 hours of operation. One unit has operated over 49,000 hours. Early expectations of very low emissions and relatively high efficiencies have been met in power plants with each type of fuel cell. Fuel flexibility has been demonstrated using natural gas, propane, landfill gas, anaerobic digester gas, military logistic fuels, and coal gas, greatly expanding market opportunities. Transportation markets worldwide have shown remarkable interest in fuel cells; nearly every major vehicle manufacturer in the U.S., Europe, and the Far East is supporting development. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultrahigh efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 8 describe the six major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. Alkaline and intermediate solid state fuel cells were added to this edition of the Handbook. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed

  12. Dual-volume excitation and parallel reconstruction for J-difference-edited MR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oeltzschner, Georg; Puts, Nicolaas A J; Chan, Kimberly L

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop J-difference editing with parallel reconstruction in accelerated multivoxel (PRIAM) for simultaneous measurement in two separate brain regions of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or glutathione. METHODS: PRIAM separates signals from two simultaneously excited voxels using receiver-coil...... sensitivity profiles. PRIAM was implemented into Mescher-Garwood (MEGA) edited experiments at 3 Tesla (T), and validated by acquiring dual-voxel MEGA-PRIAM (and compared with conventional single-voxel MEGA-PRESS) spectra from a GABA/glutathione phantom, and 11 healthy participants. RESULTS: MEGA...

  13. Statistical Disclosure Limitation in the Presence of Edit Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hang J.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We compare two general strategies for performing statistical disclosure limitation (SDL for continuous microdata subject to edit rules. In the first, existing SDL methods are applied, and any constraint-violating values they produce are replaced using a constraint-preserving imputation procedure. In the second, the SDL methods are modified to prevent them from generating violations. We present a simulation study, based on data from the Colombian Annual Manufacturing Survey, that evaluates the performance of the two strategies as applied to several SDL methods. The results suggest that differences in risk-utility profiles across SDL methods dwarf differences between the two general strategies. Among the SDL strategies, variants of microaggregation and partially synthetic data offer the most attractive risk-utility profiles.

  14. Genome edited animals: Learning from GM crops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Ann

    2017-06-01

    Genome editing of livestock is poised to become commercial reality, yet questions remain as to appropriate regulation, potential impact on the industry sector and public acceptability of products. This paper looks at how genome editing of livestock has attempted to learn some of the lessons from commercialisation of GM crops, and takes a systemic approach to explore some of the complexity and ambiguity in incorporating genome edited animals in a food production system. Current applications of genome editing are considered, viewed from the perspective of past technological applications. The question of what is genome editing, and can it be considered natural is examined. The implications of regulation on development of different sectors of livestock production systems are studied, with a particular focus on the veterinary sector. From an EU perspective, regulation of genome edited animals, although not necessarily the same as for GM crops, is advocated from a number of different perspectives. This paper aims to open up new avenues of research on genome edited animals, extending from the current primary focus on science and regulation, to engage with a wider-range of food system actors.

  15. Valores poblacionales de referencia del perfil de salud CHIP-AE a partir de una muestra representativa de adolescentes escolarizados Reference population values for the Spanish Child Health and Illness Profile-Adolescent Edition [CHIP-AE] using a representative school-based sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Serra-Sutton

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: El perfil de salud CHIP-AE (Child Health and Illness Profile, Adolescent Edition es un instrumento genérico para adolescentes de 12 a 19 años que ha sido adaptado para uso en España. El objetivo del estudio fue obtener los valores poblacionales de referencia de la versión española del CHIP-AE. Métodos: Se administró el CHIP-AE a una muestra representativa de adolescentes escolarizados de Barcelona, mediante muestreo por conglomerados, estratificado según la titularidad del centro (público o concertado y el índice de capacidad económica familiar (bajo, medio y alto. Se estandarizaron las puntuaciones a una media de 20 y desviación estándar (DE de 5. Se calcularon las medias y los percentiles. Las medias se compararon por edad, género y nivel socioeconómico mediante análisis de la varianza. Resultados: Las proporción de respuesta fue del 81% (n = 902. Las puntuaciones presentaron un amplio rango de distribución, y aunque en general fueron algo sesgadas hacia las puntuaciones de buena salud, sugieren que la muestra de población general no está exenta de problemas de salud. El 25% presentó puntuaciones por debajo de 17,2 en la dimensión de bienestar, lo que indica un tamaño de efecto de 0,56 unidades estandarizadas de DE. La distribución de las puntuaciones de las muestras de referencia de Barcelona fueron muy similares a las originales de Baltimore (Estados Unidos, con diferencias mínimas en riesgo individual. Conclusiones: El CHIP-AE recoge de manera sistemática las dimensiones propias de la salud de los adolescentes. Los resultados permitirán establecer comparaciones con adolescentes de otras regiones, y/o con diferentes problemas de salud y analizar las desigualdades en salud durante la adolescencia.Aim: The Child Health and Illness Profile (CHIP-AE is a generic health status instrument for adolescents aged 12-19 years adapted for use in Spain. The aim of this study was to obtain reference population values

  16. Hippocampal size and memory function in the ninth and tenth decades of life: the Sydney Older Persons Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lye, T C; Piguet, O; Grayson, D A; Creasey, H; Ridley, L J; Bennett, H P; Broe, G A

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to define magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) correlates of normal brain ageing, with the specific objective of investigating whether the size of the hippocampus is selectively correlated with age related memory performance in non-demented individuals in their ninth and tenth decades of life. Hippocampal size was estimated using MRI based volumetry and qualitative visual assessment in 102 community dwelling individuals aged between 81 and 94 years. Participants were evaluated on a variety of clinical and experimental instruments, including a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. All participants underwent neurological examination, an extensive medical history was obtained, and an informant confirmed details of each participant's functional ability. Both visual and volumetric hippocampal measures were identified as robust predictors of memory performance, even when the influence of age related illnesses and sociodemographic variables was accounted for. When the sample was reduced to include the most cognitively healthy participants who were rated by an informant as showing no evidence of cognitive decline, the left hippocampal measures remained significant predictors of delayed retention of verbal material. These findings suggest that hippocampal volumes are selectively correlated with memory functioning in both normal and successful ageing.

  17. Analysis of tenth-value-layers for common shielding materials for a robotically mounted stereotactic radiosurgery machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, James E

    2007-04-01

    Tenth-value-layers (TVLs) for a 6 MV stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) x-ray beam have been computed using Monte Carlo methods for radiation transport simulation. The first and equilibrium TVLs were determined in the three most common building materials used in radiation therapy vault construction: ordinary concrete, lead, and steel (iron). In contrast to broad-beam 6 MV TVL data found in the literature, the SRS TVLs can change rapidly with the size of the radiation field incident on the barrier. This research has investigated characteristics of TVLs as a function of field size (diameter) at the barrier for all materials, with special attention given to the TVL properties in iron. The x-ray spectrum used to perform these simulations was generated for the CyberKnife accelerator with the BEAMnrc Monte Carlo code. Using this spectrum as input to the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code, predicted tissue-maximum-ratio (TMR) values for a 6-cm-diameter field (at 80 cm from the target) were benchmarked against measured TMR data. The MCNP5 code was used to simulate all barrier transmissions, keeping the standard error of each data point below 1% of the mean. Results compare very well with previous measured concrete TVLs and also with published broad-beam 6 MV TVL data for all three barrier materials.

  18. Clinico-psycho-social profile of patients brought under consultation-liaison psychiatry care in a large tertiary care referral hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Patra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to access the clinico-psycho-social profile of patients brought under consultation-liaison (CL psychiatry care in a large tertiary care referral hospital. Materials and Methods: This study included all patients who were referred for CL psychiatry from among the inpatients in the hospital and the emergency department (during off working hours of the hospital over a period of 1 year. Data were obtained and analyzed in terms of where was the referral placed, by whom, the reason for placing the referral, the primary medical/surgical diagnosis of the patient, the presenting complaints, any past psychiatric history, the psychiatric diagnosis (as per the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Edition, the investigations advised and their reports, the treatment advised (psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological, the sociodemographic profile of the patients, and the follow-up details. Results: A total of 157 patients were referred to the CL unit over the study period. Out of these, 125 patients were referred among the inpatients and 32 from the emergency department of the hospital. Majority of the patients were in the age group of 25–50 years and were male. The majority of the referrals were made by general physician; most of the referrals were placed from emergency department. The most common reason for referral was for altered sensorium and behavioral abnormalities. The most common diagnosis was delirium followed by depressive episode and alcohol dependence syndrome. Conclusion: There was higher representation of delirium and alcohol-related cases in our study compared to older studies.

  19. RNA editing in cancer: Mechanistic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Leng; Liang, Han

    2016-03-01

    We have recently provided a comprehensive analysis of A-to-I RNA editing events in various cancer types, revealing many clinically relevant RNA editing sites and demonstrating that RNA editing can selectively affect cancer drug sensitivity. Our results unveil mechanistic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications for RNA editing in cancer.

  20. LabVIEW 8 student edition

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Robert H

    2007-01-01

    For courses in Measurement and Instrumentation, Electrical Engineering lab, and Physics and Chemistry lab. This revised printing has been updated to include new LabVIEW 8.2 Student Edition. National Instruments' LabVIEW is the defacto industry standard for test, measurement, and automation software solutions. With the Student Edition of LabVIEW, students can design graphical programming solutions to their classroom problems and laboratory experiments with software that delivers the graphical programming capabilites of the LabVIEW professional version. . The Student Edition is also compatible with all National Instruments data acquisition and instrument control hardware. Note: The LabVIEW Student Edition is available to students, faculty, and staff for personal educational use only. It is not intended for research, institutional, or commercial use. For more information about these licensing options, please visit the National Instruments website at (http:www.ni.com/academic/)

  1. Editing soft shadows in a digital photograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Ankit; Tumblin, Jack; Choudhury, Prasun

    2007-01-01

    This technique for modeling, editing, and rendering shadow edges in a photograph or a synthetic image lets users separate the shadow from the rest of the image and make arbitrary adjustments to its position, sharpness, and intensity.

  2. Gene Editing: Regulatory and Translation to Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Dale; Meyer, Kathleen

    2017-10-01

    The clinical application and regulatory strategy of genome editing for ex vivo cell therapy is derived from the intersection of two fields of study: viral vector gene therapy trials; and clinical trials with ex vivo purification and engraftment of CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells, T cells, and tumor cell vaccines. This article covers the regulatory and translational preclinical activities needed for a genome editing clinical trial modifying hematopoietic stem cells and the genesis of this current strategy based on previous clinical trials using genome-edited T cells. The SB-728 zinc finger nuclease platform is discussed because this is the most clinically advanced genome editing technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The NMC Horizon Report: 2014 Library Edition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, L; Adams Becker, S.; Estrada, V.; Freeman, A.; van den Brekel, Guus

    2014-01-01

    The NMC Horizon Report: 2014 Library Edition, examines key trends, significant challenges, and emerging technologies for their potential impact on academic and research libraries worldwide. While there are many local factors affecting libraries, there are also issues that transcend regional

  4. Specification Editing and Discovery Assistant Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project will prototype a specification editing and discovery tool (SPEEDY) for C/C++ that will assist software developers with modular formal verification tasks...

  5. RNA editing generates cellular subsets with diverse sequence within populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjanto, Dewi; Papamarkou, Theodore; Oates, Chris J; Rayon-Estrada, Violeta; Papavasiliou, F Nina; Papavasiliou, Anastasia

    2016-07-15

    RNA editing is a mutational mechanism that specifically alters the nucleotide content in transcribed RNA. However, editing rates vary widely, and could result from equivalent editing amongst individual cells, or represent an average of variable editing within a population. Here we present a hierarchical Bayesian model that quantifies the variance of editing rates at specific sites using RNA-seq data from both single cells, and a cognate bulk sample to distinguish between these two possibilities. The model predicts high variance for specific edited sites in murine macrophages and dendritic cells, findings that we validated experimentally by using targeted amplification of specific editable transcripts from single cells. The model also predicts changes in variance in editing rates for specific sites in dendritic cells during the course of LPS stimulation. Our data demonstrate substantial variance in editing signatures amongst single cells, supporting the notion that RNA editing generates diversity within cellular populations.

  6. Looking forward to genetically edited fruit crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamangala Kanchiswamy, Chidananda; Sargent, Daniel James; Velasco, Riccardo; Maffei, Massimo E; Malnoy, Mickael

    2015-02-01

    The availability of genome sequences for many fruit crops has redefined the boundaries of genetic engineering and genetically modified (GM) crop plants. However commercialization of GM crops is hindered by numerous regulatory and social hurdles. Here, we focus on recently developed genome-editing tools for fruit crop improvement and their importance from the consumer perspective. Challenges and opportunities for the deployment of new genome-editing tools for fruit plants are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Non-GMO genetically edited crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchiswamy, Chidananda Nagamangala; Malnoy, Mickael; Velasco, Riccardo; Kim, Jin-Soo; Viola, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    Direct delivery of purified Cas9 protein with guide RNA into plant cells, as opposed to plasmid-mediated delivery, displays high efficiency and reduced off-target effects. Following regeneration from edited cells, the ensuing plant is also likely to bypass genetically modified organism (GMO) legislation as the genome editing complex is degraded in the recipient cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Therapeutic gene editing: delivery and regulatory perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Gayong; Kim, Dongyoon; Park, Gyu Thae; Jin, Hyerim; Suh, Soo-Kyung; Oh, Yu-Kyoung

    2017-06-01

    Gene-editing technology is an emerging therapeutic modality for manipulating the eukaryotic genome by using target-sequence-specific engineered nucleases. Because of the exceptional advantages that gene-editing technology offers in facilitating the accurate correction of sequences in a genome, gene editing-based therapy is being aggressively developed as a next-generation therapeutic approach to treat a wide range of diseases. However, strategies for precise engineering and delivery of gene-editing nucleases, including zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nuclease, and CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-associated nuclease Cas9), present major obstacles to the development of gene-editing therapies, as with other gene-targeting therapeutics. Currently, viral and non-viral vectors are being studied for the delivery of these nucleases into cells in the form of DNA, mRNA, or proteins. Clinical trials are already ongoing, and in vivo studies are actively investigating the applicability of CRISPR/Cas9 techniques. However, the concept of correcting the genome poses major concerns from a regulatory perspective, especially in terms of safety. This review addresses current research trends and delivery strategies for gene editing-based therapeutics in non-clinical and clinical settings and considers the associated regulatory issues.

  9. On the evaluation of segmentation editing tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckel, Frank; Moltz, Jan H.; Meine, Hans; Geisler, Benjamin; Kießling, Andreas; D’Anastasi, Melvin; dos Santos, Daniel Pinto; Theruvath, Ashok Joseph; Hahn, Horst K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Efficient segmentation editing tools are important components in the segmentation process, as no automatic methods exist that always generate sufficient results. Evaluating segmentation editing algorithms is challenging, because their quality depends on the user’s subjective impression. So far, no established methods for an objective, comprehensive evaluation of such tools exist and, particularly, intermediate segmentation results are not taken into account. We discuss the evaluation of editing algorithms in the context of tumor segmentation in computed tomography. We propose a rating scheme to qualitatively measure the accuracy and efficiency of editing tools in user studies. In order to objectively summarize the overall quality, we propose two scores based on the subjective rating and the quantified segmentation quality over time. Finally, a simulation-based evaluation approach is discussed, which allows a more reproducible evaluation without the need for human input. This automated evaluation complements user studies, allowing a more convincing evaluation, particularly during development, where frequent user studies are not possible. The proposed methods have been used to evaluate two dedicated editing algorithms on 131 representative tumor segmentations. We show how the comparison of editing algorithms benefits from the proposed methods. Our results also show the correlation of the suggested quality score with the qualitative ratings. PMID:26158063

  10. The commercialization of genome-editing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinegar, Katelyn; K Yetisen, Ali; Choi, Sun; Vallillo, Emily; Ruiz-Esparza, Guillermo U; Prabhakar, Anand M; Khademhosseini, Ali; Yun, Seok-Hyun

    2017-11-01

    The emergence of new gene-editing technologies is profoundly transforming human therapeutics, agriculture, and industrial biotechnology. Advances in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) have created a fertile environment for mass-scale manufacturing of cost-effective products ranging from basic research to translational medicine. In our analyses, we evaluated the patent landscape of gene-editing technologies and found that in comparison to earlier gene-editing techniques, CRISPR has gained significant traction and this has established dominance. Although most of the gene-editing technologies originated from the industry, CRISPR has been pioneered by academic research institutions. The spinout of CRISPR biotechnology companies from academic institutions demonstrates a shift in entrepreneurship strategies that were previously led by the industry. These academic institutions, and their subsequent companies, are competing to generate comprehensive intellectual property portfolios to rapidly commercialize CRISPR products. Our analysis shows that the emergence of CRISPR has resulted in a fivefold increase in genome-editing bioenterprise investment over the last year. This entrepreneurial movement has spurred a global biotechnology revolution in the realization of novel gene-editing technologies. This global shift in bioenterprise will continue to grow as the demand for personalized medicine, genetically modified crops and environmentally sustainable biofuels increases. However, the monopolization of intellectual property, negative public perception of genetic engineering and ambiguous regulatory policies may limit the growth of these market segments.

  11. Genome editing with engineered nucleases in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osakabe, Yuriko; Osakabe, Keishi

    2015-03-01

    Numerous examples of successful 'genome editing' now exist. Genome editing uses engineered nucleases as powerful tools to target specific DNA sequences to edit genes precisely in the genomes of both model and crop plants, as well as a variety of other organisms. The DNA-binding domains of zinc finger (ZF) proteins were the first to be used as genome editing tools, in the form of designed ZF nucleases (ZFNs). More recently, transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), as well as the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system, which utilizes RNA-DNA interactions, have proved useful. A key step in genome editing is the generation of a double-stranded DNA break that is specific to the target gene. This is achieved by custom-designed endonucleases, which enable site-directed mutagenesis via a non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair pathway and/or gene targeting via homologous recombination (HR) to occur efficiently at specific sites in the genome. This review provides an overview of recent advances in genome editing technologies in plants, and discusses how these can provide insights into current plant molecular biology research and molecular breeding technology. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Applications of genome editing in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, William; O'Brochta, David A

    2016-02-01

    Insect genome editing was first reported 1991 in Drosophila melanogaster but the technology used was not portable to other species. Not until the recent development of facile, engineered DNA endonuclease systems has gene editing become widely available to insect scientists. Most applications in insects to date have been technical in nature but this is rapidly changing. Functional genomics and genetics-based insect control efforts will be major beneficiaries of the application of contemporary gene editing technologies. Engineered endonucleases like Cas9 make it possible to create powerful and effective gene drive systems that could be used to reduce or even eradicate specific insect populations. 'Best practices' for using Cas9-based editing are beginning to emerge making it easier and more effective to design and use but gene editing technologies still require traditional means of delivery in order to introduce them into somatic and germ cells of insects-microinjection of developing embryos. This constrains the use of these technologies by insect scientists. Insects created using editing technologies challenge existing governmental regulatory structures designed to manage genetically modified organisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. High-throughput sequencing of partially edited trypanosome mRNAs reveals barriers to editing progression and evidence for alternative editing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Rachel M.; Bruno, Andrew E.; Bard, Jonathan E.; Buck, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Uridine insertion/deletion RNA editing in kinetoplastids entails the addition and deletion of uridine residues throughout the length of mitochondrial transcripts to generate translatable mRNAs. This complex process requires the coordinated use of several multiprotein complexes as well as the sequential use of noncoding template RNAs called guide RNAs. The majority of steady-state mitochondrial mRNAs are partially edited and often contain regions of mis-editing, termed junctions, whose role is unclear. Here, we report a novel method for sequencing entire populations of pre-edited partially edited, and fully edited RNAs and analyzing editing characteristics across populations using a new bioinformatics tool, the Trypanosome RNA Editing Alignment Tool (TREAT). Using TREAT, we examined populations of two transcripts, RPS12 and ND7-5′, in wild-type Trypanosoma brucei. We provide evidence that the majority of partially edited sequences contain junctions, that intrinsic pause sites arise during the progression of editing, and that the mechanisms that mediate pausing in the generation of canonical fully edited sequences are distinct from those that mediate the ends of junction regions. Furthermore, we identify alternatively edited sequences that constitute plausible alternative open reading frames and identify substantial variability in the 5′ UTRs of both canonical and alternatively edited sequences. This work is the first to use high-throughput sequencing to examine full-length sequences of whole populations of partially edited transcripts. Our method is highly applicable to current questions in the RNA editing field, including defining mechanisms of action for editing factors and identifying potential alternatively edited sequences. PMID:26908922

  14. High-throughput sequencing of partially edited trypanosome mRNAs reveals barriers to editing progression and evidence for alternative editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Rachel M; Bruno, Andrew E; Bard, Jonathan E; Buck, Michael J; Read, Laurie K

    2016-05-01

    Uridine insertion/deletion RNA editing in kinetoplastids entails the addition and deletion of uridine residues throughout the length of mitochondrial transcripts to generate translatable mRNAs. This complex process requires the coordinated use of several multiprotein complexes as well as the sequential use of noncoding template RNAs called guide RNAs. The majority of steady-state mitochondrial mRNAs are partially edited and often contain regions of mis-editing, termed junctions, whose role is unclear. Here, we report a novel method for sequencing entire populations of pre-edited partially edited, and fully edited RNAs and analyzing editing characteristics across populations using a new bioinformatics tool, the Trypanosome RNA Editing Alignment Tool (TREAT). Using TREAT, we examined populations of two transcripts, RPS12 and ND7-5', in wild-typeTrypanosoma brucei We provide evidence that the majority of partially edited sequences contain junctions, that intrinsic pause sites arise during the progression of editing, and that the mechanisms that mediate pausing in the generation of canonical fully edited sequences are distinct from those that mediate the ends of junction regions. Furthermore, we identify alternatively edited sequences that constitute plausible alternative open reading frames and identify substantial variability in the 5' UTRs of both canonical and alternatively edited sequences. This work is the first to use high-throughput sequencing to examine full-length sequences of whole populations of partially edited transcripts. Our method is highly applicable to current questions in the RNA editing field, including defining mechanisms of action for editing factors and identifying potential alternatively edited sequences. © 2016 Simpson et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  15. [Textual research on the edition of WU Kun's books].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu-Guang; Lu, Xiang

    2013-03-01

    WU Kun is a famous physician of the Xin'an School. He wrote a 6-volume Yi fang kao (Textual Research on Recipes) in 1584, a 24-volume Wu zhu su wen (Wu's Annotation of Plain Questions) in 1594, a 6-volume Zhen fang liu ji (Six Collections of Acupuncture and Prescription) in 1618 block-printed and funded by CHENG Biao, and a 2-volume Mai yu (Language of Pulse) with writing date unknown. For Yi fang kao, there were 4 editions, including Ming-dynasty block-printed edition, Japanese and Korean block-printed edition, old hand-copied edition and modern printing edition. For Wu zhu su wen, there were 5 editions, Ming-Qing-dynasty block-printed edition, Japanese block-printed edition, old hand-copied edition, photocopy and modern edition. For Zhen fang liu ji, there were Ming-dynasty block-printed edition, hand-copied edition, photocopy and modern edition. Mai yu always was printed together with Yi fang kao, and its editions were same as those of Yi fang kao, except some modern printing edition with Mai yu excluded.

  16. Fundamentals of Welding. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, Clarence; And Others

    These instructional materials assist teachers in improving instruction on the fundamentals of welding. The following introductory information is included: use of this publication; competency profile; instructional/task analysis; related academic and workplace skills list; tools, materials, and equipment list; and 27 references. Seven units of…

  17. Steric antisense inhibition of AMPA receptor Q/R editing reveals tight coupling to intronic editing sites and splicing

    OpenAIRE

    Penn, Andrew C; Balik, Ales; Greger, Ingo H.

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine-to-Inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is a post-transcriptional mechanism, evolved to diversify the transcriptome in metazoa. In addition to wide-spread editing in non-coding regions protein recoding by RNA editing allows for fine tuning of protein function. Functional consequences are only known for some editing sites and the combinatorial effect between multiple sites (functional epistasis) is currently unclear. Similarly, the interplay between RNA editing and splicing, which impacts on...

  18. Book Review: New Perspectives on Technical Editing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, A. J. (Ed.); Sterken, Christiaan

    2012-08-01

    New Perspectives on Technical Editing by Avon J. Murphy (ed.) ISBN : 978-0895033949 (2010) Baywood Publishing Company Inc, Hardcover, 210 pages, 35.5 GBP This book presents a collection of 10 chapters dealing with diverse aspects of technical editing (ie, editorial planning, and analysis and structural changes made to other people's technological documents): research in technical editing, trends and teaching of technical editing, copyediting, and technical journal editing. The role and function of the modern journal and book editor is also dealt with in detail. Each chapter is written by an expert in the field: senior editors, university professors in technical communication, technical writers and linguists. The ever-evolving role of the editor is clearly elucidated in several historical reviews, and in the descriptions of the expectations for the future. A very striking aspect of this book is its extensive collection of bibliographic resources: every chapter lists dozens of very useful references, and the closing chapter, and annotated bibliography, contain many not so well known references, and are most useful. All in all, the book is a treasure trove listing more than 400 references, in addition to numerous webpage URLs embedded in the texts. The book is designed to help the reader to understand current practices and norms in technical editing, and to help to take action in editing as well as in teaching and educating would-be editors. The audience for this book thus includes editors and teachers, but also writers, researchers and students. A deep reading of this book will result in a better understanding of the difference between full technical editing and its much narrower component so well known as copyediting, and will convince any prospective editor that editing should not be undertaken if the people involved do not master the art of precision and accuracy in technical (as well as in human) communication, do not possess the technical know how and computer

  19. Tenth EUROGEN 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Galván, Blas; Périaux, Jacques; Gauger, Nicolas; Giannakoglou, Kyriakos; Winter, Gabriel; Advances in Evolutionary and Deterministic Methods for Design, Optimization and Control in Engineering and Sciences

    2015-01-01

    This book contains state-of-the-art contributions in the field of evolutionary and deterministic methods for design, optimization and control in engineering and sciences. Specialists have written each of the 34 chapters as extended versions of selected papers presented at the International Conference on Evolutionary and Deterministic Methods for Design, Optimization and Control with Applications to Industrial and Societal Problems (EUROGEN 2013). The conference was one of the Thematic Conferences of the European Community on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences (ECCOMAS). Topics treated in the various chapters are classified in the following sections: theoretical and numerical methods and tools for optimization (theoretical methods and tools; numerical methods and tools) and engineering design and societal applications (turbo machinery; structures, materials and civil engineering; aeronautics and astronautics; societal applications; electrical and electronics applications), focused particularly on intell...

  20. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF USING SCRABBLE AND BINGO GAME TECHNIQUE TOWARD STUDENTS’ VOCABULARY MASTERY AT THE TENTH GRADE OF SMA N 2 METRO ACADEMIC YEAR 2013/2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rosidi -

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Vocabulary mastery is the activity to enrich the vocabulary, they master the vocabulary in order to be able to master four language skills. The problem formulation of this research are; (1  Is there any difference influence of using Scrabble and Bingo Game Technique toward Students’ Vocabulary Mastery at The Tenth Grade of SMA N 2 Metro Academic Year 2013/3014? (2 Which one is more effective between Scrabble and Bingo Game Technique toward Students’ Vocabulary Mastery at The Tenth Grade of SMA N 2 Metro Academic Year 2013/3014 ?, The object of this research are; (1 To know whether there is any difference Influence of using Scrabble and Bingo Game Technique toward Students’ Vocabulary Mastery at The Tenth Grade of SMA N 2 Metro Academic Year 2013/3014, (2 To know which one is more effective between Scrabble and Bingo Game Technique toward Students’ Vocabulary Mastery at The Tenth Grade of SMA N 2 Metro Academic Year 2013/3014. This research is Quantitative research. Research design that will be used in this research is true experimental design (pretest posttest control group design.. The population of this research is the students’ of SMA N 2 Metro Academic Year 2013/2014 that consist of 660 students. The sample is 60 students. As the sample, 30 as experimental class and 30 as  control class. In taking sample, the researcher used the cluster stratified random sampling. The data collecting tehniques the researcher used try-out, pre-test, treatment and post-test. The data analyzing tehniques, the researcher used normality test, homogenity test and hypothesis test. The differences of both the tehnique are Scrabble Game can make the students feel enjoy, creative and have a challenge and Bingo Game gives the students opportunity to identify the word interestingly. Based on the data analysis, the researcher uses t-test formula. The researcher got the result of tobserved = 3,69 and ttable is 2.00. it means that tobserved > ttable

  1. Small RNA and A-to-I Editing in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eran, Alal

    One in every 88 children is diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs), a set of neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by social impairments, communication deficits, and repetitive behavior. ASDs have a substantial genetic component, but the specific cause of most cases remains unknown. Understanding gene-environment interactions underlying ASD is essential for improving early diagnosis and identifying critical targets for intervention and prevention. Towards this goal, we surveyed adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing in autistic brains. A-to-I editing is an epigenetic mechanism that fine-tunes synaptic function in response to environmental stimuli, shown to modulate complex behavior in animals. We used ultradeep sequencing to quantify A-to-I receding of candidate synaptic genes in postmortem cerebella from individuals with ASD and neurotypical controls. We found unexpectedly wide distributions of human A-to-I editing levels, whose extremes were consistently populated by individuals with ASD. We correlated A-to-I editing with isoform usage, identified clusters of correlated sites, and examined differential editing patterns. Importantly, we found that individuals with ASD commonly use a dysfunctional form of the editing enzyme ADARB1. We next profiled small RNAs thought to regulate A-to-I editing, which originate from one of the most commonly altered loci in ASD, 15q11. Deep targeted sequencing of SNORD115 and SNORD116 transcripts enabled their high-resolution detection in human brains, and revealed a strong gender bias underlying their expression. The consistent 2-fold upregulation of 15q11 small RNAs in male vs. female cerebella could be important in delineating the role of this locus in ASD, a male dominant disorder. Overall, these studies provide an accurate population-level view of small RNA and A-to-I editing in human cerebella, and suggest that A-to-I editing of synaptic genes may be informative for assessing the epigenetic risk for autism

  2. Designed nucleases for targeted genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junwon; Chung, Jae-Hee; Kim, Ho Min; Kim, Dong-Wook; Kim, Hyongbum

    2016-02-01

    Targeted genome-editing technology using designed nucleases has been evolving rapidly, and its applications are widely expanding in research, medicine and biotechnology. Using this genome-modifying technology, researchers can precisely and efficiently insert, remove or change specific sequences in various cultured cells, micro-organisms, animals and plants. This genome editing is based on the generation of double-strand breaks (DSBs), repair of which modifies the genome through nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) or homology-directed repair (HDR). In addition, designed nickase-induced generation of single-strand breaks can also lead to precise genome editing through HDR, albeit at relatively lower efficiencies than that induced by nucleases. Three kinds of designed nucleases have been used for targeted DSB formation: zinc-finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and RNA-guided engineered nucleases derived from the bacterial clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) system. A growing number of researchers are using genome-editing technologies, which have become more accessible and affordable since the discovery and adaptation of CRISPR-Cas9. Here, the repair mechanism and outcomes of DSBs are reviewed and the three types of designed nucleases are discussed with the hope that such understanding will facilitate applications to genome editing. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Bacterial Cellular Engineering by Genome Editing and Gene Silencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutaka Nakashima

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Genome editing is an important technology for bacterial cellular engineering, which is commonly conducted by homologous recombination-based procedures, including gene knockout (disruption, knock-in (insertion, and allelic exchange. In addition, some new recombination-independent approaches have emerged that utilize catalytic RNAs, artificial nucleases, nucleic acid analogs, and peptide nucleic acids. Apart from these methods, which directly modify the genomic structure, an alternative approach is to conditionally modify the gene expression profile at the posttranscriptional level without altering the genomes. This is performed by expressing antisense RNAs to knock down (silence target mRNAs in vivo. This review describes the features and recent advances on methods used in genomic engineering and silencing technologies that are advantageously used for bacterial cellular engineering.

