WorldWideScience

Sample records for profiles sheet resistance

  1. Determining the Resistivity of Resistive Sheets Using Transmission Measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hyde, IV, Milo W

    2006-01-01

    In September 2005, radar cross section (RCS) measurements were made of resistive sheets, or R-cards, wrapped around a polystyrene foam cylinder to compare with a newly developed theoretical RCS prediction technique...

  2. Resistance and sheet resistance measurements using electron beam induced current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czerwinski, A.; Pluska, M.; Ratajczak, J.; Szerling, A.; KaPtcki, J.

    2006-01-01

    A method for measurement of spatially uniform or nonuniform resistance in layers and strips, based on electron beam induced current (EBIC) technique, is described. High electron beam currents are used so that the overall resistance of the measurement circuit affects the EBIC signal. During the evaluation, the electron beam is scanned along the measured object, whose load resistance varies with the distance. The variation is compensated by an adjustable resistance within an external circuit. The method has been experimentally deployed for sheet resistance determination of buried regions of lateral confinements in semiconductor laser heterostructures manufactured by molecular beam epitaxy

  3. Resistive instabilities of current sheets in the solar wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrowolny, M [CNR, Laboratorio per il Plasma nello Spazio, Frascati, Italy; Trussoni, E [CNR, Laboratorio di Cosmo-Geofisica, Turin, Italy

    1979-03-01

    Resistive magnetohydrodynamic instabilities are investigated numerically for non-antisymmetric magnetic field profiles similar to those indicated in spacecraft data on solar wind discontinuities. The eigenvalue problem derived for the growth rate of possible instabilities from dimensionless equations for velocity and magnetic field perturbations is solved starting from the outer regions where the plasma is frozen to the magnetic field. For an antisymmetric magnetic profile, calculations show only tearing modes to be present, with instabilities occurring only at long wavelengths, while for a non-antisymmetric magnetic profile resembling the observed solar wind, calculations indicate the presence of rippling modes driven by resistivity gradients, in addition to the tearing modes. Calculations of the scale lengths of variation of the reversing component based on a scaling law relating the maximum growth rate to the magnetic Reynolds number are found to agree with observed solar current sheet scale lengths.

  4. Tearing resistance of some co-polyester sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ho Sung; Karger-Kocsis, Jozsef

    2004-01-01

    A three-zone model consisting of initial, evolutionary and stabilised plastic zones for tearing resistance was proposed for polymer sheets. An analysis with the model, based on the essential work of fracture (EWF) approach, was demonstrated to be capable for predicting specific total work of fracture along the tear path across all the plastic zones although accuracy of specific essential work of fracture is subject to improvement. Photo-elastic images were used for identification of plastic deformation sizes and profiles. Fracture mode change during loading was described in relation with the three zones. Tearing fracture behaviour of extruded mono- and bi-layer sheets of different types of amorphous co-polyesters and different thicknesses was investigated. Thick material exhibited higher specific total work of tear fracture than thin mono-layer sheet in the case of amorphous polyethylene terephthalate (PET). This finding was explained in terms of plastic zone size formed along the tear path, i.e., thick material underwent larger plastic deformation than thin material. When PET and polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG) were laminated with each other, specific total work of fracture of the bi-layer sheets was not noticeably improved over that of the constituent materials

  5. Microprobe metrology for direct sheet resistance and mobility characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Folmer; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Lin, Rong

    2012-01-01

    The M4PP measurement technique has gained increased interest from the semiconductor industry for direct sheet resistance measurements on ultra thin layers and small structures/pads. Several fully automatic microRSP probing tools are today in use for in-line sheet resistance measurements on blanket...

  6. Noncontact sheet resistance measurement technique for wafer inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempa, Krzysztof; Rommel, J. Martin; Litovsky, Roman; Becla, Peter; Lojek, Bohumil; Bryson, Frank; Blake, Julian

    1995-12-01

    A new technique, MICROTHERM, has been developed for noncontact sheet resistance measurements of semiconductor wafers. It is based on the application of microwave energy to the wafer, and simultaneous detection of the infrared radiation resulting from ohmic heating. The pattern of the emitted radiation corresponds to the sheet resistance distribution across the wafer. This method is nondestructive, noncontact, and allows for measurements of very small areas (several square microns) of the wafer.

  7. Substructure and electrical resistivity analyses of pure tungsten sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trybus, C.L.; Sellers, C.H.; Anderl, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The substructure of pure tungsten sheet (0.025 mm thick) is examined and quantified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Dislocation populations and arrangements are evaluated for as-worked and various annealed conditions of the tungsten sheet. The worked (rolled) tungsten substructure was nonhomogeneous, consisting of areas of very high and low dislocation densities. These results are correlated to resistivity measurements of the tungsten sheet following thermal cycling to 1200 degrees C to determine the substructural changes as a function of temperature. The comparison between the two characterization techniques is used to examine the relationship between structural and electronic properties in tungsten. 15 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Experimental Investigation of the Neutral sheet Profile During Magnetic Reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trintchouk, F.; Ji, H.; Yamada, M.; Kulsrud, R.; Hsu, S.; Carter, T.

    1999-01-01

    During magnetic reconnection, a ''neutral sheet'' current is induced, heating the plasma. The resultant plasma thermal pressure forms a stationary equilibrium with the opposing magnetic fields. The reconnection layer profile holds significant clues about the physical mechanisms which control reconnection. On the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment [M. Yamada et al., Phys. Plasmas 4, 1936 (1997)], a quasi steady-state and axisymmetric neutral sheet profile has been measured precisely using a magnetic probe array with spatial resolution equal to one quarter of the ion gyro-radius. It was found that the reconnecting field profile fits well with a Harris-type profile [E. G. Harris, Il Nuovo Cimento 23, 115 (1962)], B(x) approximately tanh(x/delta). This agreement is remarkable since the Harris theory does not take into account reconnection and associated electric fields and dissipation. An explanation for this agreement is presented. The sheet thickness delta is found to be approximately 0.4 times the ion skin depth, which agrees with a generalized Harris theory incorporating non-isothermal electron and ion temperatures and finite electric field. The detailed study of additional local features of the reconnection region is also presented

  9. A study of dynamic resistance during small scale resistance spot welding of thin Ni sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, W; Zhou, Y; Kerr, H W; Lawson, S

    2004-01-01

    The dynamic resistance has been investigated during small scale resistance spot welding (SSRSW) of Ni sheets. Electrical measurements have been correlated with scanning electron microscope images of joint development. The results show that the dynamic resistance curve can be divided into the following stages based on physical change in the workpieces: asperity heating, surface breakdown, asperity softening, partial surface melting, nugget growth and expulsion. These results are also compared and contrasted with dynamic resistance behaviour in large scale RSW

  10. Safety against formation of through cracks of profiled fibre-reinforced cement sheets for roofing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs Feilberg; Stang, Birgitte Friis Dela

    2009-01-01

      Loads due to wind, snow or traffic on a roof determine the requirements to the strength and stiffness properties of profiled sheets for roofing. Apart from these loads, locked-in stresses can occur due to differences in temperature and moisture strains in the profiled sheets and the wooden laths...... supporting the sheets. These tensile and compressive stresses are induced in the sheets if they are firmly fastened to the laths with fastening screws. The purpose of this investigation was to analyse the safety of the profiled sheets in transmitting these loads without the formation of through cracks...

  11. Sheet resistance effects in mercury cadmium telluride implanted photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorito, G.; Gasparrini, G.; Svelto, F.

    1977-01-01

    The frequency response of Hg + implanted Hgsub(1-x)Cdsub(x)Te photodiodes is discussed. This analysis, evaluating both the response to fast laser pulses and the 3 dB rolloff of the diode shot-noise spectrum, showed the necessity of adopting a distributed equivalent circuit model taking into account the implanted layer sheet resistance. Frequency behaviour, in fact, proved not to match a simple p-n junction model based on a lumped standard equivalent circuit. On this basis apparent anomalies previously reported can be explained, and useful suggestions can be obtained for design and fabrication of fast detectors. (author)

  12. Photovoltage versus microprobe sheet resistance measurements on ultrashallow structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarysse, T.; Moussa, A.; Parmentier, B.

    2010-01-01

    on ultrashallow (sub-50-nm) chemical-vapor-deposited layers [T. Clarysse , Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 912, 197 (2006)], especially in the presence of medium/highly doped underlying layers (representative for well/halo implants). Here the authors examine more closely the sheet resistance anomalies which have...... recently been observed between junction photovoltage (JPV) based tools and a micrometer-resolution four-point probe (M4PP) tool on a variety of difficult, state-of-the-art sub-32-nm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor structures (low energy and cluster implants, with/without halo, flash- and laser...

  13. Profiling Prostate Cancer Therapeutic Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron A. Wade; Natasha Kyprianou

    2018-01-01

    The major challenge in the treatment of patients with advanced lethal prostate cancer is therapeutic resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) and chemotherapy. Overriding this resistance requires understanding of the driving mechanisms of the tumor microenvironment, not just the androgen receptor (AR)-signaling cascade, that facilitate therapeutic resistance in order to identify new drug targets. The tumor microenvironment enables key signaling pathways promoting cancer cell survival ...

  14. Synthesis and characterization of large WO{sub 3} sheets synthesized by resistive heating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippo, Emanuela, E-mail: emanuela.filippo@unisalento.it [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Monteroni Street, Lecce I-73100 Italy (Italy); Tepore, Marco [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Monteroni Street, Lecce I-73100 Italy (Italy); Baldassarre, Francesca [Department of Cultural Heritage, University of Salento, Lecce I-73100 Italy (Italy); Quarta, Gianluca; Calcagnile, Lucio [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Monteroni Street, Lecce I-73100 Italy (Italy); Guascito, Maria Rachele [DiSTeBA, University of Salento, Lecce I-73100 Italy (Italy); Tepore, Antonio [Department of Cultural Heritage, University of Salento, Lecce I-73100 Italy (Italy)

    2015-09-01

    A simple, low-cost method is presented to grow tungsten oxide large sheets simply by resistively heating a pure tungsten filament under air/water vapor flow. The obtained structures were studied using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, selected area diffraction, X Ray diffraction, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoluminescence and zeta potential measurements. SEM observations revealed that sheets formed by broadening of the wires/belts over longer growth period. Photoluminescence measurements showed that tungsten oxide sheets had an intense visible emission band. - Highlights: • WO{sub 3} large sheets were prepared by resistively heating a W filament. • WO{sub 3} sheets were carefully characterized. • Formation mechanism of sheets was studied. • WO{sub 3} sheets had an intense visible emission band at 462 nm.

  15. Impact of mismatched and misaligned laser light sheet profiles on PIV performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, K.; de Silva, C. M.; Hutchins, N.; Marusic, I.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of mismatched or misaligned laser light sheet profiles on the quality of particle image velocimetry (PIV) results is considered in this study. Light sheet profiles with differing widths, shapes, or alignment can reduce the correlation between PIV images and increase experimental errors. Systematic PIV simulations isolate these behaviours to assess the sensitivity and implications of light sheet mismatch on measurements. The simulations in this work use flow fields from a turbulent boundary layer; however, the behaviours and impacts of laser profile mismatch are highly relevant to any fluid flow or PIV application. Experimental measurements from a turbulent boundary layer facility are incorporated, as well as additional simulations matched to experimental image characteristics, to validate the synthetic image analysis. Experimental laser profiles are captured using a modular laser profiling camera, designed to quantify the distribution of laser light sheet intensities and inform any corrective adjustments to an experimental configuration. Results suggest that an offset of just 1.35 standard deviations in the Gaussian light sheet intensity distributions can cause a 40% reduction in the average correlation coefficient and a 45% increase in spurious vectors. Errors in measured flow statistics are also amplified when two successive laser profiles are no longer well matched in alignment or intensity distribution. Consequently, an awareness of how laser light sheet overlap influences PIV results can guide faster setup of an experiment, as well as achieve superior experimental measurements.

  16. Radial-rotation profile forming: A new processing technology of incremental sheet metal forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laue, Robert; Härtel, Sebastian; Awiszus, Birgit

    2018-05-01

    Incremental forming processes (i.e., spinning) of sheet metal blanks into cylindrical cups are suitable for lower lot sizes. The produced cups were frequently used as preforms to produce workpieces in further forming steps with additional functions like profiled hollow parts [1]. The incremental forming process radial-rotation profile forming has been developed to enable the production of profiled hollow parts with low sheet thinning and good geometrical accuracy. The two principal forming steps are the production of the preform by rotational swing-folding [2] and the subsequent radial profiling of the hollow part in one clamping position. The rotational swing-folding process is based on a combination of conventional spinning and swing-folding. Therefore, a round blank rotates on a profiled mandrel and due to the swinging of a cylindrical forming tool, the blank is formed to a cup with low sheet thinning. In addition, thickening results at the edge of the blank and wrinkling occurs. However, the wrinkles are formed into the indentation of the profiled mandrel and can be reshaped as an advantage in the second process step, the radial profiling. Due to the rotation and continuous radial feed of a profiled forming tool to the profiled mandrel, the axial profile is formed in the second process step. Because of the minor relative movement in axial direction between tool and blank, low sheet thinning occurs. This is an advantage of the principle of the process.

  17. A Novel Method of Modeling the Deformation Resistance for Clad Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jianliang; Yi Youping; Xie Mantang

    2011-01-01

    Because of the excellent thermal conductivity, the clad sheet (3003/4004/3003) of aluminum alloy is extensively used in various heat exchangers, such as radiator, motorcar air conditioning, evaporator, and so on. The deformation resistance model plays an important role in designing the process parameters of hot continuous rolling. However, the complex behaviors of the plastic deformation of the clad sheet make the modeling very difficult. In this work, a novel method for modeling the deformation resistance of clad sheet was proposed by combining the finite element analysis with experiments. The deformation resistance model of aluminum 3003 and 4004 was proposed through hot compression test on the Gleeble-1500 thermo-simulation machine. And the deformation resistance model of clad sheet was proposed through finite element analysis using DEFORM-2D software. The relationship between cladding ratio and the deformation resistance was discussed in detail. The results of hot compression simulation demonstrate that the cladding ratio has great effects on the resistance of the clad sheet. Taking the cladding ratio into consideration, the mathematical model of the deformation resistance for clad sheet has been proved to have perfect forecasting precision of different cladding ratio. Therefore, the presented model can be used to predict the rolling force of clad sheet during the hot continuous rolling process.

  18. The crack growth resistance of thin steel sheets under eccentric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ľ AMBRIŠKO

    2018-03-10

    Mar 10, 2018 ... Abstract. The stable crack growth in thin steel sheets is the topic of this paper. The crack opening was observed using a videoextensometry system, allowing the crack extension determination. JR-curve and dR-curve were established from obtained data. The ductile tearing properties of different thin sheets ...

  19. Improved corrosion resistance of aluminum brazing sheet by a post-brazing heat treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norouzi Afshar, F.; Tichelaar, F.D.; Glenn, A. M.; Taheri, P.; Sababi, M.; Terryn, H.A.; Mol, J.M.C.

    2017-01-01

    This work studies the influence of the microstructure on the corrosion mechanism and susceptibility of as-brazed aluminum sheet. Various microstructures are obtained using postbrazing heat treatments developed to enhance the corrosion resistance of an AA4xxx/AA3xxx brazing sheet. The heat

  20. In situ measurement on TSV-Cu deformation with hotplate system based on sheet resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunna; Wang, Bo; Wang, Huiying; Wu, Kaifeng; Yang, Shengyong; Wang, Yan; Ding, Guifu

    2017-12-01

    The in situ measurement of TSVs deformation at different temperature is meaningful for learning more about the thermal deformation schemes of 3D TSVs in the microelectronic devices. An efficient and smart hotplate based on sheet resistance is designed for offering more heat, producing a uniform temperature distribution, relieving thermal stress and heat concentration issues, and reducing room space, which was optimized by the finite element method (FEM). The fabricated hotplate is efficient and smart (2.5 cm  ×  2.0 cm  ×  0.5 cm) enough to be located in the limited space during measuring. The thermal infrared imager was employed as the temperature sensor for monitoring the temperature distribution of TSVs sample. The 3D profilometry was adopted as the observer for TSVs profiles survey. The in situ 2D top surface profiles and 3D displacement profiles of TSVs sample at the different temperature were measured by 3D profilometer. The in situ average relative deformation and effective plastic deformation of the TSV sample were measured. With optical measurement method, 3D profilometry, the TSV sample can be tested repeatedly.

  1. Influence of inorganic acid pickling on the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Blawert, C.; Scharnagl, N.

    2009-01-01

    Surface contaminants as a result of thermo-mechanical processing of magnesium alloys, e.g. sheet rolling, can have a negative effect on the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys. Especially contaminants such as Fe, Ni and Cu, left on the surface of magnesium alloys result in the formation...... of micro-galvanic couples and can therefore increase corrosion attack on these alloys. Due to this influence they should be removed to obtain good corrosion resistance. In this study, the effect of inorganic acid pickling on the corrosion behaviour of a commercial AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet...... cleaning the AZ31 sheet. However, to obtain reasonable corrosion resistance at least 5 mu m of the surface of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet have to be removed....

  2. The crack growth resistance of thin steel sheets under eccentric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ľ AMBRIŠKO

    2018-03-10

    Mar 10, 2018 ... of zinc-coated automotive steel sheets (IF – deep drawing interstitial free steel ..... to determine; therefore, the Ji was determined for observ- able crack initiation .... M R S, da Silva L F M and de Castro P M S T 2011. Analysis of ...

  3. Sheet resistance under Ohmic contacts to AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajlasz, M.; Donkers, J.J.T.M.; Sque, S.J.; Heil, S.B.S.; Gravesteijn, Dirk J; Rietveld, F.J.R.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2014-01-01

    For the determination of specific contact resistance in semiconductor devices, it is usually assumed that the sheet resistance under the contact is identical to that between the contacts. This generally does not hold for contacts to AlGaN/GaN structures, where an effective doping under the contact

  4. Ductile Tearing Resistance Indexing of Automotive Grade DP 590 Steel Sheets: EWF Testing Using DENT Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Subhadra; Padmapriya, N.; De, Partha Sarathi; Chakraborti, P. C.; Ray, S. K.

    2018-03-01

    The essential work of fracture (EWF) method has been explored for indexing the ductile tearing resistance of DP 590 automotive grade dual-phase steel sheet both in longitudinal (L-T) and transverse (T-L) orientations. The simplest possible test and analysis procedures have been adopted. The EWF method is found to be eminently suitable for routine quality control and product development purposes for such materials. Areas for further research for improving the experimental strategy are highlighted. For the investigated steel sheet, the estimated tearing resistance is found to be distinctly higher for the L-T orientation compared to the T-L orientation; the reason thereof merits further investigation.

  5. Anomalous resistivity due to kink modes in a thin current sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moritaka, Toseo; Horiuchi, Ritoku; Ohtani, Hiroaki

    2007-01-01

    The roles of microscopic plasma instabilities on the violation of the frozen-in constraint are investigated by examining the force balance equation based on explicit electromagnetic particle simulation for a thin current sheet. Wave-particle interactions associated with lower hybrid drift instability and drift kink instability (DKI) contribute to the wavy electric force term at the periphery of the current sheet and the wavy magnetic force term at the neutral sheet, respectively. In the linear growing phase of DKI, the wavy magnetic force term balances with the electric force term due to the dc electric field at the neutral sheet. It is concluded that the growth of DKI can create anomalous resistivity and result in the violation of the frozen-in constraint as well as the diffusion of current density

  6. Effects of process parameters on sheet resistance uniformity of fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudaya, Chairul; Park, Ji Hun; Lee, Joong Kee

    2012-01-01

    An alternative indium-free material for transparent conducting oxides of fluorine-doped tin oxide [FTO] thin films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate [PET] was prepared by electron cyclotron resonance - metal organic chemical vapor deposition [ECR-MOCVD]. One of the essential issues regarding metal oxide film deposition is the sheet resistance uniformity of the film. Variations in process parameters, in this case, working and bubbler pressures of ECR-MOCVD, can lead to a change in resistance uniformity. Both the optical transmittance and electrical resistance uniformity of FTO film-coated PET were investigated. The result shows that sheet resistance uniformity and the transmittance of the film are affected significantly by the changes in bubbler pressure but are less influenced by the working pressure of the ECR-MOCVD system.

  7. Electrochemical depth profiling of multilayer metallic structures: An aluminum brazing sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afshar, F. Norouzi; Ambat, R.; Kwakernaak, C.; Wit, J.H.W. de; Mol, J.M.C.; Terryn, H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Localized electrochemical cell and glow discharge optical emission spectrometry were used. ► An electrochemical depth profile of an aluminum brazing sheet was obtained. ► The electrochemical responses were correlated to the microstructural features. - Abstract: Combinatory localized electrochemical cell and glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES) measurements were performed to obtain a thorough in depth electrochemical characterization of an aluminum brazing sheet. By defining electrochemical criteria i.e. breakdown potential, corrosion potential, cathodic and anodic reactivities, and tracking their changes as a function of depth, the evolution of electrochemical responses through out the material thickness were analyzed and correlated to the corresponding microstructural features. Polarization curves in 1 wt% NaCl solution at pH 2.8 were obtained at different depths from the surface using controlled sputtering in a glow discharge optical emission spectrometer as a sample preparation technique. The anodic and cathodic reactivity of the top surface areas were significantly higher than that of the bulk, thus indicating these areas to be more susceptible to localized attack. Consistent with this, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscope analysis revealed a relatively high density of fine intermetallic and silicon particles at these areas. The corrosion mechanism of the top layers was identified to be intergranular and pitting corrosion, while lower sensitivity to these localized attacks were detected toward the brazing sheet core. The results highlight the successful application of the electrochemical depth profiling approach in prediction of the corrosion behavior of the aluminum brazing sheet and the importance of the electrochemical activity of the outer 10 μm in controlling the corrosion performance of the aluminum brazing sheet.

  8. Effects of organic acid pickling on the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Blawert, C.; Scharnagl, N.

    2010-01-01

    mu m of the contaminated surface was required to reach corrosion rates less than 1 mm/year in salt spray condition. Among the three organic acids examined, acetic acid is the best choice. Oxalic acid can be an alternative while citric acid is not suitable for cleaning AZ31 sheet, because......Organic acids were used to clean AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet and the effect of the cleaning processes on the surface condition and corrosion performance of the alloy was investigated. Organic acid cleanings reduced the surface impurities and enhanced the corrosion resistance. Removal of at least 4...

  9. Contact-free sheet resistance determination of large area graphene layers by an open dielectric loaded microwave cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaforost, O.; Wang, K.; Adabi, M.; Guo, Z.; Hanham, S.; Klein, N.; Goniszewski, S.; Gallop, J.; Hao, L.

    2015-01-01

    A method for contact-free determination of the sheet resistance of large-area and arbitrary shaped wafers or sheets coated with graphene and other (semi) conducting ultrathin layers is described, which is based on an open dielectric loaded microwave cavity. The sample under test is exposed to the evanescent resonant field outside the cavity. A comparison with a closed cavity configuration revealed that radiation losses have no significant influence of the experimental results. Moreover, the microwave sheet resistance results show good agreement with the dc conductivity determined by four-probe van der Pauw measurements on a set of CVD samples transferred on quartz. As an example of a practical application, correlations between the sheet resistance and deposition conditions for CVD graphene transferred on quartz wafers are described. Our method has a high potential as measurement standard for contact-free sheet resistance measurement and mapping of large area graphene samples

  10. MEMBRANE ACTION IN PROFILED STEEL SHEETING DRY BOARD (PSSDB FLOOR SLAB SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHMOOD SERAJI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Profiled steel sheeting dry board (PSSDB system is a lightweight composite structural system that made of the profiled steel sheeting (PSS connected to the dry board (DB by self-drilling and self-tapping screws. The objective of this paper is to study the effect of membrane action in improving the flexural capacities of the PSSDB system. According to the literatures, common failure of the PSSDB floor is due to local buckling in the top flanges of steel sheeting at the centre of a simply supported slab. Restraining the horizontal movement at supports may develop the membrane action (MA in the slab that can remarkably enhance the flexural rigidities of the floor. Experimental tests were conducted along with developing nonlinear finite element model to explore the effect of MA in the PSSDB floor. Experimental results of the PSSDB panel with simply end support were exploited to verify the nonlinear finite element results. The developed finite element model was then modified by restraining the horizontal movement of the slab at the supports. The obtained results disclosed that the developed compressive membrane action enhanced the stiffness of the slab at serviceability load by about 240%.

