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Sample records for profiles show evidence

  1. Vitamin D supplementation and lipid profile: what does the best available evidence show?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challoumas, Dimitrios

    2014-07-01

    Vitamin D supplements have increasingly been used for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. Historically, effects of the vitamin on the cardiovascular (CV) system have been proposed and demonstrated in the literature, including benefits on serum lipids. Although observational studies support an association between increased serum vitamin D levels and a favorable lipid profile, interventional studies have shown no effects. This review presents and analyzes all the related randomized controlled trials (RCTs) identified in the literature from 1987 to present. A systematic literature search was conducted via MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and EMBASE and, out of 19 relevant RCTs identified, only one reported benefits of vitamin D supplementation on lipid profile parameters, while the rest showed no effects or even adverse outcomes, which are highlighted by the only meta-analysis in the field. Attempts to explain the paradox of beneficial findings of observational studies versus discouraging results of interventional studies have been made and the most popular suggests that high serum vitamin D concentrations may not be the cause of good health but its outcome instead, as healthy people are more likely to stay outdoors longer and have better eating habits. For definitive answers to be given, large, well-designed RCTs need to be conducted that will take into account and adjust for dietary consumption as well as serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels, both of which have been shown to be associated with the CV system. Until then, recommendations for vitamin D supplementation should not change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ancient bacteria show evidence of DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Hebsgaard, Martin B; Christensen, Torben R

    2007-01-01

    -term survival of bacteria sealed in frozen conditions for up to one million years. Our results show evidence of bacterial survival in samples up to half a million years in age, making this the oldest independently authenticated DNA to date obtained from viable cells. Additionally, we find strong evidence...... geological timescales. There has been no direct evidence in ancient microbes for the most likely mechanism, active DNA repair, or for the metabolic activity necessary to sustain it. In this paper, we couple PCR and enzymatic treatment of DNA with direct respiration measurements to investigate long...... that this long-term survival is closely tied to cellular metabolic activity and DNA repair that over time proves to be superior to dormancy as a mechanism in sustaining bacteria viability....

  3. Recurrent and multiple bladder tumors show conserved expression profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, David; Fioretos, Thoas; Månsson, Wiking; Höglund, Mattias; Gudjonsson, Sigurdur; Jee, Kowan Ja; Liedberg, Fredrik; Aits, Sonja; Andersson, Anna; Chebil, Gunilla; Borg, Åke; Knuutila, Sakari

    2008-01-01

    Urothelial carcinomas originate from the epithelial cells of the inner lining of the bladder and may appear as single or as multiple synchronous tumors. Patients with urothelial carcinomas frequently show recurrences after treatment making follow-up necessary. The leading hypothesis explaining the origin of meta- and synchronous tumors assumes a monoclonal origin. However, the genetic relationship among consecutive tumors has been shown to be complex in as much as the genetic evolution does not adhere to the chronological appearance of the metachronous tumors. Consequently, genetically less evolved tumors may appear chronologically later than genetically related but more evolved tumors. Forty-nine meta- or synchronous urothelial tumors from 22 patients were analyzed using expression profiling, conventional CGH, LOH, and mutation analyses. We show by CGH that partial chromosomal losses in the initial tumors may not be present in the recurring tumors, by LOH that different haplotypes may be lost and that detected regions of LOH may be smaller in recurring tumors, and that mutations present in the initial tumor may not be present in the recurring ones. In contrast we show that despite apparent genomic differences, the recurrent and multiple bladder tumors from the same patients display remarkably similar expression profiles. Our findings show that even though the vast majority of the analyzed meta- and synchronous tumors from the same patients are not likely to have originated directly from the preceding tumor they still show remarkably similar expressions profiles. The presented data suggests that an expression profile is established early in tumor development and that this profile is stable and maintained in recurring tumors

  4. Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

  5. Adaptive governance good practice: Show me the evidence!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma-Wallace, Lisa; Velarde, Sandra J; Wreford, Anita

    2018-09-15

    Adaptive governance has emerged in the last decade as an intriguing avenue of theory and practice for the holistic management of complex environmental problems. Research on adaptive governance has flourished since the field's inception, probing the process and mechanisms underpinning the new approach while offering various justifications and prescriptions for empirical use. Nevertheless, recent reviews of adaptive governance reveal some important conceptual and practical gaps in the field, particularly concerning challenges in its application to real-world cases. In this paper, we respond directly to the empirical challenge of adaptive governance, specifically asking: which methods contribute to the implementation of successful adaptive governance process and outcomes in practice and across cases and contexts? We adopt a systematic literature review methodology which considers the current body of empirical literature on adaptive governance of social-ecological systems in order to assess and analyse the methods affecting successful adaptive governance practice across the range of existing cases. We find that methods contributing to adaptive governance in practice resemble the design recommendations outlined in previous adaptive governance scholarship, including meaningful collaboration across actors and scales; effective coordination between stakeholders and levels; building social capital; community empowerment and engagement; capacity development; linking knowledge and decision-making through data collection and monitoring; promoting leadership capacity; and exploiting or creating governance opportunities. However, we critically contextualise these methods by analysing and summarising their patterns-in-use, drawing examples from the cases to explore the specific ways they were successfully or unsuccessfully applied to governance issues on-the-ground. Our results indicate some important underlying shared patterns, trajectories, and lessons learned for evidence

  6. Major urinary protein (MUP) profiles show dynamic changes rather than individual ‘barcode’ signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoß, M.; Luzynski, K.C.; Ante, M.; Miller, I.; Penn, D.J.

    2016-01-01

    House mice (Mus musculus) produce a variable number of major urinary proteins (MUPs), and studies suggest that each individual produces a unique MUP profile that provides a distinctive odor signature controlling individual and kin recognition. This ‘barcode hypothesis’ requires that MUP urinary profiles show high individual variability within populations and also high individual consistency over time, but tests of these assumptions are lacking. We analyzed urinary MUP profiles of 66 wild-caught house mice from eight populations using isoelectric focusing. We found that MUP profiles of wild male house mice are not individually unique, and though they were highly variable, closer inspection revealed that the variation strongly depended on MUP band type. The prominent (‘major) bands were surprisingly homogenous (and hence most MUPs are not polymorphic), but we also found inconspicuous (‘minor’) bands that were highly variable and therefore potential candidates for individual fingerprints. We also examined changes in urinary MUP profiles of 58 males over time (from 6 to 24 weeks of age), and found that individual MUP profiles and MUP concentration were surprisingly dynamic, and showed significant changes after puberty and during adulthood. Contrary to what we expected, however, the minor bands were the most variable over time, thus no good candidates for individual fingerprints. Although MUP profiles do not provide individual fingerprints, we found that MUP profiles were more similar among siblings than non-kin despite considerable fluctuation. Our findings show that MUP profiles are not highly stable over time, they do not show strong individual clustering, and thus challenge the barcode hypothesis. Within-individual dynamics of MUP profiles indicate a different function of MUPs in individual recognition than previously assumed and advocate an alternative hypothesis (‘dynamic changes’ hypothesis). PMID:26973837

  7. Major urinary protein (MUP) profiles show dynamic changes rather than individual 'barcode' signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoß, M; Luzynski, K C; Ante, M; Miller, I; Penn, D J

    2015-06-30

    House mice ( Mus musculus) produce a variable number of major urinary proteins (MUPs), and studies suggest that each individual produces a unique MUP profile that provides a distinctive odor signature controlling individual and kin recognition. This 'barcode hypothesis' requires that MUP urinary profiles show high individual variability within populations and also high individual consistency over time, but tests of these assumptions are lacking. We analyzed urinary MUP profiles of 66 wild-caught house mice from eight populations using isoelectric focusing. We found that MUP profiles of wild male house mice are not individually unique, and though they were highly variable, closer inspection revealed that the variation strongly depended on MUP band type. The prominent ('major) bands were surprisingly homogenous (and hence most MUPs are not polymorphic), but we also found inconspicuous ('minor') bands that were highly variable and therefore potential candidates for individual fingerprints. We also examined changes in urinary MUP profiles of 58 males over time (from 6 to 24 weeks of age), and found that individual MUP profiles and MUP concentration were surprisingly dynamic, and showed significant changes after puberty and during adulthood. Contrary to what we expected, however, the minor bands were the most variable over time, thus no good candidates for individual fingerprints. Although MUP profiles do not provide individual fingerprints, we found that MUP profiles were more similar among siblings than non-kin despite considerable fluctuation. Our findings show that MUP profiles are not highly stable over time, they do not show strong individual clustering, and thus challenge the barcode hypothesis. Within-individual dynamics of MUP profiles indicate a different function of MUPs in individual recognition than previously assumed and advocate an alternative hypothesis ('dynamic changes' hypothesis).

  8. Molecular, Serological And Microbiological Profiling Evidence Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All items that the boy had contact with including a laboratory coat, bunch of keys and shoes were swabbed. Finally samples of all the boy's food and drinks were taken. Microbiological, Serological and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Profiling Assays. l the samples were cultured on Sorbitol - MacConkey (SMAC) agar, ...

  9. Microarray profiling shows distinct differences between primary tumors and commonly used preclinical models in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Weining; Iyer, N. Gopalakrishna; Tay, Hsien Ts’ung; Wu, Yonghui; Lim, Tony K. H.; Zheng, Lin; Song, In Chin; Kwoh, Chee Keong; Huynh, Hung; Tan, Patrick O. B.; Chow, Pierce K. H.

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in therapeutics, outcomes for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain poor and there is an urgent need for efficacious systemic therapy. Unfortunately, drugs that are successful in preclinical studies often fail in the clinical setting, and we hypothesize that this is due to functional differences between primary tumors and commonly used preclinical models. In this study, we attempt to answer this question by comparing tumor morphology and gene expression profiles between primary tumors, xenografts and HCC cell lines. Hep G2 cell lines and tumor cells from patient tumor explants were subcutaneously (ectopically) injected into the flank and orthotopically into liver parenchyma of Mus Musculus SCID mice. The mice were euthanized after two weeks. RNA was extracted from the tumors, and gene expression profiling was performed using the Gene Chip Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0. Principal component analyses (PCA) and construction of dendrograms were conducted using Partek genomics suite. PCA showed that the commonly used HepG2 cell line model and its xenograft counterparts were vastly different from all fresh primary tumors. Expression profiles of primary tumors were also significantly divergent from their counterpart patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models, regardless of the site of implantation. Xenografts from the same primary tumors were more likely to cluster together regardless of site of implantation, although heat maps showed distinct differences in gene expression profiles between orthotopic and ectopic models. The data presented here challenges the utility of routinely used preclinical models. Models using HepG2 were vastly different from primary tumors and PDXs, suggesting that this is not clinically representative. Surprisingly, site of implantation (orthotopic versus ectopic) resulted in limited impact on gene expression profiles, and in both scenarios xenografts differed significantly from the original primary tumors, challenging the long

  10. How can the regulator show evidence of (no) risk selection in health insurance markets? Conceptual framework and empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Wynand P M M; van Vliet, René C J A; van Kleef, Richard C

    2017-03-01

    If consumers have a choice of health plan, risk selection is often a serious problem (e.g., as in Germany, Israel, the Netherlands, the United States of America, and Switzerland). Risk selection may threaten the quality of care for chronically ill people, and may reduce the affordability and efficiency of healthcare. Therefore, an important question is: how can the regulator show evidence of (no) risk selection? Although this seems easy, showing such evidence is not straightforward. The novelty of this paper is two-fold. First, we provide a conceptual framework for showing evidence of risk selection in competitive health insurance markets. It is not easy to disentangle risk selection and the insurers' efficiency. We suggest two methods to measure risk selection that are not biased by the insurers' efficiency. Because these measures underestimate the true risk selection, we also provide a list of signals of selection that can be measured and that, in particular in combination, can show evidence of risk selection. It is impossible to show the absence of risk selection. Second, we empirically measure risk selection among the switchers, taking into account the insurers' efficiency. Based on 2-year administrative data on healthcare expenses and risk characteristics of nearly all individuals with basic health insurance in the Netherlands (N > 16 million) we find significant risk selection for most health insurers. This is the first publication of hard empirical evidence of risk selection in the Dutch health insurance market.

  11. Genome profiling of sterol synthesis shows convergent evolution in parasites and guides chemotherapeutic attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fügi, Matthias A; Gunasekera, Kapila; Ochsenreiter, Torsten; Guan, Xueli; Wenk, Markus R; Mäser, Pascal

    2014-05-01

    Sterols are an essential class of lipids in eukaryotes, where they serve as structural components of membranes and play important roles as signaling molecules. Sterols are also of high pharmacological significance: cholesterol-lowering drugs are blockbusters in human health, and inhibitors of ergosterol biosynthesis are widely used as antifungals. Inhibitors of ergosterol synthesis are also being developed for Chagas's disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. Here we develop an in silico pipeline to globally evaluate sterol metabolism and perform comparative genomics. We generate a library of hidden Markov model-based profiles for 42 sterol biosynthetic enzymes, which allows expressing the genomic makeup of a given species as a numerical vector. Hierarchical clustering of these vectors functionally groups eukaryote proteomes and reveals convergent evolution, in particular metabolic reduction in obligate endoparasites. We experimentally explore sterol metabolism by testing a set of sterol biosynthesis inhibitors against trypanosomatids, Plasmodium falciparum, Giardia, and mammalian cells, and by quantifying the expression levels of sterol biosynthetic genes during the different life stages of T. cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei. The phenotypic data correlate with genomic makeup for simvastatin, which showed activity against trypanosomatids. Other findings, such as the activity of terbinafine against Giardia, are not in agreement with the genotypic profile.

  12. Online Professional Profiles: Health Care and Library Researchers Show Off Their Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, Tara J

    2016-01-01

    In an increasingly digital world, online profiles can help health care and library professionals showcase their research and scholarly work. By sharing information about their investigations, studies, and projects, health care and library researchers can elevate their personal brand and connect with like-minded individuals. This column explores different types of online professional profiles and addresses some of the concerns that come with using them. A list of online professional profile and platform examples is also provided.

  13. Metabolic profiles show specific mitochondrial toxicities in vitro in myotube cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Qiuwei; Vu, Heather; Liu Liping; Wang, Ting-Chuan; Schaefer, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial toxicity has been a serious concern, not only in preclinical drug development but also in clinical trials. In mitochondria, there are several distinct metabolic processes including fatty acid β-oxidation, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), and each process contains discrete but often intimately linked steps. Interruption in any one of those steps can cause mitochondrial dysfunction. Detection of inhibition to OXPHOS can be complicated in vivo because intermediate endogenous metabolites can be recycled in situ or circulated systemically for metabolism in other organs or tissues. Commonly used assays for evaluating mitochondrial function are often applied to ex vivo or in vitro samples; they include various enzymatic or protein assays, as well as functional assays such as measurement of oxygen consumption rate, membrane potential, or acidification rates. Metabolomics provides quantitative profiles of overall metabolic changes that can aid in the unraveling of explicit biochemical details of mitochondrial inhibition while providing a holistic view and heuristic understanding of cellular bioenergetics. In this paper, we showed the application of quantitative NMR metabolomics to in vitro myotube cells treated with mitochondrial toxicants, rotenone and antimycin A. The close coupling of the TCA cycle to the electron transfer chain (ETC) in OXPHOS enables specific diagnoses of inhibition to ETC complexes by discrete biochemical changes in the TCA cycle.

  14. Forensic DNA methylation profiling from evidence material for investigative leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwan Young; Lee, Soong Deok; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is emerging as an attractive marker providing investigative leads to solve crimes in forensic genetics. The identification of body fluids that utilizes tissue-specific DNA methylation can contribute to solving crimes by predicting activity related to the evidence material. The age estimation based on DNA methylation is expected to reduce the number of potential suspects, when the DNA profile from the evidence does not match with any known person, including those stored in the forensic database. Moreover, the variation in DNA implicates environmental exposure, such as cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, thereby suggesting the possibility to be used as a marker for predicting the lifestyle of potential suspect. In this review, we describe recent advances in our understanding of DNA methylation variations and the utility of DNA methylation as a forensic marker for advanced investigative leads from evidence materials. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(7): 359-369] PMID:27099236

  15. Criminal profiling as expert witness evidence: The implications of the profiler validity research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, Richard N; Palermo, George B

    The use and development of the investigative tool colloquially known as criminal profiling has steadily increased over the past five decades throughout the world. Coupled with this growth has been a diversification in the suggested range of applications for this technique. Possibly the most notable of these has been the attempted transition of the technique from a tool intended to assist police investigations into a form of expert witness evidence admissible in legal proceedings. Whilst case law in various jurisdictions has considered with mutual disinclination the evidentiary admissibility of criminal profiling, a disjunction has evolved between these judicial examinations and the scientifically vetted research testing the accuracy (i.e., validity) of the technique. This article offers an analysis of the research directly testing the validity of the criminal profiling technique and the extant legal principles considering its evidentiary admissibility. This analysis reveals that research findings concerning the validity of criminal profiling are surprisingly compatible with the extant legal principles. The overall conclusion is that a discrete form of crime behavioural analysis is supported by the profiler validity research and could be regarded as potentially admissible expert witness evidence. Finally, a number of theoretical connections are also identified concerning the skills and qualifications of individuals who may feasibly provide such expert testimony. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Plasma and White Blood Cells Show Different miRNA Expression Profiles in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwienbacher, Christine; Foco, Luisa; Picard, Anne; Corradi, Eloina; Serafin, Alice; Panzer, Jörg; Zanigni, Stefano; Blankenburg, Hagen; Facheris, Maurizio F; Giannini, Giulia; Falla, Marika; Cortelli, Pietro; Pramstaller, Peter P; Hicks, Andrew A

    2017-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) diagnosis is based on the assessment of motor symptoms, which manifest when more than 50% of dopaminergic neurons are degenerated. To date, no validated biomarkers are available for the diagnosis of PD. The aims of the present study are to evaluate whether plasma and white blood cells (WBCs) are interchangeable biomarker sources and to identify circulating plasma-based microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for an early detection of PD. We profiled plasma miRNA levels in 99 L-dopa-treated PD patients from two independent data collections, in ten drug-naïve PD patients, and in unaffected controls matched by sex and age. We evaluated expression levels by reverse transcription and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and combined the results from treated PD patients using a fixed effect inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis. We revealed different expression profiles comparing plasma and WBCs and drug-naïve and L-dopa-treated PD patients. We observed an upregulation trend for miR-30a-5p in L-dopa-treated PD patients and investigated candidate target genes by integrated in silico analyses. We could not analyse miR-29b-3p, normally expressed in WBCs, due to the very low expression in plasma. We observed different expression profiles in WBCs and plasma, suggesting that they are both suitable but not interchangeable peripheral sources for biomarkers. We revealed miR-30a-5p as a potential biomarker for PD in plasma. In silico analyses suggest that miR-30a-5p might have a regulatory role in mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy. Further investigations are needed to confirm miR-30a-5p deregulation and targets and to investigate the influence of L-dopa treatment on miRNA expression levels.

  17. Cytokine profiles show heterogeneity of interferon-β response in multiple sclerosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegen, Harald; Adrianto, Indra; Lessard, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate serum cytokine profiles for their utility to determine the heterogeneous responses to interferon (IFN)-β treatment in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: Patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) or clinically isolated syndrome receiving de novo IFN-β treatment...... were included in this prospective, observational study. Number of relapses and changes in disability were assessed 2 years prior to and 2 years after initiation of treatment. Sera were collected at baseline and after 3 months on therapy. Cytokine levels in sera were assessed by Luminex multiplex assays...

  18. Urinary Metabolite Profiles in Premature Infants Show Early Postnatal Metabolic Adaptation and Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sissel J. Moltu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Early nutrition influences metabolic programming and long-term health. We explored the urinary metabolite profiles of 48 premature infants (birth weight < 1500 g randomized to an enhanced or a standard diet during neonatal hospitalization. Methods: Metabolomics using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR was conducted on urine samples obtained during the first week of life and thereafter fortnightly. Results: The intervention group received significantly higher amounts of energy, protein, lipids, vitamin A, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid as compared to the control group. Enhanced nutrition did not appear to affect the urine profiles to an extent exceeding individual variation. However, in all infants the glucogenic amino acids glycine, threonine, hydroxyproline and tyrosine increased substantially during the early postnatal period, along with metabolites of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (succinate, oxoglutarate, fumarate and citrate. The metabolite changes correlated with postmenstrual age. Moreover, we observed elevated threonine and glycine levels in first-week urine samples of the small for gestational age (SGA; birth weight < 10th percentile for gestational age as compared to the appropriate for gestational age infants. Conclusion: This first nutri-metabolomics study in premature infants demonstrates that the physiological adaptation during the fetal-postnatal transition as well as maturation influences metabolism during the breastfeeding period. Elevated glycine and threonine levels were found in the first week urine samples of the SGA infants and emerged as potential biomarkers of an altered metabolic phenotype.

  19. Experimental evidence showing that no mitotically active female germline progenitors exist in postnatal mouse ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Zheng, Wenjing; Shen, Yan; Adhikari, Deepak; Ueno, Hiroo; Liu, Kui

    2012-07-31

    It has been generally accepted for more than half a century that, in most mammalian species, oocytes cannot renew themselves in postnatal or adult life, and that the number of oocytes is already fixed in fetal or neonatal ovaries. This assumption, however, has been challenged over the past decade. In this study, we have taken an endogenous genetic approach to this question and generated a multiple fluorescent Rosa26(rbw/+);Ddx4-Cre germline reporter mouse model for in vivo and in vitro tracing of the development of female germline cell lineage. Through live cell imaging and de novo folliculogenesis experiments, we show that the Ddx4-expressing cells from postnatal mouse ovaries did not enter mitosis, nor did they contribute to oocytes during de novo folliculogenesis. Our results provide evidence that supports the traditional view that no postnatal follicular renewal occurs in mammals, and no mitotically active Ddx4-expressing female germline progenitors exist in postnatal mouse ovaries.

  20. Metabolic profiling of plasma amino acids shows that histidine increases following the consumption of pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samman S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Samir Samman,1 Ben Crossett,2 Miles Somers,1 Kirstine J Bell,1 Nicole T Lai,1,3 David R Sullivan,3 Peter Petocz4 1Discipline of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2Discipline of Proteomics and Biotechnology, School of Molecular Bioscience, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4Department of Statistics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Amino acid (AA status is determined by factors including nutrition, metabolic rate, and interactions between the metabolism of AA, carbohydrates, and lipids. Analysis of the plasma AA profile, together with markers of glucose and lipid metabolism, will shed light on metabolic regulation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the acute responses to the consumption of meals containing either pork (PM or chicken (CM, and to identify relationships between plasma AA and markers of glycemic and lipemic control. A secondary aim was to explore AA predictors of plasma zinc concentrations. Ten healthy adults participated in a postprandial study on two separate occasions. In a randomized cross-over design, participants consumed PM or CM. The concentrations of 21 AA, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids, and zinc were determined over 5 hours postprandially. The meal composition did not influence glucose, insulin, triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acid, or zinc concentrations. Plasma histidine was higher following the consumption of PM (P=0.014, with consistently higher changes observed after 60 minutes (P<0.001. Greater percentage increases were noted at limited time points for valine and leucine + isoleucine in those who consumed CM compared to PM. In linear regression, some AAs emerged as predictors of the metabolic responses, irrespective of the meal that was consumed. The present study demonstrates that a single meal of PM or CM produces a differential profile of AA in the

  1. Task control signals in pediatric Tourette syndrome show evidence of immature and anomalous functional activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Church

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Tourette Syndrome (TS is a pediatric movement disorder that may affect control signaling in the brain. Previous work has proposed a dual-networks architecture of control processing involving a task-maintenance network and an adaptive control network (Dosenbach et al., 2008. A prior resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI analysis in TS has revealed functional immaturity in both putative control networks, with “anomalous” correlations (i.e. correlations outside the typical developmental range limited to the adaptive control network (Church et al., 2009. The present study used functional MRI (fMRI to study brain activity related to adaptive control (by studying start-cues signals, and to task-maintenance (by studying signals sustained across a task set. Two hypotheses from the previous rs-fcMRI results were tested. First, adaptive control (i.e., start-cue activity will be altered in TS, including activity inconsistent with typical development (“anomalous”. Second, group differences found in task maintenance (i.e., sustained activity will be consistent with functional immaturity in TS. We examined regions found through a direct comparison of adolescents with and without TS, as well as regions derived from a previous investigation that showed differences between unaffected children and adults. The TS group showed decreased start-cue signal magnitude in regions where start-cue activity is unchanged over typical development, consistent with anomalous adaptive control. The TS group also had higher magnitude sustained signals in frontal cortex regions that overlapped with regions showing differences over typical development, consistent with immature task maintenance in TS. The results demonstrate task-related fMRI signal differences anticipated by the atypical functional connectivity found previously in adolescents with TS, strengthening the evidence for functional immaturity and anomalous signaling in control networks in adolescents

  2. Gene expression profiling in the Cynomolgus macaque Macaca fascicularis shows variation within the normal birth range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickers Mark H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although an adverse early-life environment has been linked to an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome, the molecular mechanisms underlying altered disease susceptibility as well as their relevance to humans are largely unknown. Importantly, emerging evidence suggests that these effects operate within the normal range of birth weights and involve mechanisms of developmental palsticity rather than pathology. Method To explore this further, we utilised a non-human primate model Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus macaque which shares with humans the same progressive history of the metabolic syndrome. Using microarray we compared tissues from neonates in the average birth weight (50-75th centile to those of lower birth weight (5-25th centile and studied the effect of different growth trajectories within the normal range on gene expression levels in the umbilical cord, neonatal liver and skeletal muscle. Results We identified 1973 genes which were differentially expressed in the three tissue types between average and low birth weight animals (P Conclusion These differences in gene expression levels between animals in the upper and lower percentiles of the normal birth weight range may point towards early life metabolic adaptations that in later life result in differences in disease risk.

  3. Phenolic Acids from Wheat Show Different Absorption Profiles in Plasma: A Model Experiment with Catheterized Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Natalja; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2013-01-01

    The concentration and absorption of the nine phenolic acids of wheat were measured in a model experiment with catheterized pigs fed whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone diets. Six pigs in a repeated crossover design were fitted with catheters in the portal vein and mesenteric artery to study...... the absorption of phenolic acids. The difference between the artery and the vein for all phenolic acids was small, indicating that the release of phenolic acids in the large intestine was not sufficient to create a porto-arterial concentration difference. Although, the porto-arterial difference was small...... consumed. Benzoic acid derivatives showed low concentration in the plasma (phenolic acids, likely because it is an intermediate in the phenolic acid metabolism...

  4. Different methods to quantify Listeria monocytogenesbiofilms cells showed different profile in their viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizziane Kretli Winkelströter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen able to adhere and to form biofilms in several materials commonly present in food processing plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance of Listeria monocytogenes attached to abiotic surface, after treatment with sanitizers, by culture method, microscopy and Quantitative Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR. Biofilms of L. monocytogenes were obtained in stainless steel coupons immersed in Brain Heart Infusion Broth, under agitation at 37 °C for 24 h. The methods selected for this study were based on plate count, microscopic count with the aid of viability dyes (CTC-DAPI, and qPCR. Results of culture method showed that peroxyacetic acid was efficient to kill sessile L. monocytogenes populations, while sodium hypochlorite was only partially effective to kill attached L. monocytogenes (p < 0.05. When, viability dyes (CTC/DAPI combined with fluorescence microscopy and qPCR were used and lower counts were found after treatments (p < 0.05. Selective quantification of viable cells of L. monocytogenes by qPCR using EMA revelead that the pre-treatment with EMA was not appropriate since it also inhibited amplification of DNA from live cells by ca. 2 log. Thus, the use of CTC counts was the best method to count viable cells in biofilms.

  5. Plasma and serum lipidomics of healthy white adults shows characteristic profiles by subjects' gender and age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Ishikawa

    Full Text Available Blood is a commonly used biofluid for biomarker discovery. Although blood lipid metabolites are considered to be potential biomarker candidates, their fundamental properties are not well characterized. We aimed to (1 investigate the matrix type (serum vs. plasma that may be preferable for lipid biomarker exploration, (2 elucidate age- and gender-associated differences in lipid metabolite levels, and (3 examine the stability of lipid metabolites in matrix samples subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we performed lipidomic analyses for fasting plasma and serum samples for four groups (15 subjects/group of young and elderly (25-34 and 55-64 years old, respectively males and females and for an additional aliquot of samples from young males, which were subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Lysophosphatidylcholine and diacylglycerol levels were higher in serum than in plasma samples, suggesting that the clotting process influences serum lipid metabolite levels. Gender-associated differences highlighted that the levels of many sphingomyelin species were significantly higher in females than in males, irrespective of age and matrix (plasma and serum. Age-associated differences were more prominent in females than in males, and in both matrices, levels of many triacylglycerols were significantly higher in elderly females than in young females. Plasma and serum levels of most lipid metabolites were reduced by freeze-thawing. Our results indicate that plasma is an optimal matrix for exploring lipid biomarkers because it represents the original properties of an individual's blood sample. In addition, the levels of some blood lipid species of healthy adults showed gender- and age-associated differences; thus, this should be considered during biomarker exploration and its application in diagnostics. Our fundamental findings on sample selection and handling procedures for measuring blood lipid metabolites

  6. Mesenchymal stromal cells of osteosarcoma patients do not show evidence of neoplastic changes during long-term culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddingh, Emilie P; Ruslan, S Eriaty N; Reijnders, Christianne M A; Szuhai, Karoly; Kuijjer, Marieke L; Roelofs, Helene; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Maarten Egeler, R; Cleton-Jansen, Anne-Marie; Lankester, Arjan C

    2015-01-01

    In vitro expanded mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are increasingly used as experimental cellular therapy. However, there have been concerns regarding the safety of their use, particularly with regard to possible oncogenic transformation. MSCs are the hypothesized precursor cells of high-grade osteosarcoma, a tumor with often complex karyotypes occurring mainly in adolescents and young adults. To determine if MSCs from osteosarcoma patients could be predisposed to malignant transformation we cultured MSCs of nine osteosarcoma patients and five healthy donors for an average of 649 days (range 601-679 days). Also, we compared MSCs derived from osteosarcoma patients at diagnosis and from healthy donors using genome wide gene expression profiling. Upon increasing passage, increasing frequencies of binucleate cells were detected, but no increase in proliferation suggestive of malignant transformation occurred in MSCs from either patients or donors. Hematopoietic cell specific Lyn substrate 1 (HLCS1) was differentially expressed (fold change 0.25, P value 0.0005) between MSCs of osteosarcoma patients (n = 14) and healthy donors (n = 9). This study shows that although HCLS1 expression was downregulated in MSCs of osteosarcoma patients and binucleate cells were present in both patient and donor derived MSCs, there was no evidence of neoplastic changes to occur during long-term culture.

  7. Principled Principals: New Evidence from Chicago Shows They Fire the Least Effective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    If principals have the authority to dismiss teachers, will they dismiss the less effective ones, or will they instead make perverse decisions by letting the good teachers go? Evidence from low-stakes surveys suggests that principals are able to identify the most and least effective teachers in their schools, as measured by their impact on student…

  8. Potential mechanisms of diet therapy for fibrocystic breast conditions show inadequate evidence of effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, N K; Lampe, J W

    2000-11-01

    Fibrocystic breast conditions, formerly referred to as fibrocystic breast disease, affect about half of all women and typically present as any combination of breast nodularity, swelling, and pain. We reviewed the literature to evaluate evidence supporting nutrition interventions commonly recommended for fibrocystic breast conditions by health care providers. Randomized, controlled studies of the effectiveness of caffeine restriction fail to support any benefit in fibrocystic breast conditions. Similarly, evidence supporting evening primrose oil, vitamin E, or pyridoxine as treatments for the discomforts of fibrocystic breast conditions is insufficient to draw conclusions about effectiveness. Dietary alterations that influence the intermediate markers for fibrocystic breast conditions include low-fat (15% to 20% energy), high-fiber (30 g/day), and soy isoflavone regimens. However, our findings provide no solid evidence for secondary prevention or treatment of fibrocystic breast conditions through a dietary approach. Health care providers should limit recommendations to proven diet therapies supported by randomized, placebo-controlled trials, given the instability inherent in fibrocystic breast conditions and the near 20% placebo effect associated with intervention. Because excessive estrogen or altered sensitivity to estrogen is the dominant theory of etiology, interventions that may modulate endogenous steroid hormones warrant further investigation as potential treatments for symptomatic fibrocystic breast conditions.

  9. Social network analysis shows direct evidence for social transmission of tool use in wild chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Hobaiter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Social network analysis methods have made it possible to test whether novel behaviors in animals spread through individual or social learning. To date, however, social network analysis of wild populations has been limited to static models that cannot precisely reflect the dynamics of learning, for instance, the impact of multiple observations across time. Here, we present a novel dynamic version of network analysis that is capable of capturing temporal aspects of acquisition--that is, how successive observations by an individual influence its acquisition of the novel behavior. We apply this model to studying the spread of two novel tool-use variants, "moss-sponging" and "leaf-sponge re-use," in the Sonso chimpanzee community of Budongo Forest, Uganda. Chimpanzees are widely considered the most "cultural" of all animal species, with 39 behaviors suspected as socially acquired, most of them in the domain of tool-use. The cultural hypothesis is supported by experimental data from captive chimpanzees and a range of observational data. However, for wild groups, there is still no direct experimental evidence for social learning, nor has there been any direct observation of social diffusion of behavioral innovations. Here, we tested both a static and a dynamic network model and found strong evidence that diffusion patterns of moss-sponging, but not leaf-sponge re-use, were significantly better explained by social than individual learning. The most conservative estimate of social transmission accounted for 85% of observed events, with an estimated 15-fold increase in learning rate for each time a novice observed an informed individual moss-sponging. We conclude that group-specific behavioral variants in wild chimpanzees can be socially learned, adding to the evidence that this prerequisite for culture originated in a common ancestor of great apes and humans, long before the advent of modern humans.

  10. Social network analysis shows direct evidence for social transmission of tool use in wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobaiter, Catherine; Poisot, Timothée; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Hoppitt, William; Gruber, Thibaud

    2014-09-01

    Social network analysis methods have made it possible to test whether novel behaviors in animals spread through individual or social learning. To date, however, social network analysis of wild populations has been limited to static models that cannot precisely reflect the dynamics of learning, for instance, the impact of multiple observations across time. Here, we present a novel dynamic version of network analysis that is capable of capturing temporal aspects of acquisition--that is, how successive observations by an individual influence its acquisition of the novel behavior. We apply this model to studying the spread of two novel tool-use variants, "moss-sponging" and "leaf-sponge re-use," in the Sonso chimpanzee community of Budongo Forest, Uganda. Chimpanzees are widely considered the most "cultural" of all animal species, with 39 behaviors suspected as socially acquired, most of them in the domain of tool-use. The cultural hypothesis is supported by experimental data from captive chimpanzees and a range of observational data. However, for wild groups, there is still no direct experimental evidence for social learning, nor has there been any direct observation of social diffusion of behavioral innovations. Here, we tested both a static and a dynamic network model and found strong evidence that diffusion patterns of moss-sponging, but not leaf-sponge re-use, were significantly better explained by social than individual learning. The most conservative estimate of social transmission accounted for 85% of observed events, with an estimated 15-fold increase in learning rate for each time a novice observed an informed individual moss-sponging. We conclude that group-specific behavioral variants in wild chimpanzees can be socially learned, adding to the evidence that this prerequisite for culture originated in a common ancestor of great apes and humans, long before the advent of modern humans.

  11. Three Molecular Markers Show No Evidence of Population Genetic Structure in the Gouldian Finch (Erythrura gouldiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peri E Bolton

    Full Text Available Assessment of genetic diversity and connectivity between regions can inform conservation managers about risk of inbreeding, potential for adaptation and where population boundaries lie. The Gouldian finch (Erythrura gouldiae is a threatened species in northern Australia, occupying the savannah woodlands of the biogeographically complex monsoon tropics. We present the most comprehensive population genetic analysis of diversity and structure the Gouldian finch using 16 microsatellite markers, mitochondrial control region and 3,389 SNPs from genotyping-by-sequencing. Mitochondrial diversity is compared across three related, co-distributed finches with different conservation threat-statuses. There was no evidence of genetic differentiation across the western part of the range in any of the molecular markers, and haplotype diversity but not richness was lower than a common co-distributed species. Individuals within the panmictic population in the west may be highly dispersive within this wide area, and we urge caution when interpreting anecdotal observations of changes to the distribution and/or flock sizes of Gouldian finch populations as evidence of overall changes to the population size of this species.

  12. A novel statistical approach shows evidence for multi-system physiological dysregulation during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alan A; Milot, Emmanuel; Yong, Jian; Seplaki, Christopher L; Fülöp, Tamàs; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Fried, Linda P

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have identified many biomarkers that are associated with aging and related outcomes, but the relevance of these markers for underlying processes and their relationship to hypothesized systemic dysregulation is not clear. We address this gap by presenting a novel method for measuring dysregulation via the joint distribution of multiple biomarkers and assessing associations of dysregulation with age and mortality. Using longitudinal data from the Women's Health and Aging Study, we selected a 14-marker subset from 63 blood measures: those that diverged from the baseline population mean with age. For the 14 markers and all combinatorial sub-subsets we calculated a multivariate distance called the Mahalanobis distance (MHBD) for all observations, indicating how "strange" each individual's biomarker profile was relative to the baseline population mean. In most models, MHBD correlated positively with age, MHBD increased within individuals over time, and higher MHBD predicted higher risk of subsequent mortality. Predictive power increased as more variables were incorporated into the calculation of MHBD. Biomarkers from multiple systems were implicated. These results support hypotheses of simultaneous dysregulation in multiple systems and confirm the need for longitudinal, multivariate approaches to understanding biomarkers in aging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Children Do Show Negative Priming: Further Evidence for Early Development of an Intact Selective Control Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frings, Christian; Feix, Silke; Rothig, Ulrike; Bruser, Charlotte; Junge, Miriam

    2007-01-01

    Reactions to stimuli that were shortly before presented as distractors are usually slowed down; this phenomenon is known as negative priming. Negative priming is an accepted index for tapping into selective control mechanisms. Although this effect is well established for adults, it has been claimed that children do not show negative priming.…

  14. Reef fish communities in the central Red Sea show evidence of asymmetrical fishing pressure

    KAUST Repository

    Kattan, Alexander; Coker, Darren James; Berumen, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    In order to assess human impacts and develop rational restoration goals for corals reefs, baseline estimates of fish communities are required. In Saudi Arabian waters of the Red Sea, widespread unregulated fishing is thought to have been ongoing for decades, but there is little direct evidence of the impact on reef communities. To contextualize this human influence, reef-associated fish assemblages on offshore reefs in Saudi Arabia and Sudan in the central Red Sea were investigated. These reefs have comparable benthic environments, experience similar oceanographic influences, and are separated by less than 300 km, offering an ideal comparison for identifying potential anthropogenic impacts such as fishing pressure. This is the first study to assess reef fish biomass in both these regions, providing important baselines estimates. We found that biomass of top predators on offshore Sudanese reefs was on average almost three times that measured on comparable reefs in Saudi Arabia. Biomass values from some of the most remote reefs surveyed in Sudan’s far southern region even approach those previously reported in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, northern Line Islands, Pitcairn Islands, and other isolated Pacific islands and atolls. The findings suggest that fishing pressure has significantly altered the fish community structure of Saudi Arabian Red Sea reefs, most conspicuously in the form of top predator removal. The results point towards the urgent need for enhanced regulation and enforcement of fishing practices in Saudi Arabia, while making a strong case for protection in the form of no-take marine protected areas to maintain preservation of the relatively intact southern Sudanese Red Sea.

  15. Reef fish communities in the central Red Sea show evidence of asymmetrical fishing pressure

    KAUST Repository

    Kattan, Alexander

    2017-03-09

    In order to assess human impacts and develop rational restoration goals for corals reefs, baseline estimates of fish communities are required. In Saudi Arabian waters of the Red Sea, widespread unregulated fishing is thought to have been ongoing for decades, but there is little direct evidence of the impact on reef communities. To contextualize this human influence, reef-associated fish assemblages on offshore reefs in Saudi Arabia and Sudan in the central Red Sea were investigated. These reefs have comparable benthic environments, experience similar oceanographic influences, and are separated by less than 300 km, offering an ideal comparison for identifying potential anthropogenic impacts such as fishing pressure. This is the first study to assess reef fish biomass in both these regions, providing important baselines estimates. We found that biomass of top predators on offshore Sudanese reefs was on average almost three times that measured on comparable reefs in Saudi Arabia. Biomass values from some of the most remote reefs surveyed in Sudan’s far southern region even approach those previously reported in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, northern Line Islands, Pitcairn Islands, and other isolated Pacific islands and atolls. The findings suggest that fishing pressure has significantly altered the fish community structure of Saudi Arabian Red Sea reefs, most conspicuously in the form of top predator removal. The results point towards the urgent need for enhanced regulation and enforcement of fishing practices in Saudi Arabia, while making a strong case for protection in the form of no-take marine protected areas to maintain preservation of the relatively intact southern Sudanese Red Sea.

  16. Experimental Evidence Shows the Importance of Behavioural Plasticity and Body Size under Competition in Waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Prins, Herbert H. T.; Versluijs, Martijn; Wessels, Rick; Cao, Lei; de Boer, Willem Frederik

    2016-01-01

    When differently sized species feed on the same resources, interference competition may occur, which may negatively affect their food intake rate. It is expected that competition between species also alters behaviour and feeding patch selection. To assess these changes in behaviour and patch selection, we applied an experimental approach using captive birds of three differently sized Anatidae species: wigeon (Anas penelope) (~600 g), swan goose (Anser cygnoides) (~2700 g) and bean goose (Anser fabalis) (~3200 g). We quantified the functional response for each species and then recorded their behaviour and patch selection with and without potential competitors, using different species combinations. Our results showed that all three species acquired the highest nitrogen intake at relatively tall swards (6, 9 cm) when foraging in single species flocks in the functional response experiment. Goose species were offered foraging patches differing in sward height with and without competitors, and we tested for the effect of competition on foraging behaviour. The mean percentage of time spent feeding and being vigilant did not change under competition for all species. However, all species utilized strategies that increased their peck rate on patches across different sward heights, resulting in the same instantaneous and nitrogen intake rate. Our results suggest that variation in peck rate over different swards height permits Anatidae herbivores to compensate for the loss of intake under competition, illustrating the importance of behavioural plasticity in heterogeneous environments when competing with other species for resources. PMID:27727315

  17. Citrobacter rodentium is an unstable pathogen showing evidence of significant genomic flux.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola K Petty

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Citrobacter rodentium is a natural mouse pathogen that causes attaching and effacing (A/E lesions. It shares a common virulence strategy with the clinically significant human A/E pathogens enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC and is widely used to model this route of pathogenesis. We previously reported the complete genome sequence of C. rodentium ICC168, where we found that the genome displayed many characteristics of a newly evolved pathogen. In this study, through PFGE, sequencing of isolates showing variation, whole genome transcriptome analysis and examination of the mobile genetic elements, we found that, consistent with our previous hypothesis, the genome of C. rodentium is unstable as a result of repeat-mediated, large-scale genome recombination and because of active transposition of mobile genetic elements such as the prophages. We sequenced an additional C. rodentium strain, EX-33, to reveal that the reference strain ICC168 is representative of the species and that most of the inactivating mutations were common to both isolates and likely to have occurred early on in the evolution of this pathogen. We draw parallels with the evolution of other bacterial pathogens and conclude that C. rodentium is a recently evolved pathogen that may have emerged alongside the development of inbred mice as a model for human disease.

  18. The NRP1 migraine risk variant shows evidence of association with menstrual migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Charmaine E; Sutherland, Heidi G; Maher, Bridget H; Lea, Rodney A; Haupt, Larisa M; Frith, Alison; Anne MacGregor, E; Griffiths, Lyn R

    2018-04-18

    In 2016, a large meta-analysis brought the number of susceptibility loci for migraine to 38. While sub-type analysis for migraine without aura (MO) and migraine with aura (MA) found some loci showed specificity to MO, the study did not test the loci with respect to other subtypes of migraine. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) robustly associated with migraine are individually or collectively associated with menstrual migraine (MM). Genotyping of migraine susceptibility SNPs was conducted using the Agena MassARRAY platform on DNA samples from 235 women diagnosed with menstrual migraine as per International Classification for Headache Disorders II (ICHD-II) criteria and 140 controls. Alternative genotyping methods including restriction fragment length polymorphism, pyrosequencing and Sanger sequencing were used for validation. Statistical analysis was performed using PLINK and SPSS. Genotypes of 34 SNPs were obtained and investigated for their potential association with menstrual migraine. Of these SNPs, rs2506142 located near the neuropilin 1 gene (NRP1), was found to be significantly associated with menstrual migraine (p = 0.003). Genomic risk scores were calculated for all 34 SNPs as well as a subset of 7 SNPs that were nearing individual significance. Overall, this analysis suggested these SNPs to be weakly predictive of MM, but of no prognostic or diagnostic value. Our results suggest that NRP1 may be important in the etiology of MM. It also suggests some genetic commonality between common migraine subtypes (MA and MO) and MM. The identification of associated SNPs may be the starting point to a better understanding of how genetic factors may contribute to the menstrual migraine sub-type.

  19. Brain MRI screening showing evidences of early central nervous system involvement in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Reem Hamdy A; Sabry, Yousriah Y; Nasef, Amr A

    2011-05-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a multisystem autoimmune collagen disease where structural and functional abnormalities of small blood vessels prevail. Transient ischemic attacks, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhage have been reported as primary consequence of vascular central nervous system affection in systemic sclerosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is considered to be the most sensitive diagnostic technique for detecting symptomatic and asymptomatic lesions in the brain in cases of multifocal diseases. The objective of this study is to detect subclinical as well as clinically manifest cerebral vasculopathy in patients with systemic sclerosis using magnetic resonance imaging. As much as 30 female patients with systemic sclerosis aged 27-61 years old, with disease duration of 1-9 years and with no history of other systemic disease or cerebrovascular accidents, were enrolled. Age-matched female control group of 30 clinically normal subjects, underwent brain magnetic resonance examination. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in the form of white matter hyperintense foci of variable sizes were found in significantly abundant forms in systemic sclerosis patients on magnetic resonance evaluation than in age-related control group, signifying a form of CNS vasculopathy. Such foci showed significant correlation to clinical features of organic CNS lesion including headaches, fainting attacks and organic depression as well as to the severity of peripheral vascular disease with insignificant correlation with disease duration. In conclusion, subclinical as well as clinically manifest CNS ischemic vasculopathy is not uncommon in systemic sclerosis patients and magnetic resonance imaging is considered a sensitive noninvasive screening tool for early detection of CNS involvement in patients with systemic sclerosis.

  20. Helicobacter pylori strains from a Nigerian cohort show divergent antibiotic resistance rates and a uniform pathogenicity profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Harrison

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori is a factor preventing its successful eradication. Particularly in developing countries, resistance against commonly used antibiotics is widespread. Here, we present an epidemiological study from Nigeria with 111 isolates. We analyzed the associated disease outcome, and performed a detailed characterization of these isolated strains with respect to their antibiotic susceptibility and their virulence characteristics. Furthermore, statistical analysis was performed on microbiological data as well as patient information and the results of the gastroenterological examination. We found that the variability concerning the production of virulence factors between strains was minimal, with 96.4% of isolates being CagA-positive and 92.8% producing detectable VacA levels. In addition, high frequency of bacterial resistance was observed for metronidazole (99.1%, followed by amoxicillin (33.3%, clarithromycin (14.4% and tetracycline (4.5%. In conclusion, this study indicated that the infection rate of H. pylori infection within the cohort in the present study was surprisingly low (36.6%. Furthermore, an average gastric pathology was observed by histological grading and bacterial isolates showed a uniform pathogenicity profile while indicating divergent antibiotic resistance rates.

  1. Limited evidence of abnormal intra-colonic pressure profiles in diverticular disease - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaung, R; Robertson, J; O'Grady, G; Milne, T; Rowbotham, D; Bissett, I P

    2017-06-01

    Abnormal colonic pressure profiles and high intraluminal pressures are postulated to contribute to the formation of sigmoid colon diverticulosis and the pathophysiology of diverticular disease. This study aimed to review evidence for abnormal colonic pressure profiles in diverticulosis. All published studies investigating colonic pressure in patients with diverticulosis were searched in three databases (Medline, Embase, Scopus). No language restrictions were applied. Any manometry studies in which patients with diverticulosis were compared with controls were included. The Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale (NOS) for case-control studies was used as a measure of risk of bias. A cut-off of five or more points on the NOS (fair quality in terms of risk of bias) was chosen for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Ten studies (published 1962-2005) met the inclusion criteria. The studies followed a wide variety of protocols and all used low-resolution manometry (sensor spacing range 7.5-15 cm). Six studies compared intra-sigmoid pressure, with five of six showing higher pressure in diverticulosis vs controls, but only two reached statistical significance. A meta-analysis was not performed as only two studies were above the cut-off and these did not have comparable outcomes. This systematic review of manometry data shows that evidence for abnormal pressure in the sigmoid colon in patients with diverticulosis is weak. Existing studies utilized inconsistent methodology, showed heterogeneous results and are of limited quality. Higher quality studies using modern manometric techniques and standardized reporting methods are needed to clarify the role of colonic pressure in diverticulosis. Colorectal Disease © 2017 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  2. ASD and schizophrenia show distinct developmental profiles in common genetic overlap with population-based social communication difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Pourcain, B; Robinson, E B; Anttila, V; Sullivan, B B; Maller, J; Golding, J; Skuse, D; Ring, S; Evans, D M; Zammit, S; Fisher, S E; Neale, B M; Anney, R J L; Ripke, S; Hollegaard, M V; Werge, T; Ronald, A; Grove, J; Hougaard, D M; Børglum, A D; Mortensen, P B; Daly, M J; Davey Smith, G

    2018-02-01

    Difficulties in social communication are part of the phenotypic overlap between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia. Both conditions follow, however, distinct developmental patterns. Symptoms of ASD typically occur during early childhood, whereas most symptoms characteristic of schizophrenia do not appear before early adulthood. We investigated whether overlap in common genetic influences between these clinical conditions and impairments in social communication depends on the developmental stage of the assessed trait. Social communication difficulties were measured in typically-developing youth (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, N⩽5553, longitudinal assessments at 8, 11, 14 and 17 years) using the Social Communication Disorder Checklist. Data on clinical ASD (PGC-ASD: 5305 cases, 5305 pseudo-controls; iPSYCH-ASD: 7783 cases, 11 359 controls) and schizophrenia (PGC-SCZ2: 34 241 cases, 45 604 controls, 1235 trios) were either obtained through the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) or the Danish iPSYCH project. Overlap in genetic influences between ASD and social communication difficulties during development decreased with age, both in the PGC-ASD and the iPSYCH-ASD sample. Genetic overlap between schizophrenia and social communication difficulties, by contrast, persisted across age, as observed within two independent PGC-SCZ2 subsamples, and showed an increase in magnitude for traits assessed during later adolescence. ASD- and schizophrenia-related polygenic effects were unrelated to each other and changes in trait-disorder links reflect the heterogeneity of genetic factors influencing social communication difficulties during childhood versus later adolescence. Thus, both clinical ASD and schizophrenia share some genetic influences with impairments in social communication, but reveal distinct developmental profiles in their genetic links, consistent with the onset of clinical symptoms.

  3. DNA Methylation Profiling of Human Prefrontal Cortex Neurons in Heroin Users Shows Significant Difference between Genomic Contexts of Hyper- and Hypomethylation and a Younger Epigenetic Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kozlenkov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We employed Illumina 450 K Infinium microarrays to profile DNA methylation (DNAm in neuronal nuclei separated by fluorescence-activated sorting from the postmortem orbitofrontal cortex (OFC of heroin users who died from heroin overdose (N = 37, suicide completers (N = 22 with no evidence of heroin use and from control subjects who did not abuse illicit drugs and died of non-suicide causes (N = 28. We identified 1298 differentially methylated CpG sites (DMSs between heroin users and controls, and 454 DMSs between suicide completers and controls (p < 0.001. DMSs and corresponding genes (DMGs in heroin users showed significant differences in the preferential context of hyper and hypo DM. HyperDMSs were enriched in gene bodies and exons but depleted in promoters, whereas hypoDMSs were enriched in promoters and enhancers. In addition, hyperDMGs showed preference for genes expressed specifically by glutamatergic as opposed to GABAergic neurons and enrichment for axonogenesis- and synaptic-related gene ontology categories, whereas hypoDMGs were enriched for transcription factor activity- and gene expression regulation-related terms. Finally, we found that the DNAm-based “epigenetic age” of neurons from heroin users was younger than that in controls. Suicide-related results were more difficult to interpret. Collectively, these findings suggest that the observed DNAm differences could represent functionally significant marks of heroin-associated plasticity in the OFC.

  4. Translation, cross-cultural adaption and measurement properties of the evidence-based practice profile

    OpenAIRE

    Titlestad, Kristine Berg; Snibsoer, Anne Kristin; Stromme, Hilde; Nortvedt, Monica Wammen; Graverholt, Birgitte; Espehaug, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    Background The evidence-based practice profile (EBP2) questionnaire assesses students? self-reported knowledge, behaviour and attitudes related to evidence-based practice. The aim of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt EBP2 into Norwegian and to evaluate the reliability, validity and responsiveness of the Norwegian version. Methods EBP2 was translated and cross-culturally adapted using recommended methodology. Face validity and feasibility were evaluated in a pilot on bache...

  5. Categorical methods for the interpretation of RNA profiles as cell type evidence and their limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zoete, J.; Curran, J.; Sjerps, M.

    2015-01-01

    Existing methods for the interpretation of RNA profiles as evidence for the presence of certain cell types aim for making categorical statements. Such statements limit the possibility to report the associated uncertainty. From a statistical point of view, a probabilistic approach is a preferable

  6. A probabilistic approach for the interpretation of RNA profiles as cell type evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zoete, J.; Curran, J.; Sjerps, M.

    2016-01-01

    DNA profiles can be used as evidence to distinguish between possible donors of a crime stain. In some cases, both the prosecution and the defence claim that the cell material was left by the suspect but they dispute which cell type was left behind. For example, in sexual offense cases the

  7. Evidence that we can change the profile from a study of inclusive education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Sue; Bird, Gillian; Sacks, Ben

    2006-06-01

    This paper discusses the evidence that the specific developmental profile frequently described as being associated with Down syndrome--a profile of communication weaknesses relative to social and daily living skills - can be changed. It is not an inevitable outcome of having Down syndrome. Drawing on data collected to explore the outcomes of fully inclusive education for school-age children with Down syndrome, the authors identify that the profile is seen in teenagers in special education settings but is not evident for teenagers in inclusive education. They argue that this is the result of both the effects of fully inclusive education and teaching approaches which have been adapted to address the cognitive and communication weaknesses of the children from an early age.

  8. Discrimination among individuals using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism profiling of bacteria derived from forensic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Eiji; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sakai, Kenji

    2015-05-01

    DNA typing from forensic evidence is commonly used to identify individuals. However, when the quantity of the forensic evidence is insufficient, successful identification using DNA typing is impossible. Such evidence may also contain DNA from bacteria that occur naturally on the skin. In this study, we aimed to establish a profiling method using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLPs) of the amplified bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. First, the extraction and digestion processes were investigated, and the T-RFLP profiling method using the 16S rRNA gene amplicon was optimized. We then used this method to compare the profiles of bacterial flora from the hands of 12 different individuals. We found that the T-RFLP profiles from one person on different days displayed higher similarity than those between individuals. In a principal component analysis (PCA), T-RFLPs from each individual were closely clustered in 11 out of 12 cases. The clusters could be distinguished from each other, even when the samples were collected from different conditions. No major change of the profile was observed after six months except in two cases. When handprints on glass plates were compared, 11 of 12 individuals were assigned to a few clusters including the cluster corresponding to the correct individual. In conclusion, a method for reproducible T-RFLP profiling of bacteria from trace amounts of handprints was established. The profiles were obtained for particular individuals clustered in PCA and were experimentally separable from other individuals in most cases. This technique could provide useful information for narrowing down a suspect in a criminal investigation.

  9. Polymorphism of CRISPR shows separated natural groupings of Shigella subtypes and evidence of horizontal transfer of CRISPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chaojie; Li, Peng; Su, Wenli; Li, Hao; Liu, Hongbo; Yang, Guang; Xie, Jing; Yi, Shengjie; Wang, Jian; Cui, Xianyan; Wu, Zhihao; Wang, Ligui; Hao, Rongzhang; Jia, Leili; Qiu, Shaofu; Song, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) act as an adaptive RNA-mediated immune mechanism in bacteria. They can also be used for identification and evolutionary studies based on polymorphisms within the CRISPR locus. We amplified and analyzed 6 CRISPR loci from 237 Shigella strains belonging to the 4 species groups, as well as 13 Escherichia coli strains. The CRISPR-associated (cas) gene sequence arrays of these strains were screened and compared. The CRISPR sequences from Shigella were conserved among subtypes, suggesting that CRISPR may represent a new identification tool for the detection and discrimination of Shigella species. Secondary structure analysis showed a different stem-loop structure at the terminal repeat, suggesting a distinct recognition mechanism in the formation of crRNA. In addition, the presence of “self-target” spacers and polymorphisms within CRISPR in Shigella indicated a selective pressure for inhibition of this system, which has the potential to damage “self DNA.” Homology analysis of spacers showed that CRISPR might be involved in the regulation of virulence transmission. Phylogenetic analysis based on CRISPR sequences from Shigella and E. coli indicated that although phenotypic properties maintain convergent evolution, the 4 Shigella species do not represent natural groupings. Surprisingly, comparative analysis of Shigella repeats with other species provided new evidence for CRISPR horizontal transfer. Our results suggested that CRISPR analysis is applicable for the detection of Shigella species and for investigation of evolutionary relationships. PMID:26327282

  10. Polymorphism of CRISPR shows separated natural groupings of Shigella subtypes and evidence of horizontal transfer of CRISPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chaojie; Li, Peng; Su, Wenli; Li, Hao; Liu, Hongbo; Yang, Guang; Xie, Jing; Yi, Shengjie; Wang, Jian; Cui, Xianyan; Wu, Zhihao; Wang, Ligui; Hao, Rongzhang; Jia, Leili; Qiu, Shaofu; Song, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) act as an adaptive RNA-mediated immune mechanism in bacteria. They can also be used for identification and evolutionary studies based on polymorphisms within the CRISPR locus. We amplified and analyzed 6 CRISPR loci from 237 Shigella strains belonging to the 4 species groups, as well as 13 Escherichia coli strains. The CRISPR-associated (cas) gene sequence arrays of these strains were screened and compared. The CRISPR sequences from Shigella were conserved among subtypes, suggesting that CRISPR may represent a new identification tool for the detection and discrimination of Shigella species. Secondary structure analysis showed a different stem-loop structure at the terminal repeat, suggesting a distinct recognition mechanism in the formation of crRNA. In addition, the presence of "self-target" spacers and polymorphisms within CRISPR in Shigella indicated a selective pressure for inhibition of this system, which has the potential to damage "self DNA." Homology analysis of spacers showed that CRISPR might be involved in the regulation of virulence transmission. Phylogenetic analysis based on CRISPR sequences from Shigella and E. coli indicated that although phenotypic properties maintain convergent evolution, the 4 Shigella species do not represent natural groupings. Surprisingly, comparative analysis of Shigella repeats with other species provided new evidence for CRISPR horizontal transfer. Our results suggested that CRISPR analysis is applicable for the detection of Shigella species and for investigation of evolutionary relationships.

  11. A Mouse Model of Hyperproliferative Human Epithelium Validated by Keratin Profiling Shows an Aberrant Cytoskeletal Response to Injury

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    Samal Zhussupbekova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A validated animal model would assist with research on the immunological consequences of the chronic expression of stress keratins KRT6, KRT16, and KRT17, as observed in human pre-malignant hyperproliferative epithelium. Here we examine keratin gene expression profile in skin from mice expressing the E7 oncoprotein of HPV16 (K14E7 demonstrating persistently hyperproliferative epithelium, in nontransgenic mouse skin, and in hyperproliferative actinic keratosis lesions from human skin. We demonstrate that K14E7 mouse skin overexpresses stress keratins in a similar manner to human actinic keratoses, that overexpression is a consequence of epithelial hyperproliferation induced by E7, and that overexpression further increases in response to injury. As stress keratins modify local immunity and epithelial cell function and differentiation, the K14E7 mouse model should permit study of how continued overexpression of stress keratins impacts on epithelial tumor development and on local innate and adaptive immunity.