  4. The effects of contextual learning instruction on science achievement of male and female tenth-grade students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Samantha Jones

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the contextual learning method on science performance, attitudes toward science, and motivational factors that influence high school students to learn science. Gender differences in science performance and attitudes toward science were also investigated. The sample included four tenth-grade classes of African-American students enrolled in Chemistry I. All students were required to review for the Alabama High School Graduation Exam in Science. Students were administered a science pretest and posttest to measure science performance. A two-way analysis of covariance was performed on the test data. The results showed a main effect of contextual learning instruction on science achievement and no significant differences between females' and males' performance in science. The Science Attitude and the Alabama High School Graduation Exam (AHSGE) Review Class Surveys were administered to assess students' beliefs and attitudes toward science. The Science Attitude Survey results indicated a control effect in three subscales: perception of guardian's attitude, attitude toward success in science, and perception of teacher's attitude. No significant differences resulted between males and females in their beliefs about science from the attitude survey. However, students' attitudes toward science were more favorable in the contextual learning classes based on the results of the Review Class Survey. The survey data revealed that both males and females in the contextual classes had positive attitudes toward science and toward being active participants in the learning process. Qualitative data on student motivation were collected to examine the meaningfulness of the contextual learning content and materials. The majority of the students in the treatment (96%) and the control groups (86%) reported high interest in the lesson on Newton's three laws of motion. Both the treatment and the control groups indicated their interest

  5. SU-E-T-271: Direct Measurement of Tenth Value Layer Thicknesses for High Density Concretes with a Clinical Machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanny, S; Parsai, E [University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH (United States); Harrell, D; Noller, J [Shielding Construction Solutions, Inc, Tuscon, AZ (United States); Chopra, M [Unviersal Minerals International, Inc, Tuscon, AZ (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Use of high density concrete for radiation shielding is increasing, trading cost for space savings associated with the reduced tenth value layer (TVL). Precise information on the attenuation properties of high-density concretes is not readily present in the literature. A simple approximation is to scale the TVLs from NCRP 151 according relative increase in density. Here we present measured TVLs for heavy concretes of various densities using a built-in shielding test port. Methods: Concrete densities tested range from 2.35 g cc{sup −1} (147 pcf) to 5.6 g cc{sup −1} (350 pcf). Measurements were taken using 6MV, 6FFF, and 10FFF on a Varian Truebeam linear accelerator. Field sizes of 4x4, 9x9 and 30x30 cm{sup 2} were measured. A PTW 31013 Farmer chamber with a buildup cap was positioned 5.5 m from isocenter along the beam CAX. Concrete thicknesses were incremented in 5 cm intervals. Comparison TVLs were determined by scaling the NCRP 151 TVLs by the density ratio between the sample and standard density. Results: The trend from the first to equilibrium TVL was an increase in thickness, compared with MC modeling, which predicted a decrease. Measured TVLs for 6 MV were reduced by as much as 8.9 cm for TVL{sub 1} and 3.4 cm for TVL{sub E} compared to values scaled from NCRP 151. There was 1–3 mm difference in TVL between measurements done at 4x4 versus 30x30 cm{sup 2}. TVL{sub 1} for 6FFF was 1.1 cm smaller than TVL{sub 1} for 6MV, but TVL{sub E} was consistent to within 4 mm. TVL{sub 1} and TVL{sub E} for 10FFF were reduced by 8.8 and 3.7 cm from scaled NCRP values, respectively. Conclusions: We have measured the TVL thicknesses for various concretes. Simple density scaling of the values in NCRP 151 is a conservatively safe approximation, but actual TVLs may be reduced enough to eliminate some of the expense of installation. Daniel Harrell and Jim Noller are employees of Shielding Construction Solutions, Inc, the shielding construction company that built

  6. Quantum Field Theory, Revised Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, F.; Shaw, G.

    1994-01-01

    Quantum Field Theory Revised Edition F. Mandl and G. Shaw, Department of Theoretical Physics, The Schuster Laboratory, The University, Manchester, UK When this book first appeared in 1984, only a handful of W± and Z° bosons had been observed and the experimental investigation of high energy electro-weak interactions was in its infancy. Nowadays, W± bosons and especially Z° bosons can be produced by the thousand and the study of their properties is a precise science. We have revised the text of the later chapters to incorporate these developments and discuss their implications. We have also taken this opportunity to update the references throughout and to make some improvements in the treatment of dimen-sional regularization. Finally, we have corrected some minor errors and are grateful to various people for pointing these out. This book is designed as a short and simple introduction to quantum field theory for students beginning research in theoretical and experimental physics. The three main objectives are to explain the basic physics and formalism of quantum field theory, to make the reader fully proficient in theory calculations using Feynman diagrams, and to introduce the reader to gauge theories, which play such a central role in elementary particle physics. The theory is applied to quantum electrodynamics (QED), where quantum field theory had its early triumphs, and to weak interactions where the standard electro-weak theory has had many impressive successes. The treatment is based on the canonical quantization method, because readers will be familiar with this, because it brings out lucidly the connection between invariance and conservation laws, and because it leads directly to the Feynman diagram techniques which are so important in many branches of physics. In order to help inexperienced research students grasp the meaning of the theory and learn to handle it confidently, the mathematical formalism is developed from first principles, its physical

  7. Introduction to nuclear science, second edition

    CERN Document Server

    Bryan, Jeff C.

    2013-01-01

    This book was written to provide students who have limited backgrounds in the physical sciences and math with an accessible textbook on nuclear science. Expanding on the foundation of the bestselling first edition, Introduction to Nuclear Science, Second Edition provides a clear and complete introduction to nuclear chemistry and physics, from basic concepts to nuclear power and medical applications. Incorporating suggestions from professors using this book for their courses, the author has created a new text that is approximately 60 percent larger and more comprehensive and flexible than the first.New to This Edition: Thorough review of nuclear forensics, radiology, gamma cameras, and decay through proton or neutron emission More detailed explanations of the necessary mathematics A chapter on dosimetry of radiation fields Expanded discussion of applications, introduced earlier in the text More in-depth coverage of nuclear reactors, including a new chapter examining more reactor types, their safety systems,...

  8. Ethical and regulatory aspects of genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Donald B; Porteus, Matthew H; Scharenberg, Andrew M

    2016-05-26

    Gene editing is a rapidly developing area of biotechnology in which the nucleotide sequence of the genome of living cells is precisely changed. The use of genome-editing technologies to modify various types of blood cells, including hematopoietic stem cells, has emerged as an important field of therapeutic development for hematopoietic disease. Although these technologies offer the potential for generation of transformative therapies for patients suffering from myriad disorders of hematopoiesis, their application for therapeutic modification of primary human cells is still in its infancy. Consequently, development of ethical and regulatory frameworks that ensure their safe and effective use is an increasingly important consideration. Here, we review a number of issues that have the potential to impact the clinical implementation of genome-editing technologies, and suggest paths forward for resolving them such that new therapies can be safely and rapidly translated to the clinic. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  9. JICST Thesaurus : Compilation of the 1987 Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuo; Sakagami, Yasuhiko; Totsuka, Takayuki; Okano, Hiroyuki; Shirayama, Kunihiko; Gomibuchi, Takeshi

    We had requests such as enlargement of terms to be covered in the Thesaurus, description of term history and so on through the questionnaires to JOIS users specifically conducted on the occasion of preparing 1987 edition of JICST Thesaurus. Based on them the following measures were taken : addition of new terms by referring natural words stored in JICST database, addition of some Chinese characters used for it, addition of priority data among synonyms and others, and improvement of term relations by using English translated Japanese keywords. How the Thesaurus was edited, and measures against problems associated with editing are described. Necessity of the routine maintenance and subjects to be solved from now on are also described.

  10. RNA Editing and Its Molecular Mechanism in Plant Organelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Mizuho; Sugita, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    RNA editing by cytidine (C) to uridine (U) conversions is widespread in plant mitochondria and chloroplasts. In some plant taxa, “reverse” U-to-C editing also occurs. However, to date, no instance of RNA editing has yet been reported in green algae and the complex thalloid liverworts. RNA editing may have evolved in early land plants 450 million years ago. However, in some plant species, including the liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha, editing may have been lost during evolution. Most RNA editing events can restore the evolutionarily conserved amino acid residues in mRNAs or create translation start and stop codons. Therefore, RNA editing is an essential process to maintain genetic information at the RNA level. Individual RNA editing sites are recognized by plant-specific pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins that are encoded in the nuclear genome. These PPR proteins are characterized by repeat elements that bind specifically to RNA sequences upstream of target editing sites. In flowering plants, non-PPR proteins also participate in multiple RNA editing events as auxiliary factors. C-to-U editing can be explained by cytidine deamination. The proteins discovered to date are important factors for RNA editing but a bona fide RNA editing enzyme has yet to be identified. PMID:28025543

  11. RNA Editing and Its Molecular Mechanism in Plant Organelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Mizuho; Sugita, Mamoru

    2016-12-23

    RNA editing by cytidine (C) to uridine (U) conversions is widespread in plant mitochondria and chloroplasts. In some plant taxa, "reverse" U-to-C editing also occurs. However, to date, no instance of RNA editing has yet been reported in green algae and the complex thalloid liverworts. RNA editing may have evolved in early land plants 450 million years ago. However, in some plant species, including the liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha, editing may have been lost during evolution. Most RNA editing events can restore the evolutionarily conserved amino acid residues in mRNAs or create translation start and stop codons. Therefore, RNA editing is an essential process to maintain genetic information at the RNA level. Individual RNA editing sites are recognized by plant-specific pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins that are encoded in the nuclear genome. These PPR proteins are characterized by repeat elements that bind specifically to RNA sequences upstream of target editing sites. In flowering plants, non-PPR proteins also participate in multiple RNA editing events as auxiliary factors. C-to-U editing can be explained by cytidine deamination. The proteins discovered to date are important factors for RNA editing but a bona fide RNA editing enzyme has yet to be identified.

  12. Spatial Hadamard encoding of J-edited spectroscopy using slice-selective editing pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kimberly L; Oeltzschner, Georg; Schär, Michael; Barker, Peter B; Edden, Richard A E

    2017-05-01

    A new approach for simultaneous dual-voxel J-difference spectral editing is described, which uses spatially selective spectral-editing pulses and Hadamard encoding. A theoretical framework for spatial Hadamard editing and reconstruction for parallel acquisition (SHERPA) was developed, applying gradient pulses during the frequency-selective editing pulses. Spectral simulations were performed for either one (gamma-aminobutyric acid, GABA) or two molecules (glutathione and lactate) simultaneously detected in two voxels. The method was tested in a two-compartment GABA phantom, and finally applied to the left and right hemispheres of 10 normal control subjects, scanned at 3 T. SHERPA was successfully implemented at 3 T and gave results in close agreement with conventional MEGA-PRESS scans in both the phantom and in vivo experiments. Simulations for GABA editing for (3 cm)3 voxels in the left and right hemispheres suggest that both editing efficiency losses and contamination between voxels are about 2%. Compared with conventional single-voxel single-metabolite J-difference editing, two- or fourfold acceleration is possible without significant loss of SNR using the SHERPA method. Unlike some other dual-voxel methods, the method can be used with single-channel receiver coils, and there is no SNR loss due to unfavorable receive-coil geometry factors. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Introductory Nuclear Physics, 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Samuel S. M.

    1998-08-01

    A comprehensive, unified treatment of present-day nuclear physics-the fresh edition of a classic text/reference. "A fine and thoroughly up-to-date textbook on nuclear physics . . . most welcome." -Physics Today (on the First Edition). What sets Introductory Nuclear Physics apart from other books on the subject is its presentation of nuclear physics as an integral part of modern physics. Placing the discipline within a broad historical and scientific context, it makes important connections to other fields such as elementary particle physics and astrophysics. Now fully revised and updated, this Second Edition explores the changing directions in nuclear physics, emphasizing new developments and current research-from superdeformation to quark-gluon plasma. Author Samuel S.M. Wong preserves those areas that established the First Edition as a standard text in university physics departments, focusing on what is exciting about the discipline and providing a concise, thorough, and accessible treatment of the fundamental aspects of nuclear properties. In this new edition, Professor Wong: * Includes a chapter on heavy-ion reactions-from high-spin states to quark-gluon plasma * Adds a new chapter on nuclear astrophysics * Relates observed nuclear properties to the underlying nuclear interaction and the symmetry principles governing subatomic particles * Regroups material and appendices to make the text easier to use * Lists Internet links to essential databases and research projects * Features end-of-chapter exercises using real-world data. Introductory Nuclear Physics, Second Edition is an ideal text for courses in nuclear physics at the senior undergraduate or first-year graduate level. It is also an important resource for scientists and engineers working with nuclei, for astrophysicists and particle physicists, and for anyone wishing to learn more about trends in the field.

  14. Abundant off-target edits from site-directed RNA editing can be reduced by nuclear localization of the editing enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallecillo-Viejo, Isabel C; Liscovitch-Brauer, Noa; Montiel-Gonzalez, Maria Fernanda; Eisenberg, Eli; Rosenthal, Joshua J C

    2017-11-03

    Site-directed RNA editing (SDRE) is a general strategy for making targeted base changes in RNA molecules. Although the approach is relatively new, several groups, including our own, have been working on its development. The basic strategy has been to couple the catalytic domain of an adenosine (A) to inosine (I) RNA editing enzyme to a guide RNA that is used for targeting. Although highly efficient on-target editing has been reported, off-target events have not been rigorously quantified. In this report we target premature termination codons (PTCs) in messages encoding both a fluorescent reporter protein and the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) protein transiently transfected into human epithelial cells. We demonstrate that while on-target editing is efficient, off-target editing is extensive, both within the targeted message and across the entire transcriptome of the transfected cells. By redirecting the editing enzymes from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, off-target editing is reduced without compromising the on-target editing efficiency. The addition of the E488Q mutation to the editing enzymes, a common strategy for increasing on-target editing efficiency, causes a tremendous increase in off-target editing. These results underscore the need to reduce promiscuity in current approaches to SDRE.

  15. Transportation Energy Data Book, Edition 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    1999-09-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 19 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (http://www-cta.ornl.gov/data/tedb.htm).

  16. Current and future editing reagent delivery systems for plant genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Yidong; Liang, Zhen; Gao, Caixia

    2017-05-01

    Many genome editing tools have been developed and new ones are anticipated; some have been extensively applied in plant genetics, biotechnology and breeding, especially the CRISPR/Cas9 system. These technologies have opened up a new era for crop improvement due to their precise editing of user-specified sequences related to agronomic traits. In this review, we will focus on an update of recent developments in the methodologies of editing reagent delivery, and consider the pros and cons of current delivery systems. Finally, we will reflect on possible future directions.

  17. Shielded Metal Arc Welding and Carbon Arc Cutting--Air. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition [and] Student Workbook. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Eddie; Knapp, John

    This document contains the teacher and student texts and student workbook for a secondary-level course in shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) and carbon arc cutting that consists of units on the following topics: SMAW safety; SMAW equipment, applications, and techniques; hardfacing; and carbon arc cutting--air. The teacher edition includes the…

  18. Factors in seventh grade academics associated with performance levels on the tenth grade biology end of course test in selected middle and high schools in northwest Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jennifer Henry

    This study attempted to identify factors in seventh grade academics that are associated with overall success in tenth grade biology. The study addressed the following research questions: Are there significant differences in performance levels in seventh grade Criterion Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) scores in science, math, reading, and language arts associated with performance categories in tenth grade biology End of Course Test (EOCT) and the following demographic variables : gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, disability category, and English language proficiency level? Is there a relationship among the categorical variables on the tenth grade biology EOCT and the same five demographic variables? Retrospective causal comparative research was used on a representative sample from the middle schools in three North Georgia counties who took the four CRCTs in the 2006-2007 school year, and took the biology EOCT in the 2009-2010 school year. Chi square was used to determine the relationships of the various demographic variables on three biology EOCT performance categories. Twoway ANOVA determined relationships between the seventh grade CRCT scores of students in the various demographic groups and their performance levels on the biology EOCT. Students' performance levels on the biology EOCT matched their performance levels on the seventh grade CRCTs consistently. Females performed better than males on all seventh grade CRCTs. Black and Hispanic students did worse than White and Asian/Asian Indian students on the math CRCT. Students living in poverty did worse on reading and language arts CRCTs than students who were better off. Special education students did worse on science, reading, and language arts CRCTs than students not receiving special education services. English language learners did worse than native English speakers on all seventh grade CRCTs. These findings suggest that remedial measures may be taken in the seventh grade that could impact

  19. The Relationship between English Teacher’s Praise and English Learning Achievement of The Tenth Grade of SMK Negeri 9 Samarinda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzul Rachman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement is one of the strategies in classroom management, which is familiar among teachers. One of the types of reinforcement in social reinforcement is praise. Praise can function as a tool for instruction and for increasing social and academic behaviors. To be effective, the student must view the attention provided through praise as pleasurable or motivational. The design of this study was correlation design. The research participant was the tenth grade students of SMK Negeri 9 Samarinda. The purposes of this study are to find out how is relationship between the teacher’s praise and the English learning achievement tenth grade of SMK Negeri 9 Samarinda and is there any significant relationship between English teacher’s praise and English learning achievement. The researcher conducted observation for a month, distributed questionnaires and collected the result of achievement test from the teacher, as the instruments of this study. Then the collected data were analyzed in order to find out the manifestation of reinforcement applied by the teacher. After analyzing the data gained through the observation, the researcher found out that English teacher praise significantly correlate with the English learning achievement of tenth grade SMK Negeri 9 Samarinda (r-value: 0,442 > r-table: 0,334. From the questionnaire, it was found that the students showed positive response or opinion toward the implementation of reinforcement in their class for example teacher praises immediately, frequently, enthusiastically, by using eye contact, uses many kinds of word praise and explains the reason why he praises students.

  20. Genes (including RNA editing information) - RMG | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available t tested T: transcribed N: not transcribed Editing site Editing site N: not transcribed Previous reports on ...editing sites Previous reports on editing sites Strand Strand S: sense A: antisense exon1 start Start positi

  1. RNA Editing and Drug Discovery for Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Hsuan Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA editing is vital to provide the RNA and protein complexity to regulate the gene expression. Correct RNA editing maintains the cell function and organism development. Imbalance of the RNA editing machinery may lead to diseases and cancers. Recently, RNA editing has been recognized as a target for drug discovery although few studies targeting RNA editing for disease and cancer therapy were reported in the field of natural products. Therefore, RNA editing may be a potential target for therapeutic natural products. In this review, we provide a literature overview of the biological functions of RNA editing on gene expression, diseases, cancers, and drugs. The bioinformatics resources of RNA editing were also summarized.

  2. Direct Visual Editing of Node Attributes in Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Eichner

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many expressive visualization techniques for analyzing graphs. Yet, there is only little research on how existing visual representations can be employed to support data editing. An increasingly relevant task when working with graphs is the editing of node attributes. We propose an integrated visualize-and-edit approach to editing attribute values via direct interaction with the visual representation. The visualize part is based on node-link diagrams paired with attribute-dependent layouts. The edit part is as easy as moving nodes via drag-and-drop gestures. We present dedicated interaction techniques for editing quantitative as well as qualitative attribute data values. The benefit of our novel integrated approach is that one can directly edit the data while the visualization constantly provides feedback on the implications of the data modifications. Preliminary user feedback indicates that our integrated approach can be a useful complement to standard non-visual editing via external tools.

  3. An RNA editing fingerprint of cancer stem cell reprogramming

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crews, Leslie A; Jiang, Qingfei; Zipeto, Maria A; Lazzari, Elisa; Court, Angela C; Ali, Shawn; Barrett, Christian L; Frazer, Kelly A; Jamieson, Catriona Hm

    2015-01-01

    .... The objectives of this study were to validate RNA editing of a subset of cancer stem cell-associated transcripts, and to develop a quantitative RNA editing fingerprint assay for rapid detection...

  4. Editörden Veda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpil Salaçin

    2000-04-01

    ştirenler. Kendine göre oıtak düşünce ve yürek ürünü olan dergiyi asılsız ve haksız yorumlayanlar. Ama tüm zorlukların üstesinden gelindiğini düşünüyorum. Bu nedenle benim kişisel olarak baştan beri üstlenmeyi düşündüğüm görevimin tamamlandığını düşünüyorum. Aşağıda bir kaç gün önce derneğimiz başkanlığına gönderdiğim görevden affım ile ilgili mektubu bu derneğin üyeleri olarak sizlerin de öğrenmeye hakkınız olduğunu düşünerek sizlerle paylaşmak istiyorum. Adli Tıp Uzmanları Derneği Başkanlığına, Sayın Prof. Dr. Gürsel Çetin, 26.03.2001 Derneğimizin kuruluşundan bu yana meslektaşlarımızın özverileri ile üretilenlere katkıda bulunmak hepimiz için görev olarak algılanıp yerine getirilmeye çalışıldı. Bu etkinlikler içinde bu alanın bilimsel üretimlerini paylaşabileceği, danışmanlı olarak çalışabilecek bir derginin oluşturulması fikri de derneğimizin bir etkinliğinde sizin de bildiğiniz koşullarda ortaya atıldı. Benimsendi. Bu üretimin gerçekleştirilmesinde görev verilenlerden de biri de bendim. Çıkarılacak derginin editörlük görevini bana vermiştiniz. Bana duyulan güvene ve verilmiş olan bu göreve teşekkür ediyorum. Adli Tıp Bülteni, ismi ile eldeki sınırlı olanaklarla rengi, kapağı, amblemi, formatı ile bir grup özverili arkadaşımızla birlikte doğdu. (ISSN 1300-865X kaydını aldı. Ben bu görevi bir meslek misyonu olarak gerçekleştirmeye çalıştım. Ulusal ve uluslar arası danışma kurulunun oluşturulmasında edindiğim uluslararası ilişkileri devreye sokarak bu kurulların zenginleştirilmesine çalıştım. Birlikte çalıştığımız arkadaşlarımızın her birinin özverileri ile dergi yazım kuralları, gelen makalelerin kaydı, danışmanlara gönderilmesi, danışman ve yazar arasındaki yazışmaların gerçekleştirilmesi, her sayının içeriği ve makale dışı yazı düzenlemeleri, sîzlerin de yakından bildiği bir

  5. An Analysis on the Students' Grammatical Error in Writing Skill of Recoount Text at the Tenth Grade of SMA Muhammadiyah Rambah

    OpenAIRE

    Suwarni

    2016-01-01

    The artisle investigated about an analysis on the students' grammatical error in writing skill of recount text at the tenth grade of SMA Muhammadiyah Rambah. The purpose of this study was to know the grammatical error of the students in part of speech and tense in recount text writing. The indicators are: (a) error in sentence pattern, (b) error in tense, (c) error in pronoun, (d) error in preposition, (e) error in punctuation. From these indicators, the researcher would know the kinds of err...

  6. Stratus 10: Tenth Setting of the Stratus Ocean Reference Station. Cruise RB-10-01 January 2 - January 30, 2010 Charleston, South Carolina - Valparaiso, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    signals for immediate dissemination to Sistema Nacional de Alarma de Maremotos (SNAM) in SHOA, via internet. The buoy, installed on the ocean’s surface...Dirección de Hidrografia y Navegación, Peruvian Navy, Perú 6 Volunteer, WHOI WHOI-2010-05 Stratus 10 Tenth Setting of the Stratus Ocean Reference...of the ship’s propulsion system, this year the cruise was delayed until January. During the 2009/2010 cruise on the NOAA ship Ronald H. Brown to

  7. [The Korean and Japanese editions of the Korean medical book-Dongyi Baojian].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-I

    2011-03-01

    From 1613, Dongyi Baojian (written by Huh Joon) has been published in more than 30 editions in Korea, China and Japan. There are 13 kinds of editions in Korea-movable type edition in the Kuichou year; block printed Lingying edition in the Jihai year; the first Lingying edition in Jiaxu year; the edited Lingying edition in the Jiaxu year and the Wanying reprint edition in the Jiaxu year. There are 2 kinds of editions in Japan-the first edition in the Xiangbao period and the reprint edition in the Kuanzheng period.

  8. Region-specific alterations of A-to-I RNA editing of serotonin 2c receptor in the cortex of suicides with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissmann, D; van der Laan, S; Underwood, M D; Salvetat, N; Cavarec, L; Vincent, L; Molina, F; Mann, J J; Arango, V; Pujol, J F

    2016-08-30

    Brain region-specific abnormalities in serotonergic transmission appear to underlie suicidal behavior. Alterations of RNA editing on the serotonin receptor 2C (HTR2C) pre-mRNA in the brain of suicides produce transcripts that attenuate 5-HT2CR signaling by impairing intracellular G-protein coupling and subsequent intracellular signal transduction. In brain, the distribution of RNA-editing enzymes catalyzing deamination (A-to-I modification) shows regional variation, including within the cerebral cortex. We tested the hypothesis that altered pre-mRNA 5-HT2CR receptor editing in suicide is region-specific. To this end, we investigated the complete 5-HT2CR mRNA-editing profile in two architectonically distinct cortical areas involved in mood regulation and decision-making in a clinically well-characterized cohort of age- and sex-matched non-psychiatric drug-free controls and depressed suicides. By using an original biochemical detection method, that is, capillary electrophoresis single-stranded conformational polymorphism (CE-SSCP), we corroborated the 5-HT2CR mRNA-editing profile previously described in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 9 (BA9)). Editing of 5-HT2CR mRNA displayed clear regional difference when comparing dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA9) and anterior cingulate cortex (BA24). Compared with non-psychiatric control individuals, alterations of editing levels of 5-HT2CR mRNA were detected in both cortical areas of depressed suicides. A marked increase in editing on 5-HT2CR was especially observed in the anterior cingulate cortex in suicides, implicating this cortical area in suicide risk. The results suggest that region-specific changes in RNA editing of 5-HT2CR mRNA and deficient receptor function likely contribute to the etiology of major depressive disorder or suicide.

  9. Requirement of the RNA-editing Enzyme ADAR2 for Normal Physiology in Mice*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsch, Marion; Seeburg, Peter H.; Adler, Thure; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio; Becker, Lore; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Garrett, Lilian; Götz, Alexander; Hans, Wolfgang; Higuchi, Miyoko; Hölter, Sabine M.; Naton, Beatrix; Prehn, Cornelia; Puk, Oliver; Rácz, Ildikó; Rathkolb, Birgit; Rozman, Jan; Schrewe, Anja; Adamski, Jerzy; Busch, Dirk H.; Esposito, Irene; Graw, Jochen; Ivandic, Boris; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Mempel, Martin; Ollert, Markus; Schulz, Holger; Wolf, Eckhard; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Fuchs, Helmut; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě; Beckers, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    ADAR2, an RNA editing enzyme that converts specific adenosines to inosines in certain pre-mRNAs, often leading to amino acid substitutions in the encoded proteins, is mainly expressed in brain. Of all ADAR2-mediated edits, a single one in the pre-mRNA of the AMPA receptor subunit GluA2 is essential for survival. Hence, early postnatal death of mice lacking ADAR2 is averted when the critical edit is engineered into both GluA2 encoding Gria2 alleles. Adar2−/−/Gria2R/R mice display normal appearance and life span, but the general phenotypic effects of global lack of ADAR2 have remained unexplored. Here we have employed the Adar2−/−/Gria2R/R mouse line, and Gria2R/R mice as controls, to study the phenotypic consequences of loss of all ADAR2-mediated edits except the critical one in GluA2. Our extended phenotypic analysis covering ∼320 parameters identified significant changes related to absence of ADAR2 in behavior, hearing ability, allergy parameters and transcript profiles of brain. PMID:21467037

  10. Requirement of the RNA-editing enzyme ADAR2 for normal physiology in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsch, Marion; Seeburg, Peter H; Adler, Thure; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio; Becker, Lore; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Garrett, Lilian; Götz, Alexander; Hans, Wolfgang; Higuchi, Miyoko; Hölter, Sabine M; Naton, Beatrix; Prehn, Cornelia; Puk, Oliver; Rácz, Ildikó; Rathkolb, Birgit; Rozman, Jan; Schrewe, Anja; Adamski, Jerzy; Busch, Dirk H; Esposito, Irene; Graw, Jochen; Ivandic, Boris; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Mempel, Martin; Ollert, Markus; Schulz, Holger; Wolf, Eckhard; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Fuchs, Helmut; de Angelis, Martin Hrabe; Beckers, Johannes

    2011-05-27

    ADAR2, an RNA editing enzyme that converts specific adenosines to inosines in certain pre-mRNAs, often leading to amino acid substitutions in the encoded proteins, is mainly expressed in brain. Of all ADAR2-mediated edits, a single one in the pre-mRNA of the AMPA receptor subunit GluA2 is essential for survival. Hence, early postnatal death of mice lacking ADAR2 is averted when the critical edit is engineered into both GluA2 encoding Gria2 alleles. Adar2(-/-)/Gria2(R/R) mice display normal appearance and life span, but the general phenotypic effects of global lack of ADAR2 have remained unexplored. Here we have employed the Adar2(-/-)/Gria2(R/R) mouse line, and Gria2(R/R) mice as controls, to study the phenotypic consequences of loss of all ADAR2-mediated edits except the critical one in GluA2. Our extended phenotypic analysis covering ∼320 parameters identified significant changes related to absence of ADAR2 in behavior, hearing ability, allergy parameters and transcript profiles of brain.

  11. 45 CFR 73.735-705 - Writing and editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Writing and editing. 73.735-705 Section 73.735-705... Outside Activities § 73.735-705 Writing and editing. (a) Employees are encouraged to engage in outside writing and editing whether or not done for compensation, when such activity is not otherwise prohibited...

  12. Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect (2nd Edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This volume is a second edition of the book “Soil Carbon Sequestration and The Greenhouse Effect”. The first edition was published in 2001 as SSSA Special Publ. #57. The present edition is an update of the concepts, processes, properties, practices and the supporting data. All chapters are new co...

  13. Human Resources Administration: A School-Based Perspective. Fourth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Enhanced and updated, this Fourth Edition of Richard E. Smith's highly successful text examines the growing role of the principal in planning, hiring, staff development, supervision, and other human resource functions. The Fourth Edition includes new sections on ethics, induction, and the role of the mentor teacher. This edition also introduces…

  14. Human germline gene editing: Recommendations of ESHG and ESHRE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wert, Guido; Pennings, Guido; Clarke, Angus; Eichenlaub-Ritter, Ursula; van El, Carla G.; Forzano, Francesca; Goddijn, Mariëtte; Heindryckx, Björn; Howard, Heidi C.; Radojkovic, Dragica; Rial-Sebbag, Emmanuelle; Tarlatzis, Basil C.; Cornel, Martina C.

    2018-01-01

    Technological developments in gene editing raise high expectations for clinical applications, first of all for somatic gene editing but in theory also for germline gene editing (GLGE). GLGE is currently not allowed in many countries. This makes clinical applications in these countries impossible

  15. Alternative Splicing of STAT3 Is Affected by RNA Editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Lior; Abutbul-Amitai, Mor; Paret, Gideon; Nevo-Caspi, Yael

    2017-05-01

    A-to-I RNA editing, carried out by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes, is an epigenetic phenomenon of posttranscriptional modifications on pre-mRNA. RNA editing in intronic sequences may influence alternative splicing of flanking exons. We have previously shown that conditions that induce editing result in elevated expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), preferentially the alternatively-spliced STAT3β isoform. Mechanisms regulating alternative splicing of STAT3 have not been elucidated. STAT3 undergoes A-to-I RNA editing in an intron residing in proximity to the alternatively spliced exon. We hypothesized that RNA editing plays a role in regulating alternative splicing toward STAT3β. In this study we extend our observation connecting RNA editing to the preferential induction of STAT3β expression. We study the involvement of ADAR1 in STAT3 editing and reveal the connection between editing and alternative splicing of STAT3. Deferoaxamine treatment caused the induction in STAT3 RNA editing and STAT3β expression. Silencing ADAR1 caused a decrease in STAT3 editing and expression with a preferential decrease in STAT3β. Cells transfected with a mutated minigene showed preferential splicing toward the STAT3β transcript. Editing in the STAT3 intron is performed by ADAR1 and affects STAT3 alternative splicing. These results suggest that RNA editing is one of the molecular mechanisms regulating the expression of STAT3β.

