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Sample records for profiles sudden oak

  1. Proceedings of the sudden oak death sixth science symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Frankel; Katharine M. Harrell

    2017-01-01

    The Sudden Oak Death Sixth Science Symposium provided a forum for current research on sudden oak death, caused by the exotic quarantine pathogen Phytophthora ramorum. More than 50 submissions describing papers or posters on the following sudden oak death/P. ramorum topics are included: biology, genetics, nursery and wildland...

  2. Protecting Trees from Sudden Oak Death before Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Lee; Y. Valachovic; M. Garbelotto

    2010-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum, an introduced invasive plant pathogen that causes sudden oak death, has killed over a million tanoak, coast live oak, Shreve oak, and California black oak trees along the California coastal region from Monterey through Humboldt Counties. Most trees infected with P. ramorum will eventually die, including...

  3. The epidemiology of sudden oak death in Oregon forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebba K. Peterson

    2011-01-01

    The phytopathogen Phytophthora ramorum (Werres, DeCock & Man in't Veld), causal agent of Sudden Oak Death (SOD) of oaks (Quercus spp.) and tanoaks (Notholithocarpus densiflorus syn. Lithocarpus densiflorus...

  4. Sudden oak death in California: what is the potential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara M. Barrett; Demetrios Gatziolis; Jeremy S. Fried; Karen L. Waddell

    2006-01-01

    Sudden oak death, a disease associated with the pathogen Phytophthora ramorum, has a large number of shrub and tree host species. Three of the tree species must susceptible to mortality from the disease, California black oak (Quercus kelloggii), coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia), and tanoak (...

  5. New pests and diseases: Sudden oak death syndrome fells 3 oak species

    OpenAIRE

    Garbelotto, Matteo M.; Svihra, Pavel; Rizzo, David M.

    2001-01-01

    Sudden oak death” refers to a complex set of symptoms that has already culminated in the death of tens of thousands of California oak trees. Now confirmed in seven coastal counties, SOD attacks California tanoak, coast live oak and California black oak. Although several fungal species and the western oak bark beetle and ambrosia beetles have been associated with the syndrome, we now have solid evidence that a newly discovered Phytophthora species is the primary causal agent. This Phytophtho...

  6. Assessing Methods to Protect Susceptible Oak and Tanoak Stands from Sudden Oak Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedmund Swiecki; Elizabeth Bernhardt

    2010-01-01

    Landowners and managers have been seeking ways to protect susceptible oak (Quercus) species and tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) from sudden oak death (SOD) caused by Phytophthora ramorum. Because disease epidemiology differs between tanoaks and susceptible oaks, we are testing different control strategies...

  7. Effect of phosphate treatments on sudden oak death in tanoak and Shreve's oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doug Schmidt; Matteo Garbelotto; Dave Chambers; Steve Tjosvold

    2006-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of phosphonate chemical treatments for control of sudden oak death in tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) and Shreve's oak (Quercus parvula var. Shrevei). Native stands of mature trees were preventatively treated with Agrifos® systemic fungicide and...

  8. Sudden Oak Death, Phytophthora ramorum: A Persistent Threat to Oaks and Other Tree Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.J. Frankel; K.M. Palmieri

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the status and management of sudden oak death and “sudden larch death” in the urban and wildland forests of California, Oregon, and the UK. The causal pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum, was discovered in all three locations over a decade ago; however, efforts to contain and eliminate infestations have been unsuccessful. These less...

  9. Linking sudden oak death with spatial economic value transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Holmes; Bill Smith

    2008-01-01

    Sudden oak death (caused by Phytophthora ramorum) is currently having a dramatic impact on the flow of ecosystem services provided by trees and forests in California. Timber species in California are not thought to be at risk of mortality from this pathogen and, consequently, economic impacts accrue to non-market values of trees such as aesthetics,...

  10. Temporal epidemiology of sudden oak death in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebba K. Peterson; Everett M. Hansen; Alan Kanaskie

    2015-01-01

    An effort to eradicate Phytophthora ramorum, causal agent of sudden oak death, has been underway since its discovery in Oregon forests. Using an information-theoretical approach, we sought to model yearly variation in the size of newly infested areas and dispersal distance. Maximum dispersal distances were best modeled by spring and winter...

  11. Collaboratively managing sudden oak death using tangible geospatial modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross K. Meentemeyer; Francesco Tonini; Douglas Shoemaker; Richard C. Cobb; Brendan A. Harmon; Vaclav Petras; Anna Petrasova; Helena Mitasova

    2017-01-01

    Failure to build consensus amongst stakeholders has been a primary obstacle barring progress in developing and implementing strategies to manage sudden oak death (SOD). Consensus as to the goals of in situ management of SOD has rarely been reached, because stakeholders’ visions of success vary widely and often compete with each other...

  12. New relationships among the sudden oak death pathogen, bark and ambrosia beetles, and fungi colonizing coast live oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadir Erbilgin; Brice A. McPherson; Pierluigi Bonello; David L. Wood; Andrew J. Nelson

    2008-01-01

    Sudden oak death (SOD) has had devastating effects on several oak species in many California coastal forests. Phytophthora ramorum has been identified as the primary causal agent of sudden oak death. While the pathogen may be capable of killing mature trees, it is likely that in nature opportunistic organisms play significant roles in the decline and...

  13. Innovation and dedication underpin management of sudden oak death (Phytophthora ramorum) in California and Oregon forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Frankel

    2017-01-01

    This special issue of Forest Phytophthoras serves as part of the proceedings from the Sixth Sudden Oak Death Science Symposium held June 21 -23, 2016 at Fort Mason Center in San Francisco, CA, USA. The symposium marked almost 16 years to the day that David Rizzo (UC Davis) and Matteo Garbelotto (UC Berkeley) identified the cause of sudden oak death to be a previously...

  14. Sudden oak death and Phytophthora ramorum: a summary of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    John T. Kliejunas

    2010-01-01

    Sudden oak death and Phytophthora ramorum, both first recognized about a decade ago, have been the subject of hundreds of scientific and popular press articles. This document presents a comprehensive, concise summary of sudden oak death and P. ramorum research findings and management activities. Topics covered include...

  15. Forest stand dynamics and sudden oak death: Mortality in mixed-evergreen forests dominated by coast live oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.B. Brown; B. Allen-Diaz

    2009-01-01

    Sudden oak death (SOD), caused by the recently discovered non-native invasive pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum, has already killed tens of thousands of native coast live oak and tanoak trees in California. Little is known of potential short and long term impacts of this novel plant–pathogen interaction on forest structure and composition. Coast live...

  16. Phytophthora ramorum canker (Sudden Oak Death) disease risk and progress in coast live oak, 2000-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedmund J. Swiecki; Elizabeth Bernhardt

    2015-01-01

    From 2000 through 2012, we collected annual observations on disease symptoms and stand conditions in 128 coast live oak plots in forests affected by sudden oak death (SOD), caused by the introduced pathogen Phytophthora ramorum. Elevated rainfall in one or both of the previous wet seasons was associated with pulses of new infections. However,...

  17. Long-term trends in coast live oak and tanoak stands affected by Phytophthora ramorum canker (Sudden Oak Death)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedmund J. Swiecki; Elizabeth Bernhardt

    2010-01-01

    Permanent plots were established in 2000 to examine how tree and site factors affect risk of Phytophthora ramorum stem canker (sudden oak death [SOD]) and determine how affected stands change over time due to disease. P. ramorum canker was prevalent in the sampled coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia) or...

  18. Potential effects of sudden oak death on small mammals and herpetofauna in coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas J. Tempel; William D. Tietje

    2006-01-01

    Within San Luis Obispo County, California, coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia) woodlands provide important habitat for many wildlife species (see Tietje and others, this volume). Unfortunately, many of these woodlands are at high risk of sudden oak death (SOD) infection should the pathogen (Phytophthora ramorum) become established...

  19. Regeneration and tanoak mortality in coast redwood stands affected by sudden oak death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin S. Ramage; Kevin L. OHara; Alison B. Forreste

    2012-01-01

    Sudden oak death, an emerging disease caused by the exotic pathogen Phytophthora ramorum, is impacting coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) forests throughout coastal California. The most severely affected species, tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus), is currently widespread and abundant in the redwood...

  20. Decomposition and N cycling changes in redwood forests caused by sudden oak death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard C. Cobb; David M. Rizzo

    2012-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum is an emergent pathogen in redwood forests which causes the disease sudden oak death. Although the disease does not kill coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), extensive and rapid mortality of tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus) has removed this...

  1. Susceptibility to Phytophthora ramorum in California bay laurel, a key foliar host of sudden oak death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian L. Anacker; Nathan E. Rank; Daniel Hüberli; Matteo Garbelotto; Sarah Gordon; Rich Whitkus; Tami Harnik; Matthew Meshriy; Lori Miles; Ross K. Meentemeyer

    2008-01-01

    Sudden oak death, caused by the water mold Phytophthora ramorum, is a plant disease responsible for the death of hundreds of thousands of oak and tanoak trees. Some foliar hosts play a major role in the epidemiology of this disease. Upon infection by P. ramorum, these foliar hosts express non-fatal leaf lesions from which large...

  2. Development of a management plan for coast live oak forests affected by sudden oak death in East Bay Regional Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice A. McPherson; Joshua O’Neill; Gregory Biging; Maggi Kelly; David L. Wood

    2015-01-01

    The East Bay Regional Park District maintains the largest urban park system in the United States, comprising over 45 000 ha, and more than 1900 km of trails, with extensive forests bordering residential areas. Sudden oak death (SOD), caused by the introduced oomycete Phytophthora ramorum, was first detected in a district park in 2001. Both...

  3. Predicting the economic costs and property value losses attributed to sudden oak death damage in California (2010-2020)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent Kovacs; Tomas Václavík; Robert G. Haight; Arwin Pang; Nik J. Cunniffe; Christopher A. Gilligan; Ross K. Meentemeyer

    2011-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum, cause of sudden oak death, is a quarantined, non-native, invasive forest pathogen resulting in substantial mortality in coastal live oak (Quercus agrifolia) and several other related tree species on the Pacific Coast of the United States. We estimate the discounted cost of oak treatment, removal, and...

  4. Forest succession following wildfire and sudden oak death epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay M. DeLong; Kerri M. Frangioso; Margaret R. Metz; Ross K. Meentemeyer; Dave M. Rizzo

    2013-01-01

    The Big Sur region of central California is a rugged, fire-prone area that has been severely affected by Phytophthora ramorum. Meentemeyer et al. (2008) estimated that over 200,000 oaks and tanoaks had been killed by P. ramorum across the Big Sur ecoregion by 2005. In June of 2008, a complex of lightning-initiated...

  5. Mapping sudden oak death risk nationally using host, climate, and pathways data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank H. Koch; William D. Smith

    2008-01-01

    In 2002, a team of United States Department of Agriculture-Forest Service (USDA-FS) scientists developed a preliminary risk map to serve as the foundation for an efficient, cost effective sample design for the national sudden oak death detection survey. At the time, a need to initiate rapid detection in the face of limited information on Phytophthora ramorum...

  6. Genetic epidemiology of the Sudden Oak Death pathogen Phytophthora ramorum in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Mascheretti; P.J.P. Croucher; M. Kozanitas; L. Baker; M. Garbelotto

    2009-01-01

    A total of 669 isolates of Phytophthora ramorum, the pathogen responsible for Sudden Oak Death, were collected from 34 Californian forests and from the ornamental plant-trade. Seven microsatellite markers revealed 82 multilocus genotypes (MGs) of which only three were abundant (>10%). Iteratively collapsing based upon minimum ΦST, yielded five meta-samples and five...

  7. Conditions 10 years after sudden oak death suppression treatments in Humboldt County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yana Valachovic; Richard Cobb; Brendan Twieg

    2017-01-01

    In 2006, three isolated sudden oak death- (SOD) infested locations within Humboldt County were selected for silvicultural treatments that targeted the removal and/or reduction of tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus Hook. & Arn.) and California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica Hook. & Arn), the main hosts...

  8. Analysis of populations of the sudden oak death pathogen in Oregon forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhian N. Kamvar; Everett M. Hansen; Alan M. Kanaskie; Meredith M. Larsen; Niklaus J. Grünwald

    2017-01-01

    Sudden oak death, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora ramorum, was first discovered in California toward the end of the 20th century and subsequently emerged on tanoak forests in Oregon before its first detection in 2001 by aerial surveys. The Oregon Department of Forestry has since monitored the epidemic and sampled symptomatic tanoak trees from...

  9. Sudden Oak Death in redwood forests: vegetation dynamics in the wake of tanoak decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin Ramage; Kevin O’Hara

    2010-01-01

    Numerous lines of inquiry have concluded that tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) will continue to experience drastic population declines and may even disappear entirely from redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) forests as a result of the exotic disease sudden oak death (SOD) (Maloney and others 2005, McPherson and others 2005,...

  10. Lessons learned from the USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Region, sudden oak death management program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phil Cannon; Susan J. Frankel; Pete Angwin

    2017-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, the USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Region, State and Private Forestry (S&PF) has provided grants which have supported over 200 projects to address sudden oak death (SOD) in California. To date, over $10 million has been provided by US taxpayers, plus an additional $8 million of non-federal matching funds. These funds...

  11. Managing sudden oak death on federal lands in southwest Oregon: triumphs and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen Michaels Goheen

    2017-01-01

    Since 2001, approximately 5,350 acres of tanoak forests in Curry County, Oregon have been treated to eradicate Phytophthora ramorum and slow the spread of sudden oak death. Over 1,300 of these acres are on lands administered by the USDI Bureau of Land Management (BLM CB), Coos Bay District and the USDA Forest Service, Rogue River-Siskiyou...

  12. Slowing spread of sudden oak death in Oregon forests, 2001–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan Kanaskie; Randy Wiese; Danny Norlander; Jon Laine; Sarah Navarro; Ellen Michaels Goheen; Ron Rhatigan; Everett Hansen; Wendy Sutton; Paul Reeser; Nik Grunwald; Zhian Kamvar; Nancy Osterbauer

    2017-01-01

    Sudden oak death, caused by Phytophthora ramorum, is lethal to tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus) and threatens this species throughout its range in Oregon. The disease was first discovered in coastal southwest Oregon forests in July 2001. An interagency team attempted to eradicate the pathogen through a program of...

  13. The social impacts of sudden oak death and other forest diseases: a panel discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice Alexander; Chris Lee

    2010-01-01

    This panel aimed to discuss the intersection of biology and society; specifically, how we balance competing social and biological concerns in regards to forest pests and land management in general. Four panelists began the discussion: Janice Alexander, Sudden Oak Death Outreach Coordinator for the University of California (U.C.) Cooperative Extension, Marin County and...

  14. Long-term monitoring of sudden oak death in Marin County and the East Bay Hills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice A. McPherson; Greg Biging; Maggi Kelly; David L. Wood

    2017-01-01

    Prior to 2000 the etiology, effects on host trees, and possible consequences for northern California’s forests of the syndrome known as sudden oak death were unknown. We designed a plot-based study to address these issues and to set a baseline for future evaluations.In March-April 2000 we established a total of 20 plots in two forested...

  15. Novel interactions between wildfire and sudden oak death influence sexual and asexual regeneration in coast redwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison B. Simler; Margaret R. Metz; Ross K. Meentemeyer; Kerri M. Frangioso; David M. Rizzo

    2017-01-01

    Novel interactions between compounded disturbances can leave lasting ecological legacies on communities and alter regeneration trajectories. Sudden oak death (SOD), caused by Phytophthora ramorum, is a biotic disturbance, an emerging disease causing widespread oak and tanoak mortality in California’s coastal forests....

  16. Modeling when, where, and how to manage a forest epidemic, motivated by sudden oak death in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nik J. Cunniffe; Richard C. Cobb; Ross K. Meentemeyer; David M. Rizzo; Christopher A. Gilligan

    2016-01-01

    Sudden oak death, caused by Phytophthora ramorum, has killed millions of oak and tanoak in California since its first detection in 1995. Despite some localized small-scale management, there has been no large-scale attempt to slow the spread of the pathogen in California. Here we use a stochastic spatially-explicit model parameterized using data on...

  17. Ancient isolation and independent evolution of the three clonal lineages of the exotic sudden oak death pathogen Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.M. Goss; I. Carbone; N.J. Grünwald

    2009-01-01

    The genus Phytophthora includes some of the most destructive plant pathogens affecting agricultural and native ecosystems and is responsible for a number of recent emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases of plants. Sudden oak death, caused by the exotic pathogen P. ramorum, has caused extensive mortality of oaks...

  18. Lessons Learned from a Decade of Sudden Oak Death in California: Evaluating Local Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Janice; Lee, Christopher A.

    2010-09-01

    Sudden Oak Death has been impacting California’s coastal forests for more than a decade. In that time, and in the absence of a centrally organized and coordinated set of mandatory management actions for this disease in California’s wildlands and open spaces, many local communities have initiated their own management programs. We present five case studies to explore how local-level management has attempted to control this disease. From these case studies, we glean three lessons: connections count, scale matters, and building capacity is crucial. These lessons may help management, research, and education planning for future pest and disease outbreaks.

  19. Letter to the Editor : Standardizing the nomenclature for clonal lineages of the sudden oak death pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünwald, N.J.; Goss, E.M.; Ivors, K.; Garbelotto, M.; Martin, F.N.; Prospero, S.; Hansen, E.; Bonants, P.J.M.; Hamelin, R.C.; Chastagner, M.; Werres, S.; Rizzo, D.M.; Abad, G.; Beales, P.; Bilodeau, G.J.; Blomquist, C.L.; Brasier, C.; Brière, S.C.; Chandelier, A.; Davidson, J.M.; Denman, S.; Elliott, M.; Frankel, S.J.; Goheen, E.M.; Gruyter, de H.; Heungens, K.; James, D.; Kanaskie, A.; McWilliams, M.G.; Man in't Veld, W.; Moralejo, E.; Osterbauer, N.K.; Palm, M.E.; Parke, J.L.; Perez Sierra, A.M.; Shamoun, S.F.; Shishkoff, N.; Tooley, P.W.; Vettraino, A.M.; Webber, J.; Widmer, T.L.

    2009-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum, the causal agent of sudden oak death and ramorum blight, is known to exist as three distinct clonal lineages which can only be distinguished by performing molecular marker-based analyses. However, in the recent literature there exists no consensus on naming of these lineages.

  20. Sudden oak death-caused changes to surface fuel loading and potential fire behavior in Douglas-fir-tanoak forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y.S. Valachovic; C.A. Lee; H. Scanlon; J.M. Varner; R. Glebocki; B.D. Graham; D.M. Rizzo

    2011-01-01

    We compared stand structure and fuel loading in northwestern California forests invaded by Phytophthora ramorum, the cause of sudden oak death, to assess whether the continued presence of this pathogen alters surface fuel loading and potential fire behavior in ways that may encumber future firefighting response. To attempt to account for these...

  1. Phenotypic diversification is associated with host-induced transposon derepression in the Sudden Oak Death pathogen Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The oomycete pathogen Phytophthora ramorum is responsible for sudden oak death (SOD) in California coastal forests. P. ramorum is a generalist pathogen with over 100 known host species. Three or four closely related genotypes of P. ramorum (from a single lineage) were originally introduced in Cali...

  2. Phenotypic diversification is associated with host-induced transposon derepression in the sudden oak death pathogen Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Kasuga; M. Kozanitas; M. Bui; D. Huberli; D. M. Rizzo; M. Garbelotto

    2012-01-01

    The oomycete pathogen Phytophthora ramorum is responsible for sudden oak death (SOD) in California coastal forests. P. ramorum is a generalist pathogen with over 100 known host species. Three or four closely related genotypes of P. ramorum (from a single lineage) were...

  3. Metabolite profiling to predict resistance to Phytophthora ramorum in natural populations of coast live oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Conrad; B. Mcpherson; D. Wood; S. Opiyo; S. Mori; P. Bonello

    2013-01-01

    Sudden oak death, caused by the invasive oomycete pathogen Phytophthora ramorum, continues to shape the dynamics of coastal populations of oak (Quercus spp.) and tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus (Hook. & Arn.) Manos, Cannon & S.H. Oh) in California and tanoak in southwestern Oregon. Over the...

  4. Sudden Oak Death-Induced Tanoak Mortality in Coast Redwood Forests: Current and Predicted Impacts to Stand Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin L. O’Hara

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus syn. Lithocarpus densiflorus is one of the most widespread and abundant associates of coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens, but little is known about the structural relationships between these two species. Knowledge of such relationships is essential for a thorough understanding of the impacts of sudden oak death (caused by the exotic pathogen Phytophthora ramorum, which is currently decimating tanoak populations throughout the redwood range. In this study, we utilized a stratified plot design and a stand reconstruction technique to assess structural impacts, at present and in the future, of this emerging disease. We found that residual trees in diseased plots were more aggregated than trees in unaffected plots, and we predicted that the loss of tanoak will lead to the following short-term changes: greater average diameter, height, height-to-live-crown, and crown length, as well as an increase in average nearest neighbor differences for diameter, height, and crown length. In addition, plots lacking tanoak (living or dead—as compared to plots with tanoak—exhibited greater average diameter and increased nearest neighbor differences with regard to diameter, height, and crown length. We also conducted a preliminary exploration of how sudden oak death-induced structural changes compare with typical old-growth characteristics, and how this disease may affect the structure of old-growth forests.

  5. Relationship between precipitation and tree mortality levels in coastal California forests infested with sudden oak death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent Oblinger; Zachary Heath; Jeffrey Moore; Lisa Fischer

    2013-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum has caused extensive oak (Quercus) and tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus (Hook. & Arn.) Manos, Cannon & S.H. Oh) mortality in portions of the central and north coasts of California. In conjunction with stream and terrestrial surveys, aerial detection surveys have played a...

  6. The effects of sudden oak death and wildfire on forest composition and dynamics in the Big Sur Ecoregion of Coastal California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret R. Metz; Kerri M. Frangioso; Ross K. Meentemeyer; David M. Rizzo

    2012-01-01

    Sudden oak death (SOD), caused by Phytophthora ramorum, is an emerging forest disease associated with extensive tree mortality in coastal California forests (Rizzo et al. 2005). P. ramorum is a generalist pathogen that infects many hosts, but hosts differ in their ability to transmit the disease...

  7. Thermal inactivation of infested plants, nursery equipment, and soil is a management option for the treatment of Phytophthora ramorum, causal agent of sudden oak death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang Schweigkofler; Vernon Huffman; Karen Suslow; Kathleen Kosta

    2017-01-01

    Infected nursery plants play an important role in the spread of Phytophthora ramorum , the causal agent of sudden oak death and ramorum blight. In order to minimize the risk for disease transmission to new areas, nurseries are inspected regularly for P. ramorum , and federal regulations require the eradication of...

  8. Genetic diversity, structure, and demographic change in tanoak, Lithocarpus densiflorus (Fagaceae), the most susceptible species to sudden oak death in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Nettel; R. S. Dodd; Z. Afzal-Rafii

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of population genetic structure of tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) is of interest to pathologists seeking natural variation in resistance to sudden oak death disease, to resource managers who need indications of conservation priorities in this species now threatened by the introduced pathogen (Phytophthora ramorum),...

  9. Profile of sudden death in an adult population (1999-2008).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Downes, M R

    2010-06-01

    Sudden death is the sudden and unexpected death of an individual within 24 hours of symptom onset. The vast majority of these cases are found, at autopsy, to be due to underlying ischaemic cardiac disease. We retrospectively reviewed all adult post mortems performed at Beaumont Hospital over a decade (1999-2008). Our aim was to identify all sudden death cases (natural and accidental) and subclassify them according to age profile and organ system involved. We identified 1230 sudden death cases in the review period with 775 (63%) deaths attributable to ischaemic heart disease. The rate of sudden death remained constant over the decade with 663 (54%) deaths occurring in the first five years. Our negative autopsy rate was 2.8% corresponding to 35 cases. This is the first Irish study to retrospectively review all adult sudden deaths within a defined catchment area and analyse them as outlined above.

  10. Modeling when, where, and how to manage a forest epidemic, motivated by sudden oak death in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunniffe, Nik J; Cobb, Richard C; Meentemeyer, Ross K; Rizzo, David M; Gilligan, Christopher A

    2016-05-17

    Sudden oak death, caused by Phytophthora ramorum, has killed millions of oak and tanoak in California since its first detection in 1995. Despite some localized small-scale management, there has been no large-scale attempt to slow the spread of the pathogen in California. Here we use a stochastic spatially explicit model parameterized using data on the spread of P. ramorum to investigate whether and how the epidemic can be controlled. We find that slowing the spread of P. ramorum is now not possible, and has been impossible for a number of years. However, despite extensive cryptic (i.e., presymptomatic) infection and frequent long-range transmission, effective exclusion of the pathogen from large parts of the state could, in principle, have been possible were it to have been started by 2002. This is the approximate date by which sufficient knowledge of P. ramorum epidemiology had accumulated for large-scale management to be realistic. The necessary expenditure would have been very large, but could have been greatly reduced by optimizing the radius within which infected sites are treated and careful selection of sites to treat. In particular, we find that a dynamic strategy treating sites on the epidemic wave front leads to optimal performance. We also find that "front loading" the budget, that is, treating very heavily at the start of the management program, would greatly improve control. Our work introduces a framework for quantifying the likelihood of success and risks of failure of management that can be applied to invading pests and pathogens threatening forests worldwide.

  11. Use of remotely sensed imagery to map Sudden Oak Death (Phytophthora ramorum) in the Santa Cruz Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Trinka

    This project sought a method to map Sudden Oak Death distribution in the Santa Cruz Mountains of California, a coastal mountain range and one of the locations where this disease was first observed. The project researched a method to identify forest affected by SOD using 30 m multi-spectral Landsat satellite imagery to classify tree mortality at the canopy-level throughout the study area, and applied that method to a time series of data to show pattern of spread. A successful methodology would be of interest to scientists trying to identify areas which escaped disease contagion, environmentalists attempting to quantify damage, and land managers evaluating the health of their forests. The more we can learn about the disease, the more chance we have to prevent further spread and damage to existing wild lands. The primary data source for this research was springtime Landsat Climate Data Record surface reflectance data. Non-forest areas were masked out using data produced by the National Land Cover Database and supplemental land cover classification from the Landsat 2011 Climate Data Record image. Areas with other known causes of tree death, as identified by Fire and Resource Assessment Program fire perimeter polygons, and US Department of Agriculture Forest Health Monitoring Program Aerial Detection Survey polygons, were also masked out. Within the remaining forested study area, manually-created points were classified based on the land cover contained by the corresponding Landsat 2011 pixel. These were used to extract value ranges from the Landsat bands and calculated vegetation indices. The range and index which best differentiated healthy from dead trees, SWIR/NIR, was applied to each Landsat scene in the time series to map tree mortality. Results Validation Points, classified using Google Earth high-resolution aerial imagery, were created to evaluate the accuracy of the mapping methodology for the 2011 data.

  12. LIPID PROFILE IN SUDDEN SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS- A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anil H. T; S. D. Mahamood Pasha

    2017-01-01

    .... Relevant history was obtained. Examination and investigations were conducted. RESULTS Statistical analysis showed that there was significant difference between the means of lipid profile of the patients and the control group...

  13. Comparative profiling analysis of woody flavouring from vine-shoots and oak chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado de la Torre, M Pilar; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Luque de Castro, M Dolores

    2014-02-01

    Woody liquid flavourings extracted from different varieties of vine shoots and oak chips have been characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to compare the profile of compounds as potential contributors to the organoleptical properties of wine and spirits aged in oak barrels. Oak chips are frequently added to barrels to accelerate the ageing process, while vine shoots are produced in high amounts in wine-producing countries. The extracts were isolated by superheated liquid extraction (SHLE) after optimization of extraction variables. The SHLE protocol was performed using ethanol-water mixtures (pH 3) at 220 °C for 60 min. Compounds were identified using NIST databases, and the resulting profile was used as a dataset for qualitative and semi-quantitative comparison between extracts obtained from different varieties of vine shoots and oak chips. Statistical analysis enabled demonstration of the similarity among extracts from vine shoots and oak wood, providing the first study on this subject. The special role of phenols and furanic derivatives has been described. This study is the first stage for characterization of vine shoots as a by-product with potential for use in the oenological field. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Oak protein profile alterations upon root colonization by an ectomycorrhizal fungus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebastiana, Mónica; Martins, Joana; Figueiredo, Andreia

    2017-01-01

    An increased knowledge on the real impacts of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis in forest species is needed to optimize forest sustainable productivity and thus to improve forest services and their capacity to act as carbon sinks. In this study, we investigated the response of an oak species to ectomycor......An increased knowledge on the real impacts of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis in forest species is needed to optimize forest sustainable productivity and thus to improve forest services and their capacity to act as carbon sinks. In this study, we investigated the response of an oak species...... to ectomycorrhizae formation using a proteomics approach complemented by biochemical analysis of carbohydrate levels. Comparative proteome analysis between mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal cork oak plants revealed no differences at the foliar level. However, the protein profile of 34 unique oak proteins was altered...... in the roots. Consistent with the results of the biochemical analysis, the proteome analysis of the mycorrhizal roots suggests a decreasing utilization of sucrose for the metabolic activity of mycorrhizal roots which is consistent with an increased allocation of carbohydrates from the plant to the fungus...

  15. Effect of oak wood barrel capacity and utilization time on phenolic and sensorial profile evolution of an Encruzado white wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Paulo; Muxagata, Sara; Correia, Ana C; Nunes, Fernando M; Cosme, Fernanda; Jordão, António M

    2017-11-01

    Several studies have reported the influence of diverse winemaking technologies in white wine characteristics. However, the impact of the use of different oak wood barrel capacities and utilization time on the evolution of white wine phenolic content and sensorial characteristics are not usually considered. Thus the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of oak wood barrel capacity and utilization time on the evolution of phenolic compounds, browning potential index and sensorial profile of an Encruzado white wine. For the 180 aging days considered, the use of new oak wood barrels induced a greater increase in global phenolic composition, including several individual compounds, such as gallic and ellagic acid, independently of the barrel capacity. Tendency for a lesser increase of the browning potential index values was detected for white wines aged in new oak wood barrels. The sensorial profile evolution, showed significant differences only for the aroma descriptors, namely for 'wood aroma' and 'aroma intensity', white wine aged in 225 L new oak wood barrels being the highest scored. The results show that, in general, the use of different capacities and utilization time of oak wood barrels used for white wine aging could play an important role in white wine quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Aroma potential of oak battens prepared from decommissioned oak barrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sijing; Crump, Anna M; Grbin, Paul R; Cozzolino, Daniel; Warren, Peter; Hayasaka, Yoji; Wilkinson, Kerry L

    2015-04-08

    During barrel maturation, volatile compounds are extracted from oak wood and impart aroma and flavor to wine, enhancing its character and complexity. However, barrels contain a finite pool of extractable material, which diminishes with time. As a consequence, most barrels are decommissioned after 5 or 6 years. This study investigated whether or not decommissioned barrels can be "reclaimed" and utilized as a previously untapped source of quality oak for wine maturation. Oak battens were prepared from staves of decommissioned French and American oak barrels, and their composition analyzed before and after toasting. The oak lactone glycoconjugate content of untoasted reclaimed oak was determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, while the concentrations of cis- and trans-oak lactone, guaiacol, 4-methlyguaiacol, vanillin, eugenol, furfural, and 5-methylfurfural present in toasted reclaimed oak were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Aroma potential was then evaluated by comparing the composition of reclaimed oak with that of new oak. Comparable levels of oak lactone glycoconjugates and oak volatiles were observed, demonstrating the aroma potential of reclaimed oak and therefore its suitability as a raw material for alternative oak products, i.e., chips or battens, for the maturation of wine. The temperature profiles achieved during toasting were also measured to evaluate the viability of any yeast or bacteria present in reclaimed oak.

  17. Earliest effects of sudden occlusions on pressure profiles in selected locations of the human systemic arterial system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majka, Marcin; Gadda, Giacomo; Taibi, Angelo; Gałązka, Mirosław; Zieliński, Piotr

    2017-03-01

    We have developed a numerical simulation method for predicting the time dependence (wave form) of pressure at any location in the systemic arterial system in humans. The method uses the matlab-Simulink environment. The input data include explicitly the geometry of the arterial tree, treated up to an arbitrary bifurcation level, and the elastic properties of arteries as well as rheological parameters of blood. Thus, the impact of anatomic details of an individual subject can be studied. The method is applied here to reveal the earliest stages of mechanical reaction of the pressure profiles to sudden local blockages (thromboses or embolisms) of selected arteries. The results obtained with a purely passive model provide reference data indispensable for studies of longer-term effects due to neural and humoral mechanisms. The reliability of the results has been checked by comparison of two available sets of anatomic, elastic, and rheological data involving (i) 55 and (ii) 138 arterial segments. The remaining arteries have been replaced with the appropriate resistive elements. Both models are efficient in predicting an overall shift of pressure, whereas the accuracy of the 55-segment model in reproducing the detailed wave forms and stabilization times turns out dependent on the location of the blockage and the observation point.

  18. Physiological profiling of soil microbial communities in a Florida scrub-oak ecosystem: spatial distribution and nutrient limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alisha L P; Garland, Jay L; Day, Frank P

    2009-01-01

    Rapid physiological profiling of heterotrophic microbial communities enables intensive analysis of the factors affecting activity in aerobic habitats, such as soil. Previous methods for performing such profiling were severely limited due to enrichment bias and inflexibility in incubation conditions. We tested a new physiological profiling approach based on a microtiter plate oxygen sensor system (Becton Dickinson Oxygen Biosensor System (BDOBS)), which allows for testing of lower substrate addition (i.e., lower enrichment potential) and manipulation of physiochemical assay conditions, such as pH and nutrients. Soil microbial communities associated with a scrub-oak forest ecosystem on Merritt Island Wildlife Refuge in central Florida, USA, were studied in order to evaluate microbial activity in a nutrient poor soil and to provide baseline data on the site for subsequent evaluation of the effects of elevated CO(2) on ecosystem function. The spatial variation in physiological activity amongst different habitats (litter, bulk soil, and rhizosphere) was examined as a function of adaptation to local resources (i.e., water soluble extracts of roots and leaf litter) and the degree of N and P limitation. All the communities were primarily N-limited, with a secondary P limitation, which was greater in the rhizosphere and bulk soil. The litter community showed greater overall oxygen consumption when exposed to litter extracts relative to the rhizosphere or soil, suggesting acclimation toward greater use of the mixed substrates in the extract. Root extracts were readily used by communities from all the habitats with no habitat specific acclimation observed. A priming effect was detected in all habitats; addition of glucose caused a significant increase in the use of soil organic carbon. Response to added glucose was only observed with N and P addition, suggesting that C may be lost to the groundwater from these porous soils because nutrient limitation prevents C immobilization.

  19. Diagnosis and Management of Phytophthora ramorum canker in canyon live oak, an atypical bole canker host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedmund J. Swiecki; Elizabeth Bernhardt; Kamyar Aram; David Rizzo

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of sudden oak death (SOD) in tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus (Hook. & Arn.) Manos, Cannon & S.H. Oh) and susceptible red/black oak species (coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia Née; Shreve oak, Q. parvula Greene var. shrevei (C.H. Mull.) Nixon; California...

  20. Contemporary California Indians, oaks and Sudden Oak Death (Phytophthora ramorum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beverly R. Ortiz

    2008-01-01

    This paper begins with a survey of contemporary California Indian utilization of acorns for food, including an examination of: (1) familial, community and cultural contexts in which acorn is shared and eaten; (2) new and old acorn processing techniques in use today and the foods that result; (3) the symbolic context of the foods in terms of ecological and social...

  1. Environmental Management Waste Management Facility Waste Lot Profile 155.5 for K-1015-A Laundry Pit, East Tennessee Technology Park Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Jacobs, Raymer J.E.

    2008-06-12

    In 1989, the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), which includes the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), was placed on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) National Priorities List. The Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) (DOE 1992), effective January 1, 1992, now governs environmental restoration activities conducted under CERCLA at the ORR. Following signing of the FFA, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the state of Tennessee signed the Oak Ridge Accelerated Cleanup Plan Agreement on June 18, 2003. The purpose of this agreement is to define a streamlined decision-making process to facilitate the accelerated implementation of cleanup, to resolve ORR milestone issues, and to establish future actions necessary to complete the accelerated cleanup plan by the end of fiscal year 2008. While the FFA continues to serve as the overall regulatory framework for remediation, the Accelerated Cleanup Plan Agreement supplements existing requirements to streamline the decision-making process. The disposal of the K-1015 Laundry Pit waste will be executed in accordance with the 'Record of Decision for Soil, Buried Waste, and Subsurface Structure Actions in Zone, 2, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee' (DOB/ORAH-2161&D2) and the 'Waste Handling Plan for the Consolidated Soil and Waste Sites with Zone 2, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee' (DOE/OR/01-2328&D1). This waste lot consists of a total of approximately 50 cubic yards of waste that will be disposed at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) as non-containerized waste. This material will be sent to the EMWMF in dump trucks. This profile is for the K-1015-A Laundry Pit and includes debris (e.g., concrete, metal rebar, pipe), incidental soil, plastic and wood, and secondary waste (such as plastic sheeting, hay bales and other erosion control materials, wooden

  2. Biomarkers identify coast live oaks that are resistant to the invasive pathogen Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice A. McPherson; Sylvia R. Mori; Anna O. Conrad; Stephen Opiyo; Pierluigi Bonello; David L. Wood

    2015-01-01

    California coast live oaks (Quercus agrifolia) trees have suffered large losses from sudden oak death, caused by the introduced oomycete Phytophthora ramorum. In this review paper, we discuss oak plant chemistry as a potential predictor of disease susceptibility. We have recorded an annual mortality rate of three percent in...

  3. Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Arrest (SCA) Back to Heart Diseases & Disorders Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) Sudden Cardiac Arrest ( SCA ) occurs when the heart stops beating, abruptly ... to saving someone who is having a sudden cardiac arrest , it is important to understand the difference. The ...

  4. Environmental Management Waste Management Facility Proxy Waste Lot Profile 6.999 for Building K-25 West Wing, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigsby V.P.

    2009-02-12

    slab], roofing, structural steel supports, interior walls, and exterior walls) and support system components including the recirculation cooling water (RCW); electrical; communication; fire protection; ventilation; process coolant; process lube oil; utilities such as steam, water and drain lines; (2) Process Piping; (3) Seal Exhaust Headers; (4) Seal Exhaust Traps; (5) Process Valves; (6) Differential Blind Multipliers (DBM)/Partial Blind Multipliers (PBM); and (7) Aftercoolers (also known as Intercell coolers). Converters and compressors while components of the process gas system, are not included in this commingled waste lot. On January 6, 2009, a meeting was held with EPA, TDEC, DOE and the team for the sole purpose of finalizing the objectives, format, and content of WPXL 6.999. The objective of WPXL 6.999 was to provide a crosswalk to the building structure and the PGE components profiles. This was accomplished by providing tables with references to the specific section of the individual profiles for each of the WLs. There are two building profiles and eight PGE profiles. All of the waste identified in the individual profiles will be commingled, shipped, and disposed exclusively under WPXL 6.999. The individual profiles were provided to the EPA and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) for information purposes only. This summary WPXL 6.999 will be submitted to EPA, TDEC, and DOE for review and approval. The format agreed upon by the regulators and DOE form the basis for WPXL 6.999. The agreed format is found on pages v and vi of the CONTENTS section of this profile. The disposal of this waste will be executed in accordance with the Action Memorandum for the Decontamination and Decommissioning of the K-25 and K-27 Buildings, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2002), Removal Action Work Plan for the K-25 and K-27 Buildings, Process Equipment Removal and Demolition, K-25/K-27 Project, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak

  5. OakContigDF159.1, a reference library for studying differential gene expression in Quercus robur during controlled biotic interactions: use for quantitative transcriptomic profiling of oak roots in ectomycorrhizal symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkka, Mika T; Herrmann, Sylvie; Wubet, Tesfaye; Feldhahn, Lasse; Recht, Sabine; Kurth, Florence; Mailänder, Sarah; Bönn, Markus; Neef, Maren; Angay, Oguzhan; Bacht, Michael; Graf, Marcel; Maboreke, Hazel; Fleischmann, Frank; Grams, Thorsten E E; Ruess, Liliane; Schädler, Martin; Brandl, Roland; Scheu, Stefan; Schrey, Silvia D; Grosse, Ivo; Buscot, François

    2013-07-01

    Oaks (Quercus spp.), which are major forest trees in the northern hemisphere, host many biotic interactions, but molecular investigation of these interactions is limited by fragmentary genome data. To date, only 75 oak expressed sequence tags (ESTs) have been characterized in ectomycorrhizal (EM) symbioses. We synthesized seven beneficial and detrimental biotic interactions between microorganisms and animals and a clone (DF159) of Quercus robur. Sixteen 454 and eight Illumina cDNA libraries from leaves and roots were prepared and merged to establish a reference for RNA-Seq transcriptomic analysis of oak EMs with Piloderma croceum. Using the Mimicking Intelligent Read Assembly (MIRA) and Trinity assembler, the OakContigDF159.1 hybrid assembly, containing 65 712 contigs with a mean length of 1003 bp, was constructed, giving broad coverage of metabolic pathways. This allowed us to identify 3018 oak contigs that were differentially expressed in EMs, with genes encoding proline-rich cell wall proteins and ethylene signalling-related transcription factors showing up-regulation while auxin and defence-related genes were down-regulated. In addition to the first report of remorin expression in EMs, the extensive coverage provided by the study permitted detection of differential regulation within large gene families (nitrogen, phosphorus and sugar transporters, aquaporins). This might indicate specific mechanisms of genome regulation in oak EMs compared with other trees. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Studies of variability in Holm oak (Quercus ilex subsp. ballota [Desf.] Samp.) through acorn protein profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero Galván, José; Valledor, Luis; Navarro Cerrillo, Rafael M; Gil Pelegrín, Eustaquio; Jorrín-Novo, Jesus V

    2011-08-12

    Studies of variability in Holm oak (Quercus ilex subsp. ballota [Desf.] Samp.), the dominant tree species in the typical Mediterranean forest, have been carried out by using electrophoresis-based proteomic analysis of acorns. Ten populations distributed throughout the Andalusia region have been surveyed. Acorns were sampled from individual trees and proteins extracted from seed flour by using the TCA-acetone precipitation protocol. Extracts were subjected to SDS-PAGE and 2-DE for protein separation, gel images captured, spot or bands quantified, and subjected to statistical analysis (ANOVA, SOM and clustering). Variable bands or spots among populations were subjected to MALDI-TOF/TOF and LC-MS/MS for identification. The protein yield of the used protocol varied among populations, and it was in the 2.92-5.92 mg/g dry weight range. A total of 23 bands were resolved by SDS-PAGE in the 3-35 kDa Mr range, with 8 and 12, out of the total, showing respectively qualitative and quantitative statistically significant differences among populations. Data allowed grouping populations, with groups being correlated according to geographical location and climate conditions, to northern and southern, as well as the discrimination of both mesic and xeric groups. Acorn flour extracts from the most distant populations were analyzed by 2-DE, and 56 differential spots were proposed as markers of variability. Identified proteins were classified into two principal categories; storage and stress/defense protein. Besides providing the first reference map of mature acorn seeds, the use of SDS-PAGE and proteomics in characterizing natural biodiversity in forest trees will be discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sudden infant death syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, Stephen M; Ward, Chad E; Garcia, Karla L

    2015-01-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden unexpected death of a child younger than one year during sleep that cannot be explained after a postmortem evaluation including autopsy, a thorough history, and scene evaluation...