  11. A study on corrosion resistance of electrodeposited Zn-base alloy steel sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Soon

    1986-01-01

    Effects of electrodeposits of Zn-Ni or Zn-Co alloy with small amounts of Mo or W in sulphate bath on the corrosion resistance of plated steel sheet were studied. 1) The electrodeposition of Zn-Ni and Zn-Co alloy shows both anomalous codeposition behavior. The grade of anomalous codeposition of Zn-Co alloy rises with adding Mo or W in bath. 2) The Ni content in Zn-Ni deposits increases with decreasing cathode current density and with increasing bath temperature. 3) In case of electroplating of Zn-Co, the increase of cathodic current density of bath bring on increasing of the Co content, but on decreasing of the Mo content in deposits. And rising bath temperature increases both Co and Mo deposits. 4) The corrosion resistance of the Zn-Ni electrodeposited steel sheet is shown a maximum at the Ni content of 10-17%. The structure of Zn-Ni of these composition range was finegrained γ-phase. 5) The corrosion resistance of the Zn-Co electrodeposited steel sheet is improved with increasing Co content. The corrosion resistance of the Zn-Co-Mo or Zn-Co-W deposits electroplated by proper plating conditions was improved much more than that of Zn-Co deposits. (Author)

  12. Metabolic Profiles in Obese Children and Adolescents with Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Kostovski

    2018-03-01

    CONCLUSION: Higher percentage of insulin-resistant participants was of female gender and was adolescents. In general, insulin resistant obese children and adolescents tend to have a worse metabolic profile in comparison to individuals without insulin resistance. It is of note that the highest insulin resistance was also linked with the highest concentrations of triglycerides.

  13. Effect of Entrainment and Overflow Occurrences on Concentration Profile in PUREX Flow Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Yoshinori; Ishii, Junichi; Matsumoto, Shiro

    2003-01-01

    A deviation in the operational condition of a mixer settler and a centrifugal contactor causes an entrainment or an overflow, which affects the concentration profile. Although there has been no quantitative study about the effect of such abnormal flows on the concentration profile, the occurrence of such abnormal flows has been severely restricted for a PUREX flow sheet. However, the restriction of abnormal flows can be relaxed when the effect of such flows is limited within the allowable range such that the concentration of the product does not deviate from its specification. This relaxation could serve to benefit a continuous operation under a certain degree of deviation from the operational condition and a smaller design load of a solvent extractor. From this viewpoint, the relationship between the magnitude of abnormal flows and the effect of them on the process was studied quantitatively using a specially developed code in a wide range of PUREX flow sheet conditions, and the possibility of this relaxation was investigated. The results showed that the effect of the abnormal flow on the concentration in the organic outflow or aqueous raffinate was dominated by the leakage fraction under normal conditions regardless of each specific flow sheet condition. The common correlations were found between the leakage fraction of uranium and plutonium under the occurrence of abnormal flows and that under no abnormal flow for the stripping and extracting conditions, respectively. Comparing the given correlations and the usual specification of the leakage fraction of uranium and plutonium suggested that the restriction of the abnormal flows could be relaxed for a usual PUREX flow sheet

  14. Ultra-shallow junction (USJ) sheet resistance measurements with a non-penetrating four point probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, M.C.; Hillard, R.J.; Borland, J.O.

    2005-01-01

    An accurate method to measure the four point probe (4PP) sheet resistance (R S ) of ultra shallow junction (USJ) Source-Drain Extension structures is described. The method utilizes Elastic Material probes (EM-probes) to form non-penetrating contacts to the silicon surface [R.J. Hillard, P.Y. Hung, William Chism, C. Win Ye, W.H. Howland, L.C. Tan, C.E. Kalnas, Characterization and Metrology for ULSI Technology, AIP Conference proceedings 683 (2003) 802.]. The probe design is kinematic and the force is controlled to ensure elastic deformation of the probe material. The probe material is such that large direct tunneling currents can flow through the native oxide thereby forming a low impedance contact. Sheet resistance measurements on USJ implanted P+/N structures with Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) junction depths less than 15 nm have been measured. The method is demonstrated on implanted USJ structures and found to be consistent with expectations

  15. Improving resistance welding of aluminum sheets by addition of metal powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Naimi, Ihsan K.; Al-Saadi, Moneer H.; Daws, Kasim M.

    2015-01-01

    . The improvement obtained is shown to be due to the development of a secondary bond in the joint beside the weld nugget increasing the total weld area. The application of powder additive is especially feasible, when using welding machines with insufficient current capacity for producing the required nugget size......In order to ensure good quality joints between aluminum sheets by resistance spot welding, a new approach involving the addition of metal powder to the faying surfaces before resistance heating is proposed. Three different metal powders (pure aluminum and two powders corresponding to the alloys AA....... In such cases the best results are obtained with pure aluminum powder....

  16. Characterizations of contact and sheet resistances of vertically aligned carbon nanotube forests with intrinsic bottom contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Yingqi; Wang Pengbo; Lin Liwei, E-mail: jiangyq99@gmail.com, E-mail: lwlin@me.berkeley.edu [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of California at Berkeley (United States)

    2011-09-07

    Comprehensive studies on the sheet and contact resistances of vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) forests with as-grown bottom contacts to the metal layer have been conducted. Using microfabrication and four distinct methods: (1) the transfer length method (TLM), (2) the contact chain method, (3) the Kelvin method, and (4) the four point probe method, we have designed multiple testing devices to characterize the resistances of CNT-forest-based devices. Experimental results show that devices based on stripe-shaped CNT forests 100 {mu}m in height and 100 {mu}m in width have a sheet resistance of approximately 100{Omega}/{open_square}. The corresponding specific contact resistance to the molybdenum layer is roughly 5 x 10{sup 4} {Omega} {mu}m{sup 2}. Consistency of the results from the four different methods validates the study. After two months of storage of the CNT forest samples in open air, less than 0.9% deviations in the resistance values were observed. We further demonstrated one application of CNT forests as an NH{sub 3} gas sensor and measured 0.5 ppm of sensing resolution with a detection response time of 1 min.

  17. Role of Firing Temperature, Sheet Resistance, and Contact Area in Contact Formation on Screen-Printed Metal Contact of Silicon Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Samir Mahmmod; Leong, Cheow Siu; Sopian, K.; Zaidi, Saleem H.

    2018-03-01

    Formation of an Ohmic contact requires a suitable firing temperature, appropriate doping profile, and contact dimensions within resolution limits of the screen-printing process. In this study, the role of the peak firing temperature in standard rapid thermal annealing (RTA) six-zone conveyor belt furnace (CBF) and two inexpensive alternate RTA systems [a custom-designed, three-zone, 5″-diameter quartz tube furnace (QTF) and a tabletop, 3″-diameter rapid thermal processing (RTP)] has been investigated. In addition, the role of sheet resistance and contact area in achieving low-resistance ohmic contacts has been examined. Electrical measurements of ohmic contacts between silver paste/ n +-emitter layer with varying sheet resistances and aluminum paste/ p-doped wafer were carried out in transmission line method configuration. Experimental measurements of the contact resistivity ( ρ c) exhibited the lowest values for CBF at 0.14 mΩ cm2 for Ag and 100 mΩ cm2 for Al at a peak firing temperature of 870°C. For the QTF configuration, lowest measured contact resistivities were 3.1 mΩ cm2 for Ag and 74.1 mΩ cm2 for Al at a peak firing temperature of 925°C. Finally, for the RTP configuration, lowest measured contact resistivities were 1.2 mΩ cm2 for Ag and 68.5 mΩ cm2 for Al at a peak firing temperature of 780°C. The measured contact resistivity exhibits strong linear dependence on sheet resistance. The contact resistivity for Ag decreases with contact area, while for Al the opposite behavior is observed.

  18. Electro-thermo-mechanical coupling analysis of deep drawing with resistance heating for aluminum matrix composites sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaifeng; Zhang, Tuoda; Wang, Bo

    2013-05-01

    Recently, electro-plastic forming to be a focus of attention in materials hot processing research area, because it is a sort of energy-saving, high efficient and green manufacturing technology. An electro-thermo-mechanical model can be adopted to carry out the sequence simulation of aluminum matrix composites sheet deep drawing via electro-thermal coupling and thermal-mechanical coupling method. The first step of process is resistance heating of sheet, then turn off the power, and the second step is deep drawing. Temperature distribution of SiCp/2024Al composite sheet by resistance heating and sheet deep drawing deformation were analyzed. During the simulation, effect of contact resistances, temperature coefficient of resistance for electrode material and SiCp/2024Al composite on temperature distribution were integrally considered. The simulation results demonstrate that Sicp/2024Al composite sheet can be rapidly heated to 400° in 30s using resistances heating and the sheet temperature can be controlled by adjusting the current density. Physical properties of the electrode materials can significantly affect the composite sheet temperature distribution. The temperature difference between the center and the side of the sheet is proportional to the thermal conductivity of the electrode, the principal cause of which is that the heat transfers from the sheet to the electrode. SiCp/2024Al thin-wall part can be intactly manufactured at strain rate of 0.08s-1 and the sheet thickness thinning rate is limited within 20%, which corresponds well to the experimental result.

  19. Antibiotic resistant profile of Streptococcus pneumoniae from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disc diffusion method. Results: S. pneumoniae was isolated from 37(42.04%) of the 88 samples. Isolates showed the highest resistance of 12 (32.43%) to erythromycin and lowest resistance of 4(10.81%) to ciprofloxacin. The resistance profiles for ...

  20. Resistant plasmid profile analysis of multidrug resistant Escherichia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple drug resistance isolates causing UTI has seri- ous implications for the empiric therapy against patho- genic isolates and for the possible co-selection of antimicrobial resistant mediated by multi drug resistant plasmids21,22. E. coli from clinical isolates are known to harbour plasmids of different molecular sizes23.

  1. Resistant plasmid profile analysis of multidrug resistant Escherichia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli has become a major threat and cause of many urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the resistant plasmids of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from (Urinary tract infections)UTIs in Abeokuta.

  2. Transcriptome Profiling of Antimicrobial Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    Khaledi, Ariane; Schniederjans, Monika; Pohl, Sarah; Rainer, Roman; Bodenhofer, Ulrich; Xia, Boyang; Klawonn, Frank; Bruchmann, Sebastian; Preusse, Matthias; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Dötsch, Andreas; Häussler, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Emerging resistance to antimicrobials and the lack of new antibiotic drug candidates underscore the need for optimization of current diagnostics and therapies to diminish the evolution and spread of multidrug resistance. As the antibiotic resistance status of a bacterial pathogen is defined by its genome, resistance profiling by applying next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies may in the future accomplish pathogen identification, prompt initiation of targeted individualized treatment, a...

  3. Characterizations of Soil Profiles Through Electric Resistivity Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chik Z

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents how near surface soil characteristics are obtained through soil electric resistivity ratio from soil apparent resistivity profile. In recent advances of electrical sensors, soil apparent resistivity is implemented as nondestructive method for obtaining near surface soil profile. Although geo-electric techniques offer an improvement to traditional soil sampling methods, the resulting data are still often misinterpreted for obtaining soil characteristics through apparent electrical resistivity in the field. Because, soil resistivity as before rain and after rain are changeable due to the presence of more moisture contents in field investigations. In this study, the parameter of soil electric resistivity ratio is incorporated to obtain reliable near surface soil profiles from apparent resistivity of adjacent two layers in soil. The variations of potential differences are taken into account for using four probes method to get the soil apparent resistivity profile. The research is significant for simpler and faster soil characterizations using resistivity ratio of apparent resistivity in soil investigations.

  4. Antimicrobial resistance patterns and plasmid profiles of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the frequency of resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to various antimicrobial agents, and the relationship between antimicrobial resistance of the isolates and carriage of plasmids. Design: A random sampling of milk and meat samples was carried out. Setting: Milk was collected from various dairy ...

  5. Offset-electrode profile acquisition strategy for electrical resistivity tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Austin R.; Plattner, Alain

    2018-04-01

    We present an electrode layout strategy that allows electrical resistivity profiles to image the third dimension close to the profile plane. This "offset-electrode profile" approach involves laterally displacing electrodes away from the profile line in an alternating fashion and then inverting the resulting data using three-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography software. In our synthetic and field surveys, the offset-electrode method succeeds in revealing three-dimensional structures in the vicinity of the profile plane, which we could not achieve using three-dimensional inversions of linear profiles. We confirm and explain the limits of linear electrode profiles through a discussion of the three-dimensional sensitivity patterns: For a homogeneous starting model together with a linear electrode layout, all sensitivities remain symmetric with respect to the profile plane through each inversion step. This limitation can be overcome with offset-electrode layouts by breaking the symmetry pattern among the sensitivities. Thanks to freely available powerful three-dimensional resistivity tomography software and cheap modern computing power, the requirement for full three-dimensional calculations does not create a significant burden and renders the offset-electrode approach a cost-effective method. By offsetting the electrodes in an alternating pattern, as opposed to laying the profile out in a U-shape, we minimize shortening the profile length.

  6. Profile of sensitivity and resistance to antibiotics of Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterial specie that opposed more resistance again many antibiotics. This study aimed to determine the resistance profile of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from biological patient's liquids. A total of 303 samples including urine and vaginal pus samples from human were collected.

  7. Microbial profile, antibiotic sensitivity and heat resistance of bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: This study was aimed at determining the prevalence, antibiotic resistance and heat resistance profile of bacterial isolates obtained from ready to eat roasted beef (suya) sold in Abuja, Nigeria. Methods and Results: Fifty samples of suya were purchased from different vendors within the Federal Capital Territory and ...

  8. Antibiotic resistance profile of Escherichia coli isolated from five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information on the resistance profiles of clinical and non clinical human bacteria isolates in the developing countries can serve as important means of understanding the human pathogens drug resistance interactions in the zone. Escherichia coli isolated from five geopolitical zones of Nigeria were screened for anti-microbial ...

  9. Antibiotic resistance profile of staphylococci from clinical sources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infants, children and the aged are among the groups most vulnerable to microbial infections more so when these microbial agents become resistant to antimicrobials. The antibiotic resistant profile of Staphylococcus aureus and selected coagulase negative staphylococci were determined by standard methods. Of the 178 ...

  10. On the organization of commercial production of profiled polyethylene sheets used for water proofing under NPP construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhachev, V.D.; Korenev, K.I.; Chukvaidze, K.I.; Dzhurinskij, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    The problem on the organization of commercial production of profiled polyethylene sheets with special longitudinal ribs which are anchorized in concrete is considered. The use of new water proofing material applied under NPP construction allows one to enhance the commercialization of water proofing works which ensured cost reduction of these works

  11. WHEAT PATHOGEN RESISTANCE AND CHITINASE PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Gregorová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The powdery mildew and leaf rust caused by Blumeria graminis and Puccinia recondita (respectively are common diseases of wheat throughout the world. These fungal diseases greatly affect crop productivity. Incorporation of effective and durable disease resistance is an important breeding objective for wheat improvement. We have evaluated resistance of four bread wheat (Triticum aestivum and four spelt wheat (Triticum spelta cultivars. Chitinases occurrence as well as their activity was determined in leaf tissues. There was no correlation between resistance rating and activity of chitinase. The pattern of chitinases reveals four isoforms with different size in eight wheat cultivars. A detailed understanding of the molecular events that take place during a plant–pathogen interaction is an essential goal for disease control in the future.

  12. Antimicrobial resistance and plasmid profiles of Aeromonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of Aeromonas hydrophila at commonly used water collection points on the River Njoro and to determine the in-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility and plasmid profiles of isolates. In total, 126 samples were collected and 36.5% of them were positive for A. hydrophila.

  13. Comparative study of size dependent four-point probe sheet resistance measurement on laser annealed ultra-shallow junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Lin, Rong; Hansen, Torben Mikael

    2008-01-01

    have been used to characterize the sheet resistance uniformity of millisecond laser annealed USJs. They verify, both experimentally and theoretically, that the probe pitch of a four-point probe can strongly affect the measured sheet resistance. Such effect arises from the sensitivity (or "spot size......In this comparative study, the authors demonstrate the relationship/correlation between macroscopic and microscopic four-point sheet resistance measurements on laser annealed ultra-shallow junctions (USJs). Microfabricated cantilever four-point probes with probe pitch ranging from 1.5 to 500 mu m......") of an in-line four-point probe. Their study shows the benefit of the spatial resolution of the micro four-point probe technique to characterize stitching effects resulting from the laser annealing process....

  14. Tomographic pseudo-inversion of resistivity profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Luzio

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to construct vertical and/or horizontal pseudosections starting from sets of resistivity (and/or IP data is presented. In principle it consists in the division of the subsoil into a number of pixels (discretization, arranged in a 3D halfspace. The resistivity of each pixel is then obtained by a back-projection of the set of acquired experimental data, that is by arranging a set of convolutions using 3D filters. The coefficients of the filters are calculated, depending on the geometry of the electrode array used, on the basis of a mask reproducing the «influence coefficients» of all the pixels. The aim of these representations is to match the shape of the investigated structures as close as possible, so that, even if it can be considered a fast arrangement of the experimental data rather than a real inversion, it can be a useful tool in interpretation, at least as a simple preliminary sketch. This method is discussed, focussing on some critical choices regarding the construction of the filters and the use of smoothing factors; some applications on synthetic data calculated on simple models of buried resistive spheres are also presented.

  15. Transcriptome Profiling of Antimicrobial Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaledi, Ariane; Schniederjans, Monika; Pohl, Sarah; Rainer, Roman; Bodenhofer, Ulrich; Xia, Boyang; Klawonn, Frank; Bruchmann, Sebastian; Preusse, Matthias; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Dötsch, Andreas; Häussler, Susanne

    2016-08-01

    Emerging resistance to antimicrobials and the lack of new antibiotic drug candidates underscore the need for optimization of current diagnostics and therapies to diminish the evolution and spread of multidrug resistance. As the antibiotic resistance status of a bacterial pathogen is defined by its genome, resistance profiling by applying next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies may in the future accomplish pathogen identification, prompt initiation of targeted individualized treatment, and the implementation of optimized infection control measures. In this study, qualitative RNA sequencing was used to identify key genetic determinants of antibiotic resistance in 135 clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from diverse geographic and infection site origins. By applying transcriptome-wide association studies, adaptive variations associated with resistance to the antibiotic classes fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and β-lactams were identified. Besides potential novel biomarkers with a direct correlation to resistance, global patterns of phenotype-associated gene expression and sequence variations were identified by predictive machine learning approaches. Our research serves to establish genotype-based molecular diagnostic tools for the identification of the current resistance profiles of bacterial pathogens and paves the way for faster diagnostics for more efficient, targeted treatment strategies to also mitigate the future potential for resistance evolution. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Resistance and cross-resistance profile of the diaryltriazine NNRTI and candidate microbicide UAMC01398.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariën, Kevin K; Venkatraj, Muthusamy; Michiels, Johan; Joossens, Jurgen; Vereecken, Katleen; Van der Veken, Pieter; Heeres, Jan; De Winter, Hans; Heyndrickx, Leo; Augustyns, Koen; Vanham, Guido

    2016-05-01

    The resistance development, cross-resistance to other NNRTIs and the impact of resistance on viral replicative fitness were studied for the new and potent NNRTI UAMC01398. Resistance was selected by dose escalation and by single high-dose selection against a comprehensive panel of NNRTIs used as therapeutics and NNRTIs under investigation for pre-exposure prophylaxis of sexual HIV transmission. A panel of 27 site-directed mutants with single mutations or combinations of mutations involved in reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor-mediated resistance was developed and used to confirm resistance to UAMC01398. Cross-resistance to other NNRTIs was assessed, as well as susceptibility of UAMC01398-resistant HIV to diarylpyrimidine-resistant viruses. Finally, the impact of UAMC01398 resistance on HIV replicative fitness was studied. We showed that UAMC01398 has potent activity against dapivirine-resistant HIV, that at least four mutations in the RT are required in concert for resistance and that the resistance profile is similar to rilpivirine, both genotypically and phenotypically. Resistance development to UAMC01398 is associated with a severe fitness cost. These data, together with the enhanced safety profile and good solubility in aqueous gels, make UAMC01398 an excellent candidate for HIV topical prevention. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Characteristics of Resistance Spot Welded Ti6Al4V Titanium Alloy Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinge Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ti6Al4V titanium alloy is applied extensively in the aviation, aerospace, jet engine, and marine industries owing to its strength-to-weight ratio, excellent high-temperature properties and corrosion resistance. In order to extend the application range, investigations on welding characteristics of Ti6Al4V alloy using more welding methods are required. In the present study, Ti6Al4V alloy sheets were joined using resistance spot welding, and the weld nugget formation, mechanical properties (including tensile strength and hardness, and microstructure features of the resistance spot-welded joints were analyzed and evaluated. The visible indentations on the weld nugget surfaces caused by the electrode force and the surface expulsion were severe due to the high welding current. The weld nugget width at the sheets’ faying surface was mainly affected by the welding current and welding time, and the welded joint height at weld nugget center was chiefly associated with electrode force. The maximum tensile load of welded joint was up to 14.3 kN in the pullout failure mode. The hardness of the weld nugget was the highest because of the coarse acicular α′ structure, and the hardness of the heat-affected zone increased in comparison to the base metal due to the transformation of the β phase to some fine acicular α′ phase.

  18. Microstructure of bonding interface for resistance welding of Zr-based metallic glass sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Toshio; Ikeuchi, Kenji; Shimada, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Akira; Kimura, Hisamichi; Inoue, Akihisa

    2009-01-01

    Resistance welding of Zr 55 Cu 30 Al 10 Ni 5 metallic glass sheets was investigated at 723 K in a supercooled liquid region. The welding time was changed from 5 s to 20 s at 723 K. The joint interface of the metallic glass was no defect and no crack. X-ray diffraction technique of the bonding interface of specimens was performed. The specimens showed halo patterns showing existence of only glassy phase, when the welding time was 5 s and 10 s. X-ray diffraction patterns of specimen bonded for 20 s showed crystalline peaks with halo patterns for the welding for 20 s. The crystalline phase at the bonding interface was small. Transmission electron micrograph at the bonding interface showed nanostructures of NiZr 2 and Al 5 Ni 3 Zr 2 . (author)

  19. Resistance spot weldability of 11Cr–ferritic/martensitic steel sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Yano, Yasuhide; Ito, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Resistance spot welding of 11Cr–0.4Mo–2W, V, Nb ferritic/martensitic steel sheets with different thicknesses was examined to develop a manufacturing technology for a fast reactor fuel subassembly with an inner duct structure. In the spot welding, welding current, electrode force, welding time and holding time were varied as welding parameters to investigate the appropriate welding conditions. Welding conditions under which spot weld joints did not have either crack or void defects in the nugget could be found when the electrode force was increased to 9.8 kN. It was also found that the electrode cap with a longer tip end length was effective for preventing weld defect formations. Strength of the spot welded joint was characterized from micro hardness and shear tension tests. In addition, the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature of the spot welded joint was measured by Charpy impact tests with specimens that had notches in the welded zone.