  12. Transcriptome profiling of low temperature-treated cassava apical shoots showed dynamic responses of tropical plant to cold stress

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    An Dong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cassava is an important tropical root crop adapted to a wide range of environmental stimuli such as drought and acid soils. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Thus far, there is limited information about gene regulation and signalling pathways related to the cold stress response in cassava. The development of microarray technology has accelerated the study of global transcription profiling under certain conditions. Results A 60-mer oligonucleotide microarray representing 20,840 genes was used to perform transcriptome profiling in apical shoots of cassava subjected to cold at 7°C for 0, 4 and 9 h. A total of 508 transcripts were identified as early cold-responsive genes in which 319 sequences had functional descriptions when aligned with Arabidopsis proteins. Gene ontology annotation analysis identified many cold-relevant categories, including 'Response to abiotic and biotic stimulus', 'Response to stress', 'Transcription factor activity', and 'Chloroplast'. Various stress-associated genes with a wide range of biological functions were found, such as signal transduction components (e.g., MAP kinase 4, transcription factors (TFs, e.g., RAP2.11, and reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging enzymes (e.g., catalase 2, as well as photosynthesis-related genes (e.g., PsaL. Seventeen major TF families including many well-studied members (e.g., AP2-EREBP were also involved in the early response to cold stress. Meanwhile, KEGG pathway analysis uncovered many important pathways, such as 'Plant hormone signal transduction' and 'Starch and sucrose metabolism'. Furthermore, the expression changes of 32 genes under cold and other abiotic stress conditions were validated by real-time RT-PCR. Importantly, most of the tested stress-responsive genes were primarily expressed in mature leaves, stem cambia, and fibrous roots rather than apical buds and young leaves. As a response to cold stress in cassava, an increase

  13. Human colon cancer profiles show differential microRNA expression depending on mismatch repair status and are characteristic of undifferentiated proliferative states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarver, Aaron L; Cunningham, Julie M; Subramanian, Subbaya; Wang, Liang; Smyrk, Tom C; Rodrigues, Cecilia MP; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Steer, Clifford J; French, Amy J; Borralho, Pedro M; Thayanithy, Venugopal; Oberg, Ann L; Silverstein, Kevin AT; Morlan, Bruce W; Riska, Shaun M; Boardman, Lisa A

    2009-01-01

    Colon cancer arises from the accumulation of multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations to normal colonic tissue. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding regulatory RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. Differential miRNA expression in cancer versus normal tissue is a common event and may be pivotal for tumor onset and progression. To identify miRNAs that are differentially expressed in tumors and tumor subtypes, we carried out highly sensitive expression profiling of 735 miRNAs on samples obtained from a statistically powerful set of tumors (n = 80) and normal colon tissue (n = 28) and validated a subset of this data by qRT-PCR. Tumor specimens showed highly significant and large fold change differential expression of the levels of 39 miRNAs including miR-135b, miR-96, miR-182, miR-183, miR-1, and miR-133a, relative to normal colon tissue. Significant differences were also seen in 6 miRNAs including miR-31 and miR-592, in the direct comparison of tumors that were deficient or proficient for mismatch repair. Examination of the genomic regions containing differentially expressed miRNAs revealed that they were also differentially methylated in colon cancer at a far greater rate than would be expected by chance. A network of interactions between these miRNAs and genes associated with colon cancer provided evidence for the role of these miRNAs as oncogenes by attenuation of tumor suppressor genes. Colon tumors show differential expression of miRNAs depending on mismatch repair status. miRNA expression in colon tumors has an epigenetic component and altered expression that may reflect a reversion to regulatory programs characteristic of undifferentiated proliferative developmental states

  14. Man's underground best friend: domestic ferrets, unlike the wild forms, show evidence of dog-like social-cognitive skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernádi, Anna; Kis, Anna; Turcsán, Borbála; Topál, József

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has shown that dogs' possess surprisingly sophisticated human-like social communication skills compared to wolves or chimpanzees. The effects of domestication on the emergence of socio-cognitive skills, however, are still highly debated. One way to investigate this is to compare socialized individuals from closely related domestic and wild species. In the present study we tested domestic ferrets (Mustela furo) and compared their performance to a group of wild Mustela hybrids and to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). We found that, in contrast to wild Mustela hybrids, both domestic ferrets and dogs tolerated eye-contact for a longer time when facing their owners versus the experimenter and they showed a preference in a two-way choice task towards their owners. Furthermore, domestic ferrets, unlike the wild hybrids, were able to follow human directional gestures (sustained touching; momentary pointing) and could reach the success rate of dogs. Our study provides the first evidence that domestic ferrets, in a certain sense, are more dog-like than their wild counterparts. These findings support the hypothesis that domestic species may share basic socio-cognitive skills that enable them to engage in effectively orchestrated social interactions with humans.

  15. Man's underground best friend: domestic ferrets, unlike the wild forms, show evidence of dog-like social-cognitive skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Hernádi

    Full Text Available Recent research has shown that dogs' possess surprisingly sophisticated human-like social communication skills compared to wolves or chimpanzees. The effects of domestication on the emergence of socio-cognitive skills, however, are still highly debated. One way to investigate this is to compare socialized individuals from closely related domestic and wild species. In the present study we tested domestic ferrets (Mustela furo and compared their performance to a group of wild Mustela hybrids and to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris. We found that, in contrast to wild Mustela hybrids, both domestic ferrets and dogs tolerated eye-contact for a longer time when facing their owners versus the experimenter and they showed a preference in a two-way choice task towards their owners. Furthermore, domestic ferrets, unlike the wild hybrids, were able to follow human directional gestures (sustained touching; momentary pointing and could reach the success rate of dogs. Our study provides the first evidence that domestic ferrets, in a certain sense, are more dog-like than their wild counterparts. These findings support the hypothesis that domestic species may share basic socio-cognitive skills that enable them to engage in effectively orchestrated social interactions with humans.

  16. Genome-wide expression profiling shows transcriptional reprogramming in Fusarium graminearum by Fusarium graminearum virus 1-DK21 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Won

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fusarium graminearum virus 1 strain-DK21 (FgV1-DK21 is a mycovirus that confers hypovirulence to F. graminearum, which is the primary phytopathogenic fungus that causes Fusarium head blight (FHB disease in many cereals. Understanding the interaction between mycoviruses and plant pathogenic fungi is necessary for preventing damage caused by F. graminearum. Therefore, we investigated important cellular regulatory processes in a host containing FgV1-DK21 as compared to an uninfected parent using a transcriptional approach. Results Using a 3′-tiling microarray covering all known F. graminearum genes, we carried out genome-wide expression analyses of F. graminearum at two different time points. At the early point of growth of an infected strain as compared to an uninfected strain, genes associated with protein synthesis, including ribosome assembly, nucleolus, and ribosomal RNA processing, were significantly up-regulated. In addition, genes required for transcription and signal transduction, including fungal-specific transcription factors and cAMP signaling, respectively, were actively up-regulated. In contrast, genes involved in various metabolic pathways, particularly in producing carboxylic acids, aromatic amino acids, nitrogen compounds, and polyamines, showed dramatic down-regulation at the early time point. Moreover, genes associated with transport systems localizing to transmembranes were down-regulated at both time points. Conclusion This is the first report of global change in the prominent cellular pathways in the Fusarium host containing FgV1-DK21. The significant increase in transcripts for transcription and translation machinery in fungal host cells seems to be related to virus replication. In addition, significant down-regulation of genes required for metabolism and transporting systems in a fungal host containing the virus appears to be related to the host defense mechanism and fungal virulence. Taken together

  17. The transcriptional profile of mesenchymal stem cell populations in primary osteoporosis is distinct and shows overexpression of osteogenic inhibitors.

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    Peggy Benisch

    Full Text Available Primary osteoporosis is an age-related disease characterized by an imbalance in bone homeostasis. While the resorptive aspect of the disease has been studied intensely, less is known about the anabolic part of the syndrome or presumptive deficiencies in bone regeneration. Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSC are the primary source of osteogenic regeneration. In the present study we aimed to unravel whether MSC biology is directly involved in the pathophysiology of the disease and therefore performed microarray analyses of hMSC of elderly patients (79-94 years old suffering from osteoporosis (hMSC-OP. In comparison to age-matched controls we detected profound changes in the transcriptome in hMSC-OP, e.g. enhanced mRNA expression of known osteoporosis-associated genes (LRP5, RUNX2, COL1A1 and of genes involved in osteoclastogenesis (CSF1, PTH1R, but most notably of genes coding for inhibitors of WNT and BMP signaling, such as Sclerostin and MAB21L2. These candidate genes indicate intrinsic deficiencies in self-renewal and differentiation potential in osteoporotic stem cells. We also compared both hMSC-OP and non-osteoporotic hMSC-old of elderly donors to hMSC of ∼30 years younger donors and found that the transcriptional changes acquired between the sixth and the ninth decade of life differed widely between osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic stem cells. In addition, we compared the osteoporotic transcriptome to long term-cultivated, senescent hMSC and detected some signs for pre-senescence in hMSC-OP.Our results suggest that in primary osteoporosis the transcriptomes of hMSC populations show distinct signatures and little overlap with non-osteoporotic aging, although we detected some hints for senescence-associated changes. While there are remarkable inter-individual variations as expected for polygenetic diseases, we could identify many susceptibility genes for osteoporosis known from genetic studies. We also found new candidates, e.g. MAB21L

  18. Evidence-based practice profiles of physiotherapists transitioning into the workforce: a study of two cohorts

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    McEvoy Maureen P

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Training in the five steps of evidence-based practice (EBP has been recommended for inclusion in entry-level health professional training. The effectiveness of EBP education has been explored predominantly in the medical and nursing professions and more commonly in post-graduate than entry-level students. Few studies have investigated longitudinal changes in EBP attitudes and behaviours. This study aimed to assess the changes in EBP knowledge, attitudes and behaviours in entry-level physiotherapy students transitioning into the workforce. Methods A prospective, observational, longitudinal design was used, with two cohorts. From 2008, 29 participants were tested in their final year in a physiotherapy program, and after the first and second workforce years. From 2009, 76 participants were tested in their final entry-level and first workforce years. Participants completed an Evidence-Based Practice Profile questionnaire (EBP2, which includes self-report EBP domains [Relevance, Terminology (knowledge of EBP concepts, Confidence, Practice (EBP implementation, Sympathy (disposition towards EBP]. Mixed model analysis with sequential Bonferroni adjustment was used to analyse the matched data. Effect sizes (ES (95% CI were calculated for all changes. Results Effect sizes of the changes in EBP domains were small (ES range 0.02 to 0.42. While most changes were not significant there was a consistent pattern of decline in scores for Relevance in the first workforce year (ES -0.42 to -0.29 followed by an improvement in the second year (ES +0.27. Scores in Terminology improved (ES +0.19 to +0.26 in each of the first two workforce years, while Practice scores declined (ES -0.23 to -0.19 in the first year and improved minimally in the second year (ES +0.04. Confidence scores improved during the second workforce year (ES +0.27. Scores for Sympathy showed little change. Conclusions During the first two years in the workforce, there was a

  19. Evidence of the influence of reflections on the Zeff profile measurements and their mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schunke, B.; Huysmans, G.; Thomas, P.

    2004-01-01

    There is a significant interest in the reconstruction of the mean effective charge (Zeff) profile to assess the control of the plasma impurities. On Tore-Supra a modified Abel inversion of the visible Bremsstrahlung allows the calculation of the Zeff profile. Although the total number of viewing lines of the Bremsstrahlung diagnostic is small, the method gives acceptable accuracy due to the high poloidal symmetry (circularity) of the Tore-Supra plasma. It has been noticed that the outer channels were often over-estimated, giving unphysical high Zeff at the edge of 20 or more. An experimental set-up using dedicated discharges has showed that reflections on the vacuum vessel wall are responsible for the additional signal component. It was attempted to model the impact of these reflections on the calculated profile but it appeared that the choice of the model depends strongly on the accurate value of the reflection coefficient of the vacuum wall of Tore-Supra

  20. Evidence of the influence of reflections on the Zeff profile measurements and their mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunke, B.; Huysmans, G.; Thomas, P

    2004-07-01

    There is a significant interest in the reconstruction of the mean effective charge (Zeff) profile to assess the control of the plasma impurities. On Tore-Supra a modified Abel inversion of the visible Bremsstrahlung allows the calculation of the Zeff profile. Although the total number of viewing lines of the Bremsstrahlung diagnostic is small, the method gives acceptable accuracy due to the high poloidal symmetry (circularity) of the Tore-Supra plasma. It has been noticed that the outer channels were often over-estimated, giving unphysical high Zeff at the edge of 20 or more. An experimental set-up using dedicated discharges has showed that reflections on the vacuum vessel wall are responsible for the additional signal component. It was attempted to model the impact of these reflections on the calculated profile but it appeared that the choice of the model depends strongly on the accurate value of the reflection coefficient of the vacuum wall of Tore-Supra.

  1. A 10-Day Developmental Voyage: Converging Evidence from Three Studies Showing that Self-Esteem May Be Elevated and Maintained without Negative Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, S.; Hunter, J. A.; Hayhurst, J.; Boyes, M.; Thomson, R. L.; Clarke, H.; Grocott, A. M.; Stringer, M.; O'Brien, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    Empirical evidence shows that educational experiences in the context of the outdoors lead to elevated self-esteem. Although elevated self-esteem is widely assumed to promote beneficial outcomes, recent evidence suggests that elevated self-esteem may also facilitate a variety of negative outcomes (i.e., increased prejudice, aggression, drug and…

  2. Lack of evidence that the XqYq pairing tips at meiosis in the mouse show hypersensitivity to DNAse I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Separovic, E R; Chandley, A C

    1987-01-01

    In situ nick translation procedures have been applied to meiotic metaphase I divisions of the normal and XY, Sxr mouse. Unlike in man, where the pairing tips of the XY bivalent show a special sensitivity to DNAse I nicking, no such sensitivity can be detected for either of these types of mouse. Hypersensitivity in the D-band equivalent region of the X chromosome does, however, exist, this site being early replicating in somatic cells and housing the X inactivation centre (Xce).

  3. A probabilistic approach for the interpretation of RNA profiles as cell type evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zoete, Jacob; Curran, James; Sjerps, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    DNA profiles can be used as evidence to distinguish between possible donors of a crime stain. In some cases, both the prosecution and the defence claim that the cell material was left by the suspect but they dispute which cell type was left behind. For example, in sexual offense cases the prosecution could claim that the sample contains semen cells where the defence argues that the sample contains skin cells. In these cases, traditional methods (e.g. a phosphatase test) can be used to examine the cell type contained in the sample. However, there are some drawbacks when using these methods. For instance, many of these techniques need to be carried out separately for each cell type and each of them requires part of the available sample, which reduces the amount that can be used for DNA analysis. Another option is messenger RNA (mRNA) evidence. mRNA expression levels vary among cell types and can be used to make (probability) statements about the cell type(s) present in a sample. Existing methods for the interpretation of RNA profiles as evidence for the presence of certain cell types aim at making categorical statements. Such statements limit the possibility to report the associated uncertainty. Some of these existing methods will be discussed. Most notably, a method based on a 'n/2' scoring rule (Lindenbergh et al.) and a method using marker values and cell type scoring thresholds (Roeder et al.). From a statistical point of view, a probabilistic approach is the most obvious choice. Two approaches (multinomial logistic regression and naïve Bayes') are suggested. All methods are compared, using two different datasets and several criteria regarding their ability to assess the evidential value of RNA profiles. We conclude that both the naïve Bayes' method and a method based on multinomial logistic regression, that produces a probabilistic statement as measure of the evidential value, are an important improvement of the existing methods. Besides a better performance

  4. Molecular evidence shows that the liver fluke Fasciola gigantica is the predominant Fasciola species in ruminants from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, U; van Paridon, B; Shabbir, M Z; Shafee, M; Ashraf, K; Yaqub, T; Gilleard, J

    2016-03-01

    Fascioliasis is an important disease affecting livestock, with great costs to producers worldwide. It has also become a serious issue for human populations in some endemic areas as an emerging zoonotic infection. There are two Fasciola species of liver fluke responsible for this disease, which occur worldwide, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. Identifying these two species on the basis of adult or egg morphology requires specialist knowledge due to the similarity of characters, and may misidentify putative intermediate or hybrid forms. In this study we sequenced the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) rDNA of liver flukes collected from multiple species of hosts from seven localities in the Punjab and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan, to determine the distribution of these two species. All 46 flukes processed in this study, collected from seven sites, showed the rDNA ITS-2 genotype corresponding to F. gigantica, contradicting previous reports, based on adult and egg morphology, that both species are present in Pakistan, with F. hepatica being the more common.

  5. Immunohistochemical evidences showing the presence of thymulin containing cells located in involuted thymus and in peripheral lymphoid organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Folch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thymulin is a well-characterized thymic hormone that exists as a nonapeptide coupled to equimolar amounts of Zn2+. Thymulin is known to have multiple biological roles, including T cell differentiation, immune regulation, and analgesic functions. It has been shown that thymulin is produced by the reticulo-epithelial cells of the thymus, and it circulates in the blood from the moment of birth, maintain its serum level until puberty diminishing thereafter in life. To study the localization of this hormone, we prepared polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against the commercial peptide and utilized immunocytochemical techniques for visualization. The results indicate that thymulin stains the thymic reticular cells, the outer layers of Hassall's corpuscles and a large round cellular type, which is keratin-negative and does not show affinity for the common leukocyte antigen (CD-45. In mice, this thymulin-positive cell remains in the thymus throughout life and even appears in relatively increased numbers in old involuted thymi. It also appears in thymus-dependent areas of the spleen and lymph nodes, demonstrating that at least one of the thymus cells containing this peptide can be found in peripheral lymphoid tissue.

  6. Eurasian jays do not copy the choices of conspecifics, but they do show evidence of stimulus enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Miller

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Corvids (birds in the crow family are hypothesised to have a general cognitive tool-kit because they show a wide range of transferrable skills across social, physical and temporal tasks, despite differences in socioecology. However, it is unknown whether relatively asocial corvids differ from social corvids in their use of social information in the context of copying the choices of others, because only one such test has been conducted in a relatively asocial corvid. We investigated whether relatively asocial Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius use social information (i.e., information made available by others. Previous studies have indicated that jays attend to social context in their caching and mate provisioning behaviour; however, it is unknown whether jays copy the choices of others. We tested the jays in two different tasks varying in difficulty, where social corvid species have demonstrated social information use in both tasks. Firstly, an object-dropping task was conducted requiring objects to be dropped down a tube to release a food reward from a collapsible platform, which corvids can learn through explicit training. Only one rook and one New Caledonian crow have learned the task using social information from a demonstrator. Secondly, we tested the birds on a simple colour discrimination task, which should be easy to solve, because it has been shown that corvids can make colour discriminations. Using the same colour discrimination task in a previous study, all common ravens and carrion crows copied the demonstrator. After observing a conspecific demonstrator, none of the jays solved the object-dropping task, though all jays were subsequently able to learn to solve the task in a non-social situation through explicit training, and jays chose the demonstrated colour at chance levels. Our results suggest that social and relatively asocial corvids differ in social information use, indicating that relatively asocial species may have

  7. Lectin Staining Shows no Evidence of Involvement of Glycocalyx/Mucous Layer Carbohydrate Structures in Development of Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Toft-Hansen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of unique carbohydrate structures in the glycocalyx/mucous layer of the intestine may be involved in a susceptibility to celiac disease (CD by serving as attachment sites for bacteria. This host-microbiota interaction may influence the development of CD and possibly other diseases with autoimmune components. We examined duodenal biopsies from a total of 30 children, of which 10 had both celiac disease (CD and type 1 diabetes (T1D; 10 had CD alone; and 10 were suspected of having gastrointestinal disease, but had normal duodenal histology (non-CD controls. Patients with both CD and T1D were examined before and after remission following a gluten-free diet. We performed lectin histochemistry using peanut agglutinin (PNA and Ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA staining for Gal-β(1,3-GalNAc and Fucα1-2Gal-R, respectively, of the glycocalyx/mucous layer. The staining was scored based on dissemination of stained structures on a scale from 0 to 3. Evaluation of the scores revealed no difference between biopsies obtained before and after remission in the group of children with both CD and T1D. A comparison of this pre-remission group with the children who had CD alone or the non-CD controls also showed no significant differences. Based on our material, we found no indication that the presence of Gal-β(1,3-GalNAc or Fucα1-2Gal-R is involved in the susceptibility to CD, or that the disease process affects the expression of these carbohydrates.

  8. Lectin Staining Shows no Evidence of Involvement of Glycocalyx/Mucous Layer Carbohydrate Structures in Development of Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toft-Hansen, Henrik; Nielsen, Christian; Biagini, Matteo; Husby, Steffen; Lillevang, Søren T.

    2013-01-01

    The presence of unique carbohydrate structures in the glycocalyx/mucous layer of the intestine may be involved in a susceptibility to celiac disease (CD) by serving as attachment sites for bacteria. This host-microbiota interaction may influence the development of CD and possibly other diseases with autoimmune components. We examined duodenal biopsies from a total of 30 children, of which 10 had both celiac disease (CD) and type 1 diabetes (T1D); 10 had CD alone; and 10 were suspected of having gastrointestinal disease, but had normal duodenal histology (non-CD controls). Patients with both CD and T1D were examined before and after remission following a gluten-free diet. We performed lectin histochemistry using peanut agglutinin (PNA) and Ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA) staining for Gal-β(1,3)-GalNAc and Fucα1-2Gal-R, respectively, of the glycocalyx/mucous layer. The staining was scored based on dissemination of stained structures on a scale from 0 to 3. Evaluation of the scores revealed no difference between biopsies obtained before and after remission in the group of children with both CD and T1D. A comparison of this pre-remission group with the children who had CD alone or the non-CD controls also showed no significant differences. Based on our material, we found no indication that the presence of Gal-β(1,3)-GalNAc or Fucα1-2Gal-R is involved in the susceptibility to CD, or that the disease process affects the expression of these carbohydrates. PMID:24253051

  9. Genetic variability in MCF-7 sublines: evidence of rapid genomic and RNA expression profile modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nugoli, Mélanie; Theillet, Charles; Chuchana, Paul; Vendrell, Julie; Orsetti, Béatrice; Ursule, Lisa; Nguyen, Catherine; Birnbaum, Daniel; Douzery, Emmanuel JP; Cohen, Pascale

    2003-01-01

    Both phenotypic and cytogenetic variability have been reported for clones of breast carcinoma cell lines but have not been comprehensively studied. Despite this, cell lines such as MCF-7 cells are extensively used as model systems. In this work we documented, using CGH and RNA expression profiles, the genetic variability at the genomic and RNA expression levels of MCF-7 cells of different origins. Eight MCF-7 sublines collected from different sources were studied as well as 3 subclones isolated from one of the sublines by limit dilution. MCF-7 sublines showed important differences in copy number alteration (CNA) profiles. Overall numbers of events ranged from 28 to 41. Involved chromosomal regions varied greatly from a subline to another. A total of 62 chromosomal regions were affected by either gains or losses in the 11 sublines studied. We performed a phylogenetic analysis of CGH profiles using maximum parsimony in order to reconstruct the putative filiation of the 11 MCF-7 sublines. The phylogenetic tree obtained showed that the MCF-7 clade was characterized by a restricted set of 8 CNAs and that the most divergent subline occupied the position closest to the common ancestor. Expression profiles of 8 MCF-7 sublines were analyzed along with those of 19 unrelated breast cancer cell lines using home made cDNA arrays comprising 720 genes. Hierarchical clustering analysis of the expression data showed that 7/8 MCF-7 sublines were grouped forming a cluster while the remaining subline clustered with unrelated breast cancer cell lines. These data thus showed that MCF-7 sublines differed at both the genomic and phenotypic levels. The analysis of CGH profiles of the parent subline and its three subclones supported the heteroclonal nature of MCF-7 cells. This strongly suggested that the genetic plasticity of MCF-7 cells was related to their intrinsic capacity to generate clonal heterogeneity. We propose that MCF-7, and possibly the breast tumor it was derived from, evolved

  10. Development and psychometric testing of a trans-professional evidence-based practice profile questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Maureen Patricia; Williams, Marie T; Olds, Timothy Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Previous survey tools operationalising knowledge, attitudes or beliefs about evidence-based practice (EBP) have shortcomings in content, psychometric properties and target audience. This study developed and psychometrically assessed a self-report trans-professional questionnaire to describe an EBP profile. Sixty-six items were collated from existing EBP questionnaires and administered to 526 academics and students from health and non-health backgrounds. Principal component factor analysis revealed the presence of five factors (Relevance, Terminology, Confidence, Practice and Sympathy). Following expert panel review and pilot testing, the 58-item final questionnaire was disseminated to 105 subjects on two occasions. Test-retest and internal reliability were quantified using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Cronbach's alpha, convergent validity against a commonly used EBP questionnaire by Pearson's correlation coefficient and discriminative validity via analysis of variance (ANOVA) based on exposure to EBP training. The final questionnaire demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.96), test-retest reliability (ICCs range 0.77-0.94) and convergent validity (Practice 0.66, Confidence 0.80 and Sympathy 0.54). Three factors (Relevance, Terminology and Confidence) distinguished EBP exposure groups (ANOVA p profile (EBP(2)) questionnaire is a reliable instrument with the ability to discriminate for three factors, between respondents with differing EBP exposures.

  11. More pistachio nuts for improving the blood lipid profile. Systematic review of epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Mattiuzzi, Camilla

    2016-05-06

    Recent evidence suggests that regular intake of nuts may be associated with reduction of all-cause mortality, especially cardiovascular deaths. Among all types of nuts, pistachio displays the most favorable dietary composition. Therefore, we searched Medline and ISI Web of Science to identify interventional studies which evaluated changes of conventional blood lipids after replacing part of normal caloric intake with pistachio nuts in humans. Overall, 9 studies were finally included in our systematical literature review (4 randomized crossover, 3 randomized controlled and 3 prospective). In 6/9 (67%) interventional studies total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) decreased, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased. In all studies total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio (7/7; 100%) and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (6/6; 100%) decreased after replacing caloric intake with pistachio nuts for not less than 3 weeks. A significant reduction of triglycerides could only be observed in 2 out of 8 studies (25%). Even more importantly, in no interventional study the intake of pistachio nuts was associated with unfavorable changes of the lipid profile. The results of our literature search provide solid evidence that intake of pistachio nuts may exerts favorable effects on the traditional blood profile, provided that their consumption does not increase the habitual or recommended daily caloric intake. It seems also reasonable to suggest that further studies aimed to investigate the favorable effects of nuts on human diseases should distinguish between one type and the others, since the different nuts exhibit unique dietary composition and may hence produce distinctive biological effects in humans.

  12. Profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Profiles is a synthetic overview of more than 100 national energy markets in the world, providing insightful facts and key energy statistics. A Profile is structured around 6 main items and completed by key statistics: Ministries, public agencies, energy policy are concerned; main companies in the oil, gas, electricity and coal sectors, status, shareholders; reserve, production, imports and exports, electricity and refining capacities; deregulation of prices, subsidies, taxes; consumption trends by sector, energy market shares; main energy projects, production and consumption prospects. Statistical Profiles are present in about 3 pages the main data and indicators on oil, gas, coal and electricity. (A.L.B.)

  13. Seasonality shows evidence for polygenic architecture and genetic correlation with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder – a meta-analysis of genetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Enda M; Raheja, Uttam; Stephens, Sarah H.; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela AF; Vaswani, Dipika; Nijjar, Gagan V.; Ryan, Kathleen A.; Youssufi, Hassaan; Gehrman, Philip R; Shuldiner, Alan R; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Wray, Naomi R; Nelson, Elliot C; Mitchell, Braxton D; Postolache, Teodor T

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test common genetic variants for association with seasonality (seasonal changes in mood and behavior) and to investigate whether there are shared genetic risk factors between psychiatric disorders and seasonality. Methods A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) conducted in Australian and Amish populations in whom the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) had been administered. The total sample size was 4,156 individuals. Genetic risk scores based on results from prior large GWAS studies of bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and schizophrenia (SCZ) were calculated to test for overlap in risk between psychiatric disorders and seasonality. Results The most significant association was with rs11825064 (p = 1.7 × 10−6, β = 0.64, S.E = 0.13), an intergenic SNP found on chromosome 11. The evidence for overlap in risk factors was strongest for SCZ and seasonality, with the SCZ genetic profile scores explaining 3% of the variance in log-transformed GSS. BD genetic profile scores were also significantly associated with seasonality, although at much weaker levels, and no evidence for overlap in risk was detected between MDD and seasonality. Conclusions Common SNPs of very large effect likely do not exist for seasonality in the populations examined. As expected, there was overlapping genetic risk factors for BD (but not MDD) with seasonality. Unexpectedly, the risk for SCZ and seasonality had the largest overlap, an unprecedented finding that requires replication in other populations, and has potential clinical implications considering overlapping cognitive deficits in seasonal affective disorders and SCZ PMID:25562672

  14. Aspergillus is monophyletic: Evidence from multiple gene phylogenies and extrolites profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kocsubé

    2016-09-01

    belonging to Aspergillus i.e. the clade comprising the subgenera Aspergillus, Circumdati, Fumigati, Nidulantes, section Cremei and certain species which were formerly part of the genera Phialosimplex and Polypaecilum. Section Cremei and the clade containing Polypaecilum and Phialosimplex are proposed as new subgenera of Aspergillus. The phylogenetic analysis also clearly shows that Aspergillus clavatoflavus and A. zonatus do not belong to the genus Aspergillus. Aspergillus clavatoflavus is therefore transferred to a new genus Aspergillago as Aspergillago clavatoflavus and A. zonatus was transferred to Penicilliopsis as P. zonata. The subgenera of Aspergillus share similar extrolite profiles indicating that the genus is one large genus from a chemotaxonomical point of view. Morphological and ecophysiological characteristics of the species also strongly indicate that Aspergillus is a polythetic class in phenotypic characters.

  15. Transcriptome profiling in conifers and the PiceaGenExpress database show patterns of diversification within gene families and interspecific conservation in vascular gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raherison Elie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conifers have very large genomes (13 to 30 Gigabases that are mostly uncharacterized although extensive cDNA resources have recently become available. This report presents a global overview of transcriptome variation in a conifer tree and documents conservation and diversity of gene expression patterns among major vegetative tissues. Results An oligonucleotide microarray was developed from Picea glauca and P. sitchensis cDNA datasets. It represents 23,853 unique genes and was shown to be suitable for transcriptome profiling in several species. A comparison of secondary xylem and phelloderm tissues showed that preferential expression in these vascular tissues was highly conserved among Picea spp. RNA-Sequencing strongly confirmed tissue preferential expression and provided a robust validation of the microarray design. A small database of transcription profiles called PiceaGenExpress was developed from over 150 hybridizations spanning eight major tissue types. In total, transcripts were detected for 92% of the genes on the microarray, in at least one tissue. Non-annotated genes were predominantly expressed at low levels in fewer tissues than genes of known or predicted function. Diversity of expression within gene families may be rapidly assessed from PiceaGenExpress. In conifer trees, dehydrins and late embryogenesis abundant (LEA osmotic regulation proteins occur in large gene families compared to angiosperms. Strong contrasts and low diversity was observed in the dehydrin family, while diverse patterns suggested a greater degree of diversification among LEAs. Conclusion Together, the oligonucleotide microarray and the PiceaGenExpress database represent the first resource of this kind for gymnosperm plants. The spruce transcriptome analysis reported here is expected to accelerate genetic studies in the large and important group comprised of conifer trees.

  16. MMPI-2: Cluster Analysis of Personality Profiles in Perinatal Depression—Preliminary Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Meuti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To assess personality characteristics of women who develop perinatal depression. Methods. The study started with a screening of a sample of 453 women in their third trimester of pregnancy, to which was administered a survey data form, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2 (MMPI-2. A clinical group of subjects with perinatal depression (PND, 55 subjects was selected; clinical and validity scales of MMPI-2 were used as predictors in hierarchical cluster analysis carried out. Results. The analysis identified three clusters of personality profile: two “clinical” clusters (1 and 3 and an “apparently common” one (cluster 2. The first cluster (39.5% collects structures of personality with prevalent obsessive or dependent functioning tending to develop a “psychasthenic” depression; the third cluster (13.95% includes women with prevalent borderline functioning tending to develop “dysphoric” depression; the second cluster (46.5% shows a normal profile with a “defensive” attitude, probably due to the presence of defense mechanisms or to the fear of stigma. Conclusion. Characteristics of personality have a key role in clinical manifestations of perinatal depression; it is important to detect them to identify mothers at risk and to plan targeted therapeutic interventions.

  17. MMPI-2: Cluster Analysis of Personality Profiles in Perinatal Depression—Preliminary Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Alessandra; Lauriola, Marco; Giacchetti, Nicoletta

    2014-01-01

    Background. To assess personality characteristics of women who develop perinatal depression. Methods. The study started with a screening of a sample of 453 women in their third trimester of pregnancy, to which was administered a survey data form, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2 (MMPI-2). A clinical group of subjects with perinatal depression (PND, 55 subjects) was selected; clinical and validity scales of MMPI-2 were used as predictors in hierarchical cluster analysis carried out. Results. The analysis identified three clusters of personality profile: two “clinical” clusters (1 and 3) and an “apparently common” one (cluster 2). The first cluster (39.5%) collects structures of personality with prevalent obsessive or dependent functioning tending to develop a “psychasthenic” depression; the third cluster (13.95%) includes women with prevalent borderline functioning tending to develop “dysphoric” depression; the second cluster (46.5%) shows a normal profile with a “defensive” attitude, probably due to the presence of defense mechanisms or to the fear of stigma. Conclusion. Characteristics of personality have a key role in clinical manifestations of perinatal depression; it is important to detect them to identify mothers at risk and to plan targeted therapeutic interventions. PMID:25574499

  18. Evidence of redshifts in the average solar line profiles of C IV and Si IV from OSO-8 observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel-Dupre, D.; Shine, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    Line profiles of C IV and Si V obtained by the Colorado spectrometer on OSO-8 are presented. It is shown that the mean profiles are redshifted with a magnitude varying from 6-20 km/s, and with a mean of 12 km/s. An apparent average downflow of material in the 50,000-100,000 K temperature range is measured. The redshifts are observed in the line center positions of spatially and temporally averaged profiles and are measured either relative to chromospheric Si I lines or from a comparison of sun center and limb profiles. The observations of 6-20 km/s redshifts place constraints on the mechanisms that dominate EUV line emission since it requires a strong weighting of the emission in regions of downward moving material, and since there is little evidence for corresponding upward moving materials in these lines.

  19. The shape of oxygen abundance profiles explored with MUSE: evidence for widespread deviations from single gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Menguiano, L.; Sánchez, S. F.; Pérez, I.; Ruiz-Lara, T.; Galbany, L.; Anderson, J. P.; Krühler, T.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Lyman, J. D.

    2018-02-01

    We characterised the oxygen abundance radial distribution of a sample of 102 spiral galaxies observed with VLT/MUSE using the O3N2 calibrator. The high spatial resolution of the data allowed us to detect 14345 H II regions with the same image quality as with photometric data, avoiding any dilution effect. We developed a new methodology to automatically fit the abundance radial profiles, finding that 55 galaxies of the sample exhibit a single negative gradient. The remaining 47 galaxies also display, as well as this negative trend, either an inner drop in the abundances (21), an outer flattening (10), or both (16), which suggests that these features are a common property of disc galaxies. The presence and depth of the inner drop depends on the stellar mass of the galaxies with the most massive systems presenting the deepest abundance drops, while there is no such dependence in the case of the outer flattening. We find that the inner drop appears always around 0.5 re, while the position of the outer flattening varies over a wide range of galactocentric distances. Regarding the main negative gradient, we find a characteristic slope in the sample of αO/H =-0.10 ± 0.03 dex /re. This slope is independent of the presence of bars and the density of the environment. However, when inner drops or outer flattenings are detected, slightly steeper gradients are observed. This suggests that radial motions might play an important role in shaping the abundance profiles. We define a new normalisation scale ("the abundance scale length", rO/H) for the radial profiles based on the characteristic abundance gradient, with which all the galaxies show a similar position for the inner drop ( 0.5 rO/H) and the outer flattening ( 1.5 rO/H). Finally, we find no significant dependence of the dispersion around the negative gradient with any property of the galaxies, with values compatible with the uncertainties associated with the derivation of the abundances.

  20. Advanced enzymology, expression profile and immune response of Clonorchis sinensis hexokinase show its application potential for prevention and control of clonorchiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingjin Chen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 35 million people are infected with Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis globally, of whom 15 million are in China. Glycolytic enzymes are recognized as crucial molecules for trematode survival and have been targeted for vaccine and drug development. Hexokinase of C. sinensis (CsHK, as the first key regulatory enzyme of the glycolytic pathway, was investigated in the current study.There were differences in spatial structure and affinities for hexoses and phosphate donors between CsHK and HKs from humans or rats, the definitive hosts of C. sinensis. Effectors (AMP, PEP, and citrate and a small molecular inhibitor regulated the enzymatic activity of rCsHK, and various allosteric systems were detected. CsHK was distributed in the worm extensively as well as in liver tissue and serum from C. sinensis infected rats. Furthermore, high-level specific IgG1 and IgG2a were induced in rats by immunization with rCsHK. The enzymatic activity of CsHK was suppressed by the antibody in vitro. Additionally, the survival of C. sinensis was inhibited by the antibody in vivo and in vitro.Due to differences in putative spatial structure and enzymology between CsHK and HK from the host, its extensive distribution in adult worms, and its expression profile as a component of excretory/secretory products, together with its good immunogenicity and immunoreactivity, as a key glycolytic enzyme, CsHK shows potential as a vaccine and as a promising drug target for Clonorchiasis.

  1. Advanced enzymology, expression profile and immune response of Clonorchis sinensis hexokinase show its application potential for prevention and control of clonorchiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tingjin; Yu, Jinyun; Tang, Zeli; Xie, Zhizhi; Lin, Zhipeng; Sun, Hengchang; Wan, Shuo; Li, Xuerong; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing; Xu, Jin

    2015-03-01

    Approximately 35 million people are infected with Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) globally, of whom 15 million are in China. Glycolytic enzymes are recognized as crucial molecules for trematode survival and have been targeted for vaccine and drug development. Hexokinase of C. sinensis (CsHK), as the first key regulatory enzyme of the glycolytic pathway, was investigated in the current study. There were differences in spatial structure and affinities for hexoses and phosphate donors between CsHK and HKs from humans or rats, the definitive hosts of C. sinensis. Effectors (AMP, PEP, and citrate) and a small molecular inhibitor regulated the enzymatic activity of rCsHK, and various allosteric systems were detected. CsHK was distributed in the worm extensively as well as in liver tissue and serum from C. sinensis infected rats. Furthermore, high-level specific IgG1 and IgG2a were induced in rats by immunization with rCsHK. The enzymatic activity of CsHK was suppressed by the antibody in vitro. Additionally, the survival of C. sinensis was inhibited by the antibody in vivo and in vitro. Due to differences in putative spatial structure and enzymology between CsHK and HK from the host, its extensive distribution in adult worms, and its expression profile as a component of excretory/secretory products, together with its good immunogenicity and immunoreactivity, as a key glycolytic enzyme, CsHK shows potential as a vaccine and as a promising drug target for Clonorchiasis.

  2. Developing resident learning profiles: Do scientific evidence epistemology beliefs, EBM self-efficacy beliefs and EBM skills matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Nancy J.

    This study investigated resident scientific evidence epistemology beliefs, evidence based medicine (EBM) self-efficacy beliefs, and EBM skills. A convenience sample of fifty-one residents located in six U.S. based residency programs completed an online instrument. Hofer's epistemology survey questionnaire was modified to test responses based on four types of scientific evidence encountered in medical practice (Clinical Trial Phase 1, Clinical Trial Phase 3, Meta-analysis and Qualitative). It was hypothesized that epistemology beliefs would differ based on the type of scientific evidence considered. A principal components analysis produced a two factor solution that was significant across type of scientific evidence suggesting that when evaluating epistemology beliefs context does matter. Factor 1 is related to the certainty of research methods and the certainty of medical conclusions and factor 2 denotes medical justification. For each type of scientific evidence, both factors differed on questions comprising the factor structure with significant differences found for the factor 1 and 2 questions. A justification belief case problem using checklist format was triangulated with the survey results, and as predicted the survey and checklist justification z scores indicated no significant differences, and two new justification themes emerged. Modified versions of Finney and Schraw's statistical self-efficacy and skill instruments produced expected significant EBM score correlations with unexpected results indicating that the number of EBM and statistics courses are not significant for EBM self-efficacy and skill scores. The study results were applied to the construction of a learning profile that provided residents belief and skill feedback specific to individual learning needs. The learning profile design incorporated core values related to 'Believer' populations that focus on art, harmony, tact and diplomacy. Future research recommendations include testing context

  3. Ethical frameworks for obtaining informed consent in tumour profiling: an evidence-based case for Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylstra, Yasmin; Lysaght, Tamra; Thrivikraman, Jyothi; Watson, Sangeetha; Tan, Patrick

    2017-12-08

    Genomic profiling of malignant tumours has assisted clinicians in providing targeted therapies for many serious cancer-related illnesses. Although the characterisation of somatic mutations is the primary aim of tumour profiling for treatment, germline mutations may also be detected given the heterogenous origin of mutations observed in tumours. Guidance documents address the return of germline findings that have health implications for patients and their genetic relations. However, the implications of discovering a potential but unconfirmed germline finding from tumour profiling are yet to be fully explored. Moreover, as tumour profiling is increasingly applied in oncology, robust ethical frameworks are required to encourage large-scale data sharing and data aggregation linking molecular data to clinical outcomes, to further understand the role of genetics in oncogenesis and to develop improved cancer therapies. This paper reports on the results of empirical research that is broadly aimed at developing an ethical framework for obtaining informed consent to return results from tumour profiling tests and to share the biomolecular data sourced from tumour tissues of cancer patients. Specifically, qualitative data were gathered from 36 semi-structured interviews with cancer patients and oncology clinicians at a cancer treatment centre in Singapore. The interview data indicated that patients had a limited comprehension of cancer genetics and implications of tumour testing. Furthermore, oncology clinicians stated that they lacked the time to provide in depth explanations of the tumour profile tests. However, it was accepted from both patients and oncologist that the return potential germline variants and the sharing of de-identified tumour profiling data nationally and internationally should be discussed and provided as an option during the consent process. Findings provide support for the return of tumour profiling results provided that they are accompanied with an

  4. No Evidence of a Common DNA Variant Profile Specific to World Class Endurance Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfarth, Bernd; Wang, Guan; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Alexeev, Dmitry G.; Ahmetov, Ildus I.; Boulay, Marcel R.; Cieszczyk, Pawel; Eynon, Nir; Filipenko, Maxim L.; Garton, Fleur C.; Generozov, Edward V.; Govorun, Vadim M.; Houweling, Peter J.; Kawahara, Takashi; Kostryukova, Elena S.; Kulemin, Nickolay A.; Larin, Andrey K.; Maciejewska-Karłowska, Agnieszka; Miyachi, Motohiko; Muniesa, Carlos A.; Murakami, Haruka; Ospanova, Elena A.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Pavlenko, Alexander V.; Pyankova, Olga N.; Santiago, Catalina; Sawczuk, Marek; Scott, Robert A.; Uyba, Vladimir V.; Yvert, Thomas; Perusse, Louis; Ghosh, Sujoy; Rauramaa, Rainer; North, Kathryn N.; Lucia, Alejandro; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Bouchard, Claude

    2016-01-01

    There are strong genetic components to cardiorespiratory fitness and its response to exercise training. It would be useful to understand the differences in the genomic profile of highly trained endurance athletes of world class caliber and sedentary controls. An international consortium (GAMES) was established in order to compare elite endurance athletes and ethnicity-matched controls in a case-control study design. Genome-wide association studies were undertaken on two cohorts of elite endurance athletes and controls (GENATHLETE and Japanese endurance runners), from which a panel of 45 promising markers was identified. These markers were tested for replication in seven additional cohorts of endurance athletes and controls: from Australia, Ethiopia, Japan, Kenya, Poland, Russia and Spain. The study is based on a total of 1520 endurance athletes (835 who took part in endurance events in World Championships and/or Olympic Games) and 2760 controls. We hypothesized that world-class athletes are likely to be characterized by an even higher concentration of endurance performance alleles and we performed separate analyses on this subsample. The meta-analysis of all available studies revealed one statistically significant marker (rs558129 at GALNTL6 locus, p = 0.0002), even after correcting for multiple testing. As shown by the low heterogeneity index (I2 = 0), all eight cohorts showed the same direction of association with rs558129, even though p-values varied across the individual studies. In summary, this study did not identify a panel of genomic variants common to these elite endurance athlete groups. Since GAMES was underpowered to identify alleles with small effect sizes, some of the suggestive leads identified should be explored in expanded comparisons of world-class endurance athletes and sedentary controls and in tightly controlled exercise training studies. Such studies have the potential to illuminate the biology not only of world class endurance performance but

  5. No Evidence of a Common DNA Variant Profile Specific to World Class Endurance Athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomo Rankinen

    Full Text Available There are strong genetic components to cardiorespiratory fitness and its response to exercise training. It would be useful to understand the differences in the genomic profile of highly trained endurance athletes of world class caliber and sedentary controls. An international consortium (GAMES was established in order to compare elite endurance athletes and ethnicity-matched controls in a case-control study design. Genome-wide association studies were undertaken on two cohorts of elite endurance athletes and controls (GENATHLETE and Japanese endurance runners, from which a panel of 45 promising markers was identified. These markers were tested for replication in seven additional cohorts of endurance athletes and controls: from Australia, Ethiopia, Japan, Kenya, Poland, Russia and Spain. The study is based on a total of 1520 endurance athletes (835 who took part in endurance events in World Championships and/or Olympic Games and 2760 controls. We hypothesized that world-class athletes are likely to be characterized by an even higher concentration of endurance performance alleles and we performed separate analyses on this subsample. The meta-analysis of all available studies revealed one statistically significant marker (rs558129 at GALNTL6 locus, p = 0.0002, even after correcting for multiple testing. As shown by the low heterogeneity index (I2 = 0, all eight cohorts showed the same direction of association with rs558129, even though p-values varied across the individual studies. In summary, this study did not identify a panel of genomic variants common to these elite endurance athlete groups. Since GAMES was underpowered to identify alleles with small effect sizes, some of the suggestive leads identified should be explored in expanded comparisons of world-class endurance athletes and sedentary controls and in tightly controlled exercise training studies. Such studies have the potential to illuminate the biology not only of world class endurance

  6. Studies Using an in Vitro Model Show Evidence of Involvement of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Human Endometrial Epithelial Cells in Human Embryo Implantation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Tetsuo; Nishikawa-Uchida, Sayaka; Oda, Hideyuki; Miyazaki, Kaoru; Yamasaki, Akiko; Yoshimura, Yasunori

    2012-01-01

    Human embryo implantation is a critical multistep process consisting of embryo apposition/adhesion, followed by penetration and invasion. Through embryo penetration, the endometrial epithelial cell barrier is disrupted and remodeled by an unknown mechanism. We have previously developed an in vitro model for human embryo implantation employing the human choriocarcinoma cell line JAR and the human endometrial adenocarcinoma cell line Ishikawa. Using this model we have shown that stimulation with ovarian steroid hormones (17β-estradiol and progesterone, E2P4) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, enhances the attachment and adhesion of JAR spheroids to Ishikawa. In the present study we showed that the attachment and adhesion of JAR spheroids and treatment with E2P4 or SAHA individually induce the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in Ishikawa cells. This was evident by up-regulation of N-cadherin and vimentin, a mesenchymal cell marker, and concomitant down-regulation of E-cadherin in Ishikawa cells. Stimulation with E2P4 or SAHA accelerated Ishikawa cell motility, increased JAR spheroid outgrowth, and enhanced the unique redistribution of N-cadherin, which was most prominent in proximity to the adhered spheroids. Moreover, an N-cadherin functional blocking antibody attenuated all events but not JAR spheroid adhesion. These results collectively provide evidence suggesting that E2P4- and implanting embryo-induced EMT of endometrial epithelial cells may play a pivotal role in the subsequent processes of human embryo implantation with functional control of N-cadherin. PMID:22174415

  7. A carcinoma showing thymus-like elements of the thyroid arising in close association with solid cell nests: evidence for a precursor lesion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerly, Stéphane; Lobrinus, Johannes-Alexander; Bongiovanni, Massimo; Becker, Minerva; Zare, Maryam; Granger, Perrine; Pusztaszeri, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Carcinoma showing thymus-like elements (CASTLE) is a rare malignant neoplasm of the thyroid gland, morphologically and immunohistologically similar to a thymic carcinoma, whose histogenesis is still debated. Hypotheses include an origin from ectopic thymic tissue, vestige of the thymopharyngeal duct, or branchial pouch remnants from which solid cell nests (SC-nests) originate. The diagnosis of CASTLE may be treacherous due to its rarity and its propensity to mimic other poorly differentiated tumors such as squamous cell carcinoma. We present a case of CASTLE in a 58-year-old man initially diagnosed as a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma both on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and on biopsy, arising in close association with SC-nests. A thorough literature review, with special emphasis on its diagnosis and histogenesis of CASTLE, was also conducted. Magnetic resonance images revealed a 4.0-cm cervical mass on the left side of the trachea, involving the lateral middle/inferior portion of the left lobe of the thyroid gland. FNAC was performed with a diagnosis of "malignant cells, consistent with squamous cell carcinoma." A histological evaluation of the resected specimen revealed a malignant proliferation of cells, focally exhibiting a squamoid appearance, which were immunopositive for CD5 and p63. A diagnosis of CASTLE was made. The tumor was located in direct continuity with SC-Nests, and the cell morphology of both the SC-nests and CASTLE was very similar with merging. Moreover, the immunohistochemical expression profiles of most markers useful in the diagnosis of CASTLE were identical in the SC-nests. The inclusion of CASTLE in the differential diagnosis of poorly differentiated tumors of the thyroid region and the use of ancillary studies are essential to diagnose this rare entity associated with a relatively favorable prognosis. The close association of CASTLE with SC-nests opens the way to a new scenario for studies of its histogenesis.

  8. Metabolic profiling of CSF: evidence that early intervention may impact on disease progression and outcome in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Holmes

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The identification of schizophrenia biomarkers is a crucial step towards improving current diagnosis, developing new presymptomatic treatments, identifying high-risk individuals and disease subgroups, and assessing the efficacy of preventative interventions at a rate that is not currently possible.(1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in conjunction with computerized pattern recognition analysis were employed to investigate metabolic profiles of a total of 152 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from drug-naïve or minimally treated patients with first-onset paranoid schizophrenia (referred to as "schizophrenia" in the following text and healthy controls. Partial least square discriminant analysis showed a highly significant separation of patients with first-onset schizophrenia away from healthy controls. Short-term treatment with antipsychotic medication resulted in a normalization of the disease signature in over half the patients, well before overt clinical improvement. No normalization was observed in patients in which treatment had not been initiated at first presentation, providing the first molecular evidence for the importance of early intervention for psychotic disorders. Furthermore, the alterations identified in drug-naïve patients could be validated in a test sample set achieving a sensitivity and specificity of 82% and 85%, respectively.Our findings suggest brain-specific alterations in glucoregulatory processes in the CSF of drug-naïve patients with first-onset schizophrenia, implying that these abnormalities are intrinsic to the disease, rather than a side effect of antipsychotic medication. Short-term treatment with atypical antipsychotic medication resulted in a normalization of the CSF disease signature in half the patients well before a clinical improvement would be expected. Furthermore, our results suggest that the initiation of antipsychotic treatment during a first psychotic episode may influence treatment response

  9. A functional ABCA1 gene variant is associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels and shows evidence of positive selection in Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-Alonzo, Víctor; Flores-Dorantes, Teresa; Kruit, Janine K.; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Arellano-Campos, Olimpia; Hünemeier, Tábita; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Ortiz-López, Ma Guadalupe; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; León-Mimila, Paola; Villalobos-Comparan, Marisela; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Ramírez-Jiménez, Salvador; Sikora, Martin; Zhang, Lin-Hua; Pape, Terry D.; de Ángeles Granados-Silvestre, Ma; Montufar-Robles, Isela; Tito-Alvarez, Ana M.; Zurita-Salinas, Camilo; Bustos-Arriaga, José; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia; Gómez-Trejo, Celta; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Vieira-Filho, Joao P.; Granados, Julio; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Huertas-Vázquez, Adriana; González-Martín, Antonio; Gorostiza, Amaya; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Wang, Li; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Lisker, Ruben; Moises, Regina S.; Menjivar, Marta; Salzano, Francisco M.; Knowler, William C.; Bortolini, M. Cátira; Hayden, Michael R.; Baier, Leslie J.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that the higher susceptibility of Hispanics to metabolic disease is related to their Native American heritage. A frequent cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) gene variant (R230C, rs9282541) apparently exclusive to Native American individuals was associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, obesity and type 2 diabetes in Mexican Mestizos. We performed a more extensive analysis of this variant in 4405 Native Americans and 863 individuals from other ethnic groups to investigate genetic evidence of positive selection, to assess its functional effect in vitro and to explore associations with HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits. The C230 allele was found in 29 of 36 Native American groups, but not in European, Asian or African individuals. C230 was observed on a single haplotype, and C230-bearing chromosomes showed longer relative haplotype extension compared with other haplotypes in the Americas. Additionally, single-nucleotide polymorphism data from the Human Genome Diversity Panel Native American populations were enriched in significant integrated haplotype score values in the region upstream of the ABCA1 gene. Cells expressing the C230 allele showed a 27% cholesterol efflux reduction (P< 0.001), confirming this variant has a functional effect in vitro. Moreover, the C230 allele was associated with lower HDL-C levels (P = 1.77 × 10−11) and with higher body mass index (P = 0.0001) in the combined analysis of Native American populations. This is the first report of a common functional variant exclusive to Native American and descent populations, which is a major determinant of HDL-C levels and may have contributed to the adaptive evolution of Native American populations. PMID:20418488

  10. 20 CFR 408.942 - Will you have a chance to present evidence showing that the overpayment is not past due or is not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS... us to waive collection of the overpayment, we may ask you to submit evidence to support your request... evidence. (d) Written findings. We will issue our written findings including supporting rationale to you...

  11. Pea fiber and wheat bran fiber show distinct metabolic profiles in rats as investigated by a 1H NMR-based metabolomic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangmang Liu

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effect of pea fiber (PF and wheat bran fiber (WF supplementation in rat metabolism. Rats were assigned randomly to one of three dietary groups and were given a basal diet containing 15% PF, 15% WF, or no supplemental fiber. Urine and plasma samples were analyzed by NMR-based metabolomics. PF significantly increased the plasma levels of 3-hydroxybutyrate, and myo-inositol as well as the urine levels of alanine, hydroxyphenylacetate, phenylacetyglycine, and α-ketoglutarate. However, PF significantly decreased the plasma levels of isoleucine, leucine, lactate, and pyruvate as well as the urine levels of allantoin, bile acids, and trigonelline. WF significantly increased the plasma levels of acetone, isobutyrate, lactate, myo-inositol, and lipids as well as the urine levels of alanine, lactate, dimethylglycine, N-methylniconamide, and α-ketoglutarate. However, WF significantly decreased the plasma levels of amino acids, and glucose as well as the urine levels of acetate, allantoin, citrate, creatine, hippurate, hydroxyphenylacetate, and trigonelline. Results suggest that PF and WF exposure can promote antioxidant activity and can exhibit common systemic metabolic changes, including lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, glycogenolysis and glycolysis metabolism, protein biosynthesis, and gut microbiota metabolism. PF can also decrease bile acid metabolism. These findings indicate that different fiber diet may cause differences in the biofluid profile in rats.

  12. Unlocking the Karyological and Cytogenetic Diversity of Iris from Lebanon: Oncocyclus Section Shows a Distinctive Profile and Relative Stasis during Its Continental Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Samad, Nour; Bou Dagher-Kharrat, Magda; Hidalgo, Oriane; El Zein, Rana; Douaihy, Bouchra; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an important target of conservation concern and horticultural interest, Lebanese irises yet have a confusing taxonomic history and species' delimitation is often considered problematic, more especially among royal irises (Iris section Oncocyclus). Indeed, these irises of exceptionally large and spectacular flowers have radiated across Caucasus and eastern Mediterranean giving rise to a number of strict endemic taxa, many of them being considered under threat. Whilst efforts have mostly focused on clarifying the evolutionary relationships in the group based on morphological and molecular data, karyological and cytogenetic characters have been comparatively overlooked. In this study, we established for the first time the physical mapping of 35S rDNA loci and heterochromatin, and obtained karyo-morphological data for ten Lebanese Iris species belonging to four sections (Iris, Limniris, Oncocyclus and Scorpiris). Our results evidenced distinctive genomic profiles for each one of the sections, where Oncocyclus irises, while having the lowest chromosome numbers, exhibit both the highest number of 35S loci and CMA3+ sites. The continental radiation of royal irises has been accompanied by a relative karyological and cytogenetic stasis, even though some changes were observed regarding karyotype formula and asymmetry indexes. In addition to that, our results enabled taxonomic differentiation between I. germanica and I. mesopotamica-two taxa currently considered as synonyms-and highlighted the need for further studies on populations of I. persica and I. wallasiae in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

  13. Evident?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind......Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind...

  14. Fossil mice and rats show isotopic evidence of niche partitioning and change in dental ecomorphology related to dietary shift in Late Miocene of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuri; Jacobs, Louis L; Cerling, Thure E; Uno, Kevin T; Ferguson, Kurt M; Flynn, Lawrence J; Patnaik, Rajeev

    2013-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope analysis in tooth enamel is a well-established approach to infer C3 and C4 dietary composition in fossil mammals. The bulk of past work has been conducted on large herbivorous mammals. One important finding is that their dietary habits of fossil large mammals track the late Miocene ecological shift from C3 forest and woodland to C4 savannah. However, few studies on carbon isotopes of fossil small mammals exist due to limitations imposed by the size of rodent teeth, and the isotopic ecological and dietary behaviors of small mammals to climate change remain unknown. Here we evaluate the impact of ecological change on small mammals by fine-scale comparisons of carbon isotope ratios (δ(13)C) with dental morphology of murine rodents, spanning 13.8 to ∼2.0 Ma, across the C3 to C4 vegetation shift in the Miocene Siwalik sequence of Pakistan. We applied in-situ laser ablation GC-IRMS to lower first molars and measured two grazing indices on upper first molars. Murine rodents yield a distinct, but related, record of past ecological conditions from large herbivorous mammals, reflecting available foods in their much smaller home ranges. In general, larger murine species show more positive δ(13)C values and have higher grazing indices than smaller species inhabiting the same area at any given age. Two clades of murine rodents experienced different rates of morphological change. In the faster-evolving clade, the timing and trend of morphological innovations are closely tied to consumption of C4 diet during the vegetation shift. This study provides quantitative evidence of linkages among diet, niche partitioning, and dental morphology at a more detailed level than previously possible.

  15. Fossil Mice and Rats Show Isotopic Evidence of Niche Partitioning and Change in Dental Ecomorphology Related to Dietary Shift in Late Miocene of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuri; Jacobs, Louis L.; Cerling, Thure E.; Uno, Kevin T.; Ferguson, Kurt M.; Flynn, Lawrence J.; Patnaik, Rajeev

    2013-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope analysis in tooth enamel is a well-established approach to infer C3 and C4 dietary composition in fossil mammals. The bulk of past work has been conducted on large herbivorous mammals. One important finding is that their dietary habits of fossil large mammals track the late Miocene ecological shift from C3 forest and woodland to C4 savannah. However, few studies on carbon isotopes of fossil small mammals exist due to limitations imposed by the size of rodent teeth, and the isotopic ecological and dietary behaviors of small mammals to climate change remain unknown. Here we evaluate the impact of ecological change on small mammals by fine-scale comparisons of carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) with dental morphology of murine rodents, spanning 13.8 to ∼2.0 Ma, across the C3 to C4 vegetation shift in the Miocene Siwalik sequence of Pakistan. We applied in-situ laser ablation GC-IRMS to lower first molars and measured two grazing indices on upper first molars. Murine rodents yield a distinct, but related, record of past ecological conditions from large herbivorous mammals, reflecting available foods in their much smaller home ranges. In general, larger murine species show more positive δ13C values and have higher grazing indices than smaller species inhabiting the same area at any given age. Two clades of murine rodents experienced different rates of morphological change. In the faster-evolving clade, the timing and trend of morphological innovations are closely tied to consumption of C4 diet during the vegetation shift. This study provides quantitative evidence of linkages among diet, niche partitioning, and dental morphology at a more detailed level than previously possible. PMID:23936324

  16. Fossil mice and rats show isotopic evidence of niche partitioning and change in dental ecomorphology related to dietary shift in Late Miocene of Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Kimura

    Full Text Available Stable carbon isotope analysis in tooth enamel is a well-established approach to infer C3 and C4 dietary composition in fossil mammals. The bulk of past work has been conducted on large herbivorous mammals. One important finding is that their dietary habits of fossil large mammals track the late Miocene ecological shift from C3 forest and woodland to C4 savannah. However, few studies on carbon isotopes of fossil small mammals exist due to limitations imposed by the size of rodent teeth, and the isotopic ecological and dietary behaviors of small mammals to climate change remain unknown. Here we evaluate the impact of ecological change on small mammals by fine-scale comparisons of carbon isotope ratios (δ(13C with dental morphology of murine rodents, spanning 13.8 to ∼2.0 Ma, across the C3 to C4 vegetation shift in the Miocene Siwalik sequence of Pakistan. We applied in-situ laser ablation GC-IRMS to lower first molars and measured two grazing indices on upper first molars. Murine rodents yield a distinct, but related, record of past ecological conditions from large herbivorous mammals, reflecting available foods in their much smaller home ranges. In general, larger murine species show more positive δ(13C values and have higher grazing indices than smaller species inhabiting the same area at any given age. Two clades of murine rodents experienced different rates of morphological change. In the faster-evolving clade, the timing and trend of morphological innovations are closely tied to consumption of C4 diet during the vegetation shift. This study provides quantitative evidence of linkages among diet, niche partitioning, and dental morphology at a more detailed level than previously possible.