  16. Adenosine to Inosine editing frequency controlled by splicing efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Konstantin; Kapoor, Utkarsh; Mayrhofer, Elisa; Jantsch, Michael F

    2016-07-27

    Alternative splicing and adenosine to inosine (A to I) RNA-editing are major factors leading to co- and post-transcriptional modification of genetic information. Both, A to I editing and splicing occur in the nucleus. As editing sites are frequently defined by exon-intron basepairing, mRNA splicing efficiency should affect editing levels. Moreover, splicing rates affect nuclear retention and will therefore also influence the exposure of pre-mRNAs to the editing-competent nuclear environment. Here, we systematically test the influence of splice rates on RNA-editing using reporter genes but also endogenous substrates. We demonstrate for the first time that the extent of editing is controlled by splicing kinetics when editing is guided by intronic elements. In contrast, editing sites that are exclusively defined by exonic structures are almost unaffected by the splicing efficiency of nearby introns. In addition, we show that editing levels in pre- and mature mRNAs do not match. This phenomenon can in part be explained by the editing state of an RNA influencing its splicing rate but also by the binding of the editing enzyme ADAR that interferes with splicing. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. Genome-wide identification of RNA editing in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Lin; Liu, Xiaoqiao; Gong, Zhoulin; Zheng, Hancheng; Wang, Jun; Li, Yingrui; Yang, Huanming; Hardwick, James; Dai, Hongyue; Poon, Ronnie T P; Lee, Nikki P; Mao, Mao; Peng, Zhiyu; Chen, Ronghua

    2015-02-01

    We did whole-transcriptome sequencing and whole-genome sequencing on nine pairs of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumors and matched adjacent tissues to identify RNA editing events. We identified mean 26,982 editing sites with mean 89.5% canonical A→G edits in each sample using an improved bioinformatics pipeline. The editing rate was significantly higher in tumors than adjacent normal tissues. Comparing the difference between tumor and normal tissues of each patient, we found 7 non-synonymous tissue specific editing events including 4 tumor-specific edits and 3 normal-specific edits in the coding region, as well as 292 edits varying in editing degree. The significant expression changes of 150 genes associated with RNA editing were found in tumors, with 3 of the 4 most significant genes being cancer related. Our results show that editing might be related to higher gene expression. These findings indicate that RNA editing modification may play an important role in the development of HCC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Editing modifies the GABA(A) receptor subunit alpha3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlson, Johan; Pedersen, Jakob Skou; Haussler, David

    2007-01-01

    Adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) pre-mRNA editing by the ADAR enzyme family has the potential to increase the variety of the proteome. This editing by adenosine deamination is essential in mammals for a functional brain. To detect novel substrates for A-to-I editing we have used an experimental meth...

  19. School Leadership: Handbook for Excellence. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stuart C., Ed.; Piele, Philip K., Ed.

    Recognizing the importance of good leadership to the achievement of educational excellence, the second edition of this handbook synthesizes a large body of school leadership literature and explores the subject from three perspectives: the person, the structure, and the skills. Part I examines characteristics of today's educational leaders;…

  20. The NMC Horizon Report: 2013 Museum Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L.; Adams Becker, S.; Freeman, A.

    2013-01-01

    The "NMC Horizon Report: 2013 Museum Edition," is a co-production with the Marcus Institute for Digital Education in the Arts (MIDEA), and examines six emerging technologies for their potential impact on and use in education and interpretation within the museum environment: BYOD (Bring Your Own Device), crowdsourcing, electronic…

  1. The Landscape of Qualitative Research. Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzin, Norman K., Ed.; Lincoln, Yvonna, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This book, the first volume of the paperback versions of the "The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, Third Edition," takes a look at the field from a broadly theoretical perspective, and is composed of the Handbook's Parts I ("Locating the Field"), II ("Major Paradigms and Perspectives"), and VI ("The Future of Qualitative Research"). "The…

  2. Handbook of Qualitative Research. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzin, Norman K., Ed.; Lincoln, Yvonna S., Ed.

    This handbook's second edition represents the state of the art for the theory and practice of qualitative inquiry. It features eight new topics, including autoethnography, critical race theory, applied ethnography, queer theory, and "testimonio"every chapter in the handbook has been thoroughly revised and updated. The book…

  3. Collecting and Interpreting Qualitative Materials. Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzin, Norman K., Ed.; Lincoln, Yvonna, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This book is the third volume of the paperback versions of "The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, Third Edition." This portion of the handbook considers the tasks of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting empirical materials, and comprises the Handbook's Parts IV ("Methods of Collecting and Analyzing Empirical Materials") and V ("The Art and…

  4. School Law: Cases and Concepts. Seventh Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMorte, Michael W.

    This book examines the sizable body of school law that outlines legally defensible decisions. A substantial part of it contains edited, reported, and verbatim decisions. Historical perspective is provided, as well as specific case and statutory law. Chapter 1 discusses sources of law for educators, state school board policies, attorneys-general…

  5. Regression Analysis by Example. 5th Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Samprit; Hadi, Ali S.

    2012-01-01

    Regression analysis is a conceptually simple method for investigating relationships among variables. Carrying out a successful application of regression analysis, however, requires a balance of theoretical results, empirical rules, and subjective judgment. "Regression Analysis by Example, Fifth Edition" has been expanded and thoroughly…

  6. The Technique of Television Production. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millerson, Gerald

    In discussing the technical aspects of television production, this book covers both equipment and techniques used in these areas: camera, lighting, sound, settings, and make-up. Composition of images according to camera movement, placement of subjects, editing, and aural composition are also covered. Steps in the technical planning of a telecast…

  7. Genome Editing in Sugarcane: Challenges ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarthi Mohan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Genome editing opens new and unique opportunities for researchers to enhance crop production. Until 2013, the zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs were the key tools used for genome editing applications. The advent of RNA-guided engineered nucleases - the type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated system from Streptococcus pyogenes holds great potential since it is simple, effective and more versatile than ZFNs and TALENs. CRISPR/Cas9 system has already been successfully employed in several crop plants. Use of these techniques is in its infant stage in sugarcane. Jung and Altpeter (2016 have reported TALEN mediated approach for the first time to reduce lignin content in sugarcane to make it amenable for biofuel production. This is so far the only report describing genome editing in sugarcane. Large genome size, polyploidy, low transformation efficiency, transgene silencing and lack of high throughput screening techniques are certainly great challenges for genome editing in sugarcane which would be discussed in detail in this review.

  8. CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Blenke, Erik; Evers, Martijn J.W.; Mastrobattista, Enrico; Oost, van der John

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing system has taken the biomedical science field by storm, initiating rumors about future Nobel Prizes and heating up a fierce patent war, but also making significant scientific impact. The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR), together with

  9. Precision genome editing in the CRISPR era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsman, Jayme; Dellaire, Graham

    2017-04-01

    With the introduction of precision genome editing using CRISPR-Cas9 technology, we have entered a new era of genetic engineering and gene therapy. With RNA-guided endonucleases, such as Cas9, it is possible to engineer DNA double strand breaks (DSB) at specific genomic loci. DSB repair by the error-prone non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway can disrupt a target gene by generating insertions and deletions. Alternatively, Cas9-mediated DSBs can be repaired by homology-directed repair (HDR) using an homologous DNA repair template, thus allowing precise gene editing by incorporating genetic changes into the repair template. HDR can introduce gene sequences for protein epitope tags, delete genes, make point mutations, or alter enhancer and promoter activities. In anticipation of adapting this technology for gene therapy in human somatic cells, much focus has been placed on increasing the fidelity of CRISPR-Cas9 and increasing HDR efficiency to improve precision genome editing. In this review, we will discuss applications of CRISPR technology for gene inactivation and genome editing with a focus on approaches to enhancing CRISPR-Cas9-mediated HDR for the generation of cell and animal models, and conclude with a discussion of recent advances and challenges towards the application of this technology for gene therapy in humans.

  10. Researching Society and Culture. Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Clive, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Clear, coherent and trusted, this book is the perfect guide to the main social research methods in use today. The much anticipated Third Edition of Clive Seale's bestselling title further expands its coverage to provide an authoritative introduction to all of the social research methods used to analyze qualitative and quantitative data. Written by…

  11. A DESCRIPTIVE INDONESIAN GRAMMAR--PRELIMINARY EDITION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DYEN, ISIDORE

    THIS PRELIMINARY EDITION COMPRISES A DESCRIPTIVE GRAMMAR OF INDONESIAN (BAHASA INDONESIA), THE OFFICIAL LANGUAGE OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA. THE THREE SECTIONS--PHONOLOGY, SYNTAX, AND MORPHOLOGY--PRESENT A COMPREHENSIVE LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS OF INDONESIAN, WITH OCCASIONAL CONTRASTIVE REFERENCE TO MALAY, JAVANESE, SUNDANESE, AND SUMATRAN. THIS…

  12. ISEE : An Intuitive Sound Editing Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vertegaal, R.P.H.; Bonis, E.

    1994-01-01

    This article presents ISEE, an intuitive sound editing environment, as a general sound synthesis model based on expert auditory perception and cognition of musical instruments. It discusses the backgrounds of current synthesizer user interface design and related timbre space research. Of the three

  13. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Søren; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Espina, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    were given for carcinogenic drugs and medical radiation in the 4th edition of European Code against Cancer. It is crucial that the application of these measures relies on medical expertise and thorough benefit-risk evaluation. This also pertains to cancer-preventive drugs, and self-medication...

  14. Efficient Communication Protocols for Deciding Edit Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jowhari, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present two communication protocols on computing edit distance. In our first result, we give a one-way protocol for the following Document Exchange problem. Namely given x ∈ Σn to Alice and y ∈ Σn to Bob and integer k to both, Alice sends a message to Bob so that he learns x...... or truthfully reports that the edit distance between x and y is greater than k. For this problem, we give a randomized protocol in which Alice transmits at most O ˜ (klog 2 n) bits and each party’s time complexity is O ˜ (nlogn+k 2 log 2 n) . Our second result is a simultaneous protocol for edit distance over...... permutations. Here Alice and Bob both send a message to a third party (the referee) who does not have access to the input strings. Given the messages, the referee decides if the edit distance between x and y is at most k or not. For this problem we give a protocol in which Alice and Bob run a O...

  15. Ladybugs of South Dakota, 2nd edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Images of the 80 species of Coccinellidae, commonly known as lady beetles, that occur in South Dakota are presented in taxonomic order. The second edition updates information, including the addition of a species new to South Dakota. Information on each species includes genus-species name, sub-fami...

  16. International guide to the circus. - 2015 edition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huey, R.; Albrecht, E.; Belbahri, N.; Brunsdale, M.; Christian, J.; Garcia, J.; Giarola, A.; Jando, D.; Lehmann, R.; Marier, F.; Nieminen, K.; Parkinson, G.; Pierce, R.D.; Revolledo Cárdenas, J.; Rodenhuis, W.; Serena, A.; Schlotfeldt, A.; Shaina, C.; Shrake, P.; Simon, M.; St. Leon, M.; Stone, C.; Cooper, J.; Tamaoki, V.; Winkler, G.

    2015-01-01

    An easy-to-read publication defining 100 key circus terms translated in nine languages. The 2015 edition has been re-created in a smaller "pocket" version, 44 pages in length and weighing 63 grams per book. Additional images have been added to illustrate terms and each book is sold complete with a

  17. ETC 408/508: Technical Editing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The course will focus on the role of the editor in organizational settings, including creating successful writer/editor collaboration. Students will gain practice in editing documents for grammar, syntax, organization, style, emphasis, document design, graphics, and user-centered design. The course will provide an introduction to technology for…

  18. Thermodynamics of Fluids Under Flow Second Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Jou, David; Criado-Sancho, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    This is the second edition of the book “Thermodynamics of Fluids under Flow,” which was published in 2000 and has now been corrected, expanded and updated. This is a companion book to our other title Extended irreversible thermodynamics (D. Jou, J. Casas-Vázquez and G. Lebon, Springer, 4th edition 2010), and of the textbook Understanding non-equilibrium thermodynamics (G. Lebon, D. Jou and J. Casas-Vázquez, Springer, 2008. The present book is more specialized than its counterpart, as it focuses its attention on the non-equilibrium thermodynamics of flowing fluids, incorporating non-trivial thermodynamic contributions of the flow, going beyond local equilibrium theories, i.e., including the effects of internal variables and of external forcing due to the flow. Whereas the book's first edition was much more focused on polymer solutions, with brief glimpses into ideal and real gases, the present edition covers a much wider variety of systems, such as: diluted and concentrated polymer solutions, polymer ble...

  19. Edit propagation using geometric relationship functions

    KAUST Repository

    Guerrero, Paul

    2014-03-01

    We propose a method for propagating edit operations in 2D vector graphics, based on geometric relationship functions. These functions quantify the geometric relationship of a point to a polygon, such as the distance to the boundary or the direction to the closest corner vertex. The level sets of the relationship functions describe points with the same relationship to a polygon. For a given query point, we first determine a set of relationships to local features, construct all level sets for these relationships, and accumulate them. The maxima of the resulting distribution are points with similar geometric relationships. We show extensions to handle mirror symmetries, and discuss the use of relationship functions as local coordinate systems. Our method can be applied, for example, to interactive floorplan editing, and it is especially useful for large layouts, where individual edits would be cumbersome. We demonstrate populating 2D layouts with tens to hundreds of objects by propagating relatively few edit operations. © 2014 ACM 0730-0301/2014/03- ART15 $15.00.

  20. The Complete Learning Disabilities Directory. 2011 Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey House Publishing, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Published for over a decade, this directory continues to be a successful, sought-after resource, providing valuable information to professionals, families, and individuals in the learning disabilities community. Supported by the National Center for Learning Disabilities, this 2011 edition brings together the most up-to-date information on LD…

  1. Handbook of Research on Teaching, Fifth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitomer, Drew H., Ed.; Bell, Courtney A., Ed.

    2016-01-01

    The Fifth Edition of the :Handbook of Research on Teaching" is an essential resource for students and scholars dedicated to the study of teaching and learning. The volume covers a vast array of topics ranging from the history of teaching to technological and literacy issues. In each authoritative chapter, the authors summarize the state of…

  2. JUTH JOURNAL MEDICAL, DECEMBER 2012 EDITION 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    . Edition;2000: 9-13. 6. Kaduna state tourism Guide for Zaria. 7. Imoru M. Haematological Values in. Apparently Healthy Adults in Kano State,. Nigeria. Journal of Medical Laboratory. Science 2003;12;70-73. 8. Khalid U, Zeeshan AS, Arif AR.

  3. Making Classroom Assessment Work. Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Anne

    2011-01-01

    3rd Edition! When should we assess, and when should we evaluate? What might be the results of evaluating too early or too much? How do we know if we are evaluating the right things? How do we know what makes sense for the learner and for the course? These questions are at the heart of "Making Classroom Assessment Work." This book combines powerful…

  4. European Corporate Law, 2nd edition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik; Dorresteijn, Adriaan; Monteiro, Tiago Pereira

    As in the First Edition (1995) of this well-known book, the authors demonstrate that analysis and comparison of national corporate laws on a number of issues yield highly valuable general principles and observations, not least because business organisations, wherever located, tend to show...

  5. Engineered Viruses as Genome Editing Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyu; Gonçalves, Manuel A F V

    2016-03-01

    Genome editing based on sequence-specific designer nucleases, also known as programmable nucleases, seeks to modify in a targeted and precise manner the genetic information content of living cells. Delivering into cells designer nucleases alone or together with donor DNA templates, which serve as surrogate homologous recombination (HR) substrates, can result in gene knockouts or gene knock-ins, respectively. As engineered replication-defective viruses, viral vectors are having an increasingly important role as delivery vehicles for donor DNA templates and designer nucleases, namely, zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated Cas9 (CRISPR-Cas9) nucleases, also known as RNA-guided nucleases (RGNs). We review this dual role played by engineered viral particles on genome editing while focusing on their main scaffolds, consisting of lentiviruses, adeno-associated viruses, and adenoviruses. In addition, the coverage of the growing body of research on the repurposing of viral vectors as delivery systems for genome editing tools is complemented with information regarding their main characteristics, pros, and cons. Finally, this information is framed by a concise description of the chief principles, tools, and applications of the genome editing field as a whole.

  6. Edit Distance to Monotonicity in Sliding Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Ho-Leung; Lam, Tak-Wah; Lee, Lap Kei

    2011-01-01

    of a data stream is becoming well-understood over the past few years. Motivated by applications on network quality monitoring, we extend the study to estimating the edit distance to monotonicity of a sliding window covering the w most recent items in the stream for any w ≥ 1. We give a deterministic...

  7. Bibliography of Fynbos ecology: 2nd edition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Manders, PT

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available results from the Project will continue to be published for the next few years, and this bibliography may well miss the most intensive episode of publication. However, this second edition is the outcome of the consolidation of fynbos-related publications...

  8. Best Practices in Literacy Instruction. Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambrell, Linda B., Ed.; Morrow, Lesley Mandel, Ed.; Pressley, Michael, Ed.; Guthrie, John T., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Now in a thoroughly revised and expanded third edition, this evidence-based book distills the latest knowledge about literacy teaching and learning into clear strategies for helping all children succeed. Within a comprehensive conceptual framework, the field's leading authorities provide eminently practical recommendations to guide instructional…

  9. Best Practices in Literacy Instruction. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Lesley Mandel, Ed.; Gambrell, Linda B., Ed.; Pressley, Michael, Ed.

    Now revised and updated, this book's second edition aims to guide teachers in providing effective, engaging literacy instruction that meets the challenges of today's legislative mandates. Identified in the book are principles of best practice that reflect cutting-edge scientific research as well as decades of hands-on classroom experience.…

  10. Nanoparticles for Site Specific Genome Editing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeer, Nicole Ali

    Triplex-forming peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) can be used to coordinate the recombination of short 50-60 by "donor DNA" fragments into genomic DNA, resulting in site-specific correction of genetic mutations or the introduction of advantageous genetic modifications. Site-specific gene editing in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) could result in treatment or cure of inherited disorders of the blood such as beta-thalassemia. Gene editing in HSPCs and differentiated T cells could help combat HIV/AIDs by modifying receptors, such as CCR5, necessary for R5-tropic HIV entry. However, translation of genome modification technologies to clinical practice is limited by challenges in intracellular delivery, especially in difficult-to-transfect hematolymphoid cells. In vivo gene editing could also provide novel treatment for systemic monogenic disorders such as cystic fibrosis, an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane receptor. Here, we have engineered biodegradable nanoparticles to deliver oligonucleotides for site-specific genome editing of disease-relevant genes in human cells, with high efficiency, low toxicity, and editing of clinically relevant cell types. We designed nanoparticles to edit the human beta-globin and CCR5 genes in hematopoietic cells. We show that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles can delivery PNA and donor DNA for site-specific gene modification in human hematopoietic cells in vitro and in vivo in NOD-scid IL2rgammanull mice. Nanoparticles delivered by tail vein localized to hematopoietic compartments in the spleen and bone marrow of humanized mice, resulting in modification of the beta-globin and CCR5 genes. Modification frequencies ranged from 0.005 to 20% of cells depending on the organ and cell type, without detectable toxicity. This project developed highly versatile methods for delivery of therapeutics to hematolymphoid cells and hematopoietic stem cells, and will help to

  11. C-to-U editing and site-directed RNA editing for the correction of genetic mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Luyen Thi; Tsukahara, Toshifumi

    2017-07-24

    Cytidine to uridine (C-to-U) editing is one type of substitutional RNA editing. It occurs in both mammals and plants. The molecular mechanism of C-to-U editing involves the hydrolytic deamination of a cytosine to a uracil base. C-to-U editing is mediated by RNA-specific cytidine deaminases and several complementation factors, which have not been completely identified. Here, we review recent findings related to the regulation and enzymatic basis of C-to-U RNA editing. More importantly, when C-to-U editing occurs in coding regions, it has the power to reprogram genetic information on the RNA level, therefore it has great potential for applications in transcript repair (diseases related to thymidine to cytidine (T>C) or adenosine to guanosine (A>G) point mutations). If it is possible to manipulate or mimic C-to-U editing, T>C or A>G genetic mutation-related diseases could be treated. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic site-directed RNA editing are two different approaches for mimicking C-to-U editing. For enzymatic site-directed RNA editing, C-to-U editing has not yet been successfully performed, and in theory, adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) editing involves the same strategy as C-to-U editing. Therefore, in this review, for applications in transcript repair, we will provide a detailed overview of enzymatic site-directed RNA editing, with a focus on A-to-I editing and non-enzymatic site-directed C-to-U editing.

  12. A beginner's guide to gene editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Patrick T; Hart, Stephen

    2017-12-28

    What is the topic of this review? This review summarizes the development of gene editing from early proof-of-concept studies in the 1980s to contemporary programmable and RNA-guided nucleases, which enable rapid and precise alteration of DNA sequences of almost any living cell. What advances does it highlight? With an average of one clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) Cas9 paper published every 4 h in 2017, this review cannot highlight all new developments, but a number of key improvements, including increases in efficiency, a range of new options to reduce off-target effects and plans for CRISPR to enter clinical trials in 2018, are discussed. Genome editing enables precise changes to be made in the genome of living cells. The technique was originally developed in the 1980s but largely limited to use in mice. The discovery that a targeted double-stranded break at a unique site in the genome, close to the site to be changed, could substantially increase the efficiency of editing raised the possibility of using the technique in a broader range of animal models and, potentially, human cells. But the challenge was to identify reagents that could create targeted breaks at a unique genomic location with minimal off-target effects. In 2005, the demonstration that programmable zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) could perform this task led to a number of proof-of-concept studies, but a limitation was the ease with which effective ZFNs could be produced. In 2009, the development of TAL effector nucleases (TALENs) increased the specificity of gene editing and the ease of design and production. However, it was not until 2013 and the development of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) Cas9/guide RNA that gene editing became a research tool that any laboratory could use. © 2017 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  13. Variable Frequency of Plastid RNA Editing among Ferns and Repeated Loss of Uridine-to-Cytidine Editing from Vascular Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenhu; Grewe, Felix; Mower, Jeffrey P.

    2015-01-01

    The distinct distribution and abundance of C-to-U and U-to-C RNA editing among land plants suggest that these two processes originated and evolve independently, but the paucity of information from several key lineages limits our understanding of their evolution. To examine the evolutionary diversity of RNA editing among ferns, we sequenced the plastid transcriptomes from two early diverging species, Ophioglossum californicum and Psilotum nudum. Using a relaxed automated approach to minimize false negatives combined with manual inspection to eliminate false positives, we identified 297 C-to-U and three U-to-C edit sites in the O. californicum plastid transcriptome but only 27 C-to-U and no U-to-C edit sites in the P. nudum plastid transcriptome. A broader comparison of editing content with the leptosporangiate fern Adiantum capillus-veneris and the hornwort Anthoceros formosae uncovered large variance in the abundance of plastid editing, indicating that the frequency and type of RNA editing is highly labile in ferns. Edit sites that increase protein conservation among species are more abundant and more efficiently edited than silent and non-conservative sites, suggesting that selection maintains functionally important editing. The absence of U-to-C editing from P. nudum plastid transcripts and other vascular plants demonstrates that U-to-C editing loss is a recurrent phenomenon in vascular plant evolution. PMID:25568947

  14. Variable frequency of plastid RNA editing among ferns and repeated loss of uridine-to-cytidine editing from vascular plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhu Guo

    Full Text Available The distinct distribution and abundance of C-to-U and U-to-C RNA editing among land plants suggest that these two processes originated and evolve independently, but the paucity of information from several key lineages limits our understanding of their evolution. To examine the evolutionary diversity of RNA editing among ferns, we sequenced the plastid transcriptomes from two early diverging species, Ophioglossum californicum and Psilotum nudum. Using a relaxed automated approach to minimize false negatives combined with manual inspection to eliminate false positives, we identified 297 C-to-U and three U-to-C edit sites in the O. californicum plastid transcriptome but only 27 C-to-U and no U-to-C edit sites in the P. nudum plastid transcriptome. A broader comparison of editing content with the leptosporangiate fern Adiantum capillus-veneris and the hornwort Anthoceros formosae uncovered large variance in the abundance of plastid editing, indicating that the frequency and type of RNA editing is highly labile in ferns. Edit sites that increase protein conservation among species are more abundant and more efficiently edited than silent and non-conservative sites, suggesting that selection maintains functionally important editing. The absence of U-to-C editing from P. nudum plastid transcripts and other vascular plants demonstrates that U-to-C editing loss is a recurrent phenomenon in vascular plant evolution.

  15. Variable frequency of plastid RNA editing among ferns and repeated loss of uridine-to-cytidine editing from vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenhu; Grewe, Felix; Mower, Jeffrey P

    2015-01-01

    The distinct distribution and abundance of C-to-U and U-to-C RNA editing among land plants suggest that these two processes originated and evolve independently, but the paucity of information from several key lineages limits our understanding of their evolution. To examine the evolutionary diversity of RNA editing among ferns, we sequenced the plastid transcriptomes from two early diverging species, Ophioglossum californicum and Psilotum nudum. Using a relaxed automated approach to minimize false negatives combined with manual inspection to eliminate false positives, we identified 297 C-to-U and three U-to-C edit sites in the O. californicum plastid transcriptome but only 27 C-to-U and no U-to-C edit sites in the P. nudum plastid transcriptome. A broader comparison of editing content with the leptosporangiate fern Adiantum capillus-veneris and the hornwort Anthoceros formosae uncovered large variance in the abundance of plastid editing, indicating that the frequency and type of RNA editing is highly labile in ferns. Edit sites that increase protein conservation among species are more abundant and more efficiently edited than silent and non-conservative sites, suggesting that selection maintains functionally important editing. The absence of U-to-C editing from P. nudum plastid transcripts and other vascular plants demonstrates that U-to-C editing loss is a recurrent phenomenon in vascular plant evolution.

  16. Trans and cis factors affecting A-to-I RNA editing efficiency of a noncoding editing target in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Michael C; Hundley, Heather A

    2016-05-01

    Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing by ADARs affects thousands of adenosines in an organism's transcriptome. However, adenosines are not edited at equal levels nor do these editing levels correlate well with ADAR expression levels. Therefore, additional mechanisms are utilized by the cell to dictate the editing efficiency at a given adenosine. To examine cis-and trans-acting factors that regulate A-to-I editing levels specifically in neural cells, we utilized the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans We demonstrate that a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding protein, ADR-1, inhibits editing in neurons, which is largely masked when examining editing levels from whole animals. Furthermore, expression of ADR-1 and mRNA expression of the editing target can act synergistically to regulate editing efficiency. In addition, we identify a dsRNA region within the Y75B8A.83' UTR that acts as acis-regulatory element by enhancing ADR-2 editing efficiency. Together, this work identifies mechanisms that regulate editing efficiency of noncoding A-to-I editing sites, which comprise the largest class of ADAR targets. © 2016 Washburn and Hundley; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  17. THE CORRECLATION BETWEEN STUDENTS’ LEARNING MOTIVATION AND PARENTS’ ATTENTION TOWARD THE LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT OF FUEL SYSTEM MAINTENANCE MOTORCYCLE OF TENTH GRADE STUDENTS OF SMK COKROAMINOTO WANADADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugraha Priatmaja

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to descibe (1 the correlation between the students’ motiation  toward the learning achievement of fuel system maintenance motorcycle, (2 the correlation and parents’ attention toward the learning achievement of fuel system maintenance motorcycle, and (3 the correlation between students’ learning motivation and parents’ attention toward the learning achievement of fuel system maintenance motorcycle of tenth grade students of SMK Cokroaminoto Wanadadi. The study reports that (1 there was positive and significance correlation between the students’ motiation toward the learning achievement of fuel system maintenance motorcycle, (2 there was positive and significance correlation between parents’ attention toward the learning achievement of fuel system maintenance motorcycle, and (3 there was positive and significance correlation between students’ learning motivation and parents’ attention toward the learning achievement of fuel system maintenance motorcycle of tenth grade students of SMK Cokroaminoto Wanadadi. It could be interpreted that to improve students’ achievement, it was needed motivation and parents’ attention. The learning motivation was need by the students to support their learning activities because motivation was the main factor in increasing their learning achievement. The parents’ attention was also important to improve the students’ learning achievement because parents or family was the first education place for the students.

  18. Original wall paintings at the church of the Saviour in Chvabiani (Upper Svaneti, Georgia and Byzantine art at the turn of the tenth to eleventh centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharova Anna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a little known ensemble of wall paintings at the Church of the Saviour in Chvabiani, Upper Svaneti, Georgia. The initial decoration of the church dated to 978- 1001 has survived mainly in the apse. The badly preserved Theophany in the conch attracted the attention of scholars who analyzed its iconography. The Apostles in the lower zone, however, were considered to be repainted at a later date. Our examination of these wall paintings revealed no traces of later additions. Through the analysis of technique and style we aim to prove that the both compositions belong to the turn of the tenth to eleventh century. These wall paintings show unusually high quality and close affinities with Byzantine art of this period. In our view, they could be a work of a visiting artist, probably a Georgian trained at some major Byzantine artistic center. He may well have been among the artists working on wall paintings at the cathedrals built and decorated by order of kings and church hierarchs during the late tenth to early eleventh centuries, in Tao-Klarjeti or other lands of the Georgian kingdom still under formation.

  19. Global Environmental Problems: Implications for U.S. Policy. Tenth Edition. Teacher Resource Book [and Student Text]. Public Policy Debate in the Classroom. Choices for the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Sarah Cleveland

    Scientists have increasingly focused attention on far-reaching environmental threats, such as climate change, ozone depletion, and deforestation, that transcend national boundaries. A new concept, global environmental problems, has entered the public arena, particularly in the area of foreign policy and economic matters. This unit explores the…

  20. Generation of gene edited birds in one generation using sperm transfection assisted gene editing (STAGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Caitlin A; Challagulla, Arjun; Jenkins, Kristie A; Wise, Terry G; O'Neil, Terri E; Morris, Kirsten R; Tizard, Mark L; Doran, Timothy J

    2017-06-01

    Generating transgenic and gene edited mammals involves in vitro manipulation of oocytes or single cell embryos. Due to the comparative inaccessibility of avian oocytes and single cell embryos, novel protocols have been developed to produce transgenic and gene edited birds. While these protocols are relatively efficient, they involve two generation intervals before reaching complete somatic and germline expressing transgenic or gene edited birds. Most of this work has been done with chickens, and many protocols require in vitro culturing of primordial germ cells (PGCs). However, for many other bird species no methodology for long term culture of PGCs exists. Developing methodologies to produce germline transgenic or gene edited birds in the first generation would save significant amounts of time and resource. Furthermore, developing protocols that can be readily adapted to a wide variety of avian species would open up new research opportunities. Here we report a method using sperm as a delivery mechanism for gene editing vectors which we call sperm transfection assisted gene editing (STAGE). We have successfully used this method to generate GFP knockout embryos and chickens, as well as generate embryos with mutations in the doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 1 (DMRT1) gene using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. The efficiency of the method varies from as low as 0% to as high as 26% with multiple factors such as CRISPR guide efficiency and mRNA stability likely impacting the outcome. This straightforward methodology could simplify gene editing in many bird species including those for which no methodology currently exists.