  20. Resistance Spot Welding of Steel Sheets of the Same and Different Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Brožek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance welding ranks among progressive and in practice often used manufacturing techniques of rigid joints. It is applied in single‑part production, short‑run production as well as in mass production. The basis of this method is in the utilization of the Joulean heat, which arises at the passage of current through connected sheets at collective influence of compressive force. The aim of the carried out tests was the determination of the dependence between the rupture force of spot welds made using steel sheets of the same and different thickness for different welding conditions. For carrying out of this aim 360 assemblies were prepared. The sheets (a total of 720 pieces of dimensions 100 × 25 mm and thickness of 0.8 mm, 1.5 mm and 3.0 mm were made from low carbon steel. In the place determined for welding the test specimens were garnet blasted and then degreased with acetone. The welding of two specimens always of the same (0.8+0.8 mm, 1.5+1.5 mm a 3.0+3.0 mm and different (0.8 + 1.5 mm, 0.8+3.0 mm a 1.5+3.0 mm thickness was carried out using the welding machine type BV 2,5.21. At this type the welding current value is constant (Imax = 6.4 kA. The welding time (the time of the passage of the current was changed in the whole entirety, namely 0.10 s, 0.15 s, 0.20 s, 0.25 s, 0.3 s, 0.4 s, 0.6 s, 0.8 s, 1.0 s, 1.3 s, 1.6 s and 2.0 s. The compressive force was chosen according to the thickness of the connected sheets in the range from 0.8 to 2.4 kN. From the results of carried out tests it follows that using the working variables recommended by the producer we obtain the quality welds. But it we use the longer welding times, we can obtain stronger welds, namely up to 21 % compared to welds made using working variables recommended by the producer.

  1. A Glimpse in the Third Dimension for Electrical Resistivity Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, A. R.; Plattner, A.

    2017-12-01

    We present an electrode layout strategy designed to enhance the popular two-dimensional electrical resistivity profile. Offsetting electrodes from the traditional linear layout and using 3-D inversion software allows for mapping the three-dimensional electrical resistivity close to the profile plane. We established a series of synthetic tests using simulated data generated from chosen resistivity distributions with a three-dimensional target feature. All inversions and simulations were conducted using freely-available ERT software, BERT and E4D. Synthetic results demonstrate the effectiveness of the offset electrode approach, whereas the linear layout failed to resolve the three-dimensional character of our subsurface feature. A field survey using trench backfill as a known resistivity contrast confirmed our synthetic tests. As we show, 3-D inversions of linear layouts for starting models without previously known structure are futile ventures because they generate symmetric resistivity solutions with respect to the profile plane. This is a consequence of the layout's inherent symmetrical sensitivity patterns. An offset electrode layout is not subject to the same limitation, as the collective measurements do not share a common sensitivity symmetry. For practitioners, this approach presents a low-cost improvement of a traditional geophysical method which is simple to use yet may provide critical information about the three dimensional structure of the subsurface close to the profile.

  2. ROLE OF FCA WELDING PROCESS PARAMETERS ON BEAD PROFILE, ANGULAR AND BOWING DISTORTION OF FERRITIC STAINLESS STEEL SHEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VENKATESAN M. V.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the influence of flux cored arc welding (FCAW process parameters such as welding current, travel speed, voltage and CO2 shielding gas flow rate on bead profile, bowing distortion and angular distortion of 409 M ferritic stainless steel sheets of 2 mm thickness. The bowing and angular distortions of the welded plates were measured using a simple device called profile tracer and Vernier bevel protractor respectively. The study revealed that the FCAW process parameters have significant effect on bead profile, and distortion. The relationship between bead profile and distortions were analyzed. Most favorable process parameters that give uniform bead profile and minimum distortion for the weld are recommended for fabrication.

  3. Experimental Tests on Bending Behavior of Profiled Steel Sheeting Dry Board Composite Floor with Geopolymer Concrete Infill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Isa Jaffar

    Full Text Available Abstract Profiled Steel Sheet Dry Board (PSSDB system is a lightweight composite structure comprises Profiled Steel Sheeting and Dry Board connected by self-drilling and self-tapping screws. This study introduced geopolymer concrete, an eco-friendly material without cement content as an infill material in the PSSDB floor system to highlight its effect onto the PSSDB (with full and half-size dry boards floor system's stiffness and strength. Experimental tests on various full scale PSSDB floor specimens were conducted under uniformly distributed transverse loads. Results illustrate that the rigidity of the panel with geopolymer concrete infill with half-size dry board (HBGPC increases by 43% relative to that of the panel with normal concrete infill with full-size dry board (FBNC. The developed finite-element modeling (FEM successfully predicts the behavior of FBGPC model with 94.8% accuracy. Geopolymer concrete infill and dry board size influence the strength panel, infill contact stiffness, and mid-span deflection of the profiled steel sheeting/dry board (PSSDB flooring system.

  4. The correlation of the results of capacitance mapping and of sheet resistance mapping in semi-insulating 6H-SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Shenghuang; Chen Zhiming; Liang Peng; Jiang Dong; Xie Huajie; Yang Ying

    2010-01-01

    A combination of complex surface capacitance mapping and sheet resistance mapping is applied to establish the origin of resistance variations on semi-insulating (SI) 6H-SiC substrates. The direct correlation between the capacitance quadrature and the sheet resistance is found in vanadium-doped SI samples. Regions with low capacitance quadrature show high sheet resistance. This indicates, associated with the nonhomogeneity of sheet resistance on the substrate, that the quality of crystallization is not good enough, which also leads to resistivity nonhomogeneity when comparing with different types of deep defects. According to the capacitance mapping, the region with bad crystallization quality has a high radio absorption coefficient. Another correlation is established between the capacitance in-phase and sheet resistance for the vanadium-doped sample. In this sample, the capacitance in-phase map shows not only the surface topography, but also the same distribution trend as the sheet resistance, namely, regions of high capacitance in-phase reveal high sheet resistance.

  5. Mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of nitrided or oxinitrided, and powder painted regular and interstitial free (IF) drawing steel sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogalski, Z.; Latas, Z. [Instytut Mechaniki Precyzyjnej, ul. Duchnicka 3, 01-796 Warszawa (Poland)

    2004-06-01

    Specimens of 0.8 mm thick regular and interstitial free (IF) drawing steel sheet have been nitrided in fluidised bed for 2 hours at 620 C and 560 C with and without a post-oxidation, and slow and accelerated cooling. As a result, surface hardness, yield and tensile strength of the sheets increased considerably without a critical loss of ductility. Resistance welds between the sheets did not lose their original strength after nitriding-oxinitriding. Nitrided-oxinitrided at 620 C and then powder painted sheets, as compared with powder painted raw sheets, were more corrosion resistant in neutral salt spray and climatic tests. Some mechanical and anticorrosion properties of the IF steel sheet that had undergone the nitriding-oxinitriding processes were definitely better than those of equally processed regular steel sheet. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Proben aus 0,8 mm dickem Blech aus Ziehmassenstahl sowie aus Ziehstahl ohne interstitiel geloeste Legierungsanteile (IF), werden im Wirbelbett in 2 Stunden bei 620 und 560 {sup o}C nitriert mit nachfolgenden Oxidierung sowie alternativ ohne Oxidierung und mit langsamer und beschleunigter Abkuehlung. Infolge dessen nehmen die Haerte, die Dehngrenze und die Zugfestigkeit der Bleche zu, ohne kritischen Zaehigkeitsverlust. Die Widerstandsschweisswulste zwischen den Blechen nach dem Nitrieren-Oxinitrieren haben nicht an Festigkeit verloren. Die bei 620 {sup o}C nitrierten-oxinitrierten und nachfolgend mit Pulverlack beschichteten Bleche sind bei den Versuchen in Salznebel und bei klimatischen Versuchen korrosionbestaendiger im Vergleich mit den mit nur Pulverlack beschichteten Rohblechen. Manche der mechanischen und korrosionsverhalten betreffenden Eigenschaften der Bleche aus IF-Staehle sind entscheidend besser als fuer das ebenso behandelte Blech aus Ziehmassenstahl. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Buckling and stretching of thin viscous sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kiely, Doireann; Breward, Chris; Griffiths, Ian; Howell, Peter; Lange, Ulrich

    2016-11-01

    Thin glass sheets are used in smartphone, battery and semiconductor technology, and may be manufactured by producing a relatively thick glass slab and subsequently redrawing it to a required thickness. The resulting sheets commonly possess undesired centerline ripples and thick edges. We present a mathematical model in which a viscous sheet undergoes redraw in the direction of gravity, and show that, in a sufficiently strong gravitational field, buckling is driven by compression in a region near the bottom of the sheet, and limited by viscous resistance to stretching of the sheet. We use asymptotic analysis in the thin-sheet, low-Reynolds-number limit to determine the centerline profile and growth rate of such a viscous sheet.

  7. Deposition of low sheet resistance indium tin oxide directly onto functional small molecules

    KAUST Repository

    Franklin, Joseph B.

    2014-11-01

    © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. We outline a methodology for depositing tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) directly onto semiconducting organic small molecule films for use as a transparent conducting oxide top-electrode. ITO films were grown using pulsed laser deposition onto copper(II)phthalocyanine (CuPc):buckminsterfullerene (C60) coated substrates. The ITO was deposited at a substrate temperature of 150 °C over a wide range of background oxygen pressures (Pd) (0.67-10 Pa). Deposition at 0.67 ≤ Pd ≤ 4.7 Pa led to delamination of the organic films owing to damage induced by the high energy ablated particles, at intermediate 4.7 ≤ Pd < 6.7 Pa pressures macroscopic cracking is observed in the ITO. Increasing Pd further, ≥ 6.7 Pa, supports the deposition of continuous, polycrystalline and highly transparent ITO films without damage to the CuPc:C60. The free carrier concentration of ITO is strongly influenced by Pd; hence growth at > 6.7 Pa induces a significant decrease in conductivity; with a minimum sheet resistance (Rs) of 145 /□ achieved for 300 nm thick ITO films. To reduce the Rs a multi-pressure deposition was implemented, resulting in the formation of polycrystalline, highly transparent ITO with an Rs of - 20/□ whilst maintaining the inherent functionality and integrity of the small molecule substrate.

  8. Deposition of low sheet resistance indium tin oxide directly onto functional small molecules

    KAUST Repository

    Franklin, Joseph B.; Fleet, Luke R.; Burgess, Claire H.; McLachlan, Martyn A.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. We outline a methodology for depositing tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) directly onto semiconducting organic small molecule films for use as a transparent conducting oxide top-electrode. ITO films were grown using pulsed laser deposition onto copper(II)phthalocyanine (CuPc):buckminsterfullerene (C60) coated substrates. The ITO was deposited at a substrate temperature of 150 °C over a wide range of background oxygen pressures (Pd) (0.67-10 Pa). Deposition at 0.67 ≤ Pd ≤ 4.7 Pa led to delamination of the organic films owing to damage induced by the high energy ablated particles, at intermediate 4.7 ≤ Pd < 6.7 Pa pressures macroscopic cracking is observed in the ITO. Increasing Pd further, ≥ 6.7 Pa, supports the deposition of continuous, polycrystalline and highly transparent ITO films without damage to the CuPc:C60. The free carrier concentration of ITO is strongly influenced by Pd; hence growth at > 6.7 Pa induces a significant decrease in conductivity; with a minimum sheet resistance (Rs) of 145 /□ achieved for 300 nm thick ITO films. To reduce the Rs a multi-pressure deposition was implemented, resulting in the formation of polycrystalline, highly transparent ITO with an Rs of - 20/□ whilst maintaining the inherent functionality and integrity of the small molecule substrate.

  9. Determination of the Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Student Cell Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Ann Blankinship

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sampling of common use items (e.g., student cell phones for bacterial presence, identification, and antibiotic resistance profiling helps students to recognize the need for routine cleaning of personal items and encourages thoughtful use of currently available medications. This multilab period project can be used to teach or reinforce several methods from general microbiology including aseptic technique, isolation streak, serial dilution, spread plating, Kirby Bauer testing, unknown identification, and media production. The data generated can be saved and added to each semester, thus providing a data set that reflects a local trend of antibiotic resistance.      

  10. Numerical and experimental analysis of resistance projection welding of square nuts to sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Zhang, Wenqi; Martins, Paulo A.F.

    2014-01-01

    Projection welding of nuts to sheets is a widely utilized manufacturing process in the automotive industry. The process entails challenges due the necessity of joining different sheet thicknesses and nut sizes made from dissimilar materials, and due to the fact of experiencing large local deforma...... of the square nut to the sheet under different operating conditions. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license...

  11. Weld Growth Mechanisms and Failure Behavior of Three-Sheet Resistance Spot Welds Made of 5052 Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Yan, Fuyu; Luo, Zhen; Chao, Y. J.; Ao, Sansan; Cui, Xuetuan

    2015-06-01

    This paper investigates the weld nugget formation in three-sheet aluminum alloy resistance spot welding. The nugget formation process in three equal thickness sheets and three unequal thickness sheets of 5052 aluminum alloy were studied. The results showed that the nugget was initially formed at the workpiece/workpiece interfaces (i.e., both upper interface and lower interface). The two small nuggets then grew along the radial direction and axial direction (welding direction) as the welding time increased. Eventually, the two nuggets fused into one large nugget. During the welding process, the Peltier effect between the Cu-Al caused the shift of the nugget in the welding direction. In addition, the mechanical strength and fracture mode of the weld nuggets at the upper and lower interfaces were also studied using tensile shear specimen configuration. Three failure modes were identified, namely interfacial, mixed, and pullout. The critical welding time and critical nugget diameter corresponding to the transitions of these modes were investigated. Finally, an empirical failure load formula for three-sheet weld similar to two-sheet spot weld was developed.

  12. The split-cross-bridge resistor for measuring the sheet resistance, linewidth, and line spacing of conducting layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, M. G.; Hershey, C. W.

    1986-01-01

    A new test structure was developed for evaluating the line spacing between conductors on the same layer using an electrical measurement technique. This compact structure can also be used to measure the sheet resistance, linewidth, and line pitch of the conducting layer. Using an integrated-circuit fabrication process, this structure was fabricated in diffused polycrystalline silicon and metal layers and measured optically and electrically. For the techniques used, the optical measurements were typically one-quarter micron greater than the electrical measurements. Most electrically measured line pitch values were within 2 percent of the designed value. A small difference between the measured and designed line pitch is used to validate sheet resistance, linewidth, and line spacing values.

  13. Electrochemical profiling of multi-clad aluminium sheets used in automotive heat exchangers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordo, Kirill; C. Gudla, Visweswara; Peguet, Lionel

    2018-01-01

    A combination of glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy sputtering and local electrochemical measurements was used to determine electrochemical changes upon brazing in a multi-layered Aluminium sheet (AA4343/AA3xxx/AA4343) with an additional low-Cu (AA3xxx) interlayer. Ecorr values from pot...

  14. Electrochemical profiling of multi-clad aluminium sheets used in automotive heat exchangers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordo, Kirill; Ambat, Rajan; Peguet, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to understand the mechanisms of corrosion propagation across the multi-clad structure of Al alloys sheets as a function of local alloy composition and microstructure, with and without brazing treatment. Electro-chemical behaviour at different depths was profi...

  15. Electrochemical profiling of multi-clad aluminium sheets used in automotive heat exchangers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordo, Kirill; Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Peguet, Lionel

    2018-01-01

    potentiodynamic polarization, galvanic corrosion behaviour by ZRA, microstructure and composition by SEM and TEM were investigated and compared to those obtained for sheet without the interlayer. Inward diffusion of Si from clad, and outward diffusion of Cu from core are found to degrade the corrosion properties...

  16. Metallurgical Effects of Shunting Current on Resistance Spot-Welded Joints of AA2219 Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari Vardanjani, M.; Araee, A.; Senkara, J.; Jakubowski, J.; Godek, J.

    2016-08-01

    Shunting effect is the loss of electrical current via the secondary circuit provided due to the existence of previous nugget in a series of welding spots. This phenomenon influences on metallurgical aspects of resistance spot-welded (RSW) joints in terms of quality and performance. In this paper RSW joints of AA2219 sheets with 1 mm thickness are investigated metallurgically for shunted and single spots. An electro-thermal finite element analysis is performed on the RSW process of shunted spot and temperature distribution and variation are obtained. These predictions are then compared with experimental micrographs. Three values of 5 mm, 20 mm, and infinite (i.e., single spot) are assumed for welding distance. Numerical and experimental results are matching each other in terms of nugget and HAZ geometry as increasing distance raised nugget size and symmetry of HAZ. In addition, important effect of shunting current on nugget thickness, microstructure, and Copper segregation on HAZ grain boundaries were discovered. A quantitative analysis is also performed about the influence of welding distance on important properties including ratio of nugget thickness and diameter ( r t), ratio of HAZ area on shunted and free side of nugget ( r HA), and ratio of equivalent segregated and total amount of Copper, measured in sample ( r Cu) on HAZ. Increasing distance from 5 mm to infinite, indicated a gain of 111.04, -45.55, and -75.15% in r t, r HA, and r Cu, respectively, while obtained ratios for 20 mm welding distance was suitable compared to single spot.

  17. Vertical Soil Profiling Using a Galvanic Contact Resistivity Scanning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan Pan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Proximal sensing of soil electromagnetic properties is widely used to map spatial land heterogeneity. The mapping instruments use galvanic contact, capacitive coupling or electromagnetic induction. Regardless of the type of instrument, the geometrical configuration between signal transmitting and receiving elements typically defines the shape of the depth response function. To assess vertical soil profiles, many modern instruments use multiple transmitter-receiver pairs. Alternatively, vertical electrical sounding can be used to measure changes in apparent soil electrical conductivity with depth at a specific location. This paper examines the possibility for the assessment of soil profiles using a dynamic surface galvanic contact resistivity scanning approach, with transmitting and receiving electrodes configured in an equatorial dipole-dipole array. An automated scanner system was developed and tested in agricultural fields with different soil profiles. While operating in the field, the distance between current injecting and measuring pairs of rolling electrodes was varied continuously from 40 to 190 cm. The preliminary evaluation included a comparison of scan results from 20 locations to shallow (less than 1.2 m deep soil profiles and to a two-layer soil profile model defined using an electromagnetic induction instrument.

  18. Onset of fast "ideal" tearing in thin current sheets: Dependence on the equilibrium current profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, F.; Velli, M.; Tenerani, A.; Del Sarto, D.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we study the scaling relations for the triggering of the fast, or "ideal," tearing instability starting from equilibrium configurations relevant to astrophysical as well as laboratory plasmas that differ from the simple Harris current sheet configuration. We present the linear tearing instability analysis for equilibrium magnetic fields which (a) go to zero at the boundary of the domain and (b) contain a double current sheet system (the latter previously studied as a Cartesian proxy for the m = 1 kink mode in cylindrical plasmas). More generally, we discuss the critical aspect ratio scalings at which the growth rates become independent of the Lundquist number S, in terms of the dependence of the Δ' parameter on the wavenumber k of unstable modes. The scaling Δ'(k) with k at small k is found to categorize different equilibria broadly: the critical aspect ratios may be even smaller than L/a ˜ Sα with α = 1/3 originally found for the Harris current sheet, but there exists a general lower bound α ≥ 1/4.

  19. Continuous resistivity profiling data from the Corsica River Estuary, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, V.A.; Bratton, J.F.; Worley, C.R.; Crusius, J.; Kroeger, K.D.

    2011-01-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into Maryland's Corsica River Estuary was investigated as part of a larger study to determine its importance in nutrient delivery to the Chesapeake Bay. The Corsica River Estuary represents a coastal lowland setting typical of much of the eastern bay. An interdisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) science team conducted field operations in the lower estuary in April and May 2007. Resource managers are concerned about nutrients that are entering the estuary via SGD that may be contributing to eutrophication, harmful algal blooms, and fish kills. Techniques employed in the study included continuous resistivity profiling (CRP), piezometer sampling of submarine groundwater, and collection of a time series of radon tracer activity in surface water. A CRP system measures electrical resistivity of saturated subestuarine sediments to distinguish those bearing fresh water (high resistivity) from those with saline or brackish pore water (low resistivity). This report describes the collection and processing of CRP data and summarizes the results. Based on a grid of 67.6 kilometers of CRP data, low-salinity (high-resistivity) groundwater extended approximately 50-400 meters offshore from estuary shorelines at depths of 5 to >12 meters below the sediment surface, likely beneath a confining unit. A band of low-resistivity sediment detected along the axis of the estuary indicated the presence of a filled paleochannel containing brackish groundwater. The meandering paleochannel likely incised through the confining unit during periods of lower sea level, allowing the low-salinity groundwater plumes originating from land to mix with brackish subestuarine groundwater along the channel margins and to discharge. A better understanding of the spatial variability and geological controls of submarine groundwater flow beneath the Corsica River Estuary could lead to improved models and mitigation strategies for nutrient over-enrichment in the

  20. Malaria profiles and challenges in artemisinin resistance containment in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwe, Thet Wai; Oo, Tin; Wai, Khin Thet; Zhou, Shuisen; van Griensven, Johan; Chinnakali, Palanivel; Shah, Safieh; Thi, Aung

    2017-04-25

    This study examined evolving malaria profiles from January, 2010 to December, 2014 to evaluate achievements and challenges of implementing measures to prevent and control spread of artemisinin resistance in Myanmar. Using National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) data, a cross-sectional descriptive study of 52 townships in artemisinin-resistant containment areas in Myanmar was conducted. Annual program data were analysed, and trends over time are graphically presented. In the 52 study townships populated by 8.7 million inhabitants, malaria incidence showed a decreasing trend from 10.54 per 1 000 population in 2010 to 2.53 in 2014, and malaria mortalities also decreased from 1.83 per 100 000 population in 2010 to 0.17 in 2014. The proportion of confirmed to total tested malaria cases also decreased from 6 to 1%, while identification of cases improved. All cases from all parasites species, including Plasmodium falciparum, decreased. Coverage of LLIN (long-lasting insecticidal net)/ITN (insecticide-treated mosquito nets) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) was high in targeted areas with at-risk persons, even though the total population was not covered. In addition to passive case detection (PCD), active case detection (ACD) was conducted in hard-to-reach areas and worksites where mobile migrant populations were present. ACD improved in most areas from 2012 to 2014, but continues to need to be strengthened. The findings provide useful data on the malaria situation in artemisinin-resistant initiative areas, which may be useful for the NMCP to meet its elimination goal. These profiles could contribute to better planning, implementation, and evaluation of intervention activities.

  1. Assist feature printability prediction by 3-D resist profile reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xin; Huang, Jensheng; Chin, Fook; Kazarian, Aram; Kuo, Chun-Chieh

    2012-06-01

    properties may then be used to optimize the printability vs. efficacy of an SRAF either prior to or during an Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) run. The process models that are used during OPC have never been able to reliably predict which SRAFs will print. This appears to be due to the fact that OPC process models are generally created using data that does not include printed subresolution patterns. An enhancement to compact modeling capability to predict Assist Features (AF) printability is developed and discussed. A hypsometric map representing 3-D resist profile was built by applying a first principle approximation to estimate the "energy loss" from the resist top to bottom. Such a 3-D resist profile is an extrapolation of a well calibrated traditional OPC model without any additional information. Assist features are detected at either top of resist (dark field) or bottom of resist (bright field). Such detection can be done by just extracting top or bottom resist models from our 3-D resist model. There is no measurement of assist features needed when we build AF but it can be included if interested but focusing on resist calibration to account for both exposure dosage and focus change sensitivities. This approach significantly increases resist model's capability for predicting printed SRAF accuracy. And we don't need to calibrate an SRAF model in addition to the OPC model. Without increase in computation time, this compact model can draw assist feature contour with real placement and size at any vertical plane. The result is compared and validated with 3-D rigorous modeling as well as SEM images. Since this method does not change any form of compact modeling, it can be integrated into current MBAF solutions without any additional work.

  2. Electrochemical depth profiling of multilayer metallic structures: An aluminum brazing sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshar, F. Norouzi; Ambat, R.; Kwakernaak, C.

    2012-01-01

    Combinatory localized electrochemical cell and glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES) measurements were performed to obtain a thorough in depth electrochemical characterization of an aluminum brazing sheet. By defining electrochemical criteria i.e. breakdown potential, corrosion...... potential, cathodic and anodic reactivities, and tracking their changes as a function of depth, the evolution of electrochemical responses through out the material thickness were analyzed and correlated to the corresponding microstructural features. Polarization curves in 1wt% NaCl solution at pH 2.8 were...... obtained at different depths from the surface using controlled sputtering in a glow discharge optical emission spectrometer as a sample preparation technique. The anodic and cathodic reactivity of the top surface areas were significantly higher than that of the bulk, thus indicating these areas to be more...