  17. Evidence for proposed ICD-11 PTSD and complex PTSD: a latent profile analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marylène Cloitre

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The WHO International Classification of Diseases, 11th version (ICD-11, has proposed two related diagnoses, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and complex PTSD within the spectrum of trauma and stress-related disorders. Objective: To use latent profile analysis (LPA to determine whether there are classes of individuals that are distinguishable according to the PTSD and complex PTSD symptom profiles and to identify potential differences in the type of stressor and severity of impairment associated with each profile. Method: An LPA and related analyses were conducted on 302 individuals who had sought treatment for interpersonal traumas ranging from chronic trauma (e.g., childhood abuse to single-incident events (e.g., exposure to 9/11 attacks. Results: The LPA revealed three classes of individuals: (1 a complex PTSD class defined by elevated PTSD symptoms as well as disturbances in three domains of self-organization: affective dysregulation, negative self-concept, and interpersonal problems; (2 a PTSD class defined by elevated PTSD symptoms but low scores on the three self-organization symptom domains; and (3 a low symptom class defined by low scores on all symptoms and problems. Chronic trauma was more strongly predictive of complex PTSD than PTSD and, conversely, single-event trauma was more strongly predictive of PTSD. In addition, complex PTSD was associated with greater impairment than PTSD. The LPA analysis was completed both with and without individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD yielding identical results, suggesting the stability of these classes regardless of BPD comorbidity. Conclusion: Preliminary data support the proposed ICD-11 distinction between PTSD and complex PTSD and support the value of testing the clinical utility of this distinction in field trials. Replication of results is necessary.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Article Tools online

  18. Research Advances. Image Pinpoints All 5 Million Atoms in Viral Coat; Bilirubin, "Animals-Only" Pigment, Found in Plants; New Evidence Shows Humans Make Salicylic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Angela G.

    2009-08-01

    Recent "firsts" in chemical research: image of a viral capsid pinpointing 5 million atoms; isolation and identification of an "animal" pigment, bilirubin, from a plant source; evidence that humans make salicylic acid.

  19. Finding evidence for density fluctuation effects on electron cyclotron heating deposition profiles on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookman, M. W.; Austin, M. E.; Petty, C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical work, computation, and results from TCV [J. Decker “Effect of density fluctuations on ECCD in ITER and TCV,” EPJ Web of Conf. 32, 01016 (2012)] suggest that density fluctuations in the edge region of a tokamak plasma can cause broadening of the ECH deposition profile. In this paper, a GUI tool is presented which is used for analysis of ECH deposition as a first step towards looking for this broadening, which could explain effects seen in previous DIII-D ECH transport studies [K.W. Gentle “Electron energy transport inferences from modulated electron cyclotron heating in DIII-D,” Phys. Plasmas 13, 012311 (2006)]. By applying an FFT to the T e measurements from the University of Texas’s 40-channel ECE Radiometer, and using a simplified thermal transport equation, the flux surface extent of ECH deposition is determined. The Fourier method analysis is compared with a Break-In-Slope (BIS) analysis and predictions from the ray-tracing code TORAY. Examination of multiple Fourier harmonics and BIS fitting methods allow an estimation of modulated transport coefficients and thereby the true ECH deposition profile. Correlations between edge fluctuations and ECH deposition in legacy data are also explored as a step towards establishing a link between fluctuations and deposition broadening in DIII-D

  20. Finding evidence for density fluctuation effects on electron cyclotron heating deposition profiles on DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookman, M. W., E-mail: brookmanmw@fusion.gat.com; Austin, M. E. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, MS 13-505, 3483 Dunhill St, San Diego, CA 92121-1200 (United States); Petty, C. C. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)

    2015-12-10

    Theoretical work, computation, and results from TCV [J. Decker “Effect of density fluctuations on ECCD in ITER and TCV,” EPJ Web of Conf. 32, 01016 (2012)] suggest that density fluctuations in the edge region of a tokamak plasma can cause broadening of the ECH deposition profile. In this paper, a GUI tool is presented which is used for analysis of ECH deposition as a first step towards looking for this broadening, which could explain effects seen in previous DIII-D ECH transport studies [K.W. Gentle “Electron energy transport inferences from modulated electron cyclotron heating in DIII-D,” Phys. Plasmas 13, 012311 (2006)]. By applying an FFT to the T{sub e} measurements from the University of Texas’s 40-channel ECE Radiometer, and using a simplified thermal transport equation, the flux surface extent of ECH deposition is determined. The Fourier method analysis is compared with a Break-In-Slope (BIS) analysis and predictions from the ray-tracing code TORAY. Examination of multiple Fourier harmonics and BIS fitting methods allow an estimation of modulated transport coefficients and thereby the true ECH deposition profile. Correlations between edge fluctuations and ECH deposition in legacy data are also explored as a step towards establishing a link between fluctuations and deposition broadening in DIII-D.

  1. Phenobarbital and propiconazole toxicogenomic profiles in mice show major similarities consistent with the key role that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation plays in their mode of action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Richard A.; Peffer, Richard C.; Goetz, Amber K.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Goodman, Jay I.

    2014-01-01

    Toxicogenomics (TGx) is employed frequently to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of the compound of interest and, thus, has become an aid to mode of action determination. However, the results and interpretation of a TGx dataset are influenced by the experimental design and methods of analysis employed. This article describes an evaluation and reanalysis, by two independent laboratories, of previously published TGx mouse liver microarray data for a triazole fungicide, propiconazole (PPZ), and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB). Propiconazole produced an increase incidence of liver tumors in male CD-1 mice only at a dose that exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (2500 ppm). Firstly, we illustrate how experimental design differences between two in vivo studies with PPZ and PB may impact the comparisons of TGx results. Secondly, we demonstrate that different researchers using different pathway analysis tools can come to different conclusions on specific mechanistic pathways, even when using the same datasets. Finally, despite these differences the results across three different analyses also show a striking degree of similarity observed for PPZ and PB treated livers when the expression data are viewed as major signaling pathways and cell processes affected. Additional studies described here show that the postulated key event of hepatocellular proliferation was observed in CD-1 mice for both PPZ and PB, and that PPZ is also a potent activator of the mouse CAR nuclear receptor. Thus, with regard to the events which are hallmarks of CAR-induced effects that are key events in the mode of action (MOA) of mouse liver carcinogenesis with PB, PPZ-induced tumors can be viewed as being promoted by a similar PB-like CAR-dependent MOA. PMID:24675475

  2. Phenobarbital and propiconazole toxicogenomic profiles in mice show major similarities consistent with the key role that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation plays in their mode of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, Richard A.; Peffer, Richard C.; Goetz, Amber K.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Goodman, Jay I.

    2014-01-01

    Toxicogenomics (TGx) is employed frequently to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of the compound of interest and, thus, has become an aid to mode of action determination. However, the results and interpretation of a TGx dataset are influenced by the experimental design and methods of analysis employed. This article describes an evaluation and reanalysis, by two independent laboratories, of previously published TGx mouse liver microarray data for a triazole fungicide, propiconazole (PPZ), and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB). Propiconazole produced an increase incidence of liver tumors in male CD-1 mice only at a dose that exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (2500 ppm). Firstly, we illustrate how experimental design differences between two in vivo studies with PPZ and PB may impact the comparisons of TGx results. Secondly, we demonstrate that different researchers using different pathway analysis tools can come to different conclusions on specific mechanistic pathways, even when using the same datasets. Finally, despite these differences the results across three different analyses also show a striking degree of similarity observed for PPZ and PB treated livers when the expression data are viewed as major signaling pathways and cell processes affected. Additional studies described here show that the postulated key event of hepatocellular proliferation was observed in CD-1 mice for both PPZ and PB, and that PPZ is also a potent activator of the mouse CAR nuclear receptor. Thus, with regard to the events which are hallmarks of CAR-induced effects that are key events in the mode of action (MOA) of mouse liver carcinogenesis with PB, PPZ-induced tumors can be viewed as being promoted by a similar PB-like CAR-dependent MOA

  3. Mutation profiles of phenylketonuria in Quebec populations: Evidence of stratification and novel mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozen, R.; Mascisch, A.; Scriver, C.R. (McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada)); Lambert, M. (Hopital Ste-Justine, Montreal (Canada)); Laframboise, R. (Centre Hospitalier Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada))

    1994-08-01

    Independent phenylketonuria (PKU) chromosomes (n=109) representing 80% of a proband cohort in Quebec province carry 18 different identified mutations in 20 different mutation/haplotype combinations. The study reported here, the third in a series on Quebec populations, was done in the Montreal region and predominantly on French Canadians. It has identified three novel mutations (A309D, D338Y, and 1054/1055delG [352fs]) and one unusual mutation/RFLP haplotype combination (E280K on Hp 2). The relative frequencies and distribution of PKU mutations were then compared in three regions and population subsets (eastern Quebec, French Canadian; western Quebec, French Canadian; and Montreal, non-French Canadian). The distributions of the prevalent and rare mutations are nonrandom and provide evidence for genetic stratification. The latter and the presence of eight unusual mutation/haplotype combinations in Quebec families with European ancestries (the aforementioned four and M1V, 165T, S349P, and R408W on Hp 1) corroborate demographic and anthropologic evidence, from elsewhere, for different origins of French Canadians in eastern and western Quebec. 29 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Food Poverty Profile in Settled Pastrol Households of Lowland Marsabit: Evidence from Micro Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyamori, B.

    2002-01-01

    Frequent and severe droughts experienced in ASALs push pastoralists out of the traditional livestock monoculture, which together with the growing human population lead to increasing settlement. Unlike nomads who access traditional livestock foods at all times, settled households have limited access, which does not guarantee their food security. To achieve the food security the settled households supplement limited livestock foods with market foods. High demand for market foods increases demand for money and since pastoral communities have limited income-generating opportunities, many households are relegated to below food poverty line. Most studies on food security in ASALs focus on livestock productivity without considering that settled households depend, to a small extent, on livestock foods. Since settled households experience a lot of socio-economic changes,their food security status needs to be appropriately evaluated. The aim of this study t is to establish the food poverty profile of the settled households and recommend appropriate measures for attaining food security in the settled households

  5. Two decades of genetic profiling yields first evidence of natal philopatry and long-term fidelity to parturition sites in sharks

    KAUST Repository

    Feldheim, Kevin Andrew

    2013-12-09

    Sharks are a globally threatened group of marine fishes that often breed in their natal region of origin. There has even been speculation that female sharks return to their exact birthplace to breed (\\'natal philopatry\\'), which would have important conservation implications. Genetic profiling of lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) from 20 consecutive cohorts (1993-2012) at Bimini, Bahamas, showed that certain females faithfully gave birth at this site for nearly two decades. At least six females born in the 1993-1997 cohorts returned to give birth 14-17 years later, providing the first direct evidence of natal philopatry in the chondrichthyans. Long-term fidelity to specific nursery sites coupled with natal philopatry highlights the merits of emerging spatial and local conservation efforts for these threatened predators. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Identification of genes showing differential expression profile ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Department of Natural Sciences, International Christian University, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8585, Japan ... the changes of expression predicted from gene function suggested association ... ate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University.

  7. Genomic expression catalogue of a global collection of BCG vaccine strains show evidence for highly diverged metabolic and cell-wall adaptations

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Abdallah

    2015-10-21

    Although Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines against tuberculosis have been available for more than 90 years, their effectiveness has been hindered by variable protective efficacy and a lack of lasting memory responses. One factor contributing to this variability may be the diversity of the BCG strains that are used around the world, in part from genomic changes accumulated during vaccine production and their resulting differences in gene expression. We have compared the genomes and transcriptomes of a global collection of fourteen of the most widely used BCG strains at single base-pair resolution. We have also used quantitative proteomics to identify key differences in expression of proteins across five representative BCG strains of the four tandem duplication (DU) groups. We provide a comprehensive map of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), copy number variation and insertions and deletions (indels) across fourteen BCG strains. Genome-wide SNP characterization allowed the construction of a new and robust phylogenic genealogy of BCG strains. Transcriptional and proteomic profiling revealed a metabolic remodeling in BCG strains that may be reflected by altered immunogenicity and possibly vaccine efficacy. Together, these integrated-omic data represent the most comprehensive catalogue of genetic variation across a global collection of BCG strains.

  8. Genomic expression catalogue of a global collection of BCG vaccine strains show evidence for highly diverged metabolic and cell-wall adaptations

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Abdallah; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A.; Otto, Thomas D.; Coll, Francesc; Guerra-Assunç ã o, José Afonso; Gao, Ge; Naeem, Raeece; Ansari, Hifzur Rahman; Malas, Tareq Majed Yasin; Adroub, Sabir; Verboom, Theo; Ummels, Roy; Zhang, Huoming; Panigrahi, Aswini Kumar; McNerney, Ruth; Brosch, Roland; Clark, Taane G.; Behr, Marcel A.; Bitter, Wilbert; Pain, Arnab

    2015-01-01

    Although Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines against tuberculosis have been available for more than 90 years, their effectiveness has been hindered by variable protective efficacy and a lack of lasting memory responses. One factor contributing to this variability may be the diversity of the BCG strains that are used around the world, in part from genomic changes accumulated during vaccine production and their resulting differences in gene expression. We have compared the genomes and transcriptomes of a global collection of fourteen of the most widely used BCG strains at single base-pair resolution. We have also used quantitative proteomics to identify key differences in expression of proteins across five representative BCG strains of the four tandem duplication (DU) groups. We provide a comprehensive map of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), copy number variation and insertions and deletions (indels) across fourteen BCG strains. Genome-wide SNP characterization allowed the construction of a new and robust phylogenic genealogy of BCG strains. Transcriptional and proteomic profiling revealed a metabolic remodeling in BCG strains that may be reflected by altered immunogenicity and possibly vaccine efficacy. Together, these integrated-omic data represent the most comprehensive catalogue of genetic variation across a global collection of BCG strains.

  9. Evidence-based annotation of the malaria parasite's genome using comparative expression profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingyao Zhou

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental problem in systems biology and whole genome sequence analysis is how to infer functions for the many uncharacterized proteins that are identified, whether they are conserved across organisms of different phyla or are phylum-specific. This problem is especially acute in pathogens, such as malaria parasites, where genetic and biochemical investigations are likely to be more difficult. Here we perform comparative expression analysis on Plasmodium parasite life cycle data derived from P. falciparum blood, sporozoite, zygote and ookinete stages, and P. yoelii mosquito oocyst and salivary gland sporozoites, blood and liver stages and show that type II fatty acid biosynthesis genes are upregulated in liver and insect stages relative to asexual blood stages. We also show that some universally uncharacterized genes with orthologs in Plasmodium species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and humans show coordinated transcription patterns in large collections of human and yeast expression data and that the function of the uncharacterized genes can sometimes be predicted based on the expression patterns across these diverse organisms. We also use a comprehensive and unbiased literature mining method to predict which uncharacterized parasite-specific genes are likely to have roles in processes such as gliding motility, host-cell interactions, sporozoite stage, or rhoptry function. These analyses, together with protein-protein interaction data, provide probabilistic models that predict the function of 926 uncharacterized malaria genes and also suggest that malaria parasites may provide a simple model system for the study of some human processes. These data also provide a foundation for further studies of transcriptional regulation in malaria parasites.

  10. Show Me the Evidence: How a Unit Challenge Can Support Middle School Teachers and Students in Investigating Climate Change Using Real-World Data and Science Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochis, E. E.; Tubman, S.; Grazul, K.; Bluth, G.; Huntoon, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    Michigan Science Teaching and Assessment Reform (Mi-STAR) is developing an NGSS-aligned integrated science middle school curriculum and associated teacher professional learning program that addresses all performance expectations for the 6-8 grade-band. The Mi-STAR instructional model is a unit- and lesson-level model that scaffolds students in using science practices to investigate scientific phenomena and apply engineering principles to address a real-world challenge. Mi-STAR has developed an 8th grade unit on climate change based on the Mi-STAR instructional model and NGSS performance expectations. The unit was developed in collaboration with Michigan teachers, climate scientists, and curriculum developers. The unit puts students in the role of advisers to local officials who need an evidence-based explanation of climate change and recommendations about community-based actions to address it. Students discover puzzling signs of global climate change, ask questions about these signs, and engage in a series of investigations using simulations and real data to develop scientific models for the mechanisms of climate change. Students use their models as the basis for evidence-based arguments about the causes and impacts of climate change and employ engineering practices to propose local actions in their community to address climate change. Dedicated professional learning supports teachers before and during implementation of the unit. Before implementing the unit, all teachers complete an online self-paced "unit primer" during which they assume the role of their students as they are introduced to the unit challenge. During this experience, teachers experience science as a practice by using real data and simulations to develop a model of the causes of climate change, just as their students will later do. During unit implementation, teachers are part of a professional learning community led by a teacher facilitator in their local area or school. This professional learning

  11. QTL-mapping in mink (Neovison vison) shows evidence for QTL for guard hair thickness, guard hair length and skin length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

    2011-01-01

    Fur quality in mink (Neovison vison) is a composite trait, consisting of e.g. guard hair length, guard hair thickness and density of wool. A genome wide QTL search was performed to detect QTL for fur quality traits in mink. Here we present the results of QTL analyses for guard hair length, guard...... hair thickness and density of wool. Data from an F2-cross was analysed across fourteen chromosomes using 100 microsatellites as markers with a spacing of approximately 20 cM. The two lines used for the F2-cross were Nordic wild mink and American short nap mink. In total 1,083 animals (21 wild type, 25...... short nap, 103 F1 and 934 F2) were marker typed and recorded for the three presented fur quality traits. For the QTL-analyses a regression analysis implemented in QTL Express software was used. Evidence was found for the existence of QTL for guard hair length, guard hair thickness and density of wool...

  12. Practice-based evidence: profiling the safety of cilostazol by text-mining of clinical notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeper, Nicholas J; Bauer-Mehren, Anna; Iyer, Srinivasan V; Lependu, Paea; Olson, Cliff; Shah, Nigam H

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a growing problem with few available therapies. Cilostazol is the only FDA-approved medication with a class I indication for intermittent claudication, but carries a black box warning due to concerns for increased cardiovascular mortality. To assess the validity of this black box warning, we employed a novel text-analytics pipeline to quantify the adverse events associated with Cilostazol use in a clinical setting, including patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). We analyzed the electronic medical records of 1.8 million subjects from the Stanford clinical data warehouse spanning 18 years using a novel text-mining/statistical analytics pipeline. We identified 232 PAD patients taking Cilostazol and created a control group of 1,160 PAD patients not taking this drug using 1:5 propensity-score matching. Over a mean follow up of 4.2 years, we observed no association between Cilostazol use and any major adverse cardiovascular event including stroke (OR = 1.13, CI [0.82, 1.55]), myocardial infarction (OR = 1.00, CI [0.71, 1.39]), or death (OR = 0.86, CI [0.63, 1.18]). Cilostazol was not associated with an increase in any arrhythmic complication. We also identified a subset of CHF patients who were prescribed Cilostazol despite its black box warning, and found that it did not increase mortality in this high-risk group of patients. This proof of principle study shows the potential of text-analytics to mine clinical data warehouses to uncover 'natural experiments' such as the use of Cilostazol in CHF patients. We envision this method will have broad applications for examining difficult to test clinical hypotheses and to aid in post-marketing drug safety surveillance. Moreover, our observations argue for a prospective study to examine the validity of a drug safety warning that may be unnecessarily limiting the use of an efficacious therapy.

  13. Practice-based evidence: profiling the safety of cilostazol by text-mining of clinical notes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Leeper

    Full Text Available Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is a growing problem with few available therapies. Cilostazol is the only FDA-approved medication with a class I indication for intermittent claudication, but carries a black box warning due to concerns for increased cardiovascular mortality. To assess the validity of this black box warning, we employed a novel text-analytics pipeline to quantify the adverse events associated with Cilostazol use in a clinical setting, including patients with congestive heart failure (CHF.We analyzed the electronic medical records of 1.8 million subjects from the Stanford clinical data warehouse spanning 18 years using a novel text-mining/statistical analytics pipeline. We identified 232 PAD patients taking Cilostazol and created a control group of 1,160 PAD patients not taking this drug using 1:5 propensity-score matching. Over a mean follow up of 4.2 years, we observed no association between Cilostazol use and any major adverse cardiovascular event including stroke (OR = 1.13, CI [0.82, 1.55], myocardial infarction (OR = 1.00, CI [0.71, 1.39], or death (OR = 0.86, CI [0.63, 1.18]. Cilostazol was not associated with an increase in any arrhythmic complication. We also identified a subset of CHF patients who were prescribed Cilostazol despite its black box warning, and found that it did not increase mortality in this high-risk group of patients.This proof of principle study shows the potential of text-analytics to mine clinical data warehouses to uncover 'natural experiments' such as the use of Cilostazol in CHF patients. We envision this method will have broad applications for examining difficult to test clinical hypotheses and to aid in post-marketing drug safety surveillance. Moreover, our observations argue for a prospective study to examine the validity of a drug safety warning that may be unnecessarily limiting the use of an efficacious therapy.

  14. A Universal Velocity Dispersion Profile for Pressure Supported Systems: Evidence for MONDian Gravity across Seven Orders of Magnitude in Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durazo, R.; Hernandez, X.; Sánchez, S. F. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-264 C.P. 04510 México D.F., México (Mexico); Sodi, B. Cervantes [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Morelia, A.P. 3-72, C.P. 58089 Michoacán, México (Mexico)

    2017-03-10

    For any MONDian extended theory of gravity where the rotation curves of spiral galaxies are explained through a change in physics rather than the hypothesis of dark matter, a generic dynamical behavior is expected for pressure supported systems: an outer flattening of the velocity dispersion profile occurring at a characteristic radius, where both the amplitude of this flat velocity dispersion and the radius at which it appears are predicted to show distinct scalings with the total mass of the system. By carefully analyzing the dynamics of globular clusters and elliptical galaxies, we are able to significantly extend the astronomical diversity of objects in which MONDian gravity has been tested, from spiral galaxies to the much larger mass range covered by pressure supported systems. We show that a universal projected velocity dispersion profile accurately describes various classes of pressure supported systems, and further, that the expectations of extended gravity are met across seven orders of magnitude in mass. These observed scalings are not expected under dark matter cosmology, and would require particular explanations tuned at the scales of each distinct astrophysical system.

  15. Adults with developmental dyslexia show selective impairments in time-based and self-initiated prospective memory: Self-report and clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Spark, James H; Zięcik, Adam P; Sterling, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    Prospective memory (PM; memory for delayed intentions) would seem to be impaired in dyslexia but evidence is currently limited in scope. There is a need, therefore, firstly, to explore PM under controlled conditions using a broader range of PM tasks than used previously and, secondly, to determine whether objectively measured and self-reported PM problems can be found in the same individuals with dyslexia. The responses of 30 adults with dyslexia were compared with those of 30 IQ-matched adults without dyslexia on a self-report and a clinical measure of PM. Dyslexia-related deficits were shown on the clinical measure overall and, more particularly, when PM responses had to be made to cues based on time rather than environmental events. Adults with dyslexia were also more likely to forget to carry out an intention under naturalistic conditions 24h later. On the self-report questionnaire, the group with dyslexia reported significantly more frequent problems with PM overall, despite using more techniques to aid their memory. In particular, problems were identified with longer-term PM tasks and PM which had to be self-initiated. Dyslexia-related PM deficits were found under both laboratory and everyday conditions in the same participants; the first time that this has been demonstrated. These findings support previous experimental research which has highlighted dyslexia-related deficits in PM when the enacting of intentions is based on time cues and/or has to be self-initiated rather than being in prompted by environmental events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A thirty year, fine-scale, characterization of area burned in Canadian forests shows evidence of regionally increasing trends in the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coops, Nicholas C; Hermosilla, Txomin; Wulder, Michael A; White, Joanne C; Bolton, Douglas K

    2018-01-01

    Fire as a dominant disturbance has profound implications on the terrestrial carbon cycle. We present the first ever multi-decadal, spatially-explicit, 30 meter assessment of fire regimes across the forested ecoregions of Canada at an annual time-step. From 1985 to 2015, 51 Mha burned, impacting over 6.5% of forested ecosystems. Mean annual area burned was 1,651,818 ha and varied markedly (σ = 1,116,119), with 25% of the total area burned occurring in three years: 1989, 1995, and 2015. Boreal forest types contained 98% of the total area burned, with the conifer-dominated Boreal Shield containing one-third of all burned area. While results confirm no significant national trend in burned area for the period of 1985 to 2015, a significant national increasing trend (α = 0.05) of 11% per year was evident for the past decade (2006 to 2015). Regionally, a significant increasing trend in total burned area from 1985 to 2015 was observed in the Montane Cordillera (2.4% increase per year), while the Taiga Plains and Taiga Shield West displayed significant increasing trends from 2006 to 2015 (26.1% and 12.7% increases per year, respectively). The Atlantic Maritime, which had the lowest burned area of all ecozones (0.01% burned per year), was the only ecozone to display a significant negative trend (2.4% decrease per year) from 1985 to 2015. Given the century-long fire return intervals in many of these ecozones, and large annual variability in burned area, short-term trends need to be interpreted with caution. Additional interpretive cautions are related to year used for trend initiation and the nature and extents of spatial regionalizations used for summarizing findings. The results of our analysis provide a baseline for monitoring future national and regional trends in burned area and offer spatially and temporally detailed insights to inform science, policy, and management.

  17. Children show heightened knew-it-all-along errors when learning new facts about kinds: Evidence for the power of kind representations in children's thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Shelbie L; Cimpian, Andrei

    2015-08-01

    Several proposals in the literature on conceptual development converge on the claim that information about kinds of things in the world has a privileged status in children's cognition, insofar as it is acquired, manipulated, and stored with surprising ease. Our goal in the present studies (N = 440) was to test a prediction of this claim. Specifically, if the early cognitive system privileges kind (or generic) information in the proposed ways, then learning new facts about kinds should be so seamless that it is often accompanied by an impression that these facts were known all along. To test this prediction, we presented 4- to 7-year-old children with novel kind-wide and individual-specific facts, and we then asked children whether they had prior knowledge of these facts. As predicted, children were under the impression that they had known the kind-wide facts more often than the individual-specific facts, even though in reality they had just learned both (Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5). Importantly, learning facts about (nongeneric) plural sets of individuals was not similarly accompanied by heightened knew-it-all-along errors (Experiment 4), highlighting the privileged status of kind information per se. Finally, we found that young children were able to correctly recognize their previous ignorance of newly learned generic facts when this ignorance was made salient before the learning event (Experiment 6), suggesting that children's frequent knew-it-all-along impressions about such facts truly stem from metacognitive difficulties rather than being a methodological artifact. In sum, these 6 studies indicate that learning information about kinds is accompanied by heightened knew-it-all-along errors. More broadly, this evidence supports the view that early cognition privileges kind representations. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Mice lacking Ras-GRF1 show contextual fear conditioning but not spatial memory impairments: convergent evidence from two independently generated mouse mutant lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele ed'Isa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ras-GRF1 is a neuronal specific guanine exchange factor that, once activated by both ionotropic and metabotropic neurotransmitter receptors, can stimulate Ras proteins, leading to long-term phosphorylation of downstream signaling. The two available reports on the behavior of two independently generated Ras-GRF1 deficient mouse lines provide contrasting evidence on the role of Ras-GRF1 in spatial memory and contextual fear conditioning. These discrepancies may be due to the distinct alterations introduced in the mouse genome by gene targeting in the two lines that could differentially affect expression of nearby genes located in the imprinted region containing the Ras-grf1 locus. In order to determine the real contribution of Ras-GRF1 to spatial memory we compared in Morris Water Maze learning the Brambilla’s mice with a third mouse line (GENA53 in which a nonsense mutation was introduced in the Ras-GRF1 coding region without additional changes in the genome and we found that memory in this task is normal. Also, we measured both contextual and cued fear conditioning, which were previously reported to be affected in the Brambilla’s mice, and we confirmed that contextual learning but not cued conditioning is impaired in both mouse lines. In addition, we also tested both lines for the first time in conditioned place aversion in the Intellicage, an ecological and remotely controlled behavioral test, and we observed normal learning. Finally, based on previous reports of other mutant lines suggesting that Ras-GRF1 may control body weight, we also measured this non-cognitive phenotype and we confirmed that both Ras-GRF1 deficient mutants are smaller than their control littermates. In conclusion, we demonstrate that Ras-GRF1 has no unique role in spatial memory while its function in contextual fear conditioning is likely to be due not only to its involvement in amygdalar functions but possibly to some distinct hippocampal connections specific to

  19. Individual Differences in the Speed of Facial Emotion Recognition Show Little Specificity but Are Strongly Related with General Mental Speed: Psychometric, Neural and Genetic Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyang Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Facial identity and facial expression processing are crucial socio-emotional abilities but seem to show only limited psychometric uniqueness when the processing speed is considered in easy tasks. We applied a comprehensive measurement of processing speed and contrasted performance specificity in socio-emotional, social and non-social stimuli from an individual differences perspective. Performance in a multivariate task battery could be best modeled by a general speed factor and a first-order factor capturing some specific variance due to processing emotional facial expressions. We further tested equivalence of the relationships between speed factors and polymorphisms of dopamine and serotonin transporter genes. Results show that the speed factors are not only psychometrically equivalent but invariant in their relation with the Catechol-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT Val158Met polymorphism. However, the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 serotonin polymorphism was related with the first-order factor of emotion perception speed, suggesting a specific genetic correlate of processing emotions. We further investigated the relationship between several components of event-related brain potentials with psychometric abilities, and tested emotion specific individual differences at the neurophysiological level. Results revealed swifter emotion perception abilities to go along with larger amplitudes of the P100 and the Early Posterior Negativity (EPN, when emotion processing was modeled on its own. However, after partialling out the shared variance of emotion perception speed with general processing speed-related abilities, brain-behavior relationships did not remain specific for emotion. Together, the present results suggest that speed abilities are strongly interrelated but show some specificity for emotion processing speed at the psychometric level. At both genetic and neurophysiological levels, emotion specificity depended on whether general cognition is taken into account

  20. Individual Differences in the Speed of Facial Emotion Recognition Show Little Specificity but Are Strongly Related with General Mental Speed: Psychometric, Neural and Genetic Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyang; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Recio, Guillermo; Sommer, Werner; Cai, Xinxia; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Facial identity and facial expression processing are crucial socio-emotional abilities but seem to show only limited psychometric uniqueness when the processing speed is considered in easy tasks. We applied a comprehensive measurement of processing speed and contrasted performance specificity in socio-emotional, social and non-social stimuli from an individual differences perspective. Performance in a multivariate task battery could be best modeled by a general speed factor and a first-order factor capturing some specific variance due to processing emotional facial expressions. We further tested equivalence of the relationships between speed factors and polymorphisms of dopamine and serotonin transporter genes. Results show that the speed factors are not only psychometrically equivalent but invariant in their relation with the Catechol-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism. However, the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 serotonin polymorphism was related with the first-order factor of emotion perception speed, suggesting a specific genetic correlate of processing emotions. We further investigated the relationship between several components of event-related brain potentials with psychometric abilities, and tested emotion specific individual differences at the neurophysiological level. Results revealed swifter emotion perception abilities to go along with larger amplitudes of the P100 and the Early Posterior Negativity (EPN), when emotion processing was modeled on its own. However, after partialling out the shared variance of emotion perception speed with general processing speed-related abilities, brain-behavior relationships did not remain specific for emotion. Together, the present results suggest that speed abilities are strongly interrelated but show some specificity for emotion processing speed at the psychometric level. At both genetic and neurophysiological levels, emotion specificity depended on whether general cognition is taken into account or not. These

  1. Molecular Evidence for Occurrence of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus in Ash Gourd (Benincasa hispida) Germplasm Showing a Severe Yellow Stunt Disease in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anirban; Spoorthi, P; Panwar, G; Bag, Manas Kumar; Prasad, T V; Kumar, Gunjeet; Gangopadhyay, K K; Dutta, M

    2013-06-01

    An evaluation of 70 accessions of ash gourd germplasm grown at National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi, India during Kharif season (2010) showed natural occurrence of a yellow stunt disease in three accessions (IC554690, IC036330 and Pusa Ujjwal). A set of begomovirus specific primers used in PCR gave expected amplicon from all the symptomatic plants; however no betasatellite was detected. Complete genome of the begomovirus (DNA-A and DNA-B), amplified through rolling circle amplification, was cloned and sequenced. The begomovirus under study shared high sequence identities to different isolates of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) and clustered with them. Among those isolates, the DNA-A and DNA-B of the present begomovirus isolate showed highest 99.6 and 96.8 % sequence identities, respectively with an isolate reported on pumpkin from India (DNA-A: AM286433, DNA-B: AM286435). Based on the sequence analysis, the begomovirus obtained from ash gourd was considered as an isolate of ToLCNDV. Thus, the present findings constitute the first report of occurrence of a new yellow stunt disease in ash gourd from India and demonstrated the association of ToLCNDV with the symptomatic samples. Occurrence of ToLCNDV in ash gourd germplasm not only adds up a new cucurbitaceous host of this virus but also raises the concern about the perpetuation of this virus in absence of its main host tomato and thus has an epidemiological relevance for understanding the rapid spread of this virus in tomato and other hosts in Indian sub-continent.

  2. Lithologic influences on groundwater recharge through incised glacial till from profile to regional scales: Evidence from glaciated Eastern Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, John B.; Steele, Gregory V.; Nasta, Paolo; Szilagyi, Jozsef

    2014-01-01

    Variability in sediment hydraulic properties associated with landscape depositional and erosional features can influence groundwater recharge processes by affecting soil-water storage and transmission. This study considers recharge to aquifers underlying river-incised glaciated terrain where the distribution of clay-rich till is largely intact in upland locations but has been removed by alluvial erosion in stream valleys. In a stream-dissected glacial region in eastern Nebraska (Great Plains region of the United States), recharge estimates were developed for nested profile, aquifer, and regional scales using unsaturated zone profile measurements (matric potentials, Cl- and 3H), groundwater tracers (CFC-12 and SF6), and a remote sensing-assisted water balance model. Results show a consistent influence of till lithology on recharge rates across nested spatial scales despite substantial uncertainty in all recharge estimation methods, suggesting that minimal diffuse recharge occurs through upland glacial till lithology whereas diffuse recharge occurs in river valleys where till is locally absent. Diffuse recharge is estimated to account for a maximum of 61% of total recharge based on comparison of diffuse recharge estimated from the unsaturated zone (0-43 mm yr-1) and total recharge estimated from groundwater tracers (median 58 mm yr-1) and water balance modeling (median 56 mm yr-1). The results underscore the importance of lithologic controls on the distributions of both recharge rates and mechanisms.

  3. Decomposing inequality in financial protection situation in Iran after implementing the health reform plan: What does the evidence show based on national survey of households' budget?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Tayebeh; Naghdi, Seyran; Brown, Heather; Ghiasvand, Hesam; Mobinizadeh, Mohammadreza

    2018-03-24

    Lack of well-designed healthcare financing mechanisms and high level of out-of-pocket payments in Iran over the last decades led to implementing Health Transformation Plan, in 2014. This study aims to decompose inequality in financial protection of Iranian households after the implementation of the Health Transformation Plan. The data of Statistical Center of Iran (SCI) Survey on Rural and Urban Households Income-Expenditure in 2015 to 2016 were used. The headcount ratio of catastrophic health expenditures was calculated. The corrected concentration index was estimated. The role of contributors on inequality in the exposure to catastrophic health expenditures among poor and nonpoor households was calculated using Farelie's model. The headcount ratio of the exposure to catastrophic health expenditures in urban and rural households was 4.58% and 5.65%, respectively. The difference in households' income levels was the main contributor in explaining the inequality in facing catastrophic health expenditures between poor and nonpoor households. Even after implementing the HTP, the headcount ratios of catastrophic health expenditure are still considerable. The results show that income is the greatest determinant of inequality in facing catastrophic health expenditure and in urban households. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Why is intracellular ice lethal? A microscopical study showing evidence of programmed cell death in cryo-exposed embryonic axes of recalcitrant seeds of Acer saccharinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley-Smith, James; Walters, Christina; Pammenter, N W; Berjak, Patricia

    2015-05-01

    Conservation of the genetic diversity afforded by recalcitrant seeds is achieved by cryopreservation, in which excised embryonic axes (or, where possible, embryos) are treated and stored at temperatures lower than -180 °C using liquid nitrogen. It has previously been shown that intracellular ice forms in rapidly cooled embryonic axes of Acer saccharinum (silver maple) but this is not necessarily lethal when ice crystals are small. This study seeks to understand the nature and extent of damage from intracellular ice, and the course of recovery and regrowth in surviving tissues. Embryonic axes of A. saccharinum, not subjected to dehydration or cryoprotection treatments (water content was 1·9 g H2O g(-1) dry mass), were cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures using two methods: plunging into nitrogen slush to achieve a cooling rate of 97 °C s(-1) or programmed cooling at 3·3 °C s(-1). Samples were thawed rapidly (177 °C s(-1)) and cell structure was examined microscopically immediately, and at intervals up to 72 h in vitro. Survival was assessed after 4 weeks in vitro. Axes were processed conventionally for optical microscopy and ultrastructural examination. Immediately following thaw after cryogenic exposure, cells from axes did not show signs of damage at an ultrastructural level. Signs that cells had been damaged were apparent after several hours of in vitro culture and appeared as autophagic decomposition. In surviving tissues, dead cells were sloughed off and pockets of living cells were the origin of regrowth. In roots, regrowth occurred from the ground meristem and procambium, not the distal meristem, which became lethally damaged. Regrowth of shoots occurred from isolated pockets of surviving cells of peripheral and pith meristems. The size of these pockets may determine the possibility for, the extent of and the vigour of regrowth. Autophagic degradation and ultimately autolysis of cells following cryo-exposure and formation of small

  5. Depositional patterns of the Mississippi Fan surface: Evidence from GLORIA II and high-resolution seismic profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twichell, David C.; Kenyon, Neil H.; Parson, Lindsay M.; McGregor, Bonnie A.

    1991-01-01

    GLORIA long-range side-scan sonar imagery and 3.5-kHz seismic-reflection profiles depict a series of nine elongate deposits with generally high-backscatter surfaces covering most of the latest fanlobe sequence of the Mississippi Fan in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. The youngest deposit is a “slump” that covers a 250 by 100 km area of the middle and upper fan. The remaining mapped deposits, termed depositional lobes, are long (as much as 200 km) and relatively thin (less than 35 m thick) bodies. Small channels and lineations on the surface of many of these depositional lobes radiate from a single, larger main channel that is the conduit through which sediment has been supplied to these surficial deposits on the fan. The 3.5-kHz profiles show that adjacent depositional lobes overlap one another rather than interfingering, indicating that only one lobe was an active site of deposition at a time. Shifting of the depositional sites appears to be caused by both aggradation and avulsion. The chronology developed from the overlapping relations indicates the oldest of the mapped depositional lobes are on the lowermost fan, and the youngest are further up the fan. Depositional lobes on the lower fan consist of a series of smaller, elongate features with high-backscatter surfaces (540 km in length) located at the ends of previously unrecognized small channels (turbidity currents and/or debris flows, sand flows, or mud flows appear to be the dominant transport process constructing these depositional lobes. Channelized flow is an important mechanism for transporting sediment away from the main channel on this fan and the resulting facies created by these small flows are laterally discontinuous.

  6. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  7. The polymorphic insertion of the luteinizing hormone receptor "insLQ" show a negative association to LHR gene expression and to the follicular fluid hormonal profile in human small antral follicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgbo, T; Chrudimska, J; Macek, M

    2018-01-01

    (AMHR2) and LHCGR, respectively, were observed for insLQ/insLQ compared to -/insLQ and the -/- genotypes. Moreover, LHCGR and CYP19a1 together with oestradiol and inhibin-B were significantly increased in -/insLQ compared to the -/- genotype. The homozygous insLQ genotype showed strong significant......The luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR) has a little studied polymorphic 6 bp insertion (rs4539842/insLQ). This study has evaluated the insLQ polymorphism in relation to potential associations with hormonal characteristics of human small antral follicles (hSAFs). In total, 310 hSAFs were collected...... from 86 women undergoing fertility preservation. Analysis included hormonal profile of 297 follicular fluid (FF) samples and 148 corresponding granulosa cells samples were evaluated by qPCR for selected genes. Significantly reduced and non-detectable mRNA levels of anti-Müllerian hormone receptor II...

  8. Systematic review and meta-analysis shows a specific micronutrient profile in people with Down Syndrome: Lower blood calcium, selenium and zinc, higher red blood cell copper and zinc, and higher salivary calcium and sodium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amene Saghazadeh

    Full Text Available Different metabolic profiles as well as comorbidities are common in people with Down Syndrome (DS. Therefore it is relevant to know whether micronutrient levels in people with DS are also different. This systematic review was designed to review the literature on micronutrient levels in people with DS compared to age and sex-matched controls without DS. We identified sixty nine studies from January 1967 to April 2016 through main electronic medical databases PubMed, Scopus, and Web of knowledge. We carried out meta-analysis of the data on four essential trace elements (Cu, Fe, Se, and Zn, six minerals (Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na, and P, and five vitamins (vitamin A, B9, B12, D, and E. People with DS showed lower blood levels of Ca (standard mean difference (SMD = -0.63; 95% confidence interval (CI: -1.16 to -0.09, Se (SMD = -0.99; 95% CI: -1.55 to -0.43, and Zn (SMD = -1.30; 95% CI: -1.75 to -0.84, while red cell levels of Zn (SMD = 1.88; 95% CI: 0.48 to 3.28 and Cu (SMD = 2.77; 95% CI: 1.96 to 3.57 were higher. They had also higher salivary levels of Ca (SMD = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.38 to 1.33 and Na (SMD = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.39 to 1.69. Our findings that micronutrient levels are different in people with DS raise the question whether these differences are related to the different metabolic profiles, the common comorbidities or merely reflect DS.

  9. Towards the PET radiotracer for p75 neurotrophin receptor: [(11)C]LM11A-24 shows biological activity in vitro, but unfavorable ex vivo and in vivo profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibon, Julien; Kang, Min Su; Aliaga, Arturo; Sharif, Behrang; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Séguéla, Philippe; Barker, Philip A; Kostikov, Alexey

    2016-10-01

    Mature neurotrophins as well as their pro forms are critically involved in the regulation of neuronal functions. They are signaling through three distinct types of receptors: tropomyosin receptor kinase family (TrkA/B/C), p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) and sortilin. Aberrant expression of p75(NTR) in the CNS is implicated in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. The goal of this work was to evaluate one of the very few reported p75(NTR) small molecule ligands as a lead compound for development of novel PET radiotracers for in vivo p75(NTR) imaging. Here we report that previously described ligand LM11A-24 shows significant inhibition of carbachol-induced persistent firing (PF) of entorhinal cortex (EC) pyramidal neurons in wild-type mice via selective interaction with p75(NTR). Based on this electrophysiological assay, the compound has very high potency with an EC50<10nM. We optimized the radiosynthesis of [(11)C]LM11A-24 as the first attempt to develop PET radioligand for in vivo imaging of p75(NTR). Despite some weak interaction with CNS tissues, the radiolabeled compound showed unfavorable in vivo profile presumably due to high hydrophilicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Low-frequency pulse profile variation in PSR B2217+47: evidence for echoes from the interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michilli, D.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Donner, J. Y.; Grießmeier, J.-M.; Serylak, M.; Shaw, B.; Stappers, B. W.; Verbiest, J. P. W.; Deller, A. T.; Driessen, L. N.; Stinebring, D. R.; Bondonneau, L.; Geyer, M.; Hoeft, M.; Karastergiou, A.; Kramer, M.; Osłowski, S.; Pilia, M.; Sanidas, S.; Weltevrede, P.

    2018-05-01

    We have observed a complex and continuous change in the integrated pulse profile of PSR B2217+47, manifested as additional components trailing the main peak. These transient components are detected over 6 yr at 150 MHz using the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR), but they are not seen in contemporaneous Lovell observations at 1.5 GHz. We argue that propagation effects in the ionized interstellar medium (IISM) are the most likely cause. The putative structures in the IISM causing the profile variation are roughly half-way between the pulsar and the Earth and have transverse radii R ˜ 30 au. We consider different models for the structures. Under the assumption of spherical symmetry, their implied average electron density is \\overline{n}_e ˜ 100 cm-3. Since PSR B2217+47 is more than an order of magnitude brighter than the average pulsar population visible to LOFAR, similar profile variations would not have been identified in most pulsars, suggesting that subtle profile variations in low-frequency profiles might be more common than we have observed to date. Systematic studies of these variations at low frequencies can provide a new tool to investigate the proprieties of the IISM and the limits to the precision of pulsar timing.

  11. The evidence-based practice profiles of academic and clinical staff involved in pre-registration nursing students' education: a cross sectional survey of US and UK staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, Penney; Scurlock-Evans, Laura; Williamson, Kathleen; Rouse, Joanne; Upton, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Competency in evidence-based practice (EBP) is a requirement for graduate nurses. Despite a growing body of research exploring the EBP profiles of students, little research has explored the EBP profiles of nurse educators. To explore: the differences/similarities in the EBP profiles of US and UK clinical and academic faculty; the barriers nurse educators experience when teaching EBP; the impact of postgraduate education on EBP profile and; what nurse educators perceive "success" in implementing and teaching EBP to be. A cross-sectional online survey design was employed. Two Universities delivering undergraduate nursing education in the US and UK, in partnership with large hospital systems, small community hospitals, community settings, and independent sector health organisations. Eighty-one nurse educators working in academic and clinical contexts in the US and UK (US academic=12, US clinical=17, UK academic=9, UK clinical=43) were recruited opportunistically. Participants were emailed a weblink to an online survey, comprising demographic questions, the Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire and open-ended questions about EBP barriers, facilitators and successes. Quantitative results indicated that academic faculty scored significantly higher on knowledge and skills of EBP, than clinical faculty, but revealed no other significant differences on EBP use or attitudes, or between US and UK professionals. Participants with postgraduate training scored significantly higher on EBP knowledge/skills, but not EBP attitudes or use. Qualitative findings identified key themes relating to EBP barriers and facilitators, including: Evidence-, organisational-, and teaching-related issues. Perceptions of successes in EBP were also described. Nurse educators working in the UK and US face similar EBP barriers to teaching and implementation, but view it positively and use it frequently. Clinical staff may require extra support to maintain their EBP knowledge and skills in

  12. The gene expression profile of non-cultured, highly purified human adipose tissue pericytes: Transcriptomic evidence that pericytes are stem cells in human adipose tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Meirelles, Lindolfo da, E-mail: lindolfomeirelles@gmail.com [Center for Cell-Based Therapy (CEPID/FAPESP), Regional Center for Hemotherapy of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Rua Tenente Catão Roxo 2501, 14051-140 Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Laboratory for Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering, PPGBioSaúde, Lutheran University of Brazil, Av. Farroupilha 8001, 92425-900 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Deus Wagatsuma, Virgínia Mara de; Malta, Tathiane Maistro; Bonini Palma, Patrícia Viana [Center for Cell-Based Therapy (CEPID/FAPESP), Regional Center for Hemotherapy of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Rua Tenente Catão Roxo 2501, 14051-140 Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Araújo, Amélia Goes; Panepucci, Rodrigo Alexandre [Laboratory of Large-Scale Functional Biology (LLSFBio), Regional Center for Hemotherapy of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Rua Tenente Catão Roxo 2501, 14051-140 Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); and others

    2016-12-10

    Pericytes (PCs) are a subset of perivascular cells that can give rise to mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) when culture-expanded, and are postulated to give rise to MSC-like cells during tissue repair in vivo. PCs have been suggested to behave as stem cells (SCs) in situ in animal models, although evidence for this role in humans is lacking. Here, we analyzed the transcriptomes of highly purified, non-cultured adipose tissue (AT)-derived PCs (ATPCs) to detect gene expression changes that occur as they acquire MSC characteristics in vitro, and evaluated the hypothesis that human ATPCs exhibit a gene expression profile compatible with an AT SC phenotype. The results showed ATPCs are non-proliferative and express genes characteristic not only of PCs, but also of AT stem/progenitor cells. Additional analyses defined a gene expression signature for ATPCs, and revealed putative novel ATPC markers. Almost all AT stem/progenitor cell genes differentially expressed by ATPCs were not expressed by ATMSCs or culture-expanded ATPCs. Genes expressed by ATMSCs but not by ATPCs were also identified. These findings strengthen the hypothesis that PCs are SCs in vascularized tissues, highlight gene expression changes they undergo as they assume an MSC phenotype, and provide new insights into PC biology. - Highlights: • Non-cultured adipose tissue-derived human pericytes (ncATPCs) exhibit a distinctive gene expression signature. • ncATPCs express key adipose tissue stem cell genes previously described in vivo in mice. • ncATPCs express message for anti-proliferative and antiangiogenic molecules. • Most ncATPC-specific transcripts are absent in culture-expanded pericytes or ATMSCs • Gene expression changes ncATPCs undergo as they acquire a cultured ATMSC phenotype are pointed out.

  13. The gene expression profile of non-cultured, highly purified human adipose tissue pericytes: Transcriptomic evidence that pericytes are stem cells in human adipose tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Meirelles, Lindolfo da; Deus Wagatsuma, Virgínia Mara de; Malta, Tathiane Maistro; Bonini Palma, Patrícia Viana; Araújo, Amélia Goes; Panepucci, Rodrigo Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Pericytes (PCs) are a subset of perivascular cells that can give rise to mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) when culture-expanded, and are postulated to give rise to MSC-like cells during tissue repair in vivo. PCs have been suggested to behave as stem cells (SCs) in situ in animal models, although evidence for this role in humans is lacking. Here, we analyzed the transcriptomes of highly purified, non-cultured adipose tissue (AT)-derived PCs (ATPCs) to detect gene expression changes that occur as they acquire MSC characteristics in vitro, and evaluated the hypothesis that human ATPCs exhibit a gene expression profile compatible with an AT SC phenotype. The results showed ATPCs are non-proliferative and express genes characteristic not only of PCs, but also of AT stem/progenitor cells. Additional analyses defined a gene expression signature for ATPCs, and revealed putative novel ATPC markers. Almost all AT stem/progenitor cell genes differentially expressed by ATPCs were not expressed by ATMSCs or culture-expanded ATPCs. Genes expressed by ATMSCs but not by ATPCs were also identified. These findings strengthen the hypothesis that PCs are SCs in vascularized tissues, highlight gene expression changes they undergo as they assume an MSC phenotype, and provide new insights into PC biology. - Highlights: • Non-cultured adipose tissue-derived human pericytes (ncATPCs) exhibit a distinctive gene expression signature. • ncATPCs express key adipose tissue stem cell genes previously described in vivo in mice. • ncATPCs express message for anti-proliferative and antiangiogenic molecules. • Most ncATPC-specific transcripts are absent in culture-expanded pericytes or ATMSCs • Gene expression changes ncATPCs undergo as they acquire a cultured ATMSC phenotype are pointed out.

  14. Human second trimester amniotic fluid cells are able to create embryoid body-like structures in vitro and to show typical expression profiles of embryonic and primordial germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, Ivana; Di Pietro, Roberta; Alfonsi, Melissa; Centurione, Maria Antonietta; Centurione, Lucia; Sancilio, Silvia; Pelagatti, Francesca; D'Amico, Maria Angela; Di Baldassarre, Angela; Piattelli, Adriano; Tetè, Stefano; Palka, Giandomenico; Borlongan, Cesar V; Stuppia, Liborio

    2014-01-01

    Human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFSCs) represent a novel class of broadly multipotent stem cells sharing characteristics of both embryonic and adult stem cells. However, both the origin of these cells and their actual properties in terms of pluripotent differentiation potential are still debated. In order to verify the presence of features of pluripotency in human second trimester AFSCs, we have investigated the ability of these cells to form in vitro three-dimensional aggregates, known as embryoid bodies (EBs), and to express specific genes of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and primordial germ cells (PGCs). EBs were obtained after 5 days of AFSC culture in suspension and showed positivity for alkaline phosphatase (AP) staining and for specific markers of pluripotency (OCT4 and SOX2). Moreover, EB-derived cells showed the expression of specific transcripts of the three germ layers. RT-PCR analysis, carried out at different culture times (second, third, fourth, fifth, and eighth passages), revealed the presence of specific markers of ESCs (such as FGF4 and DAPPA4), as well as of markers typical of PGCs and, in particular, genes involved in early stages of germ cell development (Fragilis, Stella, Vasa, c-Kit, Rnf17). Finally, the expression of genes related to the control of DNA methylation (DNMT3A, DNMT3b1, DNMT1, DNMT3L, MBD1, MBD2, MBD3, MDB4, MeCP2), as well as the lack of inactivation of the X-chromosome in female samples, was also demonstrated. Taken together, these data provide further evidence for the presence of common features among human AFSCs, PGCs, and ESCs.

  15. Distribution of some organic components in two forest soils profiles with evidence of soil organic matter leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Romero, Marta; Papa, Stefania; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Coppola, Elio

    2015-04-01

    Soil stores organic carbon more often than we can find in living vegetation and atmosphere together. This reservoir is not inert, but it is constantly in a dynamic phase of inputs and losses. Soil organic carbon mainly depends on land cover, environment conditions and soil properties. After soil deposition, the organic residues of different origin and nature, the Soil Organic Matter (SOM) can be seen involved in two different processes during the pedogenesis: mineralization and humification. The transport process along profile happens under certain conditions such as deposition of high organic residues amount on the top soil, high porosity of the soil caused by sand or skeleton particles, that determine a water strong infiltrating capacity, also, extreme temperatures can slow or stop the mineralization and/or humification process in one intermediate step of the degradation process releasing organic metabolites with high or medium solubility and high loads of water percolating in relation to intense rainfall. The transport process along soil profile can take many forms that can end in the formation of Bh horizons (h means accumulation of SOM in depth). The forest cover nature influence to the quantity and quality of the organic materials deposited with marked differences between coniferous and deciduous especially in relation to resistance to degradation. Two soils in the Campania region, located in Lago Laceno (Avellino - Italy) with different forest cover (Pinus sp. and Fagus sp.) and that meets the requirements of the place and pedological formation suitable for the formation and accumulation of SOM in depth (Bh horizon) were studied. The different soil C fractions were determinated and were assessed (Ciavatta C. et al. 1990; Dell'Abate M.T. et al. 2002) for each soil profile the Total Extractable Lipids (TEL). Furthermore, the lignin were considered as a major component of soil organic matter (SOM), influencing its pool-size and its turnover, due to the high

  16. Radial dependence of surface streamer-channel luminosity: experimental evidence of Gaussian radiative profiles in Ar and N2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šimek, M; Ambrico, P F

    2012-01-01

    Radial distributions of electronically excited species produced during surface streamer propagation were obtained by applying the Abel inverse transform to projected luminosities of single streamers. The streamers were generated in an argon and nitrogen surface coplanar dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure and their magnified microscopic images were registered with high time resolution. Selected regions of the projected luminosities were processed by the Abel inverse transform procedure based on the Hankel–Fourier method assuming cylindrical symmetry of the streamer channel. Projected as well as Abel-inverted profiles were fitted by Gaussian functions. It is shown that the projected profiles, in addition to the Abel-inverted ones, can be well approximated by the sum of two coaxial Gaussians with two different half-widths and weights. The sharper Gaussian component with higher weight characterizes the radial dependence of the primary cathode-directed streamer-channel luminosity. The second (broader) Gaussian component probably originates either from the pre-breakdown Townsend phase or from the second wave propagating towards the anode. (paper)

  17. AMS measurements of global fallout U-236 and Pu in an ombrotrophic peat profile: evidence for their post depositional migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinto, Francesca; Hrnecek, Erich; Krachler, Michael [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Shotyk, William [Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, 839 General Services Building, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Steier, Peter; Winkler, Stephan; Golser, Robin [VERA Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Waehringer Strasse 17, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-07-01

    U-236, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241 and Pu-242 were analysed in an ombrotrophic peat core representing the last 80 years of atmospheric deposition. The determination of these isotopes at femtogram and attogram levels was possible by using ultra-clean laboratory procedures and accelerator mass spectrometry. Since the Pu isotopic composition characteristic for global fallout, as well as anthropogenic U-236, were identified in peat samples pre-dating the period of atmospheric atom bomb testing, migration of Pu and U within the peat profile is clearly indicated. The vertical profile of the U-236/U-238 isotopic ratio represents the first observation of the U-236 bomb peak in a terrestrial environment. Comparing the abundances of the global fallout derived U-236 and Pu-239 along the peat core, the post depositional migration of plutonium exceeds that of uranium. These results highlight, for the first time, the mobility of Pu and U in a peat bog with implications for their migration in other acidic, organic rich environments.

  18. Translational profiling in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: no evidence for glucocorticoid regulation of mRNA translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneichyk, Tatsiana; Bindreither, Daniel; Mantinger, Christine; Grazio, Daniela; Goetsch, Katrin; Kofler, Reinhard; Rainer, Johannes

    2013-12-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are natural stress induced steroid hormones causing cell cycle arrest and cell death in lymphoid tissues. Therefore they are the central component in the treatment of lymphoid malignancies, in particular childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (chALL). GCs act mainly via regulating gene transcription, which has been intensively studied by us and others. GC control of mRNA translation has also been reported but has never been assessed systematically. In this study we investigate the effect of GCs on mRNA translation on a genome-wide scale. Childhood T- (CCRF-CEM) and precursor B-ALL (NALM6) cells were exposed to GCs and subjected to "translational profiling", a technique combining sucrose-gradient fractionation followed by Affymetrix Exon microarray analysis of mRNA from different fractions, to assess the translational efficiency of the expressed genes. Analysis of GC regulation in ribosome-bound fractions versus transcriptional regulation revealed no significant differences, i.e., GC did not entail a significant shift between ribosomal bound and unbound mRNAs. In the present study we analyzed for the first time possible effects of GC on the translational efficiency of expressed genes in two chALL model systems employing whole genome polysome profiling. Our results did not reveal significant differences in translational efficiency of expressed genes thereby arguing against a potential widespread regulatory effect of GCs on translation at least in the investigated in vitro systems.

  19. The Risk-Return Profiles Of Global Portfolios: Some Evidence From Asia-Pacific And European Equity Markets

    OpenAIRE

    H. Christine Hsu

    2011-01-01

    As world financial markets are integrated, national stock markets tend to move together. Empirical evidence on correlations among equity markets worldwide suggests an increasing interdependence between most national markets in recent years. This is disconcerting, to say the least, to investors and portfolio managers seeking risk diversification via global equity investing. The objective of this study is to investigate whether there is still room for global portfolio diversification from the U...

  20. RED FRACTION AMONG SATELLITE GALAXIES WITH DISK-LIKE LIGHT PROFILES: EVIDENCE FOR INFLOW IN THE H I DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hester, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    The relationships between color, characterized with respect to the g - r red sequence; stellar structure, as determined using the i-band Sersic index; and group membership are explored using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The new results place novel constraints on theories of galaxy evolution, despite the strong correlation between color and stellar structure. Observed correlations are of three independent types-those based on stellar structure, on the color of disk-like galaxies, and on the color of elliptical galaxies. Of particular note, the fraction of galaxies residing on the red sequence measured among galaxies with disk-like light profiles is enhanced for satellite galaxies compared to central galaxies. This fraction increases with group mass. When these new results are considered, theoretical treatments of galaxy evolution that adopt a gas accretion model centered on the hot galactic halo cannot consistently account for all observations of disk galaxies. The hypothesis is advanced that inflow within the extended H I disk prolongs star formation in satellite galaxies. When combined with partial ram pressure stripping (RPS) of this disk, this new scenario is consistent with the observations. This is demonstrated by applying an analytical model of RPS of the extended H I disk to the SDSS groups. These results motivate incorporating more complex modes of gas accretion into models of galaxy evolution, including cold mode accretion, an improved treatment of gas dynamics within disks, and disk stripping.