  8. Sudden Stratospheric Warming Compendium

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sudden Stratospheric Warming Compendium (SSWC) data set documents the stratospheric, tropospheric, and surface climate impacts of sudden stratospheric warmings. This...

  9. What Causes Sudden Cardiac Arrest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Sudden Cardiac Arrest Sudden Cardiac Arrest Also known as Cardiac Arrest , Sudden Cardiac Death ... the condition For People Who Have Survived Sudden Cardiac Arrest If you've already had SCA, you're ...

  10. What Is Sudden Cardiac Arrest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Sudden Cardiac Arrest Sudden Cardiac Arrest Also known as Cardiac Arrest , Sudden Cardiac Death ... the condition For People Who Have Survived Sudden Cardiac Arrest If you've already had SCA, you're ...

  11. Relationship between field resistance to Phytophthora ramorum and constitutive phenolic chemistry of coast live oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.M. Nagle; B.A. McPherson; D.L. Wood; M. Garbelotto; A.O. Conrad; S. Opiyo; P. Bonello

    2012-01-01

    Sudden oak death, caused by Phytophthora ramorum, has resulted in high levels of coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia Nee (CLO) mortality. However, some CLO survive in areas with high disease pressure and may thus be resistant. We tested the hypothesis that such field resistant trees contain constitutively higher levels of...

  12. Attraction of ambrosia and bark beetles to coast live oaks infected by Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice A. McPherson; Nadir Erbilgin; David L. Wood; Pavel Svihra; Andrew J. Storer; Richard B. Standiford

    2008-01-01

    Sudden oak death, caused by Phytophthora ramorum (Werres, de Cock & Man in?t Veld), has killed thousands of oaks (Quercus spp.) in coastal California forests since the mid-1990s. Bark and ambrosia beetles that normally colonize dead or severely weakened trees selectively tunnel into the bleeding cankers that are the first...

  13. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Henry L.; And Others

    There is a growing body of evidence that Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) victims are not completely normal and healthy, as was once believed. A variety of new information from several disciplines strongly suggests that the infant who dies suddenly and unexpectedly may do so because of subtle developmental, neurologic, cardiorespiratory, and…

  14. Sudden death victims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceelen, Manon; van der Werf, Christian; Hendrix, Anneke; Naujocks, Tatjana; Woonink, Frits; de Vries, Philip; van der Wal, Allard; Das, Kees

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to ascertain accordance between cause of death established by the forensic physician and autopsy results in young sudden death victims in the Netherlands. Sudden death victims aged 1-45 years examined by forensic physicians operating in the participating regions which also

  15. Sudden Cardiac Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberger

    1999-08-01

    Great strides have been made in the approach to the management of sudden cardiac death. Patients who have been successfully resuscitated from an episode of sudden cardiac death are at high risk of recurrence. Much larger groups of patients who have not had episodes of sudden cardiac death are also at substantial risk for this event, however. Because the survival rates associated with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest are dismal, these high-risk populations must be targeted for prophylaxis. Beta-blockers have been shown to be an effective pharmacologic therapy in patients who have had myocardial infarction and, most recently, in patients with congestive heart failure. When possible, these agents should be used in these populations. No class I or class III antiarrhythmic drugs, with the possible exception of amiodarone, have been shown to have efficacy as prophylactic agents for the reduction of mortality in these populations. In patients who have hemodynamically significant sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias or an aborted episode of sudden cardiac death, the current therapy of choice is an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). For prophylaxis of sudden cardiac death in patients who have not had a previous event, several approaches may be considered. Currently, the best therapeutic approach for prophylaxis of sudden cardiac death seems to be the ICD; however, use of this device can be justified only in patients at substantial risk of sudden cardiac death. Defining the high-risk populations that will benefit from ICDs is critical in managing the problem of sudden cardiac death.

  16. Sudden cardiac death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Parakh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death is one of the most common cause of mortality worldwide. Despite significant advances in the medical science, there is little improvement in the sudden cardiac death related mortality. Coronary artery disease is the most common etiology behind sudden cardiac death, in the above 40 years population. Even in the apparently healthy population, there is a small percentage of patients dying from sudden cardiac death. Given the large denominator, this small percentage contributes to the largest burden of sudden cardiac death. Identification of this at risk group among the apparently healthy individual is a great challenge for the medical fraternity. This article looks into the causes and methods of preventing SCD and at some of the Indian data. Details of Brugada syndrome, Long QT syndrome, Genetics of SCD are discussed. Recent guidelines on many of these causes are summarised.

  17. Real-Time Mass Spectrometry Monitoring of Oak Wood Toasting: Elucidating Aroma Development Relevant to Oak-aged Wine Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Ross R.; Wellinger, Marco; Gloess, Alexia N.; Nichols, David S.; Breadmore, Michael C.; Shellie, Robert A.; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2015-11-01

    We introduce a real-time method to monitor the evolution of oak aromas during the oak toasting process. French and American oak wood boards were toasted in an oven at three different temperatures, while the process-gas was continuously transferred to the inlet of a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer for online monitoring. Oak wood aroma compounds important for their sensory contribution to oak-aged wine were tentatively identified based on soft ionization and molecular mass. The time-intensity profiles revealed toasting process dynamics illustrating in real-time how different compounds evolve from the oak wood during toasting. Sufficient sensitivity was achieved to observe spikes in volatile concentrations related to cracking phenomena on the oak wood surface. The polysaccharide-derived compounds exhibited similar profiles; whilst for lignin-derived compounds eugenol formation differed from that of vanillin and guaiacol at lower toasting temperatures. Significant generation of oak lactone from precursors was evident at 225 oC. Statistical processing of the real-time aroma data showed similarities and differences between individual oak boards and oak wood sourced from the different origins. This study enriches our understanding of the oak toasting process and demonstrates a new analytical approach for research on wood volatiles.

  18. Real-Time Mass Spectrometry Monitoring of Oak Wood Toasting: Elucidating Aroma Development Relevant to Oak-aged Wine Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Ross R; Wellinger, Marco; Gloess, Alexia N; Nichols, David S; Breadmore, Michael C; Shellie, Robert A; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2015-11-27

    We introduce a real-time method to monitor the evolution of oak aromas during the oak toasting process. French and American oak wood boards were toasted in an oven at three different temperatures, while the process-gas was continuously transferred to the inlet of a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer for online monitoring. Oak wood aroma compounds important for their sensory contribution to oak-aged wine were tentatively identified based on soft ionization and molecular mass. The time-intensity profiles revealed toasting process dynamics illustrating in real-time how different compounds evolve from the oak wood during toasting. Sufficient sensitivity was achieved to observe spikes in volatile concentrations related to cracking phenomena on the oak wood surface. The polysaccharide-derived compounds exhibited similar profiles; whilst for lignin-derived compounds eugenol formation differed from that of vanillin and guaiacol at lower toasting temperatures. Significant generation of oak lactone from precursors was evident at 225 (o)C. Statistical processing of the real-time aroma data showed similarities and differences between individual oak boards and oak wood sourced from the different origins. This study enriches our understanding of the oak toasting process and demonstrates a new analytical approach for research on wood volatiles.

  19. Decay fungi of oaks and associated hardwoods for western arborists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessie A. Glaeser; Kevin T. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Examination of trees for the presence and extent of decay should be part of any hazard tree assessment. Identification of the fungi responsible for the decay improves prediction of tree performance and the quality of management decisions, including tree pruning or removal. Scouting for Sudden Oak Death (SOD) in the West has drawn attention to hardwood tree species,...

  20. Oaks and Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay Antunez de Mayolo

    1991-01-01

    A number of educational projects which focus on youth awareness and involvement with California oaks have been developed during the last five years. Primarily used in urban areas where oak populations have declined, many of these programs promote seedling propagation, tree planting and help to develop student understanding of environmental issues involving oaks while...

  1. Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances (SID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sudden ionospheric disturbances (SID) are caused by solar flare enhanced X-rays in the 1 to 10 angstrom range. Solar flares can produce large increases of ionization...

  2. Geomagnetic Storm Sudden Commencements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Storm Sudden Commencements (ssc) 1868 to present: STORM1 and STORM2 Lists: (Some text here is taken from the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy...

  3. Sudden infant death syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... required by law into an unexplained cause of death may make these feelings more painful. A member of a local chapter of the National Foundation for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome may assist with counseling and reassurance to ...

  4. Ellagitannin content, volatile composition and sensory profile of wines from different countries matured in oak barrels subjected to different toasting methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Centeno, M R; Chira, K; Teissedre, P-L

    2016-11-01

    Ellagitannins and aromatic compounds evolution in Cabernet Sauvignon wines macerated in oak barrels for a year was studied. Identical barrels with different toastings (medium toasting, medium toasting with watering, Noisette) were used in French, Italian and USA cellars. Ellagitannins increased by 84-96% with aging time, as did woody volatiles, by 86-91% in French wines and 23-35% in Italian wines, while fruity aroma compounds declined by 50-57% in the French and Italian wines over a 12-months period. Nevertheless, other behaviors and different kinetics rates for these compounds were observed depending on barrel toasting, wine matrix and their interactions. Perceived overall woody intensity was closely related to trans-whiskey lactone, guaiacol and vanillin, whereas astringency and bitterness were significantly linked to ellagitannins (ptoasting effect on wines from different countries matured in the same oak barrels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) Overview Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the unexplained death, usually during sleep, of a seemingly healthy baby ... year old. SIDS is sometimes known as crib death because the infants often die in their cribs. ...

  6. Sudden Cardiac Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard, Bjarke; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Jabbari, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to describe the use of pharmacotherapy in a nationwide cohort of young patients with sudden cardiac death (SCD). Background Several drugs have been associated with an increased risk of SCD and sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS). It remains unclear how...... pharmacotherapy may contribute to the overall burden of SCD in the general population. Methods This was a nationwide study that included all deaths that occurred between 2000 and 2009 and between 2007 and 2009 in people age 1 to 35 years and 36 to 49 years, respectively. Two physicians identified all SCDs through...... review of death certificates. Autopsy reports were collected. Pharmacotherapy prescribed within 90 days before SCD was identified in the Danish Registry of Medicinal Product Statistics. Results We identified 1,363 SCDs; median age was 38 years (interquartile range: 29 to 45 years), and 72% (n = 975) were men...

  7. [Sudden death in athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulbertus, H

    2001-05-01

    Sudden death is rare in the young athlete. The causes may vary. In the US, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy plays the predominant role whereas in Europe right ventricular arrhythmogenic dysplasia and atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries are more frequent. Other causes such as congenital anomalies of the coronary vessels, myocarditis, Marfan's disease, the long QT, the Brugada and the Wollf-Parkinson-White syndromes exist, but are rare. Attentive preparticipation screening (clinical history and medical examination) is mandatory in all future young athletes.

  8. How Is Sudden Cardiac Arrest Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Sudden Cardiac Arrest Sudden Cardiac Arrest Also known as Cardiac Arrest , Sudden Cardiac Death ... the condition For People Who Have Survived Sudden Cardiac Arrest If you've already had SCA, you're ...

  9. How Is Sudden Cardiac Arrest Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Sudden Cardiac Arrest Sudden Cardiac Arrest Also known as Cardiac Arrest , Sudden Cardiac Death ... the condition For People Who Have Survived Sudden Cardiac Arrest If you've already had SCA, you're ...

  10. Sudden Death Following Exercise; a Case Series Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fares Najari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Natural and unexpected death that happens within less than one hour of first symptom occurrence is called sudden death. Cardiovascular diseases are the main known reason of sudden death and more than 75% of sudden deaths in athletes are assigned to it. Here we reported the autopsy results of all cases with sudden death following exercise that were referred to forensic center of Tehran, Iran, from 2009 to 2014. Methods: In this cross sectional study all subjects who were registered to forensic medicine center of Tehran, Iran, from 2009 to 2014, as a case of sudden death following exercise were evaluated. Demographic data and medical history as well as autopsy and toxicology findings were retrospectively gathered using profiles of the deceased. Results were reported using descriptive analysis. Results: 14 cases were registered as sudden death following exercise in forensic medicine profiles during the study period. Exploring the files of the mentioned deceased, revealed five non-compatible cases in this regard. Finally, 9 eligible cases were enrolled (88.9% male. The mean age of the deceased was 28.66 ± 10.86 years (range: 7 – 40. Toxicological tests were available for 7 cases, one of which was positive for tramadol. Sudden death following football was reported most frequently (44.4%. Only 3 (33.3% cases had herald signs such as chest pain, syncope, or loss of consciousness. 1 case (11.11% had a positive history of sudden death in relatives. Conclusion: Although most sudden death victims are asymptomatic until the event, all those who suffer from symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, dizziness, fatigue and irregular heart rate during physical activities, should be screened regarding common probable causes of sudden death.

  11. Host-induced genome alterations in Phytophthora ramorum, I. NA1 lineage on coast live oak in California, II. EU1 lineage on Chamaecyparis lawsoniana in UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao Kasuga; Mai Bui; Elizabeth Bernhardt; Tedmund Swiecki; Kamyar Aram; Lien Bertier; Jennifer Yuzon; Liliana M. Cano; Joan Webber; Clive Brasier; Caroline Press; Niklaus Grünwald; David Rizzo; Matteo Garbelotto

    2017-01-01

    Rapid phenotypic diversification in clonal invasive populations is often observed, although the underlying genetic mechanisms remain elusive. Lineages of the sudden oak death pathogen Phytophthora ramorum are exclusively clonal, yet isolates of the NA1 lineage from oak (Quercus spp.) frequently exhibit...

  12. Experimental design approach to evaluate the impact of oak chips and micro-oxygenation on the volatile profile of red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, C; Rodríguez-Tecedor, S; Esteban-Díez, I; Pérez-del-Notario, N; González-Sáiz, J M

    2014-04-01

    A chemometric strategy based on combining an experimental design approach and response surface methodology was applied to gain further knowledge on the influence of chip maceration and micro-oxygenation related factors (oxygen doses, chip doses, wood origin, toasting degree and maceration time) on the volatile profile of red wines during the accelerated ageing process. The results obtained indicated that the volatile profile of wines could be modulated by applying different combinations of factor conditions. Thus, these results would be used to obtain wines with specific volatile profiles that would lead to particular olfactory attributes according to consumers' preferences. Moreover, it was shown that combining wood from different origins helped enhance the quality of the elaborated wines. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that an experimental design methodology has been applied to simultaneously evaluate the influence of five different ageing parameters on the volatile profile of red wines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hypokalemia and sudden cardiac death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Keld

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately three million people suffer sudden cardiac death annually. These deaths often emerge from a complex interplay of substrates and triggers. Disturbed potassium homeostasis among heart cells is an example of such a trigger. Thus, hypokalemia and, also, more transient...... of fatal arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death a patient is, the more attention should be given to the potassium homeostasis....

  14. Genetics of sudden cardiac death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezzina, Connie R.; Lahrouchi, Najim; Priori, Silvia G.

    2015-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death occurs in a broad spectrum of cardiac pathologies and is an important cause of mortality in the general population. Genetic studies conducted during the past 20 years have markedly illuminated the genetic basis of the inherited cardiac disorders associated with sudden cardiac

  15. Decay fungi associated with oaks and other hardwoods in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessie A. Glaeser; Kevin T. Smith

    2010-01-01

    An assessment of the presence and extent of the wood decay process should be part of any hazard tree analysis. Identification of the fungi responsible for decay improves both the prediction of the consequences of wood decay and the prescription of management options including tree pruning or removal. Until the outbreak of Sudden Oak Death (SOD), foresters in the...

  16. Environmental Management Waste Management Facility Waste Lot Profile for the K-770 Scrap Yard Soils and Miscellaneous Debris, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee - EMWMF Waste Lot 4.12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davenport M.

    2009-04-15

    Waste Lot 4.12 consists of approximately 17,500 yd{sup 3} of low-level, radioactively contaminated soil, concrete, and incidental metal and debris generated from remedial actions at the K-770 Scrap Metal Yard and Contaminated Debris Site (the K-770 Scrap Yard) at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP). The excavated soil will be transported by dump truck to the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF). This profile provides project-specific information to demonstrate compliance with Attainment Plan for Risk/Toxicity-based Waste Acceptance Criteria at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2001). The K-770 Scrap Yard is an approximately 36-acre storage area located southwest of the main portion of ETTP, outside the security perimeter fence in the Powerhouse Area adjacent to the Clinch River. The K-770 area was used to store radioactively contaminated or suspected contaminated materials during and previous to the K-25 Site cascade upgrading program. The waste storage facility began operation in the 1960s and is estimated to at one time contain in excess of 40,000 tons of low-level, radioactively contaminated scrap metal. Scrap metal was taken to the site when it was found to contain alpha or beta/gamma activity on the surface or if the scrap metal originated from a process building. The segregated metal debris was removed from the site as part of the K-770 Scrap Removal Action (RA) Project that was completed in fiscal year (FY) 2007 by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). An area of approximately 10 acres is located in EUs 29 and 31 where the scrap was originally located in the 100-year floodplain. In the process of moving the materials around and establishing segregated waste piles above the 100-year floodplain, the footprint of the site was expanded by 10-15 acres in EUs 30 and 32. The area in EUs 29 and 31 that was cleared of metallic debris in the floodplain was sown with grass. The areas in EUs 30 and 32 have some scattered

  17. The historical significance of oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. V. Thirgood

    1971-01-01

    A brief history of the importance of oak in Europe, contrasting the methods used in France and Britain to propagate the species and manage the forests for continued productivity. The significance of oak as a strategic resource during the sailing-ship era is stressed, and mention is made of the early development of oak management in North America. The international...

  18. Cork oak woodlands patchiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Augusta; Madeira, Manuel; Plieninger, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The cork oak (Quercus suber L.) woodlands of the agroforestry landscapes of Southwestern Iberia are undergoing drastic change due to severe natural and anthropogenic disturbances. These may eventually result in woodland loss or deforestation, the final step of an ongoing process of woodland...... woodlands exhibited similar trends of decreasing fractional canopy cover and decreasing number of larger patches. Patchiness rather than fractional canopy cover seems, however, to be potentially more useful as a signature of imminent oak woodlands deforestation, given that its contrast before and after...

  19. [Genetics of sudden unexplained death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campuzano, Oscar; Allegue, Catarina; Brugada, Ramon

    2014-03-20

    Sudden unexplained death is defined by death without a conclusive diagnosis after autopsy and it is responsible for a large percentage of sudden deaths. The progressive interaction between genetics and forensics in post-mortem studies has identified inheritable alterations responsible for pathologies associated with arrhythmic sudden death. The genetic diagnosis of the deceased enables the undertaking of preventive measures in family members, many of them asymptomatic but at risk. The implications of this multidisciplinary translational medical approach are complex, requiring the dedication of a specialized team. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. Sudden transition and sudden change from open spin environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zheng-Da [Zhejiang Institute of Modern Physics and Physics Department, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); School of Science, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Xu, Jing-Bo, E-mail: xujb@zju.edu.cn [Zhejiang Institute of Modern Physics and Physics Department, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yao, Dao-Xin [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    We investigate the necessary conditions for the existence of sudden transition or sudden change phenomenon for appropriate initial states under dephasing. As illustrative examples, we study the behaviors of quantum correlation dynamics of two noninteracting qubits in independent and common open spin environments, respectively. For the independent environments case, we find that the quantum correlation dynamics is closely related to the Loschmidt echo and the dynamics exhibits a sudden transition from classical to quantum correlation decay. It is also shown that the sudden change phenomenon may occur for the common environment case and stationary quantum discord is found at the high temperature region of the environment. Finally, we investigate the quantum criticality of the open spin environment by exploring the probability distribution of the Loschmidt echo and the scaling transformation behavior of quantum discord, respectively. - Highlights: • Sudden transition or sudden change from open spin baths are studied. • Quantum discord is related to the Loschmidt echo in independent open spin baths. • Steady quantum discord is found in a common open spin bath. • The probability distribution of the Loschmidt echo is analyzed. • The scaling transformation behavior of quantum discord is displayed.

  1. Why sustain oak forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Wm. Smith

    2006-01-01

    A brief overview and some personal thoughts are offered that deal with the implications of our social and political systems on the long-term sustainability of our forest resources. The connection of the most recent climatic events, in a geologic-time context, to the development of present day oak dominated forests of the Eastern United States is discussed. The impacts...

  2. Discoloration & decay in oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex L. Shigo

    1971-01-01

    Diseases that result in discoloration and decay of wood are major problems affecting all species of oak. Wounds often start the processes that can lead to these diseases. The type and severity of the wound, the vigor of the tree, the environment, and the aggressiveness of microorganisms that infect are some of the most important factors that determine the nature of the...

  3. Poison ivy - oak - sumac

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Poison ivy, oak, or sumac poisoning is an allergic reaction that results from touching the sap of these plants. The sap may be on the plant, in the ashes of burned plants, on an animal, or on other objects that came in contact ...

  4. Sudden cardiac death in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Camilo Pellegrino dos Santos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The most accepted definition of sudden cardiac death nowadays is an unexplained death occurred suddenly within one hour of symptom onset. If it was not witnessed, individuals need to had been observed for at least 24 hours before the event and should be discarded the possibility of non cardiac causes of sudden death, pulmonary embolism or extensive malignancy. The term athlete refers to individuals of any age who participate in collective or individual regular physical activity, as well as physical training program for regular competitions. The sudden death of a young athlete, whether amateur or professional, especially during competitions, is always dramatic, with strong negative social impact and in the media. The fact that sports are recommended as a formula for longevity and quality of life makes these events a cause for concern in sports and society in general.

  5. Was message of sudden infant death study misleading?

    OpenAIRE

    Gornall, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    An investigation by the BMJ has uncovered serious concerns about an important paper on sudden infant deaths recurring within a family. The paper has featured in the appeal case at several recent high profile murder appeals and has also influenced international practice

  6. Sudden death in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Garrido B

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Beatriz Jáuregui-Garrido1, Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera2,31Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Virgen del Rocío, 2Behavioral Sciences Institute, 3Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Eating disorders are usually associated with an increased risk of premature death with a wide range of rates and causes of mortality. “Sudden death” has been defined as the abrupt and unexpected occurrence of fatality for which no satisfactory explanation of the cause can be ascertained. In many cases of sudden death, autopsies do not clarify the main cause. Cardiovascular complications are usually involved in these deaths. The purpose of this review was to report an update of the existing literature data on the main findings with respect to sudden death in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. The most relevant conclusion of this review seems to be that the main causes of sudden death in eating disorders are those related to cardiovascular complications. The predictive value of the increased QT interval dispersion as a marker of sudden acute ventricular arrhythmia and death has been demonstrated. Eating disorder patients with severe cardiovascular symptoms should be hospitalized. In general, with respect to sudden death in eating disorders, some findings (eg, long-term eating disorders, chronic hypokalemia, chronically low plasma albumin, and QT intervals >600 milliseconds must be taken into account, and it must be highlighted that during refeeding, the adverse effects of hypophosphatemia include cardiac failure. Monitoring vital signs and performing electrocardiograms and serial measurements of plasma potassium are relevant during the treatment of eating disorder patients.Keywords: sudden death, cardiovascular complications, refeeding syndrome, QT interval, hypokalemia

  7. Oak mortality associated with crown dieback and oak borer attack in the Ozark Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaofei Fan; John M. Kabrick; Martin A. Spetich; Stephen R. Shifley; Randy G. Jensen

    2008-01-01

    Oak decline and related mortality have periodically plagued upland oak–hickory forests, particularly oak species in the red oak group, across the Ozark Highlands of Missouri, Arkansas and Oklahoma since the late 1970s. Advanced tree age and periodic drought, as well as Armillaria root fungi and oak borer attack are believed to contribute to oak decline and mortality....

  8. Pathology of oak-wisteria powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Roger T A; Denton, Jenny O; Denton, Geoffrey

    2015-08-01

    The relationship between oak and wisteria powdery mildew, the reason artificial infection of Wisteria sinensis was difficult, and the identity of the pathogen were investigated. Inoculations of detached leaves of Quercus robur with Erysiphe alphitoides from either W. sinensis or Q. robur were successful. Wisteria floribunda was completely and W. sinensis partially resistant. Isolates from wisteria and oak had similar pathogenicities and matching DNA profiles and hence not separable into formae speciales. Instead, oak mildew now includes wisteria and possibly Sorbaria as hosts. On non-host Brassica and cellulose acetate, conidial germ tube development ceased after formation of terminal appressoria. Only Q. robur supported visible lesions. W. sinensis supported fewer colony forming hyphae (CFH) per conidium and smaller hyphal appressoria. Failure to form visible lesions was due to prevention or termination of CFH and not to inhibition of conidial germination or to a host's hypersensitive reaction. Absorption of antifungal compounds via appressoria from maturing host tissue is discussed. The pathogen's DNA ITS region indicated an identification of Erysiphe alphitoides sensu lato, since some isolates did not completely match E. alphitoides sensu stricto. To rapidly indicate susceptibility, a microscopic examination of young leaves 48 h post inoculation is recommended. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [The Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida's Health, 1976

    1976-01-01

    This collection of articles on the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), drawn from a southeastern regional symposium on the subject, summarizes much of what is known about the occurrence of SIDS, including current information about its causes. The background of state action in Florida is reviewed, with emphasis on the need for increased public and…

  10. Investigating Insight as Sudden Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Ivan K.; Jee, Benjamin D.; Wiley, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Gestalt psychologists proposed two distinct learning mechanisms. Associative learning occurs gradually through the repeated co-occurrence of external stimuli or memories. Insight learning occurs suddenly when people discover new relationships within their prior knowledge as a result of reasoning or problem solving processes that re-organize or…

  11. Embryogenesis in Oak species. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranzazu Gomez-Garay

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: A review on the propagation methods of four Quercus species, namely Q. suber, Q. robur, Q. ilex and Q. canariensis, through somatic embryogenesis and anther embryogenesis are presented.Area of study: The study comprises both Mediterranean and Atlantic oak species located in Spain.Material and Methods: Somatic embryogenesis was induced on immature zygotic embryos of diverse oak species, permitting the multiplication of half-sib families. Induction of haploid embryos and doubled haploids was assayed in both Q. suber and Q. ilex by temperature stress treatments of anthers containing late vacuolated microspores. The haploid origin of the anther embryos has been evaluated by quantitative nuclear DNA analysis through flow cytometry and by DNA microsatellite markers. Genetic transformation of cork oak has also been performed by means of Agrobacterium tumefaciens vectors. Proteomic analysis has been conducted to screen the diverse protein profiles followed by in vitro derived embryos during their development.Research highlights: Successful plant regeneration from both somatic and haploid embryos has been achieved. In the particular case of cork oak, doubled-haploid plants were obtained. Plantlets regenerated from selected parent trees through somatic embryogenesis were acclimated in the greenhouse and in the nursery, and were planted in an experimental plot in the field. Preliminary evaluation of the cork quality of the plants showed a good heritability correlation with the parent trees. This article revises the work of and is dedicated to Dr. M.A. Bueno, who devoted much of her professional life to the research on Biotechnology and Genetics of forest species, leading the Laboratory of Forest Biotechnology at the Spanish Institute of Agronomic Research (INIA.Key words: anther embryogenesis; microspore; pollen; Quercus canariensis; Quercus ilex; Quercus robur; Quercus suber; somatic embryogenesis. 

  12. Seeding and planting upland oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. E. Russell

    1971-01-01

    Upland oaks can be established by seeding or planting, but additional experience is needed before these methods become economical alternatives to natural regeneration. Recently forested sites are generally more favorable than abandoned fields. Lack of repellents to protect acorns from animals severely limits direct seeding, but oaks can be planted readily by...

  13. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Facts for Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Child Care, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents risk factors and prevention measures related to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Offers infant sleep recommendations and five discussion questions to test knowledge of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. (DLH)

  14. Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Specialist Share Twitter Facebook SCA Risk Assessment Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) occurs abruptly and without warning, and two- ... and health conditions. Start Risk Assessment The Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) Risk Assessment Tool is supported in part ...

  15. Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... living with epilepsy, the risk of Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP) is an important concern. SUDEP ...

  16. A Crown Cover Chart for Oak Savannas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay Law; Paul Johnson; Gary Houf

    1994-01-01

    Although oak savannas have been defined in many ways, they are characterized by scattered trees, largely comprised of oaks, and a sparse ground layer rich in grasses and forbs (Haney and Apfelbaum 1990). Nuzzo (1986, p. 11) more specifically defined oak savannas as plant communities "...dominated by oaks having between 10 and 80 percent canopy, with or without a...

  17. A practical guide to oak release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance A. Harrington; Warren D. Devine

    2006-01-01

    Oregon white oak savannas and woodlands represent a biological and cultural legacy in the Pacific Northwest. Many Oregon white oak stands are deteriorating owing to invasion and eventual overtopping by Douglas-fir or other conifers. Releasing the shade-intolerant oak trees from overtopping conifers can often restore these oak stands. When planning a release operation,...

  18. Sudden hearing loss in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ječmenica, Jovana; Bajec-Opančina, Aleksandra

    2014-08-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) is defined as a unilateral or bilateral sensorineural hearing loss with at least 30 dB decrease in threshold in 3 contiguous test frequencies occurring over 72 hours or less. It is very rare in children. Sudden hearing loss is a symptom that suggests that there is a problem in the inner ear, surrounding structures, or the whole organism. The etiology and development of this disorder are still not fully understood. The literature contains numerous models of the pathogenesis of SSHL, with childhood SSHL having certain peculiarities. In practical terms, the multifactorial nature of SSHL is important in the choice of diagnostic methods and treatment methods. It is important to determine the cause and effect relationship between the underlying disease and hearing loss. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. [Sudden death in competitive athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszczyk, Zdzisław

    2007-01-01

    In athletes under the age of 35 years the incidence of sudden death is low, most causes to be due to ventricular arrhythmias, usually provoked by exertion, and nearly always occur in the presence of structural heart disease or abnormalities in the conduction system. The most common structural disease is hypertrophic cardiomyopathy followed by coronary artery anomalies, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, aortic stenosis, myocarditis, the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, and long QT syndrome. The evaluation of athletes with symptoms of cardiac arrhythmias, syncope, family history of sudden death require a complete cardiac workup. If they have documented hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, long QT syndrome, family history presentation with sudden death, and septal thickness greater than 20 mm competitive athletics are generally prohibited. In athletes with asymptomatic bradyarrhythmia, supraventricular tachycardias and atrial premature contractions without structural heart disease all competitive sports are allowed if heart rate in bradyarrhythmia appropriately increases with exercise. Athletes with premature ventricular contraction, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia and non structural heart disease are without athletic restriction as long as the arrhythmia does not worsen on exertion and cause dyspnea, presyncope or syncope.

  20. Pediatric Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilay, Ahmet; Koca, Çiğdem Firat

    2016-06-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is defined as sudden unilateral or bilateral sensorineural hearing loss with at least 30 dB decrease in threshold in 3 contiguous test frequencies occurring over 72 hours or less. It is rare among children. The mechanism of the process and prognosis of the disorder remains unclear. The current incidence of sudden sensorineural hearing loss among pediatric population is unknown. The authors carried out a retrospective chart analysis of patients under 15 years of age from 2004 to 2015, who consulted to the Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery Department of Inonu University Medical Faculty. Age, sex, number of affected ear and side, audiometric evaluations, medical follow-up, treatment method, duration of treatment recovery, associated complaints; tinnitus and/or vertigo, presence of mumps disease were recorded for each patient. A 4-frequency pure-tone average (500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz) was calculated for each ear. Complete recovery, defined as some hearing level compared with the nonaffected ear, was observed in 3 patients (21.4 %) and there was no partial hearing recovery. The hearing loss of 11 patient remained unchanged after prednisolone treatment. Two of the 11 patients had bilaterally total sensorineural hearing loss and evaluated as appropriate for cochlear implantation. Sex of patient and laterality of hearing loss were not correlated with hearing recovery. Sensorineural hearing loss among pediatrics has been the issue of otolaryngologists. The incidence, etiology, and treatment methods should be more studied.

  1. Application of the differential colorimetry and polyphenolic profile to the evaluation of the chromatic quality of Tempranillo red wines elaborated in warm climate. Influence of the presence of oak wood chips during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo, Belén; Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco J; González-Miret, M Lourdes; Heredia, Francisco J

    2013-12-01

    The effect of adding American oak wood chips during fermentation on Tempranillo red wines elaborates in a warm climate has been studied. Our attention was focused on the tristimulus colorimetry, differential colorimetry and phenolic compounds related to wine colour. This technique was applied as an oenological alternative to the conventional winemaking for avoiding the common fall of colour of red wines elaborated in warm climates. The addition of oak wood chips promoted the colour enhancement and stabilisation, producing wines with a notably darker colour and with more bluish tonality. This fact was also related to the significantly higher content of some phenolic compounds. On the basis of the results, it could be affirmed that the addition of oak wood chips during fermentation induced visually perceptible colour changes (by the analysis of ΔEab(*), %Δ(2)L, %Δ(2)C and %Δ(2)H), mainly in a quantitative way, and also a lower percentage of diminution of colour. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A SUDDEN DEATH OF SPORTSMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Femić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A sudden death is defined as a sudden cessation of heart work which happens within six hours, revionsly of good helth(1. The main characteristio of this phenomenon is tipically its beginning during or directly after a training or a competition which means after an intensive physical effort a causal factor. The first case of a sudden death because of physical effort was recorded in ancient 490 BC when a Greec called Pheidippides was running from Marathon Feild to Athens (42km to announce the news about the victory of the Athenians over the Persians. That is howa long distance runners discipline was defined in sport and got its name marathon. In medicine it is defined as an entity of a sudden death of sportsmen after an intensive physical effort which is nowdays a current problem and an object of varions researches in medicine as well as in sports medicine of sports experts. A method of work: The authors published the statistic data processing obtained from accessible literature. The statistical analysis processes: a cause of a death on the basis of an autophsy, a frequency of the death in general population and death of sportsmen those under the age of 35 and over 35 (sportsmen and sportswotren, sort of sports the dead went in for, comparasion of them and giving conclusions and measures of prevention. Here we think about a big importance of sistematic checkup of the sportsmen, use and misuse of incriminated stimulants, the infuence of genetics in families of the sportsmen with heart diseases.The aim of work is to point to and warn of more and more frequent cases of sudden death of sportsmen and that it isn t drawn a moral from that:there are clubs and parents who still don t do the obligation to take their members and children to a sistematic checkup regularily. A systematic checkup should include all searches which would point out a negative influence of intensive physical effort (training, matches on heath. Those tests are also

  3. Who Is at Risk for Sudden Cardiac Arrest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Sudden Cardiac Arrest Sudden Cardiac Arrest Also known as Cardiac Arrest , Sudden Cardiac Death ... the condition For People Who Have Survived Sudden Cardiac Arrest If you've already had SCA, you're ...

  4. How Can Death Due to Sudden Cardiac Arrest Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Sudden Cardiac Arrest Sudden Cardiac Arrest Also known as Cardiac Arrest , Sudden Cardiac Death ... the condition For People Who Have Survived Sudden Cardiac Arrest If you've already had SCA, you're ...

  5. Sudden cardiac death in the pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, P C; Garson, A

    1992-01-01

    Sudden death in children as in adults is usually due to cardiac disease. Sudden death in the pediatric population may be divided into the sudden infant death syndrome, sudden death in previously apparently healthy children, and sudden death in patients with known cardiac disease. The sudden infant death syndrome is not proved to be due to a cardiac cause and may well be due to central nervous system and/or pulmonary causes. However, interest remains in the cardiac hypothesis. Recent work from our laboratory shows that screening for prolonged QT interval in normal infants is not likely to detect those prone to sudden infant death syndrome. In children with apparently normal hearts, symptoms of syncope or palpitation should be given close attention. Detailed electrocardiography and echocardiography will detect many, but not all, children with subtle forms of heart disease. Vigorous treatment may prevent sudden death in many of these children. Some sort of screening program should be devised for varsity athletes. Children with congenital heart defects are now, for the most part, corrected early in life, so that the congenital heart defect itself rarely causes sudden, unexpected death. The residua and sequelae of the heart defect and the surgery to repair it, however, may lead to sudden death. Improvements in surgical technique and earlier repair of congenital cardiac defects will ameliorate this problem. Prospective evaluation of postoperative patients and attention to dysrhythmias can prevent sudden deaths in those who are prone to them.

  6. Insects of bur oak acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester P. Gibson

    1971-01-01

    During 1961-1969, the insects found damaging acorns of bur oak, Quercus macrocarpa Michauxii, in their order of importance were the weevils: Curculio pardalis (Chittenden), C. strictus (Casey), C. sulcatulus (Casey), C. iowensis (Casey), C. proboscideus...

  7. Risk analysis and guidelines for harvest activities in wisconsin oak timberlands to minimize oak wilt threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Juzwik; Jane Cummings-Carlson; Kyoko Scanlon

    2010-01-01

    Oaks (Quercus spp.) are an important species group in the forests of Wisconsin. The State’s timberland typed as oak-hickory forest was estimated at 2.9 million acres in 1996. Growing stock volume for red oak was estimated at 2.4 billion cubic feet, whereas select white oak volume was estimated to be 927 million cubic feet. Oak wilt, the oak disease...

  8. Oak loss increases foliar nitrogen, δ(15)N and growth rates of Betula lenta in a northern temperate deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falxa-Raymond, Nancy; Patterson, Angelica E; Schuster, William S F; Griffin, Kevin L

    2012-09-01

    Oak forests dominate much of the eastern USA, but their future is uncertain due to a number of threats and widespread failure of oak regeneration. A sudden loss of oaks (Quercus spp.) could be accompanied by major changes in forest nitrogen (N) cycles with important implications for plant nutrient uptake and tree species composition. In this study, we measured the changes in N use and growth rates of black birch trees (Betula lenta L.) following oak girdling at the Black Rock Forest in southeastern New York, USA. Data were collected from nine experimental plots composed of three treatments: 100% oaks girdled (OG), 50% oaks girdled (O50) and control (C). Foliar N concentration and foliar (15)N abundance increased significantly in the oak-girdled plots relative to the control, indicating that the loss of oaks significantly altered N cycling dynamics. As mineralization and nitrification rates increase following oak loss, black birch trees increase N absorption as indicated by higher foliar N content and increased growth rates. Foliar N concentration increased by 15.5% in the O50 and 30.6% in the OG plots relative to the control, while O50 and OG plots were enriched in (15)N by 1.08‰ and 3.33‰, respectively (P < 0.0001). A 641% increase in black birch growth rates in OG plots suggests that this species is able to respond to additional N availability and/or increased light availability. The loss of oaks and subsequent increase in black birch productivity may have a lasting impact on ecosystem form and function.

  9. Comparative Study of Local and National Media Reporting: Conflict around the TV Oak in Stockholm, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Östberg

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The TV oak (Television Oak conflict concerned felling an old tree in a wealthy area of Stockholm. The case received great public attention in different media formats with different scopes (e.g., newspapers, television, internet. The TV Oak issue involved actors with different, partly conflicting perceptions. Assuming that the relevance of urban tree management issues in particular leads to increased interest among the local audience, this paper compared differences in reporting on the TV Oak case in local and national newspapers. The comparison comprised the actors “speaking” in the newspapers, the interest roles attributed to different actors and the frames used. The empirical materials used were articles concerning the TV Oak published between October 2011 and June 2012 in one local and two national Swedish newspapers. Quantitative analysis of statements in these articles showed that the geographical scope of the newspaper was not the major driving force framing the TV Oak conflict and that variety of framings, ranging from a humanised perception of the oak to a more analytical hazard perception, were used. Differences between the interest roles allocated to different actors (e.g., in terms of victim, causer, and helper in the oak conflict showed that the framing of conflicts very much depended on single actors, in particular a high profile journalist in the national newspapers and private individuals writing letters to the editor in the local newspaper.