  3. Experimental investigation into the coupling effects of magnetic field, temperature and pressure on electrical resistivity of non-oriented silicon steel sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lijun; Yu, Guodong; Zou, Jibin; Xu, Yongxiang

    2018-05-01

    In order to analyze the performance of magnetic device which operate at high temperature and high pressure, such as submersible motor, oil well transformer, the electrical resistivity of non-oriented silicon steel sheets is necessary for precise analysis. But the reports of the examination of the measuring method suitable for high temperature up to 180 °C and high pressure up to 140 MPa are few. In this paper, a measurement system based on four-probe method and Archimedes spiral shape measurement specimens is proposed. The measurement system is suitable for measuring the electrical resistivity of unconventional specimens under high temperature and high pressure and can simultaneously consider the influence of the magnetic field on the electrical resistivity. It can be seen that the electrical resistivity of the non-oriented silicon steel sheets will fluctuate instantaneously when the magnetic field perpendicular to the conductive path of the specimens is loaded or removed. The amplitude and direction of the fluctuation are not constant. Without considering the effects of fluctuations, the electrical resistivity of the non-oriented silicon steel sheets is the same when the magnetic field is loaded or removed. And the influence of temperature on the electrical resistivity of the non-oriented silicon steel sheet is still the greatest even though the temperature and the pressure are coupled together. The measurement results also show that the electrical resistivity varies linearly with temperature, so the temperature coefficient of resistivity is given in the paper.

  4. Scanning spreading resistance microscopy of shallow doping profiles in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchodolskis, A.; Hallen, A.; Gran, J.; Hansen, T.-E.; Karlsson, U.O.

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate the application of scanning spreading resistance microscopy (SSRM) for characterization of shallow highly-conductive layers formed by boron implantation of lowly doped n-type silicon substrate followed by a post-implantation annealing. The electrically active dopant concentration versus depth was obtained from a cross-section of freshly cleaved samples where the Si-surface could be clearly distinguished by depositing a SiO 2 -layer before cleavage. To quantify free carrier concentration we calibrated our data against samples with implanted/annealed boron profiles established by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). A good fit of SSRM and SIMS data is possible for free carrier concentrations lower than 10 20 cm -3 , but for higher concentrations there is a discrepancy indicating an incomplete activation of the boron

  5. Antibiotic Resistance Profile for Staphylococcus Species Recovered from Milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gad EL-Rab, S.F.; Osman, K.M.; Kamel, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    A total of 220 milk samples from buffaloes and cows (150 from buffaloes and 70 from cows) were investigated. Samples were cultured on Baird Parker media for isolation of Staphylococcus, especially S.aureus from apparently normal, clinical and subclinical mastitis cases. The total isolates were 42(19%) from raw milk samples (27 from buffaloes and 15 from cows) 220. The aim of this study is to characterize phenotypically Staphylococcus spp. The collected samples were taken from selected are as to increase the range of information available about antibiotic resistance profile. This enhances formulating strategies to reduce the spread of this bacterium and also avoiding its health hazard on animals and human beings

  6. Preparation and cold welding of silver nanowire based transparent electrodes with optical transmittances >90% and sheet resistances ohm/sq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Xu, Wei; Mao, Bingxin; Shen, Wenfeng; Yu, Yan; Tan, Ruiqin; Song, Weijie

    2018-02-15

    In this article, silver nanowires (AgNWs) with aspect ratios of 1000 and lengths up to 200 μm are obtained by a modified polyol approach. These very long AgNWs are then utilized to prepare transparent electrodes (TEs) displaying a transmittance of 91.3% at a sheet resistance of 8.6 ohm/sq without any post-treatment. Furthermore, we also demonstrate a process for the cold welding of Ag NWs by simply dipping the AgNWs films into CTAB solutions, resulting in a further improvement for the optoelectronic performance. After the post-treatment, the AgNW-based TEs can achieve a transmittance of 93% at a sheet resistance of 9.5 ohm/sq. In addition, the electric behaviors of AgNW-based TEs are investigated. In the bulk-like regime, for the as-prepared AgNW-based TEs, the Figure of merit (FOM), DC to optical conductivity ratio reaches up to 566.8. After the cold welding process, the DC to optical conductivity ratio can reach even higher values (631.6). In the percolative regime, the as-prepared and welded AgNW-based TEs can achieve Π (FOM with percolative-like behavior) values of 166.8 and 242.1, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Associations of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 ribotype profiles with clinical disease and antimicrobial resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S. R.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, N. E.

    1999-01-01

    A total of 122 Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strains were characterized thoroughly by comparing clinical and pathological observations, ribotype profiles, and antimicrobial resistance. Twenty-one different ribotype profiles were found and compared by cluster analysis, resulting in the identificat......A total of 122 Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strains were characterized thoroughly by comparing clinical and pathological observations, ribotype profiles, and antimicrobial resistance. Twenty-one different ribotype profiles were found and compared by cluster analysis, resulting...

  8. Joining of Dissimilar alloy Sheets (Al 6063&AISI 304 during Resistance Spot Welding Process: A Feasibility Study for Automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Sreenivasulu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Present design trends in automotive manufacture have shifted emphasis to alternative lightweight materials in order to achieve higher fuel efficiency and to bring down vehicle emission. Although some other joining techniques are more and more being used, spot welding still remains the primary joining method in automobile manufacturing so far. Spot welds for automotive applications should have a sufficiently large diameter, so that nugget pullout mode is the dominant failure mode. Interfacial mode is unacceptable due to its low load carrying and energy absorption capability. Strength tests with different static loading were performed in, to reveal the failure mechanisms for the lap-shear geometry and the cross-tension geometry. Based on the literature survey performed, venture into this work was amply motivated by the fact that a little research work has been conducted to joining of dissimilar materials like non ferrous to ferrous. Most of the research works concentrated on joining of different materials like steel to steel or aluminium alloy to aluminium alloy by resistance spot welding. In this work, an experimental study on the resistance spot weldability of aluminium alloy (Al 6063 and austenitic stainless steel (AISI304 sheets, which are lap joined by using a pedestal type resistance spot welding machine. Welding was conducted using a 45-deg truncated cone copper electrode with 10-mm face diameter. The weld nugget diameter, force estimation under lap shear test and T – peel test were investigated using digital type tensometer attached with capacitive displacement transducer (Mikrotech, Bangalore, Model: METM2000ER1. The results shows that joining of Al 6063 and AISI 304 thin sheets by RSW method are feasible for automotive structural joints where the loads are below 1000N act on them, it is observed that by increasing the spots per unit length, then the joint with standing strength to oppose failure is also increased linearly incase of

  9. Insulin Resistance Predicts Atherogenic Lipoprotein Profile in Nondiabetic Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia De C. Cartolano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Atherogenic diabetes is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk and mortality in diabetic individuals; however, the impact of insulin resistance (IR in lipid metabolism in preclinical stages is generally underreported. For that, we evaluated the capacity of IR to predict an atherogenic lipid subfraction profile. Methods. Complete clinical evaluation and biochemical analysis (lipid, glucose profile, LDL, and HDL subfractions and LDL phenotype and size were performed in 181 patients. The impact of IR as a predictor of atherogenic lipoproteins was tested by logistic regression analysis in raw and adjusted models. Results. HDL-C and Apo AI were significantly lower in individuals with IR. Individuals with IR had a higher percentage of small HDL particles, lower percentage in the larger ones, and reduced frequency of phenotype A (IR = 62%; non-IR = 83%. IR individuals had reduced probability to have large HDL (OR = 0.213; CI = 0.999–0.457 and had twice more chances to show increased small HDL (OR = 2.486; CI = 1.341–7.051. IR was a significant predictor of small LDL (OR = 3.075; CI = 1.341–7.051 and atherogenic phenotype (OR = 3.176; CI = 1.469–6.867. Conclusion. IR, previously DM2 diagnosis, is a strong predictor of quantitative and qualitative features of lipoproteins directly associated with an increased atherogenic risk.

  10. Defining the Relationship Between Phenotypic and Genotypic Resistance Profiles of Multidrug-Resistant Enterobacterial Clinical Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Lamis; Abdel Aziz, Neveen A; Hassan, Walaa M

    2018-05-11

    Fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides offer effective therapy for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing enterobacterial infections, but their usefulness is threatened by increasing resistant strains. This study was conducted to demonstrate the phenotypic outcomes of the coexistence of genetic determinants mediating resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and quinolones in enterobacterial isolates collected from patients with health-care-associated infections in Egypt. ESBL phenotype was determined using double-disk synergy test (DDST). The PCR technique was used to detect the presence of the genes mediating quinolone resistance (qnr and aac(6')-Ib-cr) and coexistence with ESBL genes. We also examined the association between the genetic makeup of the isolates and their resistance profiles including effect on MIC results. Phenotypically ESBLs were detected in 60-82% of the enterobacterial isolates. ESBL, qnr and aac(6')-Ib-cr genes were detected with the following percentages in Citrobacter isolates (69%, 69%, and 43%, respectively), E.coli isolates (65%, 70%, and 45%, respectively), Enterobacter isolates (56%, 67%, and 33%, respectively), and finally Klebsiella isolates (42%, 66%, and 25%, respectively). The coexistence of these multiresistant genetic elements significantly increased the MIC values of the tested antibiotics from different classes. We suggest using blaTEM, blaCTX-M-15, qnr, and aac(6')-Ib-cr genes for better and faster prediction of suitable antibiotic therapy with effective doses against ESBL-producing isolates harboring plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants. Amikacin, meropenem, gentamicin, and imipenem seem to be better choices of treatment for such life-threatening infections, because of their remaining highest activity.

  11. Optimization of resistance spot welding on the assembly of refractory alloy 50Mo-50Re thin sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jianhui [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, 177 Anderson Hall, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Jiang, Xiuping [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, 177 Anderson Hall, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Zeng, Qiang [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, 177 Anderson Hall, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Zhai, Tongguang [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, 177 Anderson Hall, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)]. E-mail: tzhai0@engr.uky.edu; Leonhardt, Todd [Rhenium Alloys Inc., Elyria, OH 44036 (United States); Farrell, John [Semicon Associates, 695 Laco Drive, Lexington, KY 40510 (United States); Umstead, Williams [Semicon Associates, 695 Laco Drive, Lexington, KY 40510 (United States); Effgen, Michael P. [Semicon Associates, 695 Laco Drive, Lexington, KY 40510 (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Resistance spot welding (RSW) was employed to pre-join refractory alloy 50Mo-50Re (wt%) sheet with a 0.127 mm gage. Five important welding parameters (hold time, electrode, ramp time, weld current and electrode force) were adjusted in an attempt to optimize the welding quality. It was found that increasing the hold time from 50 ms to 999 ms improved the weld strength. Use of rod-shaped electrodes produced symmetric nugget and enhanced the weld strength. Use of a ramp time of 8 ms minimized electrode sticking and molten metal expulsion. The weld strength continuously increased with increasing the weld current up to 1100 A, but the probabilities of occurrence of electrode sticking and molten metal expulsion were also increased. Electrode force was increased from 4.44 N to 17.8 N, in order to reduce the inconsistency of the welding quality. Welding defects including porosities, columnar grains and composition segregation were also studied.

  12. Delineation of a volcanic ash body using electrical resistivity profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Jianghai; Ludvigson, Greg; Miller, Richard D; Mayer, Lindsay; Haj, Adel

    2010-01-01

    Four lines of electrical resistivity profiling (ERP) were performed to define the extent of a shallow Quaternary volcanic ash deposit being mined in the United States. Inversion results of ERP proved suitable for defining the thickness and lateral extent of the volcanic ash deposit at this testing site. These interpretations were confirmed by shallow borehole drilling. The model sensitivity information indicates that inverted models possess sufficient resolving power down to a depth of 7 m and are fairly consistent in terms of horizontal resolution along the four ERP lines. The bottom of most of the volcanic ash deposit in the study area is less than 7 m in depth. Based on synthesis of the ERP and drill information, the limits of the mineable ash bed resources were clearly defined. Moreover, by integrating the ERP results with a minimal number of optimally placed borings, the volume of the volcanic ash deposit was established at a lesser cost, and with greater accuracy than would be possible with a traditionally designed grid drilling programme

  13. Direct localised measurement of electrical resistivity profile in rat and embryonic chick retinas using a microprobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald van Lintel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an alternative technique to perform a direct and local measurement of electrical resistivities in a layered retinal tissue. Information on resistivity changes along the depth in a retina is important for modelling retinal stimulation by retinal prostheses. Existing techniques for resistivity-depth profiling have the drawbacks of a complicated experimental setup, a less localised resistivity probing and/or lower stability for measurements. We employed a flexible microprobe to measure local resistivity with bipolar impedance spectroscopy at various depths in isolated rat and chick embryo retinas for the first time. Small electrode spacing permitted high resolution measurements and the probe flexibility contributed to stable resistivity profiling. The resistivity was directly calculated based on the resistive part of the impedance measured with the Peak Resistance Frequency (PRF methodology. The resistivity-depth profiles for both rat and chick embryo models are in accordance with previous mammalian and avian studies in literature. We demonstrate that the measured resistivity at each depth has its own PRF signature. Resistivity profiles obtained with our setup provide the basis for the construction of an electric model of the retina. This model can be used to predict variations in parameters related to retinal stimulation and especially in the design and optimisation of efficient retinal implants.

  14. Numerical Analysis Of The Resistance To Pullout Test Of Clinched Assemblies Of Thin Metal Sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jomaa, Moez; Billardon, Rene

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the finite element analysis of the resistance of a clinch point to pullout test -that follows the numerical analysis of the forming process of the point-. The simulations have been validated by comparison with experimental evidences. The influence on the numerical predictions of various computation and process parameters have been evaluated

  15. Gene Expression Profiling of Cecropin B-Resistant Haemophilus parasuis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Chunmei; Chen, Fangzhou; Hu, Han; Li, Wentao; Wang, Yang; Chen, Pin; Liu, Yingyu; Ku, Xugang; He, Qigai; Chen, Huanchun; Xue, Feiqun

    2014-01-01

    Synthetically designed antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) present the potential of replacing antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial infections. However, microbial resistance to AMPs has been reported and little is known regarding the underlying mechanism of such resistance. The naturally occurring AMP

  16. Standard Test Method for Impact Resistance of Monolithic Polycarbonate Sheet by Means of a Falling Weight

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1995-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the energy required to initiate failure in monolithic polycarbonate sheet material under specified conditions of impact using a free falling weight. 1.2 Two specimen types are defined as follows: 1.2.1 Type A consists of a flat plate test specimen and employs a clamped ring support. 1.2.2 Type B consists of a simply supported three-point loaded beam specimen (Fig. 1) and is recommended for use with material which can not be failed using the Type A specimen. For a maximum drop height of 6.096 m (20 ft) and a maximum drop weight of 22.68 kg (50 lb), virgin polycarbonate greater than 12.70 mm (1/2 in.) thick will probably require use of the Type B specimen. Note 1 - See also ASTM Methods: D 1709, D 2444 and D 3029. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of reg...

  17. Modelling and optimization of cut quality during pulsed Nd:YAG laser cutting of thin Al-alloy sheet for straight profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amit; Yadava, Vinod

    2012-02-01

    Thin sheets of aluminium alloys are widely used in aerospace and automotive industries for specific applications. Nd:YAG laser beam cutting is one of the most promising sheetmetal cutting process for cutting sheets for any profile. Al-alloy sheets are difficult to cut by laser beam because of its highly reflective nature. This paper presents modelling and optimization of cut quality during pulsed Nd:YAG laser cutting of thin Al-alloy sheet for straight profile. In the present study, four input process parameters such as oxygen pressure, pulse width, pulse frequency, and cutting speed and two output parameters such as average kerf taper ( Ta) and average surface roughness ( Ra) are considered. The hybrid approach comprising of Taguchi methodology (TM) and response surface methodology (RSM) is used for modelling whereas multi-objective optimization is performed using hybrid approach of TM and grey relational analysis (GRA) coupled with entropy measurement methodology. The entropy measurement methodology is employed for the calculation of weight corresponding to each quality characteristic. The results indicate that the hybrid approaches applied for modelling and optimization of the LBC process are reasonable.

  18. Current-induced nonuniform enhancement of sheet resistance in A r+ -irradiated SrTi O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Debangsu; Frenkel, Yiftach; Davidovitch, Sagi; Persky, Eylon; Haham, Noam; Gabay, Marc; Kalisky, Beena; Klein, Lior

    2017-06-01

    The sheet resistance Rs of A r+ irradiated SrTi O3 in patterns with a length scale of several microns increases significantly below ˜40 K in connection with driving currents exceeding a certain threshold. The initial lower Rs is recovered upon warming with accelerated recovery around 70 and 160 K. Scanning superconducting quantum interference device microscopy shows local irreversible changes in the spatial distribution of the current with a length scale of several microns. We attribute the observed nonuniform enhancement of Rs to the attraction of the charged single-oxygen and dioxygen vacancies by the crystallographic domain boundaries in SrTi O3 . The boundaries, which are nearly ferroelectric below 40 K, are polarized by the local electrical field associated with the driven current and the clustered vacancies which suppress conductivity in their vicinity and yield a noticeable enhancement in the device resistance when the current path width is on the order of the boundary extension. The temperatures of accelerated conductivity recovery are associated with the energy barriers for the diffusion of the two types of vacancies.

  19. Cyclic fatigue of a high-strength corrosion-resistant sheet TRIP steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terent'ev, V. F.; Alekseeva, L. E.; Korableva, S. A.; Prosvirnin, D. V.; Pankova, M. N.; Filippov, G. A.

    2014-04-01

    The mechanical properties of 0.3- and 0.8-mm-thick high-strength corrosion-resistant TRIP steel having various levels of strength properties are studied during static and cyclic loading in the high-cycle fatigue range. The fatigue fracture surface is analyzed by fractography, and the obtained results demonstrate ductile and quasi-brittle fracture mechanisms of this steel depending on the strength properties of the steel and the content of deformation martensite in it.

  20. Comparative Analysis of Welded and Adhesive Joints Strength Made of Acid-Resistant Stainless Steel Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Miturska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the selected results of strength tests on the effectiveness of bonding high-alloy steel 1.4310. Sheet steel is one of the materials that are difficult to activate energy. Effective joining of it is difficult, requires selection of the appropriate bonding technology. The paper focuses on the comparative tests the shear strength of one-single lap welded and bonded joints. The welding process was performed 3 groups of samples TIG welding and argon, where the variable value of the welding process was current: 60A, 70A, 80A. The adhesion process was performed in 6 groups of samples which differed in the method of surface preparation and the type of the adhesive. Adhesive joints were made by using adhesive of epoxy resin and a hardener: Epidian 61/TFF at a mass ratio of 100:22 and Epidian 61/IDA at a mass ratio of 100:40. As a way of surface preparation applied 3 different, but simplified and environmentally friendly methods of surface preparation: degreasing with using cleaner Loctite 7061, abrasive machining with P320 and degreasing and grinding with abrasive T800 and degreasing were used. Make joints and curing the adhesive joints were carried out at ambient temperature. Analyzed the joints were tested destructive - which set out the shear strength, in accordance with DIN EN 1465 on the testing machine Zwick / Roell Z150. Based on the results of research it was found that better results were obtained for the maximum welded joints, but this result was similar to the maximum value of the strength of the adhesive bond.

  1. Fabrication of Robust Super hydrophobic Bamboo Based on ZnO Nano sheet Networks with Improved Water-, UV-, and Fire-Resistant Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.; Sun, Q.; Yao, Q.; Wang, J.; Han, Sh.; Jin, Ch.

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo with water-resistant, UV-resistant, and fire-resistant properties was desirable in modern society. In this paper, the original bamboo was firstly treated with ZnO sol and then hydrothermally the ZnO nano sheet networks grow onto the bamboo surface and subsequently modified with fluoro alkyl silane (FAS-17). The FAS-17 treated bamboo substrate exhibited not only robust super hydrophobicity with a high contact angle of 161° but also stable repellency towards simulated acid rain (ph = 3) with a contact angle of 152°. Except for its robust super hydrophobicity, such a bamboo also presents superior water-resistant, UV-resistant, and fire-resistant properties.

  2. Phylogeny and resistance profiles of HIV-1 POL sequences from rectal biopsies and blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzenstein, T L; Petersen, A B; Storgaard, M

    2010-01-01

    The phylogeny and resistance profiles of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) sequences were compared among six patients with HIV-1 who had received numerous treatments. RNA and DNA fractions were obtained from concurrent blood and rectal biopsy...... samples. Phylogenetic trees and resistance profiles showed that the rectal mucosa and the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) harbored different HIV-1 strains. The resistance-associated mutations found in each strain corresponded to the treatment history of the patients. The resistance mutations...... acquired during earlier treatment regimens were detected in the sequences obtained from the rectal samples and in the PBMCs in several of the patients. Also, differences in the resistance profiles were observed between anatomical sites and between RNA and DNA fractions. Thus, a single sample probably...

  3. Antibiotic of resistence profile of Salmonella spp. serotypes isolated from retail beef in Mexico City.

    OpenAIRE

    Nova Nayarit-Ballesteros; María Salud Rubio-Lozano; Enrique Delgado-Suárez; Danilo Méndez-Medina; Diego Braña-Varela; Oscar Rodas-Suárez

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the serotype and antibiotic resistance profile of Salmonella spp. isolated from retail ground beef in Mexico City. Materials and methods. A total of 100 samples of ground beef were analyzed. The pathogen was isolated by conventional methods and confirmed by PCR (invA gene, 284 bp). The antibiotic resistance profile was determined by the Kirby-Bauer method while serotyping was performed according to the Kauffman-White scheme. Results. We isolated a total of 19 strains o...

  4. Hall effect measurement for precise sheet resistance and thickness evaluation of Ruthenium thin films using non-equidistant four-point probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Westergaard Østerberg

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a new micro Hall effect measurement method using non-equidistant electrodes. We show theoretically and verify experimentally that it is advantageous to use non-equidistant electrodes for samples with low Hall sheet resistance. We demonstrate the new method by experiments where Hall sheet carrier densities and Hall mobilities of Ruthenium thin films (3-30 nm are determined. The measurements show that it is possible to measure Hall mobilities as low as 1 cm2V−1s−1 with a relative standard deviation of 2-3%. We show a linear relation between measured Hall sheet carrier density and film thickness. Thus, the method can be used to monitor thickness variations of ultra-thin metal films.

  5. The Influence of Welding Parameters on the Nugget Formation of Resistance Spot Welding of Inconel 625 Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei Ashtiani, Hamid Reza; Zarandooz, Roozbeh

    2015-09-01

    A 2D axisymmetric electro-thermo-mechanical finite element (FE) model is developed to investigate the effect of current intensity, welding time, and electrode tip diameter on temperature distributions and nugget size in resistance spot welding (RSW) process of Inconel 625 superalloy sheets using ABAQUS commercial software package. The coupled electro-thermal analysis and uncoupled thermal-mechanical analysis are used for modeling process. In order to improve accuracy of simulation, material properties including physical, thermal, and mechanical properties have been considered to be temperature dependent. The thickness and diameter of computed weld nuggets are compared with experimental results and good agreement is observed. So, FE model developed in this paper provides prediction of quality and shape of the weld nuggets and temperature distributions with variation of each process parameter, suitably. Utilizing this FE model assists in adjusting RSW parameters, so that expensive experimental process can be avoided. The results show that increasing welding time and current intensity lead to an increase in the nugget size and electrode indentation, whereas increasing electrode tip diameter decreases nugget size and electrode indentation.