  1. 24-hour human urine and serum profiles of bisphenol A: Evidence against sublingual absorption following ingestion in soup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teeguarden, Justin G., E-mail: jt@pnl.gov [Health Effects and Exposure Science, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 93771 (United States); Twaddle, Nathan C., E-mail: nathan.twaddle@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Churchwell, Mona I., E-mail: mona.churchwell@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Yang, Xiaoxia, E-mail: xiaoxia.yang@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Fisher, Jeffrey W., E-mail: jeffrey.fisher@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Seryak, Liesel M., E-mail: seryak.2@osu.edu [Division of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Doerge, Daniel R., E-mail: daniel.doerge@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Extensive first-pass metabolism of ingested bisphenol A (BPA) in the gastro-intestinal tract and liver restricts blood concentrations of bioactive BPA to < 1% of total BPA in humans and non-human primates. Absorption of ingested BPA through non-metabolizing tissues of the oral cavity, recently demonstrated in dogs, could lead to the higher serum BPA concentrations reported in some human biomonitoring studies. We hypothesized that the extensive interaction with the oral mucosa by a liquid matrix, like soup, relative to solid food or capsules, might enhance absorption through non-metabolizing oral cavity tissues in humans, producing higher bioavailability and higher serum BPA concentrations. Concurrent serum and urine concentrations of d6-BPA, and its glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, were measured over a 24 hour period in 10 adult male volunteers following ingestion of 30 μg d6-BPA/kg body weight in soup. Absorption of d6-BPA was rapid (t{sub 1/2} = 0.45 h) and elimination of the administered dose was complete 24 h post-ingestion, evidence against any tissue depot for BPA. The maximum serum d6-BPA concentration was 0.43 nM at 1.6 h after administration and represented < 0.3% of total d6-BPA. Pharmacokinetic parameters, pharmacokinetic model simulations, and the significantly faster appearance half-life of d6-BPA-glucuronide compared to d6-BPA (0.29 h vs 0.45 h) were evidence against meaningful absorption of BPA in humans through any non-metabolizing tissue (< 1%). This study confirms that typical exposure to BPA in food produces picomolar to subpicomolar serum BPA concentrations in humans, not nM concentrations reported in some biomonitoring studies.

  2. 24-hour human urine and serum profiles of bisphenol A: Evidence against sublingual absorption following ingestion in soup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeguarden, Justin G; Twaddle, Nathan C; Churchwell, Mona I; Yang, Xiaoxia; Fisher, Jeffrey W; Seryak, Liesel M; Doerge, Daniel R

    2015-10-15

    Extensive first-pass metabolism of ingested bisphenol A (BPA) in the gastro-intestinal tract and liver restricts blood concentrations of bioactive BPA to <1% of total BPA in humans and non-human primates. Absorption of ingested BPA through non-metabolizing tissues of the oral cavity, recently demonstrated in dogs, could lead to the higher serum BPA concentrations reported in some human biomonitoring studies. We hypothesized that the extensive interaction with the oral mucosa by a liquid matrix, like soup, relative to solid food or capsules, might enhance absorption through non-metabolizing oral cavity tissues in humans, producing higher bioavailability and higher serum BPA concentrations. Concurrent serum and urine concentrations of d6-BPA, and its glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, were measured over a 24hour period in 10 adult male volunteers following ingestion of 30μg d6-BPA/kg body weight in soup. Absorption of d6-BPA was rapid (t1/2=0.45h) and elimination of the administered dose was complete 24h post-ingestion, evidence against any tissue depot for BPA. The maximum serum d6-BPA concentration was 0.43nM at 1.6h after administration and represented <0.3% of total d6-BPA. Pharmacokinetic parameters, pharmacokinetic model simulations, and the significantly faster appearance half-life of d6-BPA-glucuronide compared to d6-BPA (0.29h vs 0.45h) were evidence against meaningful absorption of BPA in humans through any non-metabolizing tissue (<1%). This study confirms that typical exposure to BPA in food produces picomolar to subpicomolar serum BPA concentrations in humans, not nM concentrations reported in some biomonitoring studies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. 24-hour human urine and serum profiles of bisphenol A: Evidence against sublingual absorption following ingestion in soup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Churchwell, Mona I.; Yang, Xiaoxia; Fisher, Jeffrey W.; Seryak, Liesel M.; Doerge, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Extensive first-pass metabolism of ingested bisphenol A (BPA) in the gastro-intestinal tract and liver restricts blood concentrations of bioactive BPA to < 1% of total BPA in humans and non-human primates. Absorption of ingested BPA through non-metabolizing tissues of the oral cavity, recently demonstrated in dogs, could lead to the higher serum BPA concentrations reported in some human biomonitoring studies. We hypothesized that the extensive interaction with the oral mucosa by a liquid matrix, like soup, relative to solid food or capsules, might enhance absorption through non-metabolizing oral cavity tissues in humans, producing higher bioavailability and higher serum BPA concentrations. Concurrent serum and urine concentrations of d6-BPA, and its glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, were measured over a 24 hour period in 10 adult male volunteers following ingestion of 30 μg d6-BPA/kg body weight in soup. Absorption of d6-BPA was rapid (t 1/2 = 0.45 h) and elimination of the administered dose was complete 24 h post-ingestion, evidence against any tissue depot for BPA. The maximum serum d6-BPA concentration was 0.43 nM at 1.6 h after administration and represented < 0.3% of total d6-BPA. Pharmacokinetic parameters, pharmacokinetic model simulations, and the significantly faster appearance half-life of d6-BPA-glucuronide compared to d6-BPA (0.29 h vs 0.45 h) were evidence against meaningful absorption of BPA in humans through any non-metabolizing tissue (< 1%). This study confirms that typical exposure to BPA in food produces picomolar to subpicomolar serum BPA concentrations in humans, not nM concentrations reported in some biomonitoring studies.

  4. Evidence of the dissociative PTSD subtype: A systematic literature review of latent class and profile analytic studies of PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Maj; Ross, Jana; Armour, Cherie

    2017-04-15

    The dissociative PTSD (D-PTSD) subtype was first introduced into the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) in 2013. Prior to this, studies using latent profile analysis (LPA) or latent class analysis (LCA), began to provide support for the D-PTSD construct and associated risk factors. This research is important, because dissociative symptoms in the context of PTSD may potentially interfere with treatment course or outcome. The aims of the present study were twofold: to systematically review the LCA and LPA studies investigating support for the D-PTSD construct; and to review the associated research on the risk factors or covariates of D-PTSD in the identified studies. Six databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, PILOTS, PsychInfo, and Embase) were systematically searched for relevant papers. Eleven studies were included in the present review. The majority of the studies were supportive of the D-PTSD subtype; primarily characterized by depersonalization and derealization. Several covariates of the D-PTSD subtype have been investigated with mixed results. Many limitations relate to the state of the current literature, including a small number of studies, the use of self-report measurements of PTSD, and heterogeneity across the samples in investigated covariates. The results were overall supportive of the D-PTSD construct. Future research on D-PTSD and associated risk factors is needed to shed light on the possibilities of facilitating preventive actions, screening, and implications on treatment effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Genome-wide gene expression profiling and a forward genetic screen show that differential expression of the sodium ion transporter Ena21 contributes to the differential tolerance of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis to osmotic stress.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Enjalbert, Brice

    2009-04-01

    Candida albicans is more pathogenic than Candida dubliniensis. However, this disparity in virulence is surprising given the high level of sequence conservation and the wide range of phenotypic traits shared by these two species. Increased sensitivity to environmental stresses has been suggested to be a possible contributory factor to the lower virulence of C. dubliniensis. In this study, we investigated, in the first comparison of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis by transcriptional profiling, global gene expression in each species when grown under conditions in which the two species exhibit differential stress tolerance. The profiles revealed similar core responses to stresses in both species, but differences in the amplitude of the general transcriptional responses to thermal, salt and oxidative stress. Differences in the regulation of specific stress genes were observed between the two species. In particular, ENA21, encoding a sodium ion transporter, was strongly induced in C. albicans but not in C. dubliniensis. In addition, ENA21 was identified in a forward genetic screen for C. albicans genomic sequences that increase salt tolerance in C. dubliniensis. Introduction of a single copy of CaENA21 was subsequently shown to be sufficient to confer salt tolerance upon C. dubliniensis.

  6. On the thermoluminescence profile of an Ionian Sea sediment: evidence of 137, 118, 12.1 and 10.8y cycles in the last two millennia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cini Castagnoli, G.; Bonino, G.; Provenzale, A.

    1988-01-01

    The thermoluminescence profile of an Ionian Sea recent sedimentary core, constructed with 467 equispaced data points and spanning 18 centuries from 170 to 1974 A.D. is studied. Several time series analysis methods reveal two evident periodicities on the centennial time scale, at 137 years and 118 years, both with their second harmonics. Together with these slow cyclic variations two sharp periodicities appear on the decennial time scale, at 12.1 years and 10.8 years. In the present study the amplitude and phase of these waves have been determined and it is shown that their summation accounts for more than 50% of the standard deviation of the whole time series and that they correctly reproduce the basic characteristics of the data

  7. Claim Assessment Profile: A Method for Capturing Healthcare Evidence in the Scientific Evaluation and Review of Claims in Health Care (SEaRCH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Lara; Jonas, Wayne B

    2017-02-01

    Grounding health claims in an evidence base is essential for determining safety and effectiveness. However, it is not appropriate to evaluate all healthcare claims with the same methods. "Gold standard" randomized controlled trials may skip over important qualitative and observational data about use, benefits, side effects, and preferences, issues especially salient in research on complementary and integrative health (CIH) practices. This gap has prompted a move toward studying treatments in their naturalistic settings. In the 1990s, a program initiated under the National Institutes of Health was designed to provide an outreach to CIH practices for assessing the feasibility of conducting retrospective or prospective evaluations. The Claim Assessment Profile further develops this approach, within the framework of Samueli Institute's Scientific Evaluation and Review of Claims in Health Care (SEaRCH) method. The goals of a Claim Assessment Profile are to clarify the elements that constitute a practice, define key outcomes, and create an explanatory model of these impacts. The main objective is to determine readiness and capacity of a practice to engage in evaluation of effectiveness. This approach is informed by a variety of rapid assessment and stakeholder-driven methods. Site visits, structured qualitative interviews, surveys, and observational data on implementation provide descriptive data about the practice. Logic modeling defines inputs, processes, and outcome variables; Path modeling defines an analytic map to explore. The Claim Assessment Profile is a rapid assessment of the evaluability of a healthcare practice. The method was developed for use on CIH practices but has also been applied in resilience research and may be applied beyond the healthcare sector. Findings are meant to provide sufficient data to improve decision-making for stakeholders. This method provides an important first step for moving existing promising yet untested practices into

  8. Profiling Pre-Service Teachers' Awareness and Regulation of Their Own Thinking: Evidence from an Asian Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chwee Beng; Teo, Timothy; Chai, Ching Sing

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to examine pre-service teachers' knowledge and regulation of cognition. The authors administered Schraw and Dennison's Metacognitive Awareness Inventory to 254 pre-service teachers in Singapore. The results showed no significant difference by educational level on all subscales except for evaluation, which is a subscale of…

  9. Identification of proteins from 4200-year-old skin and muscle tissue biopsies from ancient Egyptian mummies of the first intermediate period shows evidence of acute inflammation and severe immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jana; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Ravishankar, Prathiba; Xavier, Dylan; Lim, Do Seon; Shin, Dong Hoon; Bianucci, Raffaella; Haynes, Paul A

    2016-10-28

    We performed proteomics analysis on four skin and one muscle tissue samples taken from three ancient Egyptian mummies of the first intermediate period, approximately 4200 years old. The mummies were first dated by radiocarbon dating of the accompany-\\break ing textiles, and morphologically examined by scanning electron microscopy of additional skin samples. Proteins were extracted, separated on SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) gels, and in-gel digested with trypsin. The resulting peptides were analysed using nanoflow high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified a total of 230 unique proteins from the five samples, which consisted of 132 unique protein identifications. We found a large number of collagens, which was confirmed by our microscopy data, and is in agreement with previous studies showing that collagens are very long-lived. As expected, we also found a large number of keratins. We identified numerous proteins that provide evidence of activation of the innate immunity system in two of the mummies, one of which also contained proteins indicating severe tissue inflammation, possibly indicative of an infection that we can speculate may have been related to the cause of death.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Trace element profiles in modern horse molar enamel as tracers of seasonality: Evidence from micro-XRF, LA-ICP-MS and stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winter, Niels; Goderis, Steven; van Malderen, Stijn; Vanhaecke, Frank; Claeys, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    A combination of laboratory micro-X-ray Fluorescence (μXRF) and stable carbon and oxygen isotope analysis shows that trace element profiles from modern horse molars reveal a seasonal pattern that co-varies with seasonality in the oxygen isotope records of enamel carbonate from the same teeth. A combination of six cheek teeth (premolars and molars) from the same individual yields a seasonal isotope and trace element record of approximately three years recorded during the growth of the molars. This record shows that reproducible measurements of various trace element ratios (e.g., Sr/Ca, Zn/Ca, Fe/Ca, K/Ca and S/Ca) lag the seasonal pattern in oxygen isotope records by 2-3 months. Laser Ablation-ICP-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analysis on a cross-section of the first molar of the same individual is compared to the bench-top tube-excitation μXRF results to test the robustness of the measurements and to compare both methods. Furthermore, trace element (e.g. Sr, Zn, Mg & Ba) profiles perpendicular to the growth direction of the same tooth, as well as profiles parallel to the growth direction are measured with LA-ICP-MS and μXRF to study the internal distribution of trace element ratios in two dimensions. Results of this extensive complementary line-scanning procedure shows the robustness of state of the art laboratory micro-XRF scanning for the measurement of trace elements in bioapatite. The comparison highlights the advantages and disadvantages of both methods for trace element analysis and illustrates their complementarity. Results of internal variation within the teeth shed light on the origins of trace elements in mammal teeth and their potential use for paleo-environmental reconstruction.

  11. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  12. To embed or not to embed? A longitudinal study exploring the impact of curriculum design on the evidence-based practice profiles of UK pre-registration nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scurlock-Evans, Laura; Upton, Penney; Rouse, Joanne; Upton, Dominic

    2017-11-01

    The use of Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) is increasingly emphasized within healthcare. However, little research has focused on nurses' pre-registration training; particularly regarding the impact of curriculum-design on learning EBP. This study compared the impact of embedding EBP throughout the curriculum, with modular-based teaching, on pre-registration nursing students' EBP profiles. A longitudinal panel study. A convenience sample of fifty-six pre-registration nursing students (55.4% studying an embedded EBP-curriculum and 44.6% studying a modular EBP-curriculum), were recruited from a UK University between 2011 and 2014. Participants completed the Student Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire (S-EBPQ) in the first, second and third year of their course. This questionnaire measures four EBP domains: frequency of use, attitude, knowledge and skills in retrieving and reviewing evidence, and knowledge and skills in applying and sharing evidence. Two-way mixed between-within Analyses of Variance revealed significant improvements across all domains, except attitude (which remained broadly positive across all years), for both curriculum-groups. No significant differences in this improvement were identified between the two curricula overall. However, the direction and rate of change of scores on the retrieving and applying subscales (but not frequency of use) for the two groups differed across time; specifically those on the embedded curriculum showed a dip in scores on these subscales in year 2. This appeared to be related to associated features of the course such as the timing of placements and delivery of theory. Taking a modular or embedded approach to EBP may have little impact on students' final EBP profiles. However, careful consideration should be given to the timing of related course features which may play a key role in students' perceptions of their knowledge and skills in its application. Further research should explore how curriculum-design might build on

  13. Orengedoku-to augmentation in cases showing partial response to yokukan-san treatment: a case report and literature review of the evidence for use of these Kampo herbal formulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamoto H

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hideki Okamoto,1 Atsushi Chino,1 Yoshiro Hirasaki,1 Keigo Ueda,1 Masaomi Iyo,2 Takao Namiki11Department of Japanese-Oriental (Kampo Medicine, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba City, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba City, Japan Background: Yokukan-san, a Japanese traditional herbal (Kampo prescription, has recently gathered increasing attention due to accumulating reports showing its remarkable efficacy in treating a wide variety of diseases refractory to conventional medicine as well as the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. As yokukan-san has become broadly integrated with conventional medicine, augmentation therapy with other Kampo prescriptions has become necessary when the yokukan-san has been only partially efficacious. In this paper, we report three cases in which the addition of orengedoku-to, another Kampo formula, to yokukan-san was remarkably effective.Cases: Case 1 was an 85-year-old man with Alzheimer-type dementia who had become aggressive during the past 2 years. Three milligrams of aripiprazole completely suppressed his problematic behaviors but had to be stopped because of extrapyramidal symptoms. In the second case, a 44-year-old man with methamphetamine-induced psychosis had suffered from serious tardive dystonia for 2 years. No conventional approach had improved his tardive dystonia. The third case was a 29-year-old engineer who often failed to resist aggressive impulses and was diagnosed with intermittent explosive disorder. He was prescribed 5 mg of olanzapine, which did not suppress his extraordinary anger and caused somnolence even though the dose was low.Interventions and outcomes: Yokukan-san was complementarily added to the patients' regular medication and exerted a definitive but partial effect in all cases. The addition of orengedoku-to to yokukan-san exerted the same efficacy as aripiprazole in controlling aggressiveness in Case 1

  14. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  15. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  16. Talking with TV shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication...

  17. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  18. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  20. Gene expression profiling for guiding adjuvant chemotherapy decisions in women with early breast cancer: an evidence-based and economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    In February 2010, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on evidence-based reviews of published literature surrounding three pharmacogenomic tests. This project came about when Cancer Care Ontario (CCO) asked MAS to provide evidence-based analyses on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of three oncology pharmacogenomic tests currently in use in Ontario.Evidence-based analyses have been prepared for each of these technologies. These have been completed in conjunction with internal and external stakeholders, including a Provincial Expert Panel on Pharmacogenomics (PEPP). Within the PEPP, subgroup committees were developed for each disease area. For each technology, an economic analysis was also completed by the Toronto Health Economics and Technology Assessment Collaborative (THETA) and is summarized within the reports.THE FOLLOWING REPORTS CAN BE PUBLICLY ACCESSED AT THE MAS WEBSITE AT: www.health.gov.on.ca/mas or at www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/mas_about.htmlGENE EXPRESSION PROFILING FOR GUIDING ADJUVANT CHEMOTHERAPY DECISIONS IN WOMEN WITH EARLY BREAST CANCER: An Evidence-Based and Economic AnalysisEpidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation (EGFR) Testing for Prediction of Response to EGFR-Targeting Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor (TKI) Drugs in Patients with Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: An Evidence-Based and Ecopnomic AnalysisK-RAS testing in Treatment Decisions for Advanced Colorectal Cancer: an Evidence-Based and Economic Analysis To review and synthesize the available evidence regarding the laboratory performance, prognostic value, and predictive value of Oncotype-DX for the target population. CONDITION AND TARGET POPULATION The target population of this review is women with newly diagnosed early stage (stage I-IIIa) invasive breast cancer that is estrogen-receptor (ER) positive and/or progesterone-receptor (PR) positive. Much of this review, however, is relevant for women with early stage (I and II) invasive breast

  1. The energy show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Energy Show is a new look at the problems of world energy, where our supplies come from, now and in the future. The programme looks at how we need energy to maintain our standards of living. Energy supply is shown as the complicated set of problems it is - that Fossil Fuels are both raw materials and energy sources, that some 'alternatives' so readily suggested as practical options are in reality a long way from being effective. (author)

  2. Whole-transcriptome brain expression and exon-usage profiling in major depression and suicide: evidence for altered glial, endothelial and ATPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazatos, S P; Huang, Y-Y; Rosoklija, G B; Dwork, A J; Arango, V; Mann, J J

    2017-05-01

    Brain gene expression profiling studies of suicide and depression using oligonucleotide microarrays have often failed to distinguish these two phenotypes. Moreover, next generation sequencing approaches are more accurate in quantifying gene expression and can detect alternative splicing. Using RNA-seq, we examined whole-exome gene and exon expression in non-psychiatric controls (CON, N=29), DSM-IV major depressive disorder suicides (MDD-S, N=21) and MDD non-suicides (MDD, N=9) in the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann Area 9) of sudden death medication-free individuals post mortem. Using small RNA-seq, we also examined miRNA expression (nine samples per group). DeSeq2 identified 35 genes differentially expressed between groups and surviving adjustment for false discovery rate (adjusted Pdepression, altered genes include humanin-like-8 (MTRNRL8), interleukin-8 (IL8), and serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade H (SERPINH1) and chemokine ligand 4 (CCL4), while exploratory gene ontology (GO) analyses revealed lower expression of immune-related pathways such as chemokine receptor activity, chemotaxis and cytokine biosynthesis, and angiogenesis and vascular development in (adjusted Psuicide and depression, and provisional evidence for altered DNA-dependent ATPase expression in suicide only. DEXSEq analysis identified differential exon usage in ATPase, class II, type 9B (adjusted Pdepression. Differences in miRNA expression or structural gene variants were not detected. Results lend further support for models in which deficits in microglial, endothelial (blood-brain barrier), ATPase activity and astrocytic cell functions contribute to MDD and suicide, and identify putative pathways and mechanisms for further study in these disorders.

  3. Global expression profile of biofilm resistance to antimicrobial compounds in the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa reveals evidence of persister cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muranaka, Lígia S; Takita, Marco A; Olivato, Jacqueline C; Kishi, Luciano T; de Souza, Alessandra A

    2012-09-01

    Investigations of biofilm resistance response rarely focus on plant-pathogenic bacteria. Since Xylella fastidiosa is a multihost plant-pathogenic bacterium that forms biofilm in the xylem, the behavior of its biofilm in response to antimicrobial compounds needs to be better investigated. We analyzed here the transcriptional profile of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca in response to inhibitory and subinhibitory concentrations of copper and tetracycline. Copper-based products are routinely used to control citrus diseases in the field, while antibiotics are more widely used for bacterial control in mammals. The use of antimicrobial compounds triggers specific responses to each compound, such as biofilm formation and phage activity for copper. Common changes in expression responses comprise the repression of genes associated with metabolic functions and movement and the induction of toxin-antitoxin systems, which have been associated with the formation of persister cells. Our results also show that these cells were found in the population at a ca. 0.05% density under inhibitory conditions for both antimicrobial compounds and that pretreatment with subinhibitory concentration of copper increases this number. No previous report has detected the presence of these cells in X. fastidiosa population, suggesting that this could lead to a multidrug tolerance response in the biofilm under a stressed environment. This is a mechanism that has recently become the focus of studies on resistance of human-pathogenic bacteria to antibiotics and, based on our data, it seems to be more broadly applicable.

  4. Marking of verb tense in the English of preschool English-Mandarin bilingual children: evidence from language development profiles within subgroups on the Singapore English Action Picture Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brebner, Chris; McCormack, Paul; Liow, Susan Rickard

    2016-01-01

    The phonological and morphosyntactic structures of English and Mandarin contrast maximally and an increasing number of bilinguals speak these two languages. Speech and language therapists need to understand bilingual development for children speaking these languages in order reliably to assess and provide intervention for this population. To examine the marking of verb tense in the English of two groups of bilingual pre-schoolers learning these languages in a multilingual setting where the main educational language is English. The main research question addressed was: are there differences in the rate and pattern of acquisition of verb-tense marking for English-language 1 children compared with Mandarin-language 1 children? Spoken language samples in English from 481 English-Mandarin bilingual children were elicited using a 10-item action picture test and analysed for each child's use of verb tense markers: present progressive '-ing', regular past tense '-ed', third-person singular '-s', and irregular past tense and irregular past-participle forms. For 4-6 year olds the use of inflectional markers by the different language dominance groups was compared statistically using non-parametric tests. This study provides further evidence that bilingual language development is not the same as monolingual language development. The results show that there are very different rates and patterns of verb-tense marking in English for English-language 1 and Mandarin-language 1 children. Furthermore, they show that bilingual language development in English in Singapore is not the same as monolingual language development in English, and that there are differences in development depending on language dominance. Valid and reliable assessment of bilingual children's language skills needs to consider the characteristics of all languages spoken, obtaining accurate information on language use over time and accurately establishing language dominance is essential in order to make a

  5. Analysis of audiometric database shows evidence of employee fraud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdreich, John

    2003-10-01

    Following a lengthy strike, several hundred delivery drivers filed workers compensation claims for occupational hearing loss. We were asked to evaluate the noise exposure of the drivers during their in-plant tasks. In-plant exposures were not predictive of any hearing loss. A comparison of audiometric data for the claimants revealed consistent hearing loss independent of duration of employment or age. These discrepancies between observations and common understanding of dose-response relationships between noise exposure and hearing loss led to further investigation, ultimately resulting in the dismissal of all claims against the employer who then filed an action against the claimant's attorneys and physician under the Racketeering in Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO). The details of the legal complaint, which reads like a detective novel, can be found at the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York [93 Civ. 7222 (LAP)].

  6. Calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor as a novel target for the management of people with episodic migraine: current evidence and safety profile of erenumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giamberardino MA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Maria Adele Giamberardino,1,* Giannapia Affaitati,1,* Raffaele Costantini,2 Francesco Cipollone,3,* Paolo Martelletti4,* 1Department of Medicine and Science of Aging, Headache Center, Geriatrics Clinic and Ce.S.I.-Met, “G. D’Annunzio” University of Chieti, Chieti, Italy; 2Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, Institute of Surgical Pathology, “G. D’Annunzio” University of Chieti, Chieti, Italy; 3Department of Medicine and Science of Aging, Medical Clinic and Ce.S.I.-Met, “G. D’Annunzio” University of Chieti, Chieti, Italy; 4Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Regional Referral Headache Center, Sant’Andrea Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Migraine is a highly disabling neurological condition, and preventative treatment still remains problematic, due to aspecificity of the majority of the currently available prophylactic drugs. Calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP plays a crucial role in migraine pathophysiology; agents aimed at blocking its activity have, therefore, been developed in recent years, among which are monoclonal antibodies (mAbs against CGRP, to prevent migraine. Erenumab is the only mAb that targets the CGRP receptor instead of the ligand, with high specificity and affinity of binding. This review will report on the most recent data on erenumab characteristics and on the results of clinical trials on its employment in the prevention of episodic migraine (4–14 monthly migraine days: one Phase II and two Phase III trials (completed and one Phase III trial (ongoing. Monthly subcutaneous administration (70 mg or 140 mg of erenumab vs placebo for 3–6 months showed significantly higher efficacy in reducing the mean monthly number of migraine days and the use of migraine-specific medication, and in decreasing physical impairment and impact of migraine on everyday activities (P<0.001. A favorable safety profile

  7. A Talk Show from the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Arlene F.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a two-day activity in which elementary students examine voting rights, the right to assemble, and women's suffrage. Explains the game, "Assemble, Reassemble," and a student-produced talk show with five students playing the roles of leaders of the women's suffrage movement. Profiles Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan…

  8. Tradução, adaptação transcultural e evidências de validade da escala improvisation assessment profiles (IAPs) para uso no Brasil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gattino, Gustavo; Ferrari, Karina; Azevedo, Graciane

    2016-01-01

    This article is intended to present the second part of the research which created the Improvisation Assessment Profiles (IAPs) version in Brazil according to a formal translation process and the analysis of the instrument in relation to its cross-cultural adaptation. The scale was also evaluated ...

  9. Is the Good-Imitator-Poor-Talker Profile Syndrome-Specific in Down Syndrome?: Evidence from Standardised Imitation and Language Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanvuchelen, M.; Feys, H.; De Weerdt, W.

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of the Down syndrome (DS) behavioural phenotype during early development may be of great importance for early intervention. The main goal of this study was to investigate the good-imitator-poor-talker developmental profile in DS at preschool age. Twenty children with Down syndrome (DS; mean nonverbal mental age NMA 1 y10 m) and 15…

  10. Constitutive Curve and Velocity Profile in Entangled Polymers during Start-Up of Steady Shear Flow

    KAUST Repository

    Hayes, Keesha A.; Buckley, Mark R.; Qi, Haibo; Cohen, Itai; Archer, Lynden A.

    2010-01-01

    -4]. Surprisingly, we find that even polymer systems which exhibit transient, nonmonotonic shear stress-shear rate relationships in bulk rheology experiments manifest time-dependent velocity profiles that are decidedly linear and show no evidence of unstable flow

  11. Diverse Brain Myeloid Expression Profiles Reveal Distinct Microglial Activation States and Aspects of Alzheimer’s Disease Not Evident in Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad A. Friedman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Microglia, the CNS-resident immune cells, play important roles in disease, but the spectrum of their possible activation states is not well understood. We derived co-regulated gene modules from transcriptional profiles of CNS myeloid cells of diverse mouse models, including new tauopathy model datasets. Using these modules to interpret single-cell data from an Alzheimer’s disease (AD model, we identified microglial subsets—distinct from previously reported “disease-associated microglia”—expressing interferon-related or proliferation modules. We then analyzed whole-tissue RNA profiles from human neurodegenerative diseases, including a new AD dataset. Correcting for altered cellular composition of AD tissue, we observed elevated expression of the neurodegeneration-related modules, but also modules not implicated using expression profiles from mouse models alone. We provide a searchable, interactive database for exploring gene expression in all these datasets (http://research-pub.gene.com/BrainMyeloidLandscape. Understanding the dimensions of CNS myeloid cell activation in human disease may reveal opportunities for therapeutic intervention.

  12. Further Evidence that Severe Scores in the Aggression/Anxiety-Depression/Attention Subscales of Child Behavior Checklist (Severe Dysregulation Profile) Can Screen for Bipolar Disorder Symptomatology: A Conditional Probability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Mai; Faraone, Stephen V; Martelon, MaryKate; Kenworthy, Tara; Woodworth, K Yvonne; Spencer, Thomas; Wozniak, Janet; Biederman, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous work shows that children with high scores (2 SD, combined score ≥ 210) on the Attention Problems, Aggressive Behavior, and Anxious-Depressed (A-A-A) subscales of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) are more likely than other children to meet criteria for bipolar (BP)-I disorder. However, the utility of this profile as a screening tool has remained unclear. Methods We compared 140 patients with pediatric BP-I disorder, 83 with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and 114 control subjects. We defined the CBCL-Severe Dysregulation profile as an aggregate cutoff score of ≥ 210 on the A-A-A scales. Patients were assessed with structured diagnostic interviews and functional measures. Results Patients with BP-I disorder were significantly more likely than both control subjects (Odds Ratio [OR]: 173.2; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 21.2 to 1413.8; P < 0.001) and those with ADHD (OR: 14.6; 95% CI, 6.2 to 34.3; P < 0.001) to have a positive CBCL-Severe Dysregulation profile. Receiver Operating Characteristics analyses showed that the area under the curve for this profile comparing children with BP-I disorder against control subjects and those with ADHD was 99% and 85%, respectively. The corresponding positive predictive values for this profile were 99% and 92% with false positive rates of < 0.2% and 8% for the comparisons with control subjects and patients with ADHD, respectively. Limitations Non-clinician raters administered structured diagnostic interviews, and the sample was referred and largely Caucasian. Conclusions The CBCL-Severe Dysregulation profile can be useful as a screen for BP-I disorder in children in clinical practice. PMID:24882182

  13. Two decades of genetic profiling yields first evidence of natal philopatry and long-term fidelity to parturition sites in sharks

    KAUST Repository

    Feldheim, Kevin Andrew; Gruber, Samuel H.; DiBattista, Joseph; Babcock, Elizabeth A.; Kessel, Steven T.; Hendry, Andrew P.; Pikitch, Ellen K.; Ashley, Mary V.; Chapman, Demian D F

    2013-01-01

    in the 1993-1997 cohorts returned to give birth 14-17 years later, providing the first direct evidence of natal philopatry in the chondrichthyans. Long-term fidelity to specific nursery sites coupled with natal philopatry highlights the merits of emerging

  14. Toxicogenomic Dissection of the Perfluorooctanoic Acid Transcript Profile in Mouse Liver: Evidence for the Involvement of Nuclear Receptors PPARα and CAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of perfluorinated alkyl acids including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) elicit effects similar to peroxisome proliferator chemicals (PPC) in mouse and rat liver. There is strong evidence that PPC cause many of their effects linked to liver cancer through the nuclear recep...

  15. Toxicogenomic Dissection of the Perfluorooctanoic Acid Transcript Profile in Mouse Liver: Evidence for Involvement of the Nuclear Receptors PPARα and CAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of perfluorinated alkyl acids including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) elicit effects similar to peroxisome proliferator chemicals (PPC) in mouse and rat liver. There is strong evidence that PPC cause many of their effects related to liver carcinogenesis through the nucle...

  16. Quantitative analysis of Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP microbial community profiles: peak height data showed to be more reproducible than peak area Análise quantitativa de perfis de T-RFLP de comunidades microbianas: dados de altura de picos mostraram-se mais reprodutíveis do que os de área

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto A. Caffaro-Filho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP is a culture-independent fingerprinting method for microbial community analysis. Profiles generated by an automated electrophoresis system can be analysed quantitatively using either peak height or peak area data. Statistical testing demontrated that peak height data showed to be more reproducible than peak area data.Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP é um método molecular, independente de cultivo, para análise de comunidades microbianas. Perfis gerados por um sistema automatizado de eletroforese podem ser analisados quantitativamente usando dados de altura ou área dos picos. Os dados de altura mostraram-se mais reprodutíveis do que os de área.

  17. Hydrocarbons biodegradation and evidence of mixed petroleum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chromatographic analysis of extracts from the Cross River system show evidence of variable composition of biogenic n-alkane profile with dominance of terrigenous over aquatic organic matter present (LHC/SHC-0.36-10.57) at upstream location reflecting the natural background levels and marked levels of petroleum ...

  18. Climate for evidence-informed health systems: a profile of systematic review production in 41 low- and middle-income countries, 1996-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Tyler; Lavis, John; Hamandi, Ali; Cheung, Andrew; El-Jardali, Fadi

    2012-01-01

    To describe systematic review production in 41 countries in Africa, the Americas, Asia and the eastern Mediterranean to understand one dimension of the climate for evidence-informed health systems and to provide a baseline for an evaluation of knowledge translation initiatives. Our focus was systematic reviews published between 1996 and 2008 that had a corresponding author based in, or that appeared to target, one of the countries in these regions. We searched both Medline and Embase using validated search strategies, identified citations with a country name in the corresponding author's institutional affiliation or as a textword (i.e., an explicit mention in the title or abstract) or keyword, and coded articles describing a systematic review. We followed the same citation identification procedure for Health Systems Evidence, a database containing systematic reviews about health systems. Systematic review production increased between three-fold (for Africa in Medline) and 110-fold (for Asia in Embase) between the first period (1996-2002) and second period (2003-2008). In the second period, China was more often the home of corresponding authors and the target of reviews than any other country. No systematic reviews were produced by a corresponding author based in nine countries, or appeared to target five countries. Only 48 reviews identified through Medline and Embase addressed health systems, and 35 health systems reviews identified through Health Systems Evidence addressed these countries. In many countries, those seeking to support evidence-informed health systems cannot turn to experienced local systematic reviewers to help them to find and use systematic reviews or to conduct reviews on high priority topics when none exists. These findings suggest the need for local capacity-building initiatives.

  19. Similar Spectral Power Densities Within the Schumann Resonance and a Large Population of Quantitative Electroencephalographic Profiles: Supportive Evidence for Koenig and Pobachenko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroka, Kevin S; Vares, David E; Persinger, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    In 1954 and 1960 Koenig and his colleagues described the remarkable similarities of spectral power density profiles and patterns between the earth-ionosphere resonance and human brain activity which also share magnitudes for both electric field (mV/m) and magnetic field (pT) components. In 2006 Pobachenko and colleagues reported real time coherence between variations in the Schumann and brain activity spectra within the 6-16 Hz band for a small sample. We examined the ratios of the average potential differences (~3 μV) obtained by whole brain quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) between rostral-caudal and left-right (hemispheric) comparisons of 238 measurements from 184 individuals over a 3.5 year period. Spectral densities for the rostral-caudal axis revealed a powerful peak at 10.25 Hz while the left-right peak was 1.95 Hz with beat-differences of ~7.5 to 8 Hz. When global cerebral measures were employed, the first (7-8 Hz), second (13-14 Hz) and third (19-20 Hz) harmonics of the Schumann resonances were discernable in averaged QEEG profiles in some but not all participants. The intensity of the endogenous Schumann resonance was related to the 'best-of-fitness' of the traditional 4-class microstate model. Additional measurements demonstrated real-time coherence for durations approximating microstates in spectral power density variations between Schumann frequencies measured in Sudbury, Canada and Cumiana, Italy with the QEEGs of local subjects. Our results confirm the measurements reported by earlier researchers that demonstrated unexpected similarities in the spectral patterns and strengths of electromagnetic fields generated by the human brain and the earth-ionospheric cavity.

  20. Similar Spectral Power Densities Within the Schumann Resonance and a Large Population of Quantitative Electroencephalographic Profiles: Supportive Evidence for Koenig and Pobachenko.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin S Saroka

    Full Text Available In 1954 and 1960 Koenig and his colleagues described the remarkable similarities of spectral power density profiles and patterns between the earth-ionosphere resonance and human brain activity which also share magnitudes for both electric field (mV/m and magnetic field (pT components. In 2006 Pobachenko and colleagues reported real time coherence between variations in the Schumann and brain activity spectra within the 6-16 Hz band for a small sample. We examined the ratios of the average potential differences (~3 μV obtained by whole brain quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG between rostral-caudal and left-right (hemispheric comparisons of 238 measurements from 184 individuals over a 3.5 year period. Spectral densities for the rostral-caudal axis revealed a powerful peak at 10.25 Hz while the left-right peak was 1.95 Hz with beat-differences of ~7.5 to 8 Hz. When global cerebral measures were employed, the first (7-8 Hz, second (13-14 Hz and third (19-20 Hz harmonics of the Schumann resonances were discernable in averaged QEEG profiles in some but not all participants. The intensity of the endogenous Schumann resonance was related to the 'best-of-fitness' of the traditional 4-class microstate model. Additional measurements demonstrated real-time coherence for durations approximating microstates in spectral power density variations between Schumann frequencies measured in Sudbury, Canada and Cumiana, Italy with the QEEGs of local subjects. Our results confirm the measurements reported by earlier researchers that demonstrated unexpected similarities in the spectral patterns and strengths of electromagnetic fields generated by the human brain and the earth-ionospheric cavity.

  1. Evaluation of electrophoretic profile and albumin quota in the cerebrospinal fluid of dogs with distemper showing or not neurvous signs Avaliação do perfil eletroforético e da cota de albumina do líquido cerebrospinal de cães acometidos pela cinomose apresentando ou não sinais neurológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G.V. Gama

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The electrophoretic profile of cerebrospinal fluid proteins and albumin quota was studied in healthy dogs and dogs with distemper in either nervous or non-nervous phases. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from 30 dogs were collected by puncture of the cisterna magna. The total protein content, the albumin quota, and the electrophoretic fraction of CSF proteins in agarose gel plates were evaluated. Results were similar in healthy dogs and dogs with distemper and no nervous signs, but were significantly increased in the group of dogs with distemper showing nervous signs. The study of CSF protein profile proved useful and contributed significantly on the detection of central nervous system disorders and damages to the blood-brain barrier during the nervous phase of distemper.Estudaram-se o perfil eletroforético das proteínas liquóricas e a cota de albumina em cães sem e com cinomose na fase neurológica e não-neurológica. A punção da cisterna magna para a obtenção de amostras de liquor realizou-se em 30 cães. Analisaram-se teores de proteínas totais, cota de albumina e fracionamento eletroforético das proteínas liquóricas em gel de agarose. Os resultados foram semelhantes nos cães normais e nos cães com cinomose sem sinais neurológicos e significativamente elevados no grupo de cães com cinomose apresentando sinais neurológicos. O estudo do quadro protéico do líquido cérebroespinhal foi útil e contribuiu significativamente na detecção de lesões ao sistema nervoso central e de danos à barreira hematoencefálica durante a fase neurológica da cinomose.

  2. Highly invasive alien plant Reynoutria japonica Houtt. represents a novel source for pharmaceutical industry - evidence from phenolic profile and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božin Biljana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reynoutria japonica is on the IUCN list of the Worlds’100 worst invasive species, but it is also, especially its rhizome, an integral part of traditional chinese medicine. The objective of this study was to determine the amount of selected phenolic compounds in rhizome, stems, leaves and inflorescence methanol extracts of this plant, their antioxidant and anticholinesterase activity. The chemical profile of the examined extracts was obtained by a high-performance liquid chromatography. In vitro assays on DPPH, OH and NO radicals were used to estimate antioxidant potential and Ellman’s method was applied for the determination of anticholinesterase activity. Leaves and rhizome extracts were found to be rich in rosmarinic and chlorogenic acid, and selected flavonoids. Resveratrol was exclusively present in rhizome and stems extracts. All the investigated extracts expressed certain antioxidant activity, where leaves extract was the most active. However, rhizome extract was the strongest inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase. These findings indicate that there is a possibility of R. japonica exploitation for the isolation of biologically active phenolic compounds used in pharmaceutical and food industry.

  3. Comparative analysis of distinctive transcriptome profiles with biochemical evidence in bisphenol S- and benzo[a]pyrene-exposed liver tissues of the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jee-Hyun Jung

    Full Text Available Flounder is a promising model species for environmental monitoring of coastal regions. To assess the usefulness of liver transcriptome profiling, juvenile olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus were exposed to two pollutants, bisphenol S (BPS and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP, which have different chemical characteristics and have distinct modes of metabolic action in teleost. Six hours after intraperitoneal injection with BPS (50 mg/kg bw or BaP (20 mg/kg bw, liver transcriptomes were analyzed using the Illumina Hiseq 3000 platform. Interestingly, the transcriptome was highly sensitive and was distinctively expressed in response to each chemical. The primary effect of BPS was significantly increased transcription of egg process and vitellogenesis related genes, including vitellogenins (vtg1, vtg2, zona pellucida sperm-binding proteins (zp3, zp4, and estrogen receptors (erα, erβ, with increases in plasma 17β-estradiol (E2 and vitellogenin (VTG concentrations. Following BaP treatment, detoxification- and biotransformation-related genes such as cyp1a1 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (ugt1a1 were significantly increased, with an increase in EROD activity. In both transcriptomes, mRNA expression of genes involved in antioxidant defense systems was increased, while genes involved in innate immunity were decreased upon BPS or BaP exposure with a decrease in complement activity. This study provides useful insight into the chemical-specific hepatic transcriptional response of P. olivaceus and suggests a basis for further studies examining biomarker application of liver transcriptomes for environmental pollution.

  4. Evidence of distinct profiles of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (CPTSD) based on the new ICD-11 Trauma Questionnaire (ICD-TQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatzias, Thanos; Shevlin, Mark; Fyvie, Claire; Hyland, Philip; Efthymiadou, Erifili; Wilson, Danielle; Roberts, Neil; Bisson, Jonathan I; Brewin, Chris R; Cloitre, Marylene

    2017-01-01

    The WHO International Classification of Diseases, 11th version (ICD-11), has proposed two related diagnoses following exposure to traumatic events; Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Complex PTSD (CPTSD). We set out to explore whether the newly developed ICD-11 Trauma Questionnaire (ICD-TQ) can distinguish between classes of individuals according to the PTSD and CPTSD symptom profiles as per ICD-11 proposals based on latent class analysis. We also hypothesized that the CPTSD class would report more frequent and a greater number of different types of childhood trauma as well as higher levels of functional impairment. Methods Participants in this study were a sample of individuals who were referred for psychological therapy to a National Health Service (NHS) trauma centre in Scotland (N=193). Participants completed the ICD-TQ as well as measures of life events and functioning. Overall, results indicate that using the newly developed ICD-TQ, two subgroups of treatment-seeking individuals could be empirically distinguished based on different patterns of symptom endorsement; a small group high in PTSD symptoms only and a larger group high in CPTSD symptoms. In addition, CPTSD was more strongly associated with more frequent and a greater accumulation of different types of childhood traumatic experiences and poorer functional impairment. Sample predominantly consisted of people who had experienced childhood psychological trauma or been multiply traumatised in childhood and adulthood. CPTSD is highly prevalent in treatment seeking populations who have been multiply traumatised in childhood and adulthood and appropriate interventions should now be developed to aid recovery from this debilitating condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evidence for widespread changes in promoter methylation profile in human placenta in response to increasing gestational age and environmental/stochastic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Jeffrey M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human placenta facilitates the exchange of nutrients, gas and waste between the fetal and maternal circulations. It also protects the fetus from the maternal immune response. Due to its role at the feto-maternal interface, the placenta is subject to many environmental exposures that can potentially alter its epigenetic profile. Previous studies have reported gene expression differences in placenta over gestation, as well as inter-individual variation in expression of some genes. However, the factors contributing to this variation in gene expression remain poorly understood. Results In this study, we performed a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of gene promoters in placenta tissue from three pregnancy trimesters. We identified large-scale differences in DNA methylation levels between first, second and third trimesters, with an overall progressive increase in average methylation from first to third trimester. The most differentially methylated genes included many immune regulators, reflecting the change in placental immuno-modulation as pregnancy progresses. We also detected increased inter-individual variation in the third trimester relative to first and second, supporting an accumulation of environmentally induced (or stochastic changes in DNA methylation pattern. These highly variable genes were enriched for those involved in amino acid and other metabolic pathways, potentially reflecting the adaptation of the human placenta to different environments. Conclusions The identification of cellular pathways subject to drift in response to environmental influences provide a basis for future studies examining the role of specific environmental factors on DNA methylation pattern and placenta-associated adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  6. Preliminary evidence that negative symptom severity relates to multilocus genetic profile for dopamine signaling capacity and D2 receptor binding in healthy controls and in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstein, Sarah A; Bogdan, Ryan; Chen, Ling; Moerlein, Stephen M; Black, Kevin J; Perlmutter, Joel S; Hershey, Tamara; Barch, Deanna M

    2017-03-01

    Deficits in central, subcortical dopamine (DA) signaling may underlie negative symptom severity, particularly anhedonia, in healthy individuals and in schizophrenia. To investigate these relationships, we assessed negative symptoms with the Schedule for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms and the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) and self-reported anhedonia with the Scales for Physical and Social Anhedonia (SPSA), Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale, and Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale in 36 healthy controls (HC), 27 siblings (SIB) of individuals with schizophrenia, and 66 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SCZ). A subset of participants (N = 124) were genotyped for DA-related polymorphisms in genes for DRD4, DRD2/ANKK1, DAT1, and COMT, which were used to construct biologically-informed multi-locus genetic profile (MGP) scores reflective of subcortical dopaminergic signaling. DA receptor type 2 (D2R) binding was assessed among a second subset of participants (N = 23) using PET scans with the D2R-selective, non-displaceable radioligand (N-[ 11 C]methyl)benperidol. Higher MGP scores, reflecting elevated subcortical dopaminergic signaling capacity, were associated with less negative symptom severity, as measured by the BNSS, across all participants. In addition, higher striatal D2R binding was associated with less physical and social anhedonia, as measured by the SPSA, across HC, SIB, and SCZ. The current preliminary findings support the hypothesis that subcortical DA function may contribute to negative symptom severity and self-reported anhedonia, independent of diagnostic status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Data Profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Hladíková, Radka

    2010-01-01

    Title: Data Profiling Author: Radka Hladíková Department: Department of Software Engineering Supervisor: Ing. Vladimír Kyjonka Supervisor's e-mail address: Abstract: This thesis puts mind on problems with data quality and data profiling. This Work analyses and summarizes problems of data quality, data defects, process of data quality, data quality assessment and data profiling. The main topic is data profiling as a process of researching data available in existing...

  8. Structure across the northeastern margin of Flemish Cap, offshore Newfoundland from Erable multichannel seismic reflection profiles: evidence for a transtensional rifting environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welford, J. Kim; Hall, Jeremy; Sibuet, Jean-Claude; Srivastava, Shiri P.

    2010-11-01

    We present the results from processing and interpreting nine multichannel seismic reflection lines collected during the 1992 Erable experiment over the northeastern margin of Flemish Cap offshore Newfoundland. These lines, combined into five cross-sections, provide increased seismic coverage over this lightly probed section of the margin and reveal tectonically significant along-strike variations in the degree and compartmentalization of crustal thinning. Similar to the southeastern margins of Flemish Cap and the Grand Banks, a transitional zone of exhumed serpentinized mantle is interpreted between thinned continental and oceanic crust. The 25 km wide transitional zone bears similarities to the 120 km wide transitional zone interpreted as exhumed serpentinized mantle on the conjugate Irish Atlantic margin but the significant width difference is suggestive of an asymmetric conjugate pair. A 40-50 km wide zone of inferred strike-slip shearing is interpreted and observed to extend along most of the northeastern margin of Flemish Cap. Individual shear zones (SZs) may represent extensions of SZs and normal faults within the Orphan Basin providing further evidence for the rotation and displacement of Flemish Cap out of Orphan Basin. The asymmetry between the Flemish Cap and Irish conjugate pairs is likely due in large part to the rotation and displacement of Flemish Cap which resulted in the Flemish Cap margin displaying features of both a strike-slip margin and an extensional margin.

  9. Karolinske psychodynamic profile (KAPP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Birgit Bork; Søgaard, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    psykologiske testmetoder, assesment, Karolinska psychodynamic profile (KAPP), psykodynamisk profil......psykologiske testmetoder, assesment, Karolinska psychodynamic profile (KAPP), psykodynamisk profil...

  10. Drug Use Patterns and Socio-Demographic Profiles of Substance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Substance abuse is a critical problem in Botswana, yet empirical evidence on substance users is limited. The current study sought to examine patterns of drug use and sociodemographic profiles of clients who sought treatment at a substance abuse treatment centre in Gaborone, Botswana. Findings showed clients' age ...

  11. Consultant radiographers: Profile of the first generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, Lesley J.; Maehle, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this research is to examine the profile of first generation consultant radiographers: their demographics, educational backgrounds, qualifications and training, career experience and progression, teaching, lecturing and research activities. Method: Participant recruitment was drawn from the Society and College of Radiographers consultant radiographer group. Data collection involved a self-administered paper based and web based questionnaire. Results: Participant response rate of 55% (n = 11). Conclusions: The profile of the first consultant radiographer cohort reflects a diverse and eclectic mix. While some aspects of their development such as educational background, clinical training and skills enhancement are comparable to nurse consultants, clinical experience and employment history show some differences. Commitment to development of expert clinical skills is evident within the profile of the first generation cohort of consultant radiographers however research and leadership training are not strong features.

  12. Consultant radiographers: Profile of the first generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, Lesley J., E-mail: l.forsyth@rgu.ac.u [School of Health Sciences, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, AB10 7QG (United Kingdom); Maehle, Valerie [Faculty of Health and Social Care, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, AB10 7QG (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    Aim: The aim of this research is to examine the profile of first generation consultant radiographers: their demographics, educational backgrounds, qualifications and training, career experience and progression, teaching, lecturing and research activities. Method: Participant recruitment was drawn from the Society and College of Radiographers consultant radiographer group. Data collection involved a self-administered paper based and web based questionnaire. Results: Participant response rate of 55% (n = 11). Conclusions: The profile of the first consultant radiographer cohort reflects a diverse and eclectic mix. While some aspects of their development such as educational background, clinical training and skills enhancement are comparable to nurse consultants, clinical experience and employment history show some differences. Commitment to development of expert clinical skills is evident within the profile of the first generation cohort of consultant radiographers however research and leadership training are not strong features.

  13. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  14. Fitting the IRI F2-profile function to measured profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinisch, B.W.; Huang Xueqin

    1997-01-01

    Comparison with profile data from ionosondes shows that the IRI bottomside F2-profiles can be improved by using better B0 and B1 parameters. The best parameters (in a least-squares sense) can be easily calculated in a numerical procedure from measured profiles presented as a sum of Chebyshev polynomials. 7 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  15. Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

  16. Phytohormone Profiling across the Bryophytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Záveská Drábková

    Full Text Available Bryophytes represent a very diverse group of non-vascular plants such as mosses, liverworts and hornworts and the oldest extant lineage of land plants. Determination of endogenous phytohormone profiles in bryophytes can provide substantial information about early land plant evolution. In this study, we screened thirty bryophyte species including six liverworts and twenty-four mosses for their phytohormone profiles in order to relate the hormonome with phylogeny in the plant kingdom.Samples belonging to nine orders (Pelliales, Jungermanniales, Porellales, Sphagnales, Tetraphidales, Polytrichales, Dicranales, Bryales, Hypnales were collected in Central and Northern Bohemia. The phytohormone content was analysed with a high performance liquid chromatography electrospray tandem-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS.As revealed for growth hormones, some common traits such as weak conjugation of both cytokinins and auxins, intensive production of cisZ-type cytokinins and strong oxidative degradation of auxins with abundance of a major primary catabolite 2-oxindole-3-acetic acid were pronounced in all bryophytes. Whereas apparent dissimilarities in growth hormones profiles between liverworts and mosses were evident, no obvious trends in stress hormone levels (abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid were found with respect to the phylogeny.The apparent differences in conjugation and/or degradation strategies of growth hormones between liverworts and mosses might potentially show a hidden link between vascular plants and liverworts. On the other hand, the complement of stress hormones in bryophytes probably correlate rather with prevailing environmental conditions and plant survival strategy than with plant evolution.

  17. LTDNA evidence on trial

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. The section titled Expert Evidence as Forensic Epistemic Warrant addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1) expert competence; (2) discip...

  18. THE LUMINOSITY PROFILES OF BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donzelli, C. J.; Muriel, H.; Madrid, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    We have derived detailed R-band luminosity profiles and structural parameters for a total of 430 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs), down to a limiting surface brightness of 24.5 mag arcsec -2 . Light profiles were initially fitted with a Sersic's R 1/n model, but we found that 205 (∼48%) BCGs require a double component model to accurately match their light profiles. The best fit for these 205 galaxies is an inner Sersic model, with indices n ∼ 1-7, plus an outer exponential component. Thus, we establish the existence of two categories of the BCG luminosity profiles: single and double component profiles. We found that double profile BCGs are brighter (∼0.2 mag) than single profile BCGs. In fact, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test applied to these subsamples indicates that they have different total magnitude distributions, with mean values M R = -23.8 ± 0.6 mag for single profile BCGs and M R = -24.0 ± 0.5 mag for double profile BCGs. We find that partial luminosities for both subsamples are indistinguishable up to r = 15 kpc, while for r > 20 kpc the luminosities we obtain are on average 0.2 mag brighter for double profile BCGs. This result indicates that extra-light for double profile BCGs does not come from the inner region but from the outer regions of these galaxies. The best-fit slope of the Kormendy relation for the whole sample is a = 3.13 ± 0.04. However, when fitted separately, single and double profile BCGs show different slopes: a single = 3.29 ± 0.06 and a double = 2.79 ± 0.08. Also, the logarithmic slope of the metric luminosity α is higher in double profile BCGs (α double = 0.65 ± 0.12) than in single profile BCGs (α single = 0.59 ± 0.14). The mean isophote outer ellipticity (calculated at μ ∼ 24 mag arcsec -2 ) is higher in double profile BCGs (e double = 0.30 ± 0.10) than in single profile BCGs (e single = 0.26 ± 0.11). Similarly, the mean absolute value of inner minus outer ellipticity is also higher in double profile BCGs. From a

  19. Profiling cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciro, Marco; Bracken, Adrian P; Helin, Kristian

    2003-01-01

    In the past couple of years, several very exciting studies have demonstrated the enormous power of gene-expression profiling for cancer classification and prediction of patient survival. In addition to promising a more accurate classification of cancer and therefore better treatment of patients......, gene-expression profiling can result in the identification of novel potential targets for cancer therapy and a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cancer....

  20. Adenovirus type 35-vectored tuberculosis vaccine has an acceptable safety and tolerability profile in healthy, BCG-vaccinated, QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold (+) Kenyan adults without evidence of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Douglas S; Owira, Victorine; Polhemus, Mark; Otieno, Lucas; Andagalu, Ben; Ogutu, Bernhards; Waitumbi, John; Hawkridge, Anthony; Shepherd, Barbara; Pau, Maria Grazia; Sadoff, Jerald; Douoguih, Macaya; McClain, J Bruce

    2016-05-05

    In a Phase 1 trial, we evaluated the safety of AERAS-402, an adenovirus 35-vectored TB vaccine candidate expressing 3 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) immunodominant antigens, in subjects with and without latent Mtb infection. HIV-negative, BCG-vaccinated Kenyan adults without evidence of tuberculosis, 10 QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT-G)(-) and 10 QFT-G(+), were randomized 4:1 to receive AERAS-402 or placebo as two doses, on Days 0 and 56, with follow up to Day 182. There were no deaths, serious adverse events or withdrawals. For 1 AERAS-402 QFT-G(-) and 1 AERAS-402 QFT-G(+) subject, there were 3 self-limiting severe AEs of injection site pain: 1 after the first vaccination and 1 after each vaccination, respectively. Two additional severe AEs considered vaccine-related were reported after the first vaccination in AERAS-402 QFT-G(+) subjects: elevated blood creatine phosphokinase and neutropenia, the latter slowly improving but remaining abnormal until study end. AERAS-402 was not detected in urine or throat cultures for any subject. In intracellular cytokine staining studies, curtailed by technical issues, we saw modest CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses to Mtb Ag85A/b peptide pools among both QFT-G(-) and (+) subjects, with trends in the CD4+ T cells suggestive of boosting after the second vaccine dose, slightly more so in QFT-G(+) subjects. CD4+ and CD8+ responses to Mtb antigen TB10.4 were minimal. Increases in Adenovirus 35 neutralizing antibodies from screening to end of study, seen in 50% of AERAS-402 recipients, were mostly minimal. This small study confirms acceptable safety and tolerability profiles for AERAS-402, in line with other Phase 1 studies of AERAS-402, now to include QFT-G(+) subjects. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Force spectroscopy measurements show that cortical neurons exposed to excitotoxic agonists stiffen before showing evidence of bleb damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Zou

    Full Text Available In ischemic and traumatic brain injury, hyperactivated glutamate (N-methyl-D-aspartic acid, NMDA and sodium (Nav channels trigger excitotoxic neuron death. Na(+, Ca(++ and H2O influx into affected neurons elicits swelling (increased cell volume and pathological blebbing (disassociation of the plasma membrane's bilayer from its spectrin-actomyosin matrix. Though usually conflated in injured tissue, cell swelling and blebbing are distinct processes. Around an injury core, salvageable neurons could be mildly swollen without yet having suffered the bleb-type membrane damage that, by rendering channels leaky and pumps dysfunctional, exacerbates the excitotoxic positive feedback spiral. Recognizing when neuronal inflation signifies non-lethal osmotic swelling versus blebbing should further efforts to salvage injury-penumbra neurons. To assess whether the mechanical properties of osmotically-swollen versus excitotoxically-blebbing neurons might be cytomechanically distinguishable, we measured cortical neuron elasticity (gauged via atomic force microscopy (AFM-based force spectroscopy upon brief exposure to hypotonicity or to excitotoxic agonists (glutamate and Nav channel activators, NMDA and veratridine. Though unperturbed by solution exchange per se, elasticity increased abruptly with hypotonicity, with NMDA and with veratridine. Neurons then invariably softened towards or below the pre-treatment level, sometimes starting before the washout. The initial channel-mediated stiffening bespeaks an abrupt elevation of hydrostatic pressure linked to NMDA or Nav channel-mediated ion/H2O fluxes, together with increased [Ca(++]int-mediated submembrane actomyosin contractility. The subsequent softening to below-control levels is consistent with the onset of a lethal level of bleb damage. These findings indicate that dissection/identification of molecular events during the excitotoxic transition from stiff/swollen to soft/blebbing is warranted and should be feasible.

  2. LTDNA Evidence on Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Roberts; Paul Roberts; Paul Roberts

    2016-01-01

    Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. Section 1 addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1) expert competence; (2) disciplinary domain; (3) methodological validity; (4) materia...

  3. Accelerated Profile HMM Searches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean R Eddy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Profile hidden Markov models (profile HMMs and probabilistic inference methods have made important contributions to the theory of sequence database homology search. However, practical use of profile HMM methods has been hindered by the computational expense of existing software implementations. Here I describe an acceleration heuristic for profile HMMs, the "multiple segment Viterbi" (MSV algorithm. The MSV algorithm computes an optimal sum of multiple ungapped local alignment segments using a striped vector-parallel approach previously described for fast Smith/Waterman alignment. MSV scores follow the same statistical distribution as gapped optimal local alignment scores, allowing rapid evaluation of significance of an MSV score and thus facilitating its use as a heuristic filter. I also describe a 20-fold acceleration of the standard profile HMM Forward/Backward algorithms using a method I call "sparse rescaling". These methods are assembled in a pipeline in which high-scoring MSV hits are passed on for reanalysis with the full HMM Forward/Backward algorithm. This accelerated pipeline is implemented in the freely available HMMER3 software package. Performance benchmarks show that the use of the heuristic MSV filter sacrifices negligible sensitivity compared to unaccelerated profile HMM searches. HMMER3 is substantially more sensitive and 100- to 1000-fold faster than HMMER2. HMMER3 is now about as fast as BLAST for protein searches.

  4. Beam profile measurements on RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, R.; Michnoff, R.; Moore, T.; Shea, T.; Tepikian, S.

    2000-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Lab was commissioned during the summer of 1999. Transverse beam profiles on RHIC are measured with ionization profile monitors (IPMs). An IPM measures beam profiles by collecting the electrons liberated by residual gas ionization by the beam. The detector is placed in the gap of a dipole magnet to force the electrons to travel in straight lines from the beamline center to the collector. One IPM was tested and it measured the profiles of a single gold bunch containing 10 8 ions on consecutive turns. We show an example of one of these profiles giving transverse emittance. Also several profiles are combined into a mountain-range plot which shows betatron oscillations at injection

  5. Improving GRADE evidence tables part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langendam, Miranda; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso; Santesso, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) working group has developed GRADE evidence profiles (EP) and summary of findings (SoF) tables to present evidence summaries in systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, and health technology assessments. Exp...