  1. Comparative RNA editing in autistic and neurotypical cerebella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eran, A; Li, J B; Vatalaro, K; McCarthy, J; Rahimov, F; Collins, C; Markianos, K; Margulies, D M; Brown, E N; Calvo, S E; Kohane, I S; Kunkel, L M

    2013-09-01

    Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is a neurodevelopmentally regulated epigenetic modification shown to modulate complex behavior in animals. Little is known about human A-to-I editing, but it is thought to constitute one of many molecular mechanisms connecting environmental stimuli and behavioral outputs. Thus, comprehensive exploration of A-to-I RNA editing in human brains may shed light on gene-environment interactions underlying complex behavior in health and disease. Synaptic function is a main target of A-to-I editing, which can selectively recode key amino acids in synaptic genes, directly altering synaptic strength and duration in response to environmental signals. Here, we performed a high-resolution survey of synaptic A-to-I RNA editing in a human population, and examined how it varies in autism, a neurodevelopmental disorder in which synaptic abnormalities are a common finding. Using ultra-deep (>1000 × ) sequencing, we quantified the levels of A-to-I editing of 10 synaptic genes in postmortem cerebella from 14 neurotypical and 11 autistic individuals. A high dynamic range of editing levels was detected across individuals and editing sites, from 99.6% to below detection limits. In most sites, the extreme ends of the population editing distributions were individuals with autism. Editing was correlated with isoform usage, clusters of correlated sites were identified, and differential editing patterns examined. Finally, a dysfunctional form of the editing enzyme adenosine deaminase acting on RNA B1 was found more commonly in postmortem cerebella from individuals with autism. These results provide a population-level, high-resolution view of A-to-I RNA editing in human cerebella and suggest that A-to-I editing of synaptic genes may be informative for assessing the epigenetic risk for autism.

  2. Building java programs (3rd edition)

    CERN Document Server

    Reges, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Building Java Programs: A Back to Basics Approach, Third Edition, introduces novice programmers to basic constructs and common pitfalls by emphasizing the essentials of procedural programming, problem solving, and algorithmic reasoning. By using objects early to solve interesting problems and defining objects later in the course, Building Java Programs develops programming knowledge for a broad audience. NEW! This edition is available with MyProgrammingLab, an innovative online homework and assessment tool. Through the power of practice and immediate personalized feedback, MyProgrammingLab helps students fully grasp the logic, semantics, and syntax of programming. Note: If you are purchasing the standalone text or electronic version, MyProgrammingLab does not come automatically packaged with the text. To purchase MyProgrammingLab, please visit: myprogramminglab.com or you can purchase a package of the physical text + MyProgrammingLab by searching the Pearson Higher Education web site. MyProgrammi...

  3. Creating and Editing Video to Accompany Manuscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Shayna L; Porto, Dennis A; Ozog, David M; Council, M Laurin

    2016-02-01

    The use of video can enhance the learning experience by demonstrating procedural techniques that are difficult to relay in writing. Several peer-reviewed journals allow publication of videos alongside articles to complement the written text. The purpose of this article is to instruct the dermatologic surgeon on how to create and edit a video using a smartphone, to accompany a article. The authors describe simple tips to optimize surgical videography. The video that accompanies this article further demonstrates the techniques described. Creating a surgical video requires little experience or equipment and can be completed in a modest amount of time. Making and editing a video to accompany a article can be accomplished by following the simple recommendations in this article. In addition, the increased use of video in dermatologic surgery education can enhance the learning opportunity.

  4. Genome editing using Cas9 nickases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Alexandro E; Zhang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    The RNA-guided, sequence-specific endonuclease Cas9 has been widely adopted as genome engineering tool due to its efficiency and ease of use. Derived from the microbial CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat) type II adaptive immune system, Cas9 has now been successfully engineered for genome editing applications in a variety of animal and plant species. To reduce potential off-target mutagenesis by wild-type Cas9, homology- and structure-guided mutagenesis of Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 catalytic domains has produced "nicking" enzymes (Cas9n) capable of inducing single-strand nicks rather than double-strand breaks. Since nicks are generally repaired with high fidelity in eukaryotic cells, Cas9n can be leveraged to mediate highly specific genome editing, either via nonhomologous end-joining or homology-directed repair. Here we describe the preparation, testing, and application of Cas9n reagents for precision mammalian genome engineering.

  5. Transportation Energy Data Book, Edition 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy C.

    1998-09-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 18 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. This edition of the Data Book has 11 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 - energy Chapter 3 - emissions; Chapter 4 - transportation and the economy; Chapter 5 - highway vehicles; Chapter 6 - Light vehicles; Chapter 7 - heavy vehicles; Chapter 8 - alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 9 - fleet vehicles; Chapter 10 - household vehicles; and Chapter 11 - nonhighway modes. The sources used represent the latest available data.

  6. Engineering Delivery Vehicles for Genome Editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Christopher E; Gersbach, Charles A

    2016-06-07

    The field of genome engineering has created new possibilities for gene therapy, including improved animal models of disease, engineered cell therapies, and in vivo gene repair. The most significant challenge for the clinical translation of genome engineering is the development of safe and effective delivery vehicles. A large body of work has applied genome engineering to genetic modification in vitro, and clinical trials have begun using cells modified by genome editing. Now, promising preclinical work is beginning to apply these tools in vivo. This article summarizes the development of genome engineering platforms, including meganucleases, zinc finger nucleases, TALENs, and CRISPR/Cas9, and their flexibility for precise genetic modifications. The prospects for the development of safe and effective viral and nonviral delivery vehicles for genome editing are reviewed, and promising advances in particular therapeutic applications are discussed.

  7. The art of editing RNA structural alignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ebbe Sloth

    2014-01-01

    Manual editing of RNA structural alignments may be considered more art than science, since it still requires an expert biologist to take multiple levels of information into account and be slightly creative when constructing high-quality alignments. Even though the task is rather tedious, it is re......Manual editing of RNA structural alignments may be considered more art than science, since it still requires an expert biologist to take multiple levels of information into account and be slightly creative when constructing high-quality alignments. Even though the task is rather tedious......, it is rewarded by great insight into the evolution of structure and function of your favorite RNA molecule. In this chapter I will review the methods and considerations that go into constructing RNA structural alignments at the secondary and tertiary structure level; introduce software, databases, and algorithms...

  8. Electronic Signatures in Law: 4th Edition

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Stephen Mason is a leading authority on electronic signatures and electronic evidence, having advised global corporations and governments on these topics. He is also the founder and editor of the international open source journal the Digital Evidence and Electronic Signature Law Review. Stephen is an Associate Research Fellow at the IALS.\\ud \\ud This fourth edition of the well-established practitioner text sets out what constitutes an electronic signature; the form an electronic signature can...

  9. CERN Video News, 2nd edition

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    This week you will be able to watch on the web the second edition of CERN's video news (see Bulletin n°45/2002, p.3). On this news reel: the ATRAP experiment's latest achievements, superconducting cable production for CMS, the CAST experiment and the European digital conferencing project InDiCo. Go to : www.cern.ch/video, or Bulletin web page.

  10. Online Automatic Post-Editing across Domains

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Rajen; Gebremelak, Gebremedhen; Negri, Matteo; Turchi, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in automatic post-editing (APE) have shown that it is possible to automatically correct systematic errors made by machine translation systems. However, most of the current APE techniques have only been tested in controlled batch environments, where training and test data are sampled from the same distribution and the training set is fully available. In this paper, we propose an online APE system based on an instance selection mechanism that is able to efficiently work with a s...

  11. Selective access and editing in a database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluf, David A. (Inventor); Gawdiak, Yuri O. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Method and system for providing selective access to different portions of a database by different subgroups of database users. Where N users are involved, up to 2.sup.N-1 distinguishable access subgroups in a group space can be formed, where no two access subgroups have the same members. Two or more members of a given access subgroup can edit, substantially simultaneously, a document accessible to each member.

  12. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2005-03-08

    The ''Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 24'' is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2--energy; Chapter 3--highway vehicles; Chapter 4--light vehicles; Chapter 5--heavy vehicles; Chapter 6--alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7--fleet vehicles; Chapter 8--household vehicles; and Chapter 9--nonhighway modes; Chapter 10--transportation and the economy; Chapter 11--greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12--criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  13. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2003-10-24

    The ''Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 23'' is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (www-cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2--energy; Chapter 3--highway vehicles; Chapter 4--light vehicles; Chapter 5--heavy vehicles; Chapter 6--alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7--fleet vehicles; Chapter 8--household vehicles; and Chapter 9--nonhighway modes; Chapter 10--transportation and the economy; Chapter 11--greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12--criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  14. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Susan E [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Roltek, Inc., Clinton, TN (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 34 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  15. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 35

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Susan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 35 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  16. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2012-08-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 31 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  17. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2011-07-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 30 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  18. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2013-08-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 32 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  19. Transportation Energy Data Book. Edition 33

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Susan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 33 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  20. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2009-06-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 28 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with U.S Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program and the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; and Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  1. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2008-06-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 27 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; and Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  2. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2010-07-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 29 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  3. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL

    2007-07-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 26 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 - energy; Chapter 3 - highway vehicles; Chapter 4 - light vehicles; Chapter 5 - heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 - alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 - fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 - household vehicles; and Chapter 9- nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 - transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 - greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 - criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  4. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 36

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Susan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 36 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 – energy; Chapter 3 – highway vehicles; Chapter 4 – light vehicles; Chapter 5 – heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 – alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 – fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 – household vehicles; Chapter 9 – nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 – transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 – greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 – criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms is also included for the reader’s convenience.

  5. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2001-09-13

    The ''Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 21'' is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (www-cta.ornl.gov/data/tedb.htm). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2--energy; Chapter 3--greenhouse gas emissions; Chapter 4--criteria pollutant emissions; Chapter 5--transportation and the economy; Chapter 6--highway vehicles; Chapter 7--light vehicles; Chapter 8--heavy vehicles; Chapter 9--alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 10--fleet vehicles; Chapter 11--household vehicles; and Chapter 12--nonhighway modes. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  6. Transportation Energy Data Book (Edition 20)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2000-10-09

    The ''Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 20'' is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (www-cta.ornl.gov/data/tedb.htm). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2--energy; Chapter 3--greenhouse gas emissions; Chapter 4--criteria pollutant emissions; Chapter 5--transportation and the economy; Chapter 6--highway vehicles; Chapter 7--light vehicles; Chapter 8--heavy vehicles; Chapter 9--alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 10--fleet vehicles; Chapter 11--household vehicles; and Chapter 12--nonhighway modes. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  7. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy C.; Diegel, Susan W.

    2002-12-04

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 22 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (www.cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 - energy; Chapter 3 - greenhouse gas emissions; Chapter 4 - criteria pollutant emissions; Chapter 5 - transportation and the economy; Chapter 6 - highway vehicles; Chapter 7 - light vehicles; Chapter 8 - heavy vehicles; Chapter 9 - alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 10 - fleet vehicles; Chapter 11 - household vehicles; and Chapter 12- nonhighway modes. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  8. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL

    2006-06-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 25 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 - energy; Chapter 3 - highway vehicles; Chapter 4 - light vehicles; Chapter 5 - heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 - alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 - fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 - household vehicles; and Chapter 9- nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 - transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 - greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 - criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  9. Technology Roadmap: Wind Energy. 2013 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    The IEA Wind Power Technology Roadmap 2013 Edition recognises the very significant progress made since the first edition was published in 2009. The technology continues to improve rapidly, and costs of generation from land-based wind installations continue to fall. Wind power is now being deployed in countries with good resources without any dedicated financial incentives. The 2013 Edition targets an increased share (15% to 18%) of global electricity to be provided by wind power in 2050, compared to 12% in the original roadmap of 2009. However, increasing levels of low-cost wind still require predictable, supportive regulatory environments and appropriate market designs. The challenges of integrating higher levels of variable wind power into the grid need to be addressed. For offshore wind, much remains to be done to develop appropriate large-scale systems and to reduce costs. The 2013 Wind Power Roadmap also provides updated analysis on the barriers that exist for the technology and suggests ways to address them, including legal and regulatory recommendations.

  10. ADAR RNA editing below the backbone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Liam; Khan, Anzer; Vukic, Dragana; O'Connell, Mary

    2017-09-01

    ADAR RNA editing enzymes (adenosine deaminases acting on RNA) that convert adenosine bases to inosines were first identified biochemically 30 years ago. Since then, studies on ADARs in genetic model organisms, and evolutionary comparisons between them, continue to reveal a surprising range of pleiotropic biological effects of ADARs. This review focuses on Drosophila melanogaster, which has a single Adar gene encoding a homolog of vertebrate ADAR2 that site-specifically edits hundreds of transcripts to change individual codons in ion channel subunits and membrane and cytoskeletal proteins. Drosophila ADAR is involved in the control of neuronal excitability and neurodegeneration and, intriguingly, in the control of neuronal plasticity and sleep. Drosophila ADAR also interacts strongly with RNA interference, a key antiviral defense mechanism in invertebrates. Recent crystal structures of human ADAR2 deaminase domain-RNA complexes help to interpret available information on Drosophila ADAR isoforms and on the evolution of ADARs from tRNA deaminase ADAT proteins. ADAR RNA editing is a paradigm for the now rapidly expanding range of RNA modifications in mRNAs and ncRNAs. Even with recent progress, much remains to be understood about these groundbreaking ADAR RNA modification systems. © 2017 Keegan et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  11. One small edit for humans, one giant edit for humankind? Points and questions to consider for a responsible way forward for gene editing in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Heidi C; van El, Carla G; Forzano, Francesca; Radojkovic, Dragica; Rial-Sebbag, Emmanuelle; de Wert, Guido; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C

    2018-01-01

    Gene editing, which allows for specific location(s) in the genome to be targeted and altered by deleting, adding or substituting nucleotides, is currently the subject of important academic and policy discussions. With the advent of efficient tools, such as CRISPR-Cas9, the plausibility of using gene editing safely in humans for either somatic or germ line gene editing is being considered seriously. Beyond safety issues, somatic gene editing in humans does raise ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI), however, it is suggested to be less challenging to existing ethical and legal frameworks; indeed somatic gene editing is already applied in (pre-) clinical trials. In contrast, the notion of altering the germ line or embryo such that alterations could be heritable in humans raises a large number of ELSI; it is currently debated whether it should even be allowed in the context of basic research. Even greater ELSI debates address the potential use of germ line or embryo gene editing for clinical purposes, which, at the moment is not being conducted and is prohibited in several jurisdictions. In the context of these ongoing debates surrounding gene editing, we present herein guidance to further discussion and investigation by highlighting three crucial areas that merit the most attention, time and resources at this stage in the responsible development and use of gene editing technologies: (1) conducting careful scientific research and disseminating results to build a solid evidence base; (2) conducting ethical, legal and social issues research; and (3) conducting meaningful stakeholder engagement, education and dialogue.

  12. Whole plastid transcriptomes reveal abundant RNA editing sites and differential editing status in Phalaenopsis aphrodite subsp. formosana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting-Chieh; Liu, Yu-Chang; Wang, Xuewen; Wu, Chi-Hsuan; Huang, Chih-Hao; Chang, Ching-Chun

    2017-09-16

    RNA editing is a process of post-transcriptional level of gene regulation by nucleotide modification. Previously, the chloroplast DNA of Taiwan endemic moth orchid, P. aphrodite subsp. formosana was determined, and 44 RNA editing sites were identified from 24 plastid protein-coding transcripts of leaf tissue via RT-PCR and then conventional Sanger sequencing. However, the RNA editing status of whole-plastid transcripts in leaf and other distinct tissue types in moth orchids has not been addressed. To sensitively and extensively examine the plastid RNA editing status of moth orchid, RNA-Seq was used to investigate the editing status of whole-plastid transcripts from leaf and floral tissues by mapping the sequence reads to the corresponding cpDNA template. With the threshold of at least 5% C-to-U or U-to-C conversion events observed in sequence reads considered as RNA editing sites. In total, 137 edits with 126 C-to-U and 11 U-to-C conversions, including 93 newly discovered edits, were identified in plastid transcripts, representing an average of 0.09% of the nucleotides examined in moth orchid. Overall, 110 and 106 edits were present in leaf and floral tissues, respectively, with 79 edits in common. As well, 79 edits were involved in protein-coding transcripts, and the 58 nucleotide conversions caused the non-synonymous substitution. At least 32 edits showed significant (≧20%) differential editing between leaf and floral tissues. Finally, RNA editing in trnM is required for the formation of a standard clover-leaf structure. We identified 137 edits in plastid transcripts of moth orchid, the highest number reported so far in monocots. The consequence of RNA editing in protein-coding transcripts mainly cause the amino acid change and tend to increase the hydrophobicity as well as conservation among plant phylogeny. RNA editing occurred in non-protein-coding transcripts such as tRNA, introns and untranslated regulatory regions could affect the formation and stability

  13. Quantifying Genome Editing Outcomes at Endogenous Loci using SMRT Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Joseph; Punjya, Niraj; Sebastiano, Vittorio; Bao, Gang; Porteus, Matthew H

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Targeted genome editing with engineered nucleases has transformed the ability to introduce precise sequence modifications at almost any site within the genome. A major obstacle to probing the efficiency and consequences of genome editing is that no existing method enables the frequency of different editing events to be simultaneously measured across a cell population at any endogenous genomic locus. We have developed a novel method for quantifying individual genome editing outcomes at any site of interest using single molecule real time (SMRT) DNA sequencing. We show that this approach can be applied at various loci, using multiple engineered nuclease platforms including TALENs, RNA guided endonucleases (CRISPR/Cas9), and ZFNs, and in different cell lines to identify conditions and strategies in which the desired engineering outcome has occurred. This approach facilitates the evaluation of new gene editing technologies and permits sensitive quantification of editing outcomes in almost every experimental system used. PMID:24685129

  14. DESIGNING ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSE SYLLABUS FOR EDITING COURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieka Barathayomi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to design an English for specific purposes syllabus for Editing Course. This research used Research and Development method. This research consists of two main activities: 1 need analysis and 2 designing an English for specific purposes syllabus for editing course. The data for this research were collected through an open-ended questionnaire consisting of 7 items, and study of literature. The open-ended questionnaire was used to collect data about students’ understanding of Editing. The study of literature was used as supporting theories to design and develop Syllabus for Editing Course. The study showed that the syllabus of Editing Course need to be designed based on prerequisite knowledge and skills of an Editor, such as knowledge and skills in mechanical, content, and language editing.

  15. Data Profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Hladíková, Radka

    2010-01-01

    Title: Data Profiling Author: Radka Hladíková Department: Department of Software Engineering Supervisor: Ing. Vladimír Kyjonka Supervisor's e-mail address: Abstract: This thesis puts mind on problems with data quality and data profiling. This Work analyses and summarizes problems of data quality, data defects, process of data quality, data quality assessment and data profiling. The main topic is data profiling as a process of researching data available in existing...

  16. Video special effects editing in MPEG-2 compressed video

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando, WAC; Canagarajah, CN; Bull, David

    2000-01-01

    With the increase of digital technology in video production, several types of complex video special effects editing have begun to appear in video clips. In this paper we consider fade-out and fade-in special effects editing in MPEG-2 compressed video without full frame decompression and motion estimation. We estimated the DCT coefficients and use these coefficients together with the existing motion vectors to produce these special effects editing in compressed domain. Results show that both o...

  17. Adeno-associated virus inverted terminal repeats stimulate gene editing

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, ML

    2014-01-01

    Advancements in genome editing have relied on technologies to specifically damage DNA which, in turn, stimulates DNA repair including homologous recombination (HR). As off-target concerns complicate the therapeutic translation of site-specific DNA endonucleases, an alternative strategy to stimulate gene editing based on fragile DNA was investigated. To do this, an episomal gene-editing reporter was generated by a disruptive insertion of the adeno-associated virus (AAV) inverted terminal repea...

  18. Adaptation of A-to-I RNA editing in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing is hypothesized to facilitate adaptive evolution by expanding proteomic diversity through an epigenetic approach. However, it is challenging to provide evidences to support this hypothesis at the whole editome level. In this study, we systematically characterized 2,114 A-to-I RNA editing sites in female and male brains of D. melanogaster, and nearly half of these sites had events evolutionarily conserved across Drosophila species. We detected strong signatures of positive selection on the nonsynonymous editing sites in Drosophila brains, and the beneficial editing sites were significantly enriched in genes related to chemical and electrical neurotransmission. The signal of adaptation was even more pronounced for the editing sites located in X chromosome or for those commonly observed across Drosophila species. We identified a set of gene candidates (termed “PSEB” genes) that had nonsynonymous editing events favored by natural selection. We presented evidence that editing preferentially increased mutation sequence space of evolutionarily conserved genes, which supported the adaptive evolution hypothesis of editing. We found prevalent nonsynonymous editing sites that were favored by natural selection in female and male adults from five strains of D. melanogaster. We showed that temperature played a more important role than gender effect in shaping the editing levels, although the effect of temperature is relatively weaker compared to that of species effect. We also explored the relevant factors that shape the selective patterns of the global editomes. Altogether we demonstrated that abundant nonsynonymous editing sites in Drosophila brains were adaptive and maintained by natural selection during evolution. Our results shed new light on the evolutionary principles and functional consequences of RNA editing. PMID:28282384

  19. [CRISPR-Cas9 mediated genome editing in Caenorhabditis elegans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xi'nan; Zhou, Hengda; Xu, Suhong

    2017-10-25

    The development of genome editing techniques based on CRISPR (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas9 system has revolutionized biomedical researches. It can be utilized to edit genome sequence in almost any organisms including Caenorhabditis elegans, one of the most convenient and classic genetic model animals. The application of CRISPR-Cas9 mediated genome editing in C. elegans promotes the functional analysis of gene and proteins under many physiological conditions. In this mini-review, we summarized the development of CRISPR-Cas9-based genome editing in C. elegans.

  20. Adeno-associated virus inverted terminal repeats stimulate gene editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, M L

    2015-02-01

    Advancements in genome editing have relied on technologies to specifically damage DNA which, in turn, stimulates DNA repair including homologous recombination (HR). As off-target concerns complicate the therapeutic translation of site-specific DNA endonucleases, an alternative strategy to stimulate gene editing based on fragile DNA was investigated. To do this, an episomal gene-editing reporter was generated by a disruptive insertion of the adeno-associated virus (AAV) inverted terminal repeat (ITR) into the egfp gene. Compared with a non-structured DNA control sequence, the ITR induced DNA damage as evidenced by increased gamma-H2AX and Mre11 foci formation. As local DNA damage stimulates HR, ITR-mediated gene editing was investigated using DNA oligonucleotides as repair substrates. The AAV ITR stimulated gene editing >1000-fold in a replication-independent manner and was not biased by the polarity of the repair oligonucleotide. Analysis of additional human DNA sequences demonstrated stimulation of gene editing to varying degrees. In particular, inverted yet not direct, Alu repeats induced gene editing, suggesting a role for DNA structure in the repair event. Collectively, the results demonstrate that inverted DNA repeats stimulate gene editing via double-strand break repair in an episomal context and allude to efficient gene editing of the human chromosome using fragile DNA sequences.

  1. Functions and Regulation of RNA Editing by ADAR Deaminases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikura, Kazuko

    2010-01-01

    One type of RNA editing converts adenosines to inosines (A→I editing) in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) substrates. A→I RNA editing is mediated by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes. A→I RNA editing of protein-coding sequences of a limited number of mammalian genes results in recoding and subsequent alterations of their functions. However, A→I RNA editing most frequently targets repetitive RNA sequences located within introns and 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs). Although the biological significance of noncoding RNA editing remains largely unknown, several possibilities, including its role in the control of endogenous short interfering RNAs (esiRNAs), have been proposed. Furthermore, recent studies have revealed that the biogenesis and functions of certain microRNAs (miRNAs) are regulated by the editing of their precursors. Here, I review the recent findings that indicate new functions for A→I editing in the regulation of noncoding RNAs and for interactions between RNA editing and RNA interference mechanisms. PMID:20192758

  2. Targeted Genome Regulation and Editing in Plants

    KAUST Repository

    Piatek, Agnieszka

    2016-03-01

    The ability to precisely regulate gene expression patterns and to modify genome sequence in a site-specific manner holds much promise in determining gene function and linking genotype to phenotype. DNA-binding modules have been harnessed to generate customizable and programmable chimeric proteins capable of binding to site-specific DNA sequences and regulating the genome and epigenome. Modular DNA-binding domains from zinc fingers (ZFs) and transcriptional activator-like effectors (TALEs) are amenable to engineering to bind any DNA target sequence of interest. Deciphering the code of TALE repeat binding to DNA has helped to engineer customizable TALE proteins capable of binding to any sequence of interest. Therefore TALE repeats provide a rich resource for bioengineering applications. However, the TALE system is limited by the requirement to re-engineer one or two proteins for each new target sequence. Recently, the clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/ CRISPR associated 9 (Cas9) has been used as a versatile genome editing tool. This machinery has been also repurposed for targeted transcriptional regulation. Due to the facile engineering, simplicity and precision, the CRISPR/Cas9 system is poised to revolutionize the functional genomics studies across diverse eukaryotic species. In this dissertation I employed transcription activator-like effectors and CRISPR/Cas9 systems for targeted genome regulation and editing and my achievements include: 1) I deciphered and extended the DNA-binding code of Ralstonia TAL effectors providing new opportunities for bioengineering of customizable proteins; 2) I repurposed the CRISPR/Cas9 system for site-specific regulation of genes in plant genome; 3) I harnessed the power of CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing tool to study the function of the serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins.

  3. Special Edition: Environment in Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Morse

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available When we were invited by the editors of Sustainability to put together a special edition on “Environment in Sustainable Development” our first reaction was to question whether this was really needed. After all, the environment has long been regarded as a central plank in sustainability and there are countless articles and books published on an annual basis that explore the impact of our economic and social activities on our environment. Just what is it that a special edition can achieve? What new angles could we hope to provide? Our initial thinking was to link the special edition to a particular, almost unique, location in time rather than space. We are in the process of recovering, albeit stuttering, from the deepest economic crash experienced by the European and North American economies. The crash has brought some national economies to their knees and, if economic commentators are to be believed, almost destroyed the Euro. Recovery from that crash has been slow and it is arguable whether at the time of writing this has developed much momentum. There is still the skewed perception that prosperity equals economic growth and that economic growth can take place without real (sustainable development or by simply implementing austerity measures and surely without people’s participation. An analogy from National Parks worldwide is when conservation agencies try to enforce protection without local people’s support. All such attempts have either failed or resurrected only once people’s involvement was secured and guaranteed. The unidirectional austerity measures imposed mainly in the countries of southern Europe have destroyed social cohesion leaving deeply wounded societies, while at the same time have also put up for grabs important assets (including natural capital in each of these countries and therefore in jeopardy even their long term recovery.

  4. Test Review: Wechsler, D. (2014),"Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fifth Edition: Canadian 322 (WISC-V[superscript CDN])." Toronto, Ontario: Pearson Canada Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Damien C.; Kennedy, Kathleen E.; Aquilina, Alexandra M.

    2016-01-01

    The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fifth Edition: Canadian (WISC-V[superscript CDN]; Wechsler, 2014) is published by Pearson Canada Assessment. The WISC-V[superscript CDN] is a norm-referenced, individually administered intelligence battery that provides a comprehensive diagnostic profile of the cognitive strengths and weaknesses of…

  5. Emerging technologies planning guide, 1993 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    Information system technology enhancements during the next five years are expected to provide some of the most significant individual and organization work improvements ever made in the office environment. This guide is an aid to planning these technologies and assessing their roles in improving the effectiveness of Headquarters programs. Their implementation will cost-effectively support Departmental operations and the National Energy Strategy. At the hear of this process is an understanding of the relationship which exists between technology introduction and the planning, budgeting and acquisition process. The 1993 edition of this guide covers the 1993--1997 time frame.

  6. Genome editing: Bioethics shows the way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Carolyn P; Caplan, Arthur L

    2017-03-01

    When some scientists hear the word "bioethics," they break out in intellectual hives. They shouldn't. Good bioethics is about enabling science to move forward. Bioethics pushes scientists to acknowledge that they operate not within a vacuum but within a society in which diverse perspectives and values must be engaged. Bioethicists give voice to those divergent perspectives and provide a framework to facilitate informed and inclusive discussions that spur progress, rather than stall it. The field is needed to advance cutting-edge biomedical research in domains in which the benefits to be had are enormous, such as genome editing, but ethical concerns persist.

  7. Books in Action: Armed Services Editions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    EDGCUMB. Dan Sickles 1047 PINCKNECY, JOSEPHINE. Three O’Clock Dinner j-297 POE , EDGAR ALLAN . Selected Storiest .Abridged. t"Made" Book; selected...especially for an Armed Services Edition Appendix: A List of the ASE 65 767 POE , EDGAR ALLAN . Selected Storiest (Reprint) R-21 PORTER, KATHERINE ANNE. Selected...a n Q e n S r e1026 BoNNAMIY, FRANCIS. Th igI ed nQenSre 1299 BOSWORTHI, ALLAN R. Hang and Rattle 892 BoTKIN, B. A., editor. The Skyj sthe Limitt P-3

  8. Genome Editing Using Mammalian Haploid Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuro Horii

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Haploid cells are useful for studying gene functions because disruption of a single allele can cause loss-of-function phenotypes. Recent success in generating haploid embryonic stem cells (ESCs in mice, rats, and monkeys provides a new platform for simple genetic manipulation of the mammalian genome. Use of haploid ESCs enhances the genome-editing potential of the CRISPR/Cas system. For example, CRISPR/Cas was used in haploid ESCs to generate multiple knockouts and large deletions at high efficiency. In addition, genome-wide screening is facilitated by haploid cell lines containing gene knockout libraries.

  9. Celebrating minority professionals in forestry and natural resources conservation: proceedings of the symposium on the tenth anniversary of the 2 + 2 joint degree program in forestry and natural resources conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oghenekome U. Onokpise; Don L. Rockwood; Dreamal H. Worthen; Ted Willis

    2008-01-01

    The 22 papers in this symposium highlight the program and its contribution to increasing minority professionals in forestry and natural resources conservation. The tenth anniversary symposium brought together graduates of the program, current students and officials from the universities, the U.S. Forest Service, other agencies, and private industry. The theme of the...

  10. Steric antisense inhibition of AMPA receptor Q/R editing reveals tight coupling to intronic editing sites and splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Andrew C; Balik, Ales; Greger, Ingo H

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine-to-Inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is a post-transcriptional mechanism, evolved to diversify the transcriptome in metazoa. In addition to wide-spread editing in non-coding regions protein recoding by RNA editing allows for fine tuning of protein function. Functional consequences are only known for some editing sites and the combinatorial effect between multiple sites (functional epistasis) is currently unclear. Similarly, the interplay between RNA editing and splicing, which impacts on post-transcriptional gene regulation, has not been resolved. Here, we describe a versatile antisense approach, which will aid resolving these open questions. We have developed and characterized morpholino oligos targeting the most efficiently edited site--the AMPA receptor GluA2 Q/R site. We show that inhibition of editing closely correlates with intronic editing efficiency, which is linked to splicing efficiency. In addition to providing a versatile tool our data underscore the unique efficiency of a physiologically pivotal editing site.

  11. Dynamic 5-HT2C receptor editing in a mouse model of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriët Schellekens

    Full Text Available The central serotonergic signalling system has been shown to play an important role in appetite control and the regulation of food intake. Serotonin exerts its anorectic effects mainly through the 5-HT(1B, 5-HT(2C and 5-HT(6 receptors and these are therefore receiving increasing attention as principal pharmacotherapeutic targets for the treatment of obesity. The 5-HT(2C receptor has the distinctive ability to be modified by posttranscriptional RNA editing on 5 nucleotide positions (A, B, C, D, E, having an overall decreased receptor function. Recently, it has been shown that feeding behaviour and fat mass are altered when the 5-HT(2C receptor RNA is fully edited, suggesting a potential role for 5-HT(2C editing in obesity. The present studies investigate the expression of serotonin receptors involved in central regulation of food intake, appetite and energy expenditure, with particular focus on the level of 5-HT(2C receptor editing. Using a leptin-deficient mouse model of obesity (ob/ob, we show increased hypothalamic 5-HT(1A receptor expression as well as increased hippocampal 5-HT(1A, 5-HT(1B, and 5-HT(6 receptor mRNA expression in obese mice compared to lean control mice. An increase in full-length 5-HT(2C expression, depending on time of day, as well as differences in 5-HT(2C receptor editing were found, independent of changes in total 5-HT(2C receptor mRNA expression. This suggests that a dynamic regulation exists of the appetite-suppressing effects of the 5-HT(2C receptor in both the hypothalamus and the hippocampus in the ob/ob mice model of obesity. The differential 5-HT(1A, 5-HT(1B and 5-HT(6 receptor expression and altered 5-HT(2C receptor editing profile reported here is poised to have important consequences for the development of novel anti-obesity therapies.