  10. Sudden cardiac death in athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Bockeria O.L.; Ispir’yan A.Yu.

    2013-01-01

    Cases of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in young athletes during physical exercises are rare. According to the data of prospective population study performed in Veneto (Italy), incidence of SCD is 2.3 cases per year (2.6 among men and 1.1 among women) per 100,000 athletes aged 12 to 35 years for all reasons. Out of them 2.1 cases of SCD were caused by cardiovascular diseases. Coronary artery disease is the most frequent cause of SCD in athletes aged over 35 years. Also there are a number of other...

  11. Cytokines and sudden infant death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennemann, Mechtild M T; Loddenkötter, Brigitte; Fracasso, Tony; Mitchell, Edwin A; Debertin, Annette S; Larsch, Klaus P; Sperhake, Jan P; Brinkmann, Bernd; Sauerland, Cristina; Lindemann, Monika; Bajanowski, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    It has been hypothesised that inflammatory reactions could play an important role in the pathway(s) leading to sudden and unexpected death in infancy. On a molecular level, these reactions are regulated by various cytokines. To characterise the role of IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNFα more precisely, the concentrations of these cytokines were determined quantitatively using specific ELISA techniques in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in 119 cases of sudden infant death. The infants were grouped into four categories (SIDS, SIDS with infection, natural death due to infection and unnatural death). A good correlation was found between CSF and serum for IL-6 (Spearman correlation coefficients (SCC), 0.73) and also for TNFα (SCC, 0.57), although the CSF concentrations were lower than that from the serum. There were no significant differences between the categories of death for any of the serum or CSF cytokines. Compared with normal values, increased serum concentrations of IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNFα were found in 70%, 69% and 38% of the cases respectively, indicating possible agonal or post-mortem changes of cytokine concentrations. In three cases very high cytokine concentrations were found (mainly for IL-6). This may have contributed to the mechanism of death (cytokine storm) in two of the cases. In a small group of patients, very high cytokine concentrations are a possible explanation for the cause of death ("cytokine storm").

  12. Flush Development Dynamics in First-Year Nursery-Grown Seedlings of Eight Oak Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi-Jean S. Sung; Paul P. Kormanik; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to follow flush development dynamics exhibited by various oak species. In experiment I, southern red oak acorns were sown in mid-March 2001 at Whitehall Nursery (Athens, GA). In experiment II, acorns of black oak, cherrybark oak, Nuttall oak, Shumard oak, southern red oak, swamp chestnut oak, white oak, and willow oak were sown in...

  13. Sudden unexpected death caused by stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ågesen, Frederik Nybye; Risgaard, Bjarke; Zachariasardóttir, Sára

    2018-01-01

    Background Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in young individuals globally. Data on the burden of sudden death by stroke are sparse in the young. Aims The aim of this study was to report mortality rates, cause of death, stroke subtype, and symptoms in children and young adults who suffered...... sudden death by stroke. Methods We conducted a retrospective, nationwide study including all deaths within Danish borders between 2000-2009 and 2007-2009 in persons aged 1-35 years and 36-49 years, respectively. Two physicians identified all sudden death cases through review of all death certificates....... All available autopsy reports and records from hospitals and general practitioners were retrieved and a neurologist identified all sudden death by stroke cases. Results Of the 14,567 deaths in the 10-year period, there were 1,698 sudden death cases, of which 52 (3%) were sudden death by stroke...

  14. [Sudden cardiac death: Are women different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, N; Marijon, E; Bougouin, W; Spaulding, C; Jouven, X

    2016-12-01

    Sudden cardiac death is a major public health problem with around 40,000 cases per year in France. Epidemiological, clinical and prognostic differences according to gender have been described in most cardiovascular diseases, including sudden cardiac death. In this article, we will review gender differences in sudden cardiac death incidence, circumstance of occurrence, management, and prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Sudden infant death syndrome, sleep, and seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppenbrouwers, Toke

    2015-06-01

    benign febrile seizures seen in 7% of infants before 6 months play a role in the terminal pathway in a subset of sudden infant death syndrome victims. Supporting evidence: (1) lack of 5-hydroxitryptamine, one consistent finding in sudden infant death syndrome that Kinney et al coined a developmental serotonopathy, is consistent with risk for seizures. (2) Non-rapid eye movement sleep increasing during the age of highest risk for sudden infant death syndrome facilitates some seizures (seizure gate). (3) Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy is associated with severe hypoxemia and hypercapnia during postictal generalized electroencephalographic (EEG) suppression. In toddlers, sudden unexplained deaths are associated with hippocampal abnormalities and some seizures. (4) The sudden nature of both deaths warrants an exploration of similarities in the terminal pathway. Moreover, sudden infant death syndrome, febrile seizures, sudden unexplained death in childhood, and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy share some of the following risk factors: prone sleeping, infections, hyperthermia, preterm birth, male gender, maternal smoking, and mutations in genes that regulate sodium channels. State-of-the-art molecular studies can be exploited to test this hypothesis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. How to identify and manage oak wilt in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.N. Appel; R.S. Cameron; A.D. Wilson; J.D. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    Transporting unseasoned firewood from diseased red oaks is a potential means of spreading the oak wilt fungus. Oak wilt cannot be transmitted by burning infected firewood, but fungal mats may form on firewood in storage. Presently, no vectors have been proven to transmit the fungus from live oaks to other oak trees, but diseased wood fromany oak species should never be...

  17. Sudden Unexpected Infant Death and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Reducing the Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... caregivers can take to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and other sleep-related deaths. Grief ... researchers don’t know the exact causes of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). However, research shows parents and caregivers ...

  18. Variation in flood tolerance of container-grown seedlings of swamp white oak, bur oak, and white oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael P. Walsh; J.W. Van Sambeek; Mark V. Coggeshall

    2008-01-01

    How much variation in flood tolerance exists among seedlings within oak species, given the flood frequency of sites from which acorns are collected, has been largely unexplored. Our studies examined initial growth and flood tolerance for seedlings of swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor Willd.), bur oak (Q. macrocarpa L.), and white...

  19. Sustaining northern red oak forests: managing oak from regeneration to canopy dominance in mature stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; Gary W. Miller; John M. Kabrick

    2008-01-01

    Across the range of northern red oak, managers have problems sustaining current stocking of northern red oak in forests. Oak species are adapted to frequent stand disturbances that reduce the abundance of shade tolerant competitors and control fast-growing pioneer species. A widely recommended approach to regenerating northern red oak is to develop relatively large...

  20. Sulfuryl fluoride fumigation of red oak logs eradicates the oak wilt fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer L. Schmidt; Jennifer Juzwik; Brian Schneider

    1997-01-01

    Preliminary field trials using red oak logs from trees dying from oak wilt disease were successful in eliminating oak wilt fungus from sapwood after fumigation with sulfuryl fluoride for 72 h under tarp. These results support earlier laboratory data on the fungitoxicity of sulfuryl fluoride as a potential replacement for methyl bromide of exported red oak veneer logs....

  1. Effects of midstory removal on underplanted black oak and white oak in the western Cumberland Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Parrott; John M. Lhotka; Jeffrey W. Stringer

    2011-01-01

    Difficulties in successful oak regeneration have led to the examination of various techniques to increase oak recruitment. To ensure sufficient regeneration, oak seedlings can be underplanted and used in conjunction with intermediate treatments, such as midstory removal, that create a light environment favorable to oak advance reproduction. This study examines the 5-...

  2. Manufacture of industrial products from oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugh W. Reynolds

    1971-01-01

    The three largest and fastest growing markets for oak are railroad crossties, reusable pallets, and truck and container flooring. Manufacturers of oak lumber are advised to keep these products in mind when planning their production.

  3. Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) was established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 2004 with the mission of standing up a supercomputer 100 times...

  4. The sudden success of prose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lars Boje

    2017-01-01

    . It is also suggested that the exactly contemporary rise of French and Old Norse prose (c. 1200-1230) most probably is connected. The four literatures are each shown in chronological charts so as to visualize the timeline and the relation between poetic and prosaic works. The article furthermore reflects......The article presents a new model for understanding the sudden success of prose in four literatures: Greek, Latin, French and Old Norse. Through comparison and quantitative observations, and by focusing on the success of prose rather than its invention, it is shown that in all four cases two...... reading aloud) has been underplayed in previous scholarship mostly focused on authorial choices and invention. For two of the literatures (Greek, French) the fast dynamics of the rise of prose has already been identified and discussed, but for the two others (Latin, Old Norse), the observation is new...

  5. Oaks belowground: mycorrhizas, truffles, and small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan Frank; Seth Barry; Joseph Madden; Darlene Southworth

    2008-01-01

    Oaks depend on hidden diversity belowground. Oregon white oaks (Quercus garryana) form ectomycorrhizas with more than 40 species of fungi at a 25-ha site. Several of the most common oak mycorrhizal fungi form hypogeous fruiting bodies or truffles in the upper layer of mineral soil. We collected 18 species of truffles associated with Oregon white...

  6. Contact allergy to oak moss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernard, Guillaume; Giménez-Arnau, Elena; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra

    2003-01-01

    In addition to pure synthetic fragrance materials several natural extracts are still in use in the perfume industry. Among them oak moss absolute, prepared from the lichen Evernia prunastri (L.) Arch., is considered a major contact sensitizer and is therefore included in the fragrance mix used...... for diagnosing perfume allergy. The process of preparing oak moss absolute has changed during recent years and, even though several potential sensitizers have been identified from former benzene extracts, its present constituents and their allergenic status are not clear. In the study reported here, we applied...

  7. Drugs, QTc prolongation and sudden cardiac death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M.J.M. Straus (Sabine)

    2005-01-01

    textabstract__Abstract__ The term sudden cardiac death pertains to an unexpected death from cardiac causes within a short time period and has been described throughout history. The ancient Egyptians inscribed on the tomb of a nobleman some 4500 years ago that he had died suddenly and without

  8. Athletes at Risk for Sudden Cardiac Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasic, Kim

    2010-01-01

    High school athletes represent the largest group of individuals affected by sudden cardiac death, with an estimated incidence of once or twice per week. Structural cardiovascular abnormalities are the most frequent cause of sudden cardiac death. Athletes participating in basketball, football, track, soccer, baseball, and swimming were found to…

  9. Sudden Cardiac Death in Children. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.V. Pshenichnaya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the prevalence, terminology, classification of sudden cardiac death. A description of congenital structural heart diseases associated with a risk of sudden cardiac death is given. The issues of etiology and pathogenesis of life-threatening conditions are described in detail.

  10. The transmission of oak wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.N. Gibbs; D.W. French

    1980-01-01

    Provides an up-to-date review of factors affecting the transmission of oak wilt, Ceratocystis fagacearum. Discusses the history and severity of the disease, the saprophytic existence of the fungus in the dying tree, seasonal susceptibility of trees to infection, overland and underground spread, the role of animals and insects as vectors or tree wounders, and the...

  11. Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or throat complains of chest tightness or difficulty breathing develops widespread redness or swelling was given a shot of epinephrine (EpiPen) Think Prevention! Teach kids what poison ivy/oak/sumac plants look like and how important they are to ...

  12. Heart Attack or Sudden Cardiac Arrest: How Are They Different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Heart Attack or Sudden Cardiac Arrest: How Are They Different? Updated:Sep 19,2016 ... flow to the heart is blocked, and sudden cardiac arrest is when the heart malfunctions and suddenly stops ...

  13. Sudden Death in Young People--Heart Problems Often Blamed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden death in young people: Heart problems often blamed Sudden death in young people is rare, but those at ... causes and treatments. By Mayo Clinic Staff Sudden death in people younger than 35, often due to ...

  14. When is connectivity important? A case study of the spatial pattern of sudden oak death

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Ellis; T. Vaclavik; R.K. Meentemeyer

    2010-01-01

    Although connectivity has been examined from many different angles and in many ecological disciplines, few studies have tested in which systems and under what conditions connectivity is important in determining ecological dynamics. Identifying general rules governing when connectivity is important is crucial not only for basic ecology, but also for our ability to...

  15. The big sur ecoregion sudden oak death adaptive management project: ecological monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison C. Wickland; Kerri M. Frangioso; David M. Rizzo; Ross K. Meentemeyer

    2008-01-01

    The Big Sur area is one of the most ecologically diverse regions in California. Land preservation efforts are well established in Big Sur, including numerous preserves, state parks and the Los Padres National Forest. However, there are still many conservation threats that cut across these areas including exotic species (plants, animals, and pathogens) and alterations...

  16. Vibrational spectroscopy-based chemometrics to map host resistance to sudden oak death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierluigi (Enrico) Bonello; Anna O. Conrad; Luis Rodriguez Saona; Brice A. McPherson; David L. Wood

    2017-01-01

    A strong focus on tree germplasm that can resist threats such as non-native insects and pathogens, or a changing climate, is fundamental for successful conservation efforts. This project is predicated on the fact that genetic resistance is the cornerstone for protecting plants against pathogens and insects in environments conducive to the attacking organisms, a...

  17. Reducing CO2 emissions by managing for sudden oak death...is it possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendan Twieg; Yana Valachovic; Richard Cobb; Dan Stark

    2017-01-01

    Forest CO2 emissions, which have recently become a more regular concern in forest management, can radically increase following pest and disease outbreaks. We inventoried trees in a stand adjacent to an infested area in northern Humboldt County, California, and used a stand-level dynamic disease model to forecast Phythophthora ramorum...

  18. Lessons from 15 years of monitoring sudden oak death and forest dynamics in California forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret Metz; J. Morgan Varner; Ross Meentemeyer; Kerri Frangioso; David Rizzo

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring host composition and disease impacts began 15 years ago in what would become a network of permanent forest monitoring plots throughout the known and predicted range of Phytophthora ramorum in California coastal forests. Stretching ~500 miles from Big Sur to the Oregon border, the network captures variation in interactions among...

  19. Common factors drive disease and coarse woody debris dynamics in forests impacted by sudden oak death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard C. Cobb; Maggie N. Chan; Ross K. Meentemeyer; David M. Rizzo

    2011-01-01

    Disease ecology has made important steps in describing how epidemiological processes control the impact of pathogens on populations and communities but fewer field or theoretical studies address disease effects at the ecosystem level. We demonstrate that the same epidemiological mechanisms drive disease intensity and coarse woody debris (CWD) dynamics...

  20. Phomopsis and Sudden Oak Death: A Tale of Two Nursery Nuisances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce D. Moltzan

    2006-01-01

    Tree nurseries, by their very nature, provide key components of the disease triangle (pathogen, host, and environment) simply by the widespread planting of susceptible host(s) grown under optimal conditions. Pathogens can severely impact the quality and quantity of seedling stock, making pest management a high priority in successful nursery practice. Careful...

  1. Increased risk of sudden cardiac arrest in obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam Jacoba; Blom, Marieke Tabo; Bardai, Abdennasser

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine whether (1) patients with obstructive pulmonary disease (OPD) have an increased risk of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) due to ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (VT/VF), and (2) the SCA risk is mediated by cardiovascular risk-profile and/or respiratory drug use....... METHODS: A community-based case-control study was performed, with 1310 cases of SCA of the ARREST study and 5793 age, sex and SCA-date matched non-SCA controls from the PHARMO database. Only incident SCA cases, age older than 40 years, that resulted from unequivocal cardiac causes...

  2. Perfil físico-químico de aguardente durante envelhecimento em tonéis de carvalho Chemical profile of aguardente - Brazilian sugar cane alcoholic drink - aged in oak casks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Branco de Miranda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se por um período de 390 dias o perfil da composição química da aguardente sob envelhecimento em tonéis de carvalho de 20 L. O envelhecimento da aguardente em tonéis de madeira melhora a qualidade sensorial do destilado. As aguardentes envelhecidas foram analisadas aos 0, 76, 147, 228, 314 e 390 dias de armazenamento quanto às concentrações de etanol, acidez volátil, ésteres, aldeídos, furfural, álcoois superiores (n-propílico, isobutílico e isoamílicos, metanol, cobre, extrato seco, taninos e cor. Após os 390 dias de armazenamento, a aguardente apresentou maiores concentrações de acidez volátil, ésteres, aldeídos, furfural, álcoois superiores, congêneres, extrato seco e tanino. Sua coloração tornou-se amarelada. As concentrações de etanol e de metanol não se alteraram, e o teor de cobre apresentou ligeiro declínio. O envelhecimento da aguardente por 390 dias em tonéis de carvalho alterou a sua composição química, porém ela se manteve dentro de todos os padrões de qualidade estabelecidos pela legislação nacional em vigor.The chemical composition of aguardente - Brazilian sugar cane alcoholic drink - under aging during in 20 L oak casks was evaluated for 390 days. Aging sugar cane aguardente in wood casks improves the sensorial quality of the distillate. The concentrations of ethanol, volatile acidity, esters, aldehydes, furfural, higher alcohols (n-propylic, isobutylic and isoamylics, methanol, copper, dry extract, tannins, and color of the aged sugar cane aguardente were analysed at 0, 76, 147, 228, 314, and 390 days of storage. After 390 days of aging the sugar cane aguardente presented higher concentrations of volatile acidity, esters, aldehydes, furfural, higher alcohols, congeners, dry extract, and tannin. Its color became golden. The concentrations of ethanol and methanol did not change and the copper content decreased slightly. The aging of the sugar cane aguardente in oak casks for 390 days

  3. Prediction and Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Daniel P; Homoud, Munther K; Estes, N A Mark

    2017-12-01

    Sudden death is a major problem, with significant impact on public health. Many conditions predispose to sudden cardiac death and sudden cardiac arrest (SCA), foremost among them coronary artery disease, and an effective therapy exists in the form of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Risk stratification for SCA remains imperfect, especially for patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Ongoing trials may make it easier to identify those at high risk, and potentially those at very low risk, in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Drugs, QTc prolongation and sudden cardiac death

    OpenAIRE

    Straus, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    textabstract__Abstract__ The term sudden cardiac death pertains to an unexpected death from cardiac causes within a short time period and has been described throughout history. The ancient Egyptians inscribed on the tomb of a nobleman some 4500 years ago that he had died suddenly and without apparent cause. Another early case of sudden death was Phidippides, the young Greek messenger, who collapsed and died after he ran 26.2 miles from Marathon to Athens to deliver the news of the Greek victo...

  5. Supravalvular aortic stenosis with sudden cardiac death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Vaideeswar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death (SCD most commonly results from previously undiagnosed congenital, acquired, or hereditary cardiac diseases. Congenital aortic valvular, subvalvular, and supravalvular disease with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is an important preventable cause of sudden death. This report documents sudden death presumably due to acute myocardial ischemia in a young male with an undiagnosed supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS due to a rare association of isolation of coronary sinuses of Valsalva. Congenital supravalvular pulmonary stenosis and mitral valvular dysplasia were also present.

  6. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... an international network of vaccine safety experts. SIDS deaths declined due to recommendations to put infants on ...

  7. Sudden transition from finite temperature spin environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zheng-Da; He, Qi-Liang; Xu, Hang-Shi [Zhejiang Institute of Modern Physics and Physics Department, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Xu, Jing-Bo, E-mail: xujb@zju.edu.cn [Zhejiang Institute of Modern Physics and Physics Department, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the phenomenon of sudden transition from finite temperature critical environments in the study of quantum correlations of a two-qubit system coupled to independent thermal Ising baths. The influence of the temperature and external field of bath on the critical time of sudden transition is also explored. It is found that the phenomenon of sudden transition can be used to detect the critical points of thermal spin environments. How to protect quantum correlations of the system is also examined by applying a series of π-phase pulses. -- Highlights: ► The sudden transition phenomenon from thermal critical environments is studied. ► How to detect quantum critical points of thermal Ising baths is explored. ► The quantum discord can be protected against thermal bath by π-phase pulses.

  8. Counselling patients with sudden, irreversible sight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Thombs

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sudden loss of vision is devastating to the patient and close relatives. This article discusses how to talk with someone who has lost their vision and how to help them with their concerns and questions.

  9. Sudden cardiac death in children and adolescents (excluding Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajewski Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden death in the young is rare. About 25% of cases occur during sports. Most young people with sudden cardiac death (SCD have underlying heart disease, with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and coronary artery anomalies being commonest in most series. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia and long QT syndrome are the most common primary arrhythmic causes of SCD. It is estimated that early cardiopulmonary resuscitation and widespread availability of automatic external defibrillators could prevent about a quarter of pediatric sudden deaths.

  10. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, C.; Pearce, J.; Zucker, A. (eds.)

    1992-01-01

    This report presents brief descriptions of the following programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: The effects of pollution and climate change on forests; automation to improve the safety and efficiency of rearming battle tanks; new technologies for DNA sequencing; ORNL probes the human genome; ORNL as a supercomputer research center; paving the way to superconcrete made with polystyrene; a new look at supercritical water used in waste treatment; and small mammals as environmental monitors.

  11. Sudden cardiac death in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmied, C; Borjesson, M

    2014-02-01

    A 'paradox of sport' is that in addition to the undisputed health benefits of physical activity, vigorous exertion may transiently increase the risk of acute cardiac events. In general, the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) approximately doubles during physical activity and is 2- to 3-fold higher in athletes compared to nonathletes. The incidence of SCD in young athletes is in fact very low, at around 1-3 per 100,000, but attracts much public attention. Variations in incidence figures may be explained by the methodology used for data collection and more importantly by differences between subpopulations of athletes. The incidence of SCD in older (≥ 35 years) athletes is higher and may be expected to rise, as more and older individuals take part in organized sports. SCD is often the first clinical manifestation of a potentially fatal underlying cardiovascular disorder and usually occurs in previously asymptomatic athletes. In the young (cardiac abnormalities, whilst coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common cause in older athletes. Cardiac screening including family/personal history, physical examination and resting electrocardiogram (ECG) may identify individuals at risk and has the potential to decrease the risk of SCD in young athletes. Screening including the ECG has a high sensitivity for underlying disease in young athletes, but the specificity needs to be improved, whereas the sensitivity of screening without the use of ECG is very low. The screening modality recommended for young athletes is of limited value in older athletes, who should receive individualized screening with cardiac stress testing for patients with high risk of underlying CAD. As cardiovascular screening will never be able to identify all athletes at risk, adequate preparedness is vital in case of a potentially fatal event at the sporting arena/facility. Firstly, we will review the magnitude of the problem of SCD in athletes of different ages, as well as the aetiology. Secondly, we

  12. Evaluation of cardiovascular risks and recovery of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss in hospitalised patients: comparison between complete and partial sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haremza, C; Klopp-Dutote, N; Strunski, V; Page, C

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the presence of cardiovascular risk factors and recovery of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss in hospitalised patients. A single-centre retrospective study of 80 patients hospitalised for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss was conducted over a 6-year period. Mean pure tone hearing thresholds were assessed by pure tone audiometry. Twenty-three of 80 patients (28.75 per cent) initially had no cardiovascular risk factors. Forty-five patients had hyperlipidaemia, 22 patients had hypertension, 7 patients had diabetes mellitus and 7 patients were obese. No statistically significant difference was observed between patients with complete versus partial sudden sensorineural hearing loss (p = 0.0708) concerning the cardiovascular risk factors. At long-term follow up, the hearing recovery rate was not significantly different between the two groups of patients (p = 0.7541). The lack of a clear relationship between idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss and cardiovascular risk factors suggests that sudden sensorineural hearing loss has a predominantly multifactorial disease profile regardless of hearing impairment severity.

  13. Circumstances and causes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in sudden death survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreede-Swagemakers, J. J.; Gorgels, A. P.; Dubois-Arbouw, W. I.; Dalstra, J.; Daemen, M. J.; van Ree, J. W.; Stijns, R. E.; Wellens, H. J.

    1998-01-01

    To study the circumstances and medical profile of out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) patients in whom resuscitation was attempted by the ambulance service, and to identify causes of SCA in survivors and factors that influence resuscitation success rate. During a five year period (1991-95)

  14. Histological findings in unclassified sudden infant death, including sudden infant death syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Liebrechts-Akkerman (Germaine); J.V.M.G. Bovée (Judith); L.C.D. Wijnaendts (Liliane); A. Maes (Ann); P.G.J. Nikkels (Peter); R.R. de Krijger (Ronald)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractOur objective was to study histological variations and abnormalities in unclassified sudden infant death (USID), including sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), in The Netherlands. Two hundred Dutch USID cases between 1984 and 2005 were identified. The histology slides and autopsy reports

  15. Soil Aeration and Tree Health: Correlating Soil Oxygen Measurements with the Decline of Established Oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. R. Costello; J. D. MacDonald; K. A. Jacobs

    1991-01-01

    Field measurements of oxygen concentration and oxygen diffusion rate (ODR) indicate that ODR is a more reliable indicator of problem sites. In a landscaped area where oak trees are declining, ODR in the upper part of the soil profile ranged between 0.1-0.2 µg O2cm2/minute (where µg = micrograms, and O...

  16. Sudden unexpected death in infancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Bo Gregers; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Theilade, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background. Incidence of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) differs among studies and non-autopsied cases are difficult to assess. Objectives. To investigate causes of sudden death in infancy in a nationwide setting. Validate the use...... of the ICD-10 code for SIDS (R95) in the Danish Cause of Death registry. Design. A retrospective analysis of all infant deaths (death certificates and autopsy reports were read. Results. We identified 192 SUDI cases (10% of total deaths, 0.42 per 1000 births......) with autopsy performed in 87% of cases. In total, 49% of autopsied SUDI cases were defined as SIDS (5% of all deaths, 0.22 per 1000 births); Cardiac cause of death was denoted in 24% of cases. The Danish Cause of Death Registry misclassified 30% of SIDS cases. Conclusions. A large proportion of infant deaths...

  17. Classification of sudden and arrhythmic death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, C; Køber, L; Elming, H

    1997-01-01

    Since all death is (eventually) sudden and associated with cardiac arrhythmias, the concept of sudden death is only meaningful if it is unexpected, while arrhythmic death is only meaningful if life could have continued had the arrhythmia been prevented or treated. Current classifications of death...... as being arrhythmic or sudden are all biased by the difficulty of having to decide on the degree of unexpectedness or the likelihood that life could continue without the arrhythmia. The uncertainties are enlarged by the fact that critical data (such as knowledge of arrhythmias at the time of death...... or autopsy) are available in only a few percent of cases. A main problem in using classifications is the lack of validation data. This situation has, with the MADIT trial, changed in the case of the Thaler and Hinkle classification of arrhythmic death. The MADIT trial demonstrated that arrhythmic death...

  18. Sudden death in Lesch-Nyhan disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neychev, Vladimir Kostadinov; Jinnah, H A

    2012-01-01

    To increase awareness of sudden and unexpected death in Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND) and to explore its potential causes, we report the anteceding clinical features and laboratory evaluations of five males with LND who ultimately experienced sudden and unexpected death, along with three additional males who suffered serious respiratory events during life. The ages of patients ranged from 2 to 45 years. The cause of sudden death in LND appears to have a respiratory rather than a cardiogenic basis. All cases cannot be linked readily with a single respiratory process. Instead, different respiratory processes appear to operate in different cases. These may include aspiration, laryngospasm, central apnea, cyanotic breath-holding spells, and high cervical spine damage. Better recognition of these processes will help to guide appropriate workup and management that could include chest imaging, endoscopy of the airways, polysomnography, electroencephalogram, and brain and/or spine imaging. PMID:17044962

  19. Manufacture of oak furniture, cabinets, and panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold C. Moser

    1971-01-01

    Oak is uniquely favored for use in furniture, cabinets, and similar products. The supply is plentiful. Though drying presents some problems, once oak is properly dried it is a stable wood that machines very well, glues well, and accepts a variety of finishes well.

  20. Stocking, growth, and yield of oak stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel F. Gingrich

    1971-01-01

    An appraisal of stocking in even-aged upland oak stands is a prerequisite for determining the cultural needs of a given stand. Most oak stands have sufficient stocking to utilize the site, but are deficient in high-quality trees. Thinning such stands offers a good opportunity to upgrade the relative quality of the growing stock and enhance the growth and yield...

  1. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome with Harlequin Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selahattin Katar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The harlequin fetus, a severe variant of ichthyosis, occurs rarely, and these babies die within the first few days of life. Early retinoid therapy may improve the disorder and help increase survival rates. The exact cause of the sudden infant death syndrome of the suckling is not known and the incidence approximately is 0.1-0.3 %. In general, these babies looked well and healthy at the time of the sleeping but were found dead in their bed in the morning. We report a harlequin fetus with sudden infant death syndrome.

  2. Sudden ionospheric disturbances in solar cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothmer, Volker; Bernert, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Sudden ionospheric disturbances in solar cycle 24 Within the framework of the UN International Space Weather Initiative, and building upon the achievements of the International Heliophysical Year, the German project SIMONE (Sun Ionosphere MOnitoring NEtwork) operates several SID monitors provided by the University of Stanford. Here we present an overview of sudden ionospheric disturbances recorded since 2006 at the high school Gymnasium Walsrode until to date. The continous measurements allow a detailed comparison of locally measured SIDs with the general trend of solar activity during the current solar maximum. We further show that the measurements reveal specific information on the variable response of the dayside ionosphere to solar flares.

  3. Undiagnosed intracranial lipoma associated with sudden death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Durão

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial lipomas represent less than 0.1% of all intracranial tumors. They are usually located in the callus area and often asymptomatic. This paper presents a sudden death case after an episode of convulsions on a 39 years old woman with a history of migraines and seizures since adolescence. The autopsy revealed the presence of an undiagnosed massive brain lipoma (60 × 35 mm associated with atrophy of the corpus callosum. Although very rare and seldom malignant these may be associated with seizures and sudden death.

  4. Diminishing proportional risk of sudden death with advancing age: implications for prevention of sudden death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahn, Andrew D; Connolly, Stuart J; Roberts, Robin S; Gent, Michael

    2004-05-01

    Advances in primary and secondary prevention of sudden death have led to a wide array of potentially beneficial therapies. Identification of patients most likely to benefit would be of use when considering costly interventions such as an implantable defibrillator. We sought to determine the effect of advancing age on the mode of death in the Amiodarone Trialists Metanalysis. Patients (n = 6252; age, 61.2+/-10.5 years; 83% men) were included in an analysis of predictors of sudden death (SD) and all-cause death (ACD), based on baseline variables at enrollment. Patients were divided into 5 age groups: 80 years. During a mean of 16.8+/-10.3 months of follow-up, there were 1023 deaths, with an annual overall mortality rate of 11.7%. Both sudden death and nonsudden death rates increased with age, although the increase of nonsudden death with age was more dramatic. The overall proportion of death that was sudden (SD/ACD ratio) was 0.41, falling from 0.51 before age 50 years to 0.26 after age 80 years (P =.002 for trend). The SD/ACD ratio was not affected by sex, New York Heart Association Class, or left ventricular ejection fraction. Although the incidence of sudden death increases with age, the proportion of death that is sudden diminishes markedly. This finding may influence the yield of interventions targeted at prevention of sudden death.

  5. Morphological diagnosis of sudden cardiac death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Valenzuela, Antonio Jesus Sanchez; Villanueva, E

    1989-01-01

    of pericardial fluid and myocardium in the same cases of sudden death of cardiac origin. Fifty cases were included, and the results of the macroscopic, histochemical, histological and cytological examinations revealed that the NBT test and microscopy are valuable methods in diagnosing infarctions, while...

  6. Alcohol Use and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Karen B.; Goodwin, Matthew S.; Lipsitt, Lewis P.

    2004-01-01

    Despite general evidence of fetal toxicities associated with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), there has been limited research focusing on the effects of parental alcohol use on SIDS occurrence, either directly or in interaction with other risk conditions. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on parental, especially maternal,…

  7. Epidemiological Features of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Medvedevа

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of some epidemiological characteristics of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS in the Donbass region for a period of 1994–2014. The prevalence and specific relevance of SIDS, dynamics of specific gravity of SIDS in the structure of infantile mortality is shown.

  8. Cardiac channelopathies and sudden infant death syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Grunnet, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is always a devastating and unexpected occurrence. SIDS is the leading cause of death in the first 6 months after birth in the industrialized world. Since the discovery in 1998 of long QT syndrome as an underlying substrate for SIDS, around 10-20% of SIDS cases...

  9. Relationship between platelet parameters and sudden ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between platelet parameters and sudden sensorineural hearing loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis. ... Data source: A PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, OVID, EMBASE and Google Scholar search (date last searchedApril2016) search was done. No restrictions of time, language and location were ...

  10. Sudden cardiac arrest risk in young athletes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Underlying cardiac abnormalities are the main cause of unexpected death in athletes on field. These abnormalities have been associated with a previous history of syncope, a family history of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA), cardiac murmur, a history of over-exhaustion post exercise and ventricular tachyarrhythmia during ...

  11. Febrile convulsions and sudden infant death syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Basso, Olga; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2002-01-01

    It has been suggested that sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and febrile convulsions are related aetiologically. We compared the risk of SIDS in 9877 siblings of children who had had febrile convulsions with that of 20.177 siblings of children who had never had febrile convulsions. We found...

  12. Sudden death syndrome of soybean in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS) is one of the most common and widely spread root disease affecting soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in Argentina where it is an economically important crop. This disease was first discovered in this country in 1992 in the Pampas Region, and the following year in Northwest...

  13. Sudden Sensory-Neural Hearing Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Fariba Slambol Nassaj

    1993-01-01

    Sudden hearing loss is a type of hearing loss that occurs in three successive frequencies by more than 30 dB and in less than 72 hours. Every 10 person in 100000 in the world and 25000 people in USA suffer this kind of hearing loss. The average age of the onset is 43 years old.

  14. Sudden Gains during Therapy of Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Schultz, Stefan M.; Meuret, Alicia E.; Moscovitch, David A.; Suvak, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the phenomenon of sudden gains in 107 participants with social phobia (social anxiety disorder) who received either cognitive-behavioral group therapy or exposure group therapy without explicit cognitive interventions, which primarily used public speaking situations as exposure tasks. Twenty-two out of 967…

  15. Sudden (reversible) sensorineural hearing loss in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kenny, R

    2011-03-01

    Sudden hearing loss directly associated with pregnancy or birth is a little known and rare occurrence. The temporary, unilateral, low-frequency sensorineural hearing loss in this case was reported after the birth of the patient\\'s first child, and again during the third trimester of her second pregnancy.

  16. Sudden viscous dissipation of compressing turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Davidovits, S.; Fisch, N. J.

    2015-01-01

    Compression of turbulent plasma can amplify the turbulent kinetic energy, if the compression is fast compared to the viscous dissipation time of the turbulent eddies. A sudden viscous dissipation mechanism is demonstrated, whereby this amplified turbulent kinetic energy is rapidly converted into thermal energy, suggesting a new paradigm for fast ignition inertial fusion.

  17. Sudden Viscous Dissipation of Compressing Turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovits, Seth; Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2016-03-11

    Compression of turbulent plasma can amplify the turbulent kinetic energy, if the compression is fast compared to the viscous dissipation time of the turbulent eddies. A sudden viscous dissipation mechanism is demonstrated, whereby this amplified turbulent kinetic energy is rapidly converted into thermal energy, suggesting a new paradigm for fast ignition inertial fusion.

  18. Oak moss extracts in the diagnosis of fragrance contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Heydorn, Siri; Menné, Torkil

    2002-01-01

    Oak moss absolute is one of the eight ingredients of the fragrance mix (FM) used for diagnosing perfume allergy. Oak moss absolute is an extract prepared from the lichen Evernia prunastri growing on oak trees. It has been shown that the oak moss patch test material from one producer contained resin...

  19. Data sharing report characterization of population 7: Personal protective equipment, dry active waste, and miscellaneous debris, surveillance and maintenance project Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harpenau, Evan M. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-10-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (EM-OR) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, provide technical and independent waste management planning support under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Specifically, DOE EM-OR requested that ORAU plan and implement a sampling and analysis campaign targeting certain URS|CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC (UCOR) surveillance and maintenance (S&M) process inventory waste. Eight populations of historical and reoccurring S&M waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been identified in the Waste Handling Plan for Surveillance and Maintenance Activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, DOE/OR/01-2565&D2 (WHP) (DOE 2012) for evaluation and processing to determine a final pathway for disposal. Population 7 (POP 7) consists of 56 containers of aged, low-level and potentially mixed S&M waste that has been staged in various locations around ORNL. Several of these POP 7 containers primarily contain personal protective equipment (PPE) and dry active waste (DAW), but may contain other miscellaneous debris. This data sharing report addresses the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) specified waste in a 13-container subpopulation (including eight steel boxes, three 55-gal drums, one sealand, and one intermodal) that lacked sufficient characterization data for possible disposal at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) using the approved Waste Lot (WL) 108.1 profile.

  20. Effect of acorn moisture content at sowing on germination and seedling growth of white oak and northern red oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi-Jean Susana Sung; Paul P. Kormanik; Catharine D. Cook; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Taryn L. Kormanik

    2006-01-01

    White oak (Quercus alba L.) and northern red oak (Q. rubra L.) acorns were collected locally or from seed orchards in October 2002. Mean acorn moisture content (MC) was 48 percent for white oak and 39 percent for northern red oak. These acorns were air dried to different MCs before being sown into nursery beds in early December...

  1. Sudden natural death in Khartoum Mortuary | Mohamed | Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The sudden natural death is defined as: Death occurs within 24 hours from the onset of symptoms. The disclosing of the causes of sudden natural death is important for prevention and improving outcome. The objectives of this study were to determine the causes of sudden natural death in Khartoum Mortuary

  2. Real-Time Mass Spectrometry Monitoring of Oak Wood Toasting: Elucidating Aroma Development Relevant to Oak-aged Wine Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, Ross R.; Marco Wellinger; Gloess, Alexia N.; Nichols, David S.; Breadmore, Michael C.; Shellie, Robert A.; Chahan Yeretzian

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a real-time method to monitor the evolution of oak aromas during the oak toasting process. French and American oak wood boards were toasted in an oven at three different temperatures, while the process-gas was continuously transferred to the inlet of a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer for online monitoring. Oak wood aroma compounds important for their sensory contribution to oak-aged wine were tentatively identified based on soft ionization and molecular ...

  3. Gene expression profiles of different breast cancer cells compared with their responsiveness to fermented mistletoe (Viscum album L.) extracts Iscador from oak (Quercus), pine (Pinus), white fir (Abies) and apple tree (Malus) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggenschwiler, Jenny; Patrignani, Andrea; Wagner, Ulrich; Rehrauer, Hubert; Schlapbach, Ralph; Rist, Lukas; Ramos, Mac H; Viviani, Angelika

    2006-06-01

    Cytotoxicity assays in vitro (MTT test) showed that the different breast cancer cell lines Kpl-1, MCF-7 and Mfm-223 respond differently to the mistletoe (Viscum album L.) preparations Iscador. Quercus (Qu), Abies (A), Malus (M) and Pinus (P). In order to determine the differences in the responsiveness of the cells more exactly, the gene expression profiles were determined by cells, which were treated with Mistletoe extracts, compared with untreated control cells. Such differences can be analysed in more detail by looking at the gene expression using Human Whole Genome microarray chips (41,000 genes). The results of the transcriptome analyses suggested that Iscador preparations influenced the overregulation of genes regarding immune defense, stress response, apoptosis and cell-cell adhesion pathways. Within the Mfm-223-Zellen was the Genexpression in MCF-7 and Kpl-1. The MCF-7 cells were affected on the genes which are involved in cell-cell contacts whereas Kpl-1 responded to the mistletoe extracts by changing the mRNA levels of the immune and stress response pathways. Concerning the effects of the mistletoe extract, we conclude that Iscador Qu and M have a greater influence on the immune defense and stress response genes whereas Iscador A tends to affect the cell-cell adhesion and cytoskeleton pathways. In summary, cDNA microarray analyses give us information on whether a cancer cell is sensitive to mistletoe extracts in relation to how many genes are significantly overrepresented after mistletoe treatment, and whether a particular mistletoe extract is more effective on a specific cancer cell than the other preparation.

  4. Insects that damage northern red oak acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester P. Gibson

    1982-01-01

    From 1961 to 1964 and in 1979, the insects found damaging acorns of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) in their relative order of abundance were: Curculio proboscideus F., C. sulcatulus (Casey), Melissopus latiferreanus (Wals.), C. nasicus (Say), C. orthorhynchus...

  5. Symptoms Before Sudden Arrhythmic Death Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glinge, Charlotte; Jabbari, Reza; Risgaard, Bjarke

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: No studies in an unselected and nationwide setting have characterized the symptoms and medical history of patients with sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS). The aim of this study was to identify and describe the symptoms and medical history of patients before the presentation...... of SADS. METHODS AND RESULTS: We have previously identified all of the autopsied sudden cardiac deaths (SCD; n = 314) in Danes aged 1-35 years between 2000 and 2006. After comprehensive pathological and toxicological investigation did not reveal a cause of SCD, 136 of the patients were identified as SADS....... The National Patient Registry was utilized to obtain information on all in- and outpatient activity in Danish hospitals. All medical records from hospitals and general practitioners, including death certificates and autopsy reports were reviewed. Before death, 48 (35%) SADS patients had cardiac symptoms; among...