  6. Bank Diversification Effects on Bank Performance and Risk Profile of Bank in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Lukmawijaya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the relationship of Indonesian bank diversification towards its long term performance and risk profile with Indonesian bank data from 2009 to 2013. Non-interest income to total operating income of the bank measures its bank diversification level. Bank value is measured by the adjusted Tobin's Q and risk profile which is broken down into total risk, idiosyncratic risk, and systematic risk. The result shows that bank non-interest income diversification has a positive influence on its franchise value. There is, however, no strong evidence that diversification can lower a bank's risk profile.

  7. [Safety profile of dolutegravir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Antonio; Domingo, Pere

    2015-03-01

    Integrase inhibitors are the latest drug family to be added to the therapeutic arsenal against human immunodeficiency virus infection. Drugs in this family that do not require pharmacological boosting are characterized by a very good safety profile. The latest integrase inhibitor to be approved for use is dolutegravir. In clinical trials, dolutegravir has shown an excellent tolerability profile, both in antiretroviral-naïve and previously treated patients. Discontinuation rates due to adverse effects were 2% and 3%, respectively. The most frequent adverse effects were nausea, headache, diarrhea and sleep disturbance. A severe hypersensitivity reaction has been reported in only one patient. In patients coinfected with hepatropic viruses, the safety profile is similar to that in patients without coinfection. The lipid profile of dolutegravir is similar to that of raltegravir and superior to those of Atripla® and darunavir/ritonavir. Dolutegravir induces an early, predictable and non-progressive increase in serum creatinine of around 10% of baseline values in treatment-naïve patients and of 14% in treatment-experienced patients. This increase is due to inhibition of tubular creatinine secretion through the OCT2 receptor and does not lead to a real decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate with algorithms that include serum creatinine. The effect of the combination of dolutegravir plus Kivexa(®) on biomarkers of bone remodeling is lower than that of Atripla(®). Dolutegravir has an excellent tolerability profile with no current evidence of long-term adverse effects. Its use is accompanied by an early and non-progressive increase in serum creatinine due to OCT2 receptor inhibition. In combination with abacavir/lamivudine, dolutegravir has a lower impact than enofovir/emtricitabine/efavirenz on bone remodelling markers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. SAIC - PROFILES

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    the heart of structuring and restructuring the urban space in. Côte d'Ivoire. Since the early 2000s, major changes in the kinds of violence, carried out by a new set of perpetrators, are evident in the country. Yet no research is being conducted on these phenomena. Little knowledge is available to adequately characterize and ...

  9. SAIC - PROFILES

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    state response, and rule of law. For example, in El Salvador, high levels of social and criminal violence interact with weak institutions and the militarization of civil security. On the other hand, Costa ... opportunity to review existing evidence, analyze the success or failure of past interventions, and provide concrete recom-.

  10. ARL Profiles: Research Libraries 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, William Gray; Cook, Colleen; Kyrillidou, Martha

    2011-01-01

    The current ARL report summarizes a multi-year effort that captures evidence in the form of narrative profiles as it delivers the message of the value and contributions of research libraries during transformative times. When ARL library directors were interviewed in 2005 and asked to describe a research library in the 21st century, there was…

  11. Beam profile effects on NPB [neutral particle beam] performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeClaire, R.J. Jr.

    1988-03-01

    A comparison of neutral particle beam brightness for various neutral beam profiles indicates that the widely used assumption of a Gaussian profile may be misleading for collisional neutralizers. An analysis of available experimental evidence shows that lower peaks and higher tails, compared to a Gaussian beam profile, are observed out of collisional neutralizers, which implies that peak brightness is over estimated, and for a given NPB platform-to-target range, the beam current (power), dwell time or some combination of such engagement parameters would have to be altered to maintain a fixed dose on target. Based on the present analysis, this factor is nominally about 2.4 but may actually be as low as 1.8 or as high as 8. This is an important consideration in estimating NPB constellation performance in SDI engagement contexts. 2 refs., 6 figs

  12. LCA profiles for building components:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob

    2016-01-01

    . A full bivariate linear regression analysis is performed, showing statistically significant correlations with strong direct relationships between environmental impact categories. A simplified LCA profile consisting of total primary energy, global warming potential and acidification potential is developed...

  13. BARNARD 59: NO EVIDENCE FOR FURTHER FRAGMENTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman-Zuniga, C. G. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Km 103 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada BC 22860 (Mexico); Frau, P.; Girart, J. M. [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C-5p, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Alves, Joao F., E-mail: croman@astrosen.unam.mx [Institute of Astronomy, University of Vienna, Tuerkenschanzstr. 17, 1180 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-03-10

    The dense molecular clump at the center of the Barnard 59 (B59) complex is the only region in the Pipe Nebula that has formed a small, stellar cluster. The previous analysis of a high-resolution near-IR dust extinction map revealed that the nuclear region in B59 is a massive, mostly quiescent clump of 18.9 M{sub Sun }. The clump shows a monolithic profile, possibly indicating that the clump is on the way to collapse, with no evident fragmentation that could lead to another group of star systems. In this paper, we present new analysis that compares the dust extinction map with a new dust emission radio-continuum map of higher spatial resolution. We confirm that the clump does not show any significant evidence for prestellar fragmentation at scales smaller than those probed previously.

  14. BARNARD 59: NO EVIDENCE FOR FURTHER FRAGMENTATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Román-Zúñiga, C. G.; Frau, P.; Girart, J. M.; Alves, João F.

    2012-01-01

    The dense molecular clump at the center of the Barnard 59 (B59) complex is the only region in the Pipe Nebula that has formed a small, stellar cluster. The previous analysis of a high-resolution near-IR dust extinction map revealed that the nuclear region in B59 is a massive, mostly quiescent clump of 18.9 M ☉ . The clump shows a monolithic profile, possibly indicating that the clump is on the way to collapse, with no evident fragmentation that could lead to another group of star systems. In this paper, we present new analysis that compares the dust extinction map with a new dust emission radio-continuum map of higher spatial resolution. We confirm that the clump does not show any significant evidence for prestellar fragmentation at scales smaller than those probed previously.

  15. A Ravenscar-Java profile implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bent; Ravn, Anders Peter; Søndergaard, Hans

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an implementation of the Ravenscar-Java profile. While most implementations of the profile are reference-implementations showing that it is possible to implement the profile, our implementation is aimed at industrial applications. It uses a dedicated real-time Java processor......, since we want to investigate if the Ravenscar-Java profile, implemented on a Java processor, is efficient for real applications. During the implementation some ambiguities and weaknesses of the profile were uncovered. However, test examples indicate that the profile is suitable for development...... of realistic real-time programs....

  16. Shave-off depth profiling: Depth profiling with an absolute depth scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojima, M.; Maekawa, A.; Yamamoto, T.; Tomiyasu, B.; Sakamoto, T.; Owari, M.; Nihei, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Shave-off depth profiling provides profiling with an absolute depth scale. This method uses a focused ion beam (FIB) micro-machining process to provide the depth profile. We show that the shave-off depth profile of a particle reflected the spherical shape of the sample and signal intensities had no relationship to the depth. Through the introduction of FIB micro-sampling, the shave-off depth profiling of a dynamic random access memory (DRAM) tip was carried out. The shave-off profile agreed with a blue print from the manufacturing process. Finally, shave-off depth profiling is discussed with respect to resolutions and future directions

  17. Crime and immigration: new evidence from England and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Jaitman; Stephen Machin

    2013-01-01

    We study a high profile public policy question on immigration, namely the link between crime and immigration, presenting new evidence from England and Wales in the 2000s. For studying immigration impacts, this period is of considerable interest as the composition of migration to the UK altered dramatically with the accession of Eastern European countries (the A8) to the European Union in 2004. As we show, this has important implications for ensuring a causal impact of immigration can be ident...

  18. Metabolic profiling of plasma amino acids shows that histidine increases following the consumption of pork

    OpenAIRE

    Samman S; Crossett B; Somers M; Bell KJ; Lai NT; Sullivan DR; Petocz P

    2014-01-01

    Samir Samman,1 Ben Crossett,2 Miles Somers,1 Kirstine J Bell,1 Nicole T Lai,1,3 David R Sullivan,3 Peter Petocz4 1Discipline of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2Discipline of Proteomics and Biotechnology, School of Molecular Bioscience, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4Department of Statistics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Amino acid (AA) status is determined by facto...

  19. Fingerprinting using extrolite profiles and physiological data shows sub-specific groupings of Penicillium crustosum strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonjak, Silva; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Fingerprinting of Penicillium crustosum strains was performed using different phenotypic characteristics. Seven strains of this extremely homogenous species were selected; of these, five originated from geographical locations characterized by low temperatures, and one from a location with a low w...

  20. Incipient ovarian failure and premature ovarian failure show the same immunological profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kasteren, YM; von Blomberg, M; Hoek, A; de Koning, C; Lambalk, N; van Montfrans, J; Kuik, J

    PROBLEM: Incipient ovarian failure (IOF) is characterized by regular menstrual cycles, infertility and a raised early-follicular FSH in women under 40. IOF might be a precursor or a mitigated form of premature ovarian failure (POF). Disturbances in the immune system may play a role in ovarian

  1. Transcriptome profiling using pyrosequencing shows genes associated with bast fiber development in ramie (Boehmeria nivea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Pei, Zhihua; Dai, Lunjin; Wang, Bo; Liu, Lijun; An, Xia; Peng, Dingxiang

    2014-10-22

    Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L.), popularly known as "China grass", is one of the oldest crops in China and the second most important fiber crop in terms of area sown. Ramie fiber, extracted from the plant bast, is important in the textile industry. However, the molecular mechanism of ramie fiber development remains unknown. A whole sequencing run was performed on the 454 GS FLX + platform using four separately pooled parts of ramie bast. This generated 1,030,057 reads with an average length of 457 bp. Among the 58,369 unigenes (13,386 contigs and 44,983 isotigs) that were generated through de novo assembly, 780 were differentially expressed. As a result, 13 genes that belong to the cellulose synthase gene family (four), the expansin gene family (three) and the xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) gene family (six) were up-regulated in the top part of the bast, which was in contrast to the other three parts. The identification of these 13 concurrently up-regulated unigenes indicated that the early stage (represented by the top part of the bast) might be important for the molecular regulation of ramie fiber development. Further analysis indicated that four of the 13 unigenes from the expansin (two) and XTH (two) families shared a coincident expression pattern during the whole growth season, which implied they were more relevant to ramie fiber development (fiber quality, etc.) during the different seasons than the other genes. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to characterize ramie fiber development at different developmental stages. The identified transcripts will improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in ramie fiber development. Moreover, the identified differentially expressed genes will accelerate molecular research on ramie fiber growth and the breeding of ramie with better fiber yields and quality.

  2. LTDNA Evidence on Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. The section titled Expert Evidence as Forensic Epistemic Warrant addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1) expert competence; (2) disciplinary domain; (3) methodological validity; (4) materiality; and (5) legal admissibility. This generic model of expert authority, highlighting law's fundamentally normative character, applies to all modern forms of criminal adjudication, across Europe and farther afield. The section titled LTDNA Evidence in UK Criminal Trials then examines English and Northern Irish courts' attempts to get to grips with LTDNA evidence in recent cases. Better appreciating the ways in which UK courts have addressed the challenges of LTDNA evidence may offer some insights into parallel developments in other legal systems. Appellate court rulings follow a predictable judicial logic, which might usefully be studied and reflected upon by any forensic scientist or statistician seeking to operate effectively in criminal proceedings. Whilst each legal jurisdiction has its own unique blend of jurisprudence, institutions, cultures and historical traditions, there is considerable scope for comparative analysis and cross-jurisdictional borrowing and instruction. In the spirit of promoting more nuanced and sophisticated international interdisciplinary dialogue, this article examines UK judicial approaches to LTDNA evidence and begins to elucidate their underlying institutional logic. Legal argument and broader policy debates are not confined to considerations of scientific validity, contamination risks and evidential integrity, or associated judgments of legal admissibility or exclusion. They also crucially

  3. LTDNA Evidence on Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. The section titled Expert Evidence as Forensic Epistemic Warrant addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1) expert competence; (2) disciplinary domain; (3) methodological validity; (4) materiality; and (5) legal admissibility. This generic model of expert authority, highlighting law's fundamentally normative character, applies to all modern forms of criminal adjudication, across Europe and farther afield. The section titled LTDNA Evidence in UK Criminal Trials then examines English and Northern Irish courts' attempts to get to grips with LTDNA evidence in recent cases. Better appreciating the ways in which UK courts have addressed the challenges of LTDNA evidence may offer some insights into parallel developments in other legal systems. Appellate court rulings follow a predictable judicial logic, which might usefully be studied and reflected upon by any forensic scientist or statistician seeking to operate effectively in criminal proceedings. Whilst each legal jurisdiction has its own unique blend of jurisprudence, institutions, cultures and historical traditions, there is considerable scope for comparative analysis and cross-jurisdictional borrowing and instruction. In the spirit of promoting more nuanced and sophisticated international interdisciplinary dialogue, this article examines UK judicial approaches to LTDNA evidence and begins to elucidate their underlying institutional logic. Legal argument and broader policy debates are not confined to considerations of scientific validity, contamination risks and evidential integrity, or associated judgments of legal admissibility or exclusion. They also crucially

  4. Psychobehavioral Profiles to Assist Tailoring of Interventions for Patients With Hypertension: Latent Profile Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Rika; Nolan, Robert P

    2018-05-11

    in the adaptive adjustment group, and those in the adaptive adjustment group were 2.4 times more likely to complete the 12-month intervention study, compared with their affectively distressed counterparts. Interventions for patients who are adaptively adjusted may differ in focus from those designed for the affectively distressed patients. As such, this study underscores the importance of identifying psychobehavioral profiles, as they allow for evidence-based tailoring of lifestyle counseling programs for patients with hypertension. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01541540; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01541540 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6yzZYZcWF). ©Rika Tanaka, Robert P Nolan. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 11.05.2018.

  5. SAIC - PROFILES

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The challenge. Past studies on violent crime in South Africa have documented how crime is often underpinned by poverty and inequality. Yet developing effective policy prescriptions to address these root causes is not straight forward. Studies show that violent crime in South Africa is not committed for material gain.

  6. Mostly Heterosexual as a Distinct Sexual Orientation Group: A Systematic Review of the Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin-Williams, Ritch C.; Vrangalova, Zhana

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed empirical evidence regarding whether mostly heterosexual exists as a sexual orientation distinct from two adjacent groups on a sexual continuum--exclusively heterosexual and substantially bisexual. We addressed the question: Do mostly heterosexuals show a unique profile of sexual and romantic characteristics that distinguishes them as…

  7. Profile: Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American Profile: Asian Americans Asian American Profile (Map of the US with the top 10 states displaying the largest Asian American population according to the Census Bureau) CA - ...

  8. Performance profiling for brachytherapy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wonqook; Cho, Kihyeon; Yeo, Insung

    2018-05-01

    In many physics applications, a significant amount of software (e.g. R, ROOT and Geant4) is developed on novel computing architectures, and much effort is expended to ensure the software is efficient in terms of central processing unit (CPU) time and memory usage. Profiling tools are used during the evaluation process to evaluate the efficiency; however, few such tools are able to accommodate low-energy physics regions. To address this limitation, we developed a low-energy physics profiling system in Geant4 to profile the CPU time and memory of software applications in brachytherapy applications. This paper describes and evaluates specific models that are applied to brachytherapy applications in Geant4, such as QGSP_BIC_LIV, QGSP_BIC_EMZ, and QGSP_BIC_EMY. The physics range in this tool allows it to be used to generate low energy profiles in brachytherapy applications. This was a limitation in previous studies, which caused us to develop a new profiling tool that supports profiling in the MeV range, in contrast to the TeV range that is supported by existing high-energy profiling tools. In order to easily compare the profiling results between low-energy and high-energy modes, we employed the same software architecture as that in the SimpliCarlo tool developed at the Fermilab National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The results show that the newly developed profiling system for low-energy physics (less than MeV) complements the current profiling system used for high-energy physics (greater than TeV) applications.

  9. Searching mixed DNA profiles directly against profile databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Jo-Anne; Taylor, Duncan; Curran, James; Buckleton, John

    2014-03-01

    DNA databases have revolutionised forensic science. They are a powerful investigative tool as they have the potential to identify persons of interest in criminal investigations. Routinely, a DNA profile generated from a crime sample could only be searched for in a database of individuals if the stain was from single contributor (single source) or if a contributor could unambiguously be determined from a mixed DNA profile. This meant that a significant number of samples were unsuitable for database searching. The advent of continuous methods for the interpretation of DNA profiles offers an advanced way to draw inferential power from the considerable investment made in DNA databases. Using these methods, each profile on the database may be considered a possible contributor to a mixture and a likelihood ratio (LR) can be formed. Those profiles which produce a sufficiently large LR can serve as an investigative lead. In this paper empirical studies are described to determine what constitutes a large LR. We investigate the effect on a database search of complex mixed DNA profiles with contributors in equal proportions with dropout as a consideration, and also the effect of an incorrect assignment of the number of contributors to a profile. In addition, we give, as a demonstration of the method, the results using two crime samples that were previously unsuitable for database comparison. We show that effective management of the selection of samples for searching and the interpretation of the output can be highly informative. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Character profiles and life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hwanjin; Suh, Byung Seong; Kim, Won Sool; Lee, Hye-Kyung; Park, Seon-Cheol; Lee, Kounseok

    2015-04-01

    There is a surge of interest in subjective well-being (SWB), which concerns how individuals feel about their happiness. Life satisfaction tends to be influenced by individual psychological traits and external social factors. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between individual character and SWB. Data from 3522 university students were analyzed in this study. Character profiles were evaluated using the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised Short version (TCI-RS). Life satisfaction was assessed using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). All statistical tests regarding the correlations between each character profile and life satisfaction were conducted using ANOVAs, t-tests, multiple linear regression models and correlation analyses. The creative (SCT) profile was associated with the highest levels of life satisfaction, whereas the depressive (sct) profile was associated with the lowest levels of life satisfaction. Additionally, high self-directedness, self-transcendence and cooperation were associated with high life satisfaction. The results of gender-adjusted multiple regression analysis showed that the effects of self-directedness were the strongest in the assessment of one's quality of life, followed by self-transcendence and cooperativeness, in that order. All of the three-character profiles were significantly correlated with one's quality of life, and the character profiles of TCI-RS explained 27.6% of life satisfaction in total. Among the three-character profiles, the self-directedness profile was most associated with life satisfaction. Our study was cross-sectional, and self-reported data from students at a single university were analyzed. The results of this study showed that, among the character profiles, the effects of self-directedness were the strongest for predicting life satisfaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Observational Evidence for Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Edwin R., Jr.; Childers, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the development of the concept of atomicity and some of the many which can be used to establish its validity. Chemical evidence, evidence from crystals, Faraday's law of electrolysis, and Avogadro's number are among the areas which show how the concept originally developed from a purely philosophical idea. (JN)

  12. High Resolution Optical Spectroscopy of the Classical Nova V5668 Sgr Showing the Presence of Lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R. Mark; Woodward, Charles E.; Starrfield, Sumner; Ilyin, Ilya; Strassmeier, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    The classical nova (CN) V5668 Sgr was discovered on 2015 March 15.634 and initial optical spectra implied it was an Fe II-class CN. We obtained high resolution optical spectroscopy on 30 nights between 2015 April 3 and 2016 June 5 with the 2 x 8.4 m Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) and the 1.8 m Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT) using the Potsdam Echelle Polarimetric Spectroscopic Instrument (PEPSI). The spectra cover all or part of the 3830-9065 Å spectral region at a spectral resolution of up to 270,000 (1 km/s); the highest resolution currently available on any 8-10 m class telescope. The early spectra are dominated by emission lines of the Balmer and Paschen series of hydrogen, Fe II, Ca II, and Na I with P Cyg-type line profiles as well as emission lines of [O I]. Numerous interstellar lines and bands are readily apparent at high spectral resolution. The permitted line profiles show complex and dramatic variations in the multi-component P Cyg-type line profiles with time. We detect a weak blue-shifted absorption line at a velocity consistent with Li I 6708 Å when compared with the line profiles of Hβ, Fe II 5169 Å, and Na I D. This line is present in spectra obtained on 7 of 8 consecutive nights up to day 21 of the outburst; but absent on day 42 when it is evident that the ionization of the ejecta has significantly increased. The equivalent width of the line converted to a column density, and the resulting mass fraction, imply a significant enrichment of 7Li in the ejecta. 7Li is produced by the decay of unstable 7Be created during the thermonuclear runaway. The discovery of the resonance lines of 7Be II in the optical spectra of the recent CNe V339 Del, V2944 Oph, and V5668 Sgr by Tajitsu et al. (2016) and its subsequent decay to 7Li (half life of 53 days) suggests a significant enrichment of 7Li in the Galaxy from CNe is possible. Our observations of the Li I 6708 Å line in the early optical spectra of V5668 Sgr mark the second direct

  13. LTDNA Evidence on Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Roberts

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. Section 1 addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1 expert competence; (2 disciplinary domain; (3 methodological validity; (4 materiality; and (5 legal admissibility. This generic model of expert authority, highlighting law’s fundamentally normative character, applies to all modern forms of criminal adjudication, across Europe and farther afield. Section 2 then examines English and Northern Irish courts’ attempts to get to grips with LTDNA evidence in recent cases. Better appreciating the ways in which UK courts have addressed the challenges of LTDNA evidence may offer some insights into parallel developments in other legal systems. Appellate court rulings follow a predictable judicial logic, which might usefully be studied and reflected upon by any forensic scientist or statistician seeking to operate effectively in criminal proceedings. Whilst each legal jurisdiction has its own unique blend of jurisprudence, institutions, cultures and historical traditions, there is considerable scope for comparative analysis and cross-jurisdictional borrowing and instruction. In the spirit of promoting more nuanced and sophisticated international interdisciplinary dialogue, this article examines UK judicial approaches to LTDNA evidence and begins to elucidate their underlying institutional logic. Legal argument and broader policy debates are not confined to considerations of scientific validity, contamination risks and evidential integrity, or associated judgments of legal admissibility or exclusion. They also crucially concern the manner in which LTDNA profiling results are presented and explained to

  14. Rhabdomyosarcoma cells show an energy producing anabolic metabolic phenotype compared with primary myocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higashi Richard M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The functional status of a cell is expressed in its metabolic activity. We have applied stable isotope tracing methods to determine the differences in metabolic pathways in proliferating Rhabdomysarcoma cells (Rh30 and human primary myocytes in culture. Uniformly 13C-labeled glucose was used as a source molecule to follow the incorporation of 13C into more than 40 marker metabolites using NMR and GC-MS. These include metabolites that report on the activity of glycolysis, Krebs' cycle, pentose phosphate pathway and pyrimidine biosynthesis. Results The Rh30 cells proliferated faster than the myocytes. Major differences in flux through glycolysis were evident from incorporation of label into secreted lactate, which accounts for a substantial fraction of the glucose carbon utilized by the cells. Krebs' cycle activity as determined by 13C isotopomer distributions in glutamate, aspartate, malate and pyrimidine rings was considerably higher in the cancer cells than in the primary myocytes. Large differences were also evident in de novo biosynthesis of riboses in the free nucleotide pools, as well as entry of glucose carbon into the pyrimidine rings in the free nucleotide pool. Specific labeling patterns in these metabolites show the increased importance of anaplerotic reactions in the cancer cells to maintain the high demand for anabolic and energy metabolism compared with the slower growing primary myocytes. Serum-stimulated Rh30 cells showed higher degrees of labeling than serum starved cells, but they retained their characteristic anabolic metabolism profile. The myocytes showed evidence of de novo synthesis of glycogen, which was absent in the Rh30 cells. Conclusion The specific 13C isotopomer patterns showed that the major difference between the transformed and the primary cells is the shift from energy and maintenance metabolism in the myocytes toward increased energy and anabolic metabolism for proliferation in the Rh30 cells

  15. How can the regulator show evidence of (no) risk selection in health insurance markets? Conceptual framework and empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.P.M.M. van de Ven (Wynand); R.C.J.A. van Vliet (René); R.C. van Kleef (Richard)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIf consumers have a choice of health plan, risk selection is often a serious problem (e.g., as in Germany, Israel, the Netherlands, the United States of America, and Switzerland). Risk selection may threaten the quality of care for chronically ill people, and may reduce the affordability

  16. Evidence logics with relational evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltag, Alexandru; Occhipinti, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a family of logics for reasoning about relational evidence: evidence that involves an ordering of states in terms of their relative plausibility. We provide sound and complete axiomatizations for the logics. We also present several evidential actions and prove soundness...

  17. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  18. Educational Outreach: The Space Science Road Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, N. L. J.

    2002-01-01

    The poster presented will give an overview of a study towards a "Space Road Show". The topic of this show is space science. The target group is adolescents, aged 12 to 15, at Dutch high schools. The show and its accompanying experiments would be supported with suitable educational material. Science teachers at schools can decide for themselves if they want to use this material in advance, afterwards or not at all. The aims of this outreach effort are: to motivate students for space science and engineering, to help them understand the importance of (space) research, to give them a positive feeling about the possibilities offered by space and in the process give them useful knowledge on space basics. The show revolves around three main themes: applications, science and society. First the students will get some historical background on the importance of space/astronomy to civilization. Secondly they will learn more about novel uses of space. On the one hand they will learn of "Views on Earth" involving technologies like Remote Sensing (or Spying), Communication, Broadcasting, GPS and Telemedicine. On the other hand they will experience "Views on Space" illustrated by past, present and future space research missions, like the space exploration missions (Cassini/Huygens, Mars Express and Rosetta) and the astronomy missions (Soho and XMM). Meanwhile, the students will learn more about the technology of launchers and satellites needed to accomplish these space missions. Throughout the show and especially towards the end attention will be paid to the third theme "Why go to space"? Other reasons for people to get into space will be explored. An important question in this is the commercial (manned) exploration of space. Thus, the questions of benefit of space to society are integrated in the entire show. It raises some fundamental questions about the effects of space travel on our environment, poverty and other moral issues. The show attempts to connect scientific with

  19. Mandatory special or dedicated trains for radioactive materials shipments evidence shows they're not needed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, L.S.; Garrison, R.F.; Harmon, L.H.

    1988-01-01

    The rejection of mandatory special or dedicated trains by all responsible Federal agencies for transportation of radioactive materials in shielded casks has a long history. Working with the railroads and the National Academy of Sciences, the ICC adopted standards for transporting radioactive materials in regular freight trains in the mid 1940's. The standards rested primarily on ensuring the integrity of the radioactive materials packaging. AEC, then NRC and DOT, followed the ICC lead, supplementing the licensing rules for casks with a series of performance or stress tests. At no time did these agencies require special trains or special routing for rail casks. Mandatory special trains have too many disadvantages without any proven safety benefit to be worth their high cost to the shipper. The ICC, in a series of litigated cases, found that given the strength of the casks, mandatory special trains were wasteful transportation and an unreasonable railroad practice

  20. The IAT shows no evidence for Kandinsky’s colour-shape associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis eMakin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the early 20th century, the Bauhaus revolutionised art & design by using simple colours and forms. Wassily Kandinsky was especially interested in the relationship of these two visual attributes and postulated a fundamental correspondence between colour and form: yellow triangle, red square and blue circle. Subsequent empirical studies also used preference judgments to test Kandinsky’s original colour-form combinations, usually yielding inconsistent results. We have set out to test the validity of these postulated associations by using the Implicit Association Test. Participants pressed one of two buttons on each trial. On some trials they classified shapes (e.g. circle or triangle. On interleaved trials they classified colours (e.g. blue or yellow. Response times should theoretically be faster when the button mapping follows Kandinsky’s associations: For example, when the left key is used to report blue or circle and the right is used for yellow and triangle, than when the response mapping is the opposite of this (blue or triangle, yellow or circle. Our findings suggest that there is no implicit association between the original colour-form combinations. Of the three combinations we tested, no response time differences were significantly greater than zero, although there was a marginal effect in one experiment. It can be concluded that our IAT does not support all Kandinsky’s postulated colour-form associations, and these are probably not an aesthetic universal.

  1. Is there evidence showing that salt intake reduction reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lanas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A recent systematic review of Cochrane collaboration about the effect of reducing dietary salt concluded that “there is still insufficient power to exclude clinically important effects of reduced dietary salt on mortality or cardiovascular morbidity in normotensive or hypertensive populations”. This conclusion has generated an important debate, because the estimation that salt reduction can prevent 24% of strokes and 18% of myocardial infarctions has decided the health authorities of several nations to implement salt consumption reduction programs. The review of ecological studies and clinical trials allow to conclude that a reduction in salt consumption reduces blood pressure and methodological well conducted cohort studies has shown that cardiovascular events risk decreases progressively with lower levels of blood pressure. Combining this two finding we can assume that population should benefice from a decrease on salt consumption although there are no studies that shown a reduction in cardiovascular events in population with high sodium intake when dietary salt is reduced.

  2. HIV-infected persons with type 2 diabetes show evidence of endothelial dysfunction and increased inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove-Skovsgaard, Malene; Gaardbo, Julie Christine; Kolte, Lilian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in both HIV infection and type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared to the general population has been described. Little is known about the combined effect of HIV infection and T2D on inflammation and endothelial function, both of which may...... contribute to elevated risk of CVD. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 50 HIV-infected persons on combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART), with HIV RNA 2D (HIV + T2D+), n = 25 without T2D (HIV + T2D-)) and 50 uninfected persons (n = 22 with T2D (HIV-T2D+) and n = 28...... without T2D (HIV-T2D-)). Groups were matched on age and sex. High sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was used to determine inflammation (cut-off 3 mg/L). The marker of endothelial dysfunction asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Trimethylamine...

  3. Good News for New Orleans: Early Evidence Shows Reforms Lifting Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Douglas N.

    2015-01-01

    What happened to the New Orleans public schools following the tragic levee breeches after Hurricane Katrina is truly unprecedented. Within the span of one year, all public-school employees were fired, the teacher contract expired and was not replaced, and most attendance zones were eliminated. The state took control of almost all public schools…

  4. Methodological Issues and Evidence of Malfeasance in Research Purporting to Show Thimerosal in Vaccines Is Safe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Hooker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are over 165 studies that have focused on Thimerosal, an organic-mercury (Hg based compound, used as a preservative in many childhood vaccines, and found it to be harmful. Of these, 16 were conducted to specifically examine the effects of Thimerosal on human infants or children with reported outcomes of death; acrodynia; poisoning; allergic reaction; malformations; auto-immune reaction; Well’s syndrome; developmental delay; and neurodevelopmental disorders, including tics, speech delay, language delay, attention deficit disorder, and autism. In contrast, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention states that Thimerosal is safe and there is “no relationship between [T]himerosal[-]containing vaccines and autism rates in children.” This is puzzling because, in a study conducted directly by CDC epidemiologists, a 7.6-fold increased risk of autism from exposure to Thimerosal during infancy was found. The CDC’s current stance that Thimerosal is safe and that there is no relationship between Thimerosal and autism is based on six specific published epidemiological studies coauthored and sponsored by the CDC. The purpose of this review is to examine these six publications and analyze possible reasons why their published outcomes are so different from the results of investigations by multiple independent research groups over the past 75+ years.

  5. Vital signs: price, activity cycle showing strong evidence of turning up again

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunan, D.

    2002-07-01

    Economic conditions in the oil and gas industry in the first quarter of 2002 are discussed. The general conclusion is that the ride is every bit as bumpy as it was during the fourth quarter of 2001. New signs, however, point to improvement in the second half of the year, confirming predictions of recovery. The North American economy is emerging quickly from the recession, and OPEC countries seem willing to restrain production sufficiently to keep oil prices in the US$23-$25 per barrel range. As a result, North American natural gas prices will be around the US$3.00 per MMBtu level this year, benchmark West Texas Intermediate oil will average US$22.50 per barrel, up from the initial forecast of US$2.80 and US$21.50, respectively. Canadian heavy crude output in the first quarter of 2002 was down about 30,000 barrels per day from fourth quarter 2001 and about 60,000 barrel per day lower than a year ago. Natural gas prices have been firm since the New Year; Canadian natural gas storage levels stood at a record 251 billion cubic feet, while US levels stood at 1.4 trillion cubic feet, the highest since 1992, without the slightest dent in the remarkable gas price rally of February and March. Gas receipt in Western Canada at the end of March were running 508 million cubic feet per day below the July 2001 peak. No production increases for Canada are likely in 2002 in light of slower drilling activity. As far as 2003 is concerned, higher prices should encourage more drilling, but any gains will merely make up for the decline in 2002. Various methods of dealing with the problem of oxidation in transformer oil refining to minimize the risk of streaming electrification (SE) are described. Streaming electrification in transformers can lead to discharges harmful to both installations and people. The quality of transformer oil in terms of its electrostatic charging tendency (ECT) is one of several key factors affecting SE levels. Several of the factors that affect SE are directly related to to the design of the transformer. The speed at which oil is pumped around the transformer, the shape of the channels and surface properties all influence SE, as does water content. Operating conditions play a part in reducing SE, although in the case of transformers currently in use it is the quality of the oil that is likely to be the source of most problems. The presence of polar molecules has the greatest influence on the oil's SE resistance properties; the greater the quantity of such particles, the greater is the tendency for electric charges to build up between the oil and the surroundings. The oil's ability to resist oxidation is the most important quality in the long run, since the oil has to carry on working for several decades, and because it is the impurities formed during oxidation with strong polar characteristics that will give the oil an increased ECT and therefore greater SE. This article explains the complex composition of mineral oils, how the presence of atoms other than carbon and hydrogen, such as sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen, influences the oil's ability to resist oxidation and how to deal with this problem during the refining process.

  6. Tactile motion adaptation reduces perceived speed but shows no evidence of direction sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah McIntyre

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: While the directionality of tactile motion processing has been studied extensively, tactile speed processing and its relationship to direction is little-researched and poorly understood. We investigated this relationship in humans using the 'tactile speed aftereffect' (tSAE, in which the speed of motion appears slower following prolonged exposure to a moving surface. METHOD: We used psychophysical methods to test whether the tSAE is direction sensitive. After adapting to a ridged moving surface with one hand, participants compared the speed of test stimuli on the adapted and unadapted hands. We varied the direction of the adapting stimulus relative to the test stimulus. RESULTS: Perceived speed of the surface moving at 81 mms(-1 was reduced by about 30% regardless of the direction of the adapting stimulus (when adapted in the same direction, Mean reduction = 23 mms(-1, SD = 11; with opposite direction, Mean reduction = 26 mms(-1, SD = 9. In addition to a large reduction in perceived speed due to adaptation, we also report that this effect is not direction sensitive. CONCLUSIONS: Tactile motion is susceptible to speed adaptation. This result complements previous reports of reliable direction aftereffects when using a dynamic test stimulus as together they describe how perception of a moving stimulus in touch depends on the immediate history of stimulation. Given that the tSAE is not direction sensitive, we argue that peripheral adaptation does not explain it, because primary afferents are direction sensitive with friction-creating stimuli like ours (thus motion in their preferred direction should result in greater adaptation, and if perceived speed were critically dependent on these afferents' response intensity, the tSAE should be direction sensitive. The adaptation that reduces perceived speed therefore seems to be of central origin.

  7. A Murine Model of Candida glabrata Vaginitis Shows No Evidence of an Inflammatory Immunopathogenic Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn E Nash

    Full Text Available Candida glabrata is the second most common organism isolated from women with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC, particularly in women with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. However, mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of C. glabrata-associated VVC are unknown and have not been studied at any depth in animal models. The objective of this study was to evaluate host responses to infection following efforts to optimize a murine model of C. glabrata VVC. For this, various designs were evaluated for consistent experimental vaginal colonization (i.e., type 1 and type 2 diabetic mice, exogenous estrogen, varying inocula, and co-infection with C. albicans. Upon model optimization, vaginal fungal burden and polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN recruitment were assessed longitudinally over 21 days post-inoculation, together with vaginal concentrations of IL-1β, S100A8 alarmin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and in vivo biofilm formation. Consistent and sustained vaginal colonization with C. glabrata was achieved in estrogenized streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice. Vaginal PMN infiltration was consistently low, with IL-1β, S100A8, and LDH concentrations similar to uninoculated mice. Biofilm formation was not detected in vivo, and co-infection with C. albicans did not induce synergistic immunopathogenic effects. This data suggests that experimental vaginal colonization of C. glabrata is not associated with an inflammatory immunopathogenic response or biofilm formation.

  8. The IAT shows no evidence for Kandinsky's color-shape associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makin, Alexis D J; Wuerger, Sophie M

    2013-01-01

    In the early twentieth century, the Bauhaus revolutionized art and design by using simple colors and forms. Wassily Kandinsky was especially interested in the relationship of these two visual attributes and postulated a fundamental correspondence between color and form: yellow triangle, red square and blue circle. Subsequent empirical studies used preference judgments to test Kandinsky's original color-form combinations, usually yielding inconsistent results. We have set out to test the validity of these postulated associations by using the Implicit Association Test. Participants pressed one of two buttons on each trial. On some trials they classified shapes (e.g., circle or triangle). On interleaved trials they classified colors (e.g., blue or yellow). Response times should theoretically be faster when the button mapping follows Kandinsky's associations: For example, when the left key is used to report blue or circle and the right is used for yellow and triangle, than when the response mapping is the opposite of this (blue or triangle, yellow or circle). Our findings suggest that there is no implicit association between the original color-form combinations. Of the three combinations we tested, there was only a marginal effect in one case. It can be concluded that the IAT does not support Kandinsky's postulated color-form associations, and that these are probably not a universal property of the visual system.

  9. A Murine Model of Candida glabrata Vaginitis Shows No Evidence of an Inflammatory Immunopathogenic Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Evelyn E; Peters, Brian M; Lilly, Elizabeth A; Noverr, Mairi C; Fidel, Paul L

    2016-01-01

    Candida glabrata is the second most common organism isolated from women with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), particularly in women with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. However, mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of C. glabrata-associated VVC are unknown and have not been studied at any depth in animal models. The objective of this study was to evaluate host responses to infection following efforts to optimize a murine model of C. glabrata VVC. For this, various designs were evaluated for consistent experimental vaginal colonization (i.e., type 1 and type 2 diabetic mice, exogenous estrogen, varying inocula, and co-infection with C. albicans). Upon model optimization, vaginal fungal burden and polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) recruitment were assessed longitudinally over 21 days post-inoculation, together with vaginal concentrations of IL-1β, S100A8 alarmin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and in vivo biofilm formation. Consistent and sustained vaginal colonization with C. glabrata was achieved in estrogenized streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice. Vaginal PMN infiltration was consistently low, with IL-1β, S100A8, and LDH concentrations similar to uninoculated mice. Biofilm formation was not detected in vivo, and co-infection with C. albicans did not induce synergistic immunopathogenic effects. This data suggests that experimental vaginal colonization of C. glabrata is not associated with an inflammatory immunopathogenic response or biofilm formation.

  10. Motivationally Significant Stimuli Show Visual Prior Entry: Evidence for Attentional Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Greg L.; Anderson, Adam A. K.; Pratt, Jay

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies that have found attentional capture effects for stimuli of motivational significance do not directly measure initial attentional deployment, leaving it unclear to what extent these items produce attentional capture. Visual prior entry, as measured by temporal order judgments (TOJs), rests on the premise that allocated attention…

  11. Working memory processes show different degrees of lateralization : Evidence from event-related potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, D; Wijers, A.A.; Klaver, P; Mulder, G.

    This study aimed to identify different processes in working memory, using event-related potentials (ERPs) and response times. Abstract polygons were presented for memorization and subsequent recall in a delayed matching-to-sample paradigm. Two polygons were presented bilaterally for memorization and

  12. Autism spectrum disorder profile in neurofibromatosis type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Shruti; Plasschaert, Ellen; Descheemaeker, Mie-Jef; Huson, Susan; Borghgraef, Martine; Vogels, Annick; Evans, D Gareth; Legius, Eric; Green, Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is a common autosomal dominant single-gene disorder, in which the co-occurrence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has attracted considerable research interest recently with prevalence estimates of 21-40%. However, detailed characterization of the ASD behavioral phenotype in NF1 is still lacking. This study characterized the phenotypic profile of ASD symptomatology presenting in 4-16 year old children with NF1 (n = 36) using evidence from parent-rated Social Responsiveness Scale and researcher autism diagnostic observation Scale-2. Compared to IQ-matched reference groups of children with autism and ASD, the NF1 profile shows overall similarity but improved eye contact, less repetitive behaviors and better language skills.

  13. Digital evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although computer makes human activities faster and easier, innovating and creating new forms of work and other kinds of activities, it also influenced the criminal activity. The development of information technology directly affects the development of computer forensics without which, it can not even imagine the discovering and proving the computer offences and apprehending the perpetrator. Information technology and computer forensic allows us to detect and prove the crimes committed by computer and capture the perpetrators. Computer forensics is a type of forensics which can be defined as a process of collecting, preserving, analyzing and presenting digital evidence in court proceedings. Bearing in mind, that combat against crime, in which computers appear as an asset or object of the offense, requires knowledge of digital evidence as well as specific rules and procedures, the author in this article specifically addresses the issues of digital evidence, forensic (computer investigation, specific rules and procedures for detecting, fixing and collecting digital evidence and use of this type of evidence in criminal proceedings. The author also delas with international standards regarding digital evidence and cyber-space investigation.

  14. 2008 LHC Open Days Physics: the show

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    A host of events and activities await visitors to the LHC Open Days on 5 and 6 April. A highlight will be the physics shows funded by the European Physical Society (EPS), which are set to surprise and challenge children and adults alike! School children use their experience of riding a bicycle to understand how planets move around the sun (Copyright : Circus Naturally) Participating in the Circus Naturally show could leave a strange taste in your mouth! (Copyright : Circus Naturally) The Rino Foundation’s experiments with liquid nitrogen can be pretty exciting! (Copyright: The Rino Foundation)What does a bicycle have in common with the solar system? Have you ever tried to weigh air or visualise sound? Ever heard of a vacuum bazooka? If you want to discover the answers to these questions and more then come to the Physics Shows taking place at the CERN O...

  15. Online Italian fandoms of American TV shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has changed media fandom in two main ways: it helps fans connect with each other despite physical distance, leading to the formation of international fan communities; and it helps fans connect with the creators of the TV show, deepening the relationship between TV producers and international fandoms. To assess whether Italian fan communities active online are indeed part of transnational online communities and whether the Internet has actually altered their relationship with the creators of the original text they are devoted to, qualitative analysis and narrative interviews of 26 Italian fans of American TV shows were conducted to explore the fan-producer relationship. Results indicated that the online Italian fans surveyed preferred to stay local, rather than using geography-leveling online tools. Further, the sampled Italian fans' relationships with the show runners were mediated or even absent.

  16. Duchenne muscular dystrophy models show their age

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    The lack of appropriate animal models has hampered efforts to develop therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). A new mouse model lacking both dystrophin and telomerase (Sacco et al., 2010) closely mimics the pathological progression of human DMD and shows that muscle stem cell activity is a key determinant of disease severity.

  17. Show Them You Really Want the Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

  18. Laser entertainment and light shows in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaratnam, Andrew T.; Symons, Charles

    2002-05-01

    Laser shows and beam effects have been a source of entertainment since its first public performance May 9, 1969, at Mills College in Oakland, California. Since 1997, the Photonics Center, NgeeAnn Polytechnic, Singapore, has been using laser shows as a teaching tool. Students are able to exhibit their creative skills and learn at the same time how lasers are used in the entertainment industry. Students will acquire a number of skills including handling three- phase power supply, operation of cooling system, and laser alignment. Students also acquire an appreciation of the arts, learning about shapes and contours as they develop graphics for the shows. After holography, laser show animation provides a combination of the arts and technology. This paper aims to briefly describe how a krypton-argon laser, galvanometer scanners, a polychromatic acousto-optic modulator and related electronics are put together to develop a laser projector. The paper also describes how students are trained to make their own laser animation and beam effects with music, and at the same time have an appreciation of the operation of a Class IV laser and the handling of optical components.

  19. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the

  20. Similarity between neonatal profile and socioeconomic index: a spatial approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    d'Orsi Eleonora

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to compare neonatal characteristics and socioeconomic conditions in Rio de Janeiro city neighborhoods in order to identify priority areas for intervention. The study design was ecological. Two databases were used: the Brazilian Population Census and the Live Birth Information System, aggregated by neighborhoods. Spatial analysis, multivariate cluster classification, and Moran's I statistics for detection of spatial clustering were used. A similarity index was created to compare socioeconomic clusters with the neonatal profile in each neighborhood. The proportions of Apgar score above 8 and cesarean sections showed positive spatial correlation and high similarity with the socioeconomic index. The proportion of low birth weight infants showed a random spatial distribution, indicating that at this scale of analysis, birth weight is not sufficiently sensitive to discriminate subtler differences among population groups. The observed relationship between the neighborhoods' neonatal profile (particularly Apgar score and mode of delivery and socioeconomic conditions shows evidence of a change in infant health profile, where the possibility for intervention shifts to medical services and the Apgar score assumes growing significance as a risk indicator.

  1. Reality, ficción o show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ruíz Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para tener un punto de vista claro y objetivo frente a la polémica establecida en torno al programa “Protagonistas de novela” y la tendiente proliferación de los reality show en las parrillas de programación de la televisión colombiana, se realizó un análisis de texto y contenido de dicho programa, intentando definirlo desde sus posibilidades de realidad, ficción y show. Las unidades de análisis y el estudio de su tratamiento arrojaron un alto contenido que gira en torno a las emociones del ser humano relacionadas con la convivencia, tratadas a manera de show y con algunos aportes textuales de ficción, pero sin su elemento mediador básico, el actor, quitándole toda la posibilidad de tener un tratamiento con la profundidad, distancia y ética que requieren los temas de esta índole. El resultado es un formato que sólo busca altos índices de sintonía y que pertenece más a la denominada televisión “trash”, que a una búsqueda de realidad del hombre y mucho menos de sociedad.

  2. Evidence for a peak shift in a humoral response to helminths: age profiles of IgE in the Shuar of Ecuador, the Tsimane of Bolivia, and the U.S. NHANES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron D Blackwell

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The peak shift model predicts that the age-profile of a pathogen's prevalence depends upon its transmission rate, peaking earlier in populations with higher transmission and declining as partial immunity is acquired. Helminth infections are associated with increased immunoglobulin E (IgE, which may convey partial immunity and influence the peak shift. Although studies have noted peak shifts in helminths, corresponding peak shifts in total IgE have not been investigated, nor has the age-patterning been carefully examined across populations. We test for differences in the age-patterning of IgE between two South American forager-horticulturalist populations and the United States: the Tsimane of Bolivia (n=832, the Shuar of Ecuador (n=289, and the U.S. NHANES (n=8,336. We then examine the relationship between total IgE and helminth prevalences in the Tsimane.Total IgE levels were assessed in serum and dried blood spots and age-patterns examined with non-linear regression models. Tsimane had the highest IgE (geometric mean =8,182 IU/ml, followed by Shuar (1,252 IU/ml, and NHANES (52 IU/ml. Consistent with predictions, higher population IgE was associated with steeper increases at early ages and earlier peaks: Tsimane IgE peaked at 7 years, Shuar at 10 years, and NHANES at 17 years. For Tsimane, the age-pattern was compared with fecal helminth prevalences. Overall, 57% had detectable eggs or larva, with hookworm (45.4% and Ascaris lumbricoides (19.9% the most prevalent. The peak in total IgE occurred around the peak in A. lumbricoides, which was associated with higher IgE in children <10, but with lower IgE in adolescents.The age-patterning suggests a peak shift in total IgE similar to that seen in helminth infections, particularly A. lumbricoides. This age-patterning may have implications for understanding the effects of helminths on other health outcomes, such as allergy, growth, and response to childhood vaccination.

  3. Evidence for a peak shift in a humoral response to helminths: age profiles of IgE in the Shuar of Ecuador, the Tsimane of Bolivia, and the U.S. NHANES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Aaron D; Gurven, Michael D; Sugiyama, Lawrence S; Madimenos, Felicia C; Liebert, Melissa A; Martin, Melanie A; Kaplan, Hillard S; Snodgrass, J Josh

    2011-06-01

    The peak shift model predicts that the age-profile of a pathogen's prevalence depends upon its transmission rate, peaking earlier in populations with higher transmission and declining as partial immunity is acquired. Helminth infections are associated with increased immunoglobulin E (IgE), which may convey partial immunity and influence the peak shift. Although studies have noted peak shifts in helminths, corresponding peak shifts in total IgE have not been investigated, nor has the age-patterning been carefully examined across populations. We test for differences in the age-patterning of IgE between two South American forager-horticulturalist populations and the United States: the Tsimane of Bolivia (n=832), the Shuar of Ecuador (n=289), and the U.S. NHANES (n=8,336). We then examine the relationship between total IgE and helminth prevalences in the Tsimane. Total IgE levels were assessed in serum and dried blood spots and age-patterns examined with non-linear regression models. Tsimane had the highest IgE (geometric mean =8,182 IU/ml), followed by Shuar (1,252 IU/ml), and NHANES (52 IU/ml). Consistent with predictions, higher population IgE was associated with steeper increases at early ages and earlier peaks: Tsimane IgE peaked at 7 years, Shuar at 10 years, and NHANES at 17 years. For Tsimane, the age-pattern was compared with fecal helminth prevalences. Overall, 57% had detectable eggs or larva, with hookworm (45.4%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (19.9%) the most prevalent. The peak in total IgE occurred around the peak in A. lumbricoides, which was associated with higher IgE in children <10, but with lower IgE in adolescents. The age-patterning suggests a peak shift in total IgE similar to that seen in helminth infections, particularly A. lumbricoides. This age-patterning may have implications for understanding the effects of helminths on other health outcomes, such as allergy, growth, and response to childhood vaccination.

  4. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest developments in the field of renewables at country level around the world. Each profile combines analysis by IRENA's specialists with the latest available country data and additional information from a wide array of sources. The resulting reports provide a brief yet comprehensive picture of the situation with regard to renewable energy, including energy supply, electrical generation and grid capacity, and access. Energy policies, targets and projects are also considered, along with each country's investment climate and endowment with renewable energy resources. The energy statistics presented here span the period from 2009 until 2012, reflecting varying timelines in the source material. Since data availability differs from country to country, wider regional comparisons are possible only for the latest year with figures available for every country included. Despite the time lag in some cases, the evident differences and disparities between countries and regions around the world remain striking. The current package of country profiles is just a starting point. The geographic scope will continue to expand, and existing profiles will be enhanced with new indicators, with the whole series maintained as a live product on the IRENA website (www.irena.org)

  5. HOPWA Performance Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HOPWA Performance Profiles are generated quarterly for all agencies receiving HOPWA formula or competitive grants. Performance Profiles are available at the national...

  6. Myopes show increased susceptibility to nearwork aftereffects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffreda, K J; Wallis, D M

    1998-09-01

    Some aspects of accommodation may be slightly abnormal (or different) in myopes, compared with accommodation in emmetropes and hyperopes. For example, the initial magnitude of accommodative adaptation in the dark after nearwork is greatest in myopes. However, the critical test is to assess this initial accommodative aftereffect and its subsequent decay in the light under more natural viewing conditions with blur-related visual feedback present, if a possible link between this phenomenon and clinical myopia is to be considered. Subjects consisted of adult late- (n = 11) and early-onset (n = 13) myopes, emmetropes (n = 11), and hyperopes (n = 9). The distance-refractive state was assessed objectively using an autorefractor immediately before and after a 10-minute binocular near task at 20 cm (5 diopters [D]). Group results showed that myopes were most susceptible to the nearwork aftereffect. It averaged 0.35 D in initial magnitude, with considerably faster posttask decay to baseline in the early-onset (35 seconds) versus late-onset (63 seconds) myopes. There was no myopic aftereffect in the remaining two refractive groups. The myopes showed particularly striking accommodatively related nearwork aftereffect susceptibility. As has been speculated and found by many others, transient pseudomyopia may cause or be a precursor to permanent myopia or myopic progression. Time-integrated increased retinal defocus causing axial elongation is proposed as a possible mechanism.

  7. Quantitative Comparison and Metabolite Profiling of Saponins in Different Parts of the Root of Panax notoginseng

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jing-Rong; Yau, Lee-Fong; Gao, Wei-Na; Liu, Yong; Yick, Pui-Wing; Liu, Liang; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Although both rhizome and root of Panax notoginseng are officially utilized as notoginseng in ?Chinese Pharmacopoeia?, individual parts of the root were differently used in practice. To provide chemical evidence for the differentiated usage, quantitative comparison and metabolite profiling of different portions derived from the whole root, as well as commercial samples, were carried out, showing an overall higher content of saponins in rhizome, followed by main root, branch root, and fibrous ...

  8. DAST in Flight Showing Diverging Wingtip Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    -104 chase plane. When the DAST's mission ended, it deployed a parachute and then a specially equipped Air Force helicopter recovered the drone in mid-air. On the ground, a pilot controlled the DAST vehicle from a remote cockpit while researchers in another room monitored flight data transmitted via telemetry. They made decisions on the conduct of the flight while the DAST was in the air. In case of failure in any of the ground systems, the DAST vehicle could also be flown to a recovery site using a backup control system in the F-104. The DAST Program experienced numerous problems. Only eighteen flights were achieved, eight of them captive (in which the aircraft flew only while still attached to the launch aircraft). Four of the flights were aborted and two resulted in crashes--one on June 12, 1980, and the second on June 1, 1983. Meanwhile, flight experiments with higher profiles, better funded remotely piloted research vehicles took priority over DAST missions. After the 1983 crash, which was caused by a malfunction that disconnected the landing parachute from the drone, the program was disbanded. Because DAST drones were considered expendable, certain losses were anticipated. Managers and researchers involved in other high-risk flight projects gained insights from the DAST program that could be applied to their own flight research programs. The DAST aircraft had a wingspan of 14 feet, four inches and a nose-to-tail length of 28 feet, 4 inches. The fuselage had a radius of about 2.07 feet. The aircraft's maximum loaded weight was about 2,200 pounds. It derived its power from a Continental YJ69-T-406 engine.

  9. Microbiological and environmental issues in show caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2012-07-01

    Cultural tourism expanded in the last half of the twentieth century, and the interest of visitors has come to include caves containing archaeological remains. Some show caves attracted mass tourism, and economical interests prevailed over conservation, which led to a deterioration of the subterranean environment and the rock art. The presence and the role of microorganisms in caves is a topic that is often ignored in cave management. Knowledge of the colonisation patterns, the dispersion mechanisms, and the effect on human health and, when present, over rock art paintings of these microorganisms is of the utmost importance. In this review the most recent advances in the study of microorganisms in caves are presented, together with the environmental implications of the findings.

  10. Time dependent patient no-show predictive modelling development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Li; Hanauer, David A

    2016-05-09

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop evident-based predictive no-show models considering patients' each past appointment status, a time-dependent component, as an independent predictor to improve predictability. Design/methodology/approach - A ten-year retrospective data set was extracted from a pediatric clinic. It consisted of 7,291 distinct patients who had at least two visits along with their appointment characteristics, patient demographics, and insurance information. Logistic regression was adopted to develop no-show models using two-thirds of the data for training and the remaining data for validation. The no-show threshold was then determined based on minimizing the misclassification of show/no-show assignments. There were a total of 26 predictive model developed based on the number of available past appointments. Simulation was employed to test the effective of each model on costs of patient wait time, physician idle time, and overtime. Findings - The results demonstrated the misclassification rate and the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic gradually improved as more appointment history was included until around the 20th predictive model. The overbooking method with no-show predictive models suggested incorporating up to the 16th model and outperformed other overbooking methods by as much as 9.4 per cent in the cost per patient while allowing two additional patients in a clinic day. Research limitations/implications - The challenge now is to actually implement the no-show predictive model systematically to further demonstrate its robustness and simplicity in various scheduling systems. Originality/value - This paper provides examples of how to build the no-show predictive models with time-dependent components to improve the overbooking policy. Accurately identifying scheduled patients' show/no-show status allows clinics to proactively schedule patients to reduce the negative impact of patient no-shows.

  11. NASA GIBS Use in Live Planetarium Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmart, C. B.

    2015-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History's Hayden Planetarium was rebuilt in year 2000 as an immersive theater for scientific data visualization to show the universe in context to our planet. Specific astrophysical movie productions provide the main daily programming, but interactive control software, developed at AMNH allows immersive presentation within a data aggregation of astronomical catalogs called the Digital Universe 3D Atlas. Since 2006, WMS globe browsing capabilities have been built into a software development collaboration with Sweden's Linkoping University (LiU). The resulting Uniview software, now a product of the company SCISS, is operated by about fifty planetariums around that world with ability to network amongst the sites for global presentations. Public presentation of NASA GIBS has allowed authoritative narratives to be presented within the range of data available in context to other sources such as Science on a Sphere, NASA Earth Observatory and Google Earth KML resources. Specifically, the NOAA supported World Views Network conducted a series of presentations across the US that focused on local ecological issues that could then be expanded in the course of presentation to national and global scales of examination. NASA support of for GIBS resources in an easy access multi scale streaming format like WMS has tremendously enabled particularly facile presentations of global monitoring like never before. Global networking of theaters for distributed presentations broadens out the potential for impact of this medium. Archiving and refinement of these presentations has already begun to inform new types of documentary productions that examine pertinent, global interdependency topics.

  12. Spectral backward radiation profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sung Duck; Lee, Keun Hyun; Kim, Bo Ra; Yoon, Suk Soo

    2004-01-01

    Ultrasonic backward radiation profile is frequency-dependent when incident region has deptional gradient of acoustical properties or multi-layers. Until now, we have measured the profiles of principal frequencies of used transducers so that it was not easy to understand the change of the frequency component and spectrum of backward radiation from the profile. We tried to measure the spectral backward radiation profiles using DFP(digital filer package) Lecroy DSO. The very big changes in the shape and pattern of spectral backward radiation profiles leads to the conclusion that this new try could be very effective tool to evaluate frequency dependent surface area.

  13. Modelling of the urban wind profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Batchvarova, Ekaterina

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of meteorological measurements from tall masts in rural and urban areas show that the height of the boundary layer influences the wind profile even in the lowest hundreds of meters. A parameterization of the wind profile for the entire boundary layer is formulated with emphasis on the lo...

  14. Triton burnup in JET - profile effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, O.N.; Conroy, S.W.; Marcus, F.B.; Sadler, G.J.; Belle, P. van

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of the 14 MeV neutron emission from triton burnup show that the 14 MeV emission profile shadows closely the 2,5 MeV profile but after a delay corresponding to the triton slowing down time. The slightly greater width of the 14 MeV neutron profile is a consequence of the finite Larmor radius of the tritons. It has not so far been possible to identify unambiguously any effects on the triton burnup that are attributable to sawtooth crashes. Finally, the time dependence of the triton profile indicates that the triton diffusion coefficient is very small ( 2 /s). (author) 4 refs., 3 figs

  15. Geoscience is Important? Show Me Why

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    "The public" is not homogenous and no single message or form of messaging will connect the entire public with the geosciences. One approach to promoting trust in, and engagement with, the geosciences is to identify specific sectors of the public and then develop interactions and communication products that are immediately relevant to that sector's interests. If the content and delivery are appropriate, this approach empowers people to connect with the geosciences on their own terms and to understand the relevance of the geosciences to their own situation. Federal policy makers are a distinct and influential subgroup of the general public. In preparation for the 2016 presidential election, the American Geosciences Institute (AGI) in collaboration with its 51 member societies prepared Geoscience for America's Critical Needs: Invitation to a National Dialogue, a document that identified major geoscience policy issues that should be addressed in a national policy platform. Following the election, AGI worked with eight other geoscience societies to develop Geoscience Policy Recommendations for the New Administration and the 115th Congress, which outlines specific policy actions to address national issues. State and local decision makers are another important subgroup of the public. AGI has developed online content, factsheets, and case studies with different levels of technical complexity so people can explore societally-relevant geoscience topics at their level of technical proficiency. A related webinar series is attracting a growing worldwide audience from many employment sectors. Partnering with government agencies and other scientific and professional societies has increased the visibility and credibility of these information products with our target audience. Surveys and other feedback show that these products are raising awareness of the geosciences and helping to build reciprocal relationships between geoscientists and decision makers. The core message of all

  16. Bacteriophages show promise as antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisky, J; Iczkowski, K; Rapoport, A; Troitsky, N

    1998-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has prompted interest in alternatives to conventional drugs. One possible option is to use bacteriophages (phage) as antimicrobial agents. We have conducted a literature review of all Medline citations from 1966-1996 that dealt with the therapeutic use of phage. There were 27 papers from Poland, the Soviet Union, Britain and the U.S.A. The Polish and Soviets administered phage orally, topically or systemically to treat a wide variety of antibiotic-resistant pathogens in both adults and children. Infections included suppurative wound infections, gastroenteritis, sepsis, osteomyelitis, dermatitis, empyemas and pneumonia; pathogens included Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Escherichia, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Shigella and Salmonella spp. Overall, the Polish and Soviets reported success rates of 80-95% for phage therapy, with rare, reversible gastrointestinal or allergic side effects. However, efficacy of phage was determined almost exclusively by qualitative clinical assessment of patients, and details of dosages and clinical criteria were very sketchy. There were also six British reports describing controlled trials of phage in animal models (mice, guinea pigs and livestock), measuring survival rates and other objective criteria. All of the British studies raised phage against specific pathogens then used to create experimental infections. Demonstrable efficacy against Escherichia, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus spp. was noted in these model systems. Two U.S. papers dealt with improving the bioavailability of phage. Phage is sequestered in the spleen and removed from circulation. This can be overcome by serial passage of phage through mice to isolate mutants that resist sequestration. In conclusion, bacteriophages may show promise for treating antibiotic resistant pathogens. To facilitate further progress, directions for future research are discussed and a directory of authors from the reviewed

  17. The use of computerized tomography in patients showing tardive dyskinesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Themelis, I.