  12. How Online Access Changed Amateur Video Editing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugster Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital technology has often been discussed in relation to how it changed either the production or the reception of audiovisual cultures. This paper will consider a combination of both as a crucial part in understanding strategies of inter- and transmedial amateur creativity. Based on an experimental ethnography of the online video subgenre/subculture “YouTubePoop,” the paper will elaborate on the connection between the individual experience and the creation of digital media. The loose collective of independent amateurs behind the YouTubePoop videos makes use of already existing audiovisual material ranging from television shows to videos of other YouTube users. The re-created remixes and mash-ups are characterized by their random selection of original material and their nonsensical humour. Hence, the rapid montage of this heterogeneous content is just as much part of the intensified aesthetic expressiveness as are the applied special effects available in the digital video editing software. Both aspects highlight the strong interdependence of the rapid accessibility of online content and digital technology and the new aesthetic expressions they are fostering. The paper will show how the experience and navigation of digital interfaces (editing software, media players, or homepages affect the design and practice of these video-remixes. This will open the discussion about intertextual strategies of media appropriation to an aesthetic and praxeological analysis of media interaction.

  13. Timeline editing of objects in video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shao-Ping; Zhang, Song-Hai; Wei, Jin; Hu, Shi-Min; Martin, Ralph R

    2013-07-01

    We present a video editing technique based on changing the timelines of individual objects in video, which leaves them in their original places but puts them at different times. This allows the production of object-level slow motion effects, fast motion effects, or even time reversal. This is more flexible than simply applying such effects to whole frames, as new relationships between objects can be created. As we restrict object interactions to the same spatial locations as in the original video, our approach can produce highquality results using only coarse matting of video objects. Coarse matting can be done efficiently using automatic video object segmentation, avoiding tedious manual matting. To design the output, the user interactively indicates the desired new life spans of objects, and may also change the overall running time of the video. Our method rearranges the timelines of objects in the video whilst applying appropriate object interaction constraints. We demonstrate that, while this editing technique is somewhat restrictive, it still allows many interesting results.

  14. High-quality real-time temporal segmentation tool for video editing software

    OpenAIRE

    Cuevas Rodríguez, Carlos; García Santos, Narciso

    2012-01-01

    The increasing use of video editing software has resulted in a necessity for faster and more efficient editing tools. Here, we propose a lightweight high-quality video indexing tool that is suitable for video editing software.

  15. WISC-IV Profiles Are Associated with Differences in Symptomatology and Outcome in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Nicholas S.; Bello, Danielle T.; Etcoff, Lewis M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The current study investigated the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) cluster profiles of children with ADHD to examine the association between IQ profiles and diagnostic frequency, symptomatology, and outcome in this population. Method: Hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted on 189 children with a…

  16. The Kamusi Project Edit Engine: A Tool for Collaborative Lexicography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Martin; Biersteker, Ann

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the design and implementation of the Kamusi Project Edit Engine, a Web-based software system uniquely suited to the needs of Swahili collaborative lexicography. Describes the edit engine, including organization of the lexicon and the mechanics by which participants use the system, discusses philosophical issues confronted in the design,…

  17. An Introduction to Music Therapy: Theory and Practice. Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William B.; Gfeller, Kate E.; Thaut, Michael H.

    2008-01-01

    "An Introduction to Music Therapy: Theory and Practice, Third Edition," provides a comprehensive overview of the practice of music therapy for the 21st century. It looks at where we have been, where we are today, and where we might be in the future. Combining sound pedagogy with recent research findings, this new edition has been updated and…

  18. The Copyright Primer for Librarians and Educators. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruwelheide, Janis H.

    This guide provides a concise overview of current copyright law and its interpretations, particularly for classroom educators, librarians, school media specialists, and their constituents. Building on the question-and-answer format introduced in the first edition, the second edition adds commentary on critical developments of the last eight years,…

  19. Putative impact of RNA editing on drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decher, Niels; Netter, Michael F; Streit, Anne K

    2013-01-01

    Virtually all organisms use RNA editing as a powerful post-transcriptional mechanism to recode genomic information and to increase functional protein diversity. The enzymatic editing of pre-mRNA by ADARs and CDARs is known to change the functional properties of neuronal receptors and ion channels regulating cellular excitability. However, RNA editing is also an important mechanism for genes expressed outside the brain. The fact that RNA editing breaks the 'one gene encodes one protein' hypothesis is daunting for scientists and a probable drawback for drug development, as scientists might search for drugs targeting the 'wrong' protein. This possible difficulty for drug discovery and development became more evident from recent publications, describing that RNA editing events have profound impact on the pharmacology of some common drug targets. These recent studies highlight that RNA editing can cause massive discrepancies between the in vitro and in vivo pharmacology. Here, we review the putative impact of RNA editing on drug discovery, as RNA editing has to be considered before using high-throughput screens, rational drug design or choosing the right model organism for target validation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. RNA editing in kinetoplastid parasites: what to do with U

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloof, P.; Benne, R.

    1997-01-01

    The editing of the mitochondrial RNAs of kinetoplastid protozoa is a bizarre form of transcript maturation that involves insertion and deletion of uridylate residues. Editing leads to the formation of translational initiation and termination codons, the correction of gene-encoded reading frame

  1. Introduction to Educational Administration: Standards, Theories, and Practice. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Douglas J.

    2009-01-01

    Organized around the ISLLC standards, this text introduces students to the concepts and theories of educational leadership. The new edition adds coverage of such topics as data usage, ethics, innovative hiring practices, and student discipline. Appearing in the second edition are chapter-ending sections called "Point-Counterpoint" which prompt…

  2. MeshLab: 3D triangular meshes processing and editing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cignoni, P.; Callieri, M.; Corsini, M.; Dellepiane, M.; Ganovelli, F.; Ranzuglia, G.

    2017-09-01

    MeshLab processes and edits 3D triangular meshes. It includes tools for editing, cleaning, healing, inspecting, rendering, texturing and converting meshes, and offers features for processing raw data produced by 3D digitization tools and devices and for preparing models for 3D printing.

  3. Towards the professionalisation of editing in South Africa | Law ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa, the professional status of editors remains largely undefined. In certain industries, such as the publishing industry, editing is regarded as a professional activity, requiring well-defined, high-level skills linked to particular qualifications and experience. In other sectors, editing is regarded as an activity that can ...

  4. CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongjin; Alptekin, Burcu; Budak, Hikmet

    2017-09-16

    Genome editing has been a long-term challenge for molecular biology research, particularly for plants possess complex genome. The recently discovered Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system is a versatile tool for genome editing which enables editing of multiple genes based on the guidance of small RNAs. Even though the efficiency of CRISPR/Cas9 system has been shown with several studies from diploid plants, its application remains a challenge for plants with polyploid and complex genome. Here, we applied CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system in wheat protoplast to conduct the targeted editing of stress-responsive transcription factor genes, wheat dehydration responsive element binding protein 2 (TaDREB2) and wheat ethylene responsive factor 3 (TaERF3). Targeted genome editing of TaDREB2 and TaERF3 was achieved with transient expression of small guide RNA and Cas9 protein in wheat protoplast.  The effectiveness of mutagenesis in wheat protoplast was confirmed with restriction enzyme digestion assay, T7 endonuclease assay, and sequencing. Furthermore, several off-target regions for designed sgRNAs were analyzed, and the specificity of genome editing was confirmed with amplicon sequencing. Overall results suggested that CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system can easily be established on wheat protoplast and it has a huge potentiality for targeted manipulation of wheat genome for crop improvement purposes.

  5. Dead links, vaporcuts, and creativity in fan edit replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Wille

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In my examination of a Star Wars prequel trilogy fan edit reportedly made by Topher Grace, I introduce the term vaporcut to describe fan edits with reputations that may generate critical discourse but that are not publicly released. I explore the ways some fan editors attempt to recreate intangible projects but inevitably produce variant works that reflect their own creative perspectives.

  6. Guide to VAX, CDC, and IBM 3090 Third Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsa, Zohreh [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    1987-05-01

    This guide was originally edited for the users of DUA0: [PARSA1] Accelerator Physics programs directory. In response to a large number of requests from a broader audience the previous edition is updated, and new sections on IBM 3090 and Network and Communications have been added. (This is a collection of notes and definitions from guides, reference manuals, and help files).

  7. Qualitative Data Analysis: A Methods Sourcebook. Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Matthew B.; Huberman, A. Michael; Saldana, Johnny

    2014-01-01

    The Third Edition of Miles & Huberman's classic research methods text is updated and streamlined by Johnny Saldaña, author of "The Coding Manual for Qualitative Researchers." Several of the data display strategies from previous editions are now presented in re-envisioned and reorganized formats to enhance reader accessibility and…

  8. Textual Challenges: A Brief Guide to Choosing Shakespearean Editions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Christine; Malcolmson, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    How should educators go about selecting appropriate editions of Shakespeare's plays for use in political science courses? Shakespeare is turning up on many politics syllabi, but, at times, the editions chosen seem to reflect primarily a concern for price or publisher reputation over pedagogical and scholarly considerations. This article offers an…

  9. Detecting Single-Nucleotide Substitutions Induced by Genome Editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaoka, Yuichiro; Chan, Amanda H; Conklin, Bruce R

    2016-08-01

    The detection of genome editing is critical in evaluating genome-editing tools or conditions, but it is not an easy task to detect genome-editing events-especially single-nucleotide substitutions-without a surrogate marker. Here we introduce a procedure that significantly contributes to the advancement of genome-editing technologies. It uses droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) and allele-specific hydrolysis probes to detect single-nucleotide substitutions generated by genome editing (via homology-directed repair, or HDR). HDR events that introduce substitutions using donor DNA are generally infrequent, even with genome-editing tools, and the outcome is only one base pair difference in 3 billion base pairs of the human genome. This task is particularly difficult in induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, in which editing events can be very rare. Therefore, the technological advances described here have implications for therapeutic genome editing and experimental approaches to disease modeling with iPS cells. © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  10. RNA editing in plants: Machinery and flexibility of site recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikanai, Toshiharu

    2015-09-01

    In plants, RNA editing is a process that deaminates specific cytidines (C) to uridines (U). PLS subfamily members of PPR proteins function in site recognition of the target C. In silico analysis has predicted the code used for PPR motif-nucleotide interaction, and the crystal structure of a protein-RNA complex supports this model. Despite progress in understanding the RNA-binding mechanism of PPR proteins, some of the flexibility of RNA recognition observed in trans-factors of RNA editing has not been fully explained. It is probably necessary to consider another unknown mechanism, and this consideration is related to the question of how PPR proteins have managed the creation of RNA editing sites during evolution. This question may be related to the mystery of the biological function of RNA editing in plants. MORF/RIP family members are required for RNA editing at multiple editing sites and are components of the RNA editosome in plants. The DYW domain has been a strong candidate for the C deaminase activity required for C-to-U conversion in RNA editing. So far, the activity of this enzyme has not been detected in recombinant DYW proteins, and several puzzling experimental results need to be explained to support the model. It is still difficult to resolve the entire image of the editosome in RNA editing in plants. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chloroplast Biogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Pedagogically Sound Approach to the Development of Editing Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Caridad; And Others

    A project followed the development of a curriculum of editing assignments used to bridge the gap between Miami-Dade Community College students' passive command of grammatical rules and active use of them in their writing. Assumptions and strategies used in developing the curriculum included: (1) the idea that editing must be seen as a part of the…

  12. Genome Editing Gene Therapy for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Akitsu

    2015-09-22

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe genetic disorder caused by loss of function of the dystrophin gene on the X chromosome. Gene augmentation of dystrophin is challenging due to the large size of the dystrophin cDNA. Emerging genome editing technologies, such as TALEN and CRISPR-Cas9 systems, open a new erain the restoration of functional dystrophin and are a hallmark of bona fide gene therapy. In this review, we summarize current genome editing approaches, properties of target cell types for ex vivo gene therapy, and perspectives of in vivo gene therapy including genome editing in human zygotes. Although technical challenges, such as efficacy, accuracy, and delivery of the genome editing components, remain to be further improved, yet genome editing technologies offer a new avenue for the gene therapy of DMD.

  13. THE TEXT OF CAXTON'S SECOND EDITION OF THE CANTERBURY TALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordalejo Bárbara

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes recent research on the textual relationship between the first and second editions of the Canterbury Tales printed in England by William Caxton and it also explores the textual affiliations of the manuscript source for the corrections in the second edition. Using both computerised and manual methods the variant readings between the first and second editions of the Tales are isolated. Examples of the textual affiliations of the manuscript source of Caxton's second edition are analysed. This article concludes that the manuscript source for the corrections introduced in Caxton's second edition of the Tales was of the same quality as tlie best extant manuscripts and that its readings can help our understanding of the textual tradition and can clarify the text for editors of the Tales.

  14. Genome editing: intellectual property and product development in plant biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinkel, Helga; Schillberg, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Genome editing is a revolutionary technology in molecular biology. While scientists are fascinated with the unlimited possibilities provided by directed and controlled changes in DNA in eukaryotes and have eagerly adopted such tools for their own experiments, an understanding of the intellectual property (IP) implications involved in bringing genome editing-derived products to market is often lacking. Due to the ingenuity of genome editing, the time between new product conception and its actual existence can be relatively short; therefore knowledge about IP of the various genome editing methods is relevant. This point must be regarded in a national framework as patents are instituted nationally. Therefore, when designing scientific work that could lead to a product, it is worthwhile to consider the different methods used for genome editing not only for their scientific merits but also for their compatibility with a speedy and reliable launch into the desired market.

  15. Book review: Birds of Prey: Health & Disease, Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Glenn H.

    2009-01-01

    Even though this book is billed as the third edition it is, in the words of Patrick T. Redig, author of its Foreword, ‘‘a seriously reinvented book.’’ Originally published in 1978 under the title of Veterinary Aspects of Captive Birds of Prey, this new edition, with its new title, could stand alone and not have been tagged with the ‘‘third edition.’’ Much has changed in the world of avian medicine in the 30 yr since the publishing of the original tome, and this new volume brings the latest information on raptor medicine to the reader.Review info: Birds of Prey: Health & Disease, Third Edition. Edited by John E. Cooper. Blackwell Sciences, Ltd., Oxford, UK. 2002. 345 pp. ISBN 978-0-63205-115-1.

  16. The ethics of creating genetically modified children using genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Tetsuya

    2017-12-01

    To review the recent ethical, legal, and social issues surrounding human reproduction involving germline genome editing. Genome editing techniques, such as CRISPR/Cas9, have facilitated genetic modification in human embryos. The most likely purpose of germline genome editing is the prevention of serious genetic disease in offspring. However, complex issues still remain, including irremediable risks to fetuses and future generations, the role of women, the availability of alternatives, long-term follow-up, health insurance coverage, misuse for human enhancement, and the potential effects on adoption. Further discussions, a broad consensus, and appropriate regulations are required before human germline genome editing is introduced into the global society. Before germline genome editing is used for disease prevention, a broad consensus must be formed by carefully discussing its ethical, legal, and social issues.

  17. Genome editing in pluripotent stem cells: research and therapeutic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deleidi, Michela, E-mail: michela.deleidi@dzne.de [German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) Tübingen within the Helmholtz Association, Tübingen (Germany); Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen (Germany); Yu, Cong [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, New York (United States)

    2016-05-06

    Recent progress in human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) and genome editing technologies has opened up new avenues for the investigation of human biology in health and disease as well as the development of therapeutic applications. Gene editing approaches with programmable nucleases have been successfully established in hPSCs and applied to study gene function, develop novel animal models and perform genetic and chemical screens. Several studies now show the successful editing of disease-linked alleles in somatic and patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) as well as in animal models. Importantly, initial clinical trials have shown the safety of programmable nucleases for ex vivo somatic gene therapy. In this context, the unlimited proliferation potential and the pluripotent properties of iPSCs may offer advantages for gene targeting approaches. However, many technical and safety issues still need to be addressed before genome-edited iPSCs are translated into the clinical setting. Here, we provide an overview of the available genome editing systems and discuss opportunities and perspectives for their application in basic research and clinical practice, with a particular focus on hPSC based research and gene therapy approaches. Finally, we discuss recent research on human germline genome editing and its social and ethical implications. - Highlights: • Programmable nucleases have proven efficient and specific for genome editing in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). • Genome edited hPSCs can be employed to study gene function in health and disease as well as drug and chemical screens. • Genome edited hPSCs hold great promise for ex vivo gene therapy approaches. • Technical and safety issues should be first addressed to advance the clinical use of gene-edited hPSCs.

  18. Commercial and Industrial Wiring. Fourth Edition. Teacher Edition [and] Student Guide [and] Student Workbook 1 [and] Student Workbook 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

    Commercial and Industrial Wiring, third in a series of three wiring publications, includes the additional technical knowledge and applications required for job entry in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. Instructional materials include a teacher edition, student guide, and two student workbooks. The teacher edition begins with…

  19. Basic Wiring. Fourth Edition. Teacher Edition [and] Student Guide [and] Student Workbook 1 [and] Student Workbook 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary; Blasingame, Don

    Basic Wiring, first in a series of three wiring publications, serves as the foundation for students enrolled in a wiring program. It is a prerequisite to Commercial and Industrial Wiring or Residential Wiring. Instructional materials include a teacher edition, student guide, and two student workbooks. The teacher edition begins with introductory…

  20. NEW APPROACHES IN TEXTUAL EDITING. A SELECTION OF ELECTRONIC EDITIONS UNDER ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel De la Cruz

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, we make an approach to the world of digital editions available in electronic format. Using as a starting point Professor González Fernández-Corugedo's classification of some of the best web pages related to the topic (available at http://www.uniovi.es/HELL/Hyptxed.html we have examined the design and contents of some sites that deal with texts mainly in Old and Middle English. The readers are offered an outline of what they are expected to find in every page, highlighting their main virtues and shortcomings. As a result of the analysis of al1 these pages we are ready to propose certain steps necessary in the elaboration of a 'good' electronic edition.

  1. National solar energy education directory. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corcoleotes, G; Cronin, S; Kramer, K; O& #x27; Connor, K

    1980-01-01

    The information contained in this directory is derived from responses to a national survey of educational institutions and organizations involved in solar energy educational activities beyond the secondary school level. Phone calls and follow-up mail requests were used to gather additional information when necessary. Every survey instrument was read, coded, and edited before entry into the data base from which this directory was produced. The Directory is organized alphabetically by state. Institutions and organizations within each state are categorized according to type (Colleges and Universities, Junior/Community Colleges, Vocational/Technical Schools, and Other Educational Institutions and Organizations) and listed alphabetically within these categories. Within each institutional listing the amount of information provided will vary according to the completeness of the survey response received from that institution. (MHR)

  2. The Effects of Nuclear Weapons. Third edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasstone, S; Dolan, P J

    1977-01-01

    Since the last edition of ''The Effects of Nuclear Weapons'' in 1962 much new information has become available concerning nuclear weapon effects. This has come in part from the series of atmospheric tests, including several at very high altitudes, conducted in the Pacific Ocean area in 1962. In addition, laboratory studies, theoretical calculations, and computer simulations have provided a better understanding of the various effects. A new chapter has been added on the electromagnetic pulse. The chapter titles are as follows: general principles of nuclear explosions; descriptions of nuclear explosions; air blast phenomena in air and surface bursts; air blast loading; structural damage from air blast; shock effects of surface and subsurface bursts; thermal radiation and its effects; initial nuclear radiation; residual nuclear radiation and fallout; radio and radar effects; the electromagnetic pulse and its effects; and biological effects. (LTN)

  3. Post-editing through Speech Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mesa-Lao, Bartolomé

    -input method for smartphones. On another front, given the significant improvements in Machine Translation (MT) quality and the increasing demand for translations, post-editing of MT is becoming a popular practice in the translation industry, since it has been shown to allow for larger volumes of translations...... computer-aided translation workbenches in the market (i.e. MemoQ) together with one of the most well-known ASR packages (i.e. Dragon Naturally Speaking from Nuance). Two data correction modes will be considered: a) keyboard vs. b) keyboard and speech combined. These two different ways of verifying...... and correcting raw MT output will be examined making comparisons in terms of: i) overall time to complete the task, ii) final quality of the target text, and iii) user satisfaction....

  4. Flatland an edition with notes and commentary

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Edwin A; Banchoff, Thomas F

    2010-01-01

    Flatland, Edwin Abbott Abbott's story of a two-dimensional universe, as told by one of its inhabitants who is introduced to the mysteries of three-dimensional space, has enjoyed an enduring popularity from the time of its publication in 1884. This fully annotated edition enables the modern-day reader to understand and appreciate the many "dimensions" of this classic satire. Mathematical notes and illustrations enhance the usefulness of Flatland as an elementary introduction to higher-dimensional geometry. Historical notes show connections to late-Victorian England and to classical Greece. Citations from Abbott's other writings as well as the works of Plato and Aristotle serve to interpret the text. Commentary on language and literary style includes numerous definitions of obscure words. An appendix gives a comprehensive account of the life and work of Flatland's remarkable author.

  5. Observing Optional Number in DDC Edition 23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Rotmianto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dewey Decimal Classification is a most popular classification system in the world because of its completeness and most up-to-date. There are many optional number in this classification system, although it rarely to be discussed even it is important to known well about that optional number, especially  for  a  librarian  as  classifier.  This  paper  is  a  literature  study  about  Dewey  Decimal Classification  Edition  23,  to  describe  about  optional  numbers,  particularly  the  number  in relationship with Indonesia’s subject and discipline. This paper is to avoid misunderstanding in interpreted about optional number among librarians, especially for who that does not understand well about optional numbers.

  6. WYLBUR reference manual. [For interactive text editing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupp, R.F.; Messina, P.C.; Peavler, J.M.; Schustack, S.; Starai, T.

    1977-04-01

    WYLBUR is a system for manipulating various kinds of text, such as computer programs, manuscripts, letters, forms, articles, or reports. Its on-line interactive text-editing capabilities allow the user to create, change, and correct text, and to search and display it. WYLBUR also has facilities for job submission and retrieval from remote terminals that make it possible for a user to inquire about the status of any job in the system, cancel jobs that are executing or awaiting execution, reroute output, raise job priority, or get information on the backlog of batch jobs. WYLBUR also has excellent recovery capabilities and a fast response time. This manual describes the WYLBUR version currently used at ANL. It is intended primarily as a reference manual; thus, examples of WYLBUR commands are kept to a minimum. (RWR)

  7. THE TENTH DATA RELEASE OF THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY: FIRST SPECTROSCOPIC DATA FROM THE SDSS-III APACHE POINT OBSERVATORY GALACTIC EVOLUTION EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Christopher P.; Anderton, Timothy [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Alexandroff, Rachael [Center for Astrophysical Sciences, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Allende Prieto, Carlos [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), C/Vía Láctea, s/n, E-38200, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Anders, Friedrich [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Anderson, Scott F.; Bhardwaj, Vaishali [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Andrews, Brett H. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Aubourg, Éric; Bautista, Julian E. [APC, University of Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, F-75205 Paris (France); Bailey, Stephen; Beutler, Florian [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bastien, Fabienne A.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Bird, Jonathan C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, VU Station 1807, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Beers, Timothy C. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Beifiori, Alessandra [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstraße, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bender, Chad F. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Bizyaev, Dmitry [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Blake, Cullen H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 219 S. 33rd St., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); and others

    2014-04-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) has been in operation since 2000 April. This paper presents the Tenth Public Data Release (DR10) from its current incarnation, SDSS-III. This data release includes the first spectroscopic data from the Apache Point Observatory Galaxy Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), along with spectroscopic data from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) taken through 2012 July. The APOGEE instrument is a near-infrared R ∼ 22,500 300 fiber spectrograph covering 1.514-1.696 μm. The APOGEE survey is studying the chemical abundances and radial velocities of roughly 100,000 red giant star candidates in the bulge, bar, disk, and halo of the Milky Way. DR10 includes 178,397 spectra of 57,454 stars, each typically observed three or more times, from APOGEE. Derived quantities from these spectra (radial velocities, effective temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities) are also included. DR10 also roughly doubles the number of BOSS spectra over those included in the Ninth Data Release. DR10 includes a total of 1,507,954 BOSS spectra comprising 927,844 galaxy spectra, 182,009 quasar spectra, and 159,327 stellar spectra selected over 6373.2 deg{sup 2}.

  8. Energy spectrum based calculation of the half and the tenth value layers for brachytherapy sources using a semiempirical parametrized mass attenuation coefficient formulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Ning J

    2008-06-01

    As different types of radionuclides (e.g., 131Cs source) are introduced for clinical use in brachytherapy, the question is raised regarding whether a relatively simple method exists for the derivation of values of the half value layer (HVL) or the tenth value layer (TVL). For the radionuclide that has been clinically used for years, such as 125I and 103Pd, the sources have been manufactured and marketed by several vendors with different designs and structures. Because of the nature of emission of low energy photons for these radionuclides, energy spectra of the sources are very dependent on their individual designs. Though values of the HVL or the TVL in certain commonly used shielding materials are relatively small for these low energy photon emitting sources, the question remains how the variations in energy spectra affect the HVL (or TVL) values and whether these values can be calculated with a relatively simple method. A more fundamental question is whether a method can be established to derive the HVL (TVL) values for any brachytherapy sources and for different materials in a relatively straightforward fashion. This study was undertaken to answer these questions. Based on energy spectra, a well established semiempirical mass attenuation coefficient computing scheme was utilized to derive the HVL (TVL) values of different materials for different types of brachytherapy sources. The method presented in this study may be useful to estimate HVL (TVL) values of different materials for brachytherapy sources of different designs and containing different radionuclides.

  9. Improving Speaking Skill Of The Tenth Grade Students Of SMK 17 Agustus 1945 Muncar Through Direct Practice With The Native Speaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Nor Shodiq

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Classroom Action Research (CAR aims to invent teaching and learning strategy which fits the learners’ style and to solve the teachers’ problem in finding the appropriate technique in teaching. The researcher took SMK 17 Agustus 1945 Muncar Banyuwangi on 35 students of the tenth grade of AK 1 and was conducted in one cycle with the phases of planning, implementing, observing, and reflecting. The researcher found that the implementation of Direct Practice with the Native Speaker could improve the students’ speaking skill. It was proved by the result of the students’ speaking score. The average classical score in preliminary study was 50. 00. They had improvement from the third meeting but did not all of students meet the criteria of success and were still below the KKM. In the fourth meeting was found that all of the students could reach criteria of success and KKM score as 70. 00. Direct Practice with the Native Speaker creates the teaching and learning process fun, and good atmosphere of competition among the students.

  10. High-Content Analysis of CRISPR-Cas9 Gene-Edited Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Carlson-Stevermer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing of human cells and tissues holds much promise to advance medicine and biology, but standard editing methods require weeks to months of reagent preparation and selection where much or all of the initial edited samples are destroyed during analysis. ArrayEdit, a simple approach utilizing surface-modified multiwell plates containing one-pot transcribed single-guide RNAs, separates thousands of edited cell populations for automated, live, high-content imaging and analysis. The approach lowers the time and cost of gene editing and produces edited human embryonic stem cells at high efficiencies. Edited genes can be expressed in both pluripotent stem cells and differentiated cells. This preclinical platform adds important capabilities to observe editing and selection in situ within complex structures generated by human cells, ultimately enabling optical and other molecular perturbations in the editing workflow that could refine the specificity and versatility of gene editing.

  11. Evolutionary analysis reveals regulatory and functional landscape of coding and non-coding RNA editing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Dionna

    2017-01-01

    Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing diversifies the transcriptome and promotes functional diversity, particularly in the brain. A plethora of editing sites has been recently identified; however, how they are selected and regulated and which are functionally important are largely unknown. Here we show the cis-regulation and stepwise selection of RNA editing during Drosophila evolution and pinpoint a large number of functional editing sites. We found that the establishment of editing and variation in editing levels across Drosophila species are largely explained and predicted by cis-regulatory elements. Furthermore, editing events that arose early in the species tree tend to be more highly edited in clusters and enriched in slowly-evolved neuronal genes, thus suggesting that the main role of RNA editing is for fine-tuning neurological functions. While nonsynonymous editing events have been long recognized as playing a functional role, in addition to nonsynonymous editing sites, a large fraction of 3’UTR editing sites is evolutionarily constrained, highly edited, and thus likely functional. We find that these 3’UTR editing events can alter mRNA stability and affect miRNA binding and thus highlight the functional roles of noncoding RNA editing. Our work, through evolutionary analyses of RNA editing in Drosophila, uncovers novel insights of RNA editing regulation as well as its functions in both coding and non-coding regions. PMID:28166241

  12. Current status and perspectives of genome editing technology for microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Seungjib; Lim, Jong-Min; Lee, Hyung-Gwan; Shin, Sung-Eun; Kang, Nam Kyu; Park, Youn-Il; Oh, Hee-Mock; Jeong, Won-Joong; Jeong, Byeong-Ryool; Chang, Yong Keun

    2017-01-01

    Genome editing techniques are critical for manipulating genes not only to investigate their functions in biology but also to improve traits for genetic engineering in biotechnology. Genome editing has been greatly facilitated by engineered nucleases, dubbed molecular scissors, including zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN), TAL effector endonuclease (TALEN) and clustered regularly interspaced palindromic sequences (CRISPR)/Cas9. In particular, CRISPR/Cas9 has revolutionized genome editing fields with its simplicity, efficiency and accuracy compared to previous nucleases. CRISPR/Cas9-induced genome editing is being used in numerous organisms including microalgae. Microalgae have been subjected to extensive genetic and biological engineering due to their great potential as sustainable biofuel and chemical feedstocks. However, progress in microalgal engineering is slow mainly due to a lack of a proper transformation toolbox, and the same problem also applies to genome editing techniques. Given these problems, there are a few reports on successful genome editing in microalgae. It is, thus, time to consider the problems and solutions of genome editing in microalgae as well as further applications of this exciting technology for other scientific and engineering purposes.

  13. The clinical applications of genome editing in HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cathy X.

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has long been at the forefront of the development of gene- and cell-based therapies. Although conventional gene therapy approaches typically involve the addition of anti-HIV genes to cells using semirandomly integrating viral vectors, newer genome editing technologies based on engineered nucleases are now allowing more precise genetic manipulations. The possible outcomes of genome editing include gene disruption, which has been most notably applied to the CCR5 coreceptor gene, or the introduction of small mutations or larger whole gene cassette insertions at a targeted locus. Disruption of CCR5 using zinc finger nucleases was the first-in-human application of genome editing and remains the most clinically advanced platform, with 7 completed or ongoing clinical trials in T cells and hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). Here we review the laboratory and clinical findings of CCR5 editing in T cells and HSPCs for HIV therapy and summarize other promising genome editing approaches for future clinical development. In particular, recent advances in the delivery of genome editing reagents and the demonstration of highly efficient homology-directed editing in both T cells and HSPCs are expected to spur the development of even more sophisticated applications of this technology for HIV therapy. PMID:27053530

  14. The clinical applications of genome editing in HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cathy X; Cannon, Paula M

    2016-05-26

    HIV/AIDS has long been at the forefront of the development of gene- and cell-based therapies. Although conventional gene therapy approaches typically involve the addition of anti-HIV genes to cells using semirandomly integrating viral vectors, newer genome editing technologies based on engineered nucleases are now allowing more precise genetic manipulations. The possible outcomes of genome editing include gene disruption, which has been most notably applied to the CCR5 coreceptor gene, or the introduction of small mutations or larger whole gene cassette insertions at a targeted locus. Disruption of CCR5 using zinc finger nucleases was the first-in-human application of genome editing and remains the most clinically advanced platform, with 7 completed or ongoing clinical trials in T cells and hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). Here we review the laboratory and clinical findings of CCR5 editing in T cells and HSPCs for HIV therapy and summarize other promising genome editing approaches for future clinical development. In particular, recent advances in the delivery of genome editing reagents and the demonstration of highly efficient homology-directed editing in both T cells and HSPCs are expected to spur the development of even more sophisticated applications of this technology for HIV therapy. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  15. Editing Niels W. Gade’s Cantata Comala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertinger, Axel Teich

    2016-01-01

    The attempt to represent final authorial intentions in some form is still a common principle in Scandinavian music editions, despite the fact that similar principles have long been criticized in the field of textual criticism. The article points out some of the general problems of such concepts......, including the divergent forces of authority and finality. The recent difficulties of editing Niels Wilhelm Gade’s cantata Comala under the Gade Edition’s Fassung letzter Hand perspective illustrate these problems. The article suggests that aspects such as reception history or the composer’s authority alone...... may be better points of departure for future editions than concepts focusing on temporality....