  6. Rare cause of bilateral sudden deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, F I; Merkus, P; van Nieuwkerk, E B J; Hensen, E F

    2016-10-08

    In this paper, we describe the case of a 62-year-old female with recurring episodes of sudden deafness with vertigo and facial paresis. Within a month's time, this resulted in bilateral deafness and vestibular areflexia. Erroneously, the patient was diagnosed with sudden deafness of unknown origin and subsequently with neuroborreliosis (Lyme disease). The true diagnosis of relapsing polychondritis (RP) was revealed 9 months after initial presentation. The diagnostic delay is in part explained by the fact that, by definition, the disease has to relapse before the diagnosis can be made, but also by its pluriform clinical presentation. Timely identification of RP as the cause of this profound sensorineural hearing loss proved to be important. It was key in instigating adequate follow-up, and allowed for cochlear implantation before total cochlear obliteration, which might have hampered optimal hearing rehabilitation. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  7. Cerebral Paragonimiasis Presenting with Sudden Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Deirdre E; Cowell, Annie; Tuohy, Marion J; Procop, Gary W; Morhaime, Jacquelyn; Reed, Sharon L

    2016-12-07

    A 58-year-old Korean-born woman with a history of seizures and psychiatric issues was found dead at home. Autopsy was notable for large, calcified nodules that had nearly replaced her right temporal lobe. Histologic examination revealed the presence of Paragonimus eggs. This case demonstrates a rare manifestation of an aberrantly migrated lung fluke that resulted in epilepsy and sudden death years after the initial infection. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  8. Oak Decline in Missouri: History Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay R. Law; Ross Melick; Charly Studyvin; James R. Steinman

    2004-01-01

    In the 1980s, following extreme winters in the late 1970s and severe droughts in 1976, 1980, and 1983, dead and dying scarlet and black oaks were found on 185,000 acres of the Mark Twain National Forest. That decline event was linked to environmental stresses (Law and Gott 1987). Severe oak decline is now affecting an estimated 500,000 acres on the Mark Twain. High-...

  9. Imaging spectrum of sudden athlete cardiac death.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Arrigan, M T

    2012-02-01

    Sudden athlete death (SAD) is a widely publicized and increasingly reported phenomenon. For many, the athlete population epitomize human physical endeavour and achievement and their unexpected death comes with a significant emotional impact on the public. Sudden deaths within this group are often without prior warning. Preceding symptoms of exertional syncope and chest pain do, however, occur and warrant investigation. Similarly, a positive family history of sudden death in a young person or a known family history of a condition associated with SAD necessitates further tests. Screening programmes aimed at detecting those at risk individuals also exist with the aim of reducing fatalities. In this paper we review the topic of SAD and discuss the epidemiology, aetiology, and clinical presentations. We then proceed to discuss each underlying cause, in turn discussing the pathophysiology of each condition. This is followed by a discussion of useful imaging methods with an emphasis on cardiac magnetic resonance and cardiac computed tomography and how these address the various issues raised by the pathophysiology of each entity. We conclude by proposing imaging algorithms for the investigation of patients considered at risk for these conditions and discuss the various issues raised in screening.

  10. Sudden hearing loss associated with methylphenidate therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapinar, Ugur; Saglam, Omer; Dursun, Engin; Cetin, Bilal; Salman, Nergis; Sahan, Murat

    2014-01-01

    An 8-year-old child diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder presented to our Department of Otolaryngology 4 days after suffering hearing loss, loss of balance, tinnitus, and fullness sensation of the left ear. Her symptoms occured with the first dose of methylphenidate. The medical history and physical examination revealed no other diseases associated with sudden hearing loss. The audiogram revealed a total hearing loss on the left ear. Stapedial reflexes, distortion product and transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions were absent in left ear. The absence of clinical, laboratory and radiological evidence of a possible cause for complaints, an association between methylphenidate and sudden hearing loss was suggested. The patient received a standard course of oral corticosteroid and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Weekly otological and audiological examinations were performed. Conservative and medical treatments offered no relief from hearing loss. Sudden hearing loss is a serious and irreversible adverse effect of methylphenidate. Therefore, the risk of hearing loss should be taken into consideration when initiating methylphenidate therapy.

  11. Arrhythmias and sudden death in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, W G; Sweeney, M O

    1997-09-01

    Survival of patients with heart failure has improved over the past decade due to advances in medical therapy. Sudden death continues to cause 20 to 50% of deaths. Ventricular arrhythmias are common in patients with heart failure. Ventricular hypertrophy, scars from prior myocardial infarction, sympathetic activation, and electrolyte abnormalities contribute. Some sudden deaths are due to bradyarrhythmias and electromechanical dissociation rather than ventricular arrhythmias. The risks and benefits of antiarrhythmic therapies continue to be defined. Class I antiarrhythmic drugs should be avoided due to proarrhythmic and negative inotropic effects that may increase mortality. For patients resuscitated from sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF) amiodarone or an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) should be considered. ICDs markedly reduce sudden death in VT/VF survivors, but in advanced heart failure, this may not markedly extend survival. Catheter or surgical ablation can be considered for selected patients with bundle branch reentry VT or difficult to control monomorphic VT. For patients who have not had sustained VT/VF antiarrhythmic therapy should generally be avoided, but may benefit some high risk patients. Amiodarone may be beneficial in patients with advanced heart failure and rapid resting heart rates. ICDs may improve survival in selected survivors of myocardial infarction who have inducible VT.

  12. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, V.A.; Wilson, A.R. (eds.)

    1990-10-01

    This two-volume report, the Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Report for 1989, is the nineteenth in an annual series that began in 1971. It reports the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at the three major US Department of Energy (DOE) production and research installations in Oak Ridge on the immediate areas' and surrounding region's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation and wildlife, and through these multiple and varied pathways, the resident human population. Information is presented for the environmental monitoring Quality Assurance (QA) Program, audits and reviews, waste management activities, land special environmental studies. Data are included for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). Volume 1 presents narratives, summaries, and conclusions based on environmental monitoring at the three DOE installations and in the surrounding environs during calendar year (CY) 1989. Volume 1 is intended to be a stand-alone'' report about the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for the reader who does not want an in-depth review of 1989 data. Volume 2 presents the detailed data from which these conclusions have been drawn and should be used in conjunction with Volume 1.

  13. The Debate in Cuba's Scientific Community on Sudden Cardiac Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilches, Ernesto; Ochoa, Luis A; Ramos, Lianne

    2015-10-01

    Sudden cardiac death poses a challenge to modern medicine because of its high incidence, the unexpected and dramatic nature of the event, and years of potential life lost. What's more, despite modest decreases in global mortality attributed to cardiovascular diseases, incidence of sudden cardiac death has not declined. Cuba, like most of the Americas, suffers from knowledge gaps that hamper adequate strategies to address sudden cardiac death as a population health problem. We suggest that a generally accepted operational definition of sudden cardiac death be agreed upon, and a national registry developed that recognizes this cause of death on death certificates. These two actions will enable Cuba's public health authorities to assess the extent of the problem and to design intervention strategies for the population with intermediate and lower cardiovascular risk, the group in which most cases occur. KEYWORDS Sudden cardiac death, cardiovascular disease, sudden death, sudden cardiac arrest, risk reduction, prevention and control, Cuba.

  14. Midstory removal methods tested for timely release of newly established oak seedlings under oak shelterwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald A. Rathfon

    2011-01-01

    The oak shelterwood method calls for the removal of shade-tolerant, undesirable midstory species to create adequate diffuse light conditions at the forest floor for oak seedling establishment, preferably timed to coincide with a large acorn crop. Injection (INJ) with an herbicide, chainsaw felling and girdling with herbicide application (SAW), and a low-volume basal...

  15. Comparison of oak and sugar maple distribution and regeneration in central Illinois upland oak forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Frey; Scott J. Meiners

    2014-01-01

    Changes in disturbance frequencies, habitat fragmentation, and other biotic pressures are allowing sugar maple (Acer saccharum) to displace oak (Quercus spp.) in the upland forest understory. The displacement of oaks by sugar maples represents a major management concern throughout the region. We collected seedling microhabitat data...

  16. Using Forest Service forest inventory and analysis data to estimate regional oak decline and oak mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn W. Kromroy; Jennifer Juzwik; Paul Castillo; Mark H. Hansen

    2008-01-01

    Damage and mortality data are collected as part of the US Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) ongoing assessments of the nation's timberlands. The usefulness and value of FIA tree data in assessing historical levels of oak decline and oak mortality were investigated for seven Midwestern states. The data were collected during two periodic...

  17. Transpiration of oak trees in the oak savannas of the Southwestern Borderlands region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter F. Ffolliott; Cody L. Stropki; Aaron T. Kauffman; Gerald J. Gottfried

    2008-01-01

    Transpiration of oak trees on the Cascabel watersheds in the savannas on the eastern slope of the Peloncillo Mountains in southwestern New Mexico has been estimated by the sap-flow method. Transpiration represents the largest loss of gross precipitation falling on a watershed in approximations of water budgets for the more densely stocked oak woodlands of the...

  18. The development of an aquatic spill model for the White Oak Creek watershed, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.O.

    1996-05-01

    This study develops an aquatic spill model applicable to the White Oak Creek watershed draining the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hazardous, toxic, and radioactive chemicals are handled and stored on the laboratory reservation. An accidental spill into the White Oak Creek watershed could contaminate downstream water supplies if insufficient dilution did not occur. White Oak Creek empties into the Clinch River, which flows into the Tennessee River. Both rivers serve as municipal water supplies. The aquatic spill model provides estimates of the dilution at sequential downstream locations along White Oak creek and the Clinch River after an accidental spill of a liquid containing a radioactively decaying constituent. The location of the spill on the laboratory is arbitrary, while hydrologic conditions range from drought to extreme flood are simulated. The aquatic spill model provides quantitative estimates with which to assess water quality downstream from the site of the accidental spill, allowing an informed decision to be made whether to perform mitigating measures so that the integrity of affected water supplies is not jeopardized.

  19. Potential Central Nervous System Involvement in Sudden Unexpected Infant Deaths and the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thach, Bradley T

    2015-07-01

    Sudden unexpected infant death (SUID) in infancy which includes Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is the commonest diagnosed cause of death in the United States for infants 1 month to 1 year of age. Central nervous system mechanisms likely contribute to many of these deaths. We discuss some of these including seizure disorders, prolonged breath holding, arousal from sleep and its habituation, laryngeal reflex apnea potentiated by upper airway infection, and failure of brainstem-mediated autoresuscitation. In the conclusions section, we speculate how lives saved through back sleeping might result in later developmental problems in certain infants who otherwise might have died while sleeping prone. © 2015 American Physiological Society.

  20. Characterization of volatile constituents in commercial oak wood chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Muiño, Iria; Cadahía, Estrella

    2010-09-08

    The volatile composition of the different oak wood pieces (chips of Quercus spp.) that can be found on the market to be used as alternatives to barrels for aging wines, as well as of chips of Quercus pyrenaica which are being introduced, was studied, evaluating the contents of volatile phenols, lactones, furanic compounds, pyranones, phenolic aldehydes, phenolic ketones, and others. In regard to the overall results, the volatile composition of these products varies widely and has not been clearly laid out according to either the oak species or the wood toasting intensity. Taking into account that the different characteristics of alternatives to barrel products are reflected in the wine treated with them and that an oenological profile based on these variables (origin and toasting level) cannot be defined, only an appropriate chemical analysis would reveal the quality of alternative-to-barrel products and allow us to attempt to foresee its effects on the chemical and organoleptic characteristics of the wines treated with them. On the other hand, the Q. pyrenaica alternative products are very similar to those of other species, with some aromatic particularities, such as their high levels of furanic compounds, eugenol, Furaneol, and cis-whiskylactone, and low levels of vanillin.

  1. Infectious causes of sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfelali, Mohammad; Khandaker, Gulam

    2014-12-01

    Investigators have long suspected the role of infection in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Evidence of infectious associations with SIDS is accentuated through the presence of markers of infection and inflammation on autopsy of SIDS infants and isolates of some bacteria and viruses. Several observational studies have looked into the relation between seasonality and incidence of SIDS, which often showed a winter peak. These all may suggest an infectious aetiology of SIDS. In this review we have summarised the current literature on infectious aetiologies of SIDS by looking at viral, bacterial, genetic and environmental factors which are believed to be associated with SIDS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sudden Death from Glue-Sniffing

    OpenAIRE

    Sugawara, Norisuke; Makisumi, Toshiro; Furuno, Junji

    1992-01-01

    This case dealswith an 18 year-old young male who suddenly died while amusing himself by glue-sniffing together with a friend in a very narrow toilet beneath a stairway in the company where he worked. Therefore, the purepose of elucidating the cause of death, gas chromatographic analyses were carried out on the laquer thinner which was discovered at the acene and on the variety of tissues of the cadaver. As a result, five ingredients (acetone, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, toluene, and n-butyl ac...

  3. Heart Failure and Sudden Cardiac Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saour, Basil; Smith, Bryan; Yancy, Clyde W

    2017-12-01

    The Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention estimates that 5.7 million adults in the United States suffer from heart failure and 1 in 9 deaths in 2009 cited heart failure as a contributing cause. Almost 50% of patients who are diagnosed with heart failure die within 5 years of diagnosis. Cardiovascular disease is a public health burden. The prognosis of patients with heart failure has improved significantly. However, the risk for death remains high. Managing sudden death risk and intervening appropriately with primary or secondary prevention strategies are of paramount importance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The increasing sacrcity of red oaks in Mississippi river floodplain forestS: Influence of the residual overstory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick Dearing Oliver; E.C. Burkhardt; Daniel A. Skojac

    2005-01-01

    Red oaks - cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda Raf.) willow oak (Quercus phellos L.), water oak (Quercus nigra L.), and Nuttall oak (Quercus texana Buckley; aka: Quercus nuttallii Palmer) - are not regrowing in Mississippi Delta river floodplain forests in the southeastern United...

  5. Working and Learning Among California Oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietje, B.; Gingg, B.; Zingo, J.; Huntsinger, L.

    2009-04-01

    With tremendous support from collaborators and enthusiastic volunteers, "Learning Among the Oaks" at the historic Santa Margarita Ranch has become a favorite outdoor learning experience for hundreds of Santa Margarita School students, along with their teachers and families. Oaks are at the center of this unique and cost effective public education program. From getting to know local oaks to exploring conservation issues within the context of a historic working cattle ranch, students take pride in expanding their awareness and knowledge of the local oak woodland community. Santa Margarita School families representing the varied demographics of the community come together on the trail. For many, the program provides a first opportunity to get to know those who make a living on the land and to understand that this land around their school is more than a pretty view. "Learning Among the Oaks" also addresses the need for quality, hands-on science activities and opportunities to connect children with the outdoor world. Using a thematic approach and correlating lessons with State Science Standards, we've engaged students in a full-spectrum of exciting outdoor learning adventures. As students progress through the grades, they find new challenges within the oak trail environment. We've succeeded in establishing an internship program that brings highly qualified, enthusiastic university students out to practice their science teaching skills while working with elementary school students. In the future, these university student interns may assist with the development of interpretive displays, after-school nature activities and monitoring projects. We've benefited from proximity to Cal Poly State University and its "learn-by-doing" philosophy. We've also succeeded in building a dedicated network of volunteers and collaborators, each with a special interest satisfied through participation in the oak trail program. While "Learning Among the Oaks" has focused on educating school

  6. Radial variations in cation exchange capacity and base saturation rate in the wood of pedunculate oak and European beech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbauts, J.; Penninckx, V.; Gruber, W.; Meerts, P. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Laboratoire de genetique et d' ecologie vegetales, Brussels (Belgium)

    2002-10-01

    Visual observation of pedunculate oak trees and European beech trees in a mixed forest stand in the Belgian Ardennes revealed decreasing cation concentration profiles in wood. In order to determine whether these profiles are attributable to endogenous factors or to decreased availability of cations in the soil, radial profiles of water-soluble, exchangeable and total cations were investigated. Cation exchange capacity of wood was also determined. Results showed wood cation exchange capacity to decrease from pith to bark in European beech and from pith to outer heartwood in pedunculate oak. Decreasing profiles of exchangeable calcium and magnesium in peduncular oak and exchangeable calcium in European beech were found to be strongly constrained by cation exchange capacity, and thus not related to environmental change. Base cation saturation rate showed no consistent radial change in either species. It was concluded that the results did not provide convincing evidence to attribute the decrease in divalent cation concentration in pedunculate oak and European beech in this location to be due to atmospheric pollution. 42 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  7. Screening of contaminants in Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.; Suter, G.W.; Watts, J.A.

    1992-07-01

    Waste Area Grouping 2 (WAG 2) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located in the White Oak Creek Watershed and is composed of White Oak Creek Embayment, White Oak Lake and associated floodplain, and portions of White Oak Creek (WOC) and Melton Branch downstream of ORNL facilities. Contaminants leaving other ORNL WAGs in the WOC watershed pass through WAG 2 before entering the Clinch River. Health and ecological risk screening analyses were conducted on contaminants in WAG 2 to determine which contaminants were of concern and would require immediate consideration for remedial action and which contaminants could be assigned a low priority or further study. For screening purposes, WAG 2 was divided into four geographic reaches: Reach 1, a portion of WOC; Reach 2, Melton Branch; Reach 3, White Oak Lake and the floodplain area to the weirs on WOC and Melton Branch; and Reach 4, the White Oak Creek Embayment, for which an independent screening analysis has been completed. Screening analyses were conducted using data bases compiled from existing data on carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic contaminants, which included organics, inorganics, and radionuclides. Contaminants for which at least one ample had a concentration above the level of detection were placed in a detectable contaminants data base. Those contaminants for which all samples were below the level of detection were placed in a nondetectable contaminants data base.

  8. Febrile seizures prior to sudden cardiac death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stampe, Niels Kjær; Glinge, Charlotte; Jabbari, Reza

    2018-01-01

    Aims: Febrile seizure (FS) is a common disorder affecting 2-5% of children up to 5 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine whether FS in early childhood are over-represented in young adults dying from sudden cardiac death (SCD). Methods and results: We included all deaths (n = 4595...... with FS was sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (5/8; 62.5%). Conclusion: In conclusion, this study demonstrates a significantly two-fold increase in the frequency of FS prior to death in young SCD cases compared with the two control groups, suggesting that FS could potentially contribute in a risk......) nationwide and through review of all death certificates, we identified 245 SCD in Danes aged 1-30 years in 2000-09. Through the usage of nationwide registries, we identified all persons admitted with first FS among SCD cases (14/245; 5.7%) and in the corresponding living Danish population (71 027/2 369 785...

  9. Comparative analysis of some bioecological characteristics of Hungarian oak and Turkey oak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukin Marina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an in-depth study of some bioecological characteristics of the Hungarian and Turkey oak, autochthonous oak species and edificators of climatogenic communities of central Serbia. Today, these forest complexes are mostly of coppice origin and as such, they require implementation of reclamation operations. In order to determine biological dominance, select the optimal reclamation operations and finally improve the state of these forests, we studied the environmental conditions, stand state, development and position of individual trees in a mixed coppice stand of Hungarian and Turkey oak in a suburban zone of the city of Belgrade.

  10. Cardiac screening to prevent sudden death in young athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Schmehil, Christopher; Malhotra, Devika; Patel, Dilip R.

    2017-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a sudden and unexpected death caused by loss of heart of function. SCD may occur in any population, but when it occurs on the playing field in a young individual, communities worldwide are affected. Although these events are rare, media coverage of sudden cardiac arrests in young athletes have created the impression that these events are far more common than they appear. With a heightened awareness of SCD in young athletes, screening methods have been developed t...

  11. [Sudden cardiac death: A better understanting for a better prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, V; Bougouin, W; Karam, N; Albuisson, J; Cariou, A; Jouven, X; Marijon, E

    2017-09-01

    Sudden cardiac death is defined as a natural and unexpected death, in a previous apparently healthy individual. It represents a major public health issue, with up to 50% of the cardiovascular mortality. Using data from the Paris Sudden Death Expertise Centre registry, this article summarises the main cardiovascular abnormalities associated with sudden cardiac death, the different preventives approaches, and provides a systematic diagnostic approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Distributional record of oak gall wasp (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) that occur on oak trees (Quercus spp.) and produce galls on a certain part of the host. In this survey, oak gall wasp species were collected from the oak forests of Pardanan, Mirabad, Nalas, Sardasht, Hamran and Dar-ghabr in ...

  13. Fire in Eastern North American Oak Ecosystems: Filling the Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian (Morgan) Varner; Mary Arthur; Stacy Clark; Daniel C. Dey; Justin Hart; Callie Schweitzer

    2016-01-01

    This special issue of Fire Ecology is focused on the fire ecology of eastern USA oak (Quercus L.) forests, woodlands, and savannas. The papers were presented as part of the Fifth Fire in Eastern Oak Forests Conference in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA, in 2015. The topic of fire in eastern oak ecosystems is one that has received insufficient interest from the...

  14. Flood tolerance of oak seedlings from bottomland and upland sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael P. Walsh; Jerry Van Sambeek; Mark Coggeshall; David. Gwaze

    2009-01-01

    Artificial regeneration of oak species in floodplains presents numerous challenges because of the seasonal flooding associated with these areas. Utilizing not only flood-tolerant oak species, but also flood tolerant seed sources of the oak species, may serve to enhance seedling survival and growth rates. Despite the importance of these factors to hardwood forest...

  15. The oak (Quercus) biodiversity of California and adjacent regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin C. Nixon

    2002-01-01

    Twenty species of oak (Quercus) are known from California. The white oak group is the most diverse, and includes a complex of scrub oak species that are often encountered in chaparral, mixed forest and desert margin habitats. The Protobalanus group (e.g., Quercus chrysolepis) is a unique and distinctive clade of western North...

  16. Blue and Valley Oak Seedling Establishment on California's Hardwood Rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore E. Adams Jr.; Peter B. Sands; William H. Weitkamp; Neil K. McDougald

    1991-01-01

    Factors contributing to poor establishment of blue oak (Quercus douglasii) and valley oak (Q. lobata) in California oak-grassland savannas were studied in a series of acorn seeding experiments initiated in 1985. Exclusion of large herbivores permitted examination of herbaceous interference and small mammal and insect depredation....

  17. Managing California black oak for tribal ecocultural restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan W. Long; Ron W. Goode; Raymond J. Gutteriez; Jessica J. Lackey; M. Kat Anderson

    2017-01-01

    Many tribes in California and Oregon value California black oak (Quercus kelloggii) as a traditional source of food and other values. Over centuries or millennia, Native Americans learned that they could enhance production of desired resources by regularly igniting low-intensity surface fires in stands of black oak. Although black oak is likely to...

  18. Oak woodland conservation management planning in southern CA - lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi Dagit

    2015-01-01

    The California Oak Woodlands Conservation Act (AB 242 2001) established requirements for the preservation and protection of oak woodlands and trees, and allocated funding managed by the Wildlife Conservation Board. In order to qualify to use these funds, counties and cities need to adopt an oak conservation management plan. Between 2008 and 2011, a team of concerned...

  19. Factors limiting recruitment in valley and coast live oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudia M. Tyler; Bruce E. Mahall; Frank W. Davis; Michael Hall

    2002-01-01

    The Santa Barbara County Oak Restoration Program was initiated in 1994 to determine the major factors limiting recruitment of valley oak (Quercus lobata) and coast live oak (Q. agrifolia). At Sedgwick Reserve in Santa Barbara County, California, we have replicated large-scale planting experiments in four different years to...

  20. Bird communities of gambel oak: a descriptive analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas Leidolf; Michael L. Wolfe; Rosemary L. Pendleton

    2000-01-01

    Gambel oak (Quercus gambelii Nutt.) covers 3.75 million hectares (9.3 million acres) of the western United States. This report synthesizes current knowledge on the composition, structure, and habitat relationships of gambel oak avian communities. It lists life history attributes of 183 bird species documented from gambel oak habitats of the western...

  1. Effects of the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus, on the health of coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia, in southern California before and after treatment with two systemic insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigen Chen; Mary L. Flint; Tom W. Coleman; Joseph J. Doccola; Donald M. Grosman; David L. Wood; Steven J. Seybold

    2015-01-01

    The invasive goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is threatening the health and survival of oak trees in San Diego County, California (Flint and others 2013). The primary oak species colonized and killed in this area include coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia), California black oak (...

  2. Risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Ana Paula Silveira; Aerts, Denise; Nunes, Magda Lahorgue

    2008-06-01

    To analyze whether previously identified risk factors for sudden death syndrome have a significant impact in a developing country. Retrospective longitudinal case-control study carried out in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil. Cases (N=39) were infants born between 1996 and 2000 who died suddenly and unexpectedly at home during sleep and were diagnosed with sudden death syndrome. Controls (N=117) were infants matched by age and sex who died in hospitals due to other conditions. Data were collected from postmortem examination records and questionnaires answers. A conditional logistic model was used to identify factors associated with the outcome. Mean age at death of cases was 3.2 months. The frequencies of infants regarding gestational age, breastfeeding and regular medical visits were similar in both groups. Sleeping position for most cases and controls was the lateral one. Supine sleeping position was found for few infants in both groups. Maternal variables, age below 20 years (OR=2, 95% CI: 1.1; 5.1) and smoking of more than 10 cigarettes per day during pregnancy (OR=3, 95% CI: 1.3; 6.4), significantly increased the risk for the syndrome. Socioeconomic characteristics were similar in both groups and did not affect risk. Infant-maternal and socioeconomic profiles of cases in a developing country closely resembled the profile described in the literature, and risk factors were similar as well. However, individual characteristics were identified as risks in the population studied, such as smoking during pregnancy and maternal age below 20 years.

  3. KRITERIA DIAGNOSIS DAN DIAGNOSIS BANDING SUDDEN DEAFNESS (SSNHL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvindan Subramaniam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sudden deafness or sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL is defined as sensorineural hearing loss of more than 30 dB at three consecutive frequencies within 3 days of onset, often unilateral and idiopathic. Etiology of sudden deafness is still not known, but there are many theories put forward by the experts as a risk factor for sudden deafness. The prevalence of sudden deafness 5-30 per 100,000 people per year. Distribution of men and women almost equally, with the peak age of 50-60 years. Sudden deafness diagnosis is made based on history, physical examination and audiometry. Sudden deafness has three characteristics; acute, sensorineural hearing loss and unknown etiology. Additional characteristics may include vertigo, tinnitus and the absence of cranial nerve involvement. Management of sudden deafness include conservative therapy with multiple modalities. Case: Patient male, 40 years, Bali, Hindu present with hearing loss since ± 2 weeks ago. Patients previously complained of heat in the ear ± 2 days ago accompanied by a downward hearing and ears. A history of vomiting, coughs and colds denied. History of treatment at the hospital and was hospitalized for ± 2 weeks. Patients had never suffered from the same disease. No history of sinusitis, allergy, anemia, autoimmune and other systemic diseases. Patients also had never experienced trauma and underwent nasal surgery before. Keywords:sudden deafness, sensorineural, audiometry.

  4. Status of oak seedlings and saplings in the northern United States: implications for sustainability of oak forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris W. Woodall; Randall S. Morin; Jim R. Steinman; Charles H. Perry

    2008-01-01

    Oak species are a substantial component of forest ecosystems in a 24-state region spanning the northern U.S. During recent decades, it has been documented that the health of oak forests has been experiencing large-scale decline. To further evaluate the sustainability of oak forests in nearly half the states of the U.S., the current status of oak seedlings and saplings...

  5. Treatment of Organic-Contaminated Mixed Waste Utilizing the Oak Ridge Broad Spectrum Contracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, C. H.; Heacker, F. K.; Cunningham, J.; Westich, B.

    2003-02-25

    To meet the requirements of the State of Tennessee's Department of Environment and Conservation Commissioner's Order for treatment of mixed low level wastes, Oak Ridge has utilized commercial treatment companies to treat and dispose mixed waste. Over the past year, Oak Ridge has shipped organic-contaminated mixed waste for treatment to meet milestones under the Site Treatment Plan. Oak Ridge has established contracts with commercial treatment companies accessible by all DOE sites for treatment of a wide range of mixed wastes. The paper will describe and summarize the activities involved in treating and disposing of organic-contaminated mixed waste utilizing DOE complex-wide contracts and the treatment and disposal activities required. This paper will describe the case history of treatment of several organic-contaminated mixed wastes from the Oak Ridge Reservation requiring treatment prior to disposal. The paper will include waste category information, implementation activities, and contract access. The paper will discuss the specifics of the mixed waste treatment including waste characteristics, treatment process and equipment utilized, and treatment results. Additional information will be provided on task order development, waste profiling, treatment pricing, and the disposal process.

  6. Sudden cardiac death in young athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Östman-Smith I

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ingegerd Östman-SmithDivision of Paediatric Cardiology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, SwedenAbstract: Athletic activity is associated with an increased risk of sudden death for individuals with some congenital or acquired heart disorders. This review considers in particular the causes of death affecting athletes below 35 years of age. In this age group the largest proportion of deaths are caused by diseases with autosomal dominant inheritance such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, long QT-syndrome, and Marfan’s syndrome. A policy of early cascade-screening of all first-degree relatives of patients with these disorders will therefore detect a substantial number of individuals at risk. A strictly regulated system with preparticipation screening of all athletes following a protocol pioneered in Italy, including school-age children, can also detect cases caused by sporadic new mutations and has been shown to reduce excess mortality among athletes substantially. Recommendations for screening procedure are reviewed. It is concluded that ECG screening ought to be part of preparticipation screening, but using criteria that do not cause too many false positives among athletes. One such suggested protocol will show positive in approximately 5% of screened individuals, among whom many will be screened for these diseases. On this point further research is needed to define what kind of false-positive and false-negative rate these new criteria result in. A less formal system based on cascade-screening of relatives, education of coaches about suspicious symptoms, and preparticipation questionnaires used by athletic clubs, has been associated over time with a sizeable reduction in sudden cardiac deaths among Swedish athletes, and thus appears to be worth implementing even for junior athletes not recommended for formal preparticipation screening. It is strongly argued

  7. Development, succession, and stand dynamics of upland oak forests in the Wisconsin Driftless Area: Implications for oak regeneration and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megan L. Buchanan; Kurt F. Kipfmueller; Anthony W. D' Amato

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the deciduous forests of the eastern United States, oak (Quercus) regeneration has declined in stands historically dominated by oak species. In the Wisconsin Driftless Area, the level of decline in oak regeneration is variable and influenced by stand structural development, historical disturbance regime, abiotic site characteristics, and...

  8. Coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia, susceptibility and response to goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus, injury in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom W. Coleman; Nancy E. Grulke; Miles Daly; Cesar Godinez; Susan L. Schilling; Philip J. Riggan; Steven J. Seybold

    2011-01-01

    Oak mortality is often associated with a complex of decline factors. We describe the morphological and physiological responses of coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia Née, in California to an invasive insect, the goldspotted oak borer (GSOB), Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), and evaluate drought as a...

  9. An ecologically based approach to oak silviculture: a synthesis of 50 years of oak ecosystem research in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; Alejandro A. Royo; Patrick H. Brose; Todd F. Hutchinson; Martin A. Spetich; Scott H. Stoleson

    2010-01-01

    Oak (Quercus L.) is an abundant and widely distributed genus in eastern North America. A history of periodic fire, grazing, canopy disturbance and timber harvesting has favored oak's dominance. But, changes in this regime toward much less fire or complete fire suppression, and selective cutting are causing the successional replacement of oak....

  10. A meta-analysis of the fire-oak hypothesis: Does prescribed burning promote oak reproduction in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick H. Brose; Daniel C. Dey; Ross J. Phillips; Thomas A. Waldrop

    2013-01-01

    The fire-oak hypothesis asserts that the current lack of fire is a reason behind the widespread oak (Quercus spp.) regeneration difficulties of eastern North America, and use of prescribed burning can help solve this problem. We performed a meta-analysis on the data from 32 prescribed fire studies conducted in mixed-oak forests to test whether they...

  11. The Use of Soil Scarification to Enhance Oak Regeneration in a Mixed-Oak Bottomland Forest of Southern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Lhotka; James J. Zaczek

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether soil scarification following seed fall can be used to increase the density of oak regeneration in a mixed-oak stand. The study area was a 4.5-hectare stand dominated by cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda Eli.). The understory had a high percent cover of poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans...

  12. Monitoring oak-hickory forest change during an unprecedented red oak borer outbreak in the Ozark Mountains: 1990 to 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua S. Jones; Jason A. Tullis; Laurel J. Haavik; James M. Guldin; Fred M. Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Upland oak-hickory forests in Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma experienced oak decline in the late 1990s and early 2000s during an unprecedented outbreak of a native beetle, the red oak borer (ROB), Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman). Although remote sensing supports frequent monitoring of continuously changing forests, comparable in situ observations are critical for...

  13. Sudden losses and sudden gains during a DBT-PTSD treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder following childhood sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Krüger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure-based treatment approaches are first-line interventions for patients suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. However, the dissemination of exposure-based treatments for PTSD is challenging, as a large proportion of clinicians report being concerned about symptoms worsening as a result of this type of intervention and are therefore reluctant to offer it to patients with PTSD. However, there is only little empirical evidence to date on the pattern of symptom worsening during exposure-based treatment for PTSD. Objective: The goal of the present study was to explore the frequency of sudden losses and sudden gains in the course of an exposure-based treatment programme for female patients suffering from PTSD related to childhood sexual abuse who also show severe comorbidity. In addition, the relationship between sudden changes and treatment outcome was examined. Methods: Female participants (N=74 were randomised to either a 12-week residential DBT-PTSD programme or a treatment-as-usual wait list. The pattern of symptom change was assessed via weekly assessments using the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS. Sudden changes were computed as suggested by the literature on sudden gains. Results: During treatment, only one participant (3% experienced a sudden loss, whereas 25% of participants experienced sudden gains. In the waiting condition, 8% of the participants experienced sudden losses and 5% experienced sudden gains during the same time period. No symptom worsening was observed in response to exposure sessions. However, sudden gains occurred during exposure and non-exposure treatment weeks. Patients with sudden gains showed better treatment outcome in the post-treatment and follow-up assessments. Conclusions: Exposure-based treatment did not lead to PTSD symptom worsening in the study sample. Results show that sudden gains occur frequently during PTSD treatment and have a prognostic value for treatment outcome.

  14. Assigning cause for sudden unexpected infant death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Carl E; Darnall, Robert A; McEntire, Betty L; Hyma, Bruce A

    2015-06-01

    We have reached a conundrum in assigning cause of death for sudden unexpected infant deaths. We summarize the discordant perspectives and approaches and how they have occurred, and recommend a pathway toward improved consistency. This lack of consistency affects pediatricians and other health care professionals, scientific investigators, medical examiners and coroners, law enforcement agencies, families, and support or advocacy groups. We recommend that an interdisciplinary international committee be organized to review current approaches for assigning cause of death, and to identify a consensus strategy for improving consistency. This effort will need to encompass intrinsic risk factors or infant vulnerability in addition to known environmental risk factors including unsafe sleep settings, and must be sufficiently flexible to accommodate a progressively expanding knowledge base.

  15. Sudden infant death triggered by dive reflex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matturri, L; Ottaviani, G; Lavezzi, A M

    2005-01-01

    The dive reflex is the reflex mechanism most frequently considered in the aetiopathogenesis of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). This seems to persist in human beings as an inheritance from diver birds and amphibians. It has been reported that washing the face with cold water or plunging into cold water can provoke cardiac deceleration through the intervention of the ambiguus and the vagal dorsal nuclei. This report describes a case of SIDS that offers a unique insight into the role of the dive reflex in determining a lethal outcome. Examination of the brainstem on serial sections revealed severe bilateral hypoplasia of the arcuate nucleus and gliosis of the other cardiorespiratory medullary nuclei. The coronary and cardiac conduction arteries presented early atherosclerotic lesions. The possible role of parental cigarette smoking in the pathogenesis of arcuate nucleus hypoplasia and early coronary atherosclerotic lesions is also discussed. PMID:15623488

  16. Pathophysiology and prevention of sudden cardiac death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Vineet; Jassal, Davinder S; Dhalla, Naranjan S

    2016-03-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is known to occur in individuals with diverse diseases. Each disease state has a specific etiology and pathophysiology, and is diagnosed and treated differently. Etiologies for SCD include cardiac arrhythmias, coronary artery disease, congenital coronary artery anomalies, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, dilated cardiomyopathy, and aortic valve stenosis. A potential unifying mechanism of SCD in these diseases involves a massive stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system's stress response and the subsequent elevation of circulating catecholamines. The diagnosis of cardiac diseases that contribute to an increased risk for SCD is accomplished by a combination of different techniques including electrocardiography, echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and invasive cardiac catheterization. Several therapies including anti-arrhythmic drugs, β-blockers, and antiplatelet agents may be used as medical treatment in patients for the prevention of SCD. Invasive therapies including percutaneous angioplasty, coronary artery bypass surgery, and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators are also used in the clinical management of SCD.

  17. Escherichia coli and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettelheim, Karl A; Goldwater, Paul N

    2015-01-01

    This review examines the association of strains of Escherichia coli with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and the possible role these bacteria play in this enigmatic condition. The review addresses evidence for E. coli in SIDS infants, potential sources of E. coli in the environment, colonization by commensal and pathogenic strains, the variety of currently accepted pathotypes, and how these pathotypes could compromise intestinal integrity and induce inflammation. Both intestinal and extraintestinal pathotypes are compared in relation to the apparent liability in which virulence traits can be gained or lost by strains of E. coli. The way in which E. coli infections fit with current views on infant sleeping position and other SIDS risk factors is highlighted.

  18. Escherichia coli and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Nathan Goldwater

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This review examines the association of strains of Escherichia coli with Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS and the possible role of these bacteria play in this enigmatic condition. The review addresses evidence for E. coli in SIDS infants, potential sources of E. coli in the environment, colonisation by commensal and pathogenic strains, the variety of currently accepted pathotypes, and how these pathotypes could compromise intestinal integrity and induce inflammation. Both intestinal and extraintestinal pathotypes are compared in relation to the apparent lability in which virulence traits can be gained or lost by strains of E. coli. The way in which E. coli infections fit with current views on infant sleeping position and other SIDS risk factors is highlighted.

  19. Role of Armillaria species on tree dying in Turkey oak and Hungarian oak forest in Lipovica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keča Nenad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The species and population structure of Armillaria species were studied in Turkey oak and Hungarian oak forest. Two species were observed, Armillaria gallica and A. mellea. Armillaria mellea was found on only one tree, and A. gallica was found on seven trees. Four gewets of A. gallica were observed of which two were represented only by one isolate each, while two covered the area of 5 and 9 areas respectively.

  20. Oak Ridge reservation land-use plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibb, W. R.; Hardin, T. H.; Hawkins, C. C.; Johnson, W. A.; Peitzsch, F. C.; Scott, T. H.; Theisen, M. R.; Tuck, S. C.

    1980-03-01

    This study establishes a basis for long-range land-use planning to accommodate both present and projected DOE program requirements in Oak Ridge. In addition to technological requirements, this land-use plan incorporates in-depth ecological concepts that recognize multiple uses of land as a viable option. Neither environmental research nor technological operations need to be mutually exclusive in all instances. Unique biological areas, as well as rare and endangered species, need to be protected, and human and environmental health and safety must be maintained. The plan is based on the concept that the primary use of DOE land resources must be to implement the overall DOE mission in Oak Ridge. This document, along with the base map and overlay maps, provides a reasonably detailed description of the DOE Oak Ridge land resources and of the current and potential uses of the land. A description of the land characteristics, including geomorphology, agricultural productivity and soils, water courses, vegetation, and terrestrial and aquatic animal habitats, is presented to serve as a resource document. Essentially all DOE land in the Oak Ridge area is being fully used for ongoing DOE programs or has been set aside as protected areas.

  1. Nuttall Oak Volume and Weight Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce E. Schlaegel; Regan B. Willson

    1983-01-01

    Volume and weight tables were constructed from a 62-tree sample of Nuttall oak (Quercus nuttallii Palmer) taken in the Mississippi Delta. The tables present volume, green weight, and dry weight of bole wood, bole wood plus bark, and total tree above a one-foot stump as predicted from the nonlinear model Y = 0Db

  2. Oak Ridge Reservation Waste Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, J.W. [ed.

    1995-02-01

    This report presents the waste management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation facilities. The primary purpose is to convey what facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, and what plans are in store for the coming fiscal year.

  3. Profitability of Precommericially Thinning Oak Stump Sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    John P. Dwyer; Daniel C. Dey; William B. Kurtz

    1993-01-01

    Thinning oak stump sprouts to a single stem at an early age will increase diameter growth of the released stem. However, percommercial thinning represents a substantial investment which must be carried for many years before any returns are realized. We estimated the incremental gains in yield and the present net worth for five crop-tree release treatments of 5-yr-old...

  4. Profitability of precommercially thinning oak stump sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    John P. Dwyer; Daniel C. Dey; William B. Kurtz

    1993-01-01

    Thinning oak stump sprouts to a single stem at an early age will increase diameter growth of the released stem. However, precommercial thinning represents a substantial investment which must be carried for many years before any returns are realized. We estimated the incremental gains in yield and the present net worth for five crop-tree release treatments of 5-year-old...

  5. Oak Regeneration Guidelines for the Central Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim C. Steiner; James C. Finley; Peter J. Gould; Songlin Fei; Marc McDill

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the first explicit guidelines for regenerating oaks in the central Appalachians. The objectives of this paper are (1) to describe the research foundation on which the guidelines are based and (2) to provide users with the instructions, data collection forms, supplementary tables, and decision charts needed to apply the guidelines in the field. The...

  6. Burned Oaks: Which Ones Will Survive?

    OpenAIRE

    McCreary, Doug; Nader, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    Wildfire in an oak woodland can kill some trees outright and leave others with burn damage that may or may not eventually kill them, too. Here is a quick method for assessing the extent of burn damage and the likelihood that an affected tree will survive.

  7. Silviculture to restore oak savannas and woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; John M. Kabrick; Callie J. Schweitzer

    2017-01-01

    Variability in historic fire regimes in eastern North America resulted in an array of oak natural communities that were dominant across the region. In the past century, savannas and woodlands have become scarce because of conversion to agriculture or development of forest structure in the absence of fire. Their restoration is a primary goal for public agencies and...