    1983-01-01

    29 patients showing moderate to markedly pronounced tardive dyskinesia (TD) and a further 29 control patients (C) under a similar long-term medication with neuroleptics that had been so chosen as to match the age and sex distributions of the former group were subjected to computered tomography, neurological examination and psychological testing. The results did not point to any correlations between the structural changes and duration of treatment and the clinical signs or symptoms of extrapyramidal disorder. This was taken as further evidence in support of the theory that the initial damage in tardive dyskinesia mainly is at the level of the basal ganglia. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Observation and interpretation of topological structures in impurity ion radiation profiles from the hot plasma of a torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurro, B.; McCarthy, K.J.; Ascasibar, E.; Aragon, F.; Burgos, C.; Lopez, A.; Salas, A.

    1997-01-01

    Significant features have been observed in impurity ion ultraviolet line emission profiles measured on the TJ-I U torsatron using a fast-scanning detector system with good spatial resolution. These features, which consist of flats and humps, provide evidence for the existence of topological structure in the plasma interior. It is postulated that these structures arise as a result of perturbations in the electron temperature and ion density profiles caused by magnetic islands. We develop a model to show how these structures can give rise to such features in ultraviolet radiation profiles and we use theoretical iota profiles to correlate the positions of the more prominent features with rational iota values. (orig.)

  19. Sensing the wind profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, A.

    2009-03-15

    This thesis consists of two parts. The first is a synopsis of the theoretical progress of the study that is based on a number of journal papers. The papers, which constitute the second part of the report, aim to analyze, measure, and model the wind prole in and beyond the surface layer by combining observations from cup anemometers with lidars. The lidar is necessary to extend the measurements on masts at the Horns Rev offshore wind farm and over at land at Hoevsoere, Denmark. Both sensing techniques show a high degree of agreement for wind speed measurements performed at either sites. The wind speed measurements are averaged for several stability conditions and compare well with the surface-layer wind profile. At Hoevsoere, it is sufficient to scale the wind speed with the surface friction velocity, whereas at Horns Rev a new scaling is added, due to the variant roughness length. This new scaling is coupled to wind prole models derived for flow over the sea and tested against the wind proles up to 160 m at Horns Rev. The models, which account for the boundary-layer height in stable conditions, show better agreement with the measurements than compared to the traditional theory. Mixing-length parameterizations for the neutral wind prole compare well with length-scale measurements up to 300 m at Hoevsoere and 950 m at Leipzig. The mixing-length-derived wind proles strongly deviate from the logarithmic wind prole, but agree better with the wind speed measurements. The length-scale measurements are compared to the length scale derived from a spectral analysis performed up to 160 m at Hoevsoere showing high agreement. Mixing-length parameterizations are corrected to account for stability and used to derive wind prole models. These compared better to wind speed measurements up to 300 m at Hoevsoere than the surface-layer wind prole. The boundary-layer height is derived in nearneutral and stable conditions based on turbulent momentum uxes only and in unstable conditions

  20. On the analysis of line profile variations: A statistical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCandliss, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    This study is concerned with the empirical characterization of the line profile variations (LPV), which occur in many of and Wolf-Rayet stars. The goal of the analysis is to gain insight into the physical mechanisms producing the variations. The analytic approach uses a statistical method to quantify the significance of the LPV and to identify those regions in the line profile which are undergoing statistically significant variations. Line positions and flux variations are then measured and subject to temporal and correlative analysis. Previous studies of LPV have for the most part been restricted to observations of a single line. Important information concerning the range and amplitude of the physical mechanisms involved can be obtained by simultaneously observing spectral features formed over a range of depths in the extended mass losing atmospheres of massive, luminous stars. Time series of a Wolf-Rayet and two of stars with nearly complete spectral coverage from 3940 angstrom to 6610 angstrom and with spectral resolution of R = 10,000 are analyzed here. These three stars exhibit a wide range of both spectral and temporal line profile variations. The HeII Pickering lines of HD 191765 show a monotonic increase in the peak rms variation amplitude with lines formed at progressively larger radii in the Wolf-Rayet star wind. Two times scales of variation have been identified in this star: a less than one day variation associated with small scale flickering in the peaks of the line profiles and a greater than one day variation associated with large scale asymmetric changes in the overall line profile shapes. However, no convincing period phenomena are evident at those periods which are well sampled in this time series

  1. Face and body recognition show similar improvement during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Samantha; Rhodes, Gillian; Read, Ainsley; Jeffery, Linda

    2015-09-01

    Adults are proficient in extracting identity cues from faces. This proficiency develops slowly during childhood, with performance not reaching adult levels until adolescence. Bodies are similar to faces in that they convey identity cues and rely on specialized perceptual mechanisms. However, it is currently unclear whether body recognition mirrors the slow development of face recognition during childhood. Recent evidence suggests that body recognition develops faster than face recognition. Here we measured body and face recognition in 6- and 10-year-old children and adults to determine whether these two skills show different amounts of improvement during childhood. We found no evidence that they do. Face and body recognition showed similar improvement with age, and children, like adults, were better at recognizing faces than bodies. These results suggest that the mechanisms of face and body memory mature at a similar rate or that improvement of more general cognitive and perceptual skills underlies improvement of both face and body recognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantitative comparison and metabolite profiling of saponins in different parts of the root of Panax notoginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Rong; Yau, Lee-Fong; Gao, Wei-Na; Liu, Yong; Yick, Pui-Wing; Liu, Liang; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2014-09-10

    Although both rhizome and root of Panax notoginseng are officially utilized as notoginseng in "Chinese Pharmacopoeia", individual parts of the root were differently used in practice. To provide chemical evidence for the differentiated usage, quantitative comparison and metabolite profiling of different portions derived from the whole root, as well as commercial samples, were carried out, showing an overall higher content of saponins in rhizome, followed by main root, branch root, and fibrous root. Ginsenoside Rb2 was proposed as a potential marker with a content of 0.5 mg/g as a threshold value for differentiating rhizome from other parts. Multivariate analysis of the metabolite profile further suggested 32 saponins as potential markers for the discrimination of different parts of notoginseng. Collectively, the study provided comprehensive chemical evidence for the distinct usage of different parts of notoginseng and, hence, is of great importance for the rational application and exploitation of individual parts of notoginseng.

  3. Tribal-FERST Environmental Issue Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides links to the 45 issue profiles for Tribal-FERST users, organized with tabs to show issues related to pollutants, environmental media, health effects, other community issues, and all issues.

  4. C-FERST Environmental Issue Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides links to the 45 issue profiles for C-FERST users, organized with tabs to show issues related to pollutants, environmental media, health effects, other community issues, and all issues.

  5. Fatty Acid Profile of Sunshine Bass: II. Profile Change Differs Among Fillet Lipid Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushenski, Jesse T; Lewis, Heidi A; Kohler, Christopher C

    2008-07-01

    Fatty acid (FA) profile of fish tissue mirrors dietary FA profile and changes in a time-dependent manner following a change in dietary FA composition. To determine whether FA profile change varies among lipid classes, we evaluated the FA composition of fillet cholesteryl esters (CE), phospholipids (PL), and triacylglycerols (TAG) of sunshine bass (SB, Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis) raised on feeds containing fish oil or 50:50 blend of fish oil and coconut, grapeseed, linseed, or poultry oil, with or without implementation of a finishing period (100% FO feed) prior to harvest. Each lipid class was associated with a generalized FA signature, irrespective of nutritional history: fillet PL was comprised largely of saturated FA (SFA), long-chain polyunsaturated FA (LC-PUFA), and total n-3 FA; fillet TAG was higher in MC-PUFA and total n-6 FA; and fillet CE was highest in monounsaturated FA (MUFA). Neutral lipids reflected dietary composition in a near-direct fashion; conversely, PL showed evidence of selectivity for MC- and LC-PUFA. Shorter-chain SFA were not strongly reflected within any lipid fraction, even when dietary availability was high, suggesting catabolism of these FA. FA metabolism in SB is apparently characterized by a division between saturated and unsaturated FA, whereby LC-PUFA are preferentially incorporated into tissues and SFA are preferentially oxidized for energy production. We demonstrated provision of SFA in grow-out feeds for SB, instead MC-PUFA which compete for tissue deposition, meets energy demands and allows for maximum inclusion of LC-PUFA within fillet lipids.

  6. YOUNG ATHLETES' MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Moreno Murcia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between motivational characteristics and dispositional flow. In order to accomplish this goal, motivational profiles emerging from key constructs within Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory were related to the dispositional flow measures. A sample of 413 young athletes (Age range 12 to 16 years completed the PMCSQ-2, POSQ, SMS and DFS measures. Cluster analysis results revealed three profiles: a "self-determined profile" characterised by higher scores on the task-involving climate perception and on the task orientation; a "non-self-determined profile", characterised by higher scores on ego-involving climate perception and ego orientation; and a "low self-determined and low non-self-determined profile" which had the lowest dispositional flow. No meaningful differences were found between the "self-determined profile" and the "non-self-determined profile" in dispositional flow. The "self-determined profile" was more commonly associated with females, athletes practising individual sports and those training more than three days a week. The "non-self-determined profile" was more customary of males and athletes practising team sports as well as those training just two or three days a week

  7. Study on Rail Profile Optimization Based on the Nonlinear Relationship between Profile and Wear Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxi Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a rail profile optimization method that takes account of wear rate within design cycle so as to minimize rail wear at the curve in heavy haul railway and extend the service life of rail. Taking rail wear rate as the object function, the vertical coordinate of rail profile at range optimization as independent variable, and the geometric characteristics and grinding depth of rail profile as constraint conditions, the support vector machine regression theory was used to fit the nonlinear relationship between rail profile and its wear rate. Then, the profile optimization model was built. Based on the optimization principle of genetic algorithm, the profile optimization model was solved to achieve the optimal rail profile. A multibody dynamics model was used to check the dynamic performance of carriage running on optimal rail profile. The result showed that the average relative error of support vector machine regression model remained less than 10% after a number of training processes. The dynamic performance of carriage running on optimized rail profile met the requirements on safety index and stability. The wear rate of optimized profile was lower than that of standard profile by 5.8%; the allowable carrying gross weight increased by 12.7%.

  8. Aerodynamics profile not in stationary flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.А. Загорулько

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available  Consider the question about influence of unsteady flight on the size of drag and lift coefficients of theaerodynamic profile. Distinctive features of this investigation are obtaining data about aerodynamic drag chancing in process unsteady on high angle at attack and oscillation profile in subsonic and transonic flight. Given analysis of oscillation profile show, that dynamic loops accompany change of lift and dray force. The researches show that it is necessary to clarity the mathematic model of the airplane flight dynamics by introducing numbers, with take into account unsteady effects.

  9. Evidence of Inward Toroidal Momentum Convection in the JET Tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tala, T.; Zastrow, K.-D.; Ferreira, J.

    2009-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out on the Joint European Torus tokamak to determine the diffusive and convective momentum transport. Torque, injected by neutral beams, was modulated to create a periodic perturbation in the toroidal rotation velocity. Novel transport analysis shows the magnitude...... and profile shape of the momentum diffusivity are similar to those of the ion heat diffusivity. A significant inward momentum pinch, up to 20 m/s, has been found. Both results are consistent with gyrokinetic simulations. This evidence is complemented in plasmas with internal transport barriers....

  10. Natural tracer profiles across argillaceous formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurek, Martin; Alt-Epping, Peter; Bath, Adrian; Gimmi, Thomas; Niklaus Waber, H.; Buschaert, Stephane; Canniere, Pierre De; Craen, Mieke De; Gautschi, Andreas; Savoye, Sebastien; Vinsot, Agnes; Wemaere, Isabelle; Wouters, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Solute transport processes in clay and shale formations at nine sites are examined. → Conservative pore-water tracers (e.g. Cl - , δ 18 O, δ 2 H, He) show regular profiles. → These indicate the dominance of diffusive transport over times of 10 5 -10 6 years. → The contribution of vertical advection to transport is limited or negligible. → Modelled evolution times are in line with independent palaeo-hydrogeological data. - Abstract: Argillaceous formations generally act as aquitards because of their low hydraulic conductivities. This property, together with the large retention capacity of clays for cationic contaminants, has brought argillaceous formations into focus as potential host rocks for the geological disposal of radioactive and other waste. In several countries, programmes are under way to characterise the detailed transport properties of such formations at depth. In this context, the interpretation of profiles of natural tracers in pore waters across the formations can give valuable information about the large-scale and long-term transport behaviour of these formations. Here, tracer-profile data, obtained by various methods of pore-water extraction for nine sites in central Europe, are compiled. Data at each site comprise some or all of the conservative tracers: anions (Cl - , Br - ), water isotopes (δ 18 O, δ 2 H) and noble gases (mainly He). Based on a careful evaluation of the palaeo-hydrogeological evolution at each site, model scenarios are derived for initial and boundary pore-water compositions and an attempt is made to numerically reproduce the observed tracer distributions in a consistent way for all tracers and sites, using transport parameters derived from laboratory or in situ tests. The comprehensive results from this project have been reported in . Here the results for three sites are presented in detail, but the conclusions are based on model interpretations of the entire data set. In essentially all cases, the

  11. Lines profile variations and binarity in Wolf-Rayet stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisiacchi, G.F.; Firmani, C.; Lara, E. de

    1982-01-01

    Recently, HD50896, a WN5 star, for a long time considered as isolated, has been demonstrated to be a binary. This star shows very small displacement of the lines due to orbital motion and no evidence of the secondary spectrum. Is HD50896 a rare system in which the profile variations are peculiarly strong and easy to be detected, or are there many of these undetected binaries for which the analysis of the profile variation may be a powerful method to determine the periodicity. With this problem in mind the authors have observed a sample of 17 WR stars during a week to analyze both profile and radial velocity variations. This sample includes all the WR stars with Msub(v) 0 0 except for five stars that are binaries with determined period. All the spectra have been taken with a dispersion of 1.1 A channel -1 using a SIT television camera and a low dispersion spectrograph attached to the 2-meter telescope of the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional in San Pedro Martir, Baja California (Mexico). (Auth.)

  12. On the Anonymity Risk of Time-Varying User Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Puglisi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Websites and applications use personalisation services to profile their users, collect their patterns and activities and eventually use this data to provide tailored suggestions. User preferences and social interactions are therefore aggregated and analysed. Every time a user publishes a new post or creates a link with another entity, either another user, or some online resource, new information is added to the user profile. Exposing private data does not only reveal information about single users’ preferences, increasing their privacy risk, but can expose more about their network that single actors intended. This mechanism is self-evident in social networks where users receive suggestions based on their friends’ activities. We propose an information-theoretic approach to measure the differential update of the anonymity risk of time-varying user profiles. This expresses how privacy is affected when new content is posted and how much third-party services get to know about the users when a new activity is shared. We use actual Facebook data to show how our model can be applied to a real-world scenario.

  13. Primary Focal Dystonia: Evidence for Distinct Neuropsychiatric and Personality Profiles

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background: Primary focal dystonia (PFD) is characterized by motor symptoms. Frequent co-occurrence of abnormal mental conditions has been mentioned for decades but is less well defined. We evaluated prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders, personality disorders and traits in a large cohort of PFD patients. Methods: Prevalence rates of clinical psychiatric diagnoses in 86 PFD patients were compared to a population-based sample (N=3943) using a multiple regress...

  14. Metabolic Profiles of Brain Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone F. Bathen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis to the brain is a feared complication of systemic cancer, associated with significant morbidity and poor prognosis. A better understanding of the tumor metabolism might help us meet the challenges in controlling brain metastases. The study aims to characterize the metabolic profile of brain metastases of different origin using high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS to correlate the metabolic profiles to clinical and pathological information. Biopsy samples of human brain metastases (n = 49 were investigated. A significant correlation between lipid signals and necrosis in brain metastases was observed (p < 0.01, irrespective of their primary origin. The principal component analysis (PCA showed that brain metastases from malignant melanomas cluster together, while lung carcinomas were metabolically heterogeneous and overlap with other subtypes. Metastatic melanomas have higher amounts of glycerophosphocholine than other brain metastases. A significant correlation between microscopically visible lipid droplets estimated by Nile Red staining and MR visible lipid signals was observed in metastatic lung carcinomas (p = 0.01, indicating that the proton MR visible lipid signals arise from cytoplasmic lipid droplets. MRS-based metabolomic profiling is a useful tool for exploring the metabolic profiles of metastatic brain tumors.

  15. Modeling of Changing Electrode Profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prentice, Geoffrey Allen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials and Molecular Research Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1980-12-01

    A model for simulating the transient behavior of solid electrodes undergoing deposition or dissolution has been developed. The model accounts for ohmic drop, charge transfer overpotential, and mass transport limitations. The finite difference method, coupled with successive overrelaxation, was used as the basis of the solution technique. An algorithm was devised to overcome the computational instabilities associated with the calculations of the secondary and tertiary current distributions. Simulations were performed on several model electrode profiles: the sinusoid, the rounded corner, and the notch. Quantitative copper deposition data were obtained in a contoured rotating cylinder system, Sinusoidal cross-sections, machined on stainless steel cylinders, were used as model geometries, Kinetic parameters for use in the simulation were determined from polarization curves obtained on copper rotating cylinders, These parameters, along with other physical property and geometric data, were incorporated in simulations of growing sinusoidal profiles. The copper distributions on the sinusoidal cross-sections were measured and found to compare favorably with the simulated results. At low Wagner numbers the formation of a slight depression at the profile peak was predicted by the simulation and observed on the profile. At higher Wagner numbers, the simulated and experimental results showed that the formation of a depression was suppressed. This phenomenon was shown to result from the competition between ohmic drop and electrode curvature.

  16. Release from prey preservation behavior via prey switch allowed diversification of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles in digger wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurdack, Mareike; Polidori, Carlo; Keller, Alexander; Feldhaar, Heike; Schmitt, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    The cuticle of insects is covered by a layer of hydrocarbons (CHC), whose original function is the protection from desiccation and pathogens. However, in most insects CHC profiles are species specific. While this variability among species was largely linked to communication and recognition functions, additional selective forces may shape insect CHC profiles. Here, we show that in Philanthinae digger wasps (Crabronidae) the CHC profile coevolved with a peculiar brood-care strategy. In particular, we found that the behavior to embalm prey stored in the nest with hydrocarbons is adaptive to protect larval food from fungi in those species hunting for Hymenoptera. The prey embalming secretion is identical in composition to the alkene-dominated CHC profile in these species, suggesting that their profile is adaptively conserved for this purpose. In contrast, prey embalming is not required in those species that switched to Coleoptera as prey. Released from this chemical brood-care strategy, Coleoptera-hunting species considerably diversified their CHC profiles. Differential needs to successfully protect prey types used as larval food have thus driven the diversification of CHCs profiles of female Philanthinae wasps. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first evidence of a direct link between selection pressure for food preservation and CHC diversity. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Variation in the peacock's train shows a genetic component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Marion; Cotgreave, Peter; Pike, Thomas W

    2009-01-01

    Female peafowl (Pavo cristatus) show a strong mating preference for males with elaborate trains. This, however, poses something of a paradox because intense directional selection should erode genetic variation in the males' trains, so that females will no longer benefit by discriminating among males on the basis of these traits. This situation is known as the 'lek paradox', and leads to the theoretical expectation of low heritability in the peacock's train. We used two independent breeding experiments, involving a total of 42 sires and 86 of their male offspring, to estimate the narrow sense heritabilities of male ornaments and other morphometric traits. Contrary to expectation, we found significant levels of heritability in a trait known to be used by females during mate choice (train length), while no significant heritabilities were evident for other, non-fitness related morphological traits (tarsus length, body weight or spur length). This study adds to the building body of evidence that high levels of additive genetic variance can exist in secondary sexual traits under directional selection, but further emphasizes the main problem of what maintains this variation.

  18. Polar measurements on profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althaus, D.

    1985-03-01

    Wind tunnel models with a profile depth of t=0.5 m were measured in a laminar wind tunnel by the usual measuring processes. The profile resistance was determined by integration along the width of span. The smooth profiles were examined at Re=0.7/1.0 and 1.5 million. At Re=1.0 million, the position of the changeover points were determined with a stethoscope. Also at this Reynolds number measurements were taken with a trip wire of d=2 mm diameter, directly on the profile nose. The tables contain the co-ordinates of the profiles, the contours, the theoretical speed distributions for 4 different angles of attack, the csub(a)-csub(w) polar measurements and changeover points, and the torque coefficients around the t/4 point. (BR).

  19. Implicit User Interest Profile

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, K

    2002-01-01

    User interest profile presents items that the users are interested in. Typically those items can be listed or grouped. Listing is good but it does not possess interests at different abstraction levels - the higher-level interests are more general, while the lower-level ones are more specific. Furthermore, more general interests, in some sense, correspond to longer-term interests, while more specific interests correspond to shorter-term interests. This hierarchical user interest profile has obvious advantages: specifying user's specific interests and general interests and representing their relationships. Current user interest profile structures mostly do not use implicit method, nor use an appropriate clustering algorithm especially for conceptually hierarchical structures. This research studies building a hierarchical user interest profile (HUIP) and the hierarchical divisive algorithm (HDC). Several users visit hundreds of web pages and each page is recorded in each users profile. These web pages are used t...

  20. Show Horse Welfare: Horse Show Competitors' Understanding, Awareness, and Perceptions of Equine Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Melissa A; Hiney, Kristina; Richardson, Jennifer C; Waite, Karen; Borron, Abigail; Brady, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of stock-type horse show competitors' understanding of welfare and level of concern for stock-type show horses' welfare. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that included questions relating to (a) interest and general understanding of horse welfare, (b) welfare concerns of the horse show industry and specifically the stock-type horse show industry, (c) decision-making influences, and (d) level of empathic characteristics. The majority of respondents indicated they agree or strongly agree that physical metrics should be a factor when assessing horse welfare, while fewer agreed that behavioral and mental metrics should be a factor. Respondent empathy levels were moderate to high and were positively correlated with the belief that mental and behavioral metrics should be a factor in assessing horse welfare. Respondents indicated the inhumane practices that most often occur at stock-type shows include excessive jerking on reins, excessive spurring, and induced excessive unnatural movement. Additionally, respondents indicated association rules, hired trainers, and hired riding instructors are the most influential regarding the decisions they make related to their horses' care and treatment.

  1. Length Scales of the Neutral Wind Profile over Homogeneous Terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Mann, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    The wind speed profile for the neutral boundary layer is derived for a number of mixing-length parameterizations, which account for the height of the boundary layer. The wind speed profiles show good agreement with the reanalysis of the Leipzig wind profile (950 m high) and with combined cup–soni...

  2. Bex1 knock out mice show altered skeletal muscle regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Jae Hyung; Smiley, Mark A.; Lovering, Richard M.; Margolis, Frank L.

    2007-01-01

    Bex1 and Calmodulin (CaM) are upregulated during skeletal muscle regeneration. We confirm this finding and demonstrate the novel finding that they interact in a calcium-dependent manner. To study the role of Bex1 and its interaction with CaM in skeletal muscle regeneration, we generated Bex1 knock out (Bex1-KO) mice. These mice appeared to develop normally and are fertile, but displayed a functional deficit in exercise performance compared to wild type (WT) mice. After intramuscular injection of cardiotoxin, which causes extensive and reproducible myotrauma followed by recovery, regenerating muscles of Bex1-KO mice exhibited elevated and prolonged cell proliferation, as well as delayed cell differentiation, compared to WT mice. Thus, our results provide the first evidence that Bex1-KO mice show altered muscle regeneration, and allow us to propose that the interaction of Bex1 with Ca 2+ /CaM may be involved in skeletal muscle regeneration

  3. Self-similarity of temperature profiles in distant galaxy clusters: the quest for a universal law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, A.; Ettori, S.; Molendi, S.; Gastaldello, F.

    2012-09-01

    Context. We present the XMM-Newton temperature profiles of 12 bright (LX > 4 × 1044 erg s-1) clusters of galaxies at 0.4 high-redshift clusters, to investigate their properties, and to define a universal law to describe the temperature radial profiles in galaxy clusters as a function of both cosmic time and their state of relaxation. Methods: We performed a spatially resolved spectral analysis, using Cash statistics, to measure the temperature in the intracluster medium at different radii. Results: We extracted temperature profiles for the clusters in our sample, finding that all profiles are declining toward larger radii. The normalized temperature profiles (normalized by the mean temperature T500) are found to be generally self-similar. The sample was subdivided into five cool-core (CC) and seven non cool-core (NCC) clusters by introducing a pseudo-entropy ratio σ = (TIN/TOUT) × (EMIN/EMOUT)-1/3 and defining the objects with σ ratio σ is detected by fitting a function of r and σ, showing an indication that the outer part of the profiles becomes steeper for higher values of σ (i.e. transitioning toward the NCC clusters). No significant evidence of redshift evolution could be found within the redshift range sampled by our clusters (0.4 high-z sample with intermediate clusters at 0.1 0.4 has been attempted. We were able to define the closest possible relation to a universal law for the temperature profiles of galaxy clusters at 0.1 < z < 0.9, showing a dependence on both the relaxation state of the clusters and the redshift. Appendix A is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  4. On the Evaluation of Entity Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Rijke, Maarten; Balog, Krisztian; Bogers, Toine

    be assessed by means of precision and recall values of the descriptive terms produced. However, recent evidence suggests that more sophisticated metrics are needed that go beyond mere lexical matching of system-produced descriptors against a ground truth, allowing for graded relevance and rewarding diversity......Entity profiling is the task of identifying and ranking descriptions of a given entity. The task may be viewed as one where the descriptions being sought are terms that need to be selected from a knowledge source (such as an ontology or thesaurus). In this case, entity profiling systems can...... in the list of descriptors returned. In this note, we motivate and propose such a metric....

  5. Aliskiren: a clinical profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland E Schmieder

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Aliskiren is a novel oral antihypertensive agent, and the first in the new class of direct renin inhibitors. Here we review the key criteria that a new antihypertensive drug should possess, notably effective blood pressure lowering as monotherapy and combination therapy, 24-hour blood pressure control, safety and tolerability, end-organ protective effects, minimal drug interaction and efficacy during long-term use.Aliskiren fulfils key criteria for a new antihypertensive agent.The drug demonstrates effective blood lowering in a number of studies as monotherapy and in combination with a thiazide diuretic (hydrochlorothiazide, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ramipril and a calcium channel blocker (amlodipine. Other studies applying ambulatory blood pressure monitoring show that aliskiren maintains blood pressure control for more than 24 hours. Aliskiren, 150 mg and 300 mg have demonstrated a placebo-like safety and tolerability profile, with no interactions with a wide range of commonly used drugs. Three studies (AVOID, ALOFT and ALLAY are ongoing properties. with aliskiren to assess end-organ protective properties.

  6. Best in show but not best shape: a photographic assessment of show dog body condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Such, Z R; German, A J

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that owners often wrongly perceive overweight dogs to be in normal condition. The body shape of dogs attending shows might influence owners' perceptions, with online images of overweight show winners having a negative effect. This was an observational in silico study of canine body condition. 14 obese-prone breeds and 14 matched non-obese-probe breeds were first selected, and one operator then used an online search engine to identify 40 images, per breed, of dogs that had appeared at a major national UK show (Crufts). After images were anonymised and coded, a second observer subjectively assessed body condition, in a single sitting, using a previously validated method. Of 1120 photographs initially identified, 960 were suitable for assessing body condition, with all unsuitable images being from longhaired breeds. None of the dogs (0 per cent) were underweight, 708 (74 per cent) were in ideal condition and 252 (26 per cent) were overweight. Pugs, basset hounds and Labrador retrievers were most likely to be overweight, while standard poodles, Rhodesian ridgebacks, Hungarian vizslas and Dobermanns were least likely to be overweight. Given the proportion of show dogs from some breeds that are overweight, breed standards should be redefined to be consistent with a dog in optimal body condition. British Veterinary Association.

  7. Kozeny-Carman permeability relationship with disintegration process predicted from early dissolution profiles of immediate release tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Parveen; Rathi, Pooja; Kumar, Virender; Lal, Jatin; Kaur, Harmeet; Singh, Jasbir

    2017-07-01

    This study was oriented toward the disintegration profiling of the diclofenac sodium (DS) immediate-release (IR) tablets and development of its relationship with medium permeability k perm based on Kozeny-Carman equation. Batches (L1-L9) of DS IR tablets with different porosities and specific surface area were prepared at different compression forces and evaluated for porosity, in vitro dissolution and particle-size analysis of the disintegrated mass. The k perm was calculated from porosities and specific surface area, and disintegration profiles were predicted from the dissolution profiles of IR tablets by stripping/residual method. The disintegration profiles were subjected to exponential regression to find out the respective disintegration equations and rate constants k d . Batches L1 and L2 showed the fastest disintegration rates as evident from their bi-exponential equations while the rest of the batches L3-L9 exhibited the first order or mono-exponential disintegration kinetics. The 95% confidence interval (CI 95% ) revealed significant differences between k d values of different batches except L4 and L6. Similar results were also spotted for dissolution profiles of IR tablets by similarity (f 2 ) test. The final relationship between k d and k perm was found to be hyperbolic, signifying the initial effect of k perm on the disintegration rate. The results showed that disintegration profiling is possible because a relationship exists between k d and k perm . The later being relatable with porosity and specific surface area can be determined by nondestructive tests.

  8. Comparison of TL profiles in recent sea cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castagnoli, G C; Bonino, G

    1985-01-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) profile of different recent Tyrrhenian sea cores sampled at various intervals during the last centuries have been compared in order to check the reproducibility of the profiles and investigate the possibility of using the results for monitoring solar-terrestrial relations in the past. The satisfactory results obtained by comparison of two different cores in the time interval 1755-1969 A.D. has demonstrated: (a) the two TL profiles are correlated; (b) the 11 yr cycle corresponding to the main solar cycle is evident in both TL profiles.

  9. A predictable Java profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgholm, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2009-01-01

    A Java profile suitable for development of high integrity embedded systems is presented. It is based on event handlers which are grouped in missions and equipped with respectively private handler memory and shared mission memory. This is a result of our previous work on developing a Java profile......, and is directly inspired by interactions with the Open Group on their on-going work on a safety critical Java profile (JSR-302). The main contribution is an arrangement of the class hierarchy such that the proposal is a generalization of Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ). A further contribution...

  10. Profiling the Mobile Customer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille Wegener; King, Nancy J.

    2010-01-01

    of significant concerns about privacy and data protection. This second article in a two part series on "Profiling the Mobile Customer" explores how to best protect consumers' privacy and personal data through available mechanisms that include industry self-regulation, privacy-enhancing technologies...... discusses the current limitations of using technology to protect consumers from privacy abuses related to profiling. Concluding that industry self-regulation and available privacy-enhancing technologies will not be adequate to close important privacy gaps related to consumer profiling without legislative...

  11. Doping profile measurement on textured silicon surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa, Zahi; Taleb, Nadjib; Sermage, Bernard; Broussillou, Cédric; Bazer-Bachi, Barbara; Quillec, Maurice

    2018-04-01

    In crystalline silicon solar cells, the front surface is textured in order to lower the reflection of the incident light and increase the efficiency of the cell. This texturing whose dimensions are a few micrometers wide and high, often makes it difficult to determine the doping profile measurement. We have measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and electrochemical capacitance voltage profiling the doping profile of implanted phosphorus in alkaline textured and in polished monocrystalline silicon wafers. The paper shows that SIMS gives accurate results provided the primary ion impact angle is small enough. Moreover, the comparison between these two techniques gives an estimation of the concentration of electrically inactive phosphorus atoms.

  12. Video profile monitor diagnostic system for GTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandovil, D.P.; Garcia, R.C.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Johnson, K.F.; Shinas, M.A.; Wright, R.; Yuan, V.; Zander, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a video diagnostic system used to measure the beam profile and position of the Ground Test Accelerator 2.5 MeV H - ion beam as it exits the intermediate matching section. Inelastic collisions between H - ions and residual nitrogen in the vacuum chamber cause the nitrogen to fluoresce. The resulting light is captured through transport optics by an intensified CCD camera and is digitized. Real-time beam profile images are displayed and stored for detailed analysis. Analyzed data showing resolutions for both position and profile measurements will also be presented. (Author) 5 refs., 7 figs

  13. Video profile monitor diagnostic system for GTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval, D.P.; Garcia, R.C.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Johnson, K.F.; Shinas, M.A.; Wright, R.; Yuan, V.; Zander, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a video diagnostic system used to measure the beam profile and position of the Ground Test Accelerator 2.5-MeV H - ion beam as it exits the intermediate matching section. Inelastic collisions between H-ions and residual nitrogen to fluoresce. The resulting light is captured through transport optics by an intensified CCD camera and is digitized. Real-time beam-profile images are displayed and stored for detailed analysis. Analyzed data showing resolutions for both position and profile measurements will also be presented

  14. Constitutive Curve and Velocity Profile in Entangled Polymers during Start-Up of Steady Shear Flow

    KAUST Repository

    Hayes, Keesha A.

    2010-05-11

    Time-dependent shear stress versus shear rate, constitutive curve, and velocity profile measurements are reported in entangled polymer solutions during start-up of steady shear flow. By combining confocal microscopy and particle image velocimetry (PIV), we determine the time-dependent velocity profile in polybutadiene and polystyrene solutions seeded with fluorescent 150 nm silica and 7.5 μm melamine particles. By comparing these profiles with time-dependent constitutive curves obtained from experiment and theory, we explore the connection between transient nonmonotonic regions in the constitutive curve for an entangled polymer and its susceptibility to unstable flow by shear banding [Adams et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2009, 102, 067801-4]. Surprisingly, we find that even polymer systems which exhibit transient, nonmonotonic shear stress-shear rate relationships in bulk rheology experiments manifest time-dependent velocity profiles that are decidedly linear and show no evidence of unstable flow. We also report that interfacial slip plays an important role in the steady shear flow behavior of entangled polymers at shear rates above the reciprocal terminal relaxation time but has little, if any, effect on the shape of the velocity profile. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  15. Wind Profiling Radar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Clutter present in radar return signals as used for wind profiling is substantially removed by carrying out a Daubechies wavelet transformation on a time series of...

  16. Fishing fleet profiling methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferraris, Jocelyne

    2002-01-01

    A fishing fleet profile aims tho assist in understanding the complexity and structure of fisheries from a technical and socio-economic point of view, or from the point of view of fishing strategies...

  17. Beach Profile Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Beaches are commonly characterized by cross-shore surveys. The resulting profiles represent the elevation of the beach surface and nearshore seabed from the back of...

  18. Secretaries: A Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusselman, Kay

    1987-01-01

    Consists of the results of a profile survey completed by more than 12,000 members of Professional Secretaries International. Information is included on secretarial titles, salaries, employer types, and secretaries' personal characteristics. (CH)

  19. Prescription Drug Profiles PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Prescription Drug Profiles Public Use Files (PUFs) drawn from Medicare prescription drug claims for the year of the date on which the...

  20. Fishing Community Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To enable fisheries managers to comply with National Standard 8 (NS8), NMFS social scientists around the nation are preparing fishing community profiles that present...

  1. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijee Mohan

    Full Text Available Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS, carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1 involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima'D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future.

  2. Global oil company profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Global Oil Company Profiles provides a comprehensive review of 50 of the top oil companies in the world. Each chapter is devoted to an individual company, providing an invaluable insight into the organisation, its structure and operations. Using the most recent data available, the report offers an up-to-date analysis of performance and future direction, as well as a unique benchmarking system for each company profiled. (author)

  3. Laquinimod Safety Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Soelberg; Comi, Giancarlo; Vollmer, Timothy L

    2017-01-01

    the safety profile of laquinimod versus placebo. Adverse events (AEs), laboratory value changes, and potential risks identified in preclinical studies were evaluated in participants in ALLEGRO and BRAVO treated with at least one dose of laquinimod or matching placebo (1:1 random assignment). RESULTS...... laquinimod studies demonstrate a safety profile comprising benign or manageable AEs and asymptomatic laboratory findings with a clear temporal pattern. Potential risks noted in preclinical studies were not observed....

  4. Household electricity demand profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •A 1-min resolution household electricity load model is presented. •Model adapts a bottom-up approach with single appliance as the main building block. •Load profiles are used to analyse the flexibility potential of household appliances. •Load profiles can be applied in other domains, .......g. building energy simulations. •The demand level of houses with different number of occupants is well captured....

  5. Country nuclear power profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles was initiated within the framework of the IAEA`s programme for nuclear power plant performance assessment and feedback. It responded to a need for a database and a technical document containing a description of the energy and economic situation and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. The task was included in the IAEA`s programmes for 1993/1994 and 1995/1996. In March 1993, the IAEA organized a Technical Committee meeting to discuss the establishment of country data ``profiles``, to define the information to be included in the profiles and to review the information already available in the IAEA. Two expert meetings were convened in November 1994 to provide guidance to the IAEA on the establishment of the country nuclear profiles, on the structure and content of the profiles, and on the preparation of the publication and the electronic database. In June 1995, an Advisory Group meeting provided the IAEA with comprehensive guidance on the establishment and dissemination of an information package on industrial and organizational aspects of nuclear power to be included in the profiles. The group of experts recommended that the profiles focus on the overall economic, energy and electricity situation in the country and on its nuclear power industrial structure and organizational framework. In its first release, the compilation would cover all countries with operating power plants by the end of 1995. It was also recommended to further promote information exchange on the lessons learned from the countries engaged in nuclear programmes. For the preparation of this publication, the IAEA received contributions from the 29 countries operating nuclear power plants and Italy. A database has been implemented and the profiles are supporting programmatic needs within the IAEA; it is expected that the database will be publicly accessible in the future. Refs, figs, tabs.

  6. Country nuclear power profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles was initiated within the framework of the IAEA's programme for nuclear power plant performance assessment and feedback. It responded to a need for a database and a technical document containing a description of the energy and economic situation and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. The task was included in the IAEA's programmes for 1993/1994 and 1995/1996. In March 1993, the IAEA organized a Technical Committee meeting to discuss the establishment of country data ''profiles'', to define the information to be included in the profiles and to review the information already available in the IAEA. Two expert meetings were convened in November 1994 to provide guidance to the IAEA on the establishment of the country nuclear profiles, on the structure and content of the profiles, and on the preparation of the publication and the electronic database. In June 1995, an Advisory Group meeting provided the IAEA with comprehensive guidance on the establishment and dissemination of an information package on industrial and organizational aspects of nuclear power to be included in the profiles. The group of experts recommended that the profiles focus on the overall economic, energy and electricity situation in the country and on its nuclear power industrial structure and organizational framework. In its first release, the compilation would cover all countries with operating power plants by the end of 1995. It was also recommended to further promote information exchange on the lessons learned from the countries engaged in nuclear programmes. For the preparation of this publication, the IAEA received contributions from the 29 countries operating nuclear power plants and Italy. A database has been implemented and the profiles are supporting programmatic needs within the IAEA; it is expected that the database will be publicly accessible in the future

  7. Facebook: Personality and privacy on profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Casado Riera, Carla; Oberst, Ursula; Carbonell, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the possible relationship between the privacy settings in Facebook profiles and two personality dimensions, extraversion and neuroticism, in relation to gender. The Privacy on Facebook Questionnaire and the Eysenck Personality Inventory was applied to a sample of 92 womenand 70 men, all users of Facebook. No significant relationship was found between extraversion or neuroticism and the privacy settings of Facebook profiles, but the results showed significant...

  8. BWR AXIAL PROFILE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffer, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to develop axial profiles for estimating the axial variation in burnup of a boiling water reactor (BWR) assembly spent nuclear fuel (SNF) given the average burnup of an assembly. A discharged fuel assembly typically exhibits higher burnup in the center and lower burnup at the ends of the assembly. Criticality safety analyses taking credit for SNF burnup must account for axially varying burnup relative to calculations based on uniformly distributed assembly average burnup due to the under-burned tips. Thus, accounting for axially varying burnup in criticality analyses is also referred to as accounting for the ''end effect'' reactivity. The magnitude of the reactivity change due to ''end effect'' is dependent on the initial assembly enrichment, the assembly average burnup, and the particular axial profile characterizing the burnup distribution. The set of bounding axial profiles should incorporate multiple BWR core designs and provide statistical confidence (95 percent confidence that 95 percent of the population is bound by the profile) that end nodes are conservatively represented. The profiles should also conserve the overall burnup of the fuel assembly. More background on BWR axial profiles is provided in Attachment I

  9. Using Internet Artifacts to Profile a Child Pornography Suspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus K. Rogers

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Digital evidence plays a crucial role in child pornography investigations. However, in the following case study, the authors argue that the behavioral analysis or “profiling” of digital evidence can also play a vital role in child pornography investigations. The following case study assessed the Internet Browsing History (Internet Explorer Bookmarks, Mozilla Bookmarks, and Mozilla History from a suspected child pornography user’s computer. The suspect in this case claimed to be conducting an ad hoc law enforcement investigation. After the URLs were classified (Neutral; Adult Porn; Child Porn; Adult Dating sites; Pictures from Social Networking Profiles; Chat Sessions; Bestiality; Data Cleaning; Gay Porn, the Internet history files were statistically analyzed to determine prevalence and trends in Internet browsing. First, a frequency analysis was used to determine a baseline of online behavior. Results showed 54% (n = 3205 of the URLs were classified as “neutral” and 38.8% (n = 2265 of the URLs were classified as a porn website. Only 10.8% of the URLs were classified as child pornography websites. However when the IE history file was analyzed by visit, or “hit,” count, the Pictures/Profiles (31.5% category had the highest visit count followed by Neutral (19.3%, Gay Porn (17%, and Child Porn (16.6%. When comparing the frequency of URLs to the Hit Count for each pornography type, it was noted that the accused was accessing gay porn, child porn, chat rooms, and picture profiles (i.e., from Facebook more often than adult porn and neutral websites. The authors concluded that the suspect in this case was in fact a child pornography user and not an ad hoc investigator, and the findings from the behavioral analysis were admitted as evidence in the sentencing hearing for this case. The authors believe this case study illustrates the ability to conduct a behavioral analysis of digital evidence. More work is required to further validate the

  10. THE INNER GALACTIC BULGE: EVIDENCE FOR A NUCLEAR BAR?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhard, Ortwin; Martinez-Valpuesta, Inma

    2012-01-01

    Recent data from the VVV survey have strengthened evidence for a structural change in the Galactic bulge inward of |l| ≤ 4°. Here we show with an N-body barred galaxy simulation that a boxy bulge formed through the bar and buckling instabilities effortlessly matches measured bulge longitude profiles for red clump stars. The same simulation snapshot was earlier used to clarify the apparent boxy bulge—long bar dichotomy, for the same orientation and scaling. The change in the slope of the model longitude profiles in the inner few degrees is caused by a transition from highly elongated to more nearly axisymmetric isodensity contours in the inner boxy bulge. This transition is confined to a few degrees from the Galactic plane; thus the change of slope is predicted to disappear at higher Galactic latitudes. We also show that the nuclear star count map derived from this simulation snapshot displays a longitudinal asymmetry similar to that observed in the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) data, but is less flattened to the Galactic plane than the 2MASS map. These results support the interpretation that the Galactic bulge originated from disk evolution and question the evidence advanced from star count data for the existence of a secondary nuclear bar in the Milky Way.

  11. Weighing evidence: quantitative measures of the importance of bitemark evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittelson, J M; Kieser, J A; Buckingham, D M; Herbison, G P

    2002-12-01

    Quantitative measures of the importance of evidence such as the "likelihood ratio" have become increasingly popular in the courtroom. These measures have been used by expert witnesses formally to describe their certainty about a piece of evidence. These measures are commonly interpreted as the amount by which the evidence should revise the opinion of guilt, and thereby summarize the importance of a particular piece of evidence. Unlike DNA evidence, quantitative measures have not been widely used by forensic dentists to describe their certainty when testifying about bitemark evidence. There is, however, no inherent reason why they should not be used to evaluate bitemarks. The purpose of this paper is to describe the likelihood ratio as it might be applied to bitemark evidence. We use a simple bitemark example to define the likelihood ratio, its application, and interpretation. In particular we describe how the jury interprets the likelihood ratio from a Bayesian perspective when evaluating the impact of the evidence on the odds that the accused is guilty. We describe how the dentist would calculate the likelihood ratio based on frequentist interpretations. We also illustrate some of the limitations of the likelihood ratio, and show how those limitations apply to bitemark evidence. We conclude that the quality of bitemark evidence cannot be adequately summarized by the likelihood ratio, and argue that its application in this setting may be more misleading than helpful.

  12. Evidence-based clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Christian

    2002-01-01

    , and single clinics. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to improve this situation. Guidelines for Good Clinical (Research) Practice, conduct of more trials as multicentre trials, The Consort Statement, and The Cochrane Collaboration may all help in the application of the best research evidence in clinical......Evidence-based medicine combines the patient's preferences with clinical experience and the best research evidence. Randomized clinical trials are considered the most valid research design for evaluating health-care interventions. However, empirical research shows that intervention effects may...... practice. By investments in education, applied research, and The Cochrane Collaboration, evidence-based medicine may form a stronger basis for clinical practice....

  13. Agricultural Pilot's Audiological Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foltz, Lucas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The agricultural airplane pilot are daily exposed to intense noises, being susceptible to the noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL and its auditory and extra auditory effects. Objective: To analyze the audiological profile of this population, verifying the work's influence on its hearing. Method: It was realized a retrospective, individual, observational, and cross-sectional study through the data obtained by means of a questionnaire and audiometric thresholds of 41 agricultural pilots. To the statistical analysis were utilized the chi-square, Spearman, and Wilcoxon tests with significance level of 5%. Results: It was verified that 95,1% of the pilots use PPE ( personal protective equipment during flight and 58,5% have contact with pesticides. More than half of individuals referred to feel auditory and extra auditory symptoms, being the buzz the more frequent (29,1%. It has the occurrence of 29,3% of NIHL suggestive hearing loss and 68,3% of normality, taking this presence of unilateral notch in 24,4% and bilateral notch in 31,7%. It was found correlation statistically significant in the associations between time of service and the average of the acute frequencies in the right ear (p=0038, and in the left ear (p=0,010. It has a statistical tendency in the association between audiometric configuration and contact with pesticides (p=0,088. Conclusion: The hearing loss prevalence in this study was showed high. More than half of the sample has normal audiometric thresholds with notch configuration. Such data lead to the conclusion that the agricultural pilots, even with PPE use, they still suffer with the damages caused by noise, needing best proposals of hearing loss prevention.

  14. Network-based analysis of proteomic profiles

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Limsoon

    2016-01-26

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics is a widely used and powerful tool for profiling systems-wide protein expression changes. It can be applied for various purposes, e.g. biomarker discovery in diseases and study of drug responses. Although RNA-based high-throughput methods have been useful in providing glimpses into the underlying molecular processes, the evidences they provide are indirect. Furthermore, RNA and corresponding protein levels have been known to have poor correlation. On the other hand, MS-based proteomics tend to have consistency issues (poor reproducibility and inter-sample agreement) and coverage issues (inability to detect the entire proteome) that need to be urgently addressed. In this talk, I will discuss how these issues can be addressed by proteomic profile analysis techniques that use biological networks (especially protein complexes) as the biological context. In particular, I will describe several techniques that we have been developing for network-based analysis of proteomics profile. And I will present evidence that these techniques are useful in identifying proteomics-profile analysis results that are more consistent, more reproducible, and more biologically coherent, and that these techniques allow expansion of the detected proteome to uncover and/or discover novel proteins.

  15. State coal profiles, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-02

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  16. Geophysical validation of SCIAMACHY Limb Ozone Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Brinksma

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the quality of the two available SCIAMACHY limb ozone profile products. They were retrieved with the University of Bremen IFE's algorithm version 1.61 (hereafter IFE, and the official ESA offline algorithm (hereafter OL versions 2.4 and 2.5. The ozone profiles were compared to a suite of correlative measurements from ground-based lidar and microwave, sondes, SAGE II and SAGE III (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment. To correct for the expected Envisat pointing errors, which have not been corrected implicitly in either of the algorithms, we applied a constant altitude shift of -1.5 km to the SCIAMACHY ozone profiles. The IFE ozone profile data between 16 and 40 km are biased low by 3-6%. The average difference profiles have a typical standard deviation of 10% between 20 and 35 km. We show that more than 20% of the SCIAMACHY official ESA offline (OL ozone profiles version 2.4 and 2.5 have unrealistic ozone values, most of these are north of 15° S. The remaining OL profiles compare well to correlative instruments above 24 km. Between 20 and 24 km, they underestimate ozone by 15±5%.

  17. Convolution based profile fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, A.; Coelho, A.A.; Cheary, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In convolution based profile fitting, profiles are generated by convoluting functions together to form the observed profile shape. For a convolution of 'n' functions this process can be written as, Y(2θ)=F 1 (2θ)x F 2 (2θ)x... x F i (2θ)x....xF n (2θ). In powder diffractometry the functions F i (2θ) can be interpreted as the aberration functions of the diffractometer, but in general any combination of appropriate functions for F i (2θ) may be used in this context. Most direct convolution fitting methods are restricted to combinations of F i (2θ) that can be convoluted analytically (e.g. GSAS) such as Lorentzians, Gaussians, the hat (impulse) function and the exponential function. However, software such as TOPAS is now available that can accurately convolute and refine a wide variety of profile shapes numerically, including user defined profiles, without the need to convolute analytically. Some of the most important advantages of modern convolution based profile fitting are: 1) virtually any peak shape and angle dependence can normally be described using minimal profile parameters in laboratory and synchrotron X-ray data as well as in CW and TOF neutron data. This is possible because numerical convolution and numerical differentiation is used within the refinement procedure so that a wide range of functions can easily be incorporated into the convolution equation; 2) it can use physically based diffractometer models by convoluting the instrument aberration functions. This can be done for most laboratory based X-ray powder diffractometer configurations including conventional divergent beam instruments, parallel beam instruments, and diffractometers used for asymmetric diffraction. It can also accommodate various optical elements (e.g. multilayers and monochromators) and detector systems (e.g. point and position sensitive detectors) and has already been applied to neutron powder diffraction systems (e.g. ANSTO) as well as synchrotron based

  18. Profiles of Wind and Turbulence in the Coastal Atmospheric Boundary Layer of Lake Erie

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, H

    2014-06-16

    Prediction of wind resource in coastal zones is difficult due to the complexity of flow in the coastal atmospheric boundary layer (CABL). A three week campaign was conducted over Lake Erie in May 2013 to investigate wind characteristics and improve model parameterizations in the CABL. Vertical profiles of wind speed up to 200 m were measured onshore and offshore by lidar wind profilers, and horizontal gradients of wind speed by a 3-D scanning lidar. Turbulence data were collected from sonic anemometers deployed onshore and offshore. Numerical simulations were conducted with the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model with 2 nested domains down to a resolution of 1-km over the lake. Initial data analyses presented in this paper investigate complex flow patterns across the coast. Acceleration was observed up to 200 m above the surface for flow coming from the land to the water. However, by 7 km off the coast the wind field had not yet reached equilibrium with the new surface (water) conditions. The surface turbulence parameters over the water derived from the sonic data could not predict wind profiles observed by the ZephlR lidar located offshore. Horizontal wind speed gradients near the coast show the influence of atmospheric stability on flow dynamics. Wind profiles retrieved from the 3-D scanning lidar show evidence of nocturnal low level jets (LLJs). The WRF model was able to capture the occurrence of LLJ events, but its performance varied in predicting their intensity, duration, and the location of the jet core.

  19. Can commonly used profile planes be used to evaluate changes in lower lip position?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschang, Peter H; Fretty, Kimberly; Campbell, Phillip M

    2011-07-01

    To determine the validity of five profile planes commonly used to describe the horizontal changes of the lower lip during orthodontic treatment. Pretreatment and posttreatment cephalograms of 79 patients (12.4 ± 2.8 years of age) were evaluated. Lower lip (labrale inferiorus) changes over time were measured relative to the Rickett's E-line, Steiner's S1-line, Burstone's B-line, Sushner's S2-line, and Holdaway's H-line. As an independent measure of actual horizontal lip changes, the labrale inferiorus was measured relative to a stable reference plane registered on the sella and oriented on the SN-7°. The lower lip actually moved anteriorly 2.35 ± 3.35 mm during orthodontic treatment; the five profile planes indicated that the lower lip moved to a more retrusive, posterior position. The five profile planes also showed no statistically significant sex differences in terms of the treatment changes that occurred, while the actual lip changes showed that males exhibited significantly greater changes than females. Actual treatment changes showed that the lower lip moved to a more protrusive position with nonextraction than with extraction treatments, changes that were not evident based on the five profile lines. While lip changes based on the five profile planes demonstrated moderately high to high intercorrelations ranging from 0.81 to 0.97, they showed only weak correlations (r planes measured similar aspects of positional change, none of them closely reflected the actual lower lip changes that occurred. These planes should not be used to measure changes in lip position that occur during treatment.

  20. Profiling property criminals in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Içli, Tülin Günsen; Seydioğullari, Ibrahim; Tatlidil, Hüseyin; Coban, Sevgi; Sever, Hanifi; Süeroğlu, Unal

    2010-08-01

    The main aim of this research is to develop a profile of a thief. Through a comprehensive survey of property crime suspects arrested in the city of Ankara between 2004 and 2005, the authors have attempted to determine the socioeconomic qualities of those involved in these forms of property crimes. Results of the study show that property crimes are a consequence of low education, lack of occupational skills, and alcohol and drug addiction on the part of the offenders. Because of these factors, theft becomes a way of life for offenders after their first act of property crime.

  1. Young children show representational flexibility when interpreting drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Melissa L; Nurmsoo, Erika; Freeman, Norman

    2016-02-01

    Drawings can be ambiguous and represent more than one entity. In three experiments, we examine whether young children show representational flexibility by allowing one picture to be called by a second name. We also evaluate the hypothesis that children who are representationally flexible see the artist's intention as binding, rather than changeable. In Experiment 1, an artist declared what she intended to draw (e.g. a balloon) but then produced an ambiguous drawing. Children were asked whether the drawings could be interpreted differently (e.g. 'could this be a lollipop?') in the presence of a perceptually similar or dissimilar distractor (e.g., lollipop or snake). Six-year-olds accepted two labels for drawings in both conditions, but four-year-olds only did so in the dissimilar condition. Experiment 2 probed each possible interpretation more deeply by asking property questions (e.g., 'does it float?, does it taste good?'). Preschoolers who understood that the ambiguous drawing could be given two interpretations nevertheless mostly endorsed only properties associated with the prior intent. Experiment 3 provided converging evidence that 4-year-olds were representationally flexible using a paradigm that did not rely upon modal questioning. Taken together, our results indicate that even 4-year-olds understand that pictures may denote more than one referent, they still think of the symbol as consistent with the artist's original intention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Platelets from Asthmatic Individuals Show Less Reliance on Glycolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiling Xu

    Full Text Available Asthma, a chronic inflammatory airway disease, is typified by high levels of TH2-cytokines and excessive generation of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species, which contribute to bronchial epithelial injury and airway remodeling. While immune function plays a major role in the pathogenesis of the disease, accumulating evidence suggests that altered cellular metabolism is a key determinant in the predisposition and disease progression of asthma. Further, several studies demonstrate altered mitochondrial function in asthmatic airways and suggest that these changes may be systemic. However, it is unknown whether systemic metabolic changes can be detected in circulating cells in asthmatic patients. Platelets are easily accessible blood cells that are known to propagate airway inflammation in asthma. Here we perform a bioenergetic screen of platelets from asthmatic and healthy individuals and demonstrate that asthmatic platelets show a decreased reliance on glycolytic processes and have increased tricarboxylic acid cycle activity. These data demonstrate a systemic alteration in asthma and are consistent with prior reports suggesting that oxidative phosphorylation is more efficient asthmatic individuals. The implications for this potential metabolic shift will be discussed in the context of increased oxidative stress and hypoxic adaptation of asthmatic patients. Further, these data suggest that platelets are potentially a good model for the monitoring of bioenergetic changes in asthma.

  3. Neighbouring chimpanzee communities show different preferences in social grooming behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Edwin J C; Cronin, Katherine A; Haun, Daniel B M; Mundry, Roger; Bodamer, Mark D

    2012-11-07

    Grooming handclasp (GHC) behaviour was originally advocated as the first evidence of social culture in chimpanzees owing to the finding that some populations engaged in the behaviour and others do not. To date, however, the validity of this claim and the extent to which this social behaviour varies between groups is unclear. Here, we measured (i) variation, (ii) durability and (iii) expansion of the GHC behaviour in four chimpanzee communities that do not systematically differ in their genetic backgrounds and live in similar ecological environments. Ninety chimpanzees were studied for a total of 1029 h; 1394 GHC bouts were observed between 2010 and 2012. Critically, GHC style (defined by points of bodily contact) could be systematically linked to the chimpanzee's group identity, showed temporal consistency both within and between groups, and could not be accounted for by the arm-length differential between partners. GHC has been part of the behavioural repertoire of the chimpanzees under study for more than 9 years (surpassing durability criterion) and spread across generations (surpassing expansion criterion). These results strongly indicate that chimpanzees' social behaviour is not only motivated by innate predispositions and individual inclinations, but may also be partly cultural in nature.

  4. Geographic profiling and animal foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Comber, Steven C; Nicholls, Barry; Rossmo, D Kim; Racey, Paul A

    2006-05-21

    Geographic profiling was originally developed as a statistical tool for use in criminal cases, particularly those involving serial killers and rapists. It is designed to help police forces prioritize lists of suspects by using the location of crime scenes to identify the areas in which the criminal is most likely to live. Two important concepts are the buffer zone (criminals are less likely to commit crimes in the immediate vicinity of their home) and distance decay (criminals commit fewer crimes as the distance from their home increases). In this study, we show how the techniques of geographic profiling may be applied to animal data, using as an example foraging patterns in two sympatric colonies of pipistrelle bats, Pipistrellus pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus, in the northeast of Scotland. We show that if model variables are fitted to known roost locations, these variables may be used as numerical descriptors of foraging patterns. We go on to show that these variables can be used to differentiate patterns of foraging in these two species.

  5. Vertical grid of retrieved atmospheric profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceccherini, Simone; Carli, Bruno; Raspollini, Piera

    2016-01-01

    The choice of the vertical grid of atmospheric profiles retrieved from remote sensing observations is discussed considering the two cases of profiles used to represent the results of individual measurements and of profiles used for subsequent data fusion applications. An ozone measurement of the MIPAS instrument is used to assess, for different vertical grids, the quality of the retrieved profiles in terms of profile values, retrieval errors, vertical resolutions and number of degrees of freedom. In the case of individual retrievals no evident advantage is obtained with the use of a grid finer than the one with a reduced number of grid points, which are optimized according to the information content of the observations. Nevertheless, this instrument dependent vertical grid, which seems to extract all the available information, provides very poor results when used for data fusion applications. A loss of about a quarter of the degrees of freedom is observed when the data fusion is made using the instrument dependent vertical grid relative to the data fusion made using a vertical grid optimized for the data fusion product. This result is explained by the analysis of the eigenvalues of the Fisher information matrix and leads to the conclusion that different vertical grids must be adopted when data fusion is the expected application. - Highlights: • Data fusion application is taken into account for the choice of the vertical grid. • The study is performed using ozone profiles retrieved from MIPAS measurements. • A very fine vertical grid is not needed for the analysis of a single instrument. • The instrument dependent vertical grid is not the best choice for data fusion. • A data fusion dependent vertical grid must be used for profiles that will be fused.

  6. Prestin shows divergent evolution between constant frequency echolocating bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bin; Avila-Flores, Rafael; Liu, Yang; Rossiter, Stephen J; Zhang, Shuyi

    2011-10-01

    The gene Prestin encodes a motor protein that is thought to confer the high-frequency sensitivity and selectivity that characterizes the mammalian auditory system. Recent research shows that the Prestin gene has undergone a burst of positive selection on the ancestral branch of the Old World horseshoe and leaf-nosed bats (Rhinolophidae and Hipposideridae, respectively), and also on the branch leading to echolocating cetaceans. Moreover, these two groups share a large number of convergent amino acid sequence replacements. Horseshoe and leaf-nosed bats exhibit narrowband echolocation, in which the emitted calls are based on the second harmonic of a predominantly constant frequency (CF) component, the frequency of which is also over-represented in the cochlea. This highly specialized form of echolocation has also evolved independently in the neotropical Parnell's mustached bat (Pteronotus parnellii). To test whether the convergent evolution of CF echolocation between lineages has arisen from common changes in the Prestin gene, we sequenced the Prestin coding region (~2,212 bp, >99% coverage) in P. parnellii and several related species that use broadband echolocation calls. Our reconstructed Prestin gene tree and amino acid tree showed that P. parnellii did not group together with Old World horseshoe and leaf-nosed bats, but rather clustered within its true sister species. Comparisons of sequences confirmed that P. parnellii shared most amino acid changes with its congeners, and we found no evidence of positive selection in the branch leading to the genus of Pteronotus. Our result suggests that the adaptive changes seen in Prestin in horseshoe and leaf-nosed bats are not necessary for CF echolocation in P. parnellii.