  6. Effects of Sheet Resistance on mc-Si Selective Emitter Solar Cells Using Laser Opening and One-Step Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Shih Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to simplify process procedure and improve conversion efficiency (η, we present new steps of laser opening and one-step POCl3 diffusion to fabricate selective emitter (SE solar cells, in which heavily doped regions (HDR and lightly doped regions (LDR were formed simultaneously. For HDR, we divided six cells into two groups for POCl3 diffusion with sheet resistance (RS of 40 Ω/sq (for group A and 50 Ω/sq (for group B. The dry oxidation duration at a temperature of 850°C was 18, 25, and 35 min for the 3 different cells in each group. This created six SE samples with different RS pairings for the HDR and LDR. The optimal cell (sample SE2 with RS values of 40/81 Ω/Sq in HDR/LDR showed the best η of 16.20%, open circuit voltage (VOC of 612.52 mV, and fill factor (FF of 75.83%. The improvement ratios are 1.57% for η and 14.32% for external quantum efficiency (EQE as compared with those of the two-step diffusion process of our previous study. Moreover, the one-step laser opening process and omitting the step of removing the damage caused by laser ablation especially reduce chemistry pollution, thus showing ecofriendly process for use in industrial-scale production.

  7. Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of the Two Porcine Salmonella Typhimurium Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal METİNER

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to detect the presence of the Salmonella species in swine with diarrhea, and to investigate their antimicrobial resistance and extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL and/or AmpC β-lactamase production. For this purpose, stool samples from three commercial pig farms in Istanbul and Tekirdag were collected and processed for Salmonella isolation by culture and isolates were identified by biochemical activity tests. Salmonella isolates were confirmed by PCR then serotyped. Antimicrobial resistance and ESBL and AmpC production of the isolates were determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI standard. In the study, two hundred and thirty eight stool samples were examined. Salmonella spp. were obtained from 2 samples, and the isolation rate was determined as 0.8%. Both of the isolates were defined as Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (serotype 1, 4, [5], 12: I: 1, 2 by serotyping. Both of them were resistant to cefaclor, cloxacillin and lincomycin (100%. Multidrug resistance (resistance ≥3 antimicrobials observed in all isolates. ESBL and AmpC production were not detected in any of the isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of S. Typhimurium in pigs with diarrhea in Turkey. This study also represents the first report of multi-drug resistant S. Typhimurium isolates from pig stools in Turkey.

  8. Adhesion, resistivity and structural, optical properties of molybdenum on steel sheet coated with barrier layer done by sol–gel for CIGS solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amouzou, Dodji, E-mail: dodji.amouzou@fundp.ac.be [Research Centre in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur (FUNDP), Rue de Bruxelles 61, 5000 Namur (Belgium); Dumont, Jacques [Research Centre in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur (FUNDP), Rue de Bruxelles 61, 5000 Namur (Belgium); Fourdrinier, Lionel; Richir, Jean-Baptiste; Maseri, Fabrizio [CRM-Group, Boulevard de Colonster, B 57, 4000 Liège (Belgium); Sporken, Robert [Research Centre in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur (FUNDP), Rue de Bruxelles 61, 5000 Namur (Belgium)

    2013-03-01

    Molybdenum films are investigated on stainless steel substrates coated with polysilazane based sol–gel and SiO{sub x} layers for flexible CIGS solar cell applications. Thermal stability of the multilayer has been studied. The thickness of polysilazane films are significantly reduced (17%) after heat treatment suggesting a thermal degradation. Four different microstructures were found for Mo films by varying argon total pressure from 2.6 × 10{sup −1} Pa to 2.6 Pa. It was shown that continuous films, low sheet resistance (0.5 Ω/□) and well facetted grains can be achieved when Mo films are deposited on heated substrates at homologous temperature, T of 0.2. - Highlights: ► Steel sheet is functionalized for Cu[Inx,Ga(1 − x)Se2] solar cells. ► Varying deposition pressure impacts the microstructure of Mo films. ► High thermal stability of the sol gel based barrier layer has been investigated. ► Low sheet resistance and continuous Mo films have been obtained at 550°C. ► Thermal stability of functionalized steel sheets at 550°C has been investigated.

  9. Prediction of Phenotypic Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles From Whole Genome Sequences of Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuert, Saskia; Nair, Satheesh; Day, Martin R; Doumith, Michel; Ashton, Philip M; Mellor, Kate C; Jenkins, Claire; Hopkins, Katie L; Woodford, Neil; de Pinna, Elizabeth; Godbole, Gauri; Dallman, Timothy J

    2018-01-01

    Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica (NTS), is essential for monitoring transmission of resistance from the food chain to humans, and for establishing effective treatment protocols. We evaluated the prediction of phenotypic resistance in NTS from genotypic profiles derived from whole genome sequencing (WGS). Genes and chromosomal mutations responsible for phenotypic resistance were sought in WGS data from 3,491 NTS isolates received by Public Health England's Gastrointestinal Bacteria Reference Unit between April 2014 and March 2015. Inferred genotypic AMR profiles were compared with phenotypic susceptibilities determined for fifteen antimicrobials using EUCAST guidelines. Discrepancies between phenotypic and genotypic profiles for one or more antimicrobials were detected for 76 isolates (2.18%) although only 88/52,365 (0.17%) isolate/antimicrobial combinations were discordant. Of the discrepant results, the largest number were associated with streptomycin (67.05%, n = 59). Pan-susceptibility was observed in 2,190 isolates (62.73%). Overall, resistance to tetracyclines was most common (26.27% of isolates, n = 917) followed by sulphonamides (23.72%, n = 828) and ampicillin (21.43%, n = 748). Multidrug resistance (MDR), i.e., resistance to three or more antimicrobial classes, was detected in 848 isolates (24.29%) with resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracyclines being the most common MDR profile ( n = 231; 27.24%). For isolates with this profile, all but one were S . Typhimurium and 94.81% ( n = 219) had the resistance determinants bla TEM-1, strA-strB, sul2 and tet (A). Extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes were identified in 41 isolates (1.17%) and multiple mutations in chromosomal genes associated with ciprofloxacin resistance in 82 isolates (2.35%). This study showed that WGS is suitable as a rapid means of determining AMR patterns of NTS for public health surveillance.

  10. Profiling of barrier capacitance and spreading resistance using a transient linearly increasing voltage technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaubas, E; Ceponis, T; Kusakovskij, J

    2011-08-01

    A technique for the combined measurement of barrier capacitance and spreading resistance profiles using a linearly increasing voltage pulse is presented. The technique is based on the measurement and analysis of current transients, due to the barrier and diffusion capacitance, and the spreading resistance, between a needle probe and sample. To control the impact of deep traps in the barrier capacitance, a steady state bias illumination with infrared light was employed. Measurements of the spreading resistance and barrier capacitance profiles using a stepwise positioned probe on cross sectioned silicon pin diodes and pnp structures are presented.

  11. The Effects of Dilute Sulfuric Acid on Sheet Resistance and Transmittance in Poly(3,4-thylenedioxythiophene: Poly(styrenesulfonate Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teen-Hang Meen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The conductivity of poly(3,4-thylenedioxythiophene: poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT: PSS films by adding various molar concentrations of sulfuric acid (H2SO4 was improved and studied in this paper. The sheet resistance of the doped PEDOT: PSS film was enhanced with increasing the ratio of H2SO4, but it drops after the maximum sheet resistance. The reason for this phenomenon is resulting from the fact that the H2SO4 preferentially react with the sorbitol which is so-called the pinacol rearrangement. The nonconductive anions of some PSS− were substituted by the conductive anions of hydrogen sulfate (HSO4- when the residual H2SO4 reacted with PSS. In addition to the substitution reaction, PEDOT chains were increasingly aggregated with increasing the ratio of H2SO4. After doped H2SO4, the sheet resistance of H2SO4-doped PEDOT: PSS film is improved nearly 36%; the surface roughness is reduced from 1.268 nm to 0.822 nm and the transmittance is up to 91.9% in the visible wavelength range from 400 to 700 nm.

  12. Antibiotic resistance profile and phenotypic detection of beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Cockroaches are carriers of numerous microorganisms. However, there is paucity of information on their role as potential reservoir for beta-lactamase producers. Objectives: This research determined the antibiotics susceptibility profile of Beta-lactamase producing Gram-negative bacteria isolated from ...

  13. Antimicrobial resistance profile in bacterial isolates from subclinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to investigate subclinical mastitis causing pathogens in dairy lactating cows and determine their antimicrobial susceptibility profile in rural and peri-urban areas of Thika, Mathioya and Kieni East Sub County. California Mastitis Test (CMT) was used to screen one hundred and sixteen lactating ...

  14. Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles and Diversity in Salmonella from Humans and Cattle, 2004-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afema, J A; Mather, A E; Sischo, W M

    2015-11-01

    Analysis of long-term anti-microbial resistance (AMR) data is useful to understand source and transmission dynamics of AMR. We analysed 5124 human clinical isolates from Washington State Department of Health, 391 cattle clinical isolates from the Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory and 1864 non-clinical isolates from foodborne disease research on dairies in the Pacific Northwest. Isolates were assigned profiles based on phenotypic resistance to 11 anti-microbials belonging to eight classes. Salmonella Typhimurium (ST), Salmonella Newport (SN) and Salmonella Montevideo (SM) were the most common serovars in both humans and cattle. Multinomial logistic regression showed ST and SN from cattle had greater probability of resistance to multiple classes of anti-microbials than ST and SN from humans (P resistant ST and SN for people, occurrence of profiles unique to cattle and not observed in temporally related human isolates indicates these profiles are circulating in cattle only. We used various measures to assess AMR diversity, conditional on the weighting of rare versus abundant profiles. AMR profile richness was greater in the common serovars from humans, although both source data sets were dominated by relatively few profiles. The greater profile richness in human Salmonella may be due to greater diversity of sources entering the human population compared to cattle or due to continuous evolution in the human environment. Also, AMR diversity was greater in clinical compared to non-clinical cattle Salmonella, and this could be due to anti-microbial selection pressure in diseased cattle that received treatment. The use of bootstrapping techniques showed that although there were shared profiles between humans and cattle, the expected and observed number of profiles was different, suggesting Salmonella and associated resistance from humans and cattle may not be wholly derived from a common population. © 2014 The Authors. Zoonoses and Public Health Published by

  15. Distribution of Gram Negative Bacteria and Evaluation of Resistance Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Pamukcuoglu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, we aimed to examine the distributon of Gram negative bacteria isolated from urine cultures of out-patients in Afyonkarahisar State Hospital and evaluate the antimicrobial resistance rates of these pathogens. Material and Method: Urine samples of out-patients which were sent to microbiology laboratory between 2012-2013 were retrospectively evaluated. The isolates were identified using conventional methods and/or automated Vitec 2.0 system. Antibiogram sensitivities were determined by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method or automated system and interpreted on the basis of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CSI criteria. Double disc sinergy test (DDST or Vitec 2.0 system was used to detect extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL.When conventional methods could%u2019t be clarified according to their colony morphologies, gram staining patterns, biochemical test; automated system has been used. Results: A total of 671 isolates acquired from urine samples were studied. 427 Escherichia coli (63.6 %, 165 Klebsiella spp. (24.6 %, 22 Pseudomonas spp. (3.3 %, nine Acinetobacter spp. (1.3 %, 41 Proteus spp. (6.1 % and seven Serratia (1.0 % strains were identified among isolates. 97 E.coli (22.8 % and 41 Klebsiella (24.8 % isolates were ESBL positive. Most common bacteria were E.coli, 31.1 % of which were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 16 % to ciprofloxacin and 3.6 % to nitrofurantoin. Among Enterobacteriaceae, no resistance aganist carbapenems were detected. Moreover, aminoglicoside sensitivity rate was significantly high in this group. Discussion: Microorganisms that have progressively increasing antimicrobial resistance should be considered in the treatment of urinary tract infections. It is also important to use the most appropriate antibiotics to avoid unnecessary usage of these drugs in order to decrease drug resistance rates and ESBL production which may effect the success of the treatment.

  16. Antibiotic of resistence profile of Salmonella spp. serotypes isolated from retail beef in Mexico City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nova Nayarit-Ballesteros

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the serotype and antibiotic resistance profile of Salmonella spp. isolated from retail ground beef in Mexico City. Materials and methods. A total of 100 samples of ground beef were analyzed. The pathogen was isolated by conventional methods and confirmed by PCR (invA gene, 284 bp. The antibiotic resistance profile was determined by the Kirby-Bauer method while serotyping was performed according to the Kauffman-White scheme. Results. We isolated a total of 19 strains of Lomita (6, Derby (4, Senftenberg (2, Javiana and Cannsttat (1 and undeter- mined (5 serotypes. The strains showed a high resistance rate to ampicillin (18/19, carbenicillin (16/19, tetracyclin (13/19, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (13/19. Multidrug resistance was observed in 14 isolates. Conclusions. Several Salmonella spp. serotypes of public health significance are circulating in ground beef sold in the major Mexican city. Some of these strains are multi-drug resistance.

  17. Advanced characterization of carrier profiles in germanium using micro-machined contact probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarysse, T.; Konttinen, M.; Parmentier, B.

    2012-01-01

    of new concepts based on micro machined, closely spaced contact probes (10 μm pitch). When using four probes to perform sheet resistance measurements, a quantitative carrier profile extraction based on the evolution of the sheet resistance versus depth along a beveled surface is obtained. Considering...... the properties of both approaches on Al+ implants in germanium with different anneal treatments....

  18. New Technologies for Rapid Bacterial Identification and Antibiotic Resistance Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Shana O

    2017-04-01

    Conventional approaches to bacterial identification and drug susceptibility testing typically rely on culture-based approaches that take 2 to 7 days to return results. The long turnaround times contribute to the spread of infectious disease, negative patient outcomes, and the misuse of antibiotics that can contribute to antibiotic resistance. To provide new solutions enabling faster bacterial analysis, a variety of approaches are under development that leverage single-cell analysis, microfluidic concentration and detection strategies, and ultrasensitive readout mechanisms. This review discusses recent advances in this area and the potential of new technologies to enable more effective management of infectious disease.

  19. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply of low-carbon steel sheets for LHC resistive dipole magnets

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply of 1 106 tonnes of low-carbon steel sheets for the MBW, MBXW and MCBW resistive dipole magnets for the LHC. Following a market survey (MS-2619/SL/LHC) carried out among 62 firms in sixteen Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2911/SL/LHC) was sent on 6 March 2001 to 11 firms in seven Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received one tender. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the firm COCKERILL SAMBRE (BE), the only bidder, for the supply of 1 106 tonnes of low-carbon steel sheets for the MBW, MBXW and MCBW resistive dipole magnets for a total amount of 984 803 euros (1 511 328 Swiss francs), not subject to revision until 1 January 2003, with an option for the supply of up to 15% additional steel sheets, for a total amount of 147 720 euros (226 699 Swiss francs), not subject to revision until 1 January 2003, bringing the total amount to a maximum of 1 132 523 euros (1 738 027 Swiss francs), not s...

  20. Radiation protecting sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makiguchi, Hiroshi.

    1989-01-01

    As protection sheets used in radioactivity administration areas, a thermoplastic polyurethane composition sheet with a thickness of less 0.5 mm, solid content (ash) of less than 5% and a shore D hardness of less than 60 is used. A composite sheet with thickness of less than 0.5 mm laminated or coated with such a thermoplastic polyurethane composition as a surface layer and the thermoplastic polyurethane composition sheet applied with secondary fabrication are used. This can satisfy all of the required properties, such as draping property, abrasion resistance, high breaking strength, necking resistance, endurance strength, as well as chemical resistance and easy burnability in burning furnace. Further, by forming uneveness on the surface by means of embossing, etc. safety problems such as slippage during operation and walking can be overcome. (T.M.)

  1. Sheet resistance, transmittance, and chromatic property of CNTs coated with PEDOT:PSS films for transparent electrodes of touch screen panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bu-Jong; Han, Sang-Hoon; Park, Jin-Seok

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates hybrid-type transparent electrodes based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that possess characteristics desirable for touch screen panels. This has been accomplished by depositing CNTs via spray-coating and then depositing thin conductive polymer (such as PEDOT:PSS) films on the CNTs via spin-coating. For all of the samples such as CNTs, PEDOT:PSS, and hybrid (i.e., PEDOT:PSS-coated CNTs), their surface morphologies, sheet resistances, visible transmittances, and chromatic properties are characterized as functions of their preparation conditions. In the PEDOT:PSS-coated CNTs, the PEDOT:PSS particles fill up the voids between tubes in CNTs, forming a conduction bridge for electron transfer and eventually decreasing the sheet resistance of the hybrid electrode. Also, the hybrid electrode reveals a superior color property compared with that of CNTs or the PEDOT:PSS single electrode due to the complementary color relation between CNTs and PEDOT:PSS. Experimental results show that the fabricated hybrid-type electrodes can simultaneously satisfy the requirements necessary for transparent electrodes of touch screen panels such as the sheet resistance requiring to be lower than 100 Ω/sq, visible transmittance higher than 80%, and yellowness approaching to zero. - Highlights: • Hybrid-type (PEDOT:PSS-coated CNTs) electrodes for touch panels are fabricated. • PEDOT:PSS films are coated via spin-coating on spray-deposited CNTs. • Hybrid electrodes are fabricated by varying the thickness of CNTs and PEDOT:PSS. • The resistance, transmittance, and color properties have been analyzed. • Hybrid electrodes satisfy electrical and optical properties for touch panels

  2. Sheet resistance, transmittance, and chromatic property of CNTs coated with PEDOT:PSS films for transparent electrodes of touch screen panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bu-Jong; Han, Sang-Hoon; Park, Jin-Seok

    2014-12-01

    This study demonstrates hybrid-type transparent electrodes based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that possess characteristics desirable for touch screen panels. This has been accomplished by depositing CNTs via spray-coating and then depositing thin conductive polymer (such as PEDOT:PSS) films on the CNTs via spin-coating. For all of the samples such as CNTs, PEDOT:PSS, and hybrid (i.e., PEDOT:PSS-coated CNTs), their surface morphologies, sheet resistances, visible transmittances, and chromatic properties are characterized as functions of their preparation conditions. In the PEDOT:PSS-coated CNTs, the PEDOT:PSS particles fill up the voids between tubes in CNTs, forming a conduction bridge for electron transfer and eventually decreasing the sheet resistance of the hybrid electrode. Also, the hybrid electrode reveals a superior color property compared with that of CNTs or the PEDOT:PSS single electrode due to the complementary color relation between CNTs and PEDOT:PSS. Experimental results show that the fabricated hybrid-type electrodes can simultaneously satisfy the requirements necessary for transparent electrodes of touch screen panels such as the sheet resistance requiring to be lower than 100 Ω/sq, visible transmittance higher than 80%, and yellowness approaching to zero. - Highlights: • Hybrid-type (PEDOT:PSS-coated CNTs) electrodes for touch panels are fabricated. • PEDOT:PSS films are coated via spin-coating on spray-deposited CNTs. • Hybrid electrodes are fabricated by varying the thickness of CNTs and PEDOT:PSS. • The resistance, transmittance, and color properties have been analyzed. • Hybrid electrodes satisfy electrical and optical properties for touch panels.

  3. Effects of pomegranate seed oil followed by resistance exercise on insulin resistance and lipid profile in non-athletic men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Shahidi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although some studies have reported the health-related benefits for the pomegranate seed oil (PSO, there is not enough information on its combined effect with exercise. Therefore, in this study the effect of supplementation with pomegranate seed oil followed by resistance exercise on insulin resistance and lipid profile was considered in non-athletes men. Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental double-blind randomized study non-athletic male (n=14 were divided into two groups: Exercise+Supplementation (n=7 and Exercise +Placebo (n=7. Both groups performed resistance training for 4 weeks (3 sessions per week. The experimental group consumed 2 capsules of pomegranate seed oil (400 mg and the control group received 2 placebo capsules daily. Glucose, fasting insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, HDL-C, were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Insulin resistance was estimated using homeostasis formula (HOMA-IR. Results: While the average concentration of HDL-C in Supplement+Exercise group was significantly increased compared to pre-test, no significant increase was seen compared to Placebo + Exercise group (P<0.05. Between and within group comparison for the changes in total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, glucose, fasting insulin and insulin resistance was not significant. Conclusion: According to the results, it can be concluded that 4 weeks of resistance training followed by PSO supplementation, except for HDL-C, has no significant effect on the other lipid profiles and insulin resistance in healthy non-athlete men.

  4. Comparative transcriptional profiling of tildipirosin-resistant and sensitive Haemophilus parasuis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Zhixin; Fu, Shulin; Yang, Bing; Liu, Qianying; Ahmed, Saeed; Xu, Lei; Xiong, Jincheng; Cao, Jiyue; Qiu, Yinsheng

    2017-08-08

    Numerous studies have been conducted to examine the molecular mechanism of Haemophilus parasuis resistance to antibiotic, but rarely to tildipirosin. In the current study, transcriptional profiling was applied to analyse the variation in gene expression of JS0135 and tildipirosin-resistant JS32. The growth curves showed that JS32 had a higher growth rate but fewer bacteria than JS0135. The cell membranes of JS32 and a resistant clinical isolate (HB32) were observed to be smoother than those of JS0135. From the comparative gene expression profile 349 up- and 113 downregulated genes were observed, covering 37 GO and 63 KEGG pathways which are involved in biological processes (11), cellular components (17), molecular function (9), cellular processes (1), environmental information processing (4), genetic information processing (9) and metabolism (49) affected in JS32. In addition, the relative overexpression of genes of the metabolism pathway (HAPS_RS09315, HAPS_RS09320), ribosomes (HAPS_RS07815) and ABC transporters (HAPS_RS10945) was detected, particularly the metabolism pathway, and verified with RT-qPCR. Collectively, the gene expression profile in connection with tildipirosin resistance factors revealed unique and highly resistant determinants of H. parasuis to macrolides that warrant further attention due to the significant threat of bacterial resistance.

  5. [Etiology and antimicrobial resistance profile of urinary tract infection in children, Valdivia 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Carolina; Navarro, Diego; Täger, Marlis

    2014-12-01

    Since initial antibiotic treatment in patients with urinary tract infection (UTI) is empiric, is very important to know the local epidemiology to make the correct therapeutical decisions. Determinate local features of antimicrobial resistance in pediatric patients with UTI. Retrospective review of urine culture tests of children under 15 years old, obtained in a pediatric emergency department in Valdivia, between february and december 2012. Escherichia coli showed high percentage of resistance to ampicillin (44,8%) and first generation cephalosporin (36%). A well understanding of local antimicrobial resistance profile is useful to a correct empiric treatment.

  6. Structural evaluation of reduced graphene oxide in graphene oxide during ion irradiation: X-ray absorption spectroscopy and in-situ sheet resistance studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, K.; Jayalakshmi, G.; Suresh, K.; Sundaravel, B.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Phase, D. M.

    2018-03-01

    We report the structural evolution of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in graphene oxide (GO) flakes during 1 MeV Si+ ion irradiation. In-situ electrical resistivity measurements facilitate monitoring the sheet resistance with the increase in the fluence. The electrical sheet resistance of the GO flake shows the exponential decay behaviour with the increasing ion fluence. Raman spectra of the GO flake reveal the increase in the ID/IG ratio, indicating restoration of the sp2 network upon irradiation. The C/O ratio estimated from resonant Rutherford backscattering spectrometry analysis directly evidenced the reduction of oxygen moieties upon irradiation. C K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra reveal the restoration of C=C sp2-hybridized carbon atoms and the removal of oxygen-containing functional groups in the GO flake. STM data reveal the higher conductance in the rGO regime in comparison with the regime, where the oxygen functional groups are present. The experimental investigation demonstrates that the ion irradiation can be employed for efficient reduction of GO with tunable electrical and structural properties.