  16. The Star Wars franchise, fan edits, and Lucasfilm [symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forrest Phillips

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Fan edits assert that fan authority is on par with that of a work's original creator; this authority is generated not only through the argument, but through the structure of the text itself. Fan edits adhere to classical filmmaking techniques, creating coherent plots and editing for continuity. These recut texts are emblematic of current ownership debates; they are the read/write culture brought to fandom. The Star Wars series of films are among the most frequently recut texts and are my focus here.

  17. Military display market: update to fourth comprehensive edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Byrd, James C.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    2009-05-01

    The military display market is analyzed in terms of all fully electronic and many electro-mechanical displays used on combat platforms across all DOD Services. The military market for displays is defined by parameters such as active area, bezel-to-bezel measurement and technology. Other characteristics such as luminance, contrast ratio, gray levels, resolution, viewing angle, color, video capability, and night vision imaging system compatibility are noted. This study takes into account all displays that are either installed or funded for installation. In some cases, planned displays are also included. Display sizes having aggregate defense applications of 5,000 units or greater and having DOD applications across 10 or more platform fleets, are tabulated. The issue of size commonality is addressed where distribution of active area across platform fleets, individually, in groups of two through nine, and ten or more, is illustrated. Military displays are also analyzed by technology, where total quantities of such displays are broken out into CRT, LCD, AMLCD, EM, LED, Incandescent, Plasma and TFEL percentages. Custom, versus rugged commercial, versus commercial off-the-shelf designs are contrasted. High and low information content designs are identified. Displays for several high-profile military programs are discussed, to include both technical specifications and program history. This defense-wide study, an up-date to our paper delivered April 2006, documents 642 weapons system platforms comprising 1,194,199 displays in 1,217 sizes, of which 1,197 are direct-view and 20 are virtual-view. Defense display sizes range from 0.082 in..2 to 10,625 in.2 in 18 technologies, mostly flat panel display (FPD) technologies based on thin-film transistor active matrix liquid crystal displays (TFT AM LCD), with cathode ray tube (CRT) second and dropping rapidly. This paper provides an overview of the DOD display market, allowing government, academia and industry highlights of

  18. Analysis of Tenth-Year Students’ Eating Habits of a Technical High School in Pérez Zeledón Based on the Transversal Themes of the Program for Third Cycle of Costa Rica Basic General Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Pereira-Chaves

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to diagnose the knowledge tenth-grade students have about eating habits and nutrition. This analysis reviews the relation between good nutrition and the transversal axes of the program of study for the third cycle of Costa Rica’s general basic education. Considering that healthy eating should not escape from the educational field, the nutritional values and eating habits should be inculcated to students, so that they can develop optimally in life. A survey containing 13 items with open and closed multiple-choice answers was applied to 30 tenth-grade students, and 18 teachers from a Professional Technical High School located in Pérez Zeledón, San José, Costa Rica. The main results showed the poor nutritional culture of the surveyed students in this educational center, and the lack of commitment of the teachers to mainstream healthy eating habits in their classes.

  19. Biophysical Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and pregnancy High-risk pregnancy Biophysical profile About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  20. Profiling cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciro, Marco; Bracken, Adrian P; Helin, Kristian

    2003-01-01

    In the past couple of years, several very exciting studies have demonstrated the enormous power of gene-expression profiling for cancer classification and prediction of patient survival. In addition to promising a more accurate classification of cancer and therefore better treatment of patients......, gene-expression profiling can result in the identification of novel potential targets for cancer therapy and a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cancer....

  1. A determination of the oil bearing nature of the carbonate Devonian and Carboniferous deposits in the anticline portion of the southern Tatar anticline based on prospecting results from the Tenth Five Year Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donkov, P.V.; Fakhrullina, M.G.; Yunusova, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Results from prospecting in the Romashkin and Novo Elkhov fields during the Tenth Five Year Plan are examined. The level of analysis of the carbonate section is analyzed in the beds and fields. On the basis of the derived data, new oil and gas bearing formations are identified. The types of oil pools discovered are noted. The need for a comprehensive approach to geophysical field and geological studies to determine targets for oil pool exploration is demonstrated.

  2. [The research on the edition of Daquanbencao (Complete Collection of Materia Medica)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-xian

    2009-07-01

    Zhengleibencao (Classified Materia Medica) had been formed into several kinds of edition systems during its dissemination, among which there was the edition system of Daquanbencao (Complete Collection of Materia Medica). Daquanbencao was originally carved in the Jin dynasty, thereafter it was re-carved in the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties so as to form a series of editions such as the edition of Zhenyou in the second year of the Jin dynasty; the edition of the Zongwenshuyuan college in Dade renyan year of the Yuan dynasty; the WANG Qiu's carved edition of Shangyitang hall in the Ming dynasty; the carved edition of Jishanshuyuan, the Jishang mountain college in the Ming dynasty, the reprinted edition of PENG Duan-wu in the Ming dynasty, the supplementary edition of YANG Bi-da in the Qing dynasty;, and the carved edition of KE Feng-shi in the Qing dynasty. Among all the editions, Chongkanjingshizhengleidaquanbencao (Reprinted Classified Daquan Materia Medica from Historical Classics) was the representative one. As a representative of the above editions, the carved edition of WANG took the edition of the Zongwenshuyuan college of the Yuan dynasty as the original edition, but the images picture of materia medica adopted from the edition of Zhenghebencao (Materia Medica of the Zhenghe era).

  3. Reverse U-to-C editing exceeds C-to-U RNA editing in some ferns - a monilophyte-wide comparison of chloroplast and mitochondrial RNA editing suggests independent evolution of the two processes in both organelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knie, Nils; Grewe, Felix; Fischer, Simon; Knoop, Volker

    2016-06-21

    RNA editing by C-to-U conversions is nearly omnipresent in land plant chloroplasts and mitochondria, where it mainly serves to reconstitute conserved codon identities in the organelle mRNAs. Reverse U-to-C RNA editing in contrast appears to be restricted to hornworts, some lycophytes, and ferns (monilophytes). A well-resolved monilophyte phylogeny has recently emerged and now allows to trace the side-by-side evolution of both types of pyrimidine exchange editing in the two endosymbiotic organelles. Our study of RNA editing in four selected mitochondrial genes show a wide spectrum of divergent RNA editing frequencies including a dominance of U-to-C over the canonical C-to-U editing in some taxa like the order Schizaeales. We find that silent RNA editing leaving encoded amino acids unchanged is highly biased with more than ten-fold amounts of silent C-to-U over U-to-C edits. In full contrast to flowering plants, RNA editing frequencies are low in early-branching monilophyte lineages but increase in later emerging clades. Moreover, while editing rates in the two organelles are usually correlated, we observe uncoupled evolution of editing frequencies in fern mitochondria and chloroplasts. Most mitochondrial RNA editing sites are shared between the recently emerging fern orders whereas chloroplast editing sites are mostly clade-specific. Finally, we observe that chloroplast RNA editing appears to be completely absent in horsetails (Equisetales), the sister clade of all other monilophytes. C-to-U and U-to-C RNA editing in fern chloroplasts and mitochondria follow disinct evolutionary pathways that are surprisingly different from what has previously been found in flowering plants. The results call for careful differentiation of the two types of RNA editing in the two endosymbiotic organelles in comparative evolutionary studies.

  4. RADAR: a rigorously annotated database of A-to-I RNA editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, Gokul; Li, Jin Billy

    2014-01-01

    We present RADAR--a rigorously annotated database of A-to-I RNA editing (available at http://RNAedit.com). The identification of A-to-I RNA editing sites has been dramatically accelerated in the past few years by high-throughput RNA sequencing studies. RADAR includes a comprehensive collection of A-to-I RNA editing sites identified in humans (Homo sapiens), mice (Mus musculus) and flies (Drosophila melanogaster), together with extensive manually curated annotations for each editing site. RADAR also includes an expandable listing of tissue-specific editing levels for each editing site, which will facilitate the assignment of biological functions to specific editing sites.

  5. Applying 3D Dynamic Visualisation to (Palaeo) Geomorphic Reconstruction: Modelling a Tenth Century Jökulhlaup at Sólheimajökull Glacier, South Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Laura; Isaacs, John

    2014-05-01

    Jökulhlaup (glacial outburst floods) are caused by subglacial geothermal activity melting overlying ice, or by draining of ice-dammed lakes. They pose a recurring hazard along Iceland's south coast where volcano-glacial interactions create often unpredictable, high-magnitude floods. Gathering information about past floods is crucial for projecting findings to present day scenarios and developing future predictions for contemporary flood routes. Understanding the physical setting or surrounding environment is essential in palaeo-flood reconstruction as drainage routes are ultimately defined by local topography and changing ice cover. At Sólheimajökull glacier, which drains the southern portion of Mýrdalsjökull ice cap, field evidence has been collected of a Tenth Century flood, recorded in the Icelander's Landnámabók (Book of Settlements). It was an exceptional event in terms of generation, magnitude and geomorphic impact. Although now fragmented and piecemeal, many of its direct (and indirect) geomorphological and sedimentary markers are still relatively well preserved and have been identified, mapped and dated to unravel the sequence of events played out during this significant episode in the glacial history and complex regional flood chronology. VolcVis, an innovative, bespoke visualisation platform, is developed and applied for the first time in visualising volcanic jökulhlaup. The platform is created using the Microsoft XNA game development framework, which facilitates rapid game engine production by providing a set of tools utilising a managed runtime environment. VolcVis can render large amounts of data efficiently and still provide an extremely high level of interaction with the data being presented, including full freedom of motion. This enables synthesis and presentation of field results from Sólheimajökull in a novel way, creating an interactive, multi-perspective, three-dimensional (3D) prototype model. The platform combines Digital Elevation

  6. The universe, life, and intelligence (Sixth enlarged edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shklovskii, Iosif Samuilovich

    This classic work examines the possibility of the existence of life (including intelligent life) on other planetary systems. This enlarged edition includes essays on the search for extraterrestrial civilizations and the possibility of communication with intelligent beings on other planets.

  7. Towards social acceptance of plant breeding by genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Motoko; Ishii, Tetsuya

    2015-03-01

    Although genome-editing technologies facilitate efficient plant breeding without introducing a transgene, it is creating indistinct boundaries in the regulation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Rapid advances in plant breeding by genome-editing require the establishment of a new global policy for the new biotechnology, while filling the gap between process-based and product-based GMO regulations. In this Opinion article we review recent developments in producing major crops using genome-editing, and we propose a regulatory model that takes into account the various methodologies to achieve genetic modifications as well as the resulting types of mutation. Moreover, we discuss the future integration of genome-editing crops into society, specifically a possible response to the 'Right to Know' movement which demands labeling of food that contains genetically engineered ingredients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Interactive Translation Prediction versus Conventional Post-editing in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchis-Trilles, German; Alabau, Vicent; Buck, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a field trial in computer-assisted professional translation to compare Interactive Translation Prediction (ITP) against conventional post- editing (PE) of machine translation (MT) output. In contrast to the conventional PE set-up, where an MT system first produces a static translation...... hypothesis that is then edited by a professional translator (hence \\post-editing"), ITP constantly updates the translation hypothesis in real time in response to user edits. Our study involved nine professional translators and four reviewers working with the web-based CasMaCat workbench. Various new...... interactive features aiming to assist the post-editor were also tested in this trial. Our results show that even with little training, ITP can be as productive as conventional PE in terms of the total time required to produce the final translation. Moreover, in the ITP setting translators require fewer key...

  9. ERBE_S10N_WFOV_SF_Edition2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) S-10N (Nonscanner-only) Wide Field of View (WFOV) Shape Factor (SF) Radiant Flux and Albedo Edition 2 in Native Format

  10. Dynamic hyper-editing underlies temperature adaptation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchumenski, Ilana; Bartok, Osnat; Ashwal-Fluss, Reut; Pandey, Varun; Porath, Hagit T; Levanon, Erez Y; Kadener, Sebastian

    2017-07-01

    In Drosophila, A-to-I editing is prevalent in the brain, and mutations in the editing enzyme ADAR correlate with specific behavioral defects. Here we demonstrate a role for ADAR in behavioral temperature adaptation in Drosophila. Although there is a higher level of editing at lower temperatures, at 29°C more sites are edited. These sites are less evolutionarily conserved, more disperse, less likely to be involved in secondary structures, and more likely to be located in exons. Interestingly, hypomorph mutants for ADAR display a weaker transcriptional response to temperature changes than wild-type flies and a highly abnormal behavioral response upon temperature increase. In sum, our data shows that ADAR is essential for proper temperature adaptation, a key behavior trait that is essential for survival of flies in the wild. Moreover, our results suggest a more general role of ADAR in regulating RNA secondary structures in vivo.

  11. The emerging role of RNA editing in plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Joshua J. C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT All true metazoans modify their RNAs by converting specific adenosine residues to inosine. Because inosine binds to cytosine, it is a biological mimic for guanosine. This subtle change, termed RNA editing, can have diverse effects on various RNA-mediated cellular pathways, including RNA interference, innate immunity, retrotransposon defense and messenger RNA recoding. Because RNA editing can be regulated, it is an ideal tool for increasing genetic diversity, adaptation and environmental acclimation. This review will cover the following themes related to RNA editing: (1) how it is used to modify different cellular RNAs, (2) how frequently it is used by different organisms to recode mRNA, (3) how specific recoding events regulate protein function, (4) how it is used in adaptation and (5) emerging evidence that it can be used for acclimation. Organismal biologists with an interest in adaptation and acclimation, but with little knowledge of RNA editing, are the intended audience. PMID:26085659

  12. Dynamic hyper-editing underlies temperature adaptation in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwal-Fluss, Reut; Pandey, Varun; Levanon, Erez Y.; Kadener, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    In Drosophila, A-to-I editing is prevalent in the brain, and mutations in the editing enzyme ADAR correlate with specific behavioral defects. Here we demonstrate a role for ADAR in behavioral temperature adaptation in Drosophila. Although there is a higher level of editing at lower temperatures, at 29°C more sites are edited. These sites are less evolutionarily conserved, more disperse, less likely to be involved in secondary structures, and more likely to be located in exons. Interestingly, hypomorph mutants for ADAR display a weaker transcriptional response to temperature changes than wild-type flies and a highly abnormal behavioral response upon temperature increase. In sum, our data shows that ADAR is essential for proper temperature adaptation, a key behavior trait that is essential for survival of flies in the wild. Moreover, our results suggest a more general role of ADAR in regulating RNA secondary structures in vivo. PMID:28746393

  13. Advancing Crop Transformation in the Era of Genome Editing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant transformation has enabled fundamental insights into plant biology and revolutionized commercial agriculture. Unfortunately, for most crops, transformation and regeneration remain arduous even after more than thirty years of technological advances. Genome editing provides new opportunities to...

  14. A history of genome editing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, William G

    2017-12-16

    Genome editing is a form of highly precise genetic engineering which produces alterations to an organism's genome as small as a single base pair with no incidental or auxiliary modifications; this technique is crucial to the field of synthetic biology, which requires such precision in the installation of novel genetic circuits into host genomes. While a new methodology for most organisms, genome editing capabilities have been used in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for decades. In this review, I will present a brief history of genome editing in S. cerevisiae, discuss the current gold standard method of Cas9-mediated genome editing (CMGE), and speculate on future directions of the field. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Engineering the Delivery System for CRISPR-Based Genome Editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Zachary; Lee, Matthew; Li, Yamin; Xu, Qiaobing

    2018-01-02

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-CRISPR-associated protein (CRISPR-Cas) systems, found in nature as microbial adaptive immune systems, have been repurposed into an important tool in biological engineering and genome editing, providing a programmable platform for precision gene targeting. These tools have immense promise as therapeutics that could potentially correct disease-causing mutations. However, CRISPR-Cas gene editing components must be transported directly to the nucleus of targeted cells to exert a therapeutic effect. Thus, efficient methods of delivery will be critical to the success of therapeutic genome editing applications. Here, we review current strategies available for in vivo delivery of CRISPR-Cas gene editing components and outline challenges that need to be addressed before this powerful tool can be deployed in the clinic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Genome editing: a robust technology for human stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Arun Pandian; Song, Minjung; Ramakrishna, Suresh

    2017-09-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells comprise induced pluripotent and embryonic stem cells, which have tremendous potential for biological and therapeutic applications. The development of efficient technologies for the targeted genome alteration of stem cells in disease models is a prerequisite for utilizing stem cells to their full potential. Genome editing of stem cells is possible with the help of synthetic nucleases that facilitate site-specific modification of a gene of interest. Recent advances in genome editing techniques have improved the efficiency and speed of the development of stem cells for human disease models. Zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated system are powerful tools for editing DNA at specific loci. Here, we discuss recent technological advances in genome editing with site-specific nucleases in human stem cells.

  17. A simple in vitro RNA editing assay for chloroplast transcripts using fluorescent dideoxynucleotides: distinct types of sequence elements required for editing of ndh transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tadamasa; Yukawa, Yasushi; Wakasugi, Tatsuya; Yamada, Kyoji; Sugiura, Masahiro

    2006-09-01

    RNA editing is found in various transcripts from land plant chloroplasts. In tobacco chloroplasts, C-to-U conversion occurs at 36 specific sites including two sites identified in this work. Our RNA editing assay system using chloroplast extracts facilitated biochemical analyses of editing reactions but required mRNAs labeled with (32)P at specific sites. Here, we have improved the in vitro system using fluorescence-labeled chain terminators, ddGTP and ddATP, and have measured the editing activity at 19 sites in ndh transcripts. Editing activities varied from site to site. It has been reported that one editing site in ndhA mRNAs is present in spinach but absent in tobacco, but a corresponding editing capacity had been found in vivo in tobacco using biolistic transformation. We confirmed biochemically the existence of this activity in tobacco extracts. Using the non-radioactive assay, we examined sequences essential for editing within a 50-nt mRNA region encompassing an editing site. Editing of the ndhB-2 site requires a short sequence in front of the editing site, while that of the ndhF mRNA requires two separate regions, a sequence surrounding the editing site and a 5' distal sequence. These results suggest that distinct editing mechanisms are present in chloroplasts.

  18. Genetic Determinants of RNA Editing Levels of ADAR Targets in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerbol Z. Kurmangaliyev

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available RNA editing usually affects only a fraction of expressed transcripts and there is a vast amount of variation in editing levels of ADAR (adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific targets. Here we explore natural genetic variation affecting editing levels of particular sites in 81 natural strains of Drosophila melanogaster. The analysis of associations between editing levels and single-nucleotide polymorphisms allows us to map putative cis-regulatory regions affecting editing of 16 A-to-I editing sites (cis-RNA editing quantitative trait loci or cis-edQTLs, P < 10−8. The observed changes in editing levels are validated by independent molecular technique. All identified regulatory variants are located in close proximity of modulated editing sites. Moreover, colocalized editing sites are often regulated by same loci. Similar to expression and splicing QTL studies, the characterization of edQTLs will greatly expand our understanding of cis-regulatory evolution of gene expression.

  19. Genetic Determinants of RNA Editing Levels of ADAR Targets in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurmangaliyev, Yerbol Z; Ali, Sammi; Nuzhdin, Sergey V

    2015-12-12

    RNA editing usually affects only a fraction of expressed transcripts and there is a vast amount of variation in editing levels of ADAR (adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific) targets. Here we explore natural genetic variation affecting editing levels of particular sites in 81 natural strains of Drosophila melanogaster. The analysis of associations between editing levels and single-nucleotide polymorphisms allows us to map putative cis-regulatory regions affecting editing of 16 A-to-I editing sites (cis-RNA editing quantitative trait loci or cis-edQTLs, P editing levels are validated by independent molecular technique. All identified regulatory variants are located in close proximity of modulated editing sites. Moreover, colocalized editing sites are often regulated by same loci. Similar to expression and splicing QTL studies, the characterization of edQTLs will greatly expand our understanding of cis-regulatory evolution of gene expression. Copyright © 2016 Kurmangaliyev et al.

  20. Measurements of photon and neutron leakage from medical linear accelerators and Monte Carlo simulation of tenth value layers of concrete used for intensity modulated radiation therapy treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Adnan Khalaf

    The x ray leakage from the housing of a therapy x ray source is regulated to be measured from linacs operating at 4, 6, 10, 15, and 18 MV using a 100 cm3 ionization chamber and track-etch detectors. The leakage was measured at nine different positions over the rear wall using a 3 x 3 matrix with a 1 m separation between adjacent positions. In general, the leakage was less than the canonical value, but the exact value depends on energy, gantry angle, and measurement position. Leakage at 10 MV for some positions exceeded 0.1%. Electrons with energy greater than about 9 MeV have the ability to produce neutrons. Neutron leakage has been measured around the head of electron accelerators at a distance 1 m from the target at 0°, 46°, 90°, 135°, and 180° azimuthal angles; for electron energies of 9, 12, 15, 16, 18, and 20 MeV and 10, 15, and 18 MV x ray photon beam, using a neutron bubble detector of type BD-PND and using Track-Etch detectors. The highest neutron dose equivalent per unit electron dose was at 0° for all electron energies. The neutron leakage from photon beams was the highest between all the machines. Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivery consists of a summation of small beamlets having different weights that make up each field. A linear accelerator room designed exclusively for IMRT use would require different, probably lower, tenth value layers (TVL) for determining the required wall thicknesses for the primary barriers. The first, second, and third TVL of 60Co gamma rays and photons from 4, 6, 10, 15, and 18 MV x ray beams by concrete have been determined and modeled using a Monte Carlo technique (MCNP version 4C2) for cone beams of half-opening angles of 0°, 3°, 6°, 9°, 12°, and 14°.

  1. Tenth European Consensus Conference on Hyperbaric Medicine: recommendations for accepted and non-accepted clinical indications and practice of hyperbaric oxygen treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Daniel; Marroni, Alessandro; Kot, Jacek

    2017-03-01

    The tenth European Consensus Conference on Hyperbaric Medicine took place in April 2016, attended by a large delegation of experts from Europe and elsewhere. The focus of the meeting was the revision of the European Committee on Hyperbaric Medicine (ECHM) list of accepted indications for hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT), based on a thorough review of the best available research and evidence-based medicine (EBM). For this scope, the modified GRADE system for evidence analysis, together with the DELPHI system for consensus evaluation, were adopted. The indications for HBOT, including those promulgated by the ECHM previously, were analysed by selected experts, based on an extensive review of the literature and of the available EBM studies. The indications were divided as follows: Type 1, where HBOT is strongly indicated as a primary treatment method, as it is supported by sufficiently strong evidence; Type 2, where HBOT is suggested as it is supported by acceptable levels of evidence; Type 3, where HBOT can be considered as a possible/optional measure, but it is not yet supported by sufficiently strong evidence. For each type, three levels of evidence were considered: A, when the number of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is considered sufficient; B, when there are some RCTs in favour of the indication and there is ample expert consensus; C, when the conditions do not allow for proper RCTs but there is ample and international expert consensus. For the first time, the conference also issued 'negative' recommendations for those conditions where there is Type 1 evidence that HBOT is not indicated. The conference also gave consensus-agreed recommendations for the standard of practice of HBOT.

  2. Transmission Electron Microscopy and Diffractometry of Materials (Third Edition)

    OpenAIRE

    Fultz, Brent; Howe, James M.

    2007-01-01

    This book explains concepts of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffractometry (XRD) that are important for the characterization of materials. The third edition has been updated to cover important technical developments, including the remarkable recent improvement in resolution of the TEM. This edition is not substantially longer than the second, but all chapters have been updated and revised for clarity. A new chapter on high resolution STEM methods has been added. The book e...

  3. Towards a critical edition of Fibonacci’s Liber Abaci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Germano

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A group of research working at the University of Naples Federico II aim to achieve the goal to offer a modern scientific and widely accessible edition of Fibonacci’s treatise. With a linguistic-philological, an historical-mathematical and a computer approach it has pointed out the value and the need for a multidisciplinary research in order to achieve the goal of making this edition adequately available to the scientific community.

  4. CRISPR-Cas9: from Genome Editing to Cancer Research

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Si; Sun, Heng; Miao, Kai; Deng, Chu-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Cancer development is a multistep process triggered by innate and acquired mutations, which cause the functional abnormality and determine the initiation and progression of tumorigenesis. Gene editing is a widely used engineering tool for generating mutations that enhance tumorigenesis. The recent developed clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) system renews the genome editing approach into a more convenient and efficient way. By rapidly i...

  5. Genome Editing Gene Therapy for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Hotta, Akitsu

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe genetic disorder caused by loss of function of the dystrophin gene on the X chromosome. Gene augmentation of dystrophin is challenging due to the large size of the dystrophin cDNA. Emerging genome editing technologies, such as TALEN and CRISPR-Cas9 systems, open a new erain the restoration of functional dystrophin and are a hallmark of bona fide gene therapy. In this review, we summarize current genome editing approaches, properties of target cell...

  6. A to I editing in disease is not fake news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajad, Prajakta; Jantsch, Michael F; Keegan, Liam; O'Connell, Mary

    2017-09-02

    Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) are zinc-containing enzymes that deaminate adenosine bases to inosines within dsRNA regions in transcripts. In short, structured dsRNA hairpins individual adenosine bases may be targeted specifically and edited with up to one hundred percent efficiency, leading to the production of alternative protein variants. However, the majority of editing events occur within longer stretches of dsRNA formed by pairing of repetitive sequences. Here, many different adenosine bases are potential targets but editing efficiency is usually much lower. Recent work shows that ADAR-mediated RNA editing is also required to prevent aberrant activation of antiviral innate immune sensors that detect viral dsRNA in the cytoplasm. Missense mutations in the ADAR1 RNA editing enzyme cause a fatal auto-inflammatory disease, Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) in affected children. In addition RNA editing by ADARs has been observed to increase in many cancers and also can contribute to vascular disease. Thus the role of RNA editing in the progression of various diseases can no longer be ignored. The ability of ADARs to alter the sequence of RNAs has also been used to artificially target model RNAs in vitro and in cells for RNA editing. Potentially this approach may be used to repair genetic defects and to alter genetic information at the RNA level. In this review we focus on the role of ADARs in disease development and progression and on their potential use to artificially modify RNAs in a targeted manner.

  7. 3D Human Motion Editing and Synthesis: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Chen, Qiudi; Wang, Wanliang

    2014-01-01

    The ways to compute the kinematics and dynamic quantities of human bodies in motion have been studied in many biomedical papers. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of 3D human motion editing and synthesis techniques. Firstly, four types of methods for 3D human motion synthesis are introduced and compared. Secondly, motion capture data representation, motion editing, and motion synthesis are reviewed successively. Finally, future research directions are suggested. PMID:25045395

  8. Uncovering RNA Editing Sites in Long Non-Coding RNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardi, Ernesto; D’Erchia, Anna Maria; Gallo, Angela; Montalvo, Antonio; Pesole, Graziano

    2014-01-01

    RNA editing is an important co/post-transcriptional molecular process able to modify RNAs by nucleotide insertions/deletions or substitutions. In human, the most common RNA editing event involves the deamination of adenosine (A) into inosine (I) through the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA proteins. Although A-to-I editing can occur in both coding and non-coding RNAs, recent findings, based on RNA-seq experiments, have clearly demonstrated that a large fraction of RNA editing events alter non-coding RNAs sequences including untranslated regions of mRNAs, introns, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and low molecular weight RNAs (tRNA, miRNAs, and others). An accurate detection of A-to-I events occurring in non-coding RNAs is of utmost importance to clarify yet unknown functional roles of RNA editing in the context of gene expression regulation and maintenance of cell homeostasis. In the last few years, massive transcriptome sequencing has been employed to identify putative RNA editing changes at genome scale. Despite several efforts, the computational prediction of A-to-I sites in complete eukaryotic genomes is yet a challenging task. We have recently developed a software package, called REDItools, in order to simplify the detection of RNA editing events from deep sequencing data. In the present work, we show the potential of our tools in recovering A-to-I candidates from RNA-Seq experiments as well as guidelines to improve the RNA editing detection in non-coding RNAs, with specific attention to the lncRNAs. PMID:25538940

  9. [Advances in targeted replacement genome editing in plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honglin; Zhang, Congsheng; Liu, Changlin; Xie, Chuanxiao

    2017-10-25

    Targeted replacement genome editing refers to DNA modification and engineering technology that could induce and achieve mutations of targeted gene replacement or knockin at a target gene or DNA region. In this review, the principles, implementation methods, factors that influence efficiency and accuracy, and applications of gene replacement editing were summarized and discussed. It provides the reference for gene functional characterization and genetic improvements through gene replacement strategies in higher plant especially crops.

  10. Digital Edition of diplomatic sources: experiences, text models, priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Ansani

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Does really mean a progress in scientific methods and quality of charters editions the employ of digital standard such as XML or TEI? In last years confidence has improved - among young scholars above all -, but practice and projects are not adequate till now. In this survey are fixed some points about context and by adjusting the focus on the specificity of this kind of document, to put back in its right perspective the significance and the utility of digital editions.

  11. Uncovering RNA Editing Sites in Long Non-Coding RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardi, Ernesto; D'Erchia, Anna Maria; Gallo, Angela; Montalvo, Antonio; Pesole, Graziano

    2014-01-01

    RNA editing is an important co/post-transcriptional molecular process able to modify RNAs by nucleotide insertions/deletions or substitutions. In human, the most common RNA editing event involves the deamination of adenosine (A) into inosine (I) through the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA proteins. Although A-to-I editing can occur in both coding and non-coding RNAs, recent findings, based on RNA-seq experiments, have clearly demonstrated that a large fraction of RNA editing events alter non-coding RNAs sequences including untranslated regions of mRNAs, introns, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and low molecular weight RNAs (tRNA, miRNAs, and others). An accurate detection of A-to-I events occurring in non-coding RNAs is of utmost importance to clarify yet unknown functional roles of RNA editing in the context of gene expression regulation and maintenance of cell homeostasis. In the last few years, massive transcriptome sequencing has been employed to identify putative RNA editing changes at genome scale. Despite several efforts, the computational prediction of A-to-I sites in complete eukaryotic genomes is yet a challenging task. We have recently developed a software package, called REDItools, in order to simplify the detection of RNA editing events from deep sequencing data. In the present work, we show the potential of our tools in recovering A-to-I candidates from RNA-Seq experiments as well as guidelines to improve the RNA editing detection in non-coding RNAs, with specific attention to the lncRNAs.