  7. Patterned basal seismicity shows sub-ice stream bedforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcheck, C. G.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Schwartz, S. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Patterns in seismicity emanating from the bottom of fast-moving ice streams and glaciers may indicate localized patches of higher basal resistance— sometimes called 'sticky spots', or otherwise varying basal properties. These seismogenic basal areas resist an unknown portion of the total driving stress of the Whillans Ice Plain (WIP), in West Antarctica, but may play an important role in the WIP stick-slip cycle and ice stream slowdown. To better understand the mechanism and importance of basal seismicity beneath the WIP, we analyze seismic data collected by a small aperture (micro-earthquakes in Dec 2014, and we compare the resulting map of seismicity to ice bottom depth measured by airborne radar. The number of basal earthquakes per area within the network is spatially heterogeneous, but a pattern of two 400m wide streaks of high seismicity rates is evident, with >50-500 earthquakes detected per 50x50m grid cell in 2 weeks. These seismically active streaks are elongated approximately in the ice flow direction with a spacing of 750m. Independent airborne radar measurements of ice bottom depth from Jan 2013 show a low-amplitude ( 5m) undulation in the basal topography superposed on a regional gradient in ice bottom depth. The flow-perpendicular wavelength of these low-amplitude undulations is comparable to the spacing of the high seismicity bands, and the streaks of high seismicity intersect local lows in the undulating basal topography. We interpret these seismic and radar observations as showing seismically active sub-ice stream bedforms that are low amplitude and elongated in the direction of ice flow, comparable to the morphology of mega scale glacial lineations (MSGLs), with high basal seismicity rates observed in the MSGL troughs. These results have implications for understanding the formation mechanism of MSGLS and well as understanding the interplay between basal topographic roughness, spatially varying basal till and hydrologic properties, basal

  8. Grinding Wheel Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This graphic dubbed by engineers as the 'Grinding Wheel Profile' is the detective's tool used by the Opportunity team to help them understand one of the processes that formed the interior of a rock called 'McKittrick.' Scientists are looking for clues as to how layers, grains and minerals helped create this rock, and the engineers who built the rock abrasion tool (RAT) wanted to ensure that their instrument's handiwork did not get confused with natural processes.In the original microscopic image underlaying the graphics, engineers and scientists noticed 'layers' or 'scratches' on the spherical object nicknamed 'blueberry' in the lower right part of the image. The designers of the rock abrasion tool noticed that the arc length and width of the scratches were similar to the shape and size of the rock abrasion tool's grinding wheel, which is made out of a pad of diamond teeth.The scrapes on the bottom right blueberry appear to be caused by the fact that the berry got dislodged slightly and its surface was scraped with the grinding pad. In this image, the largest yellow circle is the overall diameter of the hole ground by the rock abrasion tool and the largest yellow rectangular shape is the area of the grinding wheel bit. The smaller yellow semi-circle is the path that the center of the grinding tool follows. The orange arrow arcing around the solid yellow circle (center of grinding tool) indicates the direction that the grinding tool spins around its own center at 3,000 revolutions per minute. The tool simultaneously spins in an orbit around the center of the hole, indicated by the larger orange arrow to the left.The grinding tool is 22 millimeters (0.9 inches) in length and the actual grinding surface, which consists of the diamond pad, is 1.5 millimeters (0.06 inches) in length, indicated by the two smaller rectangles. You can see that the smaller bottom rectangle fits exactly the width of the scrape marks.The grooves on the blueberry are also the same as the

  9. Country profile: Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary`s energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  10. Country profile: Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary's energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  11. Qualitative Value Profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Henrik Johannsen; Bjerre, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    allows the development of 1) profiles of the target country in which operations are to take place, 2) profiles of the buying center (i.e. the group of decision makers) in the partner company, and 3) profiles of the product/service offering. It also allows the development of a semantic scaling method...... for deeper analysis of all involved factors. This paper presents the method and compares and contrasts it with other similar methods like the PESTELE method known from corporate strategy, the STEEPAL method known from scenario analysis, and the Politics-Institutions-Economy (PIE) framework known from...... International Business. This comparison suggests that QVP on most accounts provides deeper insights than alternative methods and thus lays the foundation for better strategic planning in international business-to-business markets. Hence, it is a valuable addition to the toolbox of business strategists...

  12. Detonation Wave Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-12-14

    The Zel’dovich-von Neumann-Doering (ZND) profile of a detonation wave is derived. Two basic assumptions are required: i. An equation of state (EOS) for a partly burned explosive; P(V, e, λ). ii. A burn rate for the reaction progress variable; d/dt λ = R(V, e, λ). For a steady planar detonation wave the reactive flow PDEs can be reduced to ODEs. The detonation wave profile can be determined from an ODE plus algebraic equations for points on the partly burned detonation loci with a specified wave speed. Furthermore, for the CJ detonation speed the end of the reaction zone is sonic. A solution to the reactive flow equations can be constructed with a rarefaction wave following the detonation wave profile. This corresponds to an underdriven detonation wave, and the rarefaction is know as a Taylor wave.

  13. Natural gas annual 1992: Supplement: Company profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The data for the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement : Company Profiles are taken from Form EIA-176, (open quotes) Annual Report of Natural and Supplemental Gas Supply and Disposition (close quotes). Other sources include industry literature and corporate annual reports to shareholders. The companies appearing in this report are major interstate natural gas pipeline companies, large distribution companies, or combination companies with both pipeline and distribution operations. The report contains profiles of 45 corporate families. The profiles describe briefly each company, where it operates, and any important issues that the company faces. The purpose of this report is to show the movement of natural gas through the various States served by the 45 large companies profiled.

  14. Triton burnup in JET - profile effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, O.N.; Conroy, S.W.; Marcus, F.B.; Sadler, G.J.; Belle, P. van (Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking); Adams, J.M.; Watkins, N. (AEA Industrial Technology, Harwell Laboratory (United Kingdom))

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of the 14 MeV neutron emission from triton burnup show that the 14 MeV emission profile shadows closely the 2,5 MeV profile but after a delay corresponding to the triton slowing down time. The slightly greater width of the 14 MeV neutron profile is a consequence of the finite Larmor radius of the tritons. It has not so far been possible to identify unambiguously any effects on the triton burnup that are attributable to sawtooth crashes. Finally, the time dependence of the triton profile indicates that the triton diffusion coefficient is very small (<<0.1 m[sup 2]/s). (author) 4 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Constructing Data Curation Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Witt

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief literature review and then introduces the methods, design, and construction of the Data Curation Profile, an instrument that can be used to provide detailed information on particular data forms that might be curated by an academic library. These data forms are presented in the context of the related sub-disciplinary research area, and they provide the flow of the research process from which these data are generated. The profiles also represent the needs for data curation from the perspective of the data producers, using their own language. As such, they support the exploration of data curation across different research domains in real and practical terms. With the sponsorship of the Institute of Museum and Library Services, investigators from Purdue University and the University of Illinois interviewed 19 faculty subjects to identify needs for discovery, access, preservation, and reuse of their research data. For each subject, a profile was constructed that includes information about his or her general research, data forms and stages, value of data, data ingest, intellectual property, organization and description of data, tools, interoperability, impact and prestige, data management, and preservation. Each profile also presents a specific dataset supplied by the subject to serve as a concrete example. The Data Curation Profiles are being published to a public wiki for questions and discussion, and a blank template will be disseminated with guidelines for others to create and share their own profiles. This study was conducted primarily from the viewpoint of librarians interacting with faculty researchers; however, it is expected that these findings will complement a wide variety of data curation research and practice outside of librarianship and the university environment.

  16. Equilibrium shoreface profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels; Hughes, Michael G

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale coastal behaviour models use the shoreface profile of equilibrium as a fundamental morphological unit that is translated in space to simulate coastal response to, for example, sea level oscillations and variability in sediment supply. Despite a longstanding focus on the shoreface...... profile and its relevance to predicting coastal response to changing environmental conditions, the processes and dynamics involved in shoreface equilibrium are still not fully understood. Here, we apply a process-based empirical sediment transport model, combined with morphodynamic principles to provide......; there is no tuning or calibration and computation times are short. It is therefore easily implemented with repeated iterations to manage uncertainty....

  17. Measuring Individual Differences in Emotion Regulation: The Emotion Regulation Profile-Revised (ERP-R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Nelis

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to validate a new instrument aimed to assess emotion regulation: the Emotion Regulation Profile-Revised (ERP-R. Exploratory factor analyses yielded two theoretically meaningful factors: down-regulation of negative emotions and up-regulation of positive emotions. Internal reliability scores of the two factors were good. Findings showed evidence of convergent/discriminant validity, with ERP-R scores being independent of non verbal reasoning and verbal skills while positively related to emotional intelligence and to relevant personality dimensions. There was also preliminary evidence of criterion validity. ERP-R scores also demonstrated incremental validity to predict a number of criteria over and above emotional intelligence and emotional stability. Overall, the results show a clear 2 factors solution for the ERP-R and high correlations with convergent and divergent scales as well as good criterion and incremental validities.

  18. 20 CFR 404.1562 - Medical-vocational profiles showing an inability to make an adjustment to other work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to other work. (a) If you have done only arduous unskilled physical labor. If you have no more than a... old, have no more than a limited education, and have no past relevant work experience. If you have a... the rules in appendix 2 to this subpart. [68 FR 51163, Aug. 26, 2003] ...

  19. 20 CFR 416.962 - Medical-vocational profiles showing an inability to make an adjustment to other work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... adjustment to other work. (a) If you have done only arduous unskilled physical labor. If you have no more... you have a severe, medically determinable impairment(s) (see §§ 416.920(c), 416.921, and 416.923), are... consider the rules in appendix 2 to subpart P of part 404 of this chapter. [68 FR 51166, Aug. 26, 2003] ...

  20. ASD and schizophrenia show distinct developmental profiles in common genetic overlap with population-based social-communication difficulties

    OpenAIRE

    St Pourcain, B.; Robinson, E.; Anttila, V.; Sullivan, B.; Maller, J.; Golding, J.; Skuse, D.; Ring, S.; Evans, D.; Zammit, S.; Fisher, S.; Neale, B.; Anney, R.; Ripke, S.; Hollegaard, M.

    2017-01-01

    Difficulties in social communication are part of the phenotypic overlap between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and\\ud schizophrenia. Both conditions follow, however, distinct developmental patterns. Symptoms of ASD typically occur during early\\ud childhood, whereas most symptoms characteristic of schizophrenia do not appear before early adulthood. We investigated whether\\ud overlap in common genetic influences between these clinical conditions and impairments in social communication depends ...

  1. ASD and schizophrenia show distinct developmental profiles in common genetic overlap with population-based social communication difficulties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    St Pourcain, B; Robinson, E B; Anttila, V

    2017-01-01

    Difficulties in social communication are part of the phenotypic overlap between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia. Both conditions follow, however, distinct developmental patterns. Symptoms of ASD typically occur during early childhood, whereas most symptoms characteristic......-developing youth (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, N⩽5553, longitudinal assessments at 8, 11, 14 and 17 years) using the Social Communication Disorder Checklist. Data on clinical ASD (PGC-ASD: 5305 cases, 5305 pseudo-controls; iPSYCH-ASD: 7783 cases, 11 359 controls) and schizophrenia (PGC-SCZ2: 34...... 241 cases, 45 604 controls, 1235 trios) were either obtained through the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) or the Danish iPSYCH project. Overlap in genetic influences between ASD and social communication difficulties during development decreased with age, both in the PGC-ASD and the iPSYCH-ASD...

  2. Colitic scid mice fed Lactobacillus spp. show an ameliorated gut histopathology and an altered cytokine profile by local T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peter Lange; Paerregaard, Anders; Gad, Monika

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Scid mice transplanted with CD4 T blast cells develop colitis. We investigated if the disease was influenced in colitic mice treated with antibiotic and fed Lactobacillus spp. METHODS: Colitic scid mice were treated for 1 week with antibiotics (vancomycin/meropenem) followed or not fo......-gamma production than mice not fed probiotics. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that probiotics added to the drinking water may ameliorate local histopathological changes and influence local cytokine levels in colitic mice but not alter the colitis-associated weight loss....

  3. Community-level physiological profiling analyses show potential to identify the copiotrophic bacteria present in soil environments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lladó, Salvador; Baldrian, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2017), s. 1-9, č. článku e0171638. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-09040P; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15086 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : SUBSTRATE UTILIZATION PATTERNS * CARBON -SOURCE UTILIZATION * MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  4. Facial profile esthetic preferences: perception in two Brazilian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marina Detoni Vieira de; Silveira, Bruno Lopes da; Mattos, Cláudia Trindade; Marquezan, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the regional influence on the perception of facial profile esthetics in Rio de Janeiro state (RJ) and Rio Grande do Sul state (RS), Brazil. Two Caucasian models, a man and a woman, with balanced facial profiles, had their photographs digitally manipulated so as to produce seven different profiles. First year dental students (laypeople) assessed the images and classified them according to their esthetic preference. The result of the t test for independent samples showed differences among states for certain facial profiles. The female photograph identified with the letter 'G' (mandibular retrusion) received higher scores in RS state (p = 0.006). No differences were found for male photographs (p > 0.007). The evaluators' sex seemed not to influence their esthetic perception (p > 0.007). Considering all evaluators together, ANOVA/Tukey's test showed differences among the profiles (p ≤ 0.05) for both male and female photographs. The female photograph that received the highest score was the one identified with the letter 'F' (dentoalveolar bimaxillary retrusion/ straight profile). For the male profiles, photograph identified with the letter 'E' (dentoalveolar bimaxillary protrusion/ straight profile) received the best score. Regional differences were observed regarding preferences of facial profile esthetics. In Rio de Janeiro state, more prominent lips were preferred while in Rio Grande do Sul state, profiles with straight lips were favored. Class III profiles were considered less attractive.

  5. Facial profile esthetic preferences: perception in two Brazilian states

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Marina Detoni Vieira; da Silveira, Bruno Lopes; Mattos, Cláudia Trindade; Marquezan, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the regional influence on the perception of facial profile esthetics in Rio de Janeiro state (RJ) and Rio Grande do Sul state (RS), Brazil. METHODS: Two Caucasian models, a man and a woman, with balanced facial profiles, had their photographs digitally manipulated so as to produce seven different profiles. First year dental students (laypeople) assessed the images and classified them according to their esthetic preference. RESULTS: The result of the t test for independent samples showed differences among states for certain facial profiles. The female photograph identified with the letter 'G' (mandibular retrusion) received higher scores in RS state (p = 0.006). No differences were found for male photographs (p > 0.007). The evaluators' sex seemed not to influence their esthetic perception (p > 0.007). Considering all evaluators together, ANOVA/Tukey's test showed differences among the profiles (p ≤ 0.05) for both male and female photographs. The female photograph that received the highest score was the one identified with the letter 'F' (dentoalveolar bimaxillary retrusion/ straight profile). For the male profiles, photograph identified with the letter 'E' (dentoalveolar bimaxillary protrusion/ straight profile) received the best score. CONCLUSION: Regional differences were observed regarding preferences of facial profile esthetics. In Rio de Janeiro state, more prominent lips were preferred while in Rio Grande do Sul state, profiles with straight lips were favored. Class III profiles were considered less attractive. PMID:26154461

  6. Economy Profile of Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Argentina. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Arge...

  7. Economy Profile of Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Estonia. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Estonia ...

  8. Economy Profile of Australia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Australia. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Aust...

  9. Profiling & Utilizing Learning Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, James W., Ed.

    The purpose of the National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) Learning Style Profile is to provide educators with a well-validated and easy-to-use instrument for diagnosing the cognitive styles, perceptual response tendencies, and study/instructional preferences of middle level and senior high school students. The Learning Style…

  10. Country Profiles, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuki, Ariffin Bin; Peng, J. Y.

    A profile of Malaysia is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  11. Economy Profile of Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Bolivia. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Bolivia ...

  12. Culinary Arts Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This chart is intended for use in documenting the fact that a student participating in a culinary arts program has achieved the performance standards specified in the Missouri Competency Profile for culinary arts. The chart includes space for recording basic student and instructor information and the student's on-the-job training and work…

  13. Beam profile monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausse, G.J.; Gram, P.A.M.

    1978-05-01

    A system used to monitor secondary beam profiles at the LAMPF Linac for channel tune-up and diagnostics is described. The multiwire proportional chamber design is discussed, and descriptions and drawings of the gate card, the amplifier/multiplexer card, the output amplifier card, and the overall system are given

  14. Simple beam profile monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelbart, W.; Johnson, R. R.; Abeysekera, B. [ASD Inc. Garden Bay, BC (Canada); Best Theratronics Ltd Ottawa Ontario (Canada); PharmaSpect Ltd., Burnaby BC (Canada)

    2012-12-19

    An inexpensive beam profile monitor is based on the well proven rotating wire method. The monitor can display beam position and shape in real time for particle beams of most energies and beam currents up to 200{mu}A. Beam shape, position cross-section and other parameters are displayed on a computer screen.

  15. Modeling shoreface profile evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stive, M.J.F.; De Vriend, H.J.

    1995-01-01

    Current knowledge of hydro-, sediment and morpho-dynamics in the shoreface environment is insufficient to undertake shoreface-profile evolution modelling on the basis of first physical principles. We propose a simple, panel-type model to map observed behaviour. The internal dynamics are determined

  16. Modelling shoreface profile evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stive, Marcel J.F.; de Vriend, Huib J.

    1995-01-01

    Current knowledge of hydro-, sediment and morpho-dynamics in the shoreface environment is insufficient to undertake shoreface-profile evolution modelling on the basis of first physical principles. We propose a simple, panel-type model to map observed behaviour. The internal dynamics are determined

  17. A temperature profiler

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Peshwe, V.B.; Desa, E.

    An instrument developed for measuring temperature profiles at sea in depth or time scales is described. PC-based programming offers flexibility in setting up the instrument for the mode of operation prior to each cast. A real time clock built...

  18. Country Demographic Profiles: Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD. Population Div.

    This profile of the population of Thailand contains 35 tables of selected demographic information, including size of population and estimates of fertility and mortality, beginning in 1950. An adjusted distribution of the population by age and sex is given for the latest census year, as well as for 1976. Projections of the number of women of…

  19. Polysome Profile Analysis - Yeast

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšek, M.; Valášek, Leoš Shivaya

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 530, č. 2013 (2013), s. 173-181 ISSN 0076-6879 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : grow yeast cultures * polysome profile analysis * sucrose density gradient centrifugation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.194, year: 2013

  20. A Danish Profiling System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Staghøj, Jonas; Svarer, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the statistical model used for profiling new unemployed workers in Denmark. When a worker – during his or her first six months in unemployment – enters the employment office for the first time, this model predicts whether or not he or she will be unemployed for more than six ...

  1. 20 CFR 220.27 - What is needed to show an impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is needed to show an impairment. 220.27... is needed to show an impairment. A physical or mental impairment must result from anatomical... diagnostic techniques. A physical or mental impairment must be established by medical evidence consisting of...

  2. The profile of high school students’ scientific literacy on fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parno; Yuliati, L.; Munfaridah, N.

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to describe the profile of scientific literacy of high school students on Fluid Dynamics materials. Scientific literacy is one of the ability to solve daily problems in accordance with the context of materials related to science and technology. The study was conducted on 90 high school students in Sumbawa using survey design. Data were collected using an instrument of scientific literacy for high school students on dynamic fluid materials. Data analysis was conducted descriptively to determine the students’ profile of scientific literacy. The results showed that high school students’ scientific literacy on Fluid Dynamics materials was in the low category. The highest average is obtained on indicators of scientific literacy i.e. the ability to interpret data and scientific evidence. The ability of scientific literacy is related to the mastery of concepts and learning experienced by students, therefore it is necessary to use learning that can trace this ability such as Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM).

  3. Do students with dyslexia have a different personality profile as measured with the big five?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Tops

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies are available about the personality profile of higher education students with dyslexia and to which extent this could be any different from their non-dyslexic peers. AIMS AND SAMPLES: To obtain empirical evidence, we compared the personality profile of a group of 100 Dutch-speaking students with dyslexia with that of a control group of 100 students without learning disabilities. METHODS: The NEO-PI-R based on the Big Five in personality research was used. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed no differences in the personality between both groups. This agrees with a recent meta-analysis of English findings (Swanson & Hsieh, 2009, suggesting that students with dyslexia do not perceive themselves differently than their non-dyslexic peers. Practical implications and directions for future research are considered.

  4. Do students with dyslexia have a different personality profile as measured with the big five?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tops, Wim; Verguts, Ellen; Callens, Maaike; Brysbaert, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Few studies are available about the personality profile of higher education students with dyslexia and to which extent this could be any different from their non-dyslexic peers. AIMS AND SAMPLES: To obtain empirical evidence, we compared the personality profile of a group of 100 Dutch-speaking students with dyslexia with that of a control group of 100 students without learning disabilities. The NEO-PI-R based on the Big Five in personality research was used. Our study showed no differences in the personality between both groups. This agrees with a recent meta-analysis of English findings (Swanson & Hsieh, 2009), suggesting that students with dyslexia do not perceive themselves differently than their non-dyslexic peers. Practical implications and directions for future research are considered.

  5. Chemical profiling and antioxidant activity of Bolivian propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nina, Nélida; Quispe, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Theoduloz, Cristina; Giménez, Alberto; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    Propolis is a relevant research subject worldwide. However, there is no information so far on Bolivian propolis. Ten propolis samples were collected from regions with high biodiversity in the main honey production places in Bolivia and were analyzed for their total phenolics (TP), flavonoids (TF) and antioxidant activity. The chemical profiles of the samples were assessed by TLC, HPLC-DAD, HPLC-DAD-MS/MS(n) and NMR analysis. TP, TF, TLC and NMR analysis showed significant chemical differences between the samples. Isolation of the main constituents by chromatography and identification by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS(n) achieved more than 35 constituents. According to their profiles, the Bolivian propolis can be classified into phenolic-rich and triterpene-rich samples. Propolis from the valleys (Cochabamba, Chuquisaca and Tarija) contained mainly prenylated phenylpropanoids, while samples from La Paz and Santa Cruz contained cycloartane and pentacyclic triterpenes. Phenolic-rich samples presented moderate to strong antioxidant activity while the triterpene-rich propolis were weakly active. High chemical diversity and differential antioxidant effects were found in Bolivian propolis. Our results provide additional evidence on the chemical composition and bioactivity of South American propolis. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Photothermal depth profiling for multilayered Structures by particle swarm optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z J; Fang, J W; Zhang, S Y

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a method to reconstruct thermal conductivity depth profile of a layered medium using noisy photothermal data. The method tries to obtain an accurate reconstruction of discontinuous profile using particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm and total variation (TV) regularization. The reconstructions of different thermal conductivity profiles have been tested on simulated photothermal data. The simulation results show that the method can find accurately the locations of discontinuities, and the reconstructed profiles are in agreement with the original ones. Moreover, the results also show the method has good robustness and anti-noise capability.

  7. The Genetic Activity Profile database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, M D; Stack, H F; Garrett, N E; Jackson, M A

    1991-12-01

    A graphic approach termed a Genetic Activity Profile (GAP) has been developed to display a matrix of data on the genetic and related effects of selected chemical agents. The profiles provide a visual overview of the quantitative (doses) and qualitative (test results) data for each chemical. Either the lowest effective dose (LED) or highest ineffective dose (HID) is recorded for each agent and bioassay. Up to 200 different test systems are represented across the GAP. Bioassay systems are organized according to the phylogeny of the test organisms and the end points of genetic activity. The methodology for the production and evaluation of GAPs has been developed in collaboration with the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Data on individual chemicals have been compiled by IARC and by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Data are available on 299 compounds selected from volumes 1-50 of the IARC Monographs and on 115 compounds identified as Superfund Priority Substances. Software to display the GAPs on an IBM-compatible personal computer is available from the authors. Structurally similar compounds frequently display qualitatively and quantitatively similar GAPs. By examining the patterns of GAPs of pairs and groups of chemicals, it is possible to make more informed decisions regarding the selection of test batteries to be used in evaluating chemical analogs. GAPs have provided useful data for the development of weight-of-evidence hazard ranking schemes. Also, some knowledge of the potential genetic activity of complex environmental mixtures may be gained from assessing the GAPs of component chemicals. The fundamental techniques and computer programs devised for the GAP database may be used to develop similar databases in other disciplines.

  8. Replacing Corn and Wheat in Layer Diets with Hulless Oats Shows Effects on Sensory Properties and Yolk Quality of Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa R. Winkler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available US organic poultry producers are under pressure to find feed alternatives to corn and wheat. Hulless oats offer advantages such as wide geographic adaptation of the plant and high concentrations of protein and oil in the grain. They have shown considerable potential in experimental work as a feed grain for poultry, but more research is needed into their influence on the sensory and nutritional properties of eggs. In this study, hulless oats were substituted for corn or wheat at 200 g kg−1 in diets fed to Hy-Line Brown hens and eggs were sampled for sensory evaluation after 8 weeks. Discrimination tests of blended and baked egg samples found evidence of difference between eggs from oat-based diets and those from the oat-free control (p < 0.05 for eggs from an oat-corn diet, p < 0.01 for eggs from an oat-wheat diet. Acceptance tests of similar samples showed that eggs from the oat-wheat diet were significantly less liked than control eggs for their texture (p < 0.01 and response to cooking (p < 0.01, while eggs from the oat-corn diet were somewhat less liked. Yolk weight was greater (p < 0.05 in control eggs (34.1 g than eggs from oat-corn (31.6 g or oat-wheat (31.2 g diets, leading to smaller yolk proportion in the oat-fed eggs. Fatty acid profile differences across treatments were not of nutritional significance, and no evidence was found that the feeding of hulless oats improved storage properties of eggs. In this study, modifying the carbohydrate source in layer diets was shown to change textural properties of cooked eggs in a way that was perceptible to untrained consumers, probably by reducing the yolk proportion. This finding was not commercially relevant owing to small effect size, and results overall add to existing evidence that hulless oats can be fed to poultry at a moderate proportion of the diet with no negative effect on consumer acceptability of eggs. Regardless of the small effect size, however

  9. Multiple Lines of Evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Venzin, Alexander M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bramer, Lisa M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-03

    This paper discusses the process of identifying factors that influence the contamination level of a given decision area and then determining the likelihood that the area remains unacceptable. This process is referred to as lines of evidence. These lines of evidence then serve as inputs for the stratified compliance sampling (SCS) method, which requires a decision area to be divided into strata based upon contamination expectations. This is done in order to focus sampling efforts more within stratum where contamination is more likely and to use the domain knowledge about these likelihoods of the stratum remaining unacceptable to buy down the number of samples necessary, if possible. Two different building scenarios were considered as an example (see Table 3.1). SME expertise was elicited concerning four lines of evidence factors (see Table 3.2): 1) amount of contamination that was seen before decontamination, 2) post-decontamination air sampling information, 3) the applied decontaminant information, and 4) the surface material. Statistical experimental design and logistic regression modelling were used to help determine the likelihood that example stratum remained unacceptable for a given example scenario. The number of samples necessary for clearance was calculated by applying the SCS method to the example scenario, using the estimated likelihood of each stratum remaining unacceptable as was determined using the lines of evidence approach. The commonly used simple random sampling (SRS) method was also used to calculate the number of samples necessary for clearance for comparison purposes. The lines of evidence with SCS approach resulted in a 19% to 43% reduction in total number of samples necessary for clearance (see Table 3.6). The reduction depended upon the building scenario, as well as the level of percent clean criteria. A sensitivity analysis was also performed showing how changing the estimated likelihoods of stratum remaining unacceptable affect the number

  10. Language, reading, and math learning profiles in an epidemiological sample of school age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Lisa M D; Oram Cardy, Janis; Joanisse, Marc F; Ansari, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Dyscalculia, dyslexia, and specific language impairment (SLI) are relatively specific developmental learning disabilities in math, reading, and oral language, respectively, that occur in the context of average intellectual capacity and adequate environmental opportunities. Past research has been dominated by studies focused on single impairments despite the widespread recognition that overlapping and comorbid deficits are common. The present study took an epidemiological approach to study the learning profiles of a large school age sample in language, reading, and math. Both general learning profiles reflecting good or poor performance across measures and specific learning profiles involving either weak language, weak reading, weak math, or weak math and reading were observed. These latter four profiles characterized 70% of children with some evidence of a learning disability. Low scores in phonological short-term memory characterized clusters with a language-based weakness whereas low or variable phonological awareness was associated with the reading (but not language-based) weaknesses. The low math only group did not show these phonological deficits. These findings may suggest different etiologies for language-based deficits in language, reading, and math, reading-related impairments in reading and math, and isolated math disabilities.

  11. Language, reading, and math learning profiles in an epidemiological sample of school age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M D Archibald

    Full Text Available Dyscalculia, dyslexia, and specific language impairment (SLI are relatively specific developmental learning disabilities in math, reading, and oral language, respectively, that occur in the context of average intellectual capacity and adequate environmental opportunities. Past research has been dominated by studies focused on single impairments despite the widespread recognition that overlapping and comorbid deficits are common. The present study took an epidemiological approach to study the learning profiles of a large school age sample in language, reading, and math. Both general learning profiles reflecting good or poor performance across measures and specific learning profiles involving either weak language, weak reading, weak math, or weak math and reading were observed. These latter four profiles characterized 70% of children with some evidence of a learning disability. Low scores in phonological short-term memory characterized clusters with a language-based weakness whereas low or variable phonological awareness was associated with the reading (but not language-based weaknesses. The low math only group did not show these phonological deficits. These findings may suggest different etiologies for language-based deficits in language, reading, and math, reading-related impairments in reading and math, and isolated math disabilities.

  12. Will it Ever be Possible to Profile the Terrorist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Rae

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available 'This paper critiques the claim that terrorists can be profiled – that is to say that terrorists possess distinguishable attributes that can be conceivably identified by an observer. In doing so, the most prominent profiling parameters - racial, gender, age, pathological, psychological and socioeconomic – are investigated. The above approaches are found to have little to no applied value in identifying terrorists from a societal population. The dominant criticisms of these methods emphasise their crude reductionism, an absence of internal and external validity, and their lack of practical application. Current evidence indicates that the profiling of terrorists is a futile venture.'

  13. Using evidence to make decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Charles

    2014-12-01

    Bayesian evidence ratios give a very attractive way of comparing models, and being able to quote the odds on a particular model seems a very clear motivation for making a choice. Jeffreys' scale of evidence is often used in the interpretation of evidence ratios. A natural question is, how often will you get it right when you choose on the basis of some threshold value of the evidence ratio? The evidence ratio will be different in different realizations of the data, and its utility can be examined in a Neyman-Pearson like way to see what the trade-offs are between statistical power (the chance of "getting it right") versus the false alarm rate, picking the alternative hypothesis when the null is actually true. I will show some simple examples which show that there can be a surprisingly large range for an evidence ratio under different realizations of the data. It seems best not to simply rely on Jeffrey's scale when decisions have to be taken, but also to examine the probability of taking the "wrong" decision if some evidence ratio is taken to be decisive. Interestingly, Turing knew this and applied it during WWII, although (like much else) he did not publish it.

  14. Gun Shows and Gun Violence: Fatally Flawed Study Yields Misleading Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A.

    2010-01-01

    A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled “The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas” outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors’ prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy. PMID:20724672

  15. Spiking the expectancy profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Chr.; Loui, Psyche; Vuust, Peter

    Melodic expectations have long been quantified using expectedness ratings. Motivated by statistical learning and sharper key profiles in musicians, we model musical learning as a process of reducing the relative entropy between listeners' prior expectancy profiles and probability distributions...... of a given musical style or of stimuli used in short-term experiments. Five previous probe-tone experiments with musicians and non-musicians are revisited. Exp. 1-2 used jazz, classical and hymn melodies. Exp. 3-5 collected ratings before and after exposure to 5, 15 or 400 novel melodies generated from...... a finite-state grammar using the Bohlen-Pierce scale. We find group differences in entropy corresponding to degree and relevance of musical training and within-participant decreases after short-term exposure. Thus, whereas inexperienced listeners make high-entropy predictions by default, statistical...

  16. Modeling Profiles and Signatures of Enrichments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A.; Qualls, C.; Lucas, S. G.; Lombari, G.; Appenzeller, O.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic and geochemical enrichment of soils and living matter have been well documented 1, 2, 3.Here we report on geochemical, anthropogenic and biological enrichments with heavy metals in Modern Peru and compared this to Modern and ancient data from New Mexico, USA. We established a signature derived from the quantities of 25 metals in various biological, fossil and soil materials. We also speculate that human adaptation to mercury toxicity may occur in remarkably short time spans during the Holocene. We found mercury concentrations in Modern pigeon feathers and llama wool from free foraging birds and animals in Albuquerque, NM, ranging from 0.006 to 0.019 mg/Kg of tissue. The values for Modern Peru ranged from 22.0 to 556 mg/Kg for the same tissues. We discovered, in 64 million-year-old fossilized plants from New Mexico (Paleocene Nacimiento Formation, San Juan Basin), a mercury concentration of 1.11 mg/Kg of fossil, whereas Modern plant material from the Rio Grande Basin in New Mexico contained no mercury. Profiling of metal content of these samples suggests that mercury is a proxy for anthropogenic rather than geochemical enrichment in the localities we examined. We found no overt signs of mercury toxicity in contemporaneous inhabitants of Huancavelica4, Peru; one of the ten most mercury-polluted places in the world and the mercury concentration in their hair is well below modern admissible levels. However, assessment of their annual scalp hair growth-rate showed marked reduction in growth (~ 5cm/yr) versus ~ 16cm/year for normal scalp hair from other continents4. This is consistent with a toxic effect of heavy metals on human metabolism and especially autonomic nervous system function in Huancavelica, Peru. Contemporaneous anthropogenic activities are known to increase heavy metal content in the biosphere with potentially toxic effects on humans. However, signs of human evolutionary adaptation to such toxins might already be evident in Peru4.

  17. Neighboring Genes Show Correlated Evolution in Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarian, Avazeh T.; Hurst, Laurence D.

    2015-01-01

    When considering the evolution of a gene’s expression profile, we commonly assume that this is unaffected by its genomic neighborhood. This is, however, in contrast to what we know about the lack of autonomy between neighboring genes in gene expression profiles in extant taxa. Indeed, in all eukaryotic genomes genes of similar expression-profile tend to cluster, reflecting chromatin level dynamics. Does it follow that if a gene increases expression in a particular lineage then the genomic neighbors will also increase in their expression or is gene expression evolution autonomous? To address this here we consider evolution of human gene expression since the human-chimp common ancestor, allowing for both variation in estimation of current expression level and error in Bayesian estimation of the ancestral state. We find that in all tissues and both sexes, the change in gene expression of a focal gene on average predicts the change in gene expression of neighbors. The effect is highly pronounced in the immediate vicinity (genes increasing their expression in humans tend to avoid nuclear lamina domains and be enriched for the gene activator 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, we conclude that, most probably owing to chromatin level control of gene expression, a change in gene expression of one gene likely affects the expression evolution of neighbors, what we term expression piggybacking, an analog of hitchhiking. PMID:25743543

  18. Profile of success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, Jens Jørn; Nørgaard, Anders; Jakobsen, Søren

    1998-01-01

    What management skills must Europe's business leaders improve to achieve business excellence? Which country's leaders are best placed for success? Does the next generation have what it takes to compete? In the second half of their study of the leadership styles that drive business excellence, Jens...... Dahlgaard, Anders Nørgaard and Søren Jakobsen describe an excellent leadership profile that provides the answers....

  19. Global gas company profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report provides a detailed assessment of 60 of the top gas companies form around the world, analysing them according to their internal dynamics and in relation to their competitors. It devotes each chapter to an individual company, providing invaluable insight into the organisation's operational background, financial performance and strategic goals. Using the most up-to-date information available, Global Gas Company Profiles allows you to make detailed analysis of each company's performance and future direction. (author)

  20. Controlling magnetic field profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, J.R.

    1979-04-01

    A method for designing solenoid magnets with controlled field profiles is discussed. The method, originated by D.B. Montgomery, minimizes both the field errors and the power consumption. An NOS time-sharing computer program for the CDC-6600, entitled MAGCOR, was constructed to provide an interactive magnet design capability. Results obtained during the design of magnets for a radial line electron accelerator are presented. 9 figures

  1. Psychometric Properties of Dunn\\'s Sensory Profile School Companion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guita Movallali

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion The results showed that Dunn's sensory profile has good reliability and validity. Dunn's sensory profile is a useful tool for assessing sensory processing patterns in school and kindergarten settings, and can be used by occupational therapists in clinical environments and by psychologists in educational environments. Information obtained from this profile can have diagnostic value and could also be used for the design of curriculum and classroom space.

  2. Demand side management using profile steering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerards, Marco Egbertus Theodorus; Toersche, Hermen; Hoogsteen, Gerwin; van der Klauw, Thijs; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2015-01-01

    Many Demand Side Management (DSM) approaches use energy prices as steering signals. This paper shows that such steering signals may result in power quality problems and high losses. As an alternative, this paper proposes to use desired (e.g., flat) power profiles as steering signals and presents an

  3. Olympic Training Film Profiles. Volume III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971

    Approximately 250 instructional films are described in Volume Three (1970-1971) of this review. After an introduction which considers film discussions from the instructor's point of view and offers some ideas for conducting a film showing and ordering the films, profiles of the films are presented grouped under such areas as management…

  4. Sensitivity profiles calculated with the UNISENS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claro, L.H.; Menezes, A.

    1985-01-01

    Sensitivity profiles of the multiplication factor and several central reaction ratios for benchmarks ZPR 6/7, ZPR 3/11, FLATTOP-25, GODIVA and BIG-TEN, are presented in grafic form. A possible utilization is showed throught some modification to the ENDF/B-IV data file proposed for version ENDF/B-V. (Author) [pt

  5. Potential and profile experiments in MM-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Zhongyu; Ming Linzhou; Feng Xiaozhen; Feng Chuntang; Yin Youjun; Liu Yuhua; Wang Jihai

    1988-01-01

    Experimental results in MM-4 are presented. These results show that there were double potential wells and double ion temperatures in the plasma. The mechanism giving rise to such potential profiles can be attributed to the Stormer region in the cusp system and the different operation regimes of the electron gun used. The measured plasma potential was about - 200 - 300V

  6. Natural current profiles in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biskamp, D.

    1986-01-01

    It is proposed that a certain class of equilibrium, which follow from an elementary variational principle, are the natural current profiles in tokamaks, to which actual discharge profiles tend to relax. (orig.)

  7. GHGRP Minerals Sector Industrial Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program periodically produces detailed profiles of the various industries that report under the program. The profiles available for download below contain detailed analyses for the Minerals industry.

  8. Role of DNA profiling in forensic odontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Leena Sakari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent advances in DNA profiling have made DNA evidence to be more widely accepted in courts. This has revolutionized the aspect of forensic odontology. DNA profiling/DNA fingerprinting has come a long way from the conventional fingerprints. DNA that is responsible for all the cell′s activities, yields valuable information both in the healthy and diseased individuals. When other means of traditional identification become impossible following mass calamities or fire explosions, teeth provide a rich source of DNA as they have a high chemical as well as physical resistance. The recent evolution in the isolation of DNA and the ways of running a DNA fingerprint are highlighted in this literature review.

  9. Synthesis of national risk profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The methodology used and results obtained in computing the national risk profile for carbon fibers (CF) released after an aircraft accident (fire or explosion) are presented. The computation was performed by use of twenty-six individual conditional risk profiles, together with the extrapolation of these profiles to other U.S. airports. The risk profile was obtained using 1993 CF utilization forecasts, but numbers of facilities were taken from 1972 and 1975 census data, while losses were expressed in 1977 dollars.

  10. Cardiovascular risk profile in women and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufouil, Carole; Seshadri, Sudha; Chêne, Geneviève

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence for the importance of cardiovascular risk factors in dementia development, including Alzheimer's disease. As cardiovascular risk profiles vary greatly by gender, with men suffering a greater burden of cardiovascular risk in midlife, this could lead to differences in dementia risk. To explore current evidence on the association between components of the cardiovascular risk profile and dementia risk in women and men, we reviewed all studies reporting the risk of dementia associated with cardiovascular risk factors stratified by gender and found 53 eligible articles out of over 4,000 published since the year 2000. Consistent results were found: 1) for exposures acting specifically in women: Overweight/obesity (harmful) and physical activity (protective), and 2) for exposures acting similarly in women and men: Moderate alcohol (protective) and hypertension, diabetes, and depression (harmful). A modified effect of tobacco or high cholesterol/statin use remained controversial. Available data do not allow us to assess whether selection of men with healthier cardiovascular profile (due to cardiovascular death in midlife) could lead in late life either to a difference in the distribution of risk factors or to a differential effect of these risk factors by gender. We recommend that results on dementia risk factors, especially cardiovascular ones, be reported systematically by gender in all future studies. More generally, as cardiovascular risk profiles evolve over time, more attention needs to be paid to the detection and correction of cardiovascular risk factors, as early as possible in the life course, and as actively in women as in men.

  11. 2004 energy balances and electricity profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-02-01

    The Energy Balances and Electricity Profiles 2004 is the thirteenth issue in an internationally series of comparable energy data for selected developing countries. The data are arranged to show energy production, trade, conversion and consumption for each fuel used in the country. This publication is a source of overall consumption statistics of energy commodities in all sectors. Special electricity profiles for an additional group of countries are published to cover, exclusively, detailed information on production, trade and consumption of electricity, net installed capacity and thermal power plant input for selected developing countries

  12. Entropy-Based Privacy against Profiling of User Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Rodriguez-Carrion

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Location-based services (LBSs flood mobile phones nowadays, but their use poses an evident privacy risk. The locations accompanying the LBS queries can be exploited by the LBS provider to build the user profile of visited locations, which might disclose sensitive data, such as work or home locations. The classic concept of entropy is widely used to evaluate privacy in these scenarios, where the information is represented as a sequence of independent samples of categorized data. However, since the LBS queries might be sent very frequently, location profiles can be improved by adding temporal dependencies, thus becoming mobility profiles, where location samples are not independent anymore and might disclose the user’s mobility patterns. Since the time dimension is factored in, the classic entropy concept falls short of evaluating the real privacy level, which depends also on the time component. Therefore, we propose to extend the entropy-based privacy metric to the use of the entropy rate to evaluate mobility profiles. Then, two perturbative mechanisms are considered to preserve locations and mobility profiles under gradual utility constraints. We further use the proposed privacy metric and compare it to classic ones to evaluate both synthetic and real mobility profiles when the perturbative methods proposed are applied. The results prove the usefulness of the proposed metric for mobility profiles and the need for tailoring the perturbative methods to the features of mobility profiles in order to improve privacy without completely loosing utility.

  13. THE NONLINEAR TRAJECTORY OF CHANGE IN PLAY PROFILES OF THREE CHILDREN IN PSYCHODYNAMIC PLAY THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Halfon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Even though there is substantial evidence that play based therapies produce significant change, the specific play processes in treatment remain unexamined. For that purpose, processes of change in long-term psychodynamic play therapy are assessed through a repeated systematic assessment of three children’s Play Profiles, which reflect patterns of organization among play variables that contribute to play activity in therapy, indicative of the children’s coping strategies, and an expression of their internal world. The main aims of the study are to investigate the kinds of Play Profiles expressed in treatment, and to test whether there is emergence of new and more adaptive Play Profiles using dynamic systems theory as a methodological framework.Methods and Procedures: Each session from the long-term psychodynamic treatment (mean number of sessions = 55 of three 6 year old good outcome cases presenting with Separation Anxiety were recorded, transcribed and coded using items from the Children's Play Therapy Instrument, created to assess the play activity of children in psychotherapy, generating discrete and measurable units of play activity arranged along a continuum of four play profiles: Adaptive, Inhibited, Impulsive, and Disorganized. The play profiles were clustered through K-means Algorithm, generating 7 discrete states characterizing the course of treatment and the transitions between these states were analyzed by Markov Transition Matrix, Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA and odds ratios comparing the first and second halves of psychotherapy.Results: The Markov Transitions between the states scaled almost perfectly and also showed the ergodicity of the system meaning that the child can reach any state or shift to another one in play. The RQA and odds ratios showed two trends of change, first concerning the decrease in the use of less adaptive strategies, second regarding the reduction of play interruptions.Conclusions: The

  14. Concentration profiles near an activated enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soohyung; Agmon, Noam

    2008-09-25

    When a resting enzyme is activated, substrate concentration profile evolves in its vicinity, ultimately tending to steady state. We use modern theories for many-body effects on diffusion-influenced reactions to derive approximate analytical expressions for the steady-state profile and the Laplace transform of the transient concentration profiles. These show excellent agreement with accurate many-particle Brownian-dynamics simulations for the Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The steady-state profile has a hyperbolic dependence on the distance of the substrate from the enzyme, albeit with a prefactor containing the complexity of the many-body effects. These are most conspicuous for the substrate concentration at the surface of the enzyme. It shows an interesting transition as a function of the enzyme turnover rate. When it is high, the contact concentration decays monotonically to steady state. However, for slow turnover it is nonmonotonic, showing a minimum due to reversible substrate binding, then a maximum due to diffusion of new substrate toward the enzyme, and finally decay to steady state. Under certain conditions one can obtain a good estimate for the critical value of the turnover rate constant at the transition.

  15. Natural gas annual 1993 supplement: Company profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1993 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of 45 selected companies in the natural gas industry. The purpose of this report is to show the movement of natural gas through the various States served by the companies profiled. The companies in this report are interstate pipeline companies or local distribution companies (LDC`s). Interstate pipeline companies acquire gas supplies from company owned production, purchases from producers, and receipts for transportation for account of others. Pipeline systems, service area maps, company supply and disposition data are presented.

  16. Quantitative 1D saturation profiles on chalk by NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Dan; Topp, Simon; Stensgaard, Anders

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative one-dimensional saturation profiles showing the distribution of water and oil in chalk core samples are calculated from NMR measurements utilizing a 1D CSI spectroscopy pulse sequence. Saturation profiles may be acquired under conditions of fluid flow through the sample. Results reveal...

  17. Growth and development profile of Indian children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Beena; Navamani, Kirubakaran; Oommen, Samuel Philip; Srivastava, Vivi M

    2012-08-01

    In this retrospective study, we describe the profile of 88 children with Down syndrome. The average BMI for children showed a progressive increase with age. Compared to the previously published development profile, there was a significant improvement in the language domain.

  18. Beam envelope profile of non-centrosymmetric polygonal phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yinbao; Xie Xi

    1984-01-01

    The general theory of beam envelope profile of non-centrosymmetric polygonal phase space is developed. By means of this theory the beam envelope profile of non-centrosymmetric polygonal phase space can be calculated directly. An example is carried out in detail to show the practical application of the theory

  19. The impact of multiple show-ups on eyewitness decision-making and innocence risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew M; Bertrand, Michelle; Lindsay, R C L; Kalmet, Natalie; Grossman, Deborah; Provenzano, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    If an eyewitness rejects a show-up, police may respond by finding a new suspect and conducting a second show-up with the same eyewitness. Police may continue finding suspects and conducting show-ups until the eyewitness makes an identification (Study 1). Relatively low criterion-setting eyewitnesses filter themselves out of the multiple show-ups procedure by choosing the first suspect with whom they are presented (Studies 2 and 3). Accordingly, response bias was more stringent on the second show-up when compared with the first, but became no more stringent with additional show-ups. Despite this stringent shift in response bias, innocence risk increased with additional show-ups, as false alarms cumulate (Studies 2 and 3). Although unbiased show-up instructions decreased innocent suspect identifications, the numbers were still discouraging (Study 4). Given the high number of innocent suspects who would be mistakenly identified through the use of multiple show-up procedures, using such identifications as evidence of guilt is questionable. Although evidence of guilt is limited to identifications from a single show-up, practical constraints might sometimes require police to use additional show-ups. Accordingly, we propose a stronger partition between evidentiary and investigative procedures. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. The Complete Genome Sequence of Herpesvirus Papio 2 (Cercopithecine Herpesvirus 16) Shows Evidence of Recombination Events among Various Progenitor Herpesviruses†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Shaun D.; Severini, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    We have sequenced the entire genome of herpesvirus papio 2 (HVP-2; Cercopithecine herpesvirus 16) strain X313, a baboon herpesvirus with close homology to other primate alphaherpesviruses, such as SA8, monkey B virus, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and type 2. The genome of HVP-2 is 156,487 bp in length, with an overall GC content of 76.5%. The genome organization is identical to that of the other members of the genus Simplexvirus, with a long and a short unique region, each bordered by inverted repeats which end with an “a” sequence. All of the open reading frames detected in this genome were homologous and colinear with those of SA8 and B virus. The HSV gene RL1 (γ134.5; neurovirulence factor) is not present in HVP-2, as is the case for SA8 and B virus. The HVP-2 genome is 85% homologous to its closest relative, SA8. However, segment-by-segment bootstrap analysis of the genome revealed at least two regions that display closer homology to the corresponding sequences of B virus. The first region comprises the UL41 to UL44 genes, and the second region is located within the UL36 gene. We hypothesize that this localized and defined shift in homology is due to recombination events between an SA8-like progenitor of HVP-2 and a herpesvirus species more closely related to the B virus. Since some of the genes involved in these putative recombination events are determinants of virulence, a comparative analysis of their function may provide insight into the pathogenic mechanism of simplexviruses. PMID:16414998

  1. The complete genome sequence of herpesvirus papio 2 (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 16) shows evidence of recombination events among various progenitor herpesviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Shaun D; Severini, Alberto

    2006-02-01

    We have sequenced the entire genome of herpesvirus papio 2 (HVP-2; Cercopithecine herpesvirus 16) strain X313, a baboon herpesvirus with close homology to other primate alphaherpesviruses, such as SA8, monkey B virus, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and type 2. The genome of HVP-2 is 156,487 bp in length, with an overall GC content of 76.5%. The genome organization is identical to that of the other members of the genus Simplexvirus, with a long and a short unique region, each bordered by inverted repeats which end with an "a" sequence. All of the open reading frames detected in this genome were homologous and colinear with those of SA8 and B virus. The HSV gene RL1 (gamma(1)34.5; neurovirulence factor) is not present in HVP-2, as is the case for SA8 and B virus. The HVP-2 genome is 85% homologous to its closest relative, SA8. However, segment-by-segment bootstrap analysis of the genome revealed at least two regions that display closer homology to the corresponding sequences of B virus. The first region comprises the UL41 to UL44 genes, and the second region is located within the UL36 gene. We hypothesize that this localized and defined shift in homology is due to recombination events between an SA8-like progenitor of HVP-2 and a herpesvirus species more closely related to the B virus. Since some of the genes involved in these putative recombination events are determinants of virulence, a comparative analysis of their function may provide insight into the pathogenic mechanism of simplexviruses.

  2. Lectin staining shows no evidence of involvement of glycocalyx/mucous layer carbohydrate structures in development of celiac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Hansen, Henrik; Nielsen, Christian; Biagini, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    were examined before and after remission following a gluten-free diet. We performed lectin histochemistry using peanut agglutinin (PNA) and Ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA) staining for Gal-β(1,3)-GalNAc and Fucα1-2Gal-R, respectively, of the glycocalyx/mucous layer. The staining was scored based...

  3. Children with social anxiety and other anxiety disorders show similar deficits in habitual emotional regulation: evidence for a transdiagnostic phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Verena; Asbrand, Julia; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Schmitz, Julian

    2017-07-01

    Deficits in emotion regulation (ER) are an important factor in maintaining social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adults. As SAD and ER problems typically develop during childhood and adolescence, and are maintained dynamically within the parent-child dyad, research on families can help to reveal the role ER plays in the early development of SAD. The current study assessed self-reported habitual ER in dyads of children with SAD (n = 31), children with mixed anxiety disorders (MAD; n = 41) and healthy control children (HC; n = 36), and their parents. Results indicate a transdiagnostic quality of ER in that, children with SAD and children with MAD similarly reported less adaptive and more maladaptive ER strategies than HC children, whereas no group differences in parental ER strategies emerged. Furthermore, children's ER strategies aggressive action, withdrawal and self-devaluation and the parental ER strategy reappraisal were associated with social anxiety symptoms. These results suggest that there may be deficits in ER which generalize across childhood anxiety disorders. Our results are discussed in relation to current theories and their implications for treatment of childhood SAD.

  4. Evidence from northwest European bogs shows ‘Little Ice Age’ climatic changes driven by variations in solar activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauquoy, D; van Geel, B; Blaauw, Maarten; van der Plicht, J

    2002-01-01

    Fluctuations in Holocene atmospheric radiocarbon concentrations have been shown to be due to variations in solar activity. Analyses of both Be-10 and C-14 nuclides confirm that production-rate changes during the Holocene were largely modulated by solar activity. Analyses of peat samples from two

  5. Hip Fractures: What Information Does the Evidence Show That Patients and Families Need to Decrease 30-Day Readmission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Kristin OʼMara

    2015-01-01

    The current bundled payment reimbursement from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services will not cover the additional cost of hospital readmission for the same diagnosis, and patients with hip fractures have one of the highest cost-saving opportunities when compared with other admission reasons. Common reasons for readmission to the hospital after hip fracture include pneumonia, dehydration, and mobility issues. The learning modalities including visual, aural, read/write, and kinesthetic were used to make recommendations on how the education can be incorporated into the instruction of patients with hip fractures and their families. These learning techniques can be used to develop education to decrease possibility of 30-day readmission after hip fracture. Nurses must focus their education to meet the needs of each individual patient, adapting to different types of adult learners to increase the health literacy of patients with hip fractures and their families.

  6. Juvenile sex offenders: Personality profile, coping styles and parental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margari, Francesco; Lecce, Paola Alessandra; Craig, Francesco; Lafortezza, Elena; Lisi, Andrea; Pinto, Floriana; Stallone, Valentina; Pierri, Grazia; Pisani, Rossella; Zagaria, Giuseppina; Margari, Lucia; Grattagliano, Ignazio

    2015-09-30

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in juvenile sex offenders showing that this population is highly heterogeneous. The aim of the present study was to identify possible different profiles that could help understand the motivation behind offending, comparing 31 Juvenile Sexual Offenders (JSOs), 31 Juvenile Sexual Non Offenders (JSNOs) and 31 Juvenile Non Offenders (Control Group). A data collection form, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) or Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) and the Parental Bonding Inventory (PBI) were administered to all participants. The results show that JSOs differs from JNSOs in some domains, such as living in single-parent homes, while maintain some common aspects such as academic failure and previous sexual intercourse. Moreover, JNSOs showed more abnormal personality traits, such as Authority Problems, MacAndrew Alcoholism, Acknowledgement and Alcohol-Drug Problem Proneness compared to JSOs and the Control Group, while JSOs and JNSOs use a coping strategy more oriented to Avoidance and Distraction compared to the Control group. Finally, JSOs described the relationships with fathers characterized by higher care and protection than JNSOs. These findings provide additional evidence with respect the prevention and treatment of criminal sexual behavior in adolescent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Depth profiling of superconducting thin films using rare gas ion sputtering with laser postionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallix, J.B.; Becker, C.H.; Missert, N.; Char, K.; Hammond, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    Surface analysis by laser ionization (SALI) has been used to examine a high-T/sub c/ superconducting thin film of nominal composition YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 deposited on SrTiO 3 (100) by reactive magnetron sputtering. The main focus of this work was to probe the compositional uniformity and the impurity content throughout the 1800 A thick film having critical current densities of 1 to 2 x 10 6 A/cm 2 . SALI depth profiles show this film to be more uniform than thicker films (∼1 μm, prepared by electron beam codeposition) which were studied previously, yet the data show that some additional (non-superconducting) phases derived from Y, Ba, Cu, and O are still present. These additional phases are studied by monitoring the atomic and diatomic-oxide photoion profiles and also the depth profiles of various clusters (e.g. Y 2 O 2 + , Y 2 O 3 + , Y 3 O 4 + , Ba 2 O + , Ba 2 O 2 + , BaCu + , BaCuO + , YBaO 2 + , YSrO 2 + , etc.). A variety of impurities are observed to occur throughout the film including rather large concentrations of Sr. Hydroxides, F, Cl, and CO/sub x/ are evident particularly in the sample's near surface region (the top ∼100 A)

  8. Depth profiling of superconducting thin films using rare gas ion sputtering with laser postionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallix, J. B.; Becker, C. H.; Missert, N.; Char, K.; Hammond, R. H.

    1988-02-01

    Surface analysis by laser ionization (SALI) has been used to examine a high-Tc superconducting thin film of nominal composition YBa2Cu3O7 deposited on SrTiO3 (100) by reactive magnetron sputtering. The main focus of this work was to probe the compositional uniformity and the impurity content throughout the 1800 Å thick film having critical current densities of 1 to 2×106 A/cm2. SALI depth profiles show this film to be more uniform than thicker films (˜1 μm, prepared by electron beam codeposition) which were studied previously, yet the data show that some additional (non-superconducting) phases derived from Y, Ba, Cu, and O are still present. These additional phases are studied by monitoring the atomic and diatomic-oxide photoion profiles and also the depth profiles of various clusters (e.g. Y2O2+, Y2O3+, Y3O4+, Ba2O+, Ba2O2+, BaCu+, BaCuO+, YBaO2+, YSrO2+, etc.). A variety of impurities are observed to occur throughout the film including rather large concentrations of Sr. Hydroxides, F, Cl, and COx are evident particularly in the sample's near surface region (the top ˜100 Å).

  9. Surface glycosylation profiles of urine extracellular vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Q Gerlach

    Full Text Available Urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs are released by cells throughout the nephron and contain biomolecules from their cells of origin. Although uEV-associated proteins and RNA have been studied in detail, little information exists regarding uEV glycosylation characteristics. Surface glycosylation profiling by flow cytometry and lectin microarray was applied to uEVs enriched from urine of healthy adults by ultracentrifugation and centrifugal filtration. The carbohydrate specificity of lectin microarray profiles was confirmed by competitive sugar inhibition and carbohydrate-specific enzyme hydrolysis. Glycosylation profiles of uEVs and purified Tamm Horsfall protein were compared. In both flow cytometry and lectin microarray assays, uEVs demonstrated surface binding, at low to moderate intensities, of a broad range of lectins whether prepared by ultracentrifugation or centrifugal filtration. In general, ultracentrifugation-prepared uEVs demonstrated higher lectin binding intensities than centrifugal filtration-prepared uEVs consistent with lesser amounts of co-purified non-vesicular proteins. The surface glycosylation profiles of uEVs showed little inter-individual variation and were distinct from those of Tamm Horsfall protein, which bound a limited number of lectins. In a pilot study, lectin microarray was used to compare uEVs from individuals with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease to those of age-matched controls. The lectin microarray profiles of polycystic kidney disease and healthy uEVs showed differences in binding intensity of 6/43 lectins. Our results reveal a complex surface glycosylation profile of uEVs that is accessible to lectin-based analysis following multiple uEV enrichment techniques, is distinct from co-purified Tamm Horsfall protein and may demonstrate disease-specific modifications.

  10. PROFIL KEMAMPUAN PENALARAN MATEMATIS SISWA DITINJAU DARI GAYA BELAJAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Ridwan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Students learn according to their learning style, and every learning styles are affecting the process of mathematical reasoning and learning outcomes. The combination of how to absorb, manage and process information is the definition of learning styles. To maximize the students' ability to absorb, manage and process information, first identified learning styles of the students are visual, auditory or kinesthetic (V-A-K. This research aims to reveal the profile of mathematical reasoning abilities of students in terms of learning styles visual, audio and kinesthetic on the material function composition and inverse function. This research is a qualitative descriptive approach ethnography and research subject is grade XI of senior high school. The results of the research of profile learning styles (V-A-K that profile visual students' mathematical reasoning skill, have the ability to manipulate, draw conclusions, giving reasons or evidence is sufficient. While the ability to deliver his argument lacking. Profile auditory students' mathematical reasoning skills, have the ability to manipulate, giving reason or evidence, and provide argument or the validity of the answer is both. While the ability gets conclusion to enough. Profile kinesthetic students' mathematical reasoning skills have the ability to manipulate and give reasons or evidence is sufficient. The ability to draw conclusions while the less, as well as the ability to provide an answer or the validity of the argument, he answered with a unique and clear

  11. Deflagration Wave Profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-03

    Shock initiation in a plastic-bonded explosives (PBX) is due to hot spots. Current reactive burn models are based, at least heuristically, on the ignition and growth concept. The ignition phase occurs when a small localized region of high temperature (or hot spot) burns on a fast time scale. This is followed by a growth phase in which a reactive front spreads out from the hot spot. Propagating reactive fronts are deflagration waves. A key question is the deflagration speed in a PBX compressed and heated by a shock wave that generated the hot spot. Here, the ODEs for a steady deflagration wave profile in a compressible fluid are derived, along with the needed thermodynamic quantities of realistic equations of state corresponding to the reactants and products of a PBX. The properties of the wave profile equations are analyzed and an algorithm is derived for computing the deflagration speed. As an illustrative example, the algorithm is applied to compute the deflagration speed in shock compressed PBX 9501 as a function of shock pressure. The calculated deflagration speed, even at the CJ pressure, is low compared to the detonation speed. The implication of this are briefly discussed.