  7. Rapid fabrication of transparent conductive films with controllable sheet resistance on glass substrates by laser annealing of diamond-like carbon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Keunhee; Ki, Hyungson

    2016-01-01

    We report a laser-based method for directly fabricating large-area, transparent conductive films with customizable electrical resistance on glass. In this method, a diamond-like carbon (DLC) film is deposited first on a glass substrate by pulsed laser deposition, which is then annealed in a helium shielding environment by a 2 kW continuous-wave fiber laser with a wavelength of 1070 nm, which is transparent to glass but is absorbed by DLC to transform the amorphous carbons to graphene. When a 510 nm thick film was annealed at a scanning speed of 1 m/s by a 200 μm top-hat laser beam, the sp 3 fraction was decreased from 43.1% to 8.1% after the annealing process, and the transformed film showed a transparency of ∼80% (at 550 nm) and a sheet resistance of ∼2050 Ω/sq. We also showed that sheet resistance and transparency can be controlled by changing processing parameters. To show the scalability of the method, a 15 mm wide line beam was used to produce a 15 mm × 15 mm film. This method is simple, fully scalable, transfer-free and catalyst-free, and we believe that the fabricated films can have many applications with further research, such as transparent heating films, electromagnetic shielding films, and transparent electrodes.

  8. Antibiotic resistance profile of bacterial isolates from food sold on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibiotic resistance profile of bacterial isolates from cooked food samples sold in different eateries on the campus of the University of Ado-Ekiti was investigated. A total of seventy-eight bacterial isolates belonging to six genera were encountered in the following proportion: Escherichia coli (29.5%), Klebsiella spp.

  9. Phylogeny and resistance profiles of HIV-1 POL sequences from rectal biopsies and blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzenstein, Terese Lea; Petersen, A B; Storgaard, M

    2010-01-01

    The phylogeny and resistance profiles of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) sequences were compared among six patients with HIV-1 who had received numerous treatments. RNA and DNA fractions were obtained from concurrent blood and rectal biopsy...

  10. Optimum polygenic profile to resist exertional rhabdomyolysis during a marathon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Del Coso

    Full Text Available Exertional rhabdomyolysis can occur in individuals performing various types of exercise but it is unclear why some individuals develop this condition while others do not. Previous investigations have determined the role of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs to explain inter-individual variability of serum creatine kinase (CK concentrations after exertional muscle damage. However, there has been no research about the interrelationship among these SNPs. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze seven SNPs that are candidates for explaining individual variations of CK response after a marathon competition (ACE = 287bp Ins/Del, ACTN3 = p.R577X, CKMM = NcoI, IGF2 = C13790G, IL6 = 174G>C, MLCK = C37885A, TNFα = 308G>A.Using Williams and Folland's model, we determined the total genotype score from the accumulated combination of these seven SNPs for marathoners with a low CK response (n = 36; serum CK <400 U·L-1 vs. marathoners with a high CK response (n = 31; serum CK ≥400 U·L-1.At the end of the race, low CK responders had lower serum CK (290±65 vs. 733±405 U·L-1; P<0.01 and myoglobin concentrations (443±328 vs. 1009±971 ng·mL-1, P<0.01 than high CK responders. Although the groups were similar in age, anthropometric characteristics, running experience and training habits, total genotype score was higher in low CK responders than in high CK responders (5.2±1.4 vs. 4.4±1.7 point, P = 0.02.Marathoners with a lower CK response after the race had a more favorable polygenic profile than runners with high serum CK concentrations. This might suggest a significant role of genetic polymorphisms in the levels of exertional muscle damage and rhabdomyolysis. Yet other SNPs, in addition to exercise training, might also play a role in the values of CK after damaging exercise.

  11. FDTD modeling of thin impedance sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbers, Raymond J.; Kunz, Karl S.

    1991-01-01

    Thin sheets of resistive or dielectric material are commonly encountered in radar cross section calculations. Analysis of such sheets is simplified by using sheet impedances. In this paper it is shown that sheet impedances can be modeled easily and accurately using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods.

  12. Characteristics and contributions of hyperandrogenism to insulin resistance and other metabolic profiles in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong; Zheng, Jun; Li, Shengxian; Tao, Tao; Ma, Jing; Liu, Wei

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the different characteristics in Chinese Han women with polycystic ovary syndrome, and to analyze the significance of hyperandrogenism in insulin resistance and other metabolic profiles. A cross-sectional study. Medical university hospital. A total of 229 women with polycystic ovary syndrome aged 18-45 years. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome, diagnosed by Rotterdam criteria, were divided into four groups according to the quartile intervals of free androgen index levels. Comparisons between groups were performed using one-way analysis of variance. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance and independent variables. Within the four phenotypes, women with phenotype 1 (hyperandrogenism, oligo/anovulation, and polycystic ovaries) exhibited higher total testosterone, free androgen index, androstenedione, low-density lipoprotein, and lower quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (p polycystic ovaries) showed lower total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, but higher high-density lipoprotein (p < 0.05). The levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance significantly increased, but high-density lipoprotein and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index decreased with the elevation of free androgen index intervals. After adjustment for lipid profiles, free androgen index was significantly associated with homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance in both lean and overweight/obese women (odds ratio 1.302, p = 0.039 in lean vs. odds ratio 1.132, p = 0.036 in overweight/obese). Phenotypes 1 and 4 represent groups with the most and least severe metabolic profiles, respectively. Hyperandrogenism, particularly with elevated free androgen index, is likely a key contributing factor for insulin resistance and for the aggravation

  13. In vitro cross-resistance profile of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) BMS-986001 against known NRTI resistance mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhufang; Terry, Brian; Olds, William; Protack, Tricia; Deminie, Carol; Minassian, Beatrice; Nowicka-Sans, Beata; Sun, Yongnian; Dicker, Ira; Hwang, Carey; Lataillade, Max; Hanna, George J; Krystal, Mark

    2013-11-01

    BMS-986001 is a novel HIV nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI). To date, little is known about its resistance profile. In order to examine the cross-resistance profile of BMS-986001 to NRTI mutations, a replicating virus system was used to examine specific amino acid mutations known to confer resistance to various NRTIs. In addition, reverse transcriptases from 19 clinical isolates with various NRTI mutations were examined in the Monogram PhenoSense HIV assay. In the site-directed mutagenesis studies, a virus containing a K65R substitution exhibited a 0.4-fold change in 50% effective concentration (EC50) versus the wild type, while the majority of viruses with the Q151M constellation (without M184V) exhibited changes in EC50 versus wild type of 0.23- to 0.48-fold. Susceptibility to BMS-986001 was also maintained in an L74V-containing virus (0.7-fold change), while an M184V-only-containing virus induced a 2- to 3-fold decrease in susceptibility. Increasing numbers of thymidine analog mutation pattern 1 (TAM-1) pathway mutations correlated with decreases in susceptibility to BMS-986001, while viruses with TAM-2 pathway mutations exhibited a 5- to 8-fold decrease in susceptibility, regardless of the number of TAMs. A 22-fold decrease in susceptibility to BMS-986001 was observed in a site-directed mutant containing the T69 insertion complex. Common non-NRTI (NNRTI) mutations had little impact on susceptibility to BMS-986001. The results from the site-directed mutants correlated well with the more complicated genotypes found in NRTI-resistant clinical isolates. Data from clinical studies are needed to determine the clinically relevant resistance cutoff values for BMS-986001.

  14. ACER Mathematics Profile Series: Number Test. (Test Booklet, Answer and Record Sheet, Score Key, and Teachers Handbook).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Greg; Wines, Robin

    The Number Test of the ACER Mathematics Profile Series, contains 30 items, for each of three suggested grade levels: 7-8, 8-9, and 9-10. Raw scores on all tests in the ACER Mathematics Profile Series (Number, Operations, Space and Measurement) are converted to a common scale called MAPS, a major feature of the Series. Based on the Rasch Model,…

  15. Profiling of circulating microRNAs after a bout of acute resistance exercise in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Sawada

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed a new aspect of physiological regulation in which microRNAs (miRNAs play fundamental roles in diverse biological and pathological processes. Furthermore, it was recently discovered that miRNAs are stably secreted into blood and that circulating miRNAs may play important roles in cell-cell communication. Here, we examined whether the circulating miRNA profile is affected by acute resistance exercise. Twelve males performed a resistance exercise session (bench press and leg press, consisting of five sets of 10 repetitions at 70% of maximum strength, with a 1 min rest between sets. Blood samples were taken before exercise, and at 0 and 60 min, 1 day, and 3 days after exercise. The circulating miRNA profile was determined by microarray analysis. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed that the miR-149* level increased three days after resistance exercise. In contrast, the miR-146a and miR-221 levels decreased three days after resistance exercise. Our findings suggest that circulating miRNA levels change in response to acute resistance exercise, and miRNAs may play important roles in resistance-exercise-induced adaptation.

  16. Sedentary lifestyle and its relation to cardiovascular risk factors, insulin resistance and inflammatory profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Latre, Montserrat; Moreno-Franco, Belén; Andrés-Esteban, Eva M; Ledesma, Marta; Laclaustra, Martín; Alcalde, Víctor; Peñalvo, José L; Ordovás, José M; Casasnovas, José A

    2014-06-01

    To analyze the association between sitting time and biomarkers of insulin resistance and inflammation in a sample of healthy male workers. Cross-sectional study carried out in a sample of 929 volunteers belonging to the Aragon Workers' Health Study cohort. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, pharmacological and laboratory data were collected: lipids-total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoproteins A-1 and B-100, lipoprotein (a)-, insulin resistance-glucose, glycated hemoglobin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, insulin, and triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio-, and inflammatory profile-C-reactive protein and leukocytes. Information on sitting time and physical activity was assessed using a questionnaire. Sedentary behavior was analyzed in terms of prevalences and medians, according to tertiles, using a multivariate model (crude and adjusted linear regression) with biomarkers of inflammation and insulin resistance. The most sedentary individuals had higher body mass index, greater waist circumference, and higher systolic blood pressure, with a significant upward trend in each tertile. Likewise, they had a worse lipid profile with a higher C-reactive protein level, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index, triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, and insulin concentration. In the multivariate analysis, we observed a significant association between the latter parameters and sitting time in hours (log C-reactive protein [β = 0.07], log homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index [β = 0.05], triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio [β = 0.23], and insulin [β = 0.44]), which remained after adjustment for metabolic equivalents-h/week. Workers who spend more time sitting show a worse inflammatory and insulin resistance profile independently of the physical activity performed. Copyright © 2013

  17. Identification of transcription factors potential related to brown planthopper resistance in rice via microarray expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yubing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens Stål, is one of the most destructive insect pests of rice. The molecular responses of plants to sucking insects resemble responses to pathogen infection. However, the molecular mechanism of BPH-resistance in rice remains unclear. Transcription factors (TF are up-stream regulators of various genes that bind to specific DNA sequences, thereby controlling the transcription from DNA to mRNA. They are key regulators for transcriptional expression in biological processes, and are probably involved in the BPH-induced pathways in resistant rice varieties. Results We conducted a microarray experiment to analyze TF genes related to BPH resistance in a Sri Lankan rice cultivar, Rathu Heenati (RHT. We compared the expression profiles of TF genes in RHT with those of the susceptible rice cultivar Taichun Native 1 (TN1. We detected 2038 TF genes showing differential expression signals between the two rice varieties. Of these, 442 TF genes were probably related to BPH-induced resistance in RHT and TN1, and 229 may be related to constitutive resistance only in RHT. These genes showed a fold change (FC of more than 2.0 (P10, there were 37 induced TF genes and 26 constitutive resistance TF genes. Of these, 13 were probably involved in BPH-induced resistance, and 8 in constitutive resistance to BPH in RHT. Conclusions We explored the molecular mechanism of resistance to BPH in rice by comparing expressions of TF genes between RHT and TN1. We speculate that the level of gene repression, especially for early TF genes, plays an important role in the defense response. The fundamental point of the resistance strategy is that plants protect themselves by reducing their metabolic level to inhibit feeding by BPH and prevent damage from water and nutrient loss. We have selected 21 TF genes related to BPH resistance for further analyses to understand the molecular responses to BPH feeding in rice.

  18. Endosulfan Resistance Profile of Soil Bacteria and Potential Application of Resistant Strains in Bioremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandini P.K.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, bacterial strains were isolated from the soils of Wayanad District, Kerala, India and the isolates were tested for their tolerance to endosulfan and potential in bioremediation technology. Pesticide contamination in the soils, soil physico-chemical characteristics and socio-economic impacts of pesticide application were also analyzed. 28 pesticide compounds in the soil samples were analyzed and the results revealed that there was no pesticide residues in the soils. As per the survey conducted the pesticide application is very high in the study area and the level of awareness among the farmers was very poor regarding the method of application and its socio-economic and ecological impacts. A total of 9 bacterial strains were isolated with 50μg/ml of endosulfan in the isolating media and the results showed that most of the bacterial strains were highly resistance to endosulfan. Out of the 9 strains isolated 6 were highly resistant to endosulfan (500- 700μg/ml and the other 3 isolates showed the resistance of 250-500μg/ml. From the studied isolate, isolate 9 demonstrating prolific growth and high resistance was selected to check their capability to degrade endosulfan over time. Identification of the selected strain reveals that it belongs to the genus Bacillus. Results of endosulfan removal studies showed that with increase in time, the biomass of the bacterial strains increased. The complete disappearance of endosulfan from the spiked and inoculated broth during the first day of incubation (24 hour interval was observed. While the control flask showed the presence of endosulfan during the experimental period. Pesticide resistant bacteria are widely distributed in the soils of selected study area and the tolerance varied between bacteria even though they were isolated from the soils of the same area. The selected Bacillus species carry the ability to degrade endosulfan at accelerated rates and it could be useful in framing a

  19. Ultra-Wideband Radiometry Remote Sensing of Polar Ice Sheet Temperature Profile, Sea Ice and Terrestrial Snow Thickness: Forward Modeling and Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, L.; Tan, S.; Sanamzadeh, M.; Johnson, J. T.; Jezek, K. C.; Durand, M. T.

    2017-12-01

    The recent development of an ultra-wideband software defined radiometer (UWBRAD) operating over the unprotected spectrum of 0.5 2.0 GHz using radio-frequency interference suppression techniques offers new methodologies for remote sensing of the polar ice sheets, sea ice, and terrestrial snow. The instrument was initially designed for remote sensing of the intragalcial temperature profile of the ice sheet, where a frequency dependent penetration depth yields a frequency dependent brightness temperature (Tb) spectrum that can be linked back to the temperature profile of the ice sheet. The instrument was tested during a short flight over Northwest Greenland in September, 2016. Measurements were successfully made over the different snow facies characteristic of Greenland including the ablation, wet snow and percolation facies, and ended just west of Camp Century during the approach to the dry snow zone. Wide-band emission spectra collected during the flight have been processed and analyzed. Results show that the spectra are highly sensitive to the facies type with scattering from ice lenses being the dominant reason for low Tbs in the percolation zone. Inversion of Tb to physical temperature at depth was conducted on the measurements near Camp Century, achieving a -1.7K ten-meter error compared to borehole measurements. However, there is a relatively large uncertainty in the lower part possibly due to the large scattering near the surface. Wideband radiometry may also be applicable to sea ice and terrestrial snow thickness retrieval. Modeling studies suggest that the UWBRAD spectra reduce ambiguities inherent in other sea ice thickness retrievals by utilizing coherent wave interferences that appear in the Tb spectrum. When applied to a lossless medium such as terrestrial snow, this coherent oscillation turns out to be the single key signature that can be used to link back to snow thickness. In this paper, we report our forward modeling findings in support of instrument

  20. Antibiotic resistance profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from aquaculture and abattoir environments in urban communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isoken Henrietta Igbinosa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize multiple antibiotic resistance profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from aquaculture and abattoir environments. Methods: Wastewater samples were obtained from the abattoir and aquaculture environments between May 2016 and July 2016 and analysed using standard phenotypic, biochemical and PCR-based methods. Results: The mean pseudomonads count ranged from (4 × 102 ± 1.01 to (2 × 104 ± 0.10 colony-forming unit/mL in the aquaculture environment and (3 × 103 ± 0.00 to (1 × 105 ± 1.00 colony-forming unit/mL in the abattoir environment. A total of 96 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa confirmed by PCR were thereafter selected from both aquaculture and abattoir environments and further characterized for their antimicrobial susceptibility profile by adopting the disc diffusion method. High level of resistance was observed against the aminoglycosides [gentamycin 64/96 (66.67% and kanamycin 52/96 (54.17%], monobactams [aztreonam 76/96 (79.17%], carbapenems [meropenem 52/96 (54.17%], tetracyclines [tetracycline 72/96 (75.00%] and cephems [ceftazidime 72/96 (75.00% and cefuroxime 48/96 (50.00%]. Multiple antibiotic resistant index of the respective isolates ranged from 0.4 to 0.8 while multidrug resistant profile of the isolates revealed that 28 of the respective isolates were resistant to ceftazidime, cefuroxime, gentamycin, kanamycin, aztreonam which belongs to cephems, aminoglycosides and monobactam class of antimicrobials. Conclusions: Findings from the present study therefore underscores the need for effective monitoring of the abattoir and aquaculture environments as they could be the significant source for spreading antibiotic resistant bacteria within the environment.

  1. Serratia marcescens resistance profile and its susceptibility to photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Ticiana Mont Alverne Lopes; Rebouças, Emanuela de Lima; Santos, Vitor Coutinho Vieira Dos; Barbosa, Francisco Cesar Barroso; Zanin, Iriana Carla Junqueira

    2016-06-01

    Some authors have reported the antimicrobial action of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) on bacteria related to nosocomial infections but there are few studies evaluating PACT on Serratia marcescens grown as planktonic cultures or as biofilms. The purpose of this study was to analyze the S. marcescens resistance profile and its susceptibility to PACT. Initially, 55 S. marcescens strains isolated from environmental, oral and extra-oral infections were tested by antimicrobial resistance to cefotaxime (CTX), imipenem (IPM), ciprofloxacin (CIP), tobramycin (TOB) and doxycycline (DOX) using E-test(®). Following, isolates grown as planktonic cultures or biofilms were submitted to PACT using the association of a light-emitting diode and toluidine blue (TBO). The E-test(®) results demonstrated intermediated sensitive strains to CTX, IMP, TOB, and DOX; and resistant strains to CTX, TOB, DOX and CIP. Also, CTX and IMP demonstrated variation when CLSI 2007 and CLSI 2015 were compared. Planktonic cultures and biofilms submitted to PACT demonstrated counts varying from 10(11) to 10(7) for planktonic cultures and 10(10) to 10(7) for biofilms. There were no statistical differences in the results when planktonic cultures and biofilms were compared. Increase in the profile of S. marcescens resistance was observed when CLSI 2007 and CLSI 2015 were compared. Also, IMP remains as the drug with lower rate of resistance. Additionally, both S. marcescens planktonic cultures and early biofilms are susceptible to PACT under tested conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Pathogenicity determinants and antibiotic resistance profiles of enterococci from foods of animal origin in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elal Mus, Tulay; Cetinkaya, Figen; Cibik, Recep; Soyutemiz, Gul Ece; Simsek, Husniye; Coplu, Nilay

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the presence of genes responsible for the pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance profile of enterococci isolated from various foodstuffs of animal origin was investigated. The percentage prevalence of enterococci was 54.1% (203/375) and the average count was found to be 3.81 log cfu/ml-g. Species-specific primers revealed Enterococcus faecalis as the predominant species carrying one or more virulence-associated traits of efa, gelE, ace, esp and agg genetic markers. Only one E. faecium isolate (from milk) was positive for the esp gene. Regarding antibiotic resistance, the highest frequency of resistance was observed for tetracycline (21.7%), followed by quinupristin/dalfopristin (13.3%), ciprofloxacin (2.0%), penicillin (2.0%), linezolid (1.0%), ampicillin (1.0%), streptomycin (1.0%), and gentamicin (0.5%). Enterococcus faecalis showed a higher prevalence of antibiotic resistance than other enterococci. The percentage of multidrug resistance among the isolates was 3.4%. Twenty-nine E. faecalis isolates (26.6%) carrying one of the virulence-associated traits were at the same time resistant to at least one antibiotic. Our results show that foods of animal origin, including ready-to-eat products, may be reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant and potentially virulent enterococci.

  3. In vitro resistance profile of the candidate HIV-1 microbicide drug dapivirine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schader, Susan M; Oliveira, Maureen; Ibanescu, Ruxandra-Ilinca; Moisi, Daniela; Colby-Germinario, Susan P; Wainberg, Mark A

    2012-02-01

    Antiretroviral-based microbicides may offer a means to reduce the sexual transmission of HIV-1. Suboptimal use of a microbicide may, however, lead to the development of drug resistance in users that are already, or become, infected with HIV-1. In such cases, the efficacy of treatments may be compromised since the same (or similar) antiretrovirals used in treatments are being developed as microbicides. To help predict which drug resistance mutations may develop in the context of suboptimal use, HIV-1 primary isolates of different subtypes and different baseline resistance profiles were used to infect primary cells in vitro in the presence of increasing suboptimal concentrations of the two candidate microbicide antiretrovirals dapivirine (DAP) and tenofovir (TFV) alone or in combination. Infections were ongoing for 25 weeks, after which reverse transcriptase genotypes were determined and scrutinized for the presence of any clinically recognized reverse transcriptase drug resistance mutations. Results indicated that suboptimal concentrations of DAP alone facilitated the emergence of common nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance mutations, while suboptimal concentrations of DAP plus TFV gave rise to fewer mutations. Suboptimal concentrations of TFV alone did not frequently result in the development of resistance mutations. Sensitivity evaluations for stavudine (d4T), nevirapine (NVP), and lamivudine (3TC) revealed that the selection of resistance as a consequence of suboptimal concentrations of DAP may compromise the potential for NVP to be used in treatment, a finding of potential relevance in developing countries.

  4. Decontamination sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Emiko; Kanesaki, Ken.

    1995-01-01

    The decontamination sheet of the present invention is formed by applying an adhesive on one surface of a polymer sheet and releasably appending a plurality of curing sheets. In addition, perforated lines are formed on the sheet, and a decontaminating agent is incorporated in the adhesive. This can reduce the number of curing operation steps when a plurality steps of operations for radiation decontamination equipments are performed, and further, the amount of wastes of the cured sheets, and operator's exposure are reduced, as well as an efficiency of the curing operation can be improved, and propagation of contamination can be prevented. (T.M.)

  5. Acidic Barren Slope Profiling using Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) at Ayer Hitam area Johor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Aziman, M.; Haimi, D. S.; Hafiz, Z. M.