  12. [The Washington summit: orange light for genome editing?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Bertrand

    2016-02-01

    The summit organised in early December 2015 considered in depth the various issues (technical, scientific, societal and ethical) raised by the prospect of genome editing using the extremely effective CRISPR system. Germline editing (for therapeutic or "enhancement" purposes) was stated to be irresponsible under current conditions, but the possibility that this could be considered in the future was not excluded; a mechanism for monitoring progress and possibly revising recommendations was proposed. © 2016 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  13. The Edit Distance as a Measure of Perceived Rhythmic Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Post

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The ‘edit distance’ (or ‘Levenshtein distance’ measure of distance between two data sets is defined as the minimum number of editing operations – insertions, deletions, and substitutions – that are required to transform one data set to the other (Orpen and Huron, 1992. This measure of distance has been applied frequently and successfully in music information retrieval, but rarely in predicting human perception of distance. In this study, we investigate the effectiveness of the edit distance as a predictor of perceived rhythmic dissimilarity under simple rhythmic alterations. Approaching rhythms as a set of pulses that are either onsets or silences, we study two types of alterations. The first experiment is designed to test the model’s accuracy for rhythms that are relatively similar; whether rhythmic variations with the same edit distance to a source rhythm are also perceived as relatively similar by human subjects. In addition, we observe whether the salience of an edit operation is affected by its metric placement in the rhythm. Instead of using a rhythm that regularly subdivides a 4/4 meter, our source rhythm is a syncopated 16-pulse rhythm, the son. Results show a high correlation between the predictions by the edit distance model and human similarity judgments (r = 0.87; a higher correlation than for the well-known generative theory of tonal music (r = 0.64. In the second experiment, we seek to assess the accuracy of the edit distance model in predicting relatively dissimilar rhythms. The stimuli used are random permutations of the son’s inter-onset intervals: 3-3-4-2-4. The results again indicate that the edit distance correlates well with the perceived rhythmic dissimilarity judgments of the subjects (r = 0.76. To gain insight in the relationships between the individual rhythms, the results are also presented by means of graphic phylogenetic trees.

  14. Comparative biomechanics: life's physical world (second edition)

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Why do you switch from walking to running at a specific speed? Why do tall trees rarely blow over in high winds? And why does a spore ejected into air at seventy miles per hour travel only a fraction of an inch? Comparative Biomechanics is the first and only textbook that takes a comprehensive look at the mechanical aspects of life--covering animals and plants, structure and movement, and solids and fluids. An ideal entry point into the ways living creatures interact with their immediate physical world, this revised and updated edition examines how the forms and activities of animals and plants reflect the materials available to nature, considers rules for fluid flow and structural design, and explores how organisms contend with environmental forces. Drawing on physics and mechanical engineering, Steven Vogel looks at how animals swim and fly, modes of terrestrial locomotion, organism responses to winds and water currents, circulatory and suspension-feeding systems, and the relationship between size and mech...

  15. The sun and space weather Second Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Hanslmeier, Arnold

    2007-01-01

    This second edition is a great enhancement of literature which will help the reader get deeper into the specific topics. There are new sections included such as space weather data sources and examples, new satellite missions, and the latest results. At the end a comprehensive index is given which will allow the reader to quickly find his topics of interest. The Sun and Space weather are two rapidly evolving topics. The importance of the Sun for the Earth, life on Earth, climate and weather processes was recognized long ago by the ancients. Now, for the first time there is a continuous surveillance of solar activity at nearly all wavelengths. These data can be used to improve our understanding of the complex Sun-Earth interaction. The first chapters of the book deal with the Sun as a star and its activity phenomena as well as its activity cycle in order to understand the complex physics of the Sun-Earth system. The reader will see that there are many phenomena but still no definite explanations and models exis...

  16. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Wright, Lynn L [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL

    2011-12-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the fourth edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also two appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, and discussions on sustainability. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  17. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL

    2010-12-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the third edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also four appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, and discussions on sustainability. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  18. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Lynn L [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Saulsbury, Bo [ORNL

    2006-09-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of the Biomass Program and the Office of Planning, Budget and Analysis in the Department of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use. This is the first edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book and is currently only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and BioOil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is about the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include measures of conversions, biomass characteristics and assumptions for selected tables and figures. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  19. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Lynn L [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Badger, Philip C [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the second edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also four appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, assumptions for selected tables and figures, and discussions on sustainability. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  20. Transportation energy data book: Edition 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.; Strang, S.G.

    1993-03-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 13 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes - highway, air, water, rail, pipeline - is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter 1 compares US transportation data with data from seven other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet automobiles, federal standards, fuel economies, and vehicle emission data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternatively-fueled vehicles. The last chapter, Chapter 6, covers each of the nonhighway modes: air, water, pipeline, and rail, respectively.

  1. Transportation energy data book: Edition 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.; Strang, S.G.

    1993-03-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 13 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes -- highway, air, water, rail, pipeline -- is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter 1 compares US transportation data with data from seven other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet automobiles, federal standards, fuel economies, and vehicle emission data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternatively-fueled vehicles. The last chapter, Chapter 6, covers each of the nonhighway modes: air, water, pipeline, and rail, respectively.

  2. Complete Spectral Editing in CPMAS NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X. L.; Zilm, K. W.

    Two simple schemes for complete spectral editing of 13C cross-polarization magic-angle-spinning (MAS) spectra of solids are proposed which can distinguish different kinds of carbon resonances, especially between 13CH and 13CH 2 signals. The two methods are based on the same pulse sequence, cross polarization combined with polarization inversion (PI). The CPPI technique at low to moderate MAS speeds makes use of the fact that not only are the cross-relaxation rates for all these groups different, but so to are the ratios of the heat capacities of the carbon and proton spins during the cross-relaxation for the 13CH and 13CH 2 groups. Signals for rigid 13CH and 13CH 2 groups change rapidly during the first tens of microseconds of PI and then vary at a much slower rate. At the turning point of the fast and the slow PI stages, the 13CH 2 signals become negative and have a relative intensity of one-third of that before polarization inversion, while the residual 13CH signal is nearly zero. At high MAS speeds on the order of 10 kHz, the dipolar Hamiltonian of 13CH behaves inhomogeneously, while that of other nuclei behaves homogeneously. As a result, only the 13CH signals have a large rotational echo at each integral number of rotor periods during the PI time. At both low and high MAS speeds, the distinction is straightforward.

  3. KEIMS utility manual (edition 1.0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeun Seung; Eom, Young Sam; Choi, Jin Yeup; Nam, Ji Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    Since 1987 when KAERI had started Yonggwang 3 and 4 NSSS system design project, KAERI has carried out so many NSSS system design projects such as Ulchin 3 and 4, Wolsong 2, 3 and 4 and Yonggwang 5 and 6 with fixed members that necessity of increasing productivity has been raised. To improve design work efficiency, it was considered that computerization of workflow which took so much man-power and business time. As result of investigation of design workflow to reduce man-power loss. It was suggested that DDA (Document Distribution for Agreement) workflow, design document stored in DDCD (Document Distribution and Control Center), IOC (Interoffice Correspondence) document, Letter, PM Memo should be preferentially computerized. On the basis of these computerization requirements, MEDIS (Modular Engineering Document Imaging System) was selected. Prototype had been implemented during 1995.9 -1995.12, and from 1996.1 KEIMS (KAERI Engineering Information Management System) has been operated. This MEDIS system utility manual was composed of several technical memos which has been described on customization of MEDIS fit to KEIMS, program development for system check, and information control of database. Further edition would be released as utility technical memo added. (Author) .new.

  4. Labview advanced programming techniques, second edition

    CERN Document Server

    Bitter, Rick; Nawrocki, Matt

    2006-01-01

    Whether seeking deeper knowledge of LabVIEW®'s capabilities or striving to build enhanced VIs, professionals know they will find everything they need in LabVIEW: Advanced Programming Techniques. Now accompanied by LabVIEW 2011, this classic second edition, focusing on LabVIEW 8.0, delves deeply into the classic features that continue to make LabVIEW one of the most popular and widely used graphical programming environments across the engineering community. The authors review the front panel controls, the Standard State Machine template, drivers, the instrument I/O assistant, error handling functions, hyperthreading, and Express VIs. It covers the introduction of the Shared Variables function in LabVIEW 8.0 and explores the LabVIEW project view. The chapter on ActiveX includes discussion of the Microsoft™ .NET® framework and new examples of programming in LabVIEW using .NET. Numerous illustrations and step-by-step explanations provide hands-on guidance. Reviewing LabVIEW 8.0 and accompanied by the latest s...

  5. Transportation energy data book: edition 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McFarlin, D.N. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 16 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter 1 compares U.S. transportation data with data from other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet vehicles, federal standards, fuel economies, and high- occupancy vehicle lane data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. Chapter 6 covers the major nonhighway modes: air, water, and rail. The last chapter, Chapter 7, presents data on environmental issues relating to transportation.

  6. Transportation energy data book: Edition 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    1995-05-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 15 is a statistical compendium. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. Purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter I compares US transportation data with data from other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet vehicles, federal standards, fuel economies, and high-occupancy vehicle lane data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. Chapter 6 covers the major nonhighway modes: air, water, and rail. The last chapter, Chapter 7, presents data environmental issues relating to transportation.

  7. Spatio-temporal regulation of ADAR editing during development in porcine neural tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venø, Morten Trillingsgaard; Bramsen, Jesper Bertram; Bendixen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Editing by ADAR enzymes is essential for mammalian life. Still, knowledge of the spatio-temporal editing patterns in mammals is limited. By use of 454 amplicon sequencing we examined the editing status of 12 regionally extracted mRNAs from porcine developing brain encompassing a total of 64...... putative ADAR editing sites. In total 24 brain tissues, dissected from up to five regions from embryonic gestation day 23, 42, 60, 80, 100 and 115, were examined for editing....

  8. Genome Editing: A New Approach to Human Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porteus, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The ability to manipulate the genome with precise spatial and nucleotide resolution (genome editing) has been a powerful research tool. In the past decade, the tools and expertise for using genome editing in human somatic cells and pluripotent cells have increased to such an extent that the approach is now being developed widely as a strategy to treat human disease. The fundamental process depends on creating a site-specific DNA double-strand break (DSB) in the genome and then allowing the cell's endogenous DSB repair machinery to fix the break such that precise nucleotide changes are made to the DNA sequence. With the development and discovery of several different nuclease platforms and increasing knowledge of the parameters affecting different genome editing outcomes, genome editing frequencies now reach therapeutic relevance for a wide variety of diseases. Moreover, there is a series of complementary approaches to assessing the safety and toxicity of any genome editing process, irrespective of the underlying nuclease used. Finally, the development of genome editing has raised the issue of whether it should be used to engineer the human germline. Although such an approach could clearly prevent the birth of people with devastating and destructive genetic diseases, questions remain about whether human society is morally responsible enough to use this tool.

  9. REDIdb: an upgraded bioinformatics resource for organellar RNA editing sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardi, Ernesto; Regina, Teresa M R; Verbitskiy, Daniil; Brennicke, Axel; Quagliariello, Carla

    2011-03-01

    RNA editing is a post-transcriptional molecular process whereby the information in a genetic message is modified from that in the corresponding DNA template by means of nucleotide substitutions, insertions and/or deletions. It occurs mostly in organelles by clade-specific diverse and unrelated biochemical mechanisms. RNA editing events have been annotated in primary databases as GenBank and at more sophisticated level in the specialized databases REDIdb, dbRES and EdRNA. At present, REDIdb is the only freely available database that focuses on the organellar RNA editing process and annotates each editing modification in its biological context. Here we present an updated and upgraded release of REDIdb with a web-interface refurbished with graphical and computational facilities that improve RNA editing investigations. Details of the REDIdb features and novelties are illustrated and compared to other RNA editing databases. REDIdb is freely queried at http://biologia.unical.it/py_script/REDIdb/. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimized guide RNA structure for genome editing via Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianyong; Lian, Wei; Jia, Yuning; Li, Lingyun; Huang, Zhong

    2017-11-07

    The genome editing tool Cas9-gRNA (guide RNA) has been successfully applied in different cell types and organisms with high efficiency. However, more efforts need to be made to enhance both efficiency and specificity. In the current study, we optimized the guide RNA structure of Streptococcus pyogenes CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)/Cas (CRISPR-associated) system to improve its genome editing efficiency. Comparing with the original functional structure of guide RNA, which is composed of crRNA and tracrRNA, the widely used chimeric gRNA has shorter crRNA and tracrRNA sequence. The deleted RNA sequence could form extra loop structure, which might enhance the stability of the guide RNA structure and subsequently the genome editing efficiency. Thus the genome editing efficiency of different forms of guide RNA was tested. And we found that the chimeric structure of gRNA with original full length of crRNA and tracrRNA showed higher genome editing efficiency than the conventional chimeric structure or other types of gRNA we tested. Therefore our data here uncovered the new type of gRNA structure with higher genome editing efficiency.

  11. Adenosine-to-Inosine RNA Editing in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatsiou, Aikaterini; Vlachogiannis, Nikolaos; Lunella, Federica Francesca; Sachse, Marco; Stellos, Konstantinos

    2017-09-26

    Adenosine deamination in transcriptome results in the formation of inosine, a process that is called A-to-I RNA editing. Adenosine deamination is one of the more than 140 described RNA modifications. A-to-I RNA editing is catalyzed by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes and is essential for life. Recent Advances: Accumulating evidence supports a critical role of RNA editing in all aspects of RNA metabolism, including mRNA stability, splicing, nuclear export, and localization, as well as in recoding of proteins. These advances have significantly enhanced the understanding of mechanisms involved in development and in homeostasis. Furthermore, recent studies have indicated that RNA editing may be critically involved in cancer, aging, neurological, autoimmune, or cardiovascular diseases. This review summarizes recent and significant achievements in the field of A-to-I RNA editing and discusses the importance and translational value of this RNA modification for gene expression, cellular, and organ function, as well as for disease development. Elucidation of the exact RNA editing-dependent mechanisms in a single-nucleotide level may pave the path toward the development of novel therapeutic strategies focusing on modulation of ADAR function in the disease context. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.

  12. Genome editing of crops: A renewed opportunity for food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Fawzy; Ray, Heather

    2017-01-02

    Genome editing of crop plants is a rapidly advancing technology whereby targeted mutations can be introduced into a plant genome in a highly specific manner and with great precision. For the most part, the technology does not incorporate transgenic modifications and is far superior to conventional chemical mutagenesis. In this study we bring into focus some of the underlying differences between the 3 existing technologies: classical plant breeding, genetic modification and genome editing. We discuss some of the main achievements from each area and highlight their common characteristics and individual limitations, while emphasizing the unique capabilities of genome editing. We subsequently examine the possible regulatory mechanisms which governments may be inclined to use in assessing the status of genome edited products. If assessed on the basis of their phenotype rather than the process by which they are obtained, these products will be categorized as equivalent to those produced by classical mutagenesis. This would mean that genome edited products will not be subject to the restrictions imposed on genetically modified products, except in some cases where the mutation involves a large sequence insertion into the genome. We conclude by examining the potential of societal acceptance of genome editing technology, reinforced by a scientific perspective on promoting such acceptance.

  13. Reproductive medicine involving genome editing: clinical uncertainties and embryological needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    Genome editing based on site-directed nucleases facilitated efficient and versatile genetic modifications in human cells. However, recent reports, demonstrating CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing in human embryos have raised profound concerns worldwide. This commentary explores the clinical justification and feasibility of reproductive medicine using germline genome editing. Despite the perceived utility of reproductive medicine for treating intractable infertility, it is difficult to justify germline genome editing from the perspective of the prospective child. As suggested by the UK legalization regarding mitochondrial donation, the prevention of genetic disease in offspring by genome editing might be acceptable in limited cases of serious or life-threatening conditions, where no alternative medicine is available. Nonetheless, the mosaicism underlying human embryos as well as the off-target effect by artificial nucleases will likely hamper preimplantation genetic diagnosis prior to embryo transfer. Such considerations suggest that this type of reproductive medicine should not be developed toward a clinical application. However, the clinical uncertainties underscore the need for embryology that can address fundamental questions regarding germline aneuploidy and mosaicism using genome editing. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. VT Pavement Condition Tenth Mile

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This data is a combination of 3 sources of information that are collected on different schedules. The entire National Highway System (NHS) is driven by an automated...

  15. Power Technologies Energy Data Book - Third Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aabakken, J.

    2005-04-01

    This report, prepared by NREL's Energy Analysis Office, includes up-to-date information on power technologies, including complete technology profiles. The data book also contains charts on electricity restructuring, power technology forecasts, electricity supply, electricity capability, electricity generation, electricity demand, prices, economic indicators, environmental indicators, and conversion factors.

  16. Power Technologies Energy Data Book - Fourth Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aabakken, J.

    2006-08-01

    This report, prepared by NREL's Strategic Energy Analysis Center, includes up-to-date information on power technologies, including complete technology profiles. The data book also contains charts on electricity restructuring, power technology forecasts, electricity supply, electricity capability, electricity generation, electricity demand, prices, economic indicators, environmental indicators, and conversion factors.

  17. Residential and Light Commercial HVAC. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, David; Fulkerson, Dan, Ed.

    This curriculum guide contains 18 units of instruction for a competency-based course in residential and light commercial heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC). Introductory materials include a competency profile and an instructional/task analysis that correlates job training with related information for this course. Each instructional…

  18. The Psychology of Music, Edited by Diana Deutsch, 3rd Edition: Review of Chapters 1 to 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricieri Carlini Zorzal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of the first five chapters of the third edition of the book The Psychology of Music edited by Diana Deutsch, namely: 1 “The Perception of Musical Tones” by Andrew J. Oxenham; 2 “Musical Timbre Perception” by Stephen McAdams; 3 “Perception of Singing” by Johan Sundberg; 4 “Intervals and Scales” by William F. Thompson; and 5 “Absolute Pitch” by Diana Deutsch.

  19. Site-selective inhibition of plastid RNA editing by heat shock and antibiotics: a role for plastid translation in RNA editing.

    OpenAIRE

    Karcher, D.; Bock, R

    1998-01-01

    RNA editing in higher plant plastids changes single cytidine residues to uridine through an unknown mechanism. In order to investigate the relation of editing to physiological processes and to other steps in plastid gene expression, we have tested the sensitivity of chloroplast RNA editing to heat shock and antibiotics. We show that heat shock conditions as well as treatment of plants with prokaryotic translational inhibitors can inhibit plastid RNA editing. Surprisingly, this inhibitory effe...

  20. Genome Editing of Monogenic Neuromuscular Diseases: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Chengzu; Amoasii, Leonela; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N

    2016-11-01

    Muscle weakness, the most common symptom of neuromuscular disease, may result from muscle dysfunction or may be caused indirectly by neuronal and neuromuscular junction abnormalities. To date, more than 780 monogenic neuromuscular diseases, linked to 417 different genes, have been identified in humans. Genome-editing methods, especially the CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein 9) system, hold clinical potential for curing many monogenic disorders, including neuromuscular diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and myotonic dystrophy type 1. To provide an overview of genome-editing approaches; to summarize published reports on the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of current genome-editing methods as they relate to the potential correction of monogenic neuromuscular diseases; and to highlight scientific and clinical opportunities and obstacles toward permanent correction of disease-causing mutations responsible for monogenic neuromuscular diseases by genome editing. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for articles published from June 30, 1989, through June 9, 2016, using the following keywords: genome editing, CRISPR-Cas9, neuromuscular disease, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and myotonic dystrophy type 1. The following sources were reviewed: 341 articles describing different approaches to edit mammalian genomes; 330 articles describing CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing in cell culture lines (in vitro) and animal models (in vivo); 16 websites used to generate single-guide RNA; 4 websites for off-target effects; and 382 articles describing viral and nonviral delivery systems. Articles describing neuromuscular diseases, including Duchenne muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and myotonic dystrophy type 1, were also reviewed. Multiple proof

  1. Toward Modeling the Social Edition: An Approach to Understanding the Electronic Scholarly Edition in the Context of New and Emerging Social Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemens, R.; Timney, M.; Leitch, C.; Koolen, C.; Garnett, A.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores building blocks in extant and emerging social media toward the possibilities they offer to the scholarly edition in electronic form, positing that we are witnessing the nascent stages of a new ‘social’ edition existing at the intersection of social media and digital editing.

  2. Benchmarking in Thoracic Surgery. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freixinet Gilart, Jorge; Varela Simó, Gonzalo; Rodríguez Suárez, Pedro; Embún Flor, Raúl; Rivas de Andrés, Juan José; de la Torre Bravos, Mercedes; Molins López-Rodó, Laureano; Pac Ferrer, Joaquín; Izquierdo Elena, José Miguel; Baschwitz, Benno; López de Castro, Pedro E; Fibla Alfara, Juan José; Hernando Trancho, Florentino; Carvajal Carrasco, Ángel; Canalís Arrayás, Emili; Salvatierra Velázquez, Ángel; Canela Cardona, Mercedes; Torres Lanzas, Juan; Moreno Mata, Nicolás

    2016-04-01

    Benchmarking entails continuous comparison of efficacy and quality among products and activities, with the primary objective of achieving excellence. To analyze the results of benchmarking performed in 2013 on clinical practices undertaken in 2012 in 17 Spanish thoracic surgery units. Study data were obtained from the basic minimum data set for hospitalization, registered in 2012. Data from hospital discharge reports were submitted by the participating groups, but staff from the corresponding departments did not intervene in data collection. Study cases all involved hospital discharges recorded in the participating sites. Episodes included were respiratory surgery (Major Diagnostic Category 04, Surgery), and those of the thoracic surgery unit. Cases were labelled using codes from the International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification. The refined diagnosis-related groups classification was used to evaluate differences in severity and complexity of cases. General parameters (number of cases, mean stay, complications, readmissions, mortality, and activity) varied widely among the participating groups. Specific interventions (lobectomy, pneumonectomy, atypical resections, and treatment of pneumothorax) also varied widely. As in previous editions, practices among participating groups varied considerably. Some areas for improvement emerge: admission processes need to be standardized to avoid urgent admissions and to improve pre-operative care; hospital discharges should be streamlined and discharge reports improved by including all procedures and complications. Some units have parameters which deviate excessively from the norm, and these sites need to review their processes in depth. Coding of diagnoses and comorbidities is another area where improvement is needed. Copyright © 2015 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Color management understanding and using ICC profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Phil

    2010-01-01

    Color Management serves as a comprehensive guide to the implementation of the ICC (International Color Consortium) profile specification, widely used for maintaining color fidelity across multi-media imaging devices and software. The book draws together many of the White Papers produced by the ICC to promote the use of color management and disseminate good practice; the ICC specification has become widely accepted within the color industry, and these papers have been updated, expanded and edited for this collection. Other chapters comprise material that will go on to form future ICC Whi

  4. Fellow Profile

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fellow Profile. Elected: 1971 Section: Chemistry. Narasimhan, Prof. Palliakaranai Thirumalai Ph.D. (Madras), FNA, FNASc. Date of birth: 28 July 1928. Date of death: 3 May 2013. Specialization: Theoretical Chemistry and Magnetic Resonance Last known address: 1013, Lupine Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94086, USA. YouTube ...

  5. Practical Concerns Regarding the 7th Edition AJCC Staging Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Buethe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The 7th edition of the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual represents a dramatic shift in the way that cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC is staged, in that it is first attempt to incorporate evidence-based medicine into the staging guidelines for cSCC. In our opinion, the changes made to the seventh edition represent a significant improvement over previous editions and will ultimately lead to improved patient stratification, more accurate prognostic data, and a better framework to guide clinical decision making. However, there are a number of issues within the latest guidelines that require clarification or are impractical for clinical practice. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the key changes to the 6th edition staging manual as they pertain to cSCC, to point out impractical component of the 7th edition and/or aspects that require further clarification, and to make recommendations that address any current shortcomings to improve subsequent editions. Specific focus will be given to the inclusion of separate guidelines for cSCC and Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC, the incorporation of high-risk factors as modifiers of T stage, the addition of new guidelines for advanced T stage, and the changes in stratification of lymph node status. This paper is modified from a more comprehensive treatment of the staging of nonmelanoma skin cancer by Warner and Cockerell entitled “The new 7th edition American joint committee on cancer staging of cutaneous nonmelanoma skin cancer: a critical review,” in the American Journal of Clinical Dermatology (paper accepted, pending publication.

  6. RNA Editing in Chloroplasts of Spirodela polyrhiza, an Aquatic Monocotelydonous Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqin Wang

    Full Text Available RNA editing is the post-transcriptional conversion from C to U before translation, providing a unique feature in the regulation of gene expression. Here, we used a robust and efficient method based on RNA-seq from non-ribosomal total RNA to simultaneously measure chloroplast-gene expression and RNA editing efficiency in the Greater Duckweed, Spirodela polyrhiza, a species that provides a new reference for the phylogenetic studies of monocotyledonous plants. We identified 66 editing sites at the genome-wide level, with an average editing efficiency of 76%. We found that the expression levels of chloroplast genes were relatively constant, but 11 RNA editing sites show significant changes in editing efficiency, when fronds turn into turions. Thus, RNA editing efficiency contributes more to the yield of translatable transcripts than steady state mRNA levels. Comparison of RNA editing sites in coconut, Spirodela, maize, and rice suggests that RNA editing originated from a common ancestor.

  7. RNA Editing in Chloroplasts of Spirodela polyrhiza, an Aquatic Monocotelydonous Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenqin; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Yongrui; Maliga, Pal; Messing, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    RNA editing is the post-transcriptional conversion from C to U before translation, providing a unique feature in the regulation of gene expression. Here, we used a robust and efficient method based on RNA-seq from non-ribosomal total RNA to simultaneously measure chloroplast-gene expression and RNA editing efficiency in the Greater Duckweed, Spirodela polyrhiza, a species that provides a new reference for the phylogenetic studies of monocotyledonous plants. We identified 66 editing sites at the genome-wide level, with an average editing efficiency of 76%. We found that the expression levels of chloroplast genes were relatively constant, but 11 RNA editing sites show significant changes in editing efficiency, when fronds turn into turions. Thus, RNA editing efficiency contributes more to the yield of translatable transcripts than steady state mRNA levels. Comparison of RNA editing sites in coconut, Spirodela, maize, and rice suggests that RNA editing originated from a common ancestor.

  8. Organelle RNA recognition motif-containing (ORRM) proteins are plastid and mitochondrial editing factors in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaowen; Bentolila, Stephane; Hanson, Maureen R

    2016-05-03

    Post-transcriptional C-to-U RNA editing occurs at specific sites in plastid and plant mitochondrial transcripts. Members of the Arabidopsis pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) motif-containing protein family and RNA-editing factor Interacting Protein (RIP, also known as MORF) family have been characterized as essential components of the RNA editing apparatus. Recent studies reveal that several organelle-targeted RNA recognition motif (RRM)-containing proteins are involved in either plastid or mitochondrial RNA editing. ORRM1 (Organelle RRM protein 1) is essential for plastid editing, whereas ORRM2, ORRM3 and ORRM4 are involved in mitochondrial RNA editing. The RRM domain of ORRM1, ORRM3 and ORRM4 is required for editing activity, whereas the auxiliary RIP and Glycine-Rich (GR) domains mediate the ORRM proteins' interactions with other editing factors. The identification of the ORRM proteins as RNA editing factors further expands our knowledge of the composition of the editosome.

  9. The conceptual maps in the development of the course of biology of tenth degree: An investigation experience action in the classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samo Goyco, Marisol

    This investigation describes and combines the qualitative and quantitative methods of nature. The research I have work explore, observe, record and also it describes the experience to consider the education and teaching of the course. This investigation is a research that our students from the biology course, since the constructivist approach identifying and correct mistake. In this investigation there were participating twenty five students of tenth grade from a public school specialized in music. This research includes conceptual maps, computer integration, science programmed, internet, and broadcast and assessment approach. The research of conceptual maps establishes the correct method to perform capture the acknowledgement and attention of the investigators and the students which represents a significant relation between the concepts. Thought the investigator sustains on the cycle spiral of Carr and kemmis (1988) I design every unit considering the previous ideology of the student and elaborating the unit plan. Sustaining Maintain the methodology of the action research. The methodology has response to a new teaching paradigm. Situate as a principal assignment of the professor to contribute in the process of active learning to the students. Also helps to have in this process a reflection in their function or goals. During the research I analyze and wrote the observation and materials. The investigator express in her writing the final findings in every cycle. Also evaluates the map concepts the varied integration of activity and the assessment skills which are used through the socialized discussion. The socialized discussion communicates the participant concepts that should be attended. The students express between their peers and in front of the research of the investigator how they felt in terms of resources and the development of the maps. At the moment of this information I design the next cycle responding to the outstanding needs, this reflection genre a

  10. Looking Forward, Looking Back: Future Challenges for Narrative Research An event commemorating the tenth anniversary of the Centre for Narrative Research, University of East London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Andrews

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Centre for Narrative Research was founded at the turn of the millenium. To commemorate its tenth anniversary, we organised an event which took place on November 10, 2010, at the Marx Memorial Library in London. The day had a very flexible format. We began with a few opening words from the three co-directors (Molly Andrews, Corinne Squire, and Maria Tamboukou and the Research Fellow (Cigdem Esin of CNR. This was followed by contributions from six leading narrative scholars (Jens Brockmeier, Michael Erben, Mark Freeman, Margareta Hydén, Margaretta Jolly, and Olivia Sagan to which Alexandra Georgakopoulou and Matti Hyvärinen then responded. Following lunch, the sixty participants were broken up into smaller groups, where they discussed issues raised in the morning session. The day concluded with a final discussion piece offered by Mike Rustin. The six presenters were faced with a formidable challenge. We invited them to write pieces of approximately 500 words on "the promise and challenges for future narrative research, including critiques of and hopes for our own scholarship." These were prepared in advance of the event, and sent to the discussants, who were asked not only to comment upon the set of issues raised, but also to provide a framework for looking at the problems as a whole set. Not only did the contributors and discussants come from a range of different backgrounds and geographical locations, but the range of intellectual interests represented by those who attended the day was very marked: poets, writers of fiction, policy makers, psychoanalysts, sociologists, psychologists, political scientists, social workers, and others. Perhaps the most outstanding feature of the day was the conversations which happened across boundaries, characterised by both a search for common ground as well as a recognition of the different intellectual standpoints represented by the people there. What follows are written versions of the prepared, spoken

  11. Comprehensive high-resolution analysis of the role of an Arabidopsis gene family in RNA editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentolila, Stéphane; Oh, Julyun; Hanson, Maureen R; Bukowski, Robert

    2013-06-01

    In flowering plants, mitochondrial and chloroplast mRNAs are edited by C-to-U base modification. In plant organelles, RNA editing appears to be generally a correcting mechanism that restores the proper function of the encoded product. Members of the Arabidopsis RNA editing-Interacting Protein (RIP) family have been recently shown to be essential components of the plant editing machinery. We report the use of a strand- and transcript-specific RNA-seq method (STS-PCRseq) to explore the effect of mutation or silencing of every RIP gene on plant organelle editing. We confirm RIP1 to be a major editing factor that controls the editing extent of 75% of the mitochondrial sites and 20% of the plastid C targets of editing. The quantitative nature of RNA sequencing allows the precise determination of overlapping effects of RIP factors on RNA editing. Over 85% of the sites under the influence of RIP3 and RIP8, two moderately important mitochondrial factors, are also controlled by RIP1. Previously uncharacterized RIP family members were found to have only a slight effect on RNA editing. The preferential location of editing sites controlled by RIP7 on some transcripts suggests an RNA metabolism function for this factor other than editing. In addition to a complete characterization of the RIP factors for their effect on RNA editing, our study highlights the potential of RNA-seq for studying plant organelle editing. Unlike previous attempts to use RNA-seq to analyze RNA editing extent, our methodology focuses on sequencing of organelle cDNAs corresponding to known transcripts. As a result, the depth of coverage of each editing site reaches unprecedented values, assuring a reliable measurement of editing extent and the detection of numerous new sites. This strategy can be applied to the study of RNA editing in any organism.