  8. How oaks respond to water limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael F. Allen

    2015-01-01

    Oaks are extremely resilient trees. They have persisted since the mid-Cretaceous, with life forms ranging from shrubs to large trees, from evergreen to deciduous. They have two distinct, but critical, adaptations to drought that make this "mesic" taxon adaptable to dry hot environments. First, they form both arbuscular and ectotrophic mycorrhizae, with a high...

  9. Physical distribution of oak strip flooring 1969

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Miller; William C. Miller

    1971-01-01

    As an aid to the marketing of oak strip flooring, a study was made of the distribution process for this product, from manufacture to consumer-where the flooring came from, where it went, how much was shipped, and who handled it.

  10. Field Germination of Nuttall Oak Acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. L. Johnson

    1970-01-01

    In newly cleared plots on Sharkey clay near Stoneville, Mississippi, germination was as high as 79 percent for Nuttall oak (Quercus nuttallii Palmer) acorns sown unstratified in January and 86 percent for those stratified and sown in April. Most seedlings appeared in June and July , when soil temperatures were usually between 80° and 90° F....

  11. Risk factors for sudden cardiac death among patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ping-Yi; Hung, Galen Chin-Lun; Jhong, Jia-Rong; Tsai, Shang-Ying; Chen, Chiao-Chicy; Kuo, Chian-Jue

    2015-10-01

    Patients with schizophrenia suffer from excessive premature mortality, and sudden cardiac death (SCD) is receiving growing attention as a potential cause. The present study investigated the incidence of SCD and its risk factors in a large schizophrenia cohort. We enrolled a consecutive series of 8264 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (according to DSM-III-R and DSM-IV criteria) who were admitted to a psychiatric center in northern Taiwan from January 1, 1985 through December 31, 2008. By linking with national mortality database, 64 cases of SCD were identified. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for SCD was estimated. The cases were matched with controls randomly selected using risk-set sampling in a 1:2 ratio. A standardized chart review process was used to collect socio-demographic and clinical characteristics and the prescribed drugs for each study subject. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis was used to identify correlates of SCD at the index admission and the latest admission. The SMR for SCD was 4.5. For the clinical profiles at the index admission, physical disease (adjusted risk ratio [aRR]=2.91, Paggressive behaviors (aRR=3.99, Paggressive behaviors (aRR=3.26, Paggression is a crucial risk factor that deserves ongoing work for clarifying the mechanisms mediating SCD in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of Quercus agrifolia (coast live oak resistant to the invasive pathogen Phytophthora ramorum in native stands using Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Olivia Conrad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades coast live oak (CLO dominance in many California coastal ecosystems has been threatened by the alien invasive pathogen Phytophthora ramorum, the causal agent of sudden oak death. In spite of high infection and mortality rates in some areas, the presence of apparently resistant trees has been observed, including trees that become infected but recover over time. However, identifying resistant trees based on recovery alone can take many years. The objective of this study was to determine if Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, a chemical fingerprinting technique, can be used to identify CLO resistant to P. ramorum prior to infection. Soft independent modeling of class analogy identified spectral regions that differed between resistant and susceptible trees. Regions most useful for discrimination were associated with carbonyl group vibrations. Additionally, concentrations of two putative phenolic biomarkers of resistance were predicted using partial least squares regression; > 99% of the variation was explained by this analysis. This study demonstrates that chemical fingerprinting can be used to identify resistance in a natural population of forest trees prior to infection with a pathogen. FT-IR spectroscopy may be a useful approach for managing forests impacted by sudden oak death, as well as in other situations where emerging or existing forest pests and diseases are of concern.

  13. Impact of alternative technique to ageing using oak chips in alcoholic or in malolactic fermentation on volatile and sensory composition of red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez García-Carpintero, E; Gómez Gallego, M A; Sánchez-Palomo, E; González Viñas, M A

    2012-09-15

    This paper reports on a complete study of the effect of wood, in the form of oak chips, on the volatile composition and sensory characteristics of Moravia Agria wines added at different stages of the fermentation process. Aroma compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Sensory profile was evaluated by experienced wine-testers. Oak chips were added to wines in two dose rates at different stages of the winemaking process: during alcoholic fermentation (AF), during malolactic fermentation (MLF) and in young, red Moravia Agria wine. Wines fermented with oak chips during AF showed higher concentrations of the ethyl esters of straight-chain fatty acids, ethyl, hexyl, isoamyl acetates and superior alcohols than the control wines. The higher concentrations of benzene compound, oak lactones and furanic compounds were found in wines in contact with oak chips during MLF. The use of oak chips gives rise to a different sensorial profile of wines depending of the point of addition. Higher intensities of woody, coconut, vanilla and sweet spices descriptors were obtained when a large dose rate of chips was employed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Incidence of sudden cardiac death in professional cycling: Sudden cardiac death and exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Sanchís-Gomar, Fabián; Garatachea, Nuria; Arrarás-Flores, Ángel; Pareja Galeano, Helios; Fiuza Luces, María del Carmen; Joyner, Michael J.; Lucía Mulas, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Low-moderate intensity aerobic exercise (e.g., brisk walking for 30–60 min/day) has well-documented beneficial cardiovascular effects, whereas those of strenuous endurance exercise (SEE) e.g., marathon running, are more controversial. Notably, the increasing popularity of SEE has contributed to the growth of sports-related sudden cardiac death (SCD) over the last decade. In this regard, Pineda et al. have underlined the importance of appropriate precompetition screening in order to minimize t...

  15. Sudden Unexpected Infant Deaths May Be Underestimated: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166269.html Sudden Unexpected Infant Deaths May Be Underestimated: Study Lack of standardized death ... U.S. Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is deemed a distinct form of ...

  16. New Areas for Preventive Programing: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, Joseph

    Crisis intervention programs for persons experiencing the sudden death of family members or surviving natural disasters have been advocated as methods of primary prevention, although few have actually been implemented. A program utilizing nurses to deliver grief intervention to parents losing a baby to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) was…

  17. Antipsychotics and the risk of sudden cardiac death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straus, S.M.J.M.; Bleumink, G.S.; Dieleman, J.P.; van der Lei, J.; 't Jong, G.W.; Kingma, J. Herre; Sturkenboom, M.C J M; Stricker, B.H C

    2004-01-01

    Background Antipsychotics have been associated with prolongation of the corrected QT interval and sudden cardiac death. Only a few epidemiological studies have investigated this association. We performed a case-control study to investigate the association between use of antipsychotics and sudden

  18. Sudden cardiac arrest in sports - need for uniform registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, E E; Borjesson, M; Sharma, S

    2016-01-01

    There are large variations in the incidence, registration methods and reported causes of sudden cardiac arrest/sudden cardiac death (SCA/SCD) in competitive and recreational athletes. A crucial question is to which degree these variations are genuine or partly due to methodological incongruities....

  19. The prevalence of HIV in the sudden, unexplained and unexpected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of HIV in the sudden, unexplained and unexpected (SUU) death population admitted to the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory. Methods: This study was conducted at the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory. Blood samples were obtained from decedents who died suddenly and/or ...

  20. A honey bee can threat ear: Sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düzenli, Ufuk; Bozan, Nazım; Ayral, Abdurrahman; Yalınkılıç, Abdülaziz; Kıroğlu, Ahmet Faruk

    2017-11-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is an otologic emergency. Many etiological factors can lead to this pathology. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) sting may lead to local and systemic reactions due to sensitization of the patient. In this paper we described a sudden sensorineural hearing loss occurred after honey bee sting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of sudden stratospheric warmings on tropospheric winds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinssen, Y.B.L.; van Delden, A.J.; Opsteegh, T.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of changes in the zonal mean stratospheric potential vorticity, associated with sudden stratospheric warmings, on the zonal mean zonal wind in the troposphere is investigated by piecewise potential vorticity inversion. The focus is on the major sudden stratospheric warming that

  2. Sudden cardiac death in Nigerians - The Ile - Ife experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reports from other parts of the worldw'm'12 where it has been documented that about a third of victims of sudden cardiac death do not have a past history of heart disease. The pre- cise role of activity, physical and emotional, in triggering the terminal events of sudden cardiac death is controversial. Our. finding that majority of ...

  3. Risk factors and causes of sudden noncardiac death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard, Bjarke; Lynge, Thomas Hadberg; Wissenberg, Mads

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: On the performance of an autopsy, sudden deaths may be divided into 2 classifications: (1) sudden cardiac deaths and (2) sudden noncardiac deaths (SNCDs). Families of SNCD victims should not be followed up as a means of searching for cardiac disease. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study...... was to report the risk factors and causes of SNCD. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, nationwide study including all deaths between 2000 and 2006 of individuals aged 1-35 years and all deaths between 2007 and 2009 of individuals aged 1-49 years. Two physicians identified all sudden death cases through...... review of death certificates. Autopsy reports were collected. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify both clinical characteristics and risk factors associated with SNCD. RESULTS: We identified 1039 autopsied cases of sudden death, of which 286 (28%) were classified as SNCD...

  4. Mobile phone usage does not affect sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagiv, D; Migirov, L; Madgar, O; Nakache, G; Wolf, M; Shapira, Y

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies found that mobile phone users had a significantly greater risk of having elevated thresholds in speech frequencies. This study investigated the correlation between the laterality of sudden sensorineural hearing loss, handedness and the preferred ear for mobile phone use. The study included all patients who presented with sudden sensorineural hearing loss to the Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery in our tertiary referral medical centre between 2014 and 2016. Patients were asked to indicate their dominant hand and preferred ear for mobile phone use. The study comprised 160 patients. No correlation was found between the dominant hand or preferred ear for mobile phone use and the side of sudden sensorineural hearing loss. There was no correlation between the side of the sudden sensorineural hearing loss (preferable or non-preferable for mobile phone use) and audiometric characteristics. No correlation was found between the laterality of ears used for mobile phone and sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

  5. Bubble motion in sudden expansion in vertical pipe flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Koichi [Marine Technical College, Ashiya, Hyogo (Japan); Yoshida, Kenji; Matsumoto, Tadayoshi; Okawa, Tomio; Kataoka, Isao [Osaka Univ., Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Experimental studies were made on the multi-dimensional behavior of upward gas-liquid two-phase flow through the vertical round tube with an axisymmetric sudden expansion, which is one of the typical multi-dimensional channel geometry. The direct observation using high-speed video camera was performed and revealed the multi-dimensional dynamic flow behavior affected by the sudden expansion. Characteristic phenomena were observed such as bubble break-up, deformation due to the strong share of liquid flow, or liquid micro jet penetration through the gas-slug, and so on. From these results, the flow regime map at the below or above of the sudden expansion part was classified. The phase distributions in sudden expansion were also showed in detail that how the two-phase flow develops along the direction of the downstream of the sudden expansion. (J.P.N.)

  6. Data sharing report characterization of the surveillance and maintenance project miscellaneous process inventory waste items Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Phyllis C. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-12-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (EM-OR) requested Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, to provide technical and independent waste management planning support under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Specifically, DOE EM-OR requested ORAU to plan and implement a sampling and analysis campaign to target certain items associated with URS|CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC (UCOR) surveillance and maintenance (S&M) process inventory waste. Eight populations of historical and reoccurring S&M waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been identified in the Waste Handling Plan for Surveillance and Maintenance Activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, DOE/OR/01-2565&D2 (WHP) (DOE 2012) for evaluation and processing for final disposal. This waste was generated during processing, surveillance, and maintenance activities associated with the facilities identified in the process knowledge (PK) provided in Appendix A. A list of items for sampling and analysis were generated from a subset of materials identified in the WHP populations (POPs) 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8, plus a small number of items not explicitly addressed by the WHP. Specifically, UCOR S&M project personnel identified 62 miscellaneous waste items that would require some level of evaluation to identify the appropriate pathway for disposal. These items are highly diverse, relative to origin; composition; physical description; contamination level; data requirements; and the presumed treatment, storage, and disposal facility (TSDF). Because of this diversity, ORAU developed a structured approach to address item-specific data requirements necessary for acceptance in a presumed TSDF that includes the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF)—using the approved Waste Lot (WL) 108.1 profile—the Y-12 Sanitary Landfill (SLF) if appropriate; Energy

  7. Predicting the spread of sudden oak death in California: spatial-temporal modeling of susceptible-infectious transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Hunter; Ross K. Meentemeyer; David M. Rizzo; Christopher A. Gilligan

    2008-01-01

    The number of emerging infectious diseases is thought to be increasing worldwide - many of which are caused by non-native, invasive plant pathogens I n forest ecosystems. As new diseases continue to emerge, the ability to predict disease outbreaks is critical for effective management and prevention of epidemics, especially in complex spatially heterogeneous landscapes...

  8. Epidemiological modeling of invasion in heterogeneous landscapes: Spread of sudden oak death in California (1990-2030)

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.K. Meentemeyer; N.J. Cunniffe; A.R. Cook; J.A.N. Filipe; R.D. Hunter; D.M. Rizzo; C.A. Gilligan

    2011-01-01

    The spread of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in natural environments poses substantial risks to biodiversity and ecosystem function. As EIDs and their impacts grow, landscape- to regional-scale models of disease dynamics are increasingly needed for quantitative prediction of epidemic outcomes and design of practicable strategies for control. Here we use spatio-...

  9. Predicting the spread of sudden oak death in California (2010-2030): epidemic outcomes under no control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross K. Meentemeyer; Nik Cunniffe; Alex Cook; David M. Rizzo; Chris A. Gilligan

    2010-01-01

    Landscape- to regional-scale models of plant epidemics are direly needed to predict largescale impacts of disease and assess practicable options for control. While landscape heterogeneity is recognized as a major driver of disease dynamics, epidemiological models are rarely applied to realistic landscape conditions due to computational and data limitations. Here we...

  10. Strategies for control of sudden oak death in Humboldt County-informed guidance based on a parameterized epidemiological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    João A. N. Filipe; Richard C. Cobb; David M. Rizzo; Ross K. Meentemeyer; Christopher A.. Gilligan

    2010-01-01

    Landscape- to regional-scale models of plant epidemics are direly needed to predict largescale impacts of disease and assess practicable options for control. While landscape heterogeneity is recognized as a major driver of disease dynamics, epidemiological models are rarely applied to realistic landscape conditions due to computational and data limitations. Here we...

  11. Landscape epidemiology and control of pathogens with cryptic and long-distance dispersal: Sudden oak death in northern Californian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joao A. N. Filipe; Richard C. Cobb; Ross K. Meentemeyer; Christopher A. Lee; Yana S. Valachovic; Alex R. Cook; David M. Rizzo; Christopher A. Gilligan

    2012-01-01

    Exotic pathogens and pests threaten ecosystem service, biodiversity, and crop security globally. If an invasive agent can disperse asymptomatically over long distances, multiple spatial and temporal scales interplay, making identification of effective strategies to regulate, monitor, and control disease extremely difficult. The management of outbreaks is also...

  12. Who pays for sudden oak death? An econometric investigation of the impact of an emerging pathogen on California nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.K. Gilless; J. Tack; A. Peterson Zwane

    2006-01-01

    While there is a great deal of scientific uncertainty about the nature and control of Phytophthora ramorum, there is growing concern that its economic costs will be significant. Indeed the repercussions at the nursery level of a positive test for the presence of P. ramorum may include severely impacted current and future cash flows...

  13. Relationships between biotic and abiotic factors and regeneration of chestnut oak, white oak, and northern red oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songlin Fei; Kim C. Steiner; James C. Finley; Marc E. McDill

    2003-01-01

    A series of substantial field surveys of 38 mixed-oak stands in central Pennsylvania were carried out during 1996-2000. All the stands were surveyed 1 year prior to harvest, and 16 stands have been surveyed 1 year after harvest. Three abiotic factors at stand scale, four abiotic factors at plot scale, and two biotic factors and one abiotic factor at subplot scale was...

  14. Hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, October 1990--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borders, D.M.; Gregory, S.M.; Clapp, R.B.; Frederick, B.J.; Watts, J.A.

    1992-06-01

    This report summarizes for the 15-month period of October 1990-- December 1991 the available dynamic hydrologic data collected, primarily on the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed, along with information collected on the surface flow systems that affect the quality or quantity of surface water. The collection of hydrologic data is one component of numerous, ongoing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) environmental studies and monitoring programs and is intended to: (1) characterize the quantity and quality of water in the flow systems; (2) assist with the planning and assessment of remedial action activities; and, (3) provide long-term availability of data and quality assurance. Characterization of the hydrology of the WOC watershed is critical for understanding the processes that drive contaminant transport in the watershed. Identification of spatial and temporal trends in hydrologic parameters and mechanisms that affect the movement of contaminants supports the development of interim corrective measures and remedial restoration alternatives. In addition, hydrologic monitoring supports long-term assessment of the effectiveness of remedial actions in limiting the transport of contaminants across Waste Area Grouping (WAG) boundaries and ultimately to the off-site environment. For these reasons, it is of paramount importance to the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) to collect and report hydrologic data activities that contribute to the Site Investigations component of the ERP. (White Oak Creek is also referred to as Whiteoak'' Creek).

  15. Hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, October 1990--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borders, D.M.; Gregory, S.M.; Clapp, R.B.; Frederick, B.J.; Watts, J.A.

    1992-06-01

    This report summarizes for the 15-month period of October 1990-- December 1991 the available dynamic hydrologic data collected, primarily on the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed, along with information collected on the surface flow systems that affect the quality or quantity of surface water. The collection of hydrologic data is one component of numerous, ongoing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) environmental studies and monitoring programs and is intended to: (1) characterize the quantity and quality of water in the flow systems; (2) assist with the planning and assessment of remedial action activities; and, (3) provide long-term availability of data and quality assurance. Characterization of the hydrology of the WOC watershed is critical for understanding the processes that drive contaminant transport in the watershed. Identification of spatial and temporal trends in hydrologic parameters and mechanisms that affect the movement of contaminants supports the development of interim corrective measures and remedial restoration alternatives. In addition, hydrologic monitoring supports long-term assessment of the effectiveness of remedial actions in limiting the transport of contaminants across Waste Area Grouping (WAG) boundaries and ultimately to the off-site environment. For these reasons, it is of paramount importance to the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) to collect and report hydrologic data activities that contribute to the Site Investigations component of the ERP. (White Oak Creek is also referred to as ``Whiteoak`` Creek).

  16. Serotonin in the sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Karen

    2010-11-01

    It seems likely that some infants who die from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) have a brainstem abnormality of the serotonergic system. Evidence suggests that infants who died from SIDS had defective respiratory and/or autonomic responses that led to death instead of recovery after an acute insult. The serotonergic neuromodulator system has roles in the control of cardiac autonomic and respiratory function, as well as now being identified as abnormal in infants with SIDS. This manuscript reviews the multiple roles of serotonin with reference to the functional aspects of the relevant brain regions. Correlations with pre- or postnatal exposure to stressors, or an underlying genetic process are also reviewed. Together, these studies indicate that perturbed function of the serotonin system will have significant physiological impact during early development. Understanding the functional importance of these systems assists understanding of the pathogenesis of SIDS. In conclusion, whether an infant inherits serotonergic defects and is therefore "inherently vulnerable", or whether postnatal stressors can induce the abnormalities, any functional abnormalities of the serotonergic system that result are likely to be subclinical in the majority of cases and not easily detected with current medical tools. Copyright 2010 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  17. Cardiac Innervation and Sudden Cardiac Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Keiichi; Kanazawa, Hideaki; Aizawa, Yoshiyasu; Ardell, Jeffrey L.; Shivkumar, Kalyanam

    2015-01-01

    Afferent and efferent cardiac neurotransmission via the cardiac nerves intricately modulates nearly all physiological functions of the heart (chronotropy, dromotropy, lusitropy and inotropy). Afferent information from the heart is transmitted to higher levels of the nervous system for processing (intrinsic cardiac nervous system, extracardiac-intrathoracic ganglia, spinal cord, brain stem and higher centers) which ultimately results in efferent cardiomotor neural impulses (via the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves). This system forms interacting feedback loops that provide physiological stability for maintaining normal rhythm and life-sustaining circulation. This system also ensures that there is fine-tuned regulation of sympathetic-parasympathetic balance in the heart under normal and stressed states in the short (beat to beat), intermediate (minutes-hours) and long term (days-years). This important neurovisceral /autonomic nervous system also plays a major role in the pathophysiology and progression of heart disease, including heart failure and arrhythmias leading to sudden cardiac death (SCD). Transdifferentiation of neurons in heart failure, functional denervation, cardiac and extra-cardiac neural remodeling have also been identified and characterized during the progression of disease. Recent advances in understanding the cellular and molecular processes governing innervation and the functional control of the myocardium in health and disease provides a rational mechanistic basis for development of neuraxial therapies for preventing SCD and other arrhythmias. Advances in cellular, molecular, and bioengineering realms have underscored the emergence of this area as an important avenue of scientific inquiry and therapeutic intervention. PMID:26044253

  18. Sudden decoherence transitions for quantum discord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyungjun; Joynt, Robert

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the disappearance of discord in 2- and multi-qubit systems subject to decohering influences. We formulate the computation of quantum discord and quantum geometric discord in terms of the generalized Bloch vector, which gives useful insights on the time evolution of quantum coherence for the open system, particularly the comparison of entanglement and discord. We show that the analytical calculation of the global geometric discord is NP-hard in the number of qubits, but a similar statement for global entropic discord is more difficult to prove. We present an efficient numerical method to calculating the quantum discord for a certain important class of multipartite states. In agreement with previous work for 2-qubit cases (Mazzola et al 2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 104 200401), we find situations in which there is a sudden transition from classical to quantum decoherence characterized by the discord remaining relatively robust (classical decoherence) until a certain point from where it begins to decay quickly whereas the classical correlation decays more slowly (quantum decoherence). However, we find that as the number of qubits increases, the chance of this kind of transition occurring becomes small.

  19. [Bilateral versus unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Maomei; Li, Dehong; Peng, Weihui; Peng, Yikun; Ren, Juanjuan

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the clinical characteristics and treatment effect between bilateral (bi-) and unilateral (uni-) sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). Four hundred and eighty cases of SSNHL were retrospective study, which were divided into two groups of bi-SSNHL (n = 40) and uni-SSNHL (n = 440). Clinical characteristics and treatment effects were compared of the two groups. The incidence rate of bi-SSNHL was 8.3 percent and uni-SSNHL was 91.7 percent of all patients with SSNHL. Bi-SSNHL occurs more commonly in patients of old age, diabetes mellitus, and lipid panes abnormalities compared to uni-SSNHL. Twenty-eight ears in the bi-SSNHL group showed hearing recovery (35%), compared with 56.4 percent of patients with uni-SSNHL. Bi-SSNHL and uni-SSNHL may have a completely different clinical characteristics and treatment effect, that implies a different pathophysiology and prognosis. Recognition their different clinical characteristics and treatment effect between bilateral and unilateral SSNHL can help in counseling and managing the patients and correctly evaluate the prognosis.

  20. Hearing Recovey in Patients Suffering Sudden Deafness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Eslami

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available The study included 80 patients treated for sudden deafness over the last 5-7 years. Case history, laboratory findings, pure-tone audiogram and electronystagmography (ENG findings were noted. If any abnormalities had been recorded in ENG studies, the studies were redone. ORL status was redefined and audiograms were obtained in all patients. When becoming ill, the 80 patients had not differed from the normal population in common cardiovascular risk factors. None of them had had signs of viral infection (paired serum samples had been taken at 2-week intervals; routine examinations had been done for common viral antigens. As many as 31 of the 80 patients with acute hearing loss had had abnormalities such as spontaneous nystagmus (PN, hypoexcitability (HE and directional preponderance (DP in the bithermal caloric tests (+44 degrees C, + 30 degrees C of their ENG studies. Twenty of the 31 patients still had abnormal ENG studies after 5-7 years. Only 1 subject had positional nystagmus, and none had subjective vertigo. Patients with an abnormal ENG study showed a poor recovery of the speech reception threshold, whereas those with a normal ENG study showed slightly significant (p less than 0.05 recovery.

  1. A review of oak wilt management: a summary of treatment options and their efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrie A. Koch; Gina L. Quiram; Robert C. Venette

    2010-01-01

    Oak wilt, caused by the invasive fungal pathogen Ceratocystis fagacearum (Bretz) Hunt, is a serious and fatal disease of oaks, Quercus spp., with red oaks (section Lobatae) generally being more susceptible than white oaks (section Quercus). Oak wilt was first recognized in North America in 1944...

  2. Quantitative visualization of oil-water mixture behind sudden expansion by high speed camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babakhani Dehkordi, Parham; P. M Colombo, Luigi; Guilizzoni, Manfredo; Sotgia, Giorgio; Cozzi, Fabio

    2017-08-01

    The present work describes the application of an image processing technique to study the two phase flow of high viscous oil and water through a sudden expansion. Six different operating conditions were considered, depending on input volume fraction of phases, and all of them are resulting in a flow pattern of the type oil dispersion in continuous water flow. The objective is to use an optical diagnostic method, with a high speed camera, to give detailed information about the flow field and spatial distribution, such as instantaneous velocity and in situ phase fraction. Artificial tracer particles were not used due to the fact that oil drops can be easily distinguished from the continuous water phase and thus they can act as natural tracers. The pipe has a total length of 11 meters and the abrupt sudden expansion is placed at a distance equal to 6 meters from the inlet section, to ensure that the flow is fully developed when it reaches the singularity. Upstream and downstream pipes have 30 mm and 50 mm i.d., respectively. Velocity profiles, holdup and drop size distribution after the sudden expansion were analyzed and compared with literature models and results.

  3. Risk stratification for sudden cardiac death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: systematic review of clinical risk markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiaans, Imke; van Engelen, Klaartje; van Langen, Irene M; Birnie, Erwin; Bonsel, Gouke J; Elliott, Perry M; Wilde, Arthur A M

    2010-03-01

    We performed a systematic literature review of recommended 'major' and 'possible' clinical risk markers for sudden cardiac death (SCD) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We searched the Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases for articles published between 1971 and 2007. We included English language reports on HCM patients containing follow-up data on the endpoint (sudden) cardiac death using survival analysis. Analysis was undertaken using the quality of reporting of meta-analyses (QUORUM) statement checklist. The quality was checked using a quality assessment form from the Cochrane Collaboration. Thirty studies met inclusion criteria and passed quality assessment. The use of the six major risk factors (previous cardiac arrest or sustained ventricular tachycardia, non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, extreme left ventricular hypertrophy, unexplained syncope, abnormal blood pressure response, and family history of sudden death) in risk stratification for SCD as recommended by international guidelines was supported by the literature. In addition, left ventricular outflow tract obstruction seems associated with a higher risk of SCD. Our systematic review provides sound evidence for the use of the six major risk factors for SCD in the risk stratification of HCM patients. Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction could be included in the overall risk profile of patients with a marked left ventricular outflow gradient under basal conditions.

  4. [Prevention of sudden cardiac death by the implantable cardioverter defibrilator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacević, Dragan V; Milosavljević, Anastazija Stojisić; Topalov, Vasilije; Mihajlović, Bogoljub; Sakac, Dejan; Kozlovacki, Ziva

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION; Sudden cardiac death or, as it is also called, a modern man's killer occurs a few hours after the beginning of the disease. Sudden death is the one that happens within an hour from the onset of the subjective discomforts regardless of the existence of any previous disease. According to modern statistics, 450.000 people die suddenly in the USA and 150,000 in Germany. CAUSES OF SUDDEN DEATH: The most frequent causes of sudden death are cardiologic or, in other words, a heart rhythm disorder such as ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation and bradycardiac rhythm disorder. All these reasons can be efficiently prevented by the implantation of the cardioverter defibrillators. IMPLANTABLE CARDIOVERTER DEFIBRILLATOR: In comparison with the already known medications, the defibrillator seems to be the most efficient in prevention of sudden cardiac death. This fact has been confirmed by large multicentre studies. The implantation itself is a routine procedure. It lasts about an hour and it often passes without any complications. The patient leaves the hospital a few days after the procedure. About 150 of these procedures are performed per year at the Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases Vojvodina. The Social Insurance Fund bears medical costs and the patient only pays the participation fee, which is symbolical if compared to the value and use of the device. Owing to this fact, this device is available to every patient thus making the efficient sudden cardiac death prevention possible.

  5. [Sudden cardiovascular death in adults: Study of 361 autopsy cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesrati, M A; Belhadj, M; Aissaoui, A; HajSalem, N; Oualha, D; Boughattas, M; Messaoudi, I; Hammedi, F; Zakhama, A; Chadly, A

    2017-02-01

    To describe epidemiological aspects of sudden cardiovascular death and to specify the etiopathogenic characteristics. Our study is retrospective and descriptive. It included 361 cases of sudden cardiovascular death, which underwent autopsy in forensic medicine department of Monastir during eight years, from 1st January 2004 to 31st December 2011. The incidence of sudden cardiovascular death was 9 per 100,000 person. A marked male predominance was noted. The mean age was 55.75 years. In our series, myocardial infarction represents the leading cause of sudden cardiovascular death, 57.8% of cases. Other etiologies were hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (4.7%), heart failure (1.9%), arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (2.8%), valvular disease (2%), cardio-myo-pericarditis (1.9%), hydatid cyst of the heart (0.8%), ruptured aneurysm (2.5%), pulmonary embolism (1.9%) and aortic dissection (1.3%). A sudden cardiovascular death at work was found in 25 cases. These cases pose essentially a problem of imputability. Sudden cardiac death is usually the complication of underlying heart disease, sometimes overlooked. Several risk factors are involved. Sudden cardiac death in healthy heart or death caused by arrhythmia is an important entity seeking the intervention of several actors (forensic doctor, cardiologist, geneticist, media…) for prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. INVESTIGATION ON THE PROPERTIES OF PEDUNCULATE OAK WOOD AFFECTED BY OAK DECLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru LICA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The combination of damaging agents, as biotic and abiotic factors, has as effect the deterioration in the appearance of the foliage of affected trees and then, progressive death of branches. Large numbers of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur and sessile oak (Quercus petraea trees are declining in the Central Romania. Depending on the deterioration of the foliage and of the branches, five grades of infestation levels of oak trees were determined. The objective of this study was to investigate the quality of wood obtained from those infested trees by analysing the cellulose and lignin content, physical properties such as moisture content, density, shrinkage from fibre saturation moisture content, permeability of wood to water, and mechanical properties, such as MOE, MOR for static stresses, tensile strength perpendicular to the grains, shearing strength and Janka hardness perpendicular to the grains. The more representative samples of trees affected by oak decline for the five grades of infestation levels of trees were randomly selected and harvested. They were cut into logs and then sampled for the chemical, physical and mechanical testing. The results of this study showed that the poor quality of wood resulted from the logs affected by oak decline at the final stage (five grade of infestation level could not be used for furniture and other wooden products manufacturing.

  7. A Review of Polyphenolics in Oak Woods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenolics, which are ubiquitous in plants, currently are among the most studied phytochemicals because of their perceptible chemical properties and antioxidant activity. Oak barrels and their alternatives, which are widely used in winemaking nowadays, contribute polyphenolics to wines and are thought to play crucial roles in the development of wines during aging. This study summarizes the detailed information of polyphenolics in oak woods and their products by examining their structures and discussing their chemical reactions during wine aging. This paper evaluates the most recent developments in polyphenolic chemistry by summarizing their extraction, separation, and their identification by the use of chromatographic and spectral techniques. In addition, this paper also introduces polyphenol bioactive ingredients in other plant foods.

  8. Oak Ridge 25-MV tandem accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, N.F.; Richardson, E.G.; Mann, J.E.; Juras, R.C.; Jones, C.M.; Biggerstaff, J.A.; Benjamin, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    A new heavy-ion accelerator facility is nearing completion at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This paper presents a brief description of the scope and status of this project and a discussion of some aspects of the first operational experience with the 25 MV tandem accelerator which is being provided by the National Electrostatics Corporation (NEC) as a major component of the first phase of the facility.

  9. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The objective of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, what activities are planned for the forthcoming fiscal year (FY), and how all of the activities are documented.

  10. ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) 89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T.D.; Appleton, B.R.; Jefferson, J.W.; Merriman, J.R.; Mynatt, F.R.; Richmond, C.R.; Rosenthal, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    This is the inaugural issues of an annual publication about the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Here you will find a brief overview of ORNL, a sampling of our recent research achievements, and a glimpse of the directions we want to take over the next 15 years. A major purpose of ornl 89 is to provide the staff with a sketch of the character and dynamics of the Laboratory.

  11. Quality Characteristics of Appalachian Red Oak Lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice K Wiedenbeck; Charles J. Gatchell; Elizabeth S. Walker

    1995-01-01

    Red oak lumber defect information derived from a well-constructed board data bank was analyzed. The potential utility of No. 1 Common and No. 2A Common lumber is indicated by the finding that 23 percent of the No. 1 Common boards and 35 percent of the No. 2A Common boards in the data bank contain clear-face cutting percentages that meet the minimum requirement for the...

  12. Causes of sudden cardiac arrest in young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrol, Michael S; Kapitanyan, Raffi; Marques-Baptista, Andreia; Merlin, Mark A

    2010-07-01

    Knowledge of sudden cardiac death in young athletes is imperative for all physicians and allied health professionals. The complete differential diagnosis of a young patient with sudden cardiac arrest will result in proper work-up and treatment. In this article, we review several etiologies of sudden cardiac death, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, and commotio cordis. Clinical findings, work-up, treatment, long-term management, and athlete preparticipation screening guidelines are discussed.

  13. Sudden Cardiac Death in Athletes - What Can be Done?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joydeep Ghosh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Sudden death in athletes is a rare event but brings with it an impact that goes beyond sport. There are many causes of sudden death during exercise. While the responsibility of preventing or treating them lays with us physicians, preparticipation screening is largely ineffective and impractical. Definitive, large scale prospective research is required in order to design the most cost-effective system for screening of athletes. In the meanwhile rapid access to defibrillators by trained personnel remains the best possible approach to abort sudden death.

  14. Processing of Oak Ridge Mixed Waste Labpacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, C. H.; Franco, P.; Bisaria, A.

    2002-02-26

    The Oak Ridge Site Treatment Plan (STP) issued under a Tennessee Commissioner's Order includes a compliance milestone related to treatment of mixed waste labpacks on the Oak Ridge sites. The treatment plan was written and approved in Fiscal Year 1997. The plan involved approximately 1,100 labpacks and 7,400 on-the-shelf labpackable items stored at three Department of Energy (DOE) sites on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The labpacks and labpack items consist of liquids and solids with various chemical constituents and radiological concerns. The waste must be processed for shipment to a commercial hazardous waste treatment facility or treatment utilizing a Broad Spectrum mixed waste treatment contract. This paper will describe the labpack treatment plan that was developed as required by the Site Treatment Plan and the operations implemented to process the labpack waste. The paper will discuss the labpack inventory in the treatment plan, treatment and disposal options, processing strategies, project risk assessment, and current project status.

  15. Oak moss extracts in the diagnosis of fragrance contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Heydorn, Siri; Menné, Torkil

    2002-01-01

    Oak moss absolute is one of the eight ingredients of the fragrance mix (FM) used for diagnosing perfume allergy. Oak moss absolute is an extract prepared from the lichen Evernia prunastri growing on oak trees. It has been shown that the oak moss patch test material from one producer contained resin...... acids which are ingredients of another lichen, tree moss. Resin acids, e.g. abietic acid and dehydroabietic acid, are also the main allergens in colophonium. The aim of the study was to assess whether the contamination of oak moss absolute and thus the FM with resin acids had affected their diagnostic...... value so that they, instead of indicating fragrance allergy, had become indicators of allergy to resin acids and thus colophonium. Two studies were undertaken. First the relationship between patch test reactions to FM, oak moss absolute, both with contents of resin acids, and colophonium were assessed...

  16. How to identify and manage oak wilt in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. N. Appel; R. S. Cameron; A. D. Wilson; J. D. Johnson.

    2008-01-01

    Measures can be taken to break root connections between live oaks or dense groups of red oaks to reduce or stop root transmission of the oak wilt fungus. The most common technique is to sever roots by trenching at least 4 ft deep with trenching machines, rock saws, or ripper bars. Trenches more than 4 ft deep may be needed to assure control in deeper soils. Although...

  17. Acute excited states and sudden death

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farnham, Frank R; Kennedy, Henry G

    1997-01-01

    ... mortality. 2 Such deaths, often in police custody or other highly charged situations, commonly give rise to high profile coroner's hearings and inquiries. 3 In the era before neuroleptics death in such agitated states was attributed to exhaustion, though neuroleptic malignant syndrome and the cardiac effects of neuroleptics now often enter into considerat...

  18. Histological findings in unclassified sudden infant death, including sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebrechts-Akkerman, Germaine; Bovée, Judith V M G; Wijnaendts, Liliane C D; Maes, Ann; Nikkels, Peter G J; de Krijger, Ronald R

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to study histological variations and abnormalities in unclassified sudden infant death (USID), including sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), in The Netherlands. Two hundred Dutch USID cases between 1984 and 2005 were identified. The histology slides and autopsy reports of 187 cases were available for systematic review, including brain autopsy in 135 cases. An explanation for the cause of death in 19 patients (10.2%) was found. Twelve patients had bronchopneumonia, 3 showed extensive aspiration, 2 had signs of a metabolic disorder, 1 had sepsis, and 1 had meningitis. Frequent nonspecific findings were congestion (66%), edema (47%), small hemorrhages (18%), and lymphoid aggregates (51%) in the lungs; congestion of the liver (23%); and asphyctic bleeding in the kidney (44%), adrenal gland (23%), and thymus (17%). Statistical associations were found for infection with starry sky macrophages in the thymus (P  =  0.004), with calcification (P  =  0.023), or with debris in the Hassal's corpuscles (P  =  0.034). In this study, in 10.2% of cases the histological findings were incompatible with SIDS or USID. Furthermore, several frequent nonspecific histological findings in the thymus that point toward an infection were found.

  19. Relationships between advance oak regeneration and biotic and abiotic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Songlin; Steiner, Kim C

    2008-07-01

    Relationships between advance regeneration of four tree species (red maple (Acer rubrum L.), white oak (Quercus alba L.), chestnut oak (Q. montana Willd.) and northern red oak (Q. rubra L.)) and biotic (non-tree vegetation and canopy composition) and abiotic (soil series and topographic variables) factors were investigated in 52, mature mixed-oak stands in the central Appalachians. Aggregate height was used as a composite measure of regeneration abundance. Analyses were carried out separately for two physiographic provinces. Associations with tree regeneration were found for all biotic and abiotic factors both in partial models and full models. Red maple was abundant on most of the sites, but high red maple abundance was commonly associated with wet north-facing slopes with little or no cover of mountain-laurel (Kalmia latifolia L.) and hay-scented fern (Dennstaedtia punctilobula (Michx.) Moore). Regeneration of the three oak species was greatly favored by the abundance of overstory trees of their own kind. White oak regeneration was most abundant on south-facing, gentle, lower slopes with soils in the Buchanan series. Chestnut oak regeneration was more common on south-facing, steep upper slopes with stony soils. There was a positive association between chestnut oak and huckleberry (Gaylussacia baccata (Wangh.) Koch) cover classes. Northern red oak was more abundant on north-facing wet sites with Hazleton soil, and was associated with low occurrence of mountain-laurel and hay-scented fern.

  20. On the causes of collapse and sudden death by Avicenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, B; Wray, R

    1997-06-01

    Avicenna's views on the causes of collapse and sudden death are presented from a literal translation of the mediaeval Arabic text. Medical knowledge based on observation mixed with pure abstract reasoning forms the essence of Avicenna's medical writings.

  1. Psychosocial Aspects of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome ("Cot Death").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluglass, Kerry

    1981-01-01

    Reviews literature on reactions of parents and siblings to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). The prospects for prolonged, adverse reactions are considered, and professional concerns regarding abnormal adaptation are noted. (Author/DB)

  2. Familial Atrial Septal Defect and Sudden Cardiac Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellesøe, Sabrina Gade; Johansen, Morten Munk; Bjerre, Jesper Vandborg

    2016-01-01

    disturbances, cardiomyopathies, complex CHD, and sudden cardiac death as well. Here, we show that NKX2-5 mutations primarily occur in ASD patients with conduction disturbances and heritable ASD. Furthermore, these families are at increased risk of sudden cardiac death. RESULTS: We screened 39 probands.......1 × 10(-9) ). The majority of patients (74%) had ASD with conduction disturbance. Nineteen patients (15%) of 120 with familial ASD and conduction disturbance died from sudden cardiac death of which nine (8%) were confirmed mutation carriers, and 10 were possible carriers. CONCLUSIONS: NKX2-5 mutations...... mainly occur in familial CHD, the signature phenotype is ASD with conduction disturbances and mutation carriers are at increased risk of sudden cardiac death. We suggest that familial ASD patients should be screened for NKX2-5 mutations and, if they are mutation carriers, implantation of an implantable...

  3. QT Variability and Other Electrocardiographic Predictors of Sudden Cardiac Death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. van den Berg (Marten)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis investigates sudden cardiac death, focusing of QT variability, heart-rate variability and other electrocardiographic markers. Topics include: - Normal values for heart-rate variability - Normal values for QT variability - The association of QT variability with

  4. Sudden insight is associated with shutting out visual inputs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salvi, Carola; Bricolo, Emanuela; Franconeri, Steven L; Kounios, John; Beeman, Mark

    2015-01-01

    ... window—all signs of shutting out distractions and turning attention inward. Prior research has demonstrated that attention-related brain areas are differently active when people solve problems with sudden insight (the Aha! phenomenon...

  5. Site and canopy characteristics associated with oak advance reproduction in mature oak-hickory forests in the ridge and valley province in Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie S. Chadwell; David S. Buckley

    2003-01-01

    To investigate hypotheses regarding effects of competitors and site quality on oak regeneration, we documented site factors and oak seedling composition, size, and abundance in the Ridge and Valley Province of Tennessee. Small oak seedlings were most abundant on productive soils and mesic landform positions, whereas large oak seedlings were most abundant on less...