    2016-04-01

    Recently, non-destructive method such as the electrical resistivity technique has become increasingly popular in engineering, environmental, mining and archeological studies nowadays. This method was popular in subsurface profiling due to its ability to replicate the images of the subsurface indirectly. The soil slope found in Batu Pahat, specifically in Ayer Hitam, is known to be problematic due to its barren condition. This location is believed to contain futile soil due to its difficulty in supporting the growth of vegetations. In the past, acidic barren slope assessment using non-destructive method was rarely being used due to several reasons related to the equipment and knowledge constraints. Hence, this study performed an electrical resistivity imaging using ABEM Terrameter LS in order to investigate the acidic barren slope conditions. Field data acquisition was based on Schlumberger and Wenner arrays while RES2DINV software was used to analyze and generate a 2-D model of the problematic subsurface profile. Based on electrical resistivity results, it was found that the acidic barren slope studied consists of two main zones representing residual soil (electrical resistivity value = 10 - 600 Ωm) and shale (electrical resistivity value = 20 - 2000 Ωm). The results of resistivity value were correlated with the physical mapping and the in situ mackintosh probe test for verification purposes. It was found that the maximum depth of the mackintosh probe test was 1.8 m due to its ground penetration limitation. However, the results of the resistivity section managed to achieve greater depth up to 40 m. Hence, the correlation between electrical resistivity and mackintosh probe results can only be performed at certain depth of the acidic barren slope profile in contrast with the physical mapping which able to define the whole section of the barren soil slope structure. Finally, a good match of electrical resistivity results calibrated with mackintosh and physical

  6. Salmonella Heidelberg: Genetic profile of its antimicrobial resistance related to extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuriatti, Jéssica; Stefani, Lenita Moura; Brisola, Maiara Cristina; Crecencio, Regiane Boaretto; Bitner, Dinael Simão; Faria, Gláucia Amorim

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the phenotypic and genotypic profile of antimicrobial susceptibility and the possible involvement of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in the resistance profile of Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) isolated from chicken meat. We used 18 SH isolates from chicken meat produced in 2013 in the state of Paraná, Southern Brazil. The isolates were submitted to disk-diffusion tests and from these results it was possible to determine the number of isolates considered multiresistant and the index of multiple antimicrobial resistance (IRMA) against ten antimicrobials routinely used in human and veterinary medicine. It was considered multidrug resistant the isolate that showed resistance to three or more classes of antibiotics. Another test performed was the disc-approximation in order to investigate interposed zones of inhibition, indicative of ESBLs production. In the isolates that presented multidrug resistance (18/18), a search of resistance genes involved in the production of ESBLs was performed using PCR: blaCMY-2, blaSHV-1, blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M2, blaOXA-1, blaPSE-1 and AmpC. The overall antimicrobial resistance was 80.55%. The highest levels of resistance were observed for nalidixic acid and ceftiofur (100%). The most commonly resistance pattern found (42.1%) was A (penicillin-cephalosporin-quinolone-tetracycline). The results were negative for ghost zone formation, indicative of ESBLs. However, PCR technique was able to detect resistance genes via ESBLs where the blaTEM-1 gene showed the highest amplification (83.33%), and the second most prevalent genes were blaCMY-2 (38.88%) and AmpC gene (38.88%). The blaOXA-1 and blaPSE-1 genes were not detected. These results are certainly of concern since SH is becoming more prevalent in the South of Brazil and able to cause severe disease in immune compromised individuals, showing high antimicrobial resistance to those drugs routinely used in the treatment and control of human and

  7. Research on Heat Source Model and Weld Profile for Fiber Laser Welding of A304 Stainless Steel Thin Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peizhi Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A heat source model is the key issue for laser welding simulation. The Gaussian heat source model is not suitable to match the actual laser weld profile accurately. Furthermore, fiber lasers are widely recognized to result in good-quality laser beam output, a narrower weld zone, less distortion, and high process efficiency, compared with other types of lasers (such as CO2, Nd : YAG, and diode lasers. At present, there are few heat source models for fiber laser welding. Most of researchers evaluate the weld profile only by the bead width and depth of penetration, which is not suitable for the laser keyhole welding nail-like profile. This paper reports an experimental study and FEA simulation of fiber laser butt welding on 1 mm thick A304 stainless steel. A new heat source model (cylindrical and cylindrical is established to match the actual weld profile using Marc and Fortran software. Four bead geometry parameters (penetration depth, bead width, waist width, and depth of the waist are used to compare between the experimental and simulation results. The results show that the heat source model of cylindrical and cylindrical can match the actual shape of the fiber laser welding feasibly. The error range of the penetration depth, bead width, waist width, and depth of the waist between experimental and simulation results is about 4.1 ± 1.6%, 2.9 ± 2.0%, 13.6 ± 7.4/%, and 18.3 ± 8.0%, respectively. In addition, it is found that the depth of penetration is more sensitive to laser power rather than bead width, waist width, and depth of the waist. Welding speed has a similar influence on the depth of penetration, weld width, waist width, and depth of the waist.

  8. Aberrant Long Noncoding RNAs Expression Profiles Affect Cisplatin Resistance in Lung Adenocarcinoma

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    Lijuan Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs have been shown to be involved in the mechanism of cisplatin resistance in lung adenocarcinoma (LAD. However, the roles of lncRNAs in cisplatin resistance in LAD are not well understood. Methods. We used a high-throughput microarray to compare the lncRNA and mRNA expression profiles in cisplatin resistance cell A549/DDP and cisplatin sensitive cell A549. Several candidate cisplatin resistance-associated lncRNAs were verified by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis. Results. We found that 1,543 lncRNAs and 1,713 mRNAs were differentially expressed in A549/DDP cell and A549 cell, hinting that many lncRNAs were irregular from cisplatin resistance in LAD. We also obtain the fact that 12 lncRNAs were aberrantly expressed in A549/DDP cell compared with A549 cell by quantitative PCR. Among these, UCA1 was the aberrantly expressed lncRNA and can significantly reduce the IC50 of cisplatin in A549/DDP cell after knockdown, while it can increase the IC50 of cisplatin after UCA1 was overexpressed in NCI-H1299. Conclusions. We obtained patterns of irregular lncRNAs and they may play a key role in cisplatin resistance of LAD.

  9. Comparative metabolite profiling of Solanum tuberosum against six wild Solanum species with Colorado potato beetle resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Helen H; Worrall, Kraig; Pelletier, Yvan; De Koeyer, David; Calhoun, Larry A

    2014-09-10

    The Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (CPB) is a coleopteran herbivore that feeds on the foliage on Solanum species, in particular, potato. Six resistant wild Solanum species were identified, and two of these species had low levels of glycoalkaloids. Comparative analysis of the untargeted metabolite profiles of the foliage using UPLC-qTOF-MS was done to find metabolites shared between the wild species but not with Solanum tuberosum (L.) to identify resistance-related metabolites. It was found that only S. tuberosum produced the triose glycoalkaloids solanine and chaconine. Instead, the six wild species produced glycoalkaloids that shared in common tetrose sugar side chains. Additionally, there were non-glycoalkaloid metabolites associated with resistance including hydroxycoumarin and a phenylpropanoid, which were produced in all wild species but not in S. tuberosum.

  10. Gene Profiling in Late Blight Resistance in Potato Genotype SD20

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    Xiaohui Yang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Late blight caused by the oomycete fungus Phytophthora infestans (Pi is the most serious obstacle to potato (Solanum tuberosum production in the world. A super race isolate, CN152, which was identified from Sichuan Province, China, could overcome nearly all known late blight resistance genes and caused serious damage in China. The potato genotype SD20 was verified to be highly resistant to CN152; however, the molecular regulation network underlying late blight resistance pathway remains unclear in SD20. Here, we performed a time-course experiment to systematically profile the late blight resistance response genes using RNA-sequencing in SD20. We identified 3354 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, which mainly encoded transcription factors and protein kinases, and also included four NBS-LRR genes. The late blight responsive genes showed time-point-specific induction/repression. Multi-signaling pathways of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene signaling pathways involved in resistance and defense against Pi in SD20. Gene Ontology and KEGG analyses indicated that the DEGs were significantly enriched in metabolic process, protein serine/threonine kinase activity, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Forty-three DEGs were involved in immune response, of which 19 were enriched in hypersensitive response reaction, which could play an important role in broad-spectrum resistance to Pi infection. Experimental verification confirmed the induced expression of the responsive genes in the late blight resistance signaling pathway, such as WRKY, ERF, MAPK, and NBS-LRR family genes. Our results provided valuable information for understanding late blight resistance mechanism of potato.

  11. Transcriptome profiling identifies genes/pathways associated with experimental resistance to paromomycin in Leishmania donovani

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    Aditya Verma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Widespread resistance towards antimony and reports of relapses following miltefosine treatment has severely affected the management of visceral leishmaniasis (VL in the Indian subcontinent. Paromomycin (PMM, an aminoglycoside antibiotic, has been licensed for VL treatment in India in 2007. Although its use is still restricted in the field, unraveling the molecular mechanism of resistance towards PMM is the key to preserve the drug. In this study, PMM resistant lines were selected up to 100 μM of PMM in three distinct field isolates of Leishmania donovani at promastigote stage. The resistance induced at promastigote level was also evident in amastigotes which showed 6 fold decreases in PMM susceptibility. Comparative transcriptome profiling of PMM resistant (PMM-R and the corresponding PMM sensitive (PMM-S parasites revealed modulated expression of 500 genes (1.5 fold cut off in PMM-R parasites. Selected genes were validated for their modulated expression by quantitative real-time PCR. Functional classification and pathway analysis of modulated genes indicated probable adaptations in drug resistant lines which included a reduced oxidative phosphorylation; b increased glycosomal succinate fermentation and substrate level phosphorylation; c dependency on lipids and amino acids for energy generation; d reduced DNA synthesis and increased DNA damage repair and e decreased protein synthesis and degradation. Interestingly, PMM-R parasites showed a marked increase in PMM susceptibility in presence of verapamil and amlodipine, antagonists of Ca2+ channel that are also modulators of ABC transporters. Moreover, infection of macrophages by PMM-R parasites led to modulated nitric oxide (NO levels while reactive oxygen species (ROS level remained unaltered. The present study highlights the putative mechanisms of PMM resistance in Leishmania. Keywords: Leishmania donovani, Drug resistance, Paromomycin, Transcriptome, ABC transporters, Nitric oxide, Visceral

  12. Identification of transcription factors potential related to brown planthopper resistance in rice via microarray expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yubing; Guo, Huimin; Li, Haichao; Zhang, Hao; Miao, Xuexia

    2012-12-10

    Brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stål, is one of the most destructive insect pests of rice. The molecular responses of plants to sucking insects resemble responses to pathogen infection. However, the molecular mechanism of BPH-resistance in rice remains unclear. Transcription factors (TF) are up-stream regulators of various genes that bind to specific DNA sequences, thereby controlling the transcription from DNA to mRNA. They are key regulators for transcriptional expression in biological processes, and are probably involved in the BPH-induced pathways in resistant rice varieties. We conducted a microarray experiment to analyze TF genes related to BPH resistance in a Sri Lankan rice cultivar, Rathu Heenati (RHT). We compared the expression profiles of TF genes in RHT with those of the susceptible rice cultivar Taichun Native 1 (TN1). We detected 2038 TF genes showing differential expression signals between the two rice varieties. Of these, 442 TF genes were probably related to BPH-induced resistance in RHT and TN1, and 229 may be related to constitutive resistance only in RHT. These genes showed a fold change (FC) of more than 2.0 (Pgenes related to BPH-induced resistance, most of them were readily induced in TN1 than in RHT by BPH feeding, for instance, 154 TF genes were up-regulated in TN1, but only 31 TF genes were up-regulated in RHT at 24 hours after BPH infestation; 2-4 times more TF genes were induced in TN1 than in RHT by BPH. At an FC threshold of >10, there were 37 induced TF genes and 26 constitutive resistance TF genes. Of these, 13 were probably involved in BPH-induced resistance, and 8 in constitutive resistance to BPH in RHT. We explored the molecular mechanism of resistance to BPH in rice by comparing expressions of TF genes between RHT and TN1. We speculate that the level of gene repression, especially for early TF genes, plays an important role in the defense response. The fundamental point of the resistance strategy is that plants

  13. Profile of antibiotic consumption, sensitivity and resistance in an urban area of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peripi, Sunita Bhargavi; Thadepalli, Venu Gopala Rao; Khagga, Mukkanti; Tripuraribhatla, Prasanna Krishna; Bharadwaj, Dinesh Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Antibiotics are an important category of drugs in which indiscriminate use can affect the susceptibility patterns among infectious organisms, resulting in antibiotic resistance. Data on antibiotic usage and susceptibility patterns were collected from public and private health centres in Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India, through the use of questionnaires. The data collected were then coded, tabulated, computed and evaluated using statistical analysis. The consumption profile of the different categories of drugs used in public and private hospitals was as follows: nutrition and metabolism products 19.0%; gastrointestinal disorder-related drugs 18.5%; antibiotics 16.8%; anti-pyretics and anti-analgesics 20.6%. These drugs were found to be in high demand. Among the antibiotics, aminoglycosides (amikacin), quinolones (ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin), tetracyclines (doxycycline), penicillin (ampicillin) and sulphonamides (co-trimoxazole) were the most commonly prescribed drugs for antibiotic therapy. 46% of the culture laboratory reports were positive with the following organism profile: Escherichia coli (36%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (16%), Staphylococcus aureus (29%), Enterococcus faecalis (9%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10%). In terms of the sensitivity profile of antibacterials, amikacin (66.9%) was the only antibiotic showing sensitivity patterns, while the majority of antibiotics, such as cotrimoxazole, nalidixic acid, amoxicillin, gentamycin and norfloxacin, had acquired a resistance rate of 55.1%-80.6%. The results of this study suggest that indiscriminate prescription and consumption of new broad-spectrum antibiotics against sensitive organisms results in the development of antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, there is an urgent need to curb the excessive use of antibiotics in local hospitals in order to control the trend of increasing antimicrobial resistance to antibiotics.

  14. Studies on the InAlN/InGaN/InAlN/InGaN double channel heterostructures with low sheet resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yachao; Wang, Zhizhe; Xu, Shengrui; Chen, Dazheng; Bao, Weimin; Zhang, Jinfeng; Zhang, Jincheng; Hao, Yue

    2017-11-01

    High quality InAlN/InGaN/InAlN/InGaN double channel heterostructures were proposed and grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Benefiting from the adoption of the pulsed growth method and Two-Step AlN interlayer, the material quality and interface characteristics of the double channel heterostructures are satisfactory. The results of the temperature-dependent Hall effect measurement indicated that the transport properties of the double channel heterostructures were superior to those of the traditional single channel heterostructures in the whole test temperature range. Meanwhile, the sheet resistance of the double channel heterostructures reached 218.5 Ω/□ at 300 K, which is the record of InGaN-based heterostructures. The good transport properties of the InGaN double channel heterostructures are beneficial to improve the performance of the microwave power devices based on nitride semiconductors.

  15. Using an Automatic Resistivity Profiler Soil Sensor On-The-Go in Precision Viticulture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Amato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial information on vineyard soil properties can be useful in precision viticulture. In this paper a combination of high resolution soil spatial information of soil electrical resistivity (ER and ancillary topographic attributes, such as elevation and slope, were integrated to assess the spatial variability patterns of vegetative growth and yield of a commercial vineyard (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo located in the wine-producing region of La Rioja, Spain. High resolution continuous geoelectrical mapping was accomplished by an Automatic Resistivity Profiler (ARP on-the-go sensor with an on-board GPS system; rolling electrodes enabled ER to be measured for a depth of investigation approximately up to 0.5, 1 and 2 m. Regression analysis and cluster analysis algorithm were used to jointly process soil resistivity data, landscape attributes and grapevine variables. ER showed a structured variability that matched well with trunk circumference spatial pattern and yield. Based on resistivity and a simple terrain attribute uniform management units were delineated. Once a spatial relationship to target variables is found, the integration of point measurement with continuous soil resistivity mapping is a useful technique to identify within-plots areas of vineyard with similar status.

  16. The emerging profile of cross-resistance among the nonnucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluis-Cremer, Nicolas

    2014-07-31

    Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are widely used to treat HIV-1-infected individuals; indeed most first-line antiretroviral therapies typically include one NNRTI in combination with two nucleoside analogs. In 2008, the next-generation NNRTI etravirine was approved for the treatment of HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy-experienced individuals, including those with prior NNRTI exposure. NNRTIs are also increasingly being included in strategies to prevent HIV-1 infection. For example: (1) nevirapine is used to prevent mother-to-child transmission; (2) the ASPIRE (MTN 020) study will test whether a vaginal ring containing dapivirine can prevent HIV-1 infection in women; (3) a microbicide gel formulation containing the urea-PETT derivative MIV-150 is in a phase I study to evaluate safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and acceptability; and (4) a long acting rilpivirine formulation is under-development for pre-exposure prophylaxis. Given their widespread use, particularly in resource-limited settings, as well as their low genetic barriers to resistance, there are concerns about overlapping resistance between the different NNRTIs. Consequently, a better understanding of the resistance and cross-resistance profiles among the NNRTI class is important for predicting response to treatment, and surveillance of transmitted drug-resistance.

  17. Review The Emerging Profile of Cross-Resistance among the Nonnucleoside HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Sluis-Cremer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs are widely used to treat HIV-1-infected individuals; indeed most first-line antiretroviral therapies typically include one NNRTI in combination with two nucleoside analogs. In 2008, the next-generation NNRTI etravirine was approved for the treatment of HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy-experienced individuals, including those with prior NNRTI exposure. NNRTIs are also increasingly being included in strategies to prevent HIV-1 infection. For example: (1 nevirapine is used to prevent mother-to-child transmission; (2 the ASPIRE (MTN 020 study will test whether a vaginal ring containing dapivirine can prevent HIV-1 infection in women; (3 a microbicide gel formulation containing the urea-PETT derivative MIV-150 is in a phase I study to evaluate safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and acceptability; and (4 a long acting rilpivirine formulation is under-development for pre-exposure prophylaxis. Given their widespread use, particularly in resource-limited settings, as well as their low genetic barriers to resistance, there are concerns about overlapping resistance between the different NNRTIs. Consequently, a better understanding of the resistance and cross-resistance profiles among the NNRTI class is important for predicting response to treatment, and surveillance of transmitted drug-resistance.

  18. An experimental study on fracture toughness of resistance spot welded galvanized and ungalvanized DP 450 steel sheets used in automotive body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim, Ibrahim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine fracture toughness of Resistance Spot Welded (RSW Dual Phase (DP steels. RSW of galvanized and ungalvanized DP 450 steel sheets was carried out on spot welding machine. Fracture toughness of RSW joints of galvanized and ungalvanized DP 450 steel sheets was calculated from tensile-shear tests. New empirical equations were developed using Least Squares Method (LSM between energy release rate, fracture toughness and critical crack size depending on the relationship between hardness and fracture toughness values. Results indicated that fracture toughness of joints welded by using RSW increased exponentially while the hardness decreased. In addition, fracture toughness and energy release rate of RSW galvanized DP 450 steel sheets were lower compared to RSW ungalvanized DP 450 steel sheets which had approximately the same hardness.El objetivo de este estudio es determinar la tenacidad de fractura de los aceros dual (DP soldados por puntos de resistencia (RSW. En la máquina de soldadura por puntos se realizó la soldadura de láminas de acero DP 450 galvanizado y sin galvanizar. A partir de los ensayos de tracción-cizallamiento, se calculó la tenacidad a la fractura de las uniones del acero DP 450 galvanizado y sin galvanizar. Aplicando el método de mínimos cuadrados (LSM se desarrollaron nuevas ecuaciones empíricas entre el porcentaje de energía liberada, la tenacidad de fractura y el tamaño de grieta crítica en función de la relación entre los valores de tenacidad de fractura y de dureza. Los resultados indicaron que la tenacidad de fractura de las uniones soldadas por RSW aumentó exponencialmente, mientras que la dureza disminuyó. Además, el porcentaje de energía liberada de las láminas de acero DP 450 galvanizadas y soldadas fueron menores que en el caso de las láminas sin galvanizar a valores iguales de dureza.

  19. Microstructure, thickness and sheet resistivity of Cu/Ni thin film produced by electroplating technique on the variation of electrolyte temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toifur, M.; Yuningsih, Y.; Khusnani, A.

    2018-03-01

    In this research, it has been made Cu/Ni thin film produced with electroplating technique. The deposition process was done in the plating bath using Cu and Ni as cathode and anode respectively. The electrolyte solution was made from the mixture of HBrO3 (7.5g), NiSO4 (100g), NiCl2 (15g), and aquadest (250 ml). Electrolyte temperature was varied from 40°C up to 80°C, to make the Ni ions in the solution easy to move to Cu cathode. The deposition was done during 2 minutes on the potential of 1.5 volt. Many characterizations were done including the thickness of Ni film, microstructure, and sheet resistivity. The results showed that at all samples Ni had attacked on the Cu substrate to form Cu/Ni. The raising of electrolyte temperature affected the increasing of Ni thickness that is the Ni thickness increase with the increasing electrolyte temperature. From the EDS spectrum, it can be informed that samples already contain Ni and Cu elements and NiO and CuO compounds. Addition element and compound are found for sample Cu/Ni resulted from 70° electrolyte temperature of Ni deposition, that are Pt and PtO2. From XRD pattern, there are several phases which have crystal structure i.e. Cu, Ni, and NiO, while CuO and PtO2 have amorphous structure. The sheet resistivity linearly decreases with the increasing electrolyte temperature.

  20. Existence and Stability of Viscous Shock Profiles for 2-D Isentropic MHD with Infinite Electrical Resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, B.; Zumbrun, K.; Lafitte, O.

    2010-01-01

    For the two-dimensional Navier Stokes equations of isentropic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) with γ-law gas equation of state, γ≥1, and infinite electrical resistivity, we carry out a global analysis categorizing all possible viscous shock profiles. Precisely, we show that the phase portrait of the Crave ling-wave ODE generically consists of either two rest points connected by a viscous Lax profile, or else four rest points, two saddles and two nodes. In the latter configuration, which rest points are connected by profiles depends on the ratio of viscosities, and can involve Lax, over-compressive, or under-compressive shock profiles. Considered as three-dimensional solutions, under-compressive shocks are Lax-type (Alfven) waves. For the monatomic and diatomic cases γ=5/3 and γ=7/5, with standard viscosity ratio for a nonmagnetic gas, we find numerically that the the nodes are connected by a family of over-compressive profiles bounded by Lax profiles connecting saddles to nodes, with no under-compressive shocks occurring. We carry out a systematic numerical Evans function analysis indicating that all of these two-dimensional shock profiles are linearly and nonlinearly stable, both with respect to two- and three-dimensional perturbations. For the same gas constants, but different viscosity ratios, we investigate also cases for which under-compressive shocks appear; these are seen numerically to be stable as well, both with respect to two-dimensional and (in the neutral sense of convergence to nearby Riemann solutions) three-dimensional perturbations. (authors)

  1. Corrosion resistance and protection mechanism of hot-dip Zn-Al-Mg alloy coated steel sheet under accelerated corrosion environment; Yoyu Zn-Al-Mg kei gokin mekki koban no sokushin fushoku kankyoka ni okeru taishokusei toi boshoku kiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, A.; Izutani, H.; Tsujimura, T.; Ando, A.; Kittaka, T. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-08-01

    Corrosion behavior of hot-dip Zn-6%Al 0-3%Mg alloy coated steel sheets in cyclic corrosion test (CCT) has been investigated. The corrosion resistance was improved with increasing Mg content in the coating layer, and the highest corrosion resistance was observed at 3% Mg. In Zn-6%Al-3%Mg alloy coated steel sheet, the formations of zinc carbonate hydroxide and zinc oxide were suppressed for longer duration compared with Zn-0.2%Al and Zn-4.5%Al-0.l%Mg alloy coated steel sheets. As a result, zinc chloride hydroxide existed stable on the surface of the coating layer. From the polarization behaviors in 5% NaCl aqueous solution after CCT, it was found that the corrosion current density of Zn-6%At-3%Mg alloy coated steel sheet was much smaller than those of Zn-0.2%Al and Zn-4.5%Al-0.1%Mg alloy coated steel sheets. As zinc carbonate hydroxide and zinc oxide had poor adhesion to the coating layer and had porous structures, these corrosion products were considered to have little protective action for the coating layer. Therefore, it was concluded that Mg suppressed the formation of such nonprotective corrosion products. resulting in the remarkable improvement of corrosion resistance. (author)

  2. Development of Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer can be Predicted by a DNA Hypermethylation Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Javier C; Andrés, Guillermo; Ashour, Nadia; Sánchez-Chapado, Manuel; López, Jose I; Ropero, Santiago

    2016-03-01

    Detection of DNA hypermethylation has emerged as a novel molecular biomarker for prostate cancer diagnosis and evaluation of prognosis. We sought to define whether a hypermethylation profile of patients with prostate cancer on androgen deprivation would predict castrate resistant prostate cancer. Genome-wide methylation analysis was performed using a methylation cancer panel in 10 normal prostates and 45 tumor samples from patients placed on androgen deprivation who were followed until castrate resistant disease developed. Castrate resistant disease was defined according to EAU (European Association of Urology) guideline criteria. Two pathologists reviewed the Gleason score, Ki-67 index and neuroendocrine differentiation. Hierarchical clustering analysis was performed and relationships with outcome were investigated by Cox regression and log rank analysis. We found 61 genes that were significantly hypermethylated in greater than 20% of tumors analyzed. Three clusters of patients were characterized by a DNA methylation profile, including 1 at risk for earlier castrate resistant disease (log rank p = 0.019) and specific mortality (log rank p = 0.002). Hypermethylation of ETV1 (HR 3.75) and ZNF215 (HR 2.89) predicted disease progression despite androgen deprivation. Hypermethylation of IRAK3 (HR 13.72), ZNF215 (HR 4.81) and SEPT9 (HR 7.64) were independent markers of prognosis. Prostate specific antigen greater than 25 ng/ml, Gleason pattern 5, Ki-67 index greater than 12% and metastasis at diagnosis also predicted a negative response to androgen deprivation. Study limitations included the retrospective design and limited number of cases. Epigenetic silencing of the mentioned genes could be novel molecular markers for the prognosis of advanced prostate cancer. It might predict castrate resistance during hormone deprivation and, thus, disease specific mortality. Gene hypermethylation is associated with disease progression in patients who receive hormone therapy. It

  3. Metagenomic profiles of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) between human impacted estuary and deep ocean sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baowei; Yang, Ying; Liang, Ximei; Yu, Ke; Zhang, Tong; Li, Xiangdong

    2013-11-19

    Knowledge of the origins and dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) is essential for understanding modern resistomes in the environment. The mechanisms of the dissemination of ARGs can be revealed through comparative studies on the metagenomic profiling of ARGs between relatively pristine and human-impacted environments. The deep ocean bed of the South China Sea (SCS) is considered to be largely devoid of anthropogenic impacts, while the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) in south China has been highly impacted by intensive human activities. Commonly used antibiotics (sulfamethazine, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, tetracycline, and erythromycin) have been detected through chemical analysis in the PRE sediments, but not in the SCS sediments. In the relatively pristine SCS sediments, the most prevalent and abundant ARGs are those related to resistance to macrolides and polypeptides, with efflux pumps as the predominant mechanism. In the contaminated PRE sediments, the typical ARG profiles suggest a prevailing resistance to antibiotics commonly used in human health and animal farming (including sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycosides), and higher diversity in both genotype and resistance mechanism than those in the SCS. In particular, antibiotic inactivation significantly contributed to the resistance to aminoglycosides, β-lactams, and macrolides observed in the PRE sediments. There was a significant correlation in the levels of abundance of ARGs and those of mobile genetic elements (including integrons and plasmids), which serve as carriers in the dissemination of ARGs in the aquatic environment. The metagenomic results from the current study support the view that ARGs naturally originate in pristine environments, while human activities accelerate the dissemination of ARGs so that microbes would be able to tolerate selective environmental stress in response to anthropogenic impacts.

  4. Transcriptome Profiling of Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea Roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaomiao Xing

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans (FOC is a destructive disease of Brassica crops, which results in severe yield losses. There is little information available about the mechanism of disease resistance. To obtain an overview of the transcriptome profiles in roots of R4P1, a Brassica oleracea variety that is highly resistant to fusarium wilt, we compared the transcriptomes of samples inoculated with FOC and samples inoculated with distilled water. RNA-seq analysis generated more than 136 million 100-bp clean reads, which were assembled into 62,506 unigenes (mean size = 741 bp. Among them, 49,959 (79.92% genes were identified based on sequence similarity searches, including SwissProt (29,050, 46.47%, Gene Ontology (GO (33,767, 54.02%, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (KOG (14,721, 23.55% and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG (12,974, 20.76% searches; digital gene expression analysis revealed 885 differentially expressed genes (DEGs between infected and control samples at 4, 12, 24 and 48 hours after inoculation. The DEGs were assigned to 31 KEGG pathways. Early defense systems, including the MAPK signaling pathway, calcium signaling and salicylic acid-mediated hypersensitive response (SA-mediated HR were activated after pathogen infection. SA-dependent systemic acquired resistance (SAR, ethylene (ET- and jasmonic (JA-mediated pathways and the lignin biosynthesis pathway play important roles in plant resistance. We also analyzed the expression of defense-related genes, such as genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR proteins, UDP-glycosyltransferase (UDPG, pleiotropic drug resistance, ATP-binding cassette transporters (PDR-ABC transporters, myrosinase, transcription factors and kinases, which were differentially expressed. The results of this study may contribute to efforts to identify and clone candidate genes associated with disease resistance and to uncover the molecular mechanism underlying

  5. MICROBIAL PROFILE AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE PATTERN OF THE BACTERIAL ISOLATES IN A TERTIARY CARE PSYCHIATRY HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is a challenge for effective management of infections as it increases the morbidity, mortality and costs of treating infectious diseases. AIMS: This study was aimed to obtain the profile of the bacterial isolates and their antibiotic resistance pattern. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: It is a cross sectional study carried out in a tertiary care psychiatry hospital in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Isolation and identification of the isolates were done by standard methods. Susceptibility patterns were checked by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS 16.0 version to calculate the frequencies as well as for cross tabulation. RESULTS: Significant bacterial growth observed in 43(25.6% samples, of which 39(90.7% showed resistant to at least one of the antibiotics used and 36(83.7% were multi-drug resistant. Gram negative organism accounted for the 25(58.14% of total significant isolates, Escherichia coli being the highest (76% in this group. Among multi-drug resistant (MDR isolates E.coli was the highest (44.4% and imipenem resistance was also observed in 1(5.3% of 19 E.coli isolates. Among the 43 isolates 18(41.86% were Gram positive with Streptococcus spp. showing incidence of 41.7% among the total MDR isolates. CONCLUSION: Increasing incidence of MDR strains seen in the population requires continuous monitoring and a restricted use of antibiotics to keep a check on resistance pattern, for effective treatment plan.

  6. Depth profile analysis of polymerized fluorine compound on photo-resist film with angle-resolved XPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, Yoshitoki; Kubota, Toshio; Oinaka, Syuhei

    2013-01-01

    Angle-resolved XPS (ARXPS) is an observation technique which is very effective in chemical depth analysis method less than photoelectron detected depth. For the analysis of depth profile, several analysis methods have been proposed to calculate the depth profile using the ARXPS method. The present report is the measurements of depth profile of the fluorine in a fluorine-containing photo-resist film using the ARXPS method and the depth profile of concentration have been successfully determined using the ARCtick 1.0 software. It has been observed that thickness of the fluorocarbon enriched surface layer of the photo-resist was 2.7 nm, and so that the convert of the ARXPS data from the angle profile to the depth profile was proved to be useful analysis method for the ultrathin layer depth. (author)

  7. Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Planktonic and Biofilm Cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson de Oliveira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of planktonic and biofilm cells of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS. Two hundred Staphylococcus spp. strains were studied, including 50 S. aureus and 150 CoNS strains (50 S. epidermidis, 20 S. haemolyticus, 20 S. warneri, 20 S. hominis, 20 S. lugdunensis, and 20 S. saprophyticus. Biofilm formation was investigated by adherence to polystyrene plates. Positive strains were submitted to the broth microdilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for planktonic and biofilm cells and the minimal bactericidal concentration for biofilm cells (MBCB. Forty-nine Staphylococcus spp. strains (14 S. aureus, 13 S. epidermidis, 13 S. saprophyticus, 3 S. haemolyticus, 1 S. hominis, 3 S. warneri, and 2 S. lugdunensis were biofilm producers. These isolates were evaluated regarding their resistance profile. Determination of planktonic cell MIC identified three (21.4% S. aureus strains that were resistant to oxacillin and six (42.8% that were resistant to erythromycin. Among the CoNS, 31 (88.6% strains were resistant to oxacillin, 14 (40% to erythromycin, 18 (51.4% to gentamicin, and 8 (22.8% to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. None of the planktonic isolates were resistant to vancomycin or linezolid. MICs were 2-, 4-, 8-, and up to 16-fold higher for biofilm cells than for planktonic cells. This observation was more common for vancomycin and erythromycin. The MBCB ranged from 8 to >256 µg/mL for oxacillin, 128 to >128 µg/mL for vancomycin, 256 to >256 µg/mL for erythromycin and gentamicin, >64 µg/mL for linezolid, and 32/608 to >32/608 µg/mL for sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. The results showed considerably higher MICs for S. aureus and CoNS biofilm cells compared to planktonic cells. Analysis of MBCM confirmed that even high concentrations of vancomycin were unable to eliminate the biofilms of S. aureus and Co

  8. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profile of Escherichia coli and salmonella isolated from diarrheic calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansari, A.R.M.I.H.; Rahman, M.M.; Islam, Md Zohorul

    2014-01-01

    . The diarrhea and other clinical signs seen with the disease are caused by the interaction of any of several possible infectious causes. This study was carried out to isolate, identify and detect the antimicrobial resistant profile of E. coli and Salmonella from diarrheic calves. A total of one hundred...... and twenty five fecal specimens were collected directly from the rectum of diarrheic calves. Of the samples collected 35 (25%) and 11 (8.8%) was found positive for E. coli and Salmonella respectively. Antimicrobial resistance of these two isolate was found against Amoxycillin and Tetracycline whereas a high......Neonatal calf diarrhea (NCD) is a common disease affecting the newborn calf and the most critical period is in the first few days following birth of the calf which is also known as calf scours. Keeping animals in close confinement where the opportunity for transmission of causative agents of NCD...

  9. Vaginal versus Obstetric Infection Escherichia coli Isolates among Pregnant Women: Antimicrobial Resistance and Genetic Virulence Profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Sáez-López

    Full Text Available Vaginal Escherichia coli colonization is related to obstetric infections and the consequent development of infections in newborns. Ampicillin resistance among E. coli strains is increasing, which is the main choice for treating empirically many obstetric and neonatal infections. Vaginal E. coli strains are very similar to extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli with regards to the virulence factors and the belonging to phylogroup B2. We studied the antimicrobial resistance and the genetic virulence profile of 82 E. coli isolates from 638 vaginal samples and 63 isolated from endometrial aspirate, placental and amniotic fluid samples from pregnant women with obstetric infections. The prevalence of E. coli in the vaginal samples was 13%, which was significant among women with associated risk factors during pregnancy, especially premature preterm rupture of membranes (p<0.0001. Sixty-five percent of the strains were ampicillin-resistant. The E. coli isolates causing obstetric infections showed higher resistance levels than vaginal isolates, particularly for gentamicin (p = 0.001. The most prevalent virulence factor genes were those related to the iron uptake systems revealing clear targets for interventions. More than 50% of the isolates belonged to the virulent B2 group possessing the highest number of virulence factor genes. The ampicillin-resistant isolates had high number of virulence factors primarily related to pathogenicity islands, and the remarkable gentamicin resistance in E. coli isolates from women presenting obstetric infections, the choice of the most appropriate empiric treatment and clinical management of pregnant women and neonates should be carefully made. Taking into account host-susceptibility, the heterogeneity of E. coli due to evolution over time and the geographical area, characterization of E. coli isolates colonizing the vagina and causing obstetric infections in different regions may help to develop interventions and avoid the

  10. Continuous resistivity profiling data from Great South Bay, Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, V.A.; Bratton, J.F.; Kroeger, K.D.; Crusius, John; Worley, C.R.

    2013-01-01

    An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York was conducted to assess the importance of submarine groundwater discharge as a potential nonpoint source of nitrogen delivery to Great South Bay. Over 200 kilometers of continuous resistivity profiling data were collected to image the fresh-saline groundwater interface in sediments beneath the bay. In addition, groundwater sampling was performed at sites (1) along the north shore of Great South Bay, particularly in Patchogue Bay, that were representative of the developed Long Island shoreline, and (2) at sites on and adjacent to Fire Island, a 50-kilometer-long barrier island on the south side of Great South Bay. Other field activities included sediment coring, stationary electrical resistivity profiling, and surveys of in situ pore water conductivity. Results of continuous resistivity profiling surveys are described in this report. The onshore and offshore shallow hydrostratigraphy of the Great South Bay shorelines, particularly the presence and nature of submarine confining units, appears to exert primary control on the dimensions and chemistry of the submarine groundwater flow and discharge zones. Sediment coring has shown that the confining units commonly consist of drowned and buried peat layers likely deposited in salt marshes. Low-salinity groundwater extends from 10 to 100 meters offshore along much of the north and south shores of Great South Bay based on continuous resistivity profiling data, especially off the mouths of tidal creeks and beneath shallow flats to the north of Fire Island adjacent to modern salt marshes. Human modifications of much of the shoreline and nearshore areas along the north shore of the bay, including filling of salt marshes, construction of bulkheads and piers, and dredging of navigation channels, has substantially altered the natural hydrogeology of the bay's shorelines by truncating confining units and increasing

  11. Muscle function and body composition profile in adolescents with restrictive anorexia nervosa: Does resistance training help?

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández del Valle, María; Larumbe Zabala, Eneko; Morandé Lavín, Gonzalo; Pérez Ruiz, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of short-term resistance training on the body composition profile and muscle function in a group of Anorexia Nervosa restricting type (AN-R) patients. The sample consisted of AN-R female adolescents (12.8 ± 0.6 years) allocated into the control and intervention groups (n¼18 each). Body composition and relative strength were assessed at baseline, after 8 weeks and 4 weeks following the intervention. Body mass index (BMI) increased throughout...

  12. Metagenomic profiling of microbial composition and antibiotic resistance determinants in Puget Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port, Jesse A; Wallace, James C; Griffith, William C; Faustman, Elaine M

    2012-01-01

    Human-health relevant impacts on marine ecosystems are increasing on both spatial and temporal scales. Traditional indicators for environmental health monitoring and microbial risk assessment have relied primarily on single species analyses and have provided only limited spatial and temporal information. More high-throughput, broad-scale approaches to evaluate these impacts are therefore needed to provide a platform for informing public health. This study uses shotgun metagenomics to survey the taxonomic composition and antibiotic resistance determinant content of surface water bacterial communities in the Puget Sound estuary. Metagenomic DNA was collected at six sites in Puget Sound in addition to one wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) that discharges into the Sound and pyrosequenced. A total of ~550 Mbp (1.4 million reads) were obtained, 22 Mbp of which could be assembled into contigs. While the taxonomic and resistance determinant profiles across the open Sound samples were similar, unique signatures were identified when comparing these profiles across the open Sound, a nearshore marina and WWTP effluent. The open Sound was dominated by α-Proteobacteria (in particular Rhodobacterales sp.), γ-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes while the marina and effluent had increased abundances of Actinobacteria, β-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. There was a significant increase in the antibiotic resistance gene signal from the open Sound to marina to WWTP effluent, suggestive of a potential link to human impacts. Mobile genetic elements associated with environmental and pathogenic bacteria were also differentially abundant across the samples. This study is the first comparative metagenomic survey of Puget Sound and provides baseline data for further assessments of community composition and antibiotic resistance determinants in the environment using next generation sequencing technologies. In addition, these genomic signals of potential human impact can be used to guide initial

  13. Metagenomic profiling of microbial composition and antibiotic resistance determinants in Puget Sound.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse A Port

    Full Text Available Human-health relevant impacts on marine ecosystems are increasing on both spatial and temporal scales. Traditional indicators for environmental health monitoring and microbial risk assessment have relied primarily on single species analyses and have provided only limited spatial and temporal information. More high-throughput, broad-scale approaches to evaluate these impacts are therefore needed to provide a platform for informing public health. This study uses shotgun metagenomics to survey the taxonomic composition and antibiotic resistance determinant content of surface water bacterial communities in the Puget Sound estuary. Metagenomic DNA was collected at six sites in Puget Sound in addition to one wastewater treatment plant (WWTP that discharges into the Sound and pyrosequenced. A total of ~550 Mbp (1.4 million reads were obtained, 22 Mbp of which could be assembled into contigs. While the taxonomic and resistance determinant profiles across the open Sound samples were similar, unique signatures were identified when comparing these profiles across the open Sound, a nearshore marina and WWTP effluent. The open Sound was dominated by α-Proteobacteria (in particular Rhodobacterales sp., γ-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes while the marina and effluent had increased abundances of Actinobacteria, β-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. There was a significant increase in the antibiotic resistance gene signal from the open Sound to marina to WWTP effluent, suggestive of a potential link to human impacts. Mobile genetic elements associated with environmental and pathogenic bacteria were also differentially abundant across the samples. This study is the first comparative metagenomic survey of Puget Sound and provides baseline data for further assessments of community composition and antibiotic resistance determinants in the environment using next generation sequencing technologies. In addition, these genomic signals of potential human impact can be used

  14. On the possible eigenoscillations of neutral sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, W.A.; Costa, J.M. da; Aruquipa, E.G.; Sudano, J.P.

    1974-12-01

    A neutral sheet model with hyperbolic tangent equilibrium magnetic field and hyperbolic square secant density profiles is considered. It is shown that the equation for small oscillations takes the form of an eigenvalue oscillation problem. Computed eigenfrequencies of the geomagnetic neutral sheet were found to be in the range of the resonant frequencies of the geomagnetic plasma sheet computed by other authors

  15. Validation of candidate genes putatively associated with resistance to SCMV and MDMV in maize (Zea mays L.) by expression profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uzarowska, Anna; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Sarholz, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Background The potyviruses sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) are major pathogens of maize worldwide. Two loci, Scmv1 and Scmv2, have ealier been shown to confer complete resistance to SCMV. Custom-made microarrays containing previously identified SCMV resistance...... the effectiveness and reliability of the combination of different expression profiling approaches for the identification and validation of candidate genes. Genes identified in this study represent possible future targets for manipulation of SCMV resistance in maize....

  16. Cosmogenic 10Be Depth Profile in top 560 m of West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide Ice Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welten, K. C.; Woodruff, T. E.; Caffee, M. W.; Edwards, R.; McConnell, J. R.; Bisiaux, M. M.; Nishiizumi, K.

    2009-12-01

    Concentrations of cosmogenic 10Be in polar ice samples are a function of variations in solar activity, geomagnetic field strength, atmospheric mixing and annual snow accumulation rates. The 10Be depth profile in ice cores also provides independent chronological markers to tie Antarctic to Greenland ice cores and to tie Holocene ice cores to the 14C dendrochronology record. We measured 10Be concentrations in 187 samples from depths of 0-560 m of the main WAIS Divide core, WDC06A. The ice samples are typically 1-2 kg and represent 2-4 m of ice, equivalent to an average temporal resolution of ~12 years, based on the preliminary age-depth scale proposed for the WDC core, (McConnell et al., in prep). Be, Al and Cl were separated using ion exchange chromatography techniques and the 10Be concentrations were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at PRIME lab. The 10Be concentrations range from 8.1 to 19.1 x 10^3 at/g, yielding an average of (13.1±2.1) x 10^3 at/g. Adopting an average snow accumulation rate of 20.9 cm weq/yr, as derived from the age-depth scale, this value corresponds to an average 10Be flux of (2.7±0.5) x 10^5 atoms/yr/cm2. This flux is similar to that of the Holocene part of the Siple Dome (Nishiizumi and Finkel, 2007) and Dome Fuji (Horiuchi et al. 2008) ice cores, but ~30% lower than the value of 4.0 x 10^5 atoms/yr/cm2 for GISP2 (Finkel and Nishiizumi, 1997). The periods of low solar activity, known as Oort, Wolf, Spörer, Maunder and Dalton minima, show ~20% higher 10Be concentrations/fluxes than the periods of average solar activity in the last millennium. The maximum 10Be fluxes during some of these periods of low solar activity are up to ~50% higher than average 10Be fluxes, as seen in other polar ice cores, which makes these peaks suitable as chronologic markers. We will compare the 10Be record in the WAIS Divide ice core with that in other Antarctic as well as Greenland ice cores and with the 14C treering record. Acknowledgment. This

  17. Antimicrobial Resistance Percentages of Salmonella and Shigella in Seafood Imported to Jordan: Higher Percentages and More Diverse Profiles in Shigella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaidat, Mohammad M; Bani Salman, Alaa E

    2017-03-01

    This study determined the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of human-specific ( Shigella spp.) and zoonotic ( Salmonella enterica ) foodborne pathogens in internationally traded seafood. Sixty-four Salmonella and 61 Shigella isolates were obtained from 330 imported fresh fish samples from Egypt, Yemen, and India. The pathogens were isolated on selective media, confirmed by PCR, and tested for antimicrobial resistance. Approximately 79 and 98% of the Salmonella and Shigella isolates, respectively, exhibited resistance to at least one antimicrobial, and 8 and 49% exhibited multidrug resistance (resistance to three or more antimicrobial classes). Generally, Salmonella exhibited high resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cephalothin, streptomycin, and ampicillin; very low resistance to kanamycin, tetracycline, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and ciprofloxacin; and no resistance to ceftriaxone. Meanwhile, Shigella spp. exhibited high resistance to tetracycline, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cephalothin, streptomycin, and ampicillin; low resistance to kanamycin, nalidixic acid, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and ceftriaxone; and very low resistance to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. Salmonella isolates exhibited 14 resistance profiles, Shigella isolates 42. This study is novel in showing that a human-specific pathogen has higher antimicrobial resistance percentages and more diverse profiles than a zoonotic pathogen. Thus, the impact of antimicrobial use in humans is as significant as, if not more significant than, it is in animals in spreading antibiotic resistance through food. This study also demonstrates that locally derived antimicrobial resistance can spread and pose a public health risk worldwide through seafood trade and that high resistance would make a possible outbreak difficult to control. So, capacity building and monitoring harvest water areas are encouraged in fish producing countries.

  18. Sensory profiles of chocolates produced from cocoa cultivars resistant to Moniliophtora Perniciosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Bacelar Leite

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the sensory quality of chocolates obtained from two cocoa cultivars (PH16 and SR162 resistant to Moniliophtora perniciosa mould comparing to a conventional cocoa that is not resistant to the disease. The acceptability of the chocolates was assessed and the promising cultivars with relevant sensory and commercial attributes could be indicated to cocoa producers and chocolate manufacturers. The descriptive terminology and the sensory profile of chocolates were developed by Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA. Ten panelists, selected on the basis of their discriminatory capacity and reproducibility, defined eleven sensory descriptors, their respective reference materials and the descriptive evaluation ballot. The data were analyzed using ANOVA, Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Tukey's test to compare the means. The results revealed significant differences among the sensory profiles of the chocolates. Chocolates from the PH16 cultivar were characterized by a darker brown color, more intense flavor and odor of chocolate, bitterness and a firmer texture, which are important sensory and commercial attributes. Chocolates from the SR162 cultivar were characterized by a greater sweetness and melting quality and chocolates from the conventional treatment presented intermediate sensory characteristics between those of the other two chocolates. All samples indicated high acceptance, but chocolates from the PH16 and conventional cultivars obtained higher purchase intention scores.

  19. Candida profiles and antifungal resistance evolution over a decade in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araj, George Farah; Asmar, Rima George; Avedissian, Aline Zakaria

    2015-09-27

    Infection with and antifungal resistance of Candida species have been on the rise globally. Relevant data on these pathogens are relatively few in our region, including Lebanon, thus warranting this study. This retrospective study of Candida spp. profiles and their in vitro antifungal susceptibility was based on analysis requests for 186 Candida non-albicans and 61 C. albicans during three periods (2005-2007, 2009-2011, and 2012-2014) over the span of the last 10 years at the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC), a major tertiary care center in Lebanon. Identification of Candida was done using the API 20C AUX system, and the E-test was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antifungal agents. Among the 1,300-1,500 Candida isolates recovered yearly, C. albicans rates decreased from 86% in 2005 to around 60% in 2014. Simultaneously, the non-albicans rates increased from 14% in 2005 to around 40% in 2014, revealing 11 species, the most frequent of which were C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, and C. parapsilosis. All these demonstrated high resistance (35%-79%) against itraconazole, but remained uniformly susceptible (100%) to amphotericin B. Though C. albicans and the other species maintained high susceptibility against fluconazole and voriconazole, their MIC90 showed an elevated trend over time, and C. glabrata had the highest resistance rates. The observed rise in resistance among Candida spp. in Lebanon mandates the need for close surveillance and monitoring of antifungal drug resistance for both epidemiologic and treatment purposes.

  20. Vaginal versus Obstetric Infection Escherichia coli Isolates among Pregnant Women: Antimicrobial Resistance and Genetic Virulence Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-López, Emma; Guiral, Elisabet; Fernández-Orth, Dietmar; Villanueva, Sonia; Goncé