  12. Comprehensive high-resolution analysis of the role of an Arabidopsis gene family in RNA editing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Bentolila

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In flowering plants, mitochondrial and chloroplast mRNAs are edited by C-to-U base modification. In plant organelles, RNA editing appears to be generally a correcting mechanism that restores the proper function of the encoded product. Members of the Arabidopsis RNA editing-Interacting Protein (RIP family have been recently shown to be essential components of the plant editing machinery. We report the use of a strand- and transcript-specific RNA-seq method (STS-PCRseq to explore the effect of mutation or silencing of every RIP gene on plant organelle editing. We confirm RIP1 to be a major editing factor that controls the editing extent of 75% of the mitochondrial sites and 20% of the plastid C targets of editing. The quantitative nature of RNA sequencing allows the precise determination of overlapping effects of RIP factors on RNA editing. Over 85% of the sites under the influence of RIP3 and RIP8, two moderately important mitochondrial factors, are also controlled by RIP1. Previously uncharacterized RIP family members were found to have only a slight effect on RNA editing. The preferential location of editing sites controlled by RIP7 on some transcripts suggests an RNA metabolism function for this factor other than editing. In addition to a complete characterization of the RIP factors for their effect on RNA editing, our study highlights the potential of RNA-seq for studying plant organelle editing. Unlike previous attempts to use RNA-seq to analyze RNA editing extent, our methodology focuses on sequencing of organelle cDNAs corresponding to known transcripts. As a result, the depth of coverage of each editing site reaches unprecedented values, assuring a reliable measurement of editing extent and the detection of numerous new sites. This strategy can be applied to the study of RNA editing in any organism.

  13. Comprehensive High-Resolution Analysis of the Role of an Arabidopsis Gene Family in RNA Editing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentolila, Stéphane; Oh, Julyun; Hanson, Maureen R.; Bukowski, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In flowering plants, mitochondrial and chloroplast mRNAs are edited by C-to-U base modification. In plant organelles, RNA editing appears to be generally a correcting mechanism that restores the proper function of the encoded product. Members of the Arabidopsis RNA editing-Interacting Protein (RIP) family have been recently shown to be essential components of the plant editing machinery. We report the use of a strand- and transcript-specific RNA-seq method (STS-PCRseq) to explore the effect of mutation or silencing of every RIP gene on plant organelle editing. We confirm RIP1 to be a major editing factor that controls the editing extent of 75% of the mitochondrial sites and 20% of the plastid C targets of editing. The quantitative nature of RNA sequencing allows the precise determination of overlapping effects of RIP factors on RNA editing. Over 85% of the sites under the influence of RIP3 and RIP8, two moderately important mitochondrial factors, are also controlled by RIP1. Previously uncharacterized RIP family members were found to have only a slight effect on RNA editing. The preferential location of editing sites controlled by RIP7 on some transcripts suggests an RNA metabolism function for this factor other than editing. In addition to a complete characterization of the RIP factors for their effect on RNA editing, our study highlights the potential of RNA-seq for studying plant organelle editing. Unlike previous attempts to use RNA-seq to analyze RNA editing extent, our methodology focuses on sequencing of organelle cDNAs corresponding to known transcripts. As a result, the depth of coverage of each editing site reaches unprecedented values, assuring a reliable measurement of editing extent and the detection of numerous new sites. This strategy can be applied to the study of RNA editing in any organism. PMID:23818871

  14. The evolution of apolipoprotein B and its mRNA editing complex. Does the lack of editing contribute to hypertriglyceridemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsteegt, Erin L; Davie, Andrew; Lokman, P Mark

    2018-01-30

    The evolution of apolipoprotein B (Apob) has been intensely researched due to its importance during lipid transport. Mammalian full-length apob100 can be post-transcriptionally edited by the enzyme apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like complex-one (Apobec1) resulting in a truncated Apob, known as Apob48. Whilst both full-length and truncated forms of Apob are important for normal lipid homeostasis in mammals, there is no evidence for the presence of apob mRNA editing prior to the divergence of the mammals, yet, non-mammalian vertebrates appear to function normally with only Apob100. To date, the majority of the research carried out in non-mammalian vertebrates has focused on chickens with only a very limited number examining apob mRNA editing in fish. This study focused on the molecular evolution of Apobec1 and Apob in order to ascertain if apob mRNA editing occurs in eels, a basal teleost which represents an evolutionarily important animal group. No evidence for the presence of Apobec1 or the ability for eel apob to be edited was found. However, an important link between mutant mice and the evident hypertriglyceridemia in the plasma of non-mammalian vertebrates was made. This study has provided imperative evidence to help bridge the evolutionary gap between fish and mammals and provides further support for the lack of apob mRNA editing in non-mammalian vertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. CAPS1 RNA Editing Promotes Dense Core Vesicle Exocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Kotaro; Ohta, Toshio; Nakayama, Hisako; Doe, Nobutaka; Terao, Yuri; Oiki, Eiji; Nagatomo, Izumi; Yamashita, Yui; Abe, Takaya; Nishikura, Kazuko; Kumanogoh, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Kouichi; Kawahara, Yukio

    2016-11-15

    Calcium-dependent activator protein for secretion 1 (CAPS1) plays a distinct role in the priming step of dense core vesicle (DCV) exocytosis. CAPS1 pre-mRNA is known to undergo adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing in its coding region, which results in a glutamate-to-glycine conversion at a site in its C-terminal region. However, the physiological significance of CAPS1 RNA editing remains elusive. Here, we created mutant mice in which edited CAPS1 was solely expressed. These mice were lean due to increased energy expenditure caused by physical hyperactivity. Electrophysiological and biochemical analyses demonstrated that the exocytosis of DCVs was upregulated in the chromaffin cells and neurons of these mice. Furthermore, we showed that edited CAPS1 bound preferentially to the activated form of syntaxin-1A, a component of the exocytotic fusion complex. These findings suggest that RNA editing regulates DCV exocytosis in vivo, affecting physical activity. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Image editing with Adobe Photoshop 6.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Ronald D; Postel, Gregory C

    2002-01-01

    The authors introduce Photoshop 6.0 for radiologists and demonstrate basic techniques of editing gray-scale cross-sectional images intended for publication and for incorporation into computerized presentations. For basic editing of gray-scale cross-sectional images, the Tools palette and the History/Actions palette pair should be displayed. The History palette may be used to undo a step or series of steps. The Actions palette is a menu of user-defined macros that save time by automating an action or series of actions. Converting an image to 8-bit gray scale is the first editing function. Cropping is the next action. Both decrease file size. Use of the smallest file size necessary for the purpose at hand is recommended. Final file size for gray-scale cross-sectional neuroradiologic images (8-bit, single-layer TIFF [tagged image file format] at 300 pixels per inch) intended for publication varies from about 700 Kbytes to 3 Mbytes. Final file size for incorporation into computerized presentations is about 10-100 Kbytes (8-bit, single-layer, gray-scale, high-quality JPEG [Joint Photographic Experts Group]), depending on source and intended use. Editing and annotating images before they are inserted into presentation software is highly recommended, both for convenience and flexibility. Radiologists should find that image editing can be carried out very rapidly once the basic steps are learned and automated. Copyright RSNA, 2002

  17. Gene-Editing: Interpretation of Current Law and Legal Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na-Kyoung

    2017-09-01

    With the development of the third-generation gene scissors, CRISPR-Cas9, concerns are being raised about ethical and social repercussions of the new gene-editing technology. In this situation, this article explores the legislation and interpretation of the positive laws in South Korea. The BioAct does not specify and regulate 'gene editing' itself. However, assuming that genetic editing is used in the process of research and treatment, we can look to the specific details of the regulations for research on humans as well as gene therapy research in order to see how genetic editing is regulated under the BioAct. BioAct differentiates the regulation between (born) humans and embryos etc. and the regulation differ entirely in the manner and scope. Moreover, due to the fact that gene therapy products are regarded as drugs, they fall under different regulations. The Korean Pharmacopoeia Act put stringent sanctions on clinical trials for gene therapy products and the official Notification "Approval and Examination Regulations for Biological Products, etc." by Food and Drug Safety Administration may be applied to gene editing for gene therapy purposes.

  18. Safety, Security, and Policy Considerations for Plant Genome Editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolt, Jeffrey D

    2017-01-01

    Genome editing with engineered nucleases (GEEN) is increasingly used as a tool for gene discovery and trait development in crops through generation of targeted changes in endogenous genes. The development of the CRISPR-Cas9 system (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats with associated Cas9 protein), in particular, has enabled widespread use of genome editing. Research to date has not comprehensively addressed genome-editing specificity and off-target mismatches that may result in unintended changes within plant genomes or the potential for gene drive initiation. Governance and regulatory considerations for bioengineered crops derived from using GEEN will require greater clarity as to target specificity, the potential for mismatched edits, unanticipated downstream effects of off-target mutations, and assurance that genome reagents do not occur in finished products. Since governance and regulatory decision making involves robust standards of evidence extending from the laboratory to the postcommercial marketplace, developers of genome-edited crops must anticipate significant engagement and investment to address questions of regulators and civil society. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis for precision gene editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Noel J; Mozoruk, Jerry; Miller, Ryan B; Warburg, Zachary J; Walker, Keith A; Beetham, Peter R; Schöpke, Christian R; Gocal, Greg F W

    2016-02-01

    Differences in gene sequences, many of which are single nucleotide polymorphisms, underlie some of the most important traits in plants. With humanity facing significant challenges to increase global agricultural productivity, there is an urgent need to accelerate the development of these traits in plants. oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis (ODM), one of the many tools of Cibus' Rapid Trait Development System (RTDS(™) ) technology, offers a rapid, precise and non-transgenic breeding alternative for trait improvement in agriculture to address this urgent need. This review explores the application of ODM as a precision genome editing technology, with emphasis on using oligonucleotides to make targeted edits in plasmid, episomal and chromosomal DNA of bacterial, fungal, mammalian and plant systems. The process of employing ODM by way of RTDS technology has been improved in many ways by utilizing a fluorescence conversion system wherein a blue fluorescent protein (BFP) can be changed to a green fluorescent protein (GFP) by editing a single nucleotide of the BFP gene (CAC→TAC; H66 to Y66). For example, dependent on oligonucleotide length, applying oligonucleotide-mediated technology to target the BFP transgene in Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts resulted in up to 0.05% precisely edited GFP loci. Here, the development of traits in commercially relevant plant varieties to improve crop performance by genome editing technologies such as ODM, and by extension RTDS, is reviewed. © 2015 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Crowdsourcing the Moral Limits of Human Gene Editing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juengst, Eric T

    2017-05-01

    In 2015, a flourish of "alarums and excursions" by the scientific community propelled CRISPR/Cas9 and other new gene-editing techniques into public attention. At issue were two kinds of potential gene-editing experiments in humans: those making inheritable germ-line modifications and those designed to enhance human traits beyond what is necessary for health and healing. The scientific consensus seemed to be that while research to develop safe and effective human gene editing should continue, society's moral uncertainties about these two kinds of experiments needed to be better resolved before clinical trials of either type should be attempted. In the United States, the National Academies of Science, Engineering and Medicine (NASEM) convened the Committee on Human Gene Editing: Scientific, Medical and Ethical Considerations to pursue that resolution. The committee's 2017 consensus report has been widely interpreted as "opening the door" to inheritable human genetic modification and holding a line against enhancement interventions. But on a close reading it does neither. There are two reasons for this eccentric conclusion, both of which depend upon the strength of the committee's commitment to engaging diverse public voices in the gene-editing policy-making process. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  1. Space Science Reference Guide, 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Renee (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    This Edition contains the following reports: GRACE: Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment; Impact Craters in the Solar System; 1997 Apparition of Comet Hale-Bopp Historical Comet Observations; Baby Stars in Orion Solve Solar System Mystery; The Center of the Galaxy; The First Rock in the Solar System; Fun Times with Cosmic Rays; The Gamma-Ray Burst Next Door; The Genesis Mission: An Overview; The Genesis Solar Wind Sample Return Mission; How to Build a Supermassive Black Hole; Journey to the Center of a Neutron Star; Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion; The Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud ; Mapping the Baby Universe; More Hidden Black Hole Dangers; A Polarized Universe; Presolar Grains of Star Dust: Astronomy Studied with Microscopes; Ring Around the Black Hole; Searching Antarctic Ice for Meteorites; The Sun; Astrobiology: The Search for Life in the Universe; Europa and Titan: Oceans in the Outer Solar System?; Rules for Identifying Ancient Life; Inspire ; Remote Sensing; What is the Electromagnetic Spectrum? What is Infrared? How was the Infrared Discovered?; Brief History of Gyroscopes ; Genesis Discovery Mission: Science Canister Processing at JSC; Genesis Solar-Wind Sample Return Mission: The Materials ; ICESat: Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite ICESat: Ice, Cloud, and Land; Elevation Satellite ICESat: Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite ICESat: Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite ICESat: Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite Measuring Temperature Reading; The Optical Telescope ; Space Instruments General Considerations; Damage by Impact: The Case at Meteor Crater, Arizona; Mercury Unveiled; New Data, New Ideas, and Lively Debate about Mercury; Origin of the Earth and Moon; Space Weather: The Invisible Foe; Uranus, Neptune, and the Mountains of the Moon; Dirty Ice on Mars; For a Cup of Water on Mars; Life on Mars?; The Martian Interior; Meteorites from Mars, Rocks from Canada; Organic Compounds in Martian Meteorites May be Terrestrial

  2. Book review: Bird census techniques, Second edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, John R.

    2002-01-01

    the relevance of survey design and methods and the often subtle interdisciplinary nature of surveys.Review info: Bird Census Techniques, Second Edition. By Colin J. Bibby, Neil D. Burgess, David A. Hill, and Simon H. Mustoe. 2000. Academic Press, London, UK. xvii 1 302 pp.  ISBN 0- 12-095831-7.

  3. A protein with an unusually short PPR domain, MEF8, affects editing at over 60 Arabidopsis mitochondrial C targets of RNA editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Michael F; Bentolila, Stephane; Hayes, Michael L; Hanson, Maureen R; Mulligan, R Michael

    2017-11-01

    An RNA-seq approach was used to investigate the role of a PLS-subfamily pentatricopeptide repeat protein, Mitochondrial Editing Factor 8 (MEF8), on editing in Arabidopsis mitochondria and plastids. MEF8 has an intact DYW domain, but possesses an unusually short PLS repeat region of only five repeats. The MEF8 T-DNA insertion (mef8) line exhibited reduced editing at 38 mitochondrial editing sites and increased editing at 24 sites; therefore the absence of MEF8 affects 11% of the mitochondrial editome. Notably, 60% of the matR transcripts' sites showed a decrease of editing extent in the mef8 mutant. An E549A substitution in the MEF8 protein replaced the putatively catalytic glutamate of the HXE motif in the DYW domain. Complementation with MEF8-E549A failed to restore editing at the main target sites but was able to restore editing at the matR transcript; it also decreased the editing extent of most of the C targets exhibiting an increase of editing extent in the mef8 mutant plant. Thus, MEF8 has two antagonistic effects on mitochondrial editing: stimulatory, which requires a catalytic glutamate for most of the targets except for the matR transcript, and inhibitory, for which glutamate is dispensable. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A Single-Target Mitochondrial RNA Editing Factor of Funaria hygrometrica Can Fully Reconstitute RNA Editing at Two Sites in Physcomitrella patens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallenberg-Rüdinger, Mareike; Oldenkott, Bastian; Hiss, Manuel; Trinh, Phuong Le; Knoop, Volker; Rensing, Stefan A

    2017-03-01

    Nuclear-encoded pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are key factors for site-specific RNA editing, converting cytidines into uridines in plant mitochondria and chloroplasts. All editing factors in the model moss Physcomitrella patens have a C-terminal DYW domain with similarity to cytidine deaminase. However, numerous editing factors in flowering plants lack such a terminal DYW domain, questioning its immediate role in the pyrimidine base conversion process. Here we further investigate the Physcomitrella DYW-type PPR protein PPR_78, responsible for mitochondrial editing sites cox1eU755SL and rps14eU137SL. Complementation assays with truncated proteins demonstrate that the DYW domain is essential for full PPR_78 editing functionality. The DYW domain can be replaced, however, with its counterpart from another editing factor, PPR_79. The PPR_78 ortholog of the related moss Funaria hygrometrica fully complements the Physcomitrella mutant for editing at both sites, although the editing site in rps14 is lacking in Funaria. Editing factor orthologs in different taxa may thus retain editing capacity for multiple sites despite the absence of editing requirement. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Frequent chloroplast RNA editing in early-branching flowering plants: pilot studies on angiosperm-wide coexistence of editing sites and their nuclear specificity factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Anke; Polsakiewicz, Monika; Knoop, Volker

    2016-01-25

    RNA editing by cytidine-to-uridine conversions is an essential step of RNA maturation in plant organelles. Some 30-50 sites of C-to-U RNA editing exist in chloroplasts of flowering plant models like Arabidopsis, rice or tobacco. We now predicted significantly more RNA editing in chloroplasts of early-branching angiosperm genera like Amborella, Calycanthus, Ceratophyllum, Chloranthus, Illicium, Liriodendron, Magnolia, Nuphar and Zingiber. Nuclear-encoded RNA-binding pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are key editing factors expected to coevolve with their cognate RNA editing sites in the organelles. With an extensive chloroplast transcriptome study we identified 138 sites of RNA editing in Amborella trichopoda, approximately the 3- to 4-fold of cp editing in Arabidopsis thaliana or Oryza sativa. Selected cDNA studies in the other early-branching flowering plant taxa furthermore reveal a high diversity of early angiosperm RNA editomes. Many of the now identified editing sites in Amborella have orthologues in ferns, lycophytes or hornworts. We investigated the evolution of CRR28 and RARE1, two known Arabidopsis RNA editing factors responsible for cp editing events ndhBeU467PL, ndhDeU878SL and accDeU794SL, respectively, all of which we now found conserved in Amborella. In a phylogenetically wide sampling of 65 angiosperm genomes we find evidence for only one single loss of CRR28 in chickpea but several independent losses of RARE1, perfectly congruent with the presence of their cognate editing sites in the respective cpDNAs. Chloroplast RNA editing is much more abundant in early-branching than in widely investigated model flowering plants. RNA editing specificity factors can be traced back for more than 120 million years of angiosperm evolution and show highly divergent patterns of evolutionary losses, matching the presence of their target editing events.

  6. CRISPR/Cas9: Transcending the Reality of Genome Editing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Chira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With the expansion of the microbiology field of research, a new genome editing tool arises from the biology of bacteria that holds the promise of achieving precise modifications in the genome with a simplicity and versatility that surpasses previous genome editing methods. This new technique, commonly named CRISPR/Cas9, led to a rapid expansion of the biomedical field; more specifically, cancer characterization and modeling have benefitted greatly from the genome editing capabilities of CRISPR/Cas9. In this paper, we briefly summarize recent improvements in CRISPR/Cas9 design meant to overcome the limitations that have arisen from the nuclease activity of Cas9 and the influence of this technology in cancer research. In addition, we present challenges that might impede the clinical applicability of CRISPR/Cas9 for cancer therapy and highlight future directions for designing CRISPR/Cas9 delivery systems that might prove useful for cancer therapeutics.

  7. Simple Genome Editing of Rodent Intact Embryos by Electroporation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehito Kaneko

    Full Text Available The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated (Cas system is a powerful tool for genome editing in animals. Recently, new technology has been developed to genetically modify animals without using highly skilled techniques, such as pronuclear microinjection of endonucleases. Technique for animal knockout system by electroporation (TAKE method is a simple and effective technology that produces knockout rats by introducing endonuclease mRNAs into intact embryos using electroporation. Using TAKE method and CRISPR/Cas system, the present study successfully produced knockout and knock-in mice and rats. The mice and rats derived from embryos electroporated with Cas9 mRNA, gRNA and single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide (ssODN comprised the edited targeted gene as a knockout (67% of mice and 88% of rats or knock-in (both 33%. The TAKE method could be widely used as a powerful tool to produce genetically modified animals by genome editing.

  8. Advances in therapeutic CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savić, Nataša; Schwank, Gerald

    2016-02-01

    Targeted nucleases are widely used as tools for genome editing. Two years ago the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated Cas9 nuclease was used for the first time, and since then has largely revolutionized the field. The tremendous success of the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing tool is powered by the ease design principle of the guide RNA that targets Cas9 to the desired DNA locus, and by the high specificity and efficiency of CRISPR/Cas9-generated DNA breaks. Several studies recently used CRISPR/Cas9 to successfully modulate disease-causing alleles in vivo in animal models and ex vivo in somatic and induced pluripotent stem cells, raising hope for therapeutic genome editing in the clinics. In this review, we will summarize and discuss such preclinical CRISPR/Cas9 gene therapy reports. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Collaborative editing within the pervasive collaborative computing environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Marcia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Agarwal, Deb [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2003-09-11

    Scientific collaborations are established for a wide variety of tasks for which several communication modes are necessary, including messaging, file-sharing, and collaborative editing. In this position paper, we describe our work on the Pervasive Collaborative Computing Environment (PCCE) which aims to facilitate scientific collaboration within widely distributed environments. The PCCE provides a persistent space in which collaborators can locate each other, exchange messages synchronously and asynchronously and archive conversations. Our current interest is in exploring research and development of shared editing systems with the goal of integrating this technology into the PCCE. We hope to inspire discussion of technology solutions for an integrated approach to synchronous and asynchronous communication and collaborative editing.

  10. Editing Newton in Geneva and Rome: The Annotated Edition of the Principia by Calandrini, Le Seur and Jacquier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guicciardini, Niccolò

    2015-07-01

    This contribution examines the circumstances of composition of the annotated edition of Newton's Principia that was printed in Geneva in 1739-1742, which ran to several editions and was still in print in Britain in the mid-nineteenth century. This edition was the work of the Genevan Professor of Mathematics, Jean Louis Calandrini, and of two Minim friars based in Rome, Thomas Le Seur and François Jacquier. The study of the context in which this edition was conceived sheds light on the early reception of Newtonianism in Geneva and Rome. By taking into consideration the careers of Calandrini, Le Seur and Jacquier, as authors, lecturers and leading characters of Genevan and Roman cultural life, I will show that their involvement in the enterprise of annotating Newton's Principia answered specific needs of Genevan and Roman culture. The publication and reception of the Genevan annotated edition has also a broader European dimension. Both Calandrini and Jacquier were in touch with the French république des lettres, most notably with Clairaut and Du Châtelet, and with the Bernoulli family in Basel. Therefore, this study is also relevant for the understanding of the dissemination of Newton's ideas in Europe.

  11. Alu elements shape the primate transcriptome by cis-regulation of RNA editing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background RNA editing by adenosine to inosine deamination is a widespread phenomenon, particularly frequent in the human transcriptome, largely due to the presence of inverted Alu repeats and their ability to form double-stranded structures – a requisite for ADAR editing. While several hundred thousand editing sites have been identified within these primate-specific repeats, the function of Alu-editing has yet to be elucidated. Results We show that inverted Alu repeats, expressed in the primate brain, can induce site-selective editing in cis on sites located several hundred nucleotides from the Alu elements. Furthermore, a computational analysis, based on available RNA-seq data, finds that site-selective editing occurs significantly closer to edited Alu elements than expected. These targets are poorly edited upon deletion of the editing inducers, as well as in homologous transcripts from organisms lacking Alus. Sequences surrounding sites near edited Alus in UTRs, have been subjected to a lesser extent of evolutionary selection than those far from edited Alus, indicating that their editing generally depends on cis-acting Alus. Interestingly, we find an enrichment of primate-specific editing within encoded sequence or the UTRs of zinc finger-containing transcription factors. Conclusions We propose a model whereby primate-specific editing is induced by adjacent Alu elements that function as recruitment elements for the ADAR editing enzymes. The enrichment of site-selective editing with potentially functional consequences on the expression of transcription factors indicates that editing contributes more profoundly to the transcriptomic regulation and repertoire in primates than previously thought. PMID:24485196

  12. Utility of Technologist Editing of Polysomnography Scoring Performed by a Validated Automatic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Magdy; Thompson, Wayne; Leslie, Colleen; Egan, Tanya; Giannouli, Eleni

    2015-08-01

    Automatic scoring of polysomnography records offers many advantages, but excessive editing time seriously limits its use. To identify reasons for excessive editing time, and the clinical utility of such editing, and to develop an approach to optimize the editing process. Forty-two polysomnograms scored manually were scored months later by an automatic system (Michele Sleep Scoring). Results were edited by the technologist who scored them initially. Editing actions and time were documented. An Editing Helper algorithm was developed on the basis of these results, and its effectiveness was tested in 60 new records. Technologists performed 253 ± 110 actions, consuming 54.5 ± 26.3 minutes, per file. Of the edits, 33% were either subsequently reversed or not considered in the clinical summary. The electroencephalography pattern in 67% of epochs changed from awake to non-REM sleep, and vice versa, represented neither stable wakefulness nor sleep so that assigning a precise stage was arbitrary. Many opposing changes occurred. Ultimately the impact of editing on summary results was limited. In the second set, the Editing Helper algorithm reduced editing time from 59 ± 26 to 6 ± 7 minutes. Average (±SD) intraclass correlation coefficients for 15 reported variables were 0.77 ± 0.14 for manual versus unedited automatic, 0.89 ± 0.09 for manual versus fully edited automatic, and 0.87 ± 0.08 for manual versus automatic edited according to the Editing Helper's suggestions only, and there was no difference between the last two average intraclass correlation coefficients. Editing time does not reflect unreliable scoring. Comprehensive editing of a well-validated automatic scoring system is highly inefficient. Editing can be substantially optimized.

  13. Efficient Mitochondrial Genome Editing by CRISPR/Cas9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areum Jo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR/Cas9 system has been widely used for nuclear DNA editing to generate mutations or correct specific disease alleles. Despite its flexible application, it has not been determined if CRISPR/Cas9, originally identified as a bacterial defense system against virus, can be targeted to mitochondria for mtDNA editing. Here, we show that regular FLAG-Cas9 can localize to mitochondria to edit mitochondrial DNA with sgRNAs targeting specific loci of the mitochondrial genome. Expression of FLAG-Cas9 together with gRNA targeting Cox1 and Cox3 leads to cleavage of the specific mtDNA loci. In addition, we observed disruption of mitochondrial protein homeostasis following mtDNA truncation or cleavage by CRISPR/Cas9. To overcome nonspecific distribution of FLAG-Cas9, we also created a mitochondria-targeted Cas9 (mitoCas9. This new version of Cas9 localizes only to mitochondria; together with expression of gRNA targeting mtDNA, there is specific cleavage of mtDNA. MitoCas9-induced reduction of mtDNA and its transcription leads to mitochondrial membrane potential disruption and cell growth inhibition. This mitoCas9 could be applied to edit mtDNA together with gRNA expression vectors without affecting genomic DNA. In this brief study, we demonstrate that mtDNA editing is possible using CRISPR/Cas9. Moreover, our development of mitoCas9 with specific localization to the mitochondria should facilitate its application for mitochondrial genome editing.

  14. MANAJEMEN EDITING POST PRODUCTION PROGRAM CURRENT AFFAIR DI TVONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridho Azlam Ambo Asse

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Management is the art of completing the work through others. In an organization there are various components that are structured and coordinated in the movement toward shared vision and mission. Management is looking for that component to move under coordination, pressure, and problems that hit. Editing management, especially for the current affair type program, has a special purpose. Not just the speed of productivity that is based on the ability of individual editors. This research is done to know the process of stage editor in work. The process of managing files, data management, human resources, tools, facilities, scheduling, until the pattern of editing stage in one of the national media industry. This study concludes that the current affair program management editing system based on the concept of planning, organizing, implementation, supervision, and productivity management is done by Top Down method from top to bottom in the management of currenf affair tvOne editing program. What gets from above during a pre-production meeting of a program. Then coordinate with the supervisor and then delegate down to be implemented according to the agreed plan and in accordance with the duties and functions of both the production team and the editor.   Manajemen merupakan seni menyelesaikan pekerjaan melalui orang lain. Dalam sebuah organisasi terdapat berbagai macam komponen yang terstruktur dan terkordinasi dalam gerakan menuju visi dan misi bersama. Manajemen ialah mencari agar komponen tersebut dapat bergerak dibawah koordinasi, tekanan, dan masalah yang menerpa. Manajemen editing khususnya untuk program berjenis current affair, memiliki tujuan khusus. Tidak sekedar kecepatan produktifitas yang didasarkan pada kemampuan individu editor. Penelitian yang dilakukan ini untuk mengetahui proses tahapan editor dalam bekerja. Proses mengelola file, pengelolaan data, sumber daya manusia, alat, fasilitas, penjadwalan, hingga pola tahapan editing pada salah

  15. REDItools: high-throughput RNA editing detection made easy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardi, Ernesto; Pesole, Graziano

    2013-07-15

    The reliable detection of RNA editing sites from massive sequencing data remains challenging and, although several methodologies have been proposed, no computational tools have been released to date. Here, we introduce REDItools a suite of python scripts to perform high-throughput investigation of RNA editing using next-generation sequencing data. REDItools are in python programming language and freely available at http://code.google.com/p/reditools/. ernesto.picardi@uniba.it or graziano.pesole@uniba.it Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  16. Atmel AVR Microcontroller Primer Programming and Interfacing, Second Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, Steven F

    2012-01-01

    This textbook provides practicing scientists and engineers a primer on the Atmel AVR microcontroller. In this second edition we highlight the popular ATmega164 microcontroller and other pin-for-pin controllers in the family with a complement of flash memory up to 128 kbytes. The second edition also adds a chapter on embedded system design fundamentals and provides extended examples on two different autonomous robots. Our approach is to provide the fundamental skills to quickly get up and operating with this internationally popular microcontroller. We cover the main subsystems aboard the ATmega

  17. MPI Profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, D K; Jones, T R

    2005-02-11

    The Message Passing Interface (MPI) is the de facto message-passing standard for massively parallel programs. It is often the case that application performance is a crucial factor, especially for solving grand challenge problems. While there have been many studies on the scalability of applications, there have not been many focusing on the specific types of MPI calls being made and their impact on application performance. Using a profiling tool called mpiP, a large spectrum of parallel scientific applications were surveyed and their performance results analyzed.

  18. BOOK REVIEW: Experimental Stochatics (2nd edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, P.

    2004-05-01

    for teachers of computational stochastic methods, is the main contribution of this electronic monograph. However, both the book and software suffer from several severe problems. Firstly, I feel that the structure of the text is weak. Probably this is partly the result of the text from the CD-ROM being put into a book format, but the short paragraphs and poorly structured sentences destroy the reading experience. Secondly, although the software is functional, I believe that, like me, many users will be disappointed by the quality of the user interface and the visualizations. The opportunities to interact with the simulations are limited. Thirdly, the presentation is slightly old fashioned and lacking in pedagogical structure. For example, flow charts and Pascal programs are used to present algorithms. To conclude, I am surprised that this electronic monograph warranted a second edition in this form. Teachers may find the examples useful as a starting point, but students and researchers are advised to look elsewhere. JG was supported by KBN grant no 2 P03A 020 24.

  19. Responsible innovation in human germline gene editing: Background document to the recommendations of ESHG and ESHRE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wert, Guido; Heindryckx, Björn; Pennings, Guido; Clarke, Angus; Eichenlaub-Ritter, Ursula; van El, Carla G.; Forzano, Francesca; Goddijn, Mariëtte; Howard, Heidi C.; Radojkovic, Dragica; Rial-Sebbag, Emmanuelle; Dondorp, Wybo; Tarlatzis, Basil C.; Cornel, Martina C.

    2018-01-01

    Technological developments in gene editing raise high expectations for clinical applications, including editing of the germline. The European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) and the European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG) together developed a Background document and

  20. Close Reading and Slow Programming — Computer Code as Digital Scholarly Edition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zundert, Joris J.

    2016-01-01

    Currently most digital scholarly editions are representational digital documentary editions, largely along the lines described by Elena Pierazzo (2015). Alternative theoretical perspectives take less document centric and more process analytical oriented approaches. Textual scholars have, for