  6. Sudden infant death syndrome: methodological and patogenetical types of diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.I. Glukhovets

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The review presents an analysis of literature data on pathogenesis of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS in comparison with author’s experience of infants dead in home. Diagnostic significance of qualified autopsy examinations in analysis of infants’ death is shown. Frequent combination of morphogenetic cardiopathy and early signs of atrial myocarditis can be estimated as pathogenetic basis of SIDS.Key words: sudden infant death syndrome, morphogenetic cardiopathy, atrial myocarditis.

  7. Post-mortem toxicology in young sudden cardiac death victims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjune, Thea; Risgaard, Bjarke; Kruckow, Line

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Several drugs increase the risk of ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death (SCD). We aimed to investigate in detail the toxicological findings of all young SCD throughout Denmark. Methods and results: Deaths in persons aged 1-49 years were included over a 10-year period. Death...... death with positive toxicology had higher rates of sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS), compared with SCD with negative toxicology (56% vs. 42%, P 

  8. Cardiac Potassium Channel Dysfunction in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Rhodes, Troy E.; Abraham, Robert A.; Welch, Richard C.; Vanoye, Carlos G.; Crotti, Lia; Arnestad, Marianne; Insolia, Roberto; Pedrazzini, Matteo; Ferrandi, Chiara; Vege, Ashild; Rognum, Torleiv; Roden, Dan M.; Schwartz, Peter J.; George, Alfred L.

    2007-01-01

    Life-threatening arrhythmias have been suspected as one cause of the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), and this hypothesis is supported by the observation that mutations in arrhythmia susceptibility genes occur in 5–10% of cases. However, the functional consequences of cardiac potassium channel gene mutations associated with SIDS and how these alleles might mechanistically predispose to sudden death are unknown. To address these questions, we studied four missense KCNH2 (encoding HERG) var...

  9. Training can modify back muscle response to sudden trunk loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Essendrop, Morten; Skotte, Jørgen H; Jørgensen, Kurt; Fallentin, Nils

    2004-10-01

    Sudden, unexpected loading to the trunk has been reported in the literature as a potential cause of low-back disorders. This study's aim was to investigate the effect of "readiness training" on the response to sudden back loading among untrained healthy individuals. The study included 19 participants and 19 matched controls. All were employees at the National Institute of Occupational Health. The participants received ten 45-min training sessions during a 4-week period. The training focused on reactions to a variety of expected and unexpected sudden trunk loadings, including balance and coordination exercises. Before and after the training, all subjects were tested for reaction to sudden trunk loading (SL). This entailed applying a horizontal force of 58 N to the subject's upper back. Elapsed time--measured between SL and stopping--decreased significantly in the training group (from 337 to 311 ms) compared with the control group. The improved stopping time was associated with a changed EMG signal, characterized by an increase in the early parts of the response (up to 225 ms) and a subsequent decrease. EMG onset latency was unaffected by training. This study is apparently one of the first to demonstrate that the response to sudden trunk loading can be improved in healthy subjects without an increase in pre-activation and associated trunk stiffness. In perspective, the results indicate a possibility for a training-induced reduction of the risk of low-back injuries, e.g., in nurses exposed to sudden trunk perturbations during patient handling.

  10. Tenth workshop on seedling physiology and growth problems in oak plantings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart; Emile S. Gardiner; Daniel C. Dey

    2008-01-01

    Research results and ongoing research activities in field performance of oak plantings, seedling propagation, genetics, acorn germination, and natural regeneration of oaks are described in 15 abstracts.

  11. Ninth workshop on seedling physiology and growth problems in oak plantings (abstracts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.R. Weigel; J.W. Van Sambeek; C.H., eds. Michler

    2005-01-01

    Research results and ongoing research activities in field performance of oak plantings, seedling propagation, genetics, acorn germination, and natural regeneration of oaks are described in 26 abstracts.

  12. Effects of Flood Duration and Depth on Germination of Cherrybark, Post, Southern, White and Willow Oak Acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanfei Guo; Michael G. Shelton; Eric Heitzman

    2002-01-01

    Effects of flood duration (0, 10, 20, and 30 days) and depth (10 and 100 centimeters below a water surface) on acorn germination were tested for two bottomland oaks (cherrybark oak [Quercus pagoda Raf.] and willow oak [Q. phellos L.]) and three upland oaks (post oak [Q. stellata Wang.], southern red oak [

  13. Proteomic analysis of Holm oak (Quercus ilex subsp. ballota [Desf.] Samp.) pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero Galván, José; Valledor, Luis; González Fernandez, Raquel; Navarro Cerrillo, Rafael M; Jorrín-Novo, Jesus V

    2012-05-17

    This paper presents an analysis of Holm oak pollen proteome, together with an evaluation of the potentiality that a proteomic approach may have in the provenance variability assessment. Proteins were extracted from pollen of four Holm oak provenances, and they were analyzed by gel-based (1- and 2-DE in combination with MALDI-TOF/TOF) and gel-free (nLC-LTQ Orbitrap MS) approaches. A comparison of 1- and 2-DE protein profiles of the four provenances revealed significant differences, both qualitative and quantitative, in abundance (18 bands and 16 spots, respectively). Multivariate statistical analysis carried out on bands and spots clearly showed distinct associations between provenances, which highlight their geographical origins. A total of 100 spots selected from the 402 spots observed on 2-DE gels were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Moreover, a complementary gel-free shotgun approach was performed by nLC-LTQ Orbitrap MS. The identified proteins were classified according to biological processes, and most proteins in both approaches were related to metabolism and defense/stress processes. The nLC-LTQ Orbitrap MS analysis allowed us the identification of proteins belonging to the cell wall and division, transport and translation categories. Besides providing the first reference map of Holm oak pollen, our results confirm previous studies based on morphological observations and acorn proteomic analysis. Moreover, our data support the valuable use of proteomic techniques as phylogenetic tool in plant studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Observed inferences from sudden changes in the sedimentological processes during the December 26, 2004 tsunami along the east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Loveson, V.J.; Angusamy, N.; Gujar, A.R.; Chandrasekar, N.; Rajamanickam, G.V.

    th December 2004 encouraged continuation of the study in order to understand the sudden changes in the sedimentological processes caused by this tsunami. As a profiling survey of the area had been completed on 16th December 2004, an exact quantum...

  15. Risk Factor Changes for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome After Initiation of Back-to-Sleep Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachtenberg, Felicia L.; Haas, Elisabeth A.; Kinney, Hannah C.; Stanley, Christina

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the profile of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) changed after the Back-to-Sleep (BTS) campaign initiation, document prevalence and patterns of multiple risks, and determine the age profile of risk factors. METHODS: The San Diego SIDS/Sudden Unexplained Death in Childhood Research Project recorded risk factors for 568 SIDS deaths from 1991 to 2008 based upon standardized death scene investigations and autopsies. Risks were divided into intrinsic (eg, male gender) and extrinsic (eg, prone sleep). RESULTS: Between 1991–1993 and 1996–2008, the percentage of SIDS infants found prone decreased from 84.0% to 48.5% (P infants infants had at least 1 risk factor, 57% had at least 2 extrinsic and 1 intrinsic risk factor, and only 5% had no extrinsic risk. The average number of risks per SIDS infant did not change after initiation of the BTS campaign. CONCLUSIONS: SIDS infants in the BTS era show more variation in risk factors. There was a consistently high prevalence of both intrinsic and especially extrinsic risks both before and during the Back-to-Sleep era. Risk reduction campaigns emphasizing the importance of avoiding multiple and simultaneous SIDS risks are essential to prevent SIDS, including among infants who may already be vulnerable. PMID:22451703

  16. Comprehensive integrated planning: A process for the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Oak Ridge Comprehensive Integrated Plan is intended to assist the US Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor personnel in implementing a comprehensive integrated planning process consistent with DOE Order 430.1, Life Cycle Asset Management and Oak Ridge Operations Order 430. DOE contractors are charged with developing and producing the Comprehensive Integrated Plan, which serves as a summary document, providing information from other planning efforts regarding vision statements, missions, contextual conditions, resources and facilities, decision processes, and stakeholder involvement. The Comprehensive Integrated Plan is a planning reference that identifies primary issues regarding major changes in land and facility use and serves all programs and functions on-site as well as the Oak Ridge Operations Office and DOE Headquarters. The Oak Ridge Reservation is a valuable national resource and is managed on the basis of the principles of ecosystem management and sustainable development and how mission, economic, ecological, social, and cultural factors are used to guide land- and facility-use decisions. The long-term goals of the comprehensive integrated planning process, in priority order, are to support DOE critical missions and to stimulate the economy while maintaining a quality environment.

  17. Finding the rhythm of sudden cardiac death: new opportunities using induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Karim; Li, Yingxin; Sager, Philip T; Houser, Steven R; Wu, Joseph C

    2015-06-05

    Sudden cardiac death is a common cause of death in patients with structural heart disease, genetic mutations, or acquired disorders affecting cardiac ion channels. A wide range of platforms exist to model and study disorders associated with sudden cardiac death. Human clinical studies are cumbersome and are thwarted by the extent of investigation that can be performed on human subjects. Animal models are limited by their degree of homology to human cardiac electrophysiology, including ion channel expression. Most commonly used cellular models are cellular transfection models, which are able to mimic the expression of a single-ion channel offering incomplete insight into changes of the action potential profile. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes resemble, but are not identical, adult human cardiomyocytes and provide a new platform for studying arrhythmic disorders leading to sudden cardiac death. A variety of platforms exist to phenotype cellular models, including conventional and automated patch clamp, multielectrode array, and computational modeling. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes have been used to study long QT syndrome, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and other hereditary cardiac disorders. Although induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes are distinct from adult cardiomyocytes, they provide a robust platform to advance the science and clinical care of sudden cardiac death. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Oak Ridge TNS Program: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M

    1978-01-01

    The Oak Ridge TNS activities have been directed at characterizing the design space between TFTR and EPR with a fundamental emphasis on higher beta plasma systems than previously projected, i.e., anti ..beta.. approximately 5 to 10% as compared to 1 to 3%. Based on the results of the FY 1977 System Studies, our activities this year are directed toward preconceptual design with particular emphasis placed on reducing the technological requirements through innovations in plasma engineering. Examples of the new innovations include microwave assisted start up to reduce power requirements and a reduced TF ripple constraint by more refined ripple loss calculations, to increase engineering feasibility through simpler, more maintainable designs.

  19. Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility Position Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Hill, Jason J [ORNL; Thach, Kevin G [ORNL; Podhorszki, Norbert [ORNL; Klasky, Scott A [ORNL; Rogers, James H [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the business, administration, reliability, and usability aspects of storage systems at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). The OLCF has developed key competencies in architecting and administration of large-scale Lustre deployments as well as HPSS archival systems. Additionally as these systems are architected, deployed, and expanded over time reliability and availability factors are a primary driver. This paper focuses on the implementation of the Spider parallel Lustre file system as well as the implementation of the HPSS archive at the OLCF.

  20. Sudden cardiac death and acute drunken state: Autopsy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletić Borislav

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sudden natural death occurs unexpectedly in apparently healthy subjects, or in persons during an apparent benign phase in the course of disease. The most common cause is sudden cardiac death, which is sometimes the first and last manifestation of coronary heart disease. Alcohol directly influences excitation of myocytes, and therefore provokes arrhythmias and possibly, sudden cardiac death. Objective. To establish the frequency of sudden cardiac death in cases of acute alcohol intoxication, to determine blood alcohol concentration at the moment of death, and to determine frequency and level of ethanol intoxication in chronic alcohol abusers, as well as causes of sudden death in those cases. Method. Retrospective autopsy study was performed for a three-year-period. We analyzed cases of sudden natural death, in relation to age and gender, cause of death, and blood alcohol concentration (at least 0.5 g/L. We considered the person to be a chronic alcoholic abuser if gross examination of organs during autopsy showed changes typical for excessive and habitual alcohol consumption. Results. Our sample consisted of 997 cases: 720 men and 277 women, average age 62.0±15.2 years (min=11; max=98. Total of 753 of them died of sudden cardiac death: much more men (χ2=167.364; p=0.000, significantly younger than women (t=6.203; p=0.000. We determined acute alcohol intoxication in 73 persons - average blood alcohol concentration 1.85±1.01 g/L (min=0.55; max=3.85, and 61 of them died of cardiovascular diseases (χ2=236.781; df=5; p=0.000. Conclusion. In our observed sample, not many persons were under acute alcohol intoxication (around 7%. Most commonly, they were chronic alcohol abusers who died due to exacerbation of chronic heart disease, mildly or moderately intoxicated - the younger, the drunker.

  1. 60 Years of Great Science (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This issue of Oak Ridge National Laboratory Review (vol. 36, issue 1) highlights Oak Ridge National Laboratory's contributions in more than 30 areas of research and related activities during the past 60 years and provides glimpses of current activities that are carrying on this heritage.

  2. Oak Wilt: People and Trees, A Community Approach to Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Juzwik; S. Cook; L. Haugen; J. Elwell

    2004-01-01

    Version 1.3. This self-paced short course on CD-ROM was designed as a learning tool for urban and community foresters, city administrators, tree inspectors, parks and recreation staff, and others involved in oak wilt management.Click the "View or print this publication" link below to request your Oak Wilt: People and...

  3. Management of California Oak Woodlands: Uncertainties and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay E. Noel; Richard P. Thompson

    1995-01-01

    A mathematical policy model of oak woodlands is presented. The model illustrates the policy uncertainties that exist in the management of oak woodlands. These uncertainties include: (1) selection of a policy criterion function, (2) woodland dynamics, (3) initial and final state of the woodland stock. The paper provides a review of each of the uncertainty issues. The...

  4. Pollination biology of northern red and black oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Cecich; William W. Haenchen

    1995-01-01

    Pistillate flower abortion in northern red oak and black oak was evaluated in relation to pollination and fertilization. The presence, position, and characteristics of the pollen grains, pollen tubes, and ovules were determined with bright field and fluorescence microscopy. Flower survival counts were made weekly, from late April to mid- September. Both species have...

  5. Oak Sustainability: A Challenge Through Public Education and Outreach Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory A. Giusti; Robert H. Schmidt; Kenneth R. Churches

    1991-01-01

    Throughout California, public awareness on the role humans play in the decline of oak acreage is increasing. Public and private organizations, agencies, and individuals are instituting planting days, releasing articles on oaks to the media, and sponsoring lectures. Many of these activities are limited in scope and lack a strong educational component that promotes...

  6. Oak tree selection by nesting turkey vultures (Cathartes aura)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory A. Giusti; R.J. Keiffer; Shane Feirer; R.F. Keiffer

    2015-01-01

    Turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) are a ubiquitous component of California’s oak woodland faunal assemblage. Though obvious, they are one of the least studied vertebrates found in our hardwood forests. This study attempts to define the role of oak trees as nesting sites for this large avian species. Verified nest trees are evaluated to determine...

  7. How to Manage Oak Forests for Acorn Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Johnson

    1994-01-01

    Oak forests are life support systems for the many animals that live in them. Acorns, a staple product of oaks forests, are eaten by many species of birds and mammals including deer, bear, squirrels, mice, rabbits, foxes, raccoons, grackles, turkey, grouse, quail, blue jays, woodpeckers, and waterfowl. The population and health of wildlife often rise and fall with the...

  8. Upland oak ecology symposium: history, current conditions, and sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin A. Spetich

    2004-01-01

    Fifty-one papers address the ecology, history, current conditions, and sustainability of upland oak forests - with emphasis on the Interior Highlands. Subject categories were selected to provide focused coverage of the state-of-the-art research and understanding of upland oak ecology of the region.

  9. Chemical Properties Associated with Bacterial Wetwood in Red Oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zicai Xu; Theodor D. Leininger; Andy W.C. Lee; Frank H. Tainter

    2001-01-01

    Bacterial wetwood is a major cause of value loss in the red oak lumber industry in the United States. Red oak trees in Mississippi, South Carolina, and Florida were sampled and evaluated for certain chemical properties possibly associated with the wetwood condition. Specific variables investigated were pH and concentmtions of methane, cations (Na+. Ca++, K+, and Mg...

  10. Distributional record of oak gall wasp (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    m

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... Species richness of oak gall wasps was estimated for each region and also species diversity indices such as Simpson's index, Shannon's H', and Sorensen similarity quotient were calculated. In this survey, 40 oak gall wasps species were identified. Most galls were found on Quercus infectoria. All of the ...

  11. Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site environmental report summary for 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document presents a summary of the information collected for the Oak Ridge Reservation 1994 site environmental report. Topics discussed include: Oak Ridge Reservation mission; ecology; environmental laws; community participation; environmental restoration; waste management; radiation effects; chemical effects; risk to public; environmental monitoring; and radionuclide migration.

  12. Model of white oak flower survival and maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Larsen; Robert A. Cecich

    1997-01-01

    A stochastic model of oak flower dynamics is presented that integrates a number of factors which appear to affect the oak pistillate flower development process. The factors are modeled such that the distribution of the predicted flower populations could have come from the same distribution as the observed flower populations. Factors included in the model are; the range...

  13. A review of fire and oak regeneration and overstory recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; Zhaofei Fan

    2009-01-01

    Fire has played a prominent role in the history of oak in eastern North America, and it is useful today for promoting oak regeneration where competition with other woody vegetation is a problem and for managing savannas and woodlands. We spent the last century extinguishing wildfire from forests for good reason, but now we must spend some time relearning how to use...

  14. Some natural factors that govern the management of oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidney Weitzman; G. R., Jr. Trimble

    1957-01-01

    The oaks are the most important species group in the Appalachian hardwood forests. In West Virginia, oaks provide more than half of the lumber produced in the State. In addition, they provide a large portion of the mine timbers and specialty products.

  15. Economic incentives for oak woodland preservation and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi Dagit; Cy Carlberg; Christy Cuba; Thomas Scott

    2015-01-01

    Numerous ordinances and laws recognize the value of oak trees and woodlands, and dictate serious and expensive consequences for removing or harming them. Unfortunately, the methods used to calculate these values are equally numerous and often inconsistent. More important, these ordinances typically lack economic incentives to avoid impacts to oak woodland values...

  16. Acorn storage alternatives tested on Oregon white oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren D. Devine; Constance A. Harrington; Joseph M. Kraft

    2010-01-01

    We assessed various combinations of storage factors: bag type, temperature, duration, and antifungal pre-storage treatments for white oak acorn storage, using Oregon white oak (Quercus garryana Douglas ex Hook. [Fagaceae]) acorns from 7 seed sources. Acorn viability remained high (84%), even after 2 y of refrigerated storage, but the majority of...

  17. Facilitating Oak and Hickory Regeneration in Mature Central Hardwood Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Holzmueller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced oak and hickory regeneration is often absent in mature oak-hickory forests in the Central Hardwood Region of the United States. Prescribed fire and thinning, alone and combined, are commonly prescribed silvicultural treatments that are recommended to initiate the regeneration process. This study examined the regeneration response in three mature oak stands following four treatments: (1 thin, (2 burn, (3 thinning and burning, or (4 no treatment (control. Ten years after initial treatment, results indicate that oak and hickory seedlings had greater height and diameter in the thinning and burning treatment compared to the control and that this treatment may help facilitate desirable regeneration in mature oak-hickory forests.

  18. Sudden Cardiac Arrest during Participation in Competitive Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Cameron H; Allan, Katherine S; Connelly, Kim A; Cunningham, Kris; Morrison, Laurie J; Dorian, Paul

    2017-11-16

    The incidence of sudden cardiac arrest during participation in sports activities remains unknown. Preparticipation screening programs aimed at preventing sudden cardiac arrest during sports activities are thought to be able to identify at-risk athletes; however, the efficacy of these programs remains controversial. We sought to identify all sudden cardiac arrests that occurred during participation in sports activities within a specific region of Canada and to determine their causes. In this retrospective study, we used the Rescu Epistry cardiac arrest database (which contains records of every cardiac arrest attended by paramedics in the network region) to identify all out-of-hospital cardiac arrests that occurred from 2009 through 2014 in persons 12 to 45 years of age during participation in a sport. Cases were adjudicated as sudden cardiac arrest (i.e., having a cardiac cause) or as an event resulting from a noncardiac cause, on the basis of records from multiple sources, including ambulance call reports, autopsy reports, in-hospital data, and records of direct interviews with patients or family members. Over the course of 18.5 million person-years of observation, 74 sudden cardiac arrests occurred during participation in a sport; of these, 16 occurred during competitive sports and 58 occurred during noncompetitive sports. The incidence of sudden cardiac arrest during competitive sports was 0.76 cases per 100,000 athlete-years, with 43.8% of the athletes surviving until they were discharged from the hospital. Among the competitive athletes, two deaths were attributed to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and none to arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Three cases of sudden cardiac arrest that occurred during participation in competitive sports were determined to have been potentially identifiable if the athletes had undergone preparticipation screening. In our study involving persons who had out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, the incidence of sudden cardiac

  19. Leaf area index, leaf mass density, and allometric relationships derived from harvest of blue oaks in a California oak savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Karlik; Alistair H. McKay

    2002-01-01

    Given the key role played by biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) in tropospheric chemistry and regional air quality, it is critical to generate accurate BVOC emission inventories. Because oak species found in California often have high BVOC emission rates, and are often of large stature with corresponding large leaf masses, oaks may be the most important genus...

  20. Refining the oak-fire hypothesis for management of oak-dominated forests of the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary A. Arthur; Heather D. Alexander; Daniel C. Dey; Callie J. Schweitzer; David L. Loftis

    2012-01-01

    Prescribed fires are increasingly implemented throughout eastern deciduous forests to accomplish various management objectives, including maintenance of oak-dominated (Quercus spp.) forests. Despite a regional research-based understanding of prehistoric and historic fire regimes, a parallel understanding of contemporary fire use to preserve oak...

  1. Elemental concentrations in foliage of red maple, red oak, and white oak in relation to atmospheric deposition in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. D. Davis; J. M. Skelly; B. L. Nash

    1995-01-01

    Foliage was sampled in June and late August-early September in 1988 and 1989 from the outer crowns of codominant red maple (Acer rubrum L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), and white oak (Q. alba L.) trees in forest stands along an atmospheric deposition gradient in north-central Pennsylvania. Leaf samples...

  2. Ten-year results of using oak Cleanings to maintain oak species dominance on the Allegheny National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt W. Gottschalk; Gary W. Miller; Robert White; Andrea Hille; Thomas M. Schuler

    2014-01-01

    The Allegheny National Forest (ANF) in northwestern Pennsylvania implemented precommercial thinning in young stands to maintain oak (Quercus spp.) stems in a competitive position. This administrative study was developed to test ANF standards for precommercial thinning for success in maintaining oak composition. An additional objective was to examine...

  3. Previously unrecorded damage to oak, Quercus spp., in southern California by the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus coxalis Waterhouse (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom W. Coleman; Steven Seybold

    2008-01-01

    A new and potentially devastating pest of oaks, Quercus spp., has been discovered in southern California. The goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus coxalis Waterhouse (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), colonizes the sapwood surface and phloem of the main stem and larger branches of at least three species of...

  4. Germination Characteristics of Engelmann Oak and Coast Live Oak from the Santa Rosa Plateau, Riverside County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald E. Snow

    1991-01-01

    Over 2,000 acorns of Quercus agrifolia (coast live oak) and over 500 acorns of Q. engelmannii (Engelmann oak) were collected in the Jim Knight pasture area of the Santa Rosa Plateau. These were used to test for temperature and moisture conditions on germination of viable acorns in the laboratory under controlled environmental...

  5. Strategies for the prevention of sudden cardiac death during sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, Domenico; Drezner, Jonathan; Basso, Cristina; Pelliccia, Antonio; Thiene, Gaetano

    2011-04-01

    Sudden cardiac death of a young athlete is the most tragic event in sports and devastates the family, the sports medicine team, and the local community. Such a fatality represents the first manifestation of cardiac disease in up to 80% of young athletes who remain asymptomatic before sudden cardiac arrest occurs; this explains the limited power of screening modalities based solely on history and physical examination. The long-running Italian experience showed that electrocardiogram (ECG) screening definitively improves the sensitivity of pre-participation evaluation for heart diseases and substantially reduces the risk of death in the athletic field (primary prevention). However, some cardiac conditions, such as coronary artery diseases, present no abnormalities on 12-lead ECG. Moreover, cardiac arrest due to non-penetrating chest injury (commotio cordis) cannot be prevented by screening. This justifies the efforts for implementing programmes of early external defibrillation of unpredictable arrhythmic cardiac arrest. This article reviews the epidemiology of sudden cardiac arrest in the athlete in terms of incidence, sport-related risk, underlying causes, and the currently available prevention programmes such as pre-participation screening and early external defibrillation by using automated external defibrillators. The best strategy is to combine synergistically primary prevention of sudden cardiac death by pre-participation identification of athletes affected by at-risk cardiomyopathies and secondary prevention with back-up defibrillation of unpredictable sudden cardiac arrest on the athletic field.

  6. Fossil oak galls preserve ancient multitrophic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Graham N; van der Ham, Raymond W J M; Brewer, Jan G

    2008-10-07

    Trace fossils of insect feeding have contributed substantially to our understanding of the evolution of insect-plant interactions. The most complex phenotypes of herbivory are galls, whose diagnostic morphologies often allow the identification of the gall inducer. Although fossil insect-induced galls over 300Myr old are known, most are two-dimensional impressions lacking adequate morphological detail either for the precise identification of the causer or for detection of the communities of specialist parasitoids and inquilines inhabiting modern plant galls. Here, we describe the first evidence for such multitrophic associations in Pleistocene fossil galls from the Eemian interglacial (130000-115000 years ago) of The Netherlands. The exceptionally well-preserved fossils can be attributed to extant species of Andricus gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galling oaks (Quercus), and provide the first fossil evidence of gall attack by herbivorous inquiline gallwasps. Furthermore, phylogenetic placement of one fossil in a lineage showing obligate host plant alternation implies the presence of a second oak species, Quercus cerris, currently unknown from Eemian fossils in northwestern Europe. This contrasts with the southern European native range of Q. cerris in the current interglacial and suggests that gallwasp invasions following human planting of Q. cerris in northern Europe may represent a return to preglacial distribution limits.

  7. Mutations in calmodulin cause ventricular tachycardia and sudden cardiac death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyegaard, Mette; Overgaard, Michael Toft; Sondergaard, M.T.

    2012-01-01

    a substantial part of sudden cardiac deaths in young individuals. Mutations in RYR2, encoding the cardiac sarcoplasmic calcium channel, have been identified as causative in approximately half of all dominantly inherited CPVT cases. Applying a genome-wide linkage analysis in a large Swedish family with a severe......Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a devastating inherited disorder characterized by episodic syncope and/or sudden cardiac arrest during exercise or acute emotion in individuals without structural cardiac abnormalities. Although rare, CPVT is suspected to cause...... calmodulin-binding-domain peptide at low calcium concentrations. We conclude that calmodulin mutations can cause severe cardiac arrhythmia and that the calmodulin genes are candidates for genetic screening of individual cases and families with idiopathic ventricular tachycardia and unexplained sudden cardiac...

  8. Lives forever changed: family bereavement experiences after sudden cardiac death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, D Dale M; Rosenfeld, Anne G; Gilbert, Kathleen

    2013-11-01

    To describe the bereavement experiences of families who survived the sudden cardiac death of a family member and identify meanings of loss. Approximately 325,000 people experience sudden cardiac death (SCD) annually. It is important to examine family experiences after SCD because of the life altering impact of death on surviving family members. A descriptive design, using the qualitative method of narrative analysis, was used to analyze family stories of bereavement. Five themes were identified across seven families: sudden cardiac death … boom; saying goodbye; grief unleashes volatile emotional reactions; life goes on … but never back to normal; and meanings in loss. This study adds to an understanding of family bereavement and findings suggest that providing information about the cause of death and allowing family members to tell their stories are potentially important interventions for clinicians who interact with bereaved families. © 2013.

  9. The prevention of sudden death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Bhavesh; Hamid, M Shoaib; Elliott, Perry M

    2002-05-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a familial myocardial disease caused by mutations in cardiac sarcomeric proteins. HCM is characterised by myocyte disarray and myocardial fibrosis. Most patients are largely asymptomatic but some are prone to a number of disease-related complications, the most problematic of which is sudden cardiac death. Diagnosing patients who are at risk has not been easy because of the clinical heterogeneity of the disease, the frequent absence of symptoms prior to sudden cardiac death and the relatively low disease prevalence and annual mortality rates. To date, both low-dose amiodarone and internal cardioverter/defibrillator implantation have been advocated in high-risk individuals. Further improvements in clinical understanding and risk stratification are necessary to identify HCM patients who are at high risk of sudden death.

  10. [SPORTS-RELATED SUDDEN DEATH: LESSONS FROM THE FRENCH REGISTRY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marijon, Eloi; Bougouin, Wulfran; Jouven, Xavier

    2015-09-01

    So far, sports-related sudden death has been mainly studied through young competitive athletes. The national sports-related sudden death French registry (2005-2010) is the first study evaluating sudden death during sports activities in the general population, estimating that approximately 1000 cases occur each year in France. The vast majority occurs among middle age men practicing recreational activities, with women presenting a very low risk (up to 30-fold lower) compared to men. Outcomes dramatically vary across districts with survival to hospital discharge from 0 to 50%. Those differences are mainly the result of major disparities between districts regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation initiated by bystanders. Coronary artery disease remains the most frequent cardiovascular disease associated with such events.

  11. Coupled catastrophes: sudden shifts cascade and hop among interdependent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brummitt, Charles D; D'Souza, Raissa M

    2014-01-01

    A profoundly important challenge in several disciplines today is to understand how sudden changes can propagate among coupled systems. Examples include the synchronization of business cycles, population collapse in patchy ecosystems, markets shifting to a new technology platform, collapses in prices and in confidence in financial markets, and protests erupting in multiple countries. We characterize these phenomena using a simple model grounded in the theory of fast--slow ordinary differential equations and in catastrophe theory. In the model, a system consists of multiple subsystems (e.g., countries in the global economy or patches of an ecosystem), each described by a scalar quantity (such as economic output or population) that undergoes sudden changes via saddle-node bifurcations. The subsystems are coupled via their scalar quantities (e.g., trade couples economic output, diffusion couples populations); that coupling moves their bifurcations. The model elucidates two ways in which sudden changes can propaga...

  12. Sudden death due to inhalant abuse in youth: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Akcan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Intentional inhalation or abuse of volatile substances is a common public health problem all over the world. As these substances generate euphoria frequency of use among adolescents and young adults is increasing steadily. In cases using inhalants to achieve a euphoric state -without knowing possible consequences- sudden death may occurdue to acute cardio-pulmonary dysfunction.Here we present a case of sudden death of a nineteen-year-old female due to inhalation of volatile from butane containing lighter gas tube, with the findings of autopsy and death scene investigation.In the context of this case; it was aimed to draw attention to the risk of sudden death and steady increase of frequencyof volatile substance abuse among adolescents and young adults due to various psycho-social factors.

  13. Sustaining oak forests in eastern North America: regeneration and recruitment, the pillars of sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey

    2014-01-01

    Oak cover types comprise half of the forestlands in the eastern United States. There is a great desire to sustain these highly valued forests. Unfortunately, reports of the successional replacement of oak are all too common, as they are throughout the world. Sustaining the oak resource requires the ability to both regenerate and recruit oak into the overstory as...

  14. Assessing wood quality of borer-infested red oak logs with a resonance acoustic technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Henry E. Stelzer; Jan Wiedenbeck; Patricia K. Lebow; Robert J. Ross

    2009-01-01

    Large numbers of black oak (Quercus velutina Lam.) and scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea Muenchh.) trees are declining and dying in the Missouri Ozark forest as a result of oak decline. Red oak borer-infested trees produce low-grade logs that become extremely difficult to merchandize as the level of insect attack increases. The objective of this study was to investigate...

  15. Red oak decline and mortality by ecological land type in the Missouri ozarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Fan Kabrick; Stephen R. Shifley

    2007-01-01

    Oak decline, the precipitous mortality of mature oak trees, has been a chronic problem in xeric oak ecosystems and is reaching unprecedented levels in red oak group (Quercus section Lobatae) species in the Ozark Highlands. The high rates of mortality are leading to rapid changes in species composition, forest structure, and related changes in fire...

  16. Temporal Patterns of Oak Mortality in a Southern Appalachian Forest (1991-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathryn Greenberg; Tara L. Keyser; James Speer

    2011-01-01

    The sustainability of eastern oak-dominated forests is threatened by high oak mortality rates and widespread oak regeneration failure, and presents a challenge to natural area managers. We tracked the rate and cause of mortality of 287 mature oak trees of five species for 15 years to determine the temporal patterns and sources of mortality. We observed a 15.3% total...

  17. Red Oak (Quercus rubra, L.) acron collection, nursery culture and direct seeding: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey

    1995-01-01

    The artificial regeneration of red oak by planting or direct seeding is an important method for restoring oak in ecosystems where it has been lost as a result of past management practices. Planting and direct seeding can also be used to supplement natural oak regeneration and to ensure that sufficient oak reproduction is in place when overstories are removed through...

  18. Response of outplanted northern red oak seedlings under two silvicultural prescriptions in north Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callie Jo Schweitzer; Emile Gardiner; Stephanie Love; Tom Green

    2005-01-01

    The decision to artificially regenerate oak must be predicated on some basis. After completing an assessment of the potential to regenerate oak naturally, we decided our stands might benefit from supplemental oak plantings. The primary objective of this study was to couple outplanting of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) with applied silviculture...

  19. Technical background information for the environmental and safety report, Volume 4: White Oak Lake and Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakes, T.W.; Kelly, B.A.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Eldridge, J.S.; Bird, J.C.; Shank, K.E.; Tsakeres, F.S.

    1982-03-01

    This report has been prepared to provide background information on White Oak Lake for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental and Safety Report. The paper presents the history of White Oak Dam and Lake and describes the hydrological conditions of the White Oak Creek watershed. Past and present sediment and water data are included; pathway analyses are described in detail.

  20. Modeling and mapping oak advance reproduction density using soil and site variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Kabrick; Jason L. Villwock; Daniel C. Dey; Tara L. Keyser; David R. Larsen

    2014-01-01

    Regenerating oaks (Quercus spp.) has remained a widespread and persistent problem throughout their natural range. Research shows that abundant oak advance reproduction is crucial for success. Although it is recognized that oak advance reproduction accumulation is inversely related to site quality, there has been little effort to model oak advance...

  1. Ecology and management of oak woodlands and savannas in the southwestern Borderlands Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald J. Gottfried; Peter F. Ffolliott

    2013-01-01

    Management of the Madrean oak woodlands and the less dense and ecologically different oak savannas must be based on sound ecological information. However, relatively little is known about the Madrean oak ecosystems in spite of the fact that they cover about 80,000 km2 in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Emory oak (Quercus emoryi), the dominant tree...

  2. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss following intramuscular administration of penicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escada, Pedro Alberto; Capucho, Clara; Madeira da Silva, José Francisco

    2004-02-01

    We report a case of sudden hearing loss in a patient with acute exudative tonsillitis, occurring 15 minutes after the intramuscular administration of penicillin. Audiological evaluation documented a profound sensorineural hearing loss of the cochlear type. The mechanism of the hearing loss was probably an immediate hypersensitivity (type I) allergic drug reaction. Penicillin is used frequently for the treatment of several infections. Allergic reactions to penicillin are well known and include urticaria, maculopapular exanthems, angio-oedema, bronchospasm and anaphylaxis, but sudden hearing loss has never been recorded.

  3. Sudden bilateral sensorineural hearing loss associated with urticarial vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A C; Leong, A C; Jiang, D; Fitzgerald-O'Connor, A

    2013-07-01

    Bilateral sensorineural hearing loss associated with recurrent urticarial skin lesions may be signs of underlying Muckle-Wells syndrome. Previous reports have described the hearing loss to be progressive in nature. To our knowledge, this paper presents the first published case of sudden onset, bilateral sensorineural hearing loss associated with urticarial vasculitis due to underlying Muckle-Wells syndrome. The patient underwent a cochlear implantation with a modest outcome. Cochlear implantation may help to rehabilitate sudden hearing loss associated with this condition, but early diagnosis may allow treatment with interleukin-1β inhibitors such as anakinra.

  4. Sudden cardiac death in children (1-18 years)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Bo Gregers; Risgaard, Bjarke; Sadjadieh, Golnaz

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Hitherto, sudden cardiac death in children (SCDc)-defined as sudden cardiac death (SCD) in the 1-18 years old-has been incompletely described in the general population. Knowledge on incidence rates, causes of death and symptoms prior to death is sparse and has been affected by reporting...... and referral bias. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a nationwide setting all deaths in children aged 1-18 years in Denmark in 2000-06 were included. To chart causes of death and incidence rates, death certificates and autopsy reports were collected and read. By additional use of the extensive healthcare registries...

  5. Oak Ridge Health Studies phase 1 report, Volume 1: Oak Ridge Phase 1 overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarbrough, M.I.; Van Cleave, M.L.; Turri, P.; Daniel, J.

    1993-09-01

    In July 1991, the State of Tennessee initiated the Health Studies Agreement with the United States Department of Energy to carry out independent studies of possible adverse health effects in people living in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge Reservation. The health studies focus on those effects that could have resulted or could result from exposures to chemicals and radioactivity released at the Reservation since 1942. The major focus of the first phase was to complete a Dose Reconstruction Feasibility Study. This study was designed to find out if enough data exist about chemical and radionuclide releases from the Oak Ridge Reservation to conduct a second phase. The second phase will lead to estimates of the actual amounts or the ``doses`` of various contaminants received by people as a result of off-site releases. Once the doses of various contaminants have been estimated, scientists and physicians will be better able to evaluate whether adverse health effects could have resulted from the releases.

  6. Melton Valley Storage Tanks Capacity Increase Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and maintain additional storage capacity at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW). New capacity would be provided by a facility partitioned into six individual tank vaults containing one 100,000 gallon LLLW storage tank each. The storage tanks would be located within the existing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility. This action would require the extension of a potable water line approximately one mile from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) area to the proposed site to provide the necessary potable water for the facility including fire protection. Alternatives considered include no-action, cease generation, storage at other ORR storage facilities, source treatment, pretreatment, and storage at other DOE facilities.

  7. Source document for waste area groupings at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, P.L.; Kuhaida, A.J., Jr.

    1996-09-01

    This document serves as a source document for Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and other types of documents developed for and pertaining to Environmental Restoration (ER) Program activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). It contains descriptions of the (1) regulatory requirements for the ORR ER Program, (2) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) ER Program, (3) ORNL site history and characterization, and (4) history and characterization of Waste Area Groupings (WAGS) 1-20. This document was created to save time, effort, and money for persons and organizations drafting documents for the ER Program and to improve consistency in the documents prepared for the program. By eliminating the repetitious use of selected information about the program, this document will help reduce the time and costs associated with producing program documents. By serving as a benchmark for selected information about the ER Program, this reference will help ensure that information presented in future documents is accurate and complete.

  8. Tiger team assessment of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1990-02-01

    This document contains findings identified during the Tiger Team Compliance Assessment of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Y-12 Plant Tiger Team Compliance Assessment is comprehensive in scope. It covers the Environmental, Safety, and Health (including Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) compliance), and Management areas and determines the plant's compliance with applicable federal (including DOE), state, and local regulations and requirements. 4 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. Spatial distribution of oak mistletoe as it relates to habits of oak woodland frugivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan A Wilson

    Full Text Available This study addresses the underlying spatial distribution of oak mistletoe, Phoradendron villosum, a hemi-parasitic plant that provides a continuous supply of berries for frugivorous birds overwintering the oak savanna habitat of California's outer coast range. As the winter community of birds consuming oak mistletoe varies from group-living territorial species to birds that roam in flocks, we asked if mistletoe volume was spatially autocorrelated at the scale of persistent territories or whether the patterns predicted by long-term territory use by western bluebirds are overcome by seed dispersal by more mobile bird species. The abundance of mistletoe was mapped on trees within a 700 ha study site in Carmel Valley, California. Spatial autocorrelation of mistletoe volume was analyzed using the variogram method and spatial distribution of oak mistletoe trees was analyzed using Ripley's K and O-ring statistics. On a separate set of 45 trees, mistletoe volume was highly correlated with the volume of female, fruit-bearing plants, indicating that overall mistletoe volume is a good predictor of fruit availability. Variogram analysis showed that mistletoe volume was spatially autocorrelated up to approximately 250 m, a distance consistent with persistent territoriality of western bluebirds and philopatry of sons, which often breed next door to their parents and are more likely to remain home when their parents have abundant mistletoe. Using Ripley's K and O-ring analyses, we showed that mistletoe trees were aggregated for distances up to 558 m, but for distances between 558 to 724 m the O-ring analysis deviated from Ripley's K in showing repulsion rather than aggregation. While trees with mistletoe were aggregated at larger distances, mistletoe was spatially correlated at a smaller distance, consistent with what is expected based on persistent group territoriality of western bluebirds in winter and the extreme philopatry of their sons.

  10. Site descriptions of environmental restoration units at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhaida, A.J. Jr.; Parker, A.F.