  12. Profile analysis of microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konarski, P.; Iwanejko, I.; Mierzejewska, A.

    2001-01-01

    Depth resolved analyses of several types of microparticles are presented. Particles for secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) depth profile analysis were collected in the working environment of glass plant, steelworks and welding station using eight-stage cascade impactor with particle size range of 0.3 μm to 15 μm. Ion beam sputtering and sample rotation technique allowed to describe morphology i.e. the elemental structure of collected sub-micrometer particles. Also model particles Iriodin 221 (Merck) were depth profiled. The core-shell structure is found for all types of investigated particles. Steelworks particles consist mainly of iron and manganese cores. At the shells of these microparticles: lead, chlorine and fluorine are found. The particles collected in the glass-works consist mainly of lead-zirconium glass cores covered by carbon and copper. Stainless-steel welding particles compose of iron, manganese and chromium cores covered by a shell rich in carbon, chlorine and fluorine. Sample rotation technique applied in SIMS appears to be an effective tool for environmental microparticle morphology studies

  13. Autoantibody profiling in APS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggenbuck, D; Somma, V; Schierack, P; Borghi, M O; Meroni, P L

    2014-10-01

    The international consensus for the classification of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) requires clinical and laboratory criteria to be considered at an equal level for diagnosing APS. Thus, detection of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) being a hallmark of APS has been the object of intensive investigation over the past 40 years. However, appropriate detection of aPL still remains a laboratory challenge due to their heterogeneity comprising autoantibodies reactive to different phospholipid-binding plasma proteins, such as beta-2 glycoprotein I (β2GPI) and prothrombin. The relevance of aPL interacting with phospholipids other than cardiolipin (CL, diphosphatidylglycerol), such as phosphatidylserine (PS), remains elusive with regard to the diagnosis of APS. Recently, the concept of aPL profiling has been introduced to assess the risk of thrombotic complications in patients with APS. New assay techniques, apart from enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) recommended by the international consensus for the classification of APS, have been proposed for multiplexing of aPL testing. Line immunoassays (LIAs) employing a novel hydrophobic solid phase for the simultaneous detection of different aPL seem to be an intriguing alternative. We evaluated a novel multiplex LIA employing a hydrophobic membrane coated with different phospholipid (PL)-binding proteins or PLs. The performance characteristics of this new multiplexing assay technique demonstrated its usefulness for aPL profiling. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  14. A test of the stability of Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn profiles over two decades in lake sediments near the Flin Flon Smelter, Manitoba, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Percival, J.B.; Outridge, P.M., E-mail: outridge@nrcan.gc.ca

    2013-06-01

    Lake sediments are valuable archives of atmospheric metal deposition, but the stability of some element profiles may possibly be affected by diagenetic changes over time. In this extensive case study, the stability of sedimentary Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn profiles was assessed in dated sediment cores that were collected in 2004 from four smelter-affected lakes near Flin Flon, Manitoba, which had previously been cored in 1985. Metal profiles determined in 1985 were in most cases clearly reproduced in the corresponding sediment layers in 2004, although small-scale spatial heterogeneity in metal distribution complicated the temporal comparisons. Pre-smelter (i.e. pre-1930) increases in metal profiles were likely the result of long-range atmospheric metal pollution, coupled with particle mixing at the 1930s sediment surface. However, the close agreement between key inflection points in the metal profiles sampled two decades apart suggests that metals in most of the lakes, and Hg and Zn in the most contaminated lake (Meridian), were stable once the sediments were buried below the surface mixed layer. Cadmium, Cu and Pb profiles in Meridian Lake did not agree as well between studies, showing evidence of upward remobilization over time. Profiles of redox-indicator elements (Fe, Mn, Mo and U) suggested that the rate of Mn oxyhydroxide recycling within sediment was more rapid in Meridian Lake, which may have caused the Cd, Cu and Pb redistribution. - Highlights: • Sedimentary Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn profiles in four lakes were mostly unchanged over 19 years. • In one lake, Cd, Cu and Pb profiles were offset relative to the originals. • The offset could indicate diagenetic upcore dispersal of these metals.

  15. Milky Way Monster Stars in Cosmic Reality Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The longest X-ray look yet at the supermassive black hole at the Milky Way's center has given astronomers unprecedented access to its life and times. The new data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory revealed that our galaxy's central black hole is a frequent bad actor, prone to numerous outbursts and occasional large explosions. The observations of the black hole, a.k.a. Sagittarius A* or Sgr A*, occurred over a two-week period for a total exposure time of 164 hours. During this time Sgr A* flared up in X-ray intensity half a dozen or more times. Astronomers also found evidence that suggests it had an even more boisterous past. These discoveries will help to unlock the secrets of how Sgr A* grows and how it interacts with its environment "We are getting a look at the everyday life of a supermassive black hole like never before," said Frederick K. Baganoff of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, who presented these new results on behalf of an international team at a press conference today at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Seattle. "We see it flaring on an almost daily basis." Sagittarius A* More images of Sagittarius A* The cause of the flares is not understood, but the rapidity with which they rise and fall indicates that they are occurring near the event horizon, or point of no return, around the black hole. Even when it flares, the intensity of the X-ray emission from the vicinity of the black hole is relatively weak, which suggests that Sgr A*, weighing in at 3 million times the mass of the Sun, is a starved black hole. "Although it appears to snack often, this black hole is definitely on a severe diet," says Baganoff. "This could be because explosive events in the past blew away much of the gas from the neighborhood of the black hole." Indeed, evidence for such events - which astronomers are viewing 26,000 years later due to the time it takes light to travel to Earth from the center of the Galaxy - can be found in the image. A

  16. Technology Takes Coaching to Scale: Investing in Innovation Grantees Show How It's Done

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslow, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the use of video and other technology tools to support professional learning. A growing body of evidence shows how these tools are improving teachers' practice (Borko, Jacobs, Eiteljorg, & Pittman, 2008; Grant & Kline, 2010; van Es & Sherin, 2010). However, there has been less…

  17. Teaching Prospect Theory with the "Deal or No Deal" Game Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ardith; Bittner, Teresa; Makrigeorgis, Christos; Johnson, Gloria; Haefner, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that decision makers are more sensitive to potential losses than gains. Loss aversion psychology has led behavioural economists to look beyond expected utility by developing "prospect theory." We demonstrate this theory using the "Deal or No Deal" game show.

  18. Evidence and evidence gaps in tinnitus therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    A nearly endless number of procedures has been tried and in particular sold for the treatment of tinnitus, unfortunately they have not been evaluated appropriately in an evidence-based way. A causal therapy, omitting the tinnitus still does not exist, actually it cannot exist because of the various mechanisms of its origin. However or perhaps because of that, medical interventions appear and reappear like fashion trends that can never be proven by stable and reliable treatment success. This contribution will discuss and acknowledge all current therapeutic procedures and the existing or non-existing evidence will be assessed. Beside external evidence, the term of evidence also encompasses the internal evidence, i.e. the experience of the treating physician and the patient’s needs shall be included. While there is no evidence for nearly all direct procedures that intend modulating or stimulating either the cochlea or specific cervical regions such as the auditory cortex, there are therapeutic procedures that are acknowledged in clinical practice and have achieved at least a certain degree of evidence and generate measurable effect sizes. Those are in particular habituation therapy and psychotherapeutic measures, especially if they are combined with concrete measures for improved audio perception (hearing aids, CI, hearing therapies). PMID:28025604

  19. Comparison of rapid descriptive sensory methodologies: Free-Choice Profiling, Flash Profile and modified Flash Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Bredie, Wender L P; Sherman, Emma; Harbertson, James F; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2018-04-01

    Rapid sensory methods have been developed as alternatives to traditional sensory descriptive analysis methods. Among them, Free-Choice Profiling (FCP) and Flash Profile (FP) are two that have been known for many years. The objectives of this work were to compare the rating-based FCP and ranking-based FP method; to evaluate the impact of adding adjustments to FP approach; to investigate the influence of the number of assessors on the outcome of modified FP. To achieve these aims, a conventional descriptive analysis (DA), FCP, FP and a modified version of FP were carried out. Red wines made by different grape maturity and ethanol concentration were used for sensory testing. This study showed that DA provided a more detailed and accurate information on products through a quantitative measure of the intensity of sensory attributes than FCP and FP. However, the panel hours for conducting DA were higher than that for rapid methods, and FP was even able to separate the samples to a higher degree than DA. When comparing FCP and FP, this study showed that the ranking-based FP provided a clearer separation of samples than rating-based FCP, but the latter was an easier task for most assessors. When restricting assessors on their use of attributes in FP, the sample space became clearer and the ranking task was simplified. The FP protocol with restricted attribute sets seems to be a promising approach for efficient screening of sensory properties in wine. When increasing the number of assessors from 10 to 20 for conducting the modified FP, the outcome tended to be slightly more stable, however, one should consider the degree of panel training when deciding the optimal number of assessors for conducting FP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Profile of Research Methodology and Statistics Training of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Medical practitioners need to have knowledge of statistics and research principles, especially with the increasing emphasis on evidence-based medicine. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of research methodology and statistics training of undergraduate medical students at South African ...

  1. A finite element thermohydrodynamic analyis of profile bore bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah Nor bin Basri

    1994-01-01

    A finite element-based method is presented for analysing the thermohydrodynamic (THD) behaviour of profile bore bearing. A variational statement for the governing equation is derived and used to formulate a non-linear quadrilateral finite element of serendipity family. The predicted behaviour is compared with experimental evidence where possible and favorable correlation is obtained

  2. Effects of Pineal Proteins on Biochemical, Enzyme Profile and Non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Pineal Proteins on Biochemical, Enzyme Profile and Non-Specific Immune Response of Indian Goats under Thermal Stress. ... Total precipitated pineal proteins successfully and significantly relieved the animals from adverse effects of heat stress and metyrapone treatment. There is evidence that most of the ...

  3. Hazardous factories: Nigerian evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloyede, Olajide

    2005-06-01

    The past 15 years have seen an increasing governmental and corporate concern for the environment worldwide. For governments, information about the environmental performance of the industrial sector is required to inform macro-level decisions about environmental targets such as those required to meet UN directives. However, in many African, Asian, and Latin American countries, researching and reporting company environmental performance is limited. This article serves as a contribution to filling the gap by presenting evidence of physical and chemical risk in Nigerian factories. One hundred and three factories with a total of 5,021 workers were studied. One hundred and twenty physical and chemical hazards were identified and the result shows a high number of workers exposed to such hazards. The study also reveals that workers' awareness level of chemical hazards was high. Yet the danger was perceived in behavioral terms, especially by manufacturing firms, which tend to see environmental investment in an increasingly global economy as detrimental to profitability.

  4. PROFIL PROTEIN SUSU DAN PRODUK OLAHANNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Susanti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis kadar protein dan profil protein pada beberapa susu (susu kedelai, susu kambing dan olahannya (yogurt, tofu. Kadar protein diukur dengan metode Lowry, sedangkan profil protein dianalisis menggunakan SDS PAGE. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis secara deskriptif. Kadar protein tertinggi pada sampel yang dianalisis terdapat pada produk yogurt A (579,5 mg/ml, disusul susu kedelai (289,99 mg/ml dan susu kambing (133,1 mg/ml. Analisis profil protein terlihat pita protein dengan mobilitas terendah sampai tertinggi terletak pada berat molekul 14-150 KDa. Pita protein khas yang hanya dimiliki susu kambing adalah pita 150kDa. Sementara pita protein khas yang hanya dimiliki susu kedelai adalah pita 44 kDa dan 55kDa. Pita protein yang khas hanya dimiliki yogurt A (dengan bakteri Lactobacillus bulgaricus dan Streptococcus thermophillus adalah pita 65Da. Semua jenis susu dan olahannya memiliki pita 70kDa, kecuali susu kedelai. Profil protein susu kedelai dan tofu menunjukkan profil protein yang sangat berbeda, namun keduanya memiliki pita 18kDa.This study aimed to observe protein level and profiles on some milks (soy milk, goat's milk and dairy (yogurt, tofu product. Protein content was observed by Lowry method, whereas the protein profiles were analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Data were analyzed descriptively. The highest protein content of the observed sample was in yogurt A products (579,5 mg/ml, followed by soy milk (289,99 mg/ml and goat's milk (133,1 mg/ml. Analysis of protein profiles showed protein bands with lowest to highest mobility lies in the molecular weight of 14-150 KDa. Typical protein band of goat's milk was a 150kDa band. While the typical protein bands of soy milk were 44 kDa and 55kDa band. The typical protein band of yogurt A (with Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophillus bacterium was 65Da. All types of milks and dairy had 70kDa band, except for soy milk. Protein

  5. Evidence for supplemental treatments in androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famenini, Shannon; Goh, Carolyn

    2014-07-01

    Currently, topical minoxidil and finasteride are the only treatments that have been FDA approved for the treatment of female pattern hair loss and androgenetic alopecia. Given the incomplete efficacy and sife effect profile of these medications, some patients utilize alternative treatments to help improve this condition. In this review, we illustrate the scientific evidence underlying the efficacy of these alternative approaches, including biotin, caffeine, melatonin, a marine extract, and zinc.

  6. Anxiety and Mood Clinical Profile following Sport-related Concussion: From Risk Factors to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandel, Natalie; Reynolds, Erin; Cohen, Paul E; Gillie, Brandon L; Kontos, Anthony P

    2017-08-01

    Conceptual models for assessing and treating sport-related concussion (SRC) have evolved from a homogenous approach to include different clinical profiles that reflect the heterogeneous nature of this injury and its effects. There are six identified clinical profiles, or subtypes from SRC, and one such clinical profile is the anxiety/mood profile. Athletes with this profile experience predominant emotional disturbance and anxiety following SRC. The purpose of this targeted review was to present an overview of the empirical evidence to support factors contributing to the anxiety/mood profile, along with methods of evaluation and treatment of this clinical profile following SRC. We discuss the potential underlying mechanisms and risk factors for this clinical profile, describe comprehensive assessments to evaluate concussed athletes with an anxiety/mood clinical profile, and explore behavioral and other interventions for treating these athletes. Although there is limited, but growing empirical evidence for the anxiety/mood clinical profile following SRC, understanding this clinical profile is germane for clinicians who are treating athletes with emotional sequelae after SRC.

  7. Petroleum software profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A profile of twenty-two software packages designed for petroleum exploration and production was provided. Some focussed on the oil and gas engineering industry, and others on mapping systems containing well history files and well data summaries. Still other programs provided accounting systems designed to address the complexities of the oil and gas industry. The software packages reviewed were developed by some of the best-known groups involved in software development for the oil and gas industry, including among others, Geoquest, the Can Tek Group, Applied Terravision Systems Inc., Neotechnology Consultants Ltd., (12) OGCI Software Inc., Oracle Energy, Production Revenue Information Systems Management, Virtual Computing Services Ltd., and geoLogic Systems Ltd

  8. Lebanon: country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfleet, P

    1988-05-01

    A brief profile of Lebanon's economy, people, health, culture and political situation is presented. Lebanon has an estimated 3.5 million people, with a Maronite Christian elite, a Muslim Shiite majority, and Muslim Sunnis and Druze groups. The infant mortality is estimated at 41/1000; literacy is 69% among women and 86% among men; life expectancy was 66 years, 10 years ago. The economy, previously thriving on banking, manufacturing and agriculture, is now decimated, and Lebanon's once active tourist industry, based on elegant facilities in Beirut and neighboring beaches and ski slopes, is the victim of 15 years of civil strife. Israel has invaded, supporting Maronite Christians, Syria has invaded in support Muslim and Druze militias, and Iran has aggressively supported Shiite factions.

  9. Paper, Profile, Petrarch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    , the antique lexicon). By working them out together on the same sheet, the boundaries erode between whittling lines of poetry and carving blocks of stone. Unlike previous attempts to connect Michelangelo's architecture and poetry, this paper focuses on the materiality of the paper as a meeting point between...... the question of what might be discovered by looking closer at these three paper modani (Corpus 536, 538, 539). The verses on the modani are merely fragments and revisions, part of a lineage of multiple and incomplete sources. At the same time, as 1:1 scaled templates, the modani empowered in a unique way...... Michelangelo's well-known propensity toward the fragmentation and re-assembly of the profile line. What emerges is how the paper enabled parallel processes of iteration, cutting and substitution, each operating within rather strict formal boundaries (for the poem, the Petrarchan sonnet; for the architecture...

  10. Three dimensional energy profile:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowsari, Reza; Zerriffi, Hisham

    2011-01-01

    The provision of adequate, reliable, and affordable energy has been considered as a cornerstone of development. More than one-third of the world's population has a very limited access to modern energy services and suffers from its various negative consequences. Researchers have been exploring various dimensions of household energy use in order to design strategies to provide secure access to modern energy services. However, despite more than three decades of effort, our understanding of household energy use patterns is very limited, particularly in the context of rural regions of the developing world. Through this paper, the past and the current trends in the field of energy analysis are investigated. The literature on rural energy and energy transition in developing world has been explored and the factors affecting households' decisions on energy use are listed. The and the factors affecting households' decisions on energy use are listed. The gaps identified in the literature on rural household energy analysis provide a basis for developing an alternative model that can create a more realistic view of household energy use. The three dimensional energy profile is presented as a new conceptual model for assessment of household energy use. This framework acts as a basis for building new theoretical and empirical models of rural household energy use. - Highlights: ► Reviews literature on household energy, energy transitions and decision-making in developing countries. ► Identifies gaps in rural household energy analysis and develops a new conceptual framework. ► The 3-d energy profile provides a holistic view of household energy system characteristics. ► Illustrates the use of the framework for understanding household energy transitions.

  11. Physiologic profile of professional cricketers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, James A; Ford, Paul A

    2010-11-01

    This study aims to provide a physiologic profile of professional cricketers and note positional differences at the start of the 2007/08 competitive season. Fifteen participants (9 bowlers, 6 batsmen) aged 25.0 ± 5.0 years (mean ± SD) took part in this study. Participants (bowlers and batsmen) completed a series of field-based fitness assessments: body composition (sum of 7 skinfolds, 72.5 ± 16.5 and 65.5 ± 19.3 mm, respectively), flexibility (sit and reach 8.1 ± 10.3 and 6.0 ± 6.2 cm, respectively), predicted maximal oxygen uptake (multistage shuttle run, 54.1 ± 2.8 and 56.1 ± 4.5 ml-1·kg-1·min-1, respectively), upper- (medicine ball throw, 7.7 ± 0.6 and 7.0 ± 0.1 m, respectively) and lower-body strength (countermovement jump, 45.7 ± 5.8 and 43.9 ± 4.1 cm, respectively), speed (sprint 17.7 m, 2.76 ± 0.6 and 2.77 ± 0.1 s, respectively), and explosive power (repeated jump, 31.0 ± 2.0 and 34.1 ± 4.8 cm, respectively). The data provided the physical fitness profile for each player, which, compared with normative data, identified that this cohort of professional cricketers had some superior fitness parameters compared with the general population, and where applicable, were comparable with other professional athletes. In addition, after effect size calculations, the results showed that some physical fitness differences existed between playing positions. Cricket professionals possess a superior level of physical fitness and strength, and conditioning coaches should seek to progress these physical parameters and further identify position-specific physical requirements to progress the modern game.

  12. Physical Measurement Profile at Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical Measurement Profile at Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center, ... hip circumference in under 35 years and body mass index in under 45 year age groups were ... Comparison with findings in other parts of the world showed that Ethiopians ...

  13. Competency profile of Fitness Instructor

    OpenAIRE

    Peterová, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Title: COMPETENCY PROFILE OF FITNESS INSTRUCTOR Objectives: The aim of this work is to find out competencies of fitness instructor and make a competency profile, containing competencies, which are important for excellent fitness instructor. Methods: I applied the method of interview and the method of research in my thesis. The interview was used to make a list of competencies of fitness instructor. The research was applied in the final part of making competency profile, for an attestation of ...

  14. Institutional Profiles: Some Strategic Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans van Vught

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we argue that both internal and external pressures and conditions urge contemporary higher education institutions to carefully think through their institutional profiles positions in domestic and global higher education contexts. We subsequently analyse strategic positioning from the strategic management literature and offer four tools — mapping, multi-dimensional ranking, benchmarking and degree profiling — to assist higher education institutions in their profiling and positioning strategies.

  15. Anxiety and oppositional behavior profiles among youth with selective mutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diliberto, Rachele A; Kearney, Christopher A

    2016-01-01

    Selective mutism (SM) is a debilitating condition in which a child does not speak in social situations where speech is expected. The clinical conceptualization of SM has been debated historically, with evidence pointing partly to anxious and oppositional behavior profiles. Behavioral characteristics were examined in a clinical sample of 57 youth formally diagnosed with selective mutism. Parents rated children across internalizing and externalizing behaviors on the Child Behavior Checklist. Eighteen highly rated items were subjected to exploratory and then confirmatory factor analysis. Anxiety and oppositional behavior factors were derived. The anxious behavior profile was associated with social anxiety disorder symptoms, social problems, and aggressive behaviors but not oppositional defiant disorder symptoms. The oppositional behavior profile was associated with aggressive behaviors, oppositional defiant disorder symptoms, social problems, and inversely to social anxiety disorder symptoms. Results are consistent with emerging research regarding subgroups of children with SM. Behavior profiles are discussed as well with respect to assessment and treatment implications. Readers will learn about the nature of children with selective mutism as well as behaviors that differentiate anxious and oppositional behavior profiles. Items that comprise anxious and oppositional behavior profiles are presented. These item profiles may have ramifications for assessment and treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [The profile of neonaticide mothers in legal expertise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellut, N; Simmat-Durand, L; Tursz, A

    2013-10-01

    relational foundations were insecure. The "classic" profile of the neonaticidal mother as being young, single, and primiparous is not confirmed in this study. Recent American and European studies reach similar conclusions. More than half of these mothers already had other children; more than half were living with a partner. Nor did these mothers have an evident psychopathological profile, and even less so a psychopathic profile. This study suggests a "psycho-relational" profile for the neonaticidal mother: immature, affectively dependent, expressing herself very little, and experiencing considerable affective isolation. These neonaticidal mothers did not present any specific socio-demographic or evident psychopathological profile. The study nevertheless enabled definition of a "psycho-relational" profile. Copyright © 2012 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Evidence and evidence gaps - an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, Gabriele; Löhler, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Medical treatment requires the implementation of existing evidence in the decision making process in order to be able to find the best possible diagnostic, therapeutic or prognostic measure for the individual patient based on the physician's own expertise. Clinical trials form the evidence base and ideally, their results are assembled, analyzed, summarized, and made available in systematic review articles. Beside planning, conducting, and evaluating clinical trials in conformity with GCP (good clinical practice), it is essential that all results of conducted studies are publicly available in order to avoid publication bias. This includes also the public registration of planned and cancelled trials. History: During the last 25 years, evidence-based medicine became increasingly important in medical care and research. It is closely associated with the names of Archibald Cochrane and David Sackett. About 15 years ago, the Deutsche Cochrane Zentrum (Cochrane Germany) and the Deutsche Netzwerk Evidenzbasierte Medizin e.V. (German Network for Evidence-based Medicine, DNEbM) were founded in Germany. In the International Cochrane Collaboration, clinicians and methodologists come together on an interdisciplinary level to further develop methods of evidence-based medicine and to discuss the topics of evidence generation and processing as well as knowledge transfer. Problem: Evidence is particularly important for physicians in the process of decision making, however, at the same time it is the base of a scientific proof of benefit for the patient and finally for the payers in health care. The closure of evidence gaps requires enormously high staff and financial resources, significant organizational efforts, and it is only successful when clinical and methodical expertise as well as specific knowledge in the field of clinical research are included. On the other hand, the knowledge has to be transferred into practice. For this purpose, practice guidelines, meetings

  18. [Evidence and Evidence Gaps - an Introduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, G; Löhler, J

    2016-04-01

    Treating patients requires the inclusion of existing evidence in any health care decision, to be able to choose the best diagnosis or treatment measure or to make valid prognosis statements for a particular patient in consideration of the physician's own expertise.The basis are clinical trials, the results of which are ideally gathered in systematic reviews, rated, summarized and published. In addition to the GCP (Good Clinical Practice)-compliant planning, conducting and analysis of clinical studies it is essential, that all study results are made publicly available, in order to avoid publication bias. This includes the public registration of planned and discontinued trials. In the last 25 years, the evidence-based medicine (EbM) has increasingly found its way into clinical practice and research. Here EbM is closely associated with the names Archibald Cochrane and David Sackett. In Germany, both the German Cochrane Centre (DCZ) and the network of evidence-based medicine (DNEbM) were established approximately 15 years ago. In the international Cochrane Collaboration clinicians and other scientists like statisticians interdisciplinary work side by side to develop the methods of evidence-based medicine and to address the topics of evidence generation and processing as well as the transfer of knowledge. Challenge: Existing evidence primarily serves doctors to support their decision-making, but is also the basis for providing scientific proof for a health care intervention's benefit to patients and ultimately payers/health insurances. The closure of existing evidence gaps requires substantial human and financial resources, a complex organizational structure and can only succeed with the involvement of clinical and methodological expertise and specific knowledge in the field of clinical research. In addition, the knowledge must be transferred into practice, using journals, guidelines, conferences, databases, information portals with processed evidence and not least the

  19. Showing that the race model inequality is not violated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Riehl, Verena; Blurton, Steven Paul

    2012-01-01

    important being race models and coactivation models. Redundancy gains consistent with the race model have an upper limit, however, which is given by the well-known race model inequality (Miller, 1982). A number of statistical tests have been proposed for testing the race model inequality in single...... participants and groups of participants. All of these tests use the race model as the null hypothesis, and rejection of the null hypothesis is considered evidence in favor of coactivation. We introduce a statistical test in which the race model prediction is the alternative hypothesis. This test controls...

  20. GAUSSIAN RANDOM FIELD: PHYSICAL ORIGIN OF SERSIC PROFILES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cen, Renyue

    2014-01-01

    While the Sersic profile family provides adequate fits for the surface brightness profiles of observed galaxies, its physical origin is unknown. We show that if the cosmological density field is seeded by random Gaussian fluctuations, as in the standard cold dark matter model, galaxies with steep central profiles have simultaneously extended envelopes of shallow profiles in the outskirts, whereas galaxies with shallow central profiles are accompanied by steep density profiles in the outskirts. These properties are in accord with those of the Sersic profile family. Moreover, galaxies with steep central profiles form their central regions in smaller denser subunits that possibly merge subsequently, which naturally leads to the formation of bulges. In contrast, galaxies with shallow central profiles form their central regions in a coherent fashion without significant substructure, a necessary condition for disk galaxy formation. Thus, the scenario is self-consistent with respect to the correlation between observed galaxy morphology and the Sersic index. We further predict that clusters of galaxies should display a similar trend, which should be verifiable observationally

  1. Late quarternary pollen profile from the Transvaal Highveld, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, L.; Vogel, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Fossil pollen was studied in a core of spring deposits from the southern Transvaal grassland. The profile, which consists of a lower clay and upper peat section, was dated by means of nine radiocarbon age determinations, some of which show anomalous values. Evidence of small root structures, especially in the upper levels of the clayey unit, suggests that the 14 C determinations may have been influenced by the growth of vegetation younger than the clay. The pollen content of the clay shows that the vegetation of the early phase, which is either of a Holocene or of a Late Glacial age, corresponds to open grassland, although the composition is different from that of the present. The climatic conditions of this interval were not markedly different from those of the present day. Slightly drier conditions followed while the vegetation remained essentially open veld. A temporary expansion of bushveld elements over the northern parts of the highveld plateau occurred around 6 580 plus minus 70 B.P. and probably can be attributed to relatively warm temperatures and favourable moisture conditions

  2. Motivational Profiles and Motivation for Lifelong Learning of Medical Specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Burgt, Stéphanie M E; Kusurkar, Rashmi A; Wilschut, Janneke A; Tjin A Tsoi, Sharon L N M; Croiset, Gerda; Peerdeman, Saskia M

    2018-05-22

    Medical specialists face the challenge of maintaining their knowledge and skills and continuing professional development, that is, lifelong learning. Motivation may play an integral role in many of the challenges facing the physician workforce today including maintenance of a high performance. The aim of this study was to determine whether medical specialists show different motivational profiles and if these profiles predict differences in motivation for lifelong learning. An online questionnaire was sent to every medical specialist working in five hospitals in the Netherlands. The questionnaire included the validated Multidimensional Work Motivation Scale and the Jefferson Scale of Physician Lifelong Learning together with background questions like age, gender, and type of hospital. Respondents were grouped into different motivational profiles by using a two-step clustering approach. Four motivational profiles were identified: (1) HAMC profile (for High Autonomous and Moderate Controlled motivation), (2) MAMC profile (for Moderate Autonomous and Moderate Controlled motivation), (3) MALC profile (for Moderate Autonomous and Low Controlled motivation), and (4) HALC profile (for High Autonomous and Low Controlled motivation). Most of the female specialists that work in an academic hospital and specialists with a surgical specialty were represented in the HALC profile. Four motivational profiles were found among medical specialists, differing in gender, experience and type of specialization. The profiles are based on the combination of autonomous motivation (AM) and controlled motivation (CM) in the specialists. The profiles that have a high score on autonomous motivation have a positive association with lifelong learning.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work

  3. Uudised : Otsman taas Riias show'l. Rokkstaarist ministriks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Drag-kabareeartist Erkki Otsman esineb detsembris Riias "Sapnu Fabrikas" toimuval jõulu-show'l. Austraalia rokkansambli Midnight Oil endine laulja Peter Garrett nimetati valitsuse keskkonnaministriks

  4. Sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Lorena Cuquel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars grown in an experimental orchard located in the city of Lapa (PR, Brazil in two seasons. The peach cultivars analyzed were Aurora I, Chimarrita, Chiripá, Coral, Eldorado, Granada, Leonense, Maciel, Marli, Premier, and Vanguarda. The sensory analysis was performed by previously trained panelists; 20 of them in the first season and 10 in the second season. The sensory evaluation was performed using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis, in which the following attributes were measured: appearance, aroma, flesh color, flesh firmness, flavor, and juiciness. The results showed preference for sweet, soft, and juicy fruits. Chimarrita, Chiripá, and Coral fruits showed better sensorial performance than the other peach cultivars. It was also verified that the analysis of the attributes aroma, flesh firmness, and flavor is enough for performing the sensory profile of peach fruits for in natura consumption.

  5. USGIN ISO metadata profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    The USGIN project has drafted and is using a specification for use of ISO 19115/19/39 metadata, recommendations for simple metadata content, and a proposal for a URI scheme to identify resources using resolvable http URI's(see http://lab.usgin.org/usgin-profiles). The principal target use case is a catalog in which resources can be registered and described by data providers for discovery by users. We are currently using the ESRI Geoportal (Open Source), with configuration files for the USGIN profile. The metadata offered by the catalog must provide sufficient content to guide search engines to locate requested resources, to describe the resource content, provenance, and quality so users can determine if the resource will serve for intended usage, and finally to enable human users and sofware clients to obtain or access the resource. In order to achieve an operational federated catalog system, provisions in the ISO specification must be restricted and usage clarified to reduce the heterogeneity of 'standard' metadata and service implementations such that a single client can search against different catalogs, and the metadata returned by catalogs can be parsed reliably to locate required information. Usage of the complex ISO 19139 XML schema allows for a great deal of structured metadata content, but the heterogenity in approaches to content encoding has hampered development of sophisticated client software that can take advantage of the rich metadata; the lack of such clients in turn reduces motivation for metadata producers to produce content-rich metadata. If the only significant use of the detailed, structured metadata is to format into text for people to read, then the detailed information could be put in free text elements and be just as useful. In order for complex metadata encoding and content to be useful, there must be clear and unambiguous conventions on the encoding that are utilized by the community that wishes to take advantage of advanced metadata

  6. Ethnosocial profile of Tuvans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriya S. Kan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the ethnosocial profile of contemporary Tuvans, with a focus on the dynamics of population change, human environment, self-consciousness, interethnic relations and language command. Our study was based on the official data of the Federal Census and the current statistics we obtained from Tuva territorial branch of the Federal State Statistics Service, as well as on the outcomes of the opinion polls held by a team lead by the author in 2008-2015. Due to traditionally high birth rate, the Tuvan population of Russia continues to grow (243422 in 2002, 263934 in 2010. This is also true for their share in the total population of Russia (0.17% in 2002, 0.19% in 2010. The main features of Tuvan human environment are their compact settlement within the Republic of Tuva (249299, or 95% of overall population, as well as living largely in a monoethnic environment, low level of ethnocultural and linguistic diversity and prevalence of rural population. The share of indigenous population in the region has been steadily increasing (64% in 1989, 77% in 2002, 82% in 2002, while those of other groups have been decreasing over time. The net migration remains negative due to ethnic Russians leaving the socially and economically dysfunctional region. Tuvans account for 92% of rural population, and 73% of the urban. The rural-urban balance in Tuva is shifting towards the latter slower than in the national average. Interethnic relations in the region can be described as stable, with a slight degree of tension. Problems mainly happen on the level of day-to-day communication. The sub-ethnicity of Tojin Tuvans is decreasing in numbers (4435 people in 2002, and 1856 in 2010. We believe the reason lies in the change of self-consciousness which accompanied the complete abandonment of nomadic lifestyle. In the article, we also define and describe the factors which contribute to the reproduction of Tuvan ethnicity, including the policy of the regional

  7. Evidence for Rare Capsular Switching in Streptococcus agalactiae▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Elisabete Raquel; Melo-Cristino, José; Ramirez, Mário

    2010-01-01

    The polysaccharide capsule is a major antigenic factor in Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B streptococcus [GBS]). Previous observations suggest that exchange of capsular loci is likely to occur rather frequently in GBS, even though GBS is not known to be naturally transformable. We sought to identify and characterize putative capsular switching events, by means of a combination of phenotypic and genotypic methods, including pulsed-field gel electrophoretic profiling, multilocus sequence typing, and surface protein and pilus gene profiling. We show that capsular switching by horizontal gene transfer is not as frequent as previously suggested. Serotyping errors may be the main reason behind the overestimation of capsule switching, since phenotypic techniques are prone to errors of interpretation. The identified putative capsular transformants involved the acquisition of the entire capsular locus and were not restricted to the serotype-specific central genes, the previously suggested main mechanism underlying capsular switching. Our data, while questioning the frequency of capsular switching, provide clear evidence for in vivo capsular transformation in S. agalactiae, which may be of critical importance in planning future vaccination strategies against this pathogen. PMID:20023016

  8. Metabolite Profiling of Peppers of Various Colors Reveals Relationships Between Tocopherol, Carotenoid, and Phytosterol Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Jin; Choi, Jaehyuk; Kim, Kil Won; Ahn, Soon Kil; Ha, Sun-Hwa; Choi, Yongsoo; Park, Nam Il; Kim, Jae Kwang

    2017-12-01

    Peppers are widely consumed in Korea; the varietal development of peppers with increased content of beneficial plant metabolites is, therefore, of considerable interest. This requires a comprehensive understanding of the metabolic profile of pepper plants and the factors affecting this profile. To this end, we determined the content of various metabolites, such as hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds, phenolic acids, carotenoids, and capsaicinoids in peppers of various colors (green, red, pale green, and violet peppers) and in a high-pungency (green) pepper. We also performed principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson's correlation analysis, and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) to determine the relationships among these metabolites in peppers. PCA results indicated no significant variances among the 3 sample replicates. The HCA showed correlations between the metabolites resulting from common or closely linked biosynthesis pathways. Our results showed that carotenoids correlated positively with tocopherols and negatively with phytosterols; our findings also indicated a close relationship between the methylerythritol 4-phosphate and mevalonic acid biosynthesis pathways, providing evidence in favor of an earlier hypothesis regarding crosstalk across the chloroplast membrane. We, thus, demonstrate that metabolic profiling combined with multivariate analysis is a useful tool for analyzing metabolic networks. A total of 71 metabolites were measured in 5 peppers of different colors. The metabolic profiling with multivariate analysis revealed that tocopherol content had a positive correlation with the carotenoid content and a negative correlation with the phytosterol content. The results of this study may help in breeding programs to produce new germplasm with enhanced nutritional quality. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Entertaining politics, seriously?! : How talk show formats blur conceptual boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schohaus, Birte

    2017-01-01

    What happens behind the scenes of a talk show? Why do some politicians seem to appear on every show while others are hardly ever seen? Birte Schohaus conducted a multi-layered research in which she conducted interviews with journalists, producers, PR advisors and (former) politicians and combined

  10. Effects of TV Crime Shows on Behavioural Development of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mudassar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Television crime dramas and shows are very popular all over the world. This popularity is not bound to a certain age group, rather all the TV viewers like these shows very much. Like other countries, dozens of TV channels are telecasting these crime shows in Pakistan. Furthermore, few of the channels telecast crime shows at prime time which attests the popularity of such genre. Some of the media contents behave in morally disputed ways. The crime depictions as re-enactments of TV crime shows are questionable in the field of research signifying diverse cultural contexts. A large number of people are habitual to watch these shows, which may probably come out with negative behavioural outcomes. Especially the children who are at their behavioural developmental phase; are more susceptible to adopt negative behavioural leanings. In this research effort, introduction and detail of TV crime shows in Pakistan are provided, the literature concerning “media as risk factor“ in children development is discussed, and relevant theories inferences are deliberated.it was found that media has powerful role in behaviour formulating of children and violence media portrayal (TV crime shows may appear with grave concerns. Previous scientific literature was reviewed to find and discuss the problem in hand. In the research effort, the literature review provides research propositions to explore further dimensions to TV crime shows’ effects and possible negative or positive behavioural outcomes in children behaviour.

  11. The Presentation of Science in Everyday Life: The Science Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermeyer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper constitutes a case-study of the "science show" model of public engagement employed by a company of science communicators focused on the popularization of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subject disciplines with learner constituencies. It examines the potential of the science show to foster the interest…

  12. "The Daily Show with Jon Stewart": Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    Comedy Central's popular program "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is the best critical media literacy program on television, and it can be used in valuable ways in the classroom as part of a media literacy pedagogy. This Media Literacy column provides an overview of the show and its accompanying website and considers ways it might be used in the…

  13. The Daily Show with Jon Stewart: Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is one of the best critical literacy programs on television, and in this Media Literacy column the author suggests ways that teachers can use video clips from the show in their classrooms. (For Part 1, see EJ784683.)

  14. 16 CFR 5.57 - Order to show cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Order to show cause. 5.57 Section 5.57 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Disciplinary Actions Concerning Postemployment Conflict of Interest § 5.57 Order to show cause. (a...

  15. Personality profiles in patients with eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Tomotake, Masahito; Ohmori, Tetsuro

    2002-01-01

    The present review focused on the personality profiles of patients with eating disorders. Studies using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorder showed high rates of diagnostic co-occurrence between eating disorders and personality disorders. The most commonly observed were histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, dependent and borderline personality disorders. Studies using the Cloninger’s personality theory suggested that high Harm Avoidance might be relevant ...

  16. 1994 energy balances and electricity profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This is the eighth issue of Energy Balances and Electricity Profiles published by the Statistics Division of the United Nations Secretariat. Like previous issues, this volume presents energy data for selected countries and areas in a format which shows the overall picture of energy production, conversion and consumption for each fuel utilized in the country. Such a publication is useful in assessing and analyzing production and consumption patterns in detail on an internationally comparable basis

  17. 1992 energy balances and electricity profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This is the seventh issue of Energy Balances and Electricity Profiles published by the Statistical Division of the United Nations Secretariat. Like previous issues, this volume presents energy data for selected developing countries and areas in a format which shows the overall picture of energy production, conversion and consumption for each fuel utilised in the country. Such a publication is useful in assessing and analyzing production and consumption patterns in detail on an internationally comparable basis

  18. Geographic profiling as a novel spatial tool for targeting infectious disease control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuller Douglas O

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geographic profiling is a statistical tool originally developed in criminology to prioritise large lists of suspects in cases of serial crime. Here, we use two data sets - one historical and one modern - to show how it can be used to locate the sources of infectious disease. Results First, we re-analyse data from a classic epidemiological study, the 1854 London cholera outbreak. Using 321 disease sites as input, we evaluate the locations of 13 neighbourhood water pumps. The Broad Street pump - the outbreak's source- ranks first, situated in the top 0.2% of the geoprofile. We extend our study with an analysis of reported malaria cases in Cairo, Egypt, using 139 disease case locations to rank 59 mosquitogenic local water sources, seven of which tested positive for the vector Anopheles sergentii. Geographic profiling ranks six of these seven sites in positions 1-6, all in the top 2% of the geoprofile. In both analyses the method outperformed other measures of spatial central tendency. Conclusions We suggest that geographic profiling could form a useful component of integrated control strategies relating to a wide variety of infectious diseases, since evidence-based targeting of interventions is more efficient, environmentally friendly and cost-effective than untargeted intervention.

  19. Global gene expression profiling of individual human oocytes and embryos demonstrates heterogeneity in early development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Shaw

    Full Text Available Early development in humans is characterised by low and variable embryonic viability, reflected in low fecundity and high rates of miscarriage, relative to other mammals. Data from assisted reproduction programmes provides additional evidence that this is largely mediated at the level of embryonic competence and is highly heterogeneous among embryos. Understanding the basis of this heterogeneity has important implications in a number of areas including: the regulation of early human development, disorders of pregnancy, assisted reproduction programmes, the long term health of children which may be programmed in early development, and the molecular basis of pluripotency in human stem cell populations. We have therefore investigated global gene expression profiles using polyAPCR amplification and microarray technology applied to individual human oocytes and 4-cell and blastocyst stage embryos. In order to explore the basis of any variability in detail, each developmental stage is replicated in triplicate. Our data show that although transcript profiles are highly stage-specific, within each stage they are relatively variable. We describe expression of a number of gene families and pathways including apoptosis, cell cycle and amino acid metabolism, which are variably expressed and may be reflective of embryonic developmental competence. Overall, our data suggest that heterogeneity in human embryo developmental competence is reflected in global transcript profiles, and that the vast majority of existing human embryo gene expression data based on pooled oocytes and embryos need to be reinterpreted.

  20. [Profile of silodosin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montorsi, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Silodosin is a highly selective alpha1A-adrenoceptor antagonist approved for the treatment of the signs and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Its clinical pharmacology profile offers a number of advantages, including uroselectivity, once-daily (QD) dosing, a standard dose of 8 mg QD that does not need to be adjusted according to age, and the feasibility of concomitant treatment with phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors and antihypertensive agents. Three phase 3 double-blind, randomised trials using the dosage regimen of 8 mg QD in > 800 patients have shown that silodosin is significantly more effective than placebo (p nocturia (p = 0.03). Safety data collected in 1581 patients exposed to chronic treatment with silodosin 8 mg QD have shown that the drug is safe and well tolerated. As was to be expected with a uroselective compound, cardiovascular effects have been minimal. The most common adverse reaction is "retrograde ejaculation" (anejaculation), which led to treatment discontinuation in only 3.9% of patients. The rare, drug class-related safety issue of intraocular floppy iris syndrome can be satisfactorily managed by warning patients simply to inform their ophthalmologist that they are or were on treatment with an alpha1-adrenoceptor blocker.

  1. The worker profile autocontrolled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Omar Delgado Mora

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This document is part of two deliveries. In this first paper is to make an approach to the concept of self-control from the very beginning with Sakichi Toyoda, founder of what the industry Toyota Motor Company, additionally taking some excerpts of the concept issued by teachers and the psychologist Henry Murray, a professor at the university Harvard precursor test TAT personality test creator, pen applied world wide by psychologists David McCllelan, also a psychologist and a pioneer in the study of human needs and the concept of competence; Professor Jeffrey Pfeffer of Stanford University organizational behavior and theory, Frederick Hertzberg, Psychologist and strong influential in business management, Kronfly Cruz, lawyer and investigator of social and administrative sciences, Charles Perrow, a sociologist at Yale University and Stanford , who studies the impact of large organizations in society, among others. The study reflects the need to meet organizational objectives related to the physicochemical characteristics of the finished product in a plant of the company’s main beers in the country. In this paper, we intend to make an approximation of worker self -controlled, which when compared with the powers, generic, specific and technical area established by the brewery, will allow generating a methodology to adjust these competencies and to obtain the target profile drawn. This comparison and development of the methodology proposed is the subject of the second work planned.

  2. A channel profile analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobbur, S.G.

    1983-01-01

    It is well understood that due to the wide band noise present in a nuclear analog-to-digital converter, events at the boundaries of adjacent channels are shared. It is a difficult and laborious process to exactly find out the shape of the channels at the boundaries. A simple scheme has been developed for the direct display of channel shape of any type of ADC on a cathode ray oscilliscope display. This has been accomplished by sequentially incrementing the reference voltage of a precision pulse generator by a fraction of a channel and storing ADC data in alternative memory locations of a multichannel pulse height analyser. Alternative channels are needed due to the sharing at the boundaries of channels. In the flat region of the profile alternate memory locations are channels with zero counts and channels with the full scale counts. At the boundaries all memory locations will have counts. The shape of this is a direct display of the channel boundaries. (orig.)

  3. GANIL beam profile detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribouillard, C.

    1997-01-01

    In the design phase of GANIL which started in 1977, one of the priorities of the project management was equipping the beamlines with a fast and efficient system for visualizing the beam position, thus making possible adjustment of the beam transport lines optics and facilitating beam control. The implantation of some thirty detectors was foreseen in the initial design. The assembly of installed detectors (around 190) proves the advantages of these detectors for displaying all the beams extracted from GANIL: transfer and transport lines, beam extracted from SISSI, very high intensity beam, secondary ion beams from the production target of the LISE and SPEG spectrometers, different SPIRAL project lines. All of these detectors are based on standard characteristics: - standard flange diameter (DN 160) with a standard booster for all the sensors; - identical analog electronics for all the detectors, with networking; - unique display system. The new micro-channel plate non-interceptive detectors (beam profile and ion packet lengths) make possible in-line control of the beam quality and accelerator stability. (author)

  4. Improved density profile measurements in the C-2U advanced beam-driven Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beall, M., E-mail: mbeall@trialphaenergy.com; Deng, B. H.; Gota, H. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    In the prior C-2 experiment, electron density was measured using a two-color 6-chord CO{sub 2}/HeNe interferometer. Analysis shows that high-frequency common mode phase noise can be reduced by a factor of 3 by constructing a reference chord. In the system upgrade from C-2 to C-2U a 4-chord far-infrared laser interferometer was developed, which demonstrated superior sensitivity (1 × 10{sup 16} m{sup −2} at >1 MHz bandwidth) and solved the under spatial sampling issue of the C-2 interferometer system. Improved density-profile measurement results are presented in this paper, including evidence of fast-ion modified density profile and stabilization of the n = 1 plasma wobble mode.

  5. Natural tracer profiles across argillaceous formations: the Claytrac project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurek, M.; Alt-Epping, P.; Gimi, Th.; Niklaus Waber, H.; Bath, A.; Gimmi, Th.

    2009-01-01

    Disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in engineered facilities, or repositories, located deep underground in suitable geological formations is being developed worldwide as the reference solution to protect humans and the environment both now and in the future. An important aspect of assessing the long-term safety of deep geological disposal is developing a comprehensive understanding of the geological environment in order to define the initial conditions for the disposal system as well as to provide a sound scientific basis for projecting its future evolution. The transport pathways and mechanisms by which contaminants could migrate in the surrounding host rock are key elements in any safety case. Relevant experiments in laboratories or underground test facilities can provide important information, but the challenge remains in being able to extrapolate the results to the spatial and temporal scales required for performance assessment, which are typically tens to hundreds of metres and from thousands to beyond a million years into the future. Profiles of natural tracers dissolved in pore water of argillaceous rock formations can be considered as large-scale and long-term natural experiments which enable the transport properties to be characterised. The CLAYTRAC Project on Natural Tracer Profiles Across Argillaceous Formations was established by the NEA Clay Club to evaluate the relevance of natural tracer data in understanding past geological evolution and in confirming dominant transport processes. Data were analysed for nine sites to support scientific understanding and development of geological disposal. The outcomes of the project show that, for the sites and clay-rich formations that were studied, there is strong evidence that solute transport is controlled mainly by diffusion. The results can improve site understanding and performance assessment in the context of deep geological disposal and have the potential to be applied to other

  6. Steroid profiling in doping analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, Daniël Henri van de

    2001-01-01

    Profiling androgens in urine samples is used in doping analysis for the detection of abused steroids of endogenous origin. These profiling techniques were originally developed for the analysis of testosterone, mostly by means of the ratio of testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E ratio). A study was

  7. Commitment Profiles and Employee Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Laura; Vandenberghe, Christian; Vandenberg, Robert; Bentein, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    We examined how affective (AC), normative (NC), perceived sacrifice (PS), and few alternatives (FA) commitments combine to form profiles and determine turnover intention and turnover. We theorized that three mechanisms account for how profiles operate, i.e., the degree to which membership is internally regulated, the perceived desirability and…

  8. Personal summarization from profile networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongqing WANG; Shoushan LI; Guodong ZHOU

    2017-01-01

    Personal profile information on social media like Linkedln.com and Facebook.com is at the core of many interesting applications,such as talent recommendation and contextual advertising.However,personal profiles usually lack consistent organization confronted with the large amount of available information.Therefore,it is always a challenge for people to quickly find desired information from them.In this paper,we address the task of personal profile summarization by leveraging both textual information and social connection information in social networks from both unsupervised and supervised learning paradigms.Here,using social connection information is motivated by the intuition that people with similar academic,business or social background (e.g.,comajor,co-university,and co-corporation) tend to have similar experiences and should have similar summaries.For unsupervised learning,we propose a collective ranking approach,called SocialRank,to combine textual information in an individual profile and social context information from relevant profiles in generating a personal profile summary.For supervised learning,we propose a collective factor graph model,called CoFG,to summarize personal profiles with local textual attribute functions and social connection factors.Extensive evaluation on a large dataset from LinkedIn.com demonstrates the usefulness of social connection information in personal profile summarization and the effectiveness of our proposed unsupervised and supervised learning approaches.

  9. Steel Energy and Environmental Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2000-08-01

    Major steelmaking processes (from ironmaking through fabrication and forming) and their associated energy requirements have been profiled in this 2001 report (PDF 582 KB). This profile by Energetics, Inc. also describes the waste streams generated by each process and estimates annual emissions of CO2 and criteria pollutants.

  10. Cognitive profile of students who enter higher education with an indication of dyslexia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike Callens

    Full Text Available For languages other than English there is a lack of empirical evidence about the cognitive profile of students entering higher education with a diagnosis of dyslexia. To obtain such evidence, we compared a group of 100 Dutch-speaking students diagnosed with dyslexia with a control group of 100 students without learning disabilities. Our study showed selective deficits in reading and writing (effect sizes for accuracy between d = 1 and d = 2, arithmetic (d≈1, and phonological processing (d>0.7. Except for spelling, these deficits were larger for speed related measures than for accuracy related measures. Students with dyslexia also performed slightly inferior on the KAIT tests of crystallized intelligence, due to the retrieval of verbal information from long-term memory. No significant differences were observed in the KAIT tests of fluid intelligence. The profile we obtained agrees with a recent meta-analysis of English findings suggesting that it generalizes to all alphabetic languages. Implications for special arrangements for students with dyslexia in higher education are outlined.

  11. Davedan Show Di Amphi Theatre Nusa Dua Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Ruastiti

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini disusun dari hasil penelitian yang bertujuan untuk dapat memahami pertunjukan Davedan Show di Amphi Theatre Nusa Dua Bali. Penelitian ini dilakukan karena adanya ketimpangan antara asumsi dan kenyataan di lapangan. Pada umumnya wisatawan yang datang ke Bali hanya senang dan antusias menonton seni pertunjukan pariwisata berbasis seni budaya lokal saja. Tetapi kenyataan ini berbeda. Walaupun Davedan Show tidak dibangun dari seni budaya lokal saja, tetapi kenyataannya wisatawan sangat senang menonton pertunjukan tersebut. Pertanyaannya: bagaimanakah bentuk pertunjukan Davedan Show tersebut?; mengapa wisatawan senang menonton pertunjukan itu?; apa implikasinya bagi pelaku, masyarakat, dan industri pariwisata di Nusa Dua, Bali?. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian kualitatif, khususnya implementatif partisipatoris yang mengutamakan kerjasama antara periset dengan para informan terkait. Sumber data penelitian ini adalah pertunjukan Davedan itu sendiri, pihak manajemen, para penari, penonton, hasil-hasil penelitian yang telah ada sebelumnya. Seluruh data yang telah dikumpulkan dengan teknik observasi, wawancara, FGD, dan studi kepustakaan itu dianalisis secara kritis dengan menggunakan teori estetika postmodern, teori praktik, dan teori relasi kuasa pengetahuan. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa: (1 Davedan Show disajikan dalam bentuk oratorium. Hal itu dapat dilihat dari cara penyajian, koreografi, dan iringan pertunjukannya. Davedan Show yang menampilkan tema Treasure of The Archipelago, membuka gerbang petualangan baru itu diiringi musik rekaman etnik Nusantara secara medley, berkelanjutan dengan struktur pertunjukan: seni budaya Bali, Sumatra, Sunda, Solo, Kalimantan, dan seni budaya Papua; (2 Davedan Show banyak diminati wisatawan manca negara karena penciptaan pertunjukan itu dilatari oleh ideologi pasar, ideologi estetika, dan ideologi budaya Nusantara; (3 Hingga kini Davedan Show berkembang secara berkelanjutan di Nusa Dua

  12. THE ACS FORNAX CLUSTER SURVEY. IV. DEPROJECTION OF THE SURFACE BRIGHTNESS PROFILES OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN THE VIRGO AND FORNAX CLUSTERS: INVESTIGATING THE 'CORE/POWER-LAW DICHOTOMY'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, Lisa; Ferrarese, Laura; Cote, Patrick; Blakeslee, John P.; Chen, Chin-Wei; Jordan, Andres; Infante, Leopoldo; Peng, Eric; Mei, Simona; Tonry, John L.; West, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Although early observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) pointed to a sharp dichotomy among early-type galaxies in terms of the logarithmic slope γ' of their central surface brightness profiles, several studies in the past few years have called this finding into question. In particular, recent imaging surveys of 143 early-type galaxies belonging to the Virgo and Fornax Clusters using the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on board HST have not found a dichotomy in γ', but instead a systematic progression from central luminosity deficit to excess relative to the inward extrapolation of the best-fitting global Sersic model. Given that earlier studies also found that the dichotomy persisted when analyzing the deprojected density profile slopes, we investigate the distribution of the three-dimensional luminosity density profiles of the ACS Virgo and Fornax Cluster Survey galaxies. Having fitted the surface brightness profiles with modified Sersic models, we then deproject the galaxies using an Abel integral and measure the inner slopes γ 3D of the resulting luminosity density profiles at various fractions of the effective radius R e . We find no evidence of a dichotomy, but rather, a continuous variation in the central luminosity profiles as a function of galaxy magnitude. We introduce a parameter, Δ 3D , that measures the central deviation of the deprojected luminosity profiles from the global Sersic fit, showing that this parameter varies smoothly and systematically along the luminosity function.

  13. QLab 3 show control projects for live performances & installations

    CERN Document Server

    Hopgood, Jeromy

    2013-01-01

    Used from Broadway to Britain's West End, QLab software is the tool of choice for many of the world's most prominent sound, projection, and integrated media designers. QLab 3 Show Control: Projects for Live Performances & Installations is a project-based book on QLab software covering sound, video, and show control. With information on both sound and video system basics and the more advanced functions of QLab such as MIDI show control, new OSC capabilities, networking, video effects, and microphone integration, each chapter's specific projects will allow you to learn the software's capabilitie

  14. marker development for two novel rice genes showing differential ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-08-19

    Aug 19, 2014 ... School of Crop Improvement, College of PostGraduate Studies, Central Agricultural University, ... from the root transcriptome data for tolerance to low P. .... Values show a representative result of three independent experiments ...

  15. Do men and women show love differently in marriage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Elizabeth A; Bredow, Carrie A; Huston, Ted L

    2012-11-01

    In Western societies, women are considered more adept than men at expressing love in romantic relationships. Although scholars have argued that this view of love gives short shrift to men's ways of showing love (e.g., Cancian, 1986; Noller, 1996), the widely embraced premise that men and women "love differently" has rarely been examined empirically. Using data collected at four time points over 13 years of marriage, the authors examined whether love is associated with different behaviors for husbands and wives. Multilevel analyses revealed that, counter to theoretical expectations, both genders were equally likely to show love through affection. But whereas wives expressed love by enacting fewer negative or antagonistic behaviors, husbands showed love by initiating sex, sharing leisure activities, and doing household work together with their wives. Overall, the findings indicate that men and women show their love in more nuanced ways than cultural stereotypes suggest.

  16. Avocado fruit maturation and ripening: dynamics of aliphatic acetogenins and lipidomic profiles from mesocarp, idioblasts and seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-López, Carlos Eduardo; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen; Treviño, Víctor; Díaz de la Garza, Rocío I

    2017-09-29

    Avocado fruit contains aliphatic acetogenins (oft-acetylated, odd-chain fatty alcohols) with promising bioactivities for both medical and food industries. However, we have scarce knowledge about their metabolism. The present work aimed to study changes in acetogenin profiles from mesocarp, lipid-containing idioblasts, and seeds from 'Hass' cultivar during fruit development, germination, and three harvesting years. An untargeted LC-MS based lipidomic analysis was also conducted to profile the lipidome of avocado fruit in each tissue. The targeted analysis showed that acetogenin profiles and contents remained unchanged in avocado mesocarp during maturation and postharvest ripening, germination, and different harvesting years. However, a shift in the acetogenin profile distribution, accompanied with a sharp increase in concentration, was observed in seed during early maturation. Untargeted lipidomics showed that this shift was accompanied with remodeling of glycerolipids: TAGs and DAGs decreased during fruit growing in seed. Remarkably, the majority of the lipidome in mature seed was composed by acetogenins; we suggest that this tissue is able to synthesize them independently from mesocarp. On the other hand, lipid-containing idioblasts accumulated almost the entire acetogenin pool measured in the whole mesocarp, while only having 4% of the total fatty acids. The lipidome of this cell type changed the most when the fruit was ripening after harvesting, TAGs decreased while odd-chain DAGs increased. Notably, idioblast lipidome was more diverse than that from mesocarp. Evidence shown here suggests that idioblasts are the main site of acetogenin biosynthesis in avocado mesocarp. This work unveiled the prevalence of aliphatic acetogenins in the avocado fruit lipidome and evidenced TAGs as initial donors of the acetogenin backbones in its biosynthesis. It also sets evidence for acetogenins being included in future works aimed at characterizing the avocado seed, as they are

  17. Army Study Shows Decline In Behavioral Health Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Army Study Shows Decline in Behavioral Health Stigma By Rob McIlvaine Army News Service WASHINGTON, Jan. 20, 2012 - A newly released Army study on...conference yesterday. The three-year study outlines the problem of suicide in the Army and related issues of substance abuse, spouse abuse and child abuse...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Army Study Shows Decline In Behavioral Health Stigma 5a. CONTRACT

  18. Sensitivity of a Chemical Mass Balance model for PM2.5 to source profiles for differing styles of cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, K. L.; Delgado-Saborit, J. M.; Harrison, Roy M.

    2018-04-01

    Use of a Chemical Mass Balance model is one of the two most commonly used approaches to estimating atmospheric concentrations of cooking aerosol. Such models require the input of chemical profiles for each of the main sources contributing to particulate matter mass and there is appreciable evidence from the literature that not only the mass emission but also the chemical composition of particulate matter varies according to the food being prepared and the style of cooking. In this study, aerosol has been sampled in the laboratory from four different styles of cooking, i.e. Indian, Chinese, Western and African cooking. The chemical profiles of molecular markers have been quantified and are used individually within a Chemical Mass Balance model applied to air samples collected in a multi-ethnic area of Birmingham, UK. The model results give a source contribution estimate for cooking aerosol which is consistent with other comparable UK studies, but also shows a very low sensitivity of the model to the cooking aerosol profile utilised. A survey of local restaurants suggested a wide range of cooking styles taking place which may explain why no one profile gives an appreciably better fit in the CMB model.

  19. Entropy Calculation of Reversible Mixing of Ideal Gases Shows Absence of Gibbs Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Borodiouk

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We consider the work of reversible mixing of ideal gases using a real process. Now assumptions were made concerning infinite shifts, infinite number of cycles and infinite work to provide an accurate calculation of entropy resulting from reversible mixing of ideal gases. We derived an equation showing the dependence of this entropy on the difference in potential of mixed gases, which is evidence for the absence of Gibbs' paradox.

  20. Entropy Calculation of Reversible Mixing of Ideal Gases Shows Absence of Gibbs Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Oleg Borodiouk; Vasili Tatarin

    1999-01-01

    Abstract: We consider the work of reversible mixing of ideal gases using a real process. Now assumptions were made concerning infinite shifts, infinite number of cycles and infinite work to provide an accurate calculation of entropy resulting from reversible mixing of ideal gases. We derived an equation showing the dependence of this entropy on the difference in potential of mixed gases, which is evidence for the absence of Gibbs' paradox.