    1997-02-01

    This report provides summary information on Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) sites as listed in the Oak Ridge Reservation Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), dated January 1, 1992, Appendix C. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory was built in 1943 as part of the World War II Manhattan Project. The original mission of ORNL was to produce and chemically separate the first gram-quantities of plutonium as part of the national effort to produce the atomic bomb. The current mission of ORNL is to provide applied research and development in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs in nuclear fusion and fission, energy conservation, fossil fuels, and other energy technologies and to perform basic scientific research in selected areas of the physical, life, and environmental sciences. ER is also tasked with clean up or mitigation of environmental impacts resulting from past waste management practices on portions of the approximately 37,000 acres within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Other installations located within the ORR are the Gaseous Diffusion Plant (K-25) and the Y-12 plant. The remedial action strategy currently integrates state and federal regulations for efficient compliance and approaches for both investigations and remediation efforts on a Waste Area Grouping (WAG) basis. As defined in the ORR FFA Quarterly Report July - September 1995, a WAG is a grouping of potentially contaminated sites based on drainage area and similar waste characteristics. These contaminated sites are further divided into four categories based on existing information concerning whether the data are generated for scoping or remedial investigation (RI) purposes. These areas are as follows: (1) Operable Units (OU); (2) Characterization Areas (CA); (3) Remedial Site Evaluation (RSE) Areas; and (4) Removal Site Evaluation (RmSE) Areas.

  11. Survival of oak root systems following frill girdle herbicide treatment for oak wilt control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johann N. Bruhn; James J., Jr. Wetteroff; Linda Haugen

    2003-01-01

    Mechanical separation of root systems is widely used to prevent tree-to-tree vascular spread of oak wilt disease. A safe effective herbicide treatment would be valuable for this purpose in hilly, rocky, or urban settings. Three treatments were frill-girdle applied: 1) water, 2) undilutetd Garlon 3A (trichlopyr), or 3) half-strength aqueous Garlon 3A plus 24 ml per L...

  12. Spatial distribution of oak mistletoe as it relates to habits of oak woodland frugivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ethan A; Sullivan, Patrick J; Dickinson, Janis L

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the underlying spatial distribution of oak mistletoe, Phoradendron villosum, a hemi-parasitic plant that provides a continuous supply of berries for frugivorous birds overwintering the oak savanna habitat of California's outer coast range. As the winter community of birds consuming oak mistletoe varies from group-living territorial species to birds that roam in flocks, we asked if mistletoe volume was spatially autocorrelated at the scale of persistent territories or whether the patterns predicted by long-term territory use by western bluebirds are overcome by seed dispersal by more mobile bird species. The abundance of mistletoe was mapped on trees within a 700 ha study site in Carmel Valley, California. Spatial autocorrelation of mistletoe volume was analyzed using the variogram method and spatial distribution of oak mistletoe trees was analyzed using Ripley's K and O-ring statistics. On a separate set of 45 trees, mistletoe volume was highly correlated with the volume of female, fruit-bearing plants, indicating that overall mistletoe volume is a good predictor of fruit availability. Variogram analysis showed that mistletoe volume was spatially autocorrelated up to approximately 250 m, a distance consistent with persistent territoriality of western bluebirds and philopatry of sons, which often breed next door to their parents and are more likely to remain home when their parents have abundant mistletoe. Using Ripley's K and O-ring analyses, we showed that mistletoe trees were aggregated for distances up to 558 m, but for distances between 558 to 724 m the O-ring analysis deviated from Ripley's K in showing repulsion rather than aggregation. While trees with mistletoe were aggregated at larger distances, mistletoe was spatially correlated at a smaller distance, consistent with what is expected based on persistent group territoriality of western bluebirds in winter and the extreme philopatry of their sons.

  13. Cost-benefit analysis of primary prevention of sudden cardiac death with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator versus amiodarone in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, H Baris; Ward, Alexandra; Jaime Caro, J; Alvarez, Piedad; Sadri, Hamid

    2009-03-01

    Clinical trials have shown that implantable cardioverter defibrillators are effective in primary prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients with high risk profiles. To conduct a cost-benefit assessment of prevention of sudden cardiac death with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) vs. amiodarone from the Canadian health-care system perspective. A simulation model that estimates the patient's course following an implantation with an ICD or initiation of amiodarone treatment was created. A thousand pairs of patients with identical characteristics in each treatment group, with similar demographic profiles as observed in the Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial (SCD-HeFT) were simulated. Based on the simulated individual patient characteristics, the model estimated the timing of severe arrhythmic events and deaths due to other causes and implemented the consequences at the time of the events. Patients might die at the time of severe arrhythmia (sudden cardiac death) or survive and become secondary prevention cases and be exposed to a higher risk of severe arrhythmia for the following 6 months. The rates of arrhythmia and death due to other causes were assumed to be the same, whereas the cases of fatality from severe arrhythmia differed between treatments. During the course of the simulation, the clinical (i.e., deaths) and economic outcomes were tallied for both treatment groups. All model parameters were obtained from the literature. The primary data source for clinical inputs was the published results of the SCD-HeFT trial which investigated the impact of ICDs on patients' survival in primary prevention of sudden cardiac deaths compared to amiodarone and conventional therapy. The value of a statistical life (CND$ 5.8 million) was obtained from an analysis previously performed by Health Canada. The direct medical costs and monetary value of lives saved were estimated over 5 years. Sensitivity analyses on key parameters were carried out. The

  14. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, V.A.; Wilson, A.R. (eds.)

    1990-10-01

    The first two volumes of this report are devoted to a presentation of environmental data and supporting narratives for the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and surrounding environs during 1989. Volume 1 includes all narrative descriptions, summaries, and conclusions and is intended to be a stand-alone'' report for the ORR for the reader who does not want to review in detail all of the 1989 data. Volume 2 includes the detailed data summarized in a format to ensure that all environmental data are represented in the tables. Narratives are not included in Vol. 2. The tables in Vol. 2 are addressed in Vol. 1. For this reason, Vol. 2 cannot be considered a stand-alone report but is intended to be used in conjunction with Vol. 1. 16 figs., 194 tabs.

  15. Direct Effects of Carpophagous Insects on the Germination Ability and Early Abscission of Oak Acorns

    OpenAIRE

    Csóka, György; Hirka, Anikó

    2006-01-01

    Carpophagous insects play an important role in decreasing the viability of acorns in bothdirect and indirect ways. Therefore they significantly influence the reproductive potential of oaks. As adirect effect, their feeding on the embryo and on the cotyledons may prevent the germination of theacorn and on the other hand, their damage causes premature acorn abscission. During 3 years, 60acorn samples from five oak species (Turkey oak – Quercus cerris, pedunculate oak – Quercus robur,sessile oak...

  16. Screening of contaminants in Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.; Suter, G.W.; Watts, J.A.

    1992-07-01

    Waste Area Grouping 2 (WAG 2) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located in the White Oak Creek Watershed and is composed of White Oak Creek Embayment, White Oak Lake and associated floodplain, and portions of White Oak Creek (WOC) and Melton Branch downstream of ORNL facilities. Contaminants leaving other ORNL WAGs in the WOC watershed pass through WAG 2 before entering the Clinch River. Health and ecological risk screening analyses were conducted on contaminants in WAG 2 to determine which contaminants were of concern and would require immediate consideration for remedial action and which contaminants could be assigned a low priority or further study. For screening purposes, WAG 2 was divided into four geographic reaches: Reach 1, a portion of WOC; Reach 2, Melton Branch; Reach 3, White Oak Lake and the floodplain area to the weirs on WOC and Melton Branch; and Reach 4, the White Oak Creek Embayment, for which an independent screening analysis has been completed. Screening analyses were conducted using data bases compiled from existing data on carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic contaminants, which included organics, inorganics, and radionuclides. Contaminants for which at least one ample had a concentration above the level of detection were placed in a detectable contaminants data base. Those contaminants for which all samples were below the level of detection were placed in a nondetectable contaminants data base.

  17. Left ventricular cardiac myxoma and sudden death in a dog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nijs, Maria Irene; Vink, Aryan; Bergmann, Wilhelmina; Szatmári, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Myxoma is a very rare benign cardiac tumor in dogs. This is the first description of a cardiac myxoma originating from the left ventricular outflow tract, presumably causing sudden death. CASE PRESENTATION: A previously healthy 12-year-old male West Highland white terrier was found dead

  18. Left ventricular cardiac myxoma and sudden death in a dog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nijs, M.I.; Vink, Aryan; Bergmann, W.; Szatmári, V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Myxoma is a very rare benign cardiac tumor in dogs. This is the first description of a cardiac myxoma originating from the left ventricular outflow tract, presumably causing sudden death. Case presentation: A previously healthy 12-year-old male West Highland white terrier was found dead

  19. Steroid Use in Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: What ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss is a disease of unknown etiology. Controversy in the literature argues whether the condition should be treated by steroid therapy. In this case study, a Medline literature search was completed to find out if there is any evidence to support its use in this condition.

  20. Neurochemical Alterations in Sudden Unexplained Perinatal Deaths—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazeer Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden unexpected perinatal collapse is a major trauma for the parents of victims. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS is unexpected and mysterious death of an apparently healthy neonate from birth till 1 year of age without any known causes, even after thorough postmortem investigations. However, the incidence of sudden intrauterine unexplained death syndrome (SIUDS is seven times higher as compared with SIDS. This observation is approximated 40–80%. Stillbirth is defined as death of a fetus after 20th week of gestation or just before delivery at full term without a known reason. Pakistan has the highest burden of stillbirth in the world. This basis of SIDS, SIUDS, and stillbirths eludes specialists. The purpose of this study is to investigate factors behind failure in control of these unexplained deaths and how research may go ahead with improved prospects. Animal models and physiological data demonstrate that sleep, arousal, and cardiorespiratory malfunctioning are abnormal mechanisms in SIUDS risk factors or in newborn children who subsequently die from SIDS. This review focuses on insights in neuropathology and mechanisms of SIDS and SIUDS in terms of different receptors involved in this major perinatal demise. Several studies conducted in the past decade have confirmed neuropathological and neurochemical anomalies related to serotonin transporter, substance P, acetylcholine α7 nicotine receptors, etc., in sudden unexplained fetal and infant deaths. There is need to focus more on research in this area to unveil the major curtain to neuroprotection by underlying mechanisms leading to such deaths.

  1. Laryngeal inflammation in the sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scadding, Glenis K; Brock, Christine; Chouiali, Fazila; Hamid, Qutayaba

    2014-01-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is marked by 'the sudden death of an infant that is unexpected by history and remains unexplained after a thorough forensic autopsy and a detailed death scene investigation'. The cause is unknown. Excessive subglottic submucosal glandular tissue and excessive sulphated mucus glycoprotein in the larynges of SIDS babies have been previously reported from our institution. We now report on laryngeal immunohistology. Larynges from 7 children who died from Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) at under 16 weeks of age were examined immunohistologically and compared to those from 8 age- matched control infants who died from other causes. The SIDS babies had increased inflammatory changes in the laryngeal epithelium and sub- epithelium with raised numbers of cells staining for elastase (pdeaths involve preceding inflammation. Although death may be sudden and unexpected it appears that, at least in some SIDS victims, there is a preceding inflammatory process in the larynx which may allow hyper-reactivity of laryngeal reflexes and consequent apnoea. This observation concurs with others in the SIDS literature and offers a field for further research and possible prevention.

  2. Training Emergency Responders: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. An Instructor's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applied Science Associates, Inc., Reston, VA.

    This manual was developed to help instructors train police and emergency medical technicians, who often are the first persons to arrive at the scene of a death (first responders), to serve families who lose a child to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). The manual begins with an introduction that discusses the purpose of the training and…

  3. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, FY 1983. Special Report to Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This report describes research programs focusing on the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and indicates some presently available results. Specific attention is given to research on sleep apnea, respiratory control, and hypoxia, as well as to infectious disease processes and immunology. Findings of a large-scale multidisciplinary SIDS project are…

  4. On the Developmental Dynamics of Sudden Stratospheric Warmings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-31

    had to deal with sudden wind shift encounterd in a major warming but would still have to be able to withstand the stress imposed by the steep...Hemisphere, Mon. Wea. Rev., 106, 762-770. 1979: An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology, Acedemic Press, 391pp. --- , 1981: The Amplification of Height Wave 1

  5. Sudden Cardiac Death in Nigeria: Pathophysiology and Evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sudden death is an emerging phenomenon in Nigeria, a country with a burden of preventable communicable and non communicable diseases. The rapid adoption of western lifestyle, the almost complete dependence on vehicular transport as well as stress that accompany infrastructural development and processes of ...

  6. Guidelines for autopsy investigation of sudden cardiac death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basso, Cristina; Burke, Margaret; Fornes, Paul; Gallagher, Patrick J.; de Gouveia, Rosa Henriques; Sheppard, Mary; Thiene, Gaetano; van der Wal, Allard

    2010-01-01

    Although sudden cardiac death is one of the most important mode of death in Western Countries, pathologists and public health physicians have not given this problem the attention it deserves. New methods of preventing potentially fatal arrhythmias have been developed, and the accurate diagnosis of

  7. Fatal Gastrointestinal Perforations in sudden death cases in Last 10 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastrointestinal perforation occurs when the wall of the gastro-intestinal tract like stomach, small intestine or large bowel develops a hole through its entire thickness. This retrospective study was aimed to identify pattern of GIT perforations that caused sudden deaths in this part of the world. The study was conducted in ...

  8. Guidelines for autopsy investigation of sudden cardiac death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basso, C.; Burke, M.; Fornes, P.; Gallagher, P. J.; de Gouveia, R. H.; Sheppard, M.; Thiene, G.; van der Wal, A.

    2010-01-01

    Although sudden cardiac death is one of the most important mode of death in Western Countries, pathologists and public health physicians have not given this problem the attention it deserves. New methods of preventing potentially fatal arrhythmias have been developed and the accurate diagnosis of

  9. Guidelines for autopsy investigation of sudden cardiac death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basso, Cristina; Burke, Margaret; Fornes, Paul; Gallagher, Patrick J.; de Gouveia, Rosa Henriques; Sheppard, Mary; Thiene, Gaetano; van der Wal, Allard

    2008-01-01

    Although sudden cardiac death is one of the most important mode of death in Western Countries, pathologists and public health physicians have not given this problem the attention it deserves. New methods of preventing potentially fatal arrhythmias have been developed, and the accurate diagnosis of

  10. Bidirectional infrasonic ducts associated with sudden stratospheric warming events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assink, J.D.; Waxler, R.; Smets, P.S.M.; Evers, L.G.

    2014-01-01

    In January 2011, the state of the polar vortex in the midlatitudes changed significantly due to a minor sudden stratospheric warming event. As a result, a bidirectional duct for infrasound propagation developed in the middle atmosphere that persisted for 2 weeks. The ducts were due to two zonal wind

  11. Prevention of sudden cardiac death in young athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Katja Ažman Juvan; Petra Zupet

    2010-01-01

    Sudden cardiac deaths in young athletes (less than 35 years old) are rare though highly publicized tragedies, occurring mainly in athletes with underlying cardiovascular diseases. Since these diseases often have a clinically silent course, they should be actively searched for by preparticipation screening. Preparticipation screening of athletes varies among different countries. However, a common European protocol has been proposed, which comprises a history, clinica...

  12. Survivor-Victim Status, Attachment, and Sudden Death Bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Mark D.; Greenwald, Jason Y.

    1991-01-01

    Examined significance of survivor-victim relationship in understanding grief following sudden death bereavement by suicide or accident. Results showed that survivor-victim attachment was more important than survivor status (parent versus sibling/child) in explaining grief reactions. Compared to accident survivors, suicide survivors experienced…

  13. Sudden cardiac death in epilepsy disappoints, but epileptologists keep faith

    OpenAIRE

    Fulvio A. Scorza; Esper A. Cavalheiro; Jaderson Costa da Costa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the most common cause of death in people with intractable epilepsy. Probably, optimization of seizure control will prevent some of these deaths. Briefly, we integrated in this paper some data about the epidemiology, risk factors, etiology, and preventative measures in the management of SUDEP.

  14. Sudden cardiac death in epilepsy disappoints, but epileptologists keep faith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio A. Scorza

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP is the most common cause of death in people with intractable epilepsy. Probably, optimization of seizure control will prevent some of these deaths. Briefly, we integrated in this paper some data about the epidemiology, risk factors, etiology, and preventative measures in the management of SUDEP.

  15. Solar flare effects and storm sudden commencement even in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1998-05-08

    Variations in the three components of geomagnetic field were observed at the twenty-two geomagnetic Euro-African Observatories during the solar flare that occurred on the 6 May, 1998 at 0080UT and storm sudden commencement that took place on May 8, 1998 at 15.00 UT. The geomagnetic field on 6 May, 1998 was ...

  16. Declining risk of sudden death in heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Li; Jhund, Pardeep S.; Petrie, Mark C.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND The risk of sudden death has changed over time among patients with symptomatic heart failure and reduced ejection fraction with the sequential introduction of medications including angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, beta-blockers, and mineralocorti......BACKGROUND The risk of sudden death has changed over time among patients with symptomatic heart failure and reduced ejection fraction with the sequential introduction of medications including angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, beta......-blockers, and mineralocorticoid-receptor antagonists. We sought to examine this trend in detail. METHODS We analyzed data from 40,195 patients who had heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and were enrolled in any of 12 clinical trials spanning the period from 1995 through 2014. Patients who had an implantable...... rates of sudden death were assessed at different time points after randomization and according to the length of time between the diagnosis of heart failure and randomization. RESULTS Sudden death was reported in 3583 patients. Such patients were older and were more often male, with an ischemic cause...

  17. Preventing Sudden Death: Cardiovascular Screening of Young Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ades, Philip A.

    1992-01-01

    Efficiently and inexpensively identifying athletes at risk for exercise-related sudden death is difficult. The article discusses types of cardiac disorders and outlines a practical screening method that features a cardiac history questionnaire designed to identify symptomatic athletes and those with a family history of congenital heart disease.…

  18. Sudden cardiac arrest risk in young athletes | Gradidge | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Underlying cardiac abnormalities are the main cause of unexpected death in athletes on field. These abnormalities have been associated with a previous history of syncope, a family history of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA), cardiac murmur, a history of over-exhaustion post exercise and ventricular tachyarrhythmia during ...

  19. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)--standardised investigations and classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajanowski, Thomas; Vege, Ashild; Byard, Roger W

    2007-01-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) still accounts for considerable numbers of unexpected infant deaths in many countries. While numerous theories have been advanced to explain these events, it is increasingly clear that this group of infant deaths results from the complex interaction of a variet...

  20. Social phobia with sudden onset-Post-panic social phobia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ann Suhl; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Mors, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Overlap between social phobia (SP) and panic disorder (PD) has been observed in epidemiological, family, and challenge studies. One possible explanation is that some cases of SP develop as a consequence of a panic attack in a social situation. By definition, these cases of SP have sudden onset...

  1. Detection of sudden death syndrome using a multispectral imaging sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS), caused by the fungus Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines, is a widespread mid- to late-season disease with distinctive foliar symptoms. This paper reported the development of an image analysis based method to detect SDS using a multispectral image sensor. A hue, saturation a...

  2. Systemic Analysis of Sudden Natural Deaths at Braithwaite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    30 Sempos C, Cooper R, Kover MG, McMillen M. Divergence of the recent trends in coronary mortality for the four major race- sex groups in the United States. Am J Public Health. 1988; 78:1422-1427. 31 Murai T, Baba M, Ro A, Murai N, Matsuo Y, Takada A,. Saito K. Sudden death due to cardiovascular disorders: a review ...

  3. Incidence of ventricular arrhythmias, brady-arrhythmias and sudden ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ventricular arrhythmias (VAS), Including ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation (VF) and Brady-arrhythmias, are life-threatening complications of acute myocardial infarction (MI). Objective: To study the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias, brady-arrhythmias and Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD) in Sudanese ...

  4. Myocardial infarction & sudden death in recreational master marathon runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Suzanne Elizabeth; Coviello, Jessica

    2011-02-01

    This review of the current literature on myocardial infarction and sudden death in recreational master marathon runners aims to help raise awareness of the scope of the problem to primary care providers, and to provide guidelines for educating and screening in recreational master marathon runners.

  5. a sudden total loss of vision after routine cataract surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    David Ofori-Adjei

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... June 2013. Volume 47, Number 2. GHANA MEDICAL JOURNAL. 96. A SUDDEN TOTAL LOSS OF VISION AFTER ROUTINE CATARACT. SURGERY. S. LARTEY1, P. ... Cataract surgery has its complications. The most feared ... mm Hg on oral nifedipine 40 mg daily who presented with 6/36 vision in both ...

  6. Data Sharing Report for the Quantification of Removable Activity in Various Surveillance and Maintenance Facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge TN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, David A. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ORNL S&M Project PPE disposal at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF). ORAU executed the approved sampling and analysis plan (SAP) (DOE 2013) while closely coordinating with ORNL S&M Project personnel and using guidelines outlined in the Waste Handling Plan for Surveillance and Maintenance Activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, DOE/OR/01-2565&D2 (WHP) (DOE 2012). WHP guidelines were followed because the PPE waste targeted by this SAP is consistent with that addressed under the approved Waste Lot (WL) 108.1 profile for disposal at EMWMF—this PPE is a “future waste stream” as defined in the WHP. The SAP presents sampling strategy and methodology, sample selection guidelines, and analytical guidelines and requirements necessary for characterizing future ORNL S&M Project PPE waste. This report presents a review of the sample and analysis methods including data quality objectives (DQOs), required deviations from the original design, summary of field activities, radiation measurement data, analytical laboratory results, a brief presentation of results, and process knowledge summaries.

  7. Sudden Hearing Loss with Vertigo Portends Greater Stroke Risk Than Sudden Hearing Loss or Vertigo Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tzu-Pu; Wang, Zheyu; Winnick, Ariel A; Chuang, Hsun-Yang; Urrutia, Victor C; Carey, John P; Newman-Toker, David E

    2017-11-01

    Because it is unknown whether sudden hearing loss (SHL) in acute vertigo is a "benign" sign (reflecting ear disease) or a "dangerous" sign (reflecting stroke), we sought to compare long-term stroke risk among patients with (1) "SHL with vertigo," (2) "SHL alone," and (3) "vertigo alone" using a large national health-care database. Patients with first-incident SHL (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM] 388.2) or vertigo (ICD-9-CM 386.x, 780.4) were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan (2002-2009). We defined SHL with vertigo as a vertigo-related diagnosis ±30 days from the index SHL event. SHL without a temporally proximate vertigo diagnosis was considered SHL alone. The vertigo-alone group had no SHL diagnosis. All the patients were followed up until stroke, death, withdrawal from the database, or current end of the database (December 31, 2012) for a minimum period of 3 years. The hazards of stroke were compared across groups. We studied 218,656 patients (678 SHL with vertigo, 1998 with SHL alone, and 215,980 with vertigo alone). Stroke rates at study end were 5.5% (SHL with vertigo), 3.0% (SHL alone), and 3.9% (vertigo alone). Stroke hazards were higher in SHL with vertigo than in SHL alone (hazard ratio [HR], 1.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-2.91) and in vertigo alone (HR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.18-2.25). Defining a narrower window between SHL and vertigo (±3 days) increased the hazards. The combination of SHL plus vertigo in close temporal proximity is associated with increased subsequent stroke risk over SHL alone and vertigo alone. This suggests that SHL in patients with vertigo is not necessarily a benign peripheral vestibular sign. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Sudden death in traffic due to natural causes (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauland, W

    1978-03-28

    Together with the increase in motorisation sudden death at the wheel by natural causes has also gained more importance although this is not a very frequent occurrence. Scattered reports on such cases in the literature are summarized and discussed with regard to recognition, frequency, age and sex distribution, pathological changes and marginal problems, e. g. diagnostic difficulties, risk and prevention. At the top of the list of the causes of sudden natural death at the wheel are disturbances of the cardiovascular circulation and under this heading the ischemical heart diseases with 83%. The frequency peak lies in the sixties age group and in the case of the ischemical diseases generally in the seventies age group which is an indication that driving is particularly a burden for the circulation. The percentage of women (2.6%) is approx. 10 times less than it is in sudden deaths generally, this obviously being due to the fact that women in advanced years do not drive as often as men. In approx. 50% of cases the sudden natural death takes place when the vehicle is stationary. Serious accidents are seldom. Diagnostic difficulties occur when alcohol has been consumed or when in an accident caused by the sickness the victim is fatally injured or when the question of guilt is not clear. Restrictive measures will not completely prevent sudden death when driving; it is most important that a patient with a history of myocardial infarction or of advanced age should be advised of the dangers of driving by the physician treating him.

  9. A computer case definition for sudden cardiac death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Cecilia P; Murray, Katherine T; Stein, C Michael; Hall, Kathi; Ray, Wayne A

    2010-06-01

    To facilitate studies of medications and sudden cardiac death, we developed and validated a computer case definition for these deaths. The study of community dwelling Tennessee Medicaid enrollees 30-74 years of age utilized a linked database with Medicaid inpatient/outpatient files, state death certificate files, and a state 'all-payers' hospital discharge file. The computerized case definition was developed from a retrospective cohort study of sudden cardiac deaths occurring between 1990 and 1993. Medical records for 926 potential cases had been adjudicated for this study to determine if they met the clinical definition for sudden cardiac death occurring in the community and were likely to be due to ventricular tachyarrhythmias. The computerized case definition included deaths with (1) no evidence of a terminal hospital admission/nursing home stay in any of the data sources; (2) an underlying cause of death code consistent with sudden cardiac death; and (3) no terminal procedures inconsistent with unresuscitated cardiac arrest. This definition was validated in an independent sample of 174 adjudicated deaths occurring between 1994 and 2005. The positive predictive value of the computer case definition was 86.0% in the development sample and 86.8% in the validation sample. The positive predictive value did not vary materially for deaths coded according to the ICO-9 (1994-1998, positive predictive value = 85.1%) or ICD-10 (1999-2005, 87.4%) systems. A computerized Medicaid database, linked with death certificate files and a state hospital discharge database, can be used for a computer case definition of sudden cardiac death. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Sudden death during empiric amiodarone therapy in symptomatic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fananapazir, L; Leon, M B; Bonow, R O; Tracy, C M; Cannon, R O; Epstein, S E

    1991-01-15

    Amiodarone is reported to improve symptoms and to prevent sudden death in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC). Amiodarone treatment (loading dose 30 g given over 6 weeks; maintenance dose 400 mg/day) was prospectively evaluated in 50 patients with HC in whom the drug was initiated because of symptoms refractory to conventional drug therapy (calcium antagonists and beta blockers). Twenty-one (42%) patients had ventricular tachycardia (VT) during Holter monitoring. Amiodarone significantly and often markedly improved the patients' New York Heart Association functional class status (from 3.3 to 2.7 at 2 months, p less than 0.001) and treadmill exercise duration (p less than 0.001). Eight patients, however, died (7 suddenly) during a mean follow-up period of 2.2 +/- 1.8 years. Of the 7 sudden deaths, 6 occurred within 5 months of initiation of treatment. The 6-month and 1- and 2-year survival rates were 87, 85 and 80%, respectively. The survival rate of patients with VT was significantly worse than that of patients without VT (61 vs 97% at 2 years; p less than 0.01). Sudden death occurred despite abolition of VT on Holter monitoring. Amiodarone increased left ventricular peak filling rate by radionuclide angiography in 20 of 33 patients (61%) (p less than 0.01). Decrease in peak left ventricular filling rate within 10 days of amiodarone therapy (8 of 33 patients) was associated with subsequent sudden death (p less than 0.04).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. The most common cause of sudden cardiac death in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topalović Nikola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The positive impact of exercise on cardiovascular health is well known. Athletes, who are constantly physically active, are considered to be the healthiest members of our society. That is why their sudden death, during the training or competition, attracts the attention of the general public. Rarely, tragic events of sudden cardiac death (SCD are the reason for questioning if by many positive there are also negative impact of physical exercise. The first case of SCD is recorded as far back as the year 490 BC, when the Greek soldier Pheidippides died after he conveyed news of the great victory of the Greeks over the Persians. Risk of SCD is recognized in the middle of the twentieth century. In our region, discussion about this issue began after the World Basketball Championship, which was held in Ljubljana in 1970, because of the sudden death of the national team member Trajko Rajkovic. One of the important goals of modern sports medicine is to reduce the risk of SCD in athletes to 'inevitable rarity'. Definition of SCD is considered to be any unexpected death due to sudden cardiac arrest. Pedo (Pedoe has divided all causes of SCD in the sport into three categories: Commotio cordis (agitation of the heart, which results from blunt impact to the athletes chest with consequent fatal disorder of heart rhythm; SCD of athletes under the age of 35 because of structural, congenital and inflammatory heart disease, which includes hypertrophic cardiomyopathy as the most important cause of sudden cardiac death, congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, myocarditis and other; SCD of athletes older than 35 years which is most common due coronary artery disease - atherosclerosis (the dominant risk in the marathon and half-marathon. .

  12. Sudden hearing loss: Our experience in treatment with vasoactive therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živić Ljubica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A specific title "sudden hearing loss" refers to illness which is characterized by a sudden, rapid sensoneural hearing loss mostly in one ear without obvious causes, accompanied with dizziness, and without vestibular symptomatology. It is defined as a hearing loss for more than 30 dB on 3 or more successive frequencies which appear in 72 hours. Objective The main goal of our paper was to estimate success of implementation of vasoactive method in patients with sudden hearing loss of senso-neural type in different ranges in hospital conditions. METHOD Our research covered 37 patients hospitalized because of a sudden hearing loss of sensoneural type in different ranges. Diagnosis, in all patients, was established by clinical ORL examination, audiology and vestibular examination. R including CT and MR, neurological, internist and laboratory examinations were used in order to exclude other aetiology. In monitored patients, we started treatment with vasoactive therapy, ampules of xanthinol nicotinate (one ampule of 2 ml, 300 mg or ampules of pentoxiphylline (one ampule of 5 ml, 100 mg in form of infusions with addition of vitamins with an everyday gradual increase of dosage up to 12 ampules of xanthinol nicotinate and up to 5 ampules of pentoxiphylline. Then we started with an everyday decrease of dosage down to the first one. Results After the complete curing protocol, we found out that in patients with light and medium senso-neural damages of hearing sense (23 or 62%, hearing recovery was complete. In patients with heavy damage of hearing (9 or 24%, partial success was evidenced. The most difficult cases, with complete hearing loss, heavy buzzing and vertiginous problem (5 or 14% responded to therapy, so buzzing and vertiginous problems disappeared but hearing was not improved. Conclusion Usage of vasoactive medicaments in hospital conditions in treatment of sudden hearing loss gives good results and it is the closest to aetiological

  13. Sudden death victims forensic physician and autopsy results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceelen, Manon; van der Werf, Christian; Hendrix, Anneke; Naujocks, Tatjana; Woonink, Frits; de Vries, Philip; van der Wal, Allard; Das, Kees

    2015-08-01

    The goal of this study was to ascertain accordance between cause of death established by the forensic physician and autopsy results in young sudden death victims in the Netherlands. Sudden death victims aged 1-45 years examined by forensic physicians operating in the participating regions which also underwent an autopsy between January 2006 and December 2011 were included (n = 70). Cause of death established by the forensic physician based on the external medicolegal examination was compared with autopsy findings using the ICD10-classification. Autopsy findings revealed that the majority of sudden death victims have died from a cardiac disease (n = 51, 73%). Most of the presumed heart disease related cases were confirmed by autopsy (n = 13, 87%). On the contrary, a large number of deaths caused by circulatory diseases were not recognised by the forensic physician (n = 38, 75%). In most of these cases, the forensic physician was forced to report an undetermined cause due to the lack of a solid explanation for death. Cause of death reported by the forensic physician appeared to be in agreement with the autopsy results in 12 cases (17%). Cause of death determination in young sudden death victims is a difficult task for forensic physicians due to the limited tools available during the medicolegal examination. An effort should be made to standardize extensive post-mortem investigation after sudden death in the young. Autopsy can provide valuable information regarding the cause of death, which is of great importance in view of the identification of inheritable diseases among decedents and their families. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. Fire in eastern oak forests: delivering science to land managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew B., ed. Dickinson

    2006-01-01

    Contains 20 papers and 36 poster abstracts presented at a conference on fire in oak forests of the Eastern United States that was held at the Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, on November 15-17, 2005.

  15. Baskett Slough - Oregon White Oak Restoration- North Butte

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Willamette Valley National Wildlife Refuge Complex (WVNWRC) holds some of the largest and best examples of Oregon white oak habitat remaining in the Valley....

  16. Narrative report Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge: May - August, 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1960. The report begins by summarizing the...

  17. Narrative report Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge: September - December, 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1958. The report begins by...

  18. Narrative report Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge: January - April, 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1962. The report begins by summarizing...

  19. 60 years of great science [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-01-01

    This issue highlights Oak Ridge National Laboratory's contributions in more than 30 areas of research and related activities during the past 60 years and provides glimpses of current activities that are carrying on this heritage.

  20. Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge : Interim Public Access Plan : 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This interim plan covers public access for Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge. Sections include introduction, safety briefing protocols, entry procedure, types of...

  1. Technical Evaluation of Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Kriskovich, J R

    2002-01-01

    Two evaluations of the Oak Ridge Department of Energy (DOE) Filter Test Facility (FTF) were performed on December 11 and 12, 2001, and consisted of a quality assurance and a technical evaluation. This report documents results of the technical evaluation.

  2. Shiitake mushroom production on small diameter oak logs in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.M. Bratkovich

    1991-01-01

    Yields of different strains of shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) were evaluated when produced on small diameter oak logs in Ohio. Logs averaging between 3-4 inches in diameter were inoculated with four spawn strains in 1985.

  3. Red oak borers become sterile when reared under continuous light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimmy R. Galford

    1975-01-01

    Red oak borers, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman), reared under continuous light for 12 weeks became sterile. Sterility is thought to have been caused by light destroying vitamins essential for fertility

  4. The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report Summary, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-02-28

    The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report is prepared and published each year to inform the public of the environmental activities that take place on the reservation and in the surrounding areas. It is written to comply with DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. This document has been prepared to present the highlights of the Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report 2007 in an easy-to-read, summary format.

  5. Development of water oak stump sprouts under a partial overstory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile S. Gardiner; Lisa M. Helmig

    1997-01-01

    A 28-year-old water oak (Quercus nigra L.) plantation was thinned from below to either 254 or 462 stems per hectare to determine the influence of a partial canopy on oak stump sprout development. Sprout clump survival, number of living sprouts in a clump, and height and DBH of the dominant sprout in a clump were measured in years l-5 and 7 after harvest. By year 7,...

  6. Pathways for resilience in Mediterranean cork oak land use systems

    OpenAIRE

    Acácio, Vanda; Holmgren, Milena

    2014-01-01

    International audience; & Context Loss of woodlands and degradation of vegetation and soil have been described for all Mediterranean-type ecosystems worldwide. In the Western Iberian Peninsula, overexploitation of evergreen cork oak land use systems has led to soil erosion, failures in oak recruitment, and loss of forests. Degraded and dry sites are quickly colonised by pioneer heathland rockrose (Cistus spp.) shrubs forming highly persistent patches. & Aims Although traditionally shrublands ...

  7. The pine-oak rusts: How forest tree species connect

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. R. Vogler

    2008-01-01

    The pine-oak rust fungi, which live out their lives as pathogens on pines and oaks, have multiple spore states and complex life cycles. Because they can be severe pathogens of pines, much of what we know about them depends on how damaging they are to management of pine forests for timber, recreation, and ecosystem values. Widely distributed in North America, they are...

  8. Acorn Production Characteristics of Southern Appalachian Oaks: A Simple Method to Predict Within-Year Crop Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Bernard R. Parresol

    2000-01-01

    We examined acorn production from 1993-97 by black oak (Quercus velutina Lam.), northern red oak (Q. rubra L.), scarlet oak (Q. coccinea Muenchh.), chestnut oak (Q. prinus L.), and white oak (Q. alba L.) in the Southern Appalichians to determine how frequency of acorn...

  9. Do chestnut, northern red, and white oak germinant seedlings respond similarly to light treatments? Growth and biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanne Rebbeck; Kurt Gottschalk; Amy. Scherzer

    2011-01-01

    Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedling growth has been extensively studied. White oak (Quercus alba L.) and chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.), however, are far less investigated despite their importance among upland oak species in eastern North American forests. We characterized white and chestnut oak...

  10. Do chestnut, northern red, and white oak germinant seedlings respond similary to light treatments? II. Gas exchange and chlorophyll responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanne Rebbeck; Amy Scherzer; Kurt. Gottschalk

    2012-01-01

    Understanding differences in physiological and growth strategies in low-light environments among upland oak species may help managers address the challenges of oaks' poor regeneration. Gas exchange and chlorophyll content were measured for northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.), and white oak (...

  11. Impact of the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus, on the health of coast live oak before and after treatment with two systemic insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigen Chen; Mary L. Flint; Tom W. Coleman; Joseph J. Doccola; Donald M. Grosman; David L. Wood; Steven J. Seybold

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The invasive goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus, is threatening the health and survival of oak trees in San Diego County, California. From two sites in the core area of the infestation, we report a 2.5 year investigation of the impact of A. auroguttatus on coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia, before and after treatment with two systemic...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: sudden infant death with dysgenesis of the testes syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SIDDT Sudden infant death with dysgenesis of the testes syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... Description Sudden infant death with dysgenesis of the testes syndrome ( SIDDT ) is a rare condition that is ...

  13. Correlations of leaf area with length and width measurements of leaves of black oak, white oak, and sugar maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. Wargo

    1978-01-01

    Correlations of leaf area with length, width, and length times width of leaves of black oak, white oak, and sugar maple were determined to see if length and/or width could be used as accurate estimators of leaf area. The correlation of length times width with leaf area was high (r > + .95) for all three species. The linear equation Y = a + bX, where X = length times...

  14. INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION OF THE CENTRAL CAMPUS AND SOUTHEAST LABORATORY COMPLEX BUILDING SLABS AT OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY, OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Phyllis C.

    2012-07-24

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities/Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORAU/ORISE) has completed the independent verification survey of the Central Campus and Southeast Lab Complex Building Slabs. The results of this effort are provided. The objective of this verification survey was to provide independent review and field assessment of remediation actions conducted by SEC, and to independently assess whether the final radiological condition of the slabs met the release guidelines.

  15. INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION OF THE BUILDING 3550 SLAB AT OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Phyllis C.

    2012-05-08

    The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) has completed the independent verification survey of the Building 3550 Slab. The results of this effort are provided. The objective of this verification survey is to provide independent review and field assessment of remediation actions conducted by Safety and Ecology Corporation (SEC) to document that the final radiological condition of the slab meets the release guidelines. Verification survey activities on the Building 3550 Slab that included scans, measurements, and the collection of smears. Scans for alpha, alpha plus beta, and gamma activity identified several areas that were investigated.

  16. Project plan for the Background Soil Characterization Project on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    The Background Soil characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals, organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the western part of Roane County and the eastern part of Anderson County. The BSCP will establish a database, recommend how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide estimates of the potential human health and environmental risks associated with the background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents.

  17. Data Sharing Report Characterization of Isotope Row Facilities Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge TN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Phyllis C. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-12-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (EM-OR) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, provide technical and independent waste management planning support using funds provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Specifically, DOE EM-OR requested ORAU to plan and implement a survey approach, focused on characterizing the Isotope Row Facilities located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for future determination of an appropriate disposition pathway for building debris and systems, should the buildings be demolished. The characterization effort was designed to identify and quantify radiological and chemical contamination associated with building structures and process systems. The Isotope Row Facilities discussed in this report include Bldgs. 3030, 3031, 3032, 3033, 3033A, 3034, 3036, 3093, and 3118, and are located in the northeast quadrant of the main ORNL campus area, between Hillside and Central Avenues. Construction of the isotope production facilities was initiated in the late 1940s, with the exception of Bldgs. 3033A and 3118, which were enclosed in the early 1960s. The Isotope Row facilities were intended for the purpose of light industrial use for the processing, assemblage, and storage of radionuclides used for a variety of applications (ORNL 1952 and ORAU 2013). The Isotope Row Facilities provided laboratory and support services as part of the Isotopes Production and Distribution Program until 1989 when DOE mandated their shutdown (ORNL 1990). These facilities performed diverse research and developmental experiments in support of isotopes production. As a result of the many years of operations, various projects, and final cessation of operations, production was followed by inclusion into the surveillance and maintenance (S&M) project for eventual decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). The

  18. Genetic investigation of 100 heart genes in sudden unexplained death victims in a forensic setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie Lindgren; Hertz, Christin Løth; Ferrero, Laura

    2016-01-01

    In forensic medicine, one-third of the sudden deaths remain unexplained after medico-legal autopsy. A major proportion of these sudden unexplained deaths (SUD) are considered to be caused by inherited cardiac diseases. Sudden cardiac death (SCD) may be the first manifestation of these diseases...

  19. Short-term Exposure to Microgravity and the Associated Risk of Sudden Cardiac Arrest: Implications for Commercial Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Kevin J. C.; Russamono, Thais

    2013-02-01

    The likelihood of trained astronauts developing a life threatening cardiac event during spaceflight is relatively rare, whilst the incidence in untrained individuals is unknown. Space tourists who live a sedentary lifestyle have reduced cardiovascular function, but the associated danger of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) during a suborbital spaceflight (SOSF) is unclear. Risk during SOSF was examined by reviewing several microgravity studies and methods of determining poor cardiovascular condition. Accurately assessing cardiovascular function and improving baroreceptor sensitivity through exercise is suggested to reduce the incidence of SCA during future SOSFs. Future studies will benefit from past participants sharing medical history; allowing creation of risk profiles and suitable guidelines.

  20. The Brainstem and Serotonin in the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Hannah C.; Richerson, George B.; Dymecki, Susan M.; Darnall, Robert A.; Nattie, Eugene E.

    2012-01-01

    The sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden death of an infant under one year of age that is typically associated with sleep and that remains unexplained after a complete autopsy and death scene investigation. A leading hypothesis about its pathogenesis is that many cases result from defects in brainstem-mediated protective responses to homeostatic stressors occurring during sleep in a critical developmental period. Here we review the evidence for the brainstem hypothesis in SIDS with a focus upon abnormalities related to the neurotransmitter serotonin in the medulla oblongata, as these are the most robust pathologic findings to date. In this context, we synthesize the human autopsy data with genetic, whole-animal, and cellular data concerning the function and development of the medullary serotonergic system. These emerging data suggest an important underlying mechanism in SIDS that may help lead to identification of infants at risk and specific interventions to prevent death. PMID:19400695

  1. Sudden cardiac death and coronary disease in the young

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariasardóttir, Sára; Risgaard, Bjarke; Ågesen, Frederik Nybye

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sudden cardiac death caused by coronary artery disease (CAD-SCD) is the most frequent cause of SCD in persons ... have previously identified all sudden cardiac deaths in Denmark through review of death certificates and autopsy reports including all deaths between 2000 and 2006 in individuals aged 18-35years and all deaths between 2007 and 2009 in individuals aged 18-49years. In this study we included the 197...... to death. CONCLUSION: This nationwide study found several differences in the pathologic lesions of the heart in victims aged 18-35 and 36-49years, which might be associated with different disease progression leading to death in these age groups. We also report a high frequency of cardiac symptoms prior...

  2. Left ventricular cardiac myxoma and sudden death in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nijs, Maria Irene; Vink, Aryan; Bergmann, Wilhelmina; Szatmári, Viktor

    2016-06-22

    Myxoma is a very rare benign cardiac tumor in dogs. This is the first description of a cardiac myxoma originating from the left ventricular outflow tract, presumably causing sudden death. A previously healthy 12-year-old male West Highland white terrier was found dead during its 1-week stay in a kennel. The dog was known to have a cardiac murmur. On necropsy, a pedunculated neoplasia was found attached to the interventricular aspect of the left ventricular outflow tract, resulting in almost complete obstruction of the aorta. As this was the only abnormality identified, the tumor was considered as the cause of sudden death. Histopathologic findings were compatible with a myxoma. Benign intraluminal tumors of the heart are very rare in dogs, but may have fatal consequences. Echocardiography could have revealed the cause of the cardiac murmur of this previously asymptomatic dog. Surgical removal could have been possible, as the tumor was pedunculated.

  3. Sudden infant death syndrome: an unrecognized killer in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndu IK

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ikenna Kingsley Ndu Department of Paediatrics, Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria Abstract: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS is defined as the sudden unexpected death of an infant <1 year of age, with onset of the fatal episode apparently occurring during sleep, that remains unexplained after a thorough investigation including performance of a complete autopsy and review of the circumstances of death and the clinical history. SIDS contributes to infant mortality and resulted in ~15,000 deaths globally in 2013. Most of the risk factors of SIDS are common in developing countries; yet, there has been little interest in SIDS by researchers in Africa. This review looks at the extent of the attention given to SIDS in a developing country like Nigeria, and factors responsible for the scarce data concerning this significant cause of mortality. Keywords: SIDS, mortality, Nigeria

  4. Sudden change of geometric quantum discord in finite temperature reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Ming-Liang, E-mail: mingliang0301@163.com; Sun, Jian

    2015-03-15

    We investigate sudden change (SC) behaviors of the distance-based measures of geometric quantum discords (GQDs) for two non-interacting qubits subject to the two-sided and the one-sided thermal reservoirs. We found that the GQDs defined by different distances exhibit different SCs, and thus the SCs are the combined result of the chosen discord measure and the property of a state. We also found that the thermal reservoir may generate states having different orderings related to different GQDs. These inherent differences of the GQDs reveal that they are incompatible in characterizing quantum correlations both quantitatively and qualitatively. - Highlights: • Comparable study of different distance-based geometric quantum discords. • Evolution of the geometric quantum discords in finite temperature reservoirs. • Different geometric quantum discords exhibit distinct sudden changes. • Nonunique states ordering imposed by different geometric quantum discords.

  5. Sudden death in a young patient with atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Tamargo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death (SCD in young patients without structural heart disease is frequently due to inherited channelopathies such as long QT syndrome (LQTS, Brugada syndrome or Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. Accordingly, the addition of genetic testing to clinical data may be useful to identify the cause of the sudden death in this population. Mutations in the KCNQ1 encoded Kv7.1 channel are related to type 1 LQTS, familial atrial fibrillation (AF, short QT syndrome, and SCD. We present a clinical case where the presence of AF after resuscitation in a young man with cardiac arrest was the key clinical data to suspect an inherited disorder and genetic testing was the main determinant for identifying the cause of the cardiac arrest. The KCNQ1 p.Arg231His mutation explained the combined phenotype of AF and susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias. The case highlights the importance of continued research in genetics and molecular mechanisms of channelopathies.

  6. The most significant fungi: Agents of wood decay in oak forests of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijašević Tanja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The most widely distributed oak species in Serbia are Q. petrea (sessile oak, Q. cerris (Turkey oak and Q. frainetto (Hungarian oak and Quercus robur (common oak, and lignicolous fungi are the major agents of wood decay in natural and coppice oak forests. In this research, 33 species of fungi were identified. Eleven species were described, among which the most significant are: Armillaria mellea, Fomes fomentarius, Hypoxylon deustum Laetiporus sulphureus, Lenzites quercina and Phellinus robustus. This paper presents the morphological characteristics of the most significant identified fungi, their distribution, host plants and significance.

  7. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, A.R. (ed.)

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information to the public about the impact of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) facilities located on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) on the public and the environment. It describes the environmental surveillance and monitoring activities conducted at and around the DOE facilities operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Preparation and publication of this report is in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1. The order specifies a publication deadline of June of the following year for each calendar year of data. The primary objective of this report is to summarize all information collected for the previous calendar year regarding effluent monitoring, environmental surveillance, and estimates of radiation and chemical dose to the surrounding population. When multiple years of information are available for a program, trends are also evaluated. The first seven sections of Volume 1 of this report address this objective. The last three sections of Volume 1 provide information on solid waste management, special environmental studies, and quality assurance programs.

  8. Aetiology of sudden cardiac death in sport: a histopathologist's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Mary N

    2012-11-01

    In the UK, when a young person dies suddenly, the coroner is responsible for establishing the cause of death. They will ask a consultant pathologist to carry out an autopsy in order to ascertain when, where and how that person died. Once the cause of death is established and is due to natural causes, the coroner can issue a death certificate. Importantly, the coroner is not particularly interested in the cause of death as long as it is due to natural causes, which avoids the need for an inquest (a public hearing about the death). However, if no identifiable cause is established at the initial autopsy, the coroner can refer the heart to a cardiac pathologist, since the cause of death is usually due to heart disease in most cases. Consultant histopathologists are responsible for the analysis of human tissue from both living individuals and the dead in order to make a diagnosis of disease. With recent advancements in the management protocols for routine autopsy practice and assessment following the sudden death of a young individual, this review describes the role of the consultant histopathologist in the event of a sudden death of a young athletic individual, together with the older middle-aged 'weekend warrior' athlete. It provides concise mechanisms for the main causes of sudden cardiac death (including coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathies, valve abnormalities, major vessel ruptures and electrical conduction abnormalities) based on detailed autopsy data from our specialised cardiac pathology laboratory. Finally, the review will discuss the role of the histopathologist in the event of a 'negative' autopsy.

  9. Melatonin concentrations in the sudden infant death syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturner, W. Q.; Lynch, H. J.; Deng, M. H.; Gleason, R. E.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    The melatonin levels in various body fluids of the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) infants are compared with those of infants of comparable age who died of other causes to examine a possible relationship between pineal function and SIDS. After adjusting for age differences, cerebrospinal fluid melatonin levels are found to be significantly lower in the SIDS infants. It is suggested that diminished melatonin production may be characteristic of SIDS and could represent an impairment in the maturation of physiologic circadian organization.

  10. Sudden Onset Abdominal Pain in A 42yo Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-16

    MURRAY FROM: 59 MDW/SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approval 15MAR2017 1. Your paper, entitled Sudden Onset Abdominal Pain in A 42yo Male...papers, posters. etc .• should contain the following disclaimer statement for research involving animals . as required by AFMAN 40-401 IP: " The e...Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and the Animal Welfare Act of 1966, as amended." 59 MOW FORM 3039, 20160628 Prescribed by 59 MDWI 41 -108

  11. When, catastrophe happens. Assessment and intervention after sudden traumatic death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRanieri, Joseph T; Clements, Paul T; Henry, Gloria C

    2002-04-01

    The goals of grief after sudden traumatic death is to acknowledge the loss, identify the changes the loss will have in the co-victim's life, and reinvest in life within the new structure. Although these goals seem simple, there is no definitive timeline for when these tasks will be engaged and completed by each of the family members. The pathway and time frame for each co-victim may differ.

  12. [Sudden cervical hematoma after hypertensive crisis. Report of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino Rivero, V; Pantoja Hernández, C G; González Palomino, A; Pardo Romero, G; Trinidad Ramos, G; Montero García, C; Blasco Huelva, A

    2006-01-01

    We report the case ofa 61 years old woman with multiple pathologies: HTA, diabetes, relapsing polychondritis, hypercholesterolemia, iatrogenic Cushing, cardiopathy, cystic fibrosis, etc. She began, an increment of TA (220/130 mm Hg) or hypertensive crisis, with a sudden left cervical hematoma located on the carotid bifurcation according to CT imaging. We oractice an arteriography that was informed as normal and the patient was admitted and controlled of an ORL as Vascular Surgeon. The bleeding stop spontaneously we treat the patient conservativity.

  13. Munchausen Syndrome: A Case with Presenting Sudden Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Ozturk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Munchausen syndrome is a psychiatric disorder that patients direct professionals with plausible, feigned, factitious symptoms. It%u2019s uncommon in otolaryngology clinics. We present a patient, complaint with sudden hearing loss and vertigo, and who underwent additional medical and invasive treatment in this paper. Patients with Munchausen syndrome allow invasive medical care easily, and they can be very convincing. It has to be diagnosed and kept in mind because of avoiding from unnecessary treatment.

  14. Observations of Stratospheric Sudden Warmings in Earth Rotation Variations

    OpenAIRE

    Neef, Lisa Johanna; Walther, Sophia; Matthes, Katja; Kodera, Kunihiko

    2014-01-01

    Stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs) are extreme events in the polar stratosphere that are both caused by and have effects on the tropospheric flow. This means that SSWs are associated with changes in the angular momentum of the atmosphere, both before and after their onset. Because these angular momentum changes are transferred to the solid Earth, they can be observed in the rate of the Earth's rotation and the wobble of its rotational pole. By comparing observed Earth rotation variations to...

  15. Wave vector modification of the infinite order sudden approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Judith Grobe; Bowman, Joel M.

    1980-10-01

    A simple method is proposed to modify the infinite order sudden approximation (IOS) in order to extend its region of quantitative validity. The method involves modifying the phase of the IOS scattering matrix to include a part calculated at the outgoing relative kinetic energy as well as a part calculated at the incoming kinetic energy. An immediate advantage of this modification is that the resulting S matrix is symmetric. We also present a closely related method in which the relative kinetic energies used in the calculation of the phase are determined from quasiclassical trajectory calculations. A set of trajectories is run with the initial state being the incoming state, and another set is run with the initial state being the outgoing state, and the average final relative kinetic energy of each set is obtained. One part of the S-operator phase is then calculated at each of these kinetic energies. We apply these methods to vibrationally inelastic collinear collisions of an atom and a harmonic oscillator, and calculate transition probabilities Pn1→nf for three model systems. For systems which are sudden, or nearly so, the agreement with exact quantum close-coupling calculations is substantially improved over standard IOS ones when Δn=‖nf-ni‖ is large, and the corresponding transition probability is small, i.e., less than 0.1. However, the modifications we propose will not improve the accuracy of the IOS transition probabilities for any collisional system unless the standard form of IOS already gives at least qualitative agreement with exact quantal calculations. We also suggest comparisons between some classical quantities and sudden predictions which should help in determining the validity of the sudden approximation. This is useful when exact quantal data is not available for comparison.

  16. Underestimation of sudden deaths among patients with seizures and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinsky, Orrin; Friedman, Daniel; Cheng, Jocelyn Y; Moffatt, Ellen; Kim, Anthony; Tseng, Zian H

    2017-08-29

    To determine the definite and potential frequency of seizures and epilepsy as a cause of death (COD) and how often this goes unrecognized. Prospective determination of seizures or epilepsy and final COD for individuals aged 18-90 years with out-of-hospital sudden cardiac deaths (SCDs) from the population-based San Francisco POST SCD Study. We compared prospective seizure or epilepsy diagnosis and final COD as adjudicated by a multidisciplinary committee (pathologists, electrophysiologists, and a vascular neurologist) vs retrospective adjudication by 2 epileptologists with expertise in seizure-related mortality. Of 541 SCDs identified during the 37-month study period (mean age 62.8 years, 69% men), 525 (97%) were autopsied; 39/525 (7.4%) had seizures or epilepsy (mean age: 58 years, range: 27-92; 67% men), comprising 17% of 231 nonarrhythmic sudden deaths. The multidisciplinary team identified 15 cases of epilepsy, 6 sudden unexpected deaths in epilepsy (SUDEPs), and no deaths related to acute symptomatic seizures. The epileptologists identified 25 cases of epilepsy and 8 definite SUDEPs, 10 possible SUDEPs, and 5 potential cases of acute symptomatic seizures as a COD. Among the 25 patients identified with epilepsy by the epileptologists, they found definite or possible SUDEP in 72% (18/25) vs 24% (6/25) by the multidisciplinary group (6/15 cases they identified with epilepsy). The epileptologists identified acute symptomatic seizures as a potential COD in 5/14 patients with alcohol-related seizures. Epilepsy is underdiagnosed among decedents. Among patients with seizures and epilepsy who die suddenly, seizures and SUDEP often go unrecognized as a potential or definite COD. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  17. Adult sudden death caused by aspiration of chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njau, S N

    2004-01-28

    A case of a fatal foreign material aspiration is presented in the following text. A 24-year-old white male died suddenly. A piece of chewing gum lodged in a pool of frothy fluid was revealed at autopsy. Microscopic examinations revealed atelectasia emphysema, eosinophilic exudate and empty spaces. Blood and urine samples were analyzed, for alcohol and drug use by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) on an Abbott AXSYM system. No alcohol or other drugs were detected in blood or urine.

  18. Giant left anterior descending artery aneurysm resulting in sudden death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Hee Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery aneurysm is a rare congenital or vascular inflammation-based anomaly for which the clinical course and optimal timing of treatment remain unclear. Here, we report a case of sudden death caused by a giant coronary artery aneurysm of the left anterior descending artery that presented with chest pain. This case suggests that urgent interventional or surgical repair is needed when a large coronary aneurysm presents with acute ischemic symptoms.

  19. Serum Magnesium and Sudden Death in European Hemodialysis Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camiel L M de Roij van Zuijdewijn

    Full Text Available Despite suggestions that higher serum magnesium (Mg levels are associated with improved outcome, the association with mortality in European hemodialysis (HD patients has only scarcely been investigated. Furthermore, data on the association between serum Mg and sudden death in this patient group is limited. Therefore, we evaluated Mg in a post-hoc analysis using pooled data from the CONvective TRAnsport STudy (CONTRAST, NCT00205556, a randomized controlled trial (RCT evaluating the survival risk in dialysis patients on hemodiafiltration (HDF compared to HD with a mean follow-up of 3.1 years. Serum Mg was measured at baseline and 6, 12, 24 and 36 months thereafter. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for confounders using inverse probability weighting, were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs of baseline serum Mg on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, non-cardiovascular mortality and sudden death. A generalized linear mixed model was used to investigate Mg levels over time. Out of 714 randomized patients, a representative subset of 365 (51% were analyzed in the present study. For every increase in baseline serum Mg of 0.1 mmol/L, the HR for all-cause mortality was 0.85 (95% CI 0.77-94, the HR for cardiovascular mortality 0.73 (95% CI 0.62-0.85 and for sudden death 0.76 (95% CI 0.62-0.93. These findings did not alter after extensive correction for potential confounders, including treatment modality. Importantly, no interaction was found between serum phosphate and serum Mg. Baseline serum Mg was not related to non-cardiovascular mortality. Mg decreased slightly but statistically significant over time (Δ -0.011 mmol/L/year, 95% CI -0.017 to -0.009, p = 0.03. In short, serum Mg has a strong, independent association with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and sudden death in European HD patients. Serum Mg levels decrease slightly over time.

  20. Sudden Unexpected Infant Deaths: Sleep Environment and Circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Patricia G.; Covington, Theresa M.; Dykstra, Heather K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to describe the characteristics and sleep circumstances of infants who die suddenly and unexpectedly and to examine similarities and differences in risk factors among infants whose deaths are classified as resulting from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), suffocation, or undetermined causes. Methods. We used 2005 to 2008 data from 9 US states to assess 3136 sleep-related sudden unexpected infant deaths (SUIDs). Results. Only 25% of infants were sleeping in a crib or on their back when found; 70% were on a surface not intended for infant sleep (e.g., adult bed). Importantly, 64% of infants were sharing a sleep surface, and almost half of these infants were sleeping with an adult. Infants whose deaths were classified as suffocation or undetermined cause were significantly more likely than were infants whose deaths were classified as SIDS to be found on a surface not intended for infant sleep and to be sharing that sleep surface. Conclusions. We identified modifiable sleep environment risk factors in a large proportion of the SUIDs assessed in this study. Our results make an important contribution to the mounting evidence that sleep environment hazards contribute to SUIDs. PMID:22515860

  1. Long QT syndrome and sudden unexpected infant death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Niekerk, Chantal; Van Deventer, Barbara Ströh; du Toit-Prinsloo, Lorraine

    2017-09-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is an inheritable primary electric disease of the heart characterised by abnormally long QT intervals and a propensity to develop atrial and ventricular tachyarrhythmias. It is caused by an inherited channelopathy responsible for sudden cardiac death in individuals with structurally normal hearts. Long QT syndrome can present early in life, and some studies suggest that it may be associated with up to 20% of sudden unexplained infant death (SUID), particularly when associated with external stressors such as asphyxia, which is commonly seen in many infant death scenes. With an understanding of the genetic defects, it has now been possible to retrospectively analyse samples from infants who have presented to forensic pathology services with a history of unexplained sudden death, which may, in turn, enable the implementation of preventative treatment for siblings previously not known to have pathogenic genetic variations. In this viewpoint article, we will discuss SUID, LQTS and postmortem genetic analysis. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Antiarrhythmic and nonantiarrhythmic drugs for sudden cardiac death prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Mithilesh K; Zipes, Douglas P

    2010-05-01

    Life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias such as sustained ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation are responsible for two thirds of sudden cardiac deaths annually in the United States. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy prevents mortality from arrhythmic death but is expensive and has some associated morbidity from proarrhythmia and mechanical malfunction. Furthermore, ICDs treat ventricular arrhythmias but do not prevent them. Antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) can be used for acute or chronic therapy to prevent ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac deaths. AADS are often used in patients with an ICD who have recurrent ICD shocks resulting from ventricular arrhythmias. Class I AADs are contraindicated in patients with structural heart disease. Other than amiodarone, all Class III drugs have either a neutral or deleterious effect on mortality. Dronedarone, a new Class III drug, may reduce mortality, but more information is needed to be sure. A class of drugs that do not qualify as an AAD can modify cardiovascular remodeling processes and have a delayed and indirect antiarrhythmic effect. These so-called "nonantiarrhythmic drugs" such as drugs acting on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, fish oil, and statins can reduce the likelihood of future ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation in patients with coronary artery disease or congestive heart failure. The role of AADs for chronic therapy for primary and secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death is problematic because of proarrhythmia and adverse side effects. Because these nonantiarrhythmic drugs are well tolerated and have no proarrhythmic actions, their benefits should outweigh risks.

  3. Cardiac Channelopathies and Sudden Death: Recent Clinical and Genetic Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Falgueras, Anna; Sarquella-Brugada, Georgia; Brugada, Josep; Brugada, Ramon; Campuzano, Oscar

    2017-01-29

    Sudden cardiac death poses a unique challenge to clinicians because it may be the only symptom of an inherited heart condition. Indeed, inherited heart diseases can cause sudden cardiac death in older and younger individuals. Two groups of familial diseases are responsible for sudden cardiac death: cardiomyopathies (mainly hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy) and channelopathies (mainly long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, short QT syndrome, and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia). This review focuses on cardiac channelopathies, which are characterized by lethal arrhythmias in the structurally normal heart, incomplete penetrance, and variable expressivity. Arrhythmias in these diseases result from pathogenic variants in genes encoding cardiac ion channels or associated proteins. Due to a lack of gross structural changes in the heart, channelopathies are often considered as potential causes of death in otherwise unexplained forensic autopsies. The asymptomatic nature of channelopathies is cause for concern in family members who may be carrying genetic risk factors, making the identification of these genetic factors of significant clinical importance.

  4. Cold snaps, snowfall and sudden death from ischemic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T W; Rochard, C

    1979-12-22

    The short-term effect of low temperature on the incidence of ischemic heart disease over a 15-year period was examined. To reduce confounding by other seasonal factors the analysis was restricted to the winter months and was based on the change in the daily rate of sudden death at the time of cold snaps (arbitrarily defined as days on which the mean temperature was at least 4.4 degrees C lower than the day before) and around the time of heavy snowfalls. A statistically significant increase in the daily rate of sudden death at the time of cold snaps occurred only in men under 65 years of age, and even in this group the effect was of relatively small magnitude (+16%) compared with the large change in rate following heavy snowfalls (+88%). Among persons aged 65 years or over cold snaps had virtually no effect, and only the men in this group showed an increased daily rate of sudden death following a snowfall. These results suggest that much of the increased frequency of death from ischemic heart disease in winter, particularly among the elderly, must be due to factors other than short-term cold stress.

  5. Cardiac screening to prevent sudden death in young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmehil, Christopher; Malhotra, Devika; Patel, Dilip R

    2017-07-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a sudden and unexpected death caused by loss of heart of function. SCD may occur in any population, but when it occurs on the playing field in a young individual, communities worldwide are affected. Although these events are rare, media coverage of sudden cardiac arrests in young athletes have created the impression that these events are far more common than they appear. With a heightened awareness of SCD in young athletes, screening methods have been developed to try and prevent these events from occurring. The American Heart Associations (AHA) currently employs history and physical examination alone during the preparticipation physical exam (PPE), which clears a young athlete for participation in sports. There has been recent discussion on whether to include screening electrocardiogram (ECG) in the PPE especially after one study in Italy by Corrado et al. found that using routine ECG reduced the annual incidence of SCD by 90%. In this article we will discuss how effective the current screening recommendations are, whether routine ECG use should be included in the PPE and if it is cost effective, and review other screening modalities that may be useful in the detection of young athletes at risk for SCD.

  6. [Multicenter trial for sudden hearing loss therapy - planning and concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plontke, S K; Girndt, M; Meisner, C; Probst, R; Oerlecke, I; Richter, M; Steighardt, J; Dreier, G; Weber, A; Baumann, I; Plößl, S; Löhler, J; Laszig, R; Werner, J A; Rahne, T

    2016-04-01

    Systemic steroids are widely used worldwide as a standard of care for primary therapy of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL). The German ISSHL guideline recommends high-dose steroids for primary therapy of ISSHL, without evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The rationale for the treatment of ISSHL using high dose steroids is only based on retrospective cohort studies.This article describes the planning and initiation of a multicenter, national, randomized, controlled clinical trial entitled Efficacy and safety of high dose glucocorticosteroid treatment for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss - a three-armed, randomized, triple-blind, multicenter trial (HODOKORT). This clinical trial aims to compare standard dose with two types of high-dose steroids for primary systemic therapy with respect to their efficacy in improving hearing, and thus communication ability, in patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.This study is funded by the "Clinical Trials with High Patient Relevance" research program in the health research framework of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. It is one of two studies by the German Study Center of Clinical Trials of the German Society of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery (DSZ-HNO). Planning and initiation was done in cooperation with the DSZ-HNO, the Coordination Center of Clinical Trials of the Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, and the Study Center of the University Hospital Freiburg.

  7. Predicting and preventing sudden death from cardiac causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, J K; Jalal, S; Naccarelli, G V

    1994-08-01

    Sudden cardiac death usually occurs secondary to a ventricular tachyarrhythmia. Even under ideal circumstances only 20% of patients who have an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survive to hospital discharge. Therefore, aggressive treatment and screening of high-risk patients are mandatory to improve survival rates. Risk stratification of high-risk patients, such as the post-myocardial infarction (MI) population, has been of limited value. Between 70% and 85% of "high-risk" post-MI patients, as defined by these screening tests, will not have a sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmia over several years of follow-up. The use of beta-blockers and possibly amiodarone may have some benefit in reducing mortality in high-risk patients after an MI. Several ongoing trials are studying the use of serial drug testing, amiodarone, and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in reducing the incidence of sudden cardiac death in patients with potentially lethal ventricular arrhythmias. Although implantable cardioverter-defibrillators appear to be superior to antiarrhythmic drugs in reducing sudden cardiac death, total mortality may not be altered. In sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias, sotalol and amiodarone appear to be superior to other drugs in preventing arrhythmia recurrence. Ongoing trials, such as the Antiarrhythmic Drug versus Implantable Device (AVID) trial may define the best strategy in these high-risk patients.

  8. Research on a Sudden Explosion and its Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Maosheng; Ma, Hui; Ni, Qingwei

    2017-12-01

    A sudden blast was chosen as the studied topic. Also, one computer based virtual experimentation was used to estimate the dimensional impact of initial pollutant plume from blasts. Self-made method using Mathcad code was used to generate the output for the period of the first tenth of a second (1deci-second) to 1minute (60s) of the blast at the point source. It also depicted long-range air pollution travel within the first 1 to 10 minutes. In the case study, it assumed an average directional diffusivity of 1720 m2s-1 which is about 25 per cent of the average generated speed of common explosives. The newly developed model revealed a plume cloud impact of 6.8×107µgm-3 in the first 1millisecond (0.01s) which decayed suddenly to a value of 1.7×107µgm-3 in the first 1decisecond (0.1s). The impact concentration at the point source by the end of the first second (1.0s) was 3.2×105µgm-3 which implied a 99.5% sudden decay when compared to 0.01s concentration value at the emission point source. Computerized experiments observed that air pollutants release from explosives/blasts were dispersed into the atmosphere in the first few seconds by forceful injection instead of by gradual dispersion as is the case with normal air pollutants plume releases.

  9. Magnesium in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and sudden death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R B; Singh, V P; Cameron, E A

    1981-01-01

    Magnesium ions are important for maintaining the functional and structural integrity of the myocardium. Epidemiologic studies suggest that myocardial hypomagnecytia can predispose to sudden cardiac death and that hard water protective factor preventing heart attack could be magnesium. Recent studies show that infarcted portion of the myocardium has lowered magnesium content as compared to noninfarcted segment. Magnesium deficiency sensitises the myocardium to the toxic effect of various drugs, hypoxia etc. and magnesium administration is protective. The metabolic, biochemical and electrophysiologic effects of magnesium appear to be significant in treatment of myocardial ischaemia. Magnesium is a metal-coenzyme and activates adenosine-triphosphatase which may be inhibited by nonglucose fuels like lactate and free fatty acids. Magnesium deficiency may be responsible for the chronic electrical instability of the myocardium predisposing to sudden cardiac death. The acute precipitating stress dependent trigger which lie in the brain may also be related to magnesium. In addition to fast Na and Ca channels there could be a Mg-carrying transport system maintaining the electrical activity of the myocardium. There is sufficient evidence to suggest the use of magnesium salts against ischaemic heart disease and sudden cardiac death. Magnesium is cardioprotective and influences action potential duration, membrane potential and perhaps maintains the fast response. The therapeutic and prophylactic value of magnesium needs further assessment.

  10. Characterization plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Area-Wide Groundwater Program, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This characterization plan has been developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) investigation of the Groundwater Operable Unit (GWOU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first iteration of the characterization plan is intended to serve as a strategy document to guide subsequent GWOU remedial investigations. The plan provides a rationale and organization for groundwater data acquisition, monitoring, and remedial actions to be performed during implementation of environmental restoration activities associated with the ORNL GWOU. It is important to note that the characterization plan for the ORNL GWOU is not a prototypical work plan. As such, remedial investigations will be conducted using annual work plans to manage the work activities, and task reports will be used to document the results of the investigations. Sampling and analysis results will be compiled and reported annually with a review of data relative to risk (screening level risk assessment review) for groundwater. This characterization plan outlines the overall strategy for the remedial investigations and defines tasks that are to be conducted during the initial phase of investigation. This plan is presented with the understanding that more specific addenda to the plan will follow.

  11. Effects of declining oak vitality on ecosystem functions: Lessons from a Spanish oak woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sánchez, Aida; Bareth, Georg; Bolten, Andreas; Linstädter, Anja

    2017-04-01

    Mediterranean oak woodlands have a great ecological and socio-economic importance. Today, these fragile ecosystems are facing unprecedented degradation threats from Novel Oak Diseases (NODs). Among NOD drivers, maladapted land management practices and climate change are most important. Although it is generally believed that NOD-related declines in tree vitality will have detrimental effects on ecosystem functions, little is known on the magnitude of change, and whether different functions are affected in a similar way. Here we analyzed effects of tree vitality on various ecosystem functions, comparing subcanopy and intercanopy habitats across two oak species (Quercus ilex and Q. suber) in a Spanish oak woodland. We asked how functions - including aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), taxonomic diversity, and litter decomposition rates - were affected by oak trees' size and vitality. We also combined measurements in the ecosystem function habitat index (MEFHI), a proxy of ecosystem multifunctionality. Field research was carried out in 2016 on a dehesa in southern Spain. We used a stratified random sampling to contrast trees of different species affiliation, size and vitality. Tree vitality was estimated as crown density (assessed via hemispherical photography), and as tree vigor, which combines the grade of canopy defoliation with proxies for tree size (dbh, height, crown height and crown radius). For each tree (n = 34), two plots (50 x 50 cm) were located; one in the subcanopy habitat, and the other in the intercanopy area beyond the tree crown's influence. On all 68 plots, moveable cages were placed during the main growth period (March to May) to estimate ANPP under grazed conditions. Litter decomposition rates were assessed via the tea bag index. ANPP and the biomass of grasses, forbs and legumes were recorded via destructive sampling. To take plots' highly variable environmental conditions into account, we recorded a suite of abiotic and biotic

  12. White Oak Creek Watershed: Melton Valley Area Remedial Investigation Report, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Volume 3 Appendix C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This report provides details on the baseline ecological risk assessment conducted in support of the Remedial Investigation (RI) Report for the Melton Valley areas of the White Oak Creek watershed (WOCW). The RI presents an analysis meant to enable the US Department of Energy (DOE) to pursue a series of remedial actions resulting in site cleanup and stabilization. The ecological risk assessment builds off of the WOCW screening ecological risk assessment. All information available for contaminated sites under the jurisdiction of the US Department of Energy`s Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Federal Facilities Agreement within the White Oak Creek (WOC) RI area has been used to identify areas of potential concern with respect to the presence of contamination posing a potential risk to ecological receptors within the Melton Valley area of the White Oak Creek watershed. The risk assessment report evaluates the potential risks to receptors within each subbasin of the watershed as well as at a watershed-wide scale. The WOC system has been exposed to contaminant releases from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and associated operations since 1943 and continues to receive contaminants from adjacent waste area groupings.

  13. [The evaluating time of curative effect on sudden deafness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangyun; Jiang, Wen; Mao, Kunhua; Chen, Qiong

    2012-04-01

    To explore the best evaluating time of curative effect on sudden deafness so that the curative effect on sudden deafness can been evaluated more exactly and literally. Pure tone audiometries in 112 cases of sudden deafness were performed on the pretreatment day and on the third, seventh, fourteenth post-treatment day, and in the first, second, third, fourth post-treatment month. All of acoustical data were analyzed. The total effective rates were statistical different between the third, seventh post-treatment day and the fourteenth post-treatment day, the first, second, third, fourth post-treatment month. There were no statistical difference between the fourteenth post-treatment day and the first post-treatment month. There were statistical difference between the fourteenth post-treatment day and the second, third, fourth post-treatment month. The total effective rates were no statistical difference between the first and the second, third, fourth post-treatment month but it was fluctuated in the first post-treatment month. The total effective rates were no statistical difference between the second and the third, fourth post-treatment month and it was changeless on the second post-treatment month. From the curve of recruitment of hearing in different time, the curve of the total effective rates ascend from the third post-treatment day, then get to plateau from the second post-treatment month. If the cure rates, the efficiency rates, the effective rates in different time were analyzed, respectively, the hearing improvement ascend in first two weeks then. Hearing improvement get to plateau from fourteenth post-treatment day. (1) The evaluated results of curative effect to sudden deafness correlated vary in different time point post-treatment. (2) Prognosis can be predicted approximately 2 weeks after treatment. Patients who recover acoustic sensibility within 2 weeks have more significant improvement than the patients who hearing improvement after 2 weeks treatment

  14. Transcriptome analysis in oak uncovers a strong impact of endogenous rhythmic growth on the interaction with plant-parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maboreke, Hazel R; Feldhahn, Lasse; Bönn, Markus; Tarkka, Mika T; Buscot, Francois; Herrmann, Sylvie; Menzel, Ralph; Ruess, Liliane

    2016-08-12

    Pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.), an important forest tree in temperate ecosystems, displays an endogenous rhythmic growth pattern, characterized by alternating shoot and root growth flushes paralleled by oscillations in carbon allocation to below- and aboveground tissues. However, these common plant traits so far have largely been neglected as a determining factor for the outcome of plant biotic interactions. This study investigates the response of oak to migratory root-parasitic nematodes in relation to rhythmic growth, and how this plant-nematode interaction is modulated by an ectomycorrhizal symbiont. Oaks roots were inoculated with the nematode Pratylenchus penetrans solely and in combination with the fungus Piloderma croceum, and the systemic impact on oak plants was assessed by RNA transcriptomic profiles in leaves. The response of oaks to the plant-parasitic nematode was strongest during shoot flush, with a 16-fold increase in the number of differentially expressed genes as compared to root flush. Multi-layered defence mechanisms were induced at shoot flush, comprising upregulation of reactive oxygen species formation, hormone signalling (e.g. jasmonic acid synthesis), and proteins involved in the shikimate pathway. In contrast during root flush production of glycerolipids involved in signalling cascades was repressed, suggesting that P. penetrans actively suppressed host defence. With the presence of the mycorrhizal symbiont, the gene expression pattern was vice versa with a distinctly stronger effect of P. penetrans at root flush, including attenuated defence, cell and carbon metabolism, likely a response to the enhanced carbon sink strength in roots induced by the presence of both, nematode and fungus. Meanwhile at shoot flush, when nutrients are retained in aboveground tissue, oak defence reactions, such as altered photosynthesis and sugar pathways, diminished. The results highlight that gene response patterns of plants to biotic interactions, both

  15. Interspecific gene flow and maintenance of species integrity in oaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Gailing

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oak species show a wide variation in morphological and physiological characters, and species boundaries between closely related species are often not clear-cut. Still, despite frequent interspecific gene flow, oaks maintain distinct morphological and physiological adaptations. In sympatric stands, spatial distribution of species with different ecological requirements is not random but constrained by soil and other microenvironmental factors. Pre-zygotic isolation (e.g. cross incompatibilities, asynchrony in flowering, pollen competition and post-zygotic isolation (divergent selection contribute to the maintenance of species integrity in sympatric oak stands. The antagonistic effects of interspecific gene flow and divergent selection are reflected in the low genetic differentiation between hybridizing oak species at most genomic regions interspersed by regions with signatures of divergent selection (outlier regions. In the near future, the availability of high-density genetic linkage maps anchored to scaffolds of a sequenced Q. robur genome will allow to characterize the underlying genes in these outlier regions and their putative role in reproductive isolation between species. Reciprocal transplant experiments of seedlings between parental environments can be used to characterize selection on outlier genes. High transferability of gene-based markers will enable comparative outlier screens in different oak species.

  16. Oak kombucha protects against oxidative stress and inflammatory processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Cabral, B D; Larrosa-Pérez, M; Gallegos-Infante, J A; Moreno-Jiménez, M R; González-Laredo, R F; Rutiaga-Quiñones, J G; Gamboa-Gómez, C I; Rocha-Guzmán, N E

    2017-06-25

    Black tea infusion is the common substrate for preparing kombucha; however other sources such as oak leaves infusions can be used for the same purpose. Almost any white oak species have been used for medicinal applications by some ethnic groups in Mexico and could be also suitable for preparing kombucha analogues from oak (KAO). The objective of this research was to investigate the antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory effects of KAO by examining its modulation ability on macrophage-derived TNF-alpha and IL-6. Herbal infusions from oak and black tea were fermented by kombucha consortium during seven days at 28 °C. Chemical composition was determined by LC-ESI-MS/MS. The antioxidant activity of samples against oxidative damage caused by H2O2 in monocytes activated (macrophages) was explored. Additionally, it was determined the anti-inflammatory activity using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - stimulated macrophages; in particular, the nitric oxide (NO), TNF-alpha, and IL-6 production was assessed. Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha were significantly reduced by the sample treatment. Likewise, NO production was lower in treatment with kombucha and KAO compared with LPS-stimulated macrophages. Fermented beverages of oak effectively down-regulated the production of NO, while pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-6) in macrophages were stimulated with LPS. Additionally, phytochemical compounds present in KAO decrease oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Defining Sudden Infant Death and Sudden Intrauterine Unexpected Death Syndromes with Regard to Anatomo-Pathological Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaviani, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Crib death, or sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), is the most frequent form of death in the first year of life, striking one baby in every 1,700-2,000. Yet, despite advances in maternal-infant care, sudden intrauterine unexplained/unexpected death syndrome (SIUDS) has a sixfold to eightfold greater incidence than that of SIDS. Frequent congenital abnormalities, likely morphological substrates for SIDS-SIUDS, were detected, mainly represented by alterations of the cardiac conduction system, such as accessory pathways and abnormal resorptive degeneration, and hypoplasia/agenesis of the vital brainstem structures. On the basis of these considerations, the new common definition of the SIDS-SIUDS complex is "The sudden death of a fetus after the 25th gestational week or infant under one year of age which is unexpected by history and remains unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including examination of the death scene, performance of a general autopsy and examination of the fetal adnexa". Therefore, given that the general autopsy does not disclose any cause of death, a more in-depth histopathological analysis of the cardiac conduction system and autonomic nervous system by specialized pathologists is necessary.

  18. Cardiac disease and risk of sudden death in the young: the burden of the phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    Sudden cardiovascular death is a rare but catastrophic event in young men and women throughout the world. Sudden death is difficult to study. Factors that need elucidation are (1) the definition of sudden death; (2) diagnosis of the cause of sudden death; (3) the true incidence of sudden death, and (4) age and gender of individuals being studied. The "burden" of sudden death is far-reaching and involves medical, emotional, and economic burdens on the family members at risk, the entire family of the victim, and society in general. The pathologist trying to evaluate a case of sudden death also has a burden to make the correct diagnosis, especially since the cause of the sudden death may determine risk to the victim's family members. Sudden death is difficult to prevent since it may be the first and last manifestation of the cardiovascular disease. Also, paradoxically, the greatest number of deaths occurs in "low-risk" groups. The most common causes of cardiovascular deaths in the young are cardiomyopathy, coronary anomaly, obstructive coronary artery disease, myocarditis, valvular disease, channelopathy, and aortic disease leading to dissection or rupture. Many sudden deaths in the young occur during or shortly after exercise. Appropriate pre-participation screening of competitive athletes can reduce the incidence of sudden cardiovascular death in the young. Which measures to try to prevent these rare deaths are indicated and/or cost effective is a matter of discussion and controversy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Core Competencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberto, J.B.; Anderson, T.D.; Berven, B.A.; Hildebrand, S.G.; Hartman, F.C.; Honea, R.B.; Jones, J.E. Jr.; Moon, R.M. Jr.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; Shelton, R.B. [and others

    1994-12-01

    A core competency is a distinguishing integration of capabilities which enables an organization to deliver mission results. Core competencies represent the collective learning of an organization and provide the capacity to perform present and future missions. Core competencies are distinguishing characteristics which offer comparative advantage and are difficult to reproduce. They exhibit customer focus, mission relevance, and vertical integration from research through applications. They are demonstrable by metrics such as level of investment, uniqueness of facilities and expertise, and national impact. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has identified four core competencies which satisfy the above criteria. Each core competency represents an annual investment of at least $100M and is characterized by an integration of Laboratory technical foundations in physical, chemical, and materials sciences; biological, environmental, and social sciences; engineering sciences; and computational sciences and informatics. The ability to integrate broad technical foundations to develop and sustain core competencies in support of national R&D goals is a distinguishing strength of the national laboratories. The ORNL core competencies are: 9 Energy Production and End-Use Technologies o Biological and Environmental Sciences and Technology o Advanced Materials Synthesis, Processing, and Characterization & Neutron-Based Science and Technology. The distinguishing characteristics of each ORNL core competency are described. In addition, written material is provided for two emerging competencies: Manufacturing Technologies and Computational Science and Advanced Computing. Distinguishing institutional competencies in the Development and Operation of National Research Facilities, R&D Integration and Partnerships, Technology Transfer, and Science Education are also described. Finally, financial data for the ORNL core competencies are summarized in the appendices.

  20. Baskett Slough/William L. Finley - Oregon White Oak Restoration, Douglas-fir Removal, Phase III

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — With less than 7% of historic oak woodland habitat and 1% of oak savanna currently remaining in the Willamette Valley, the WV NWRC holds some of the largest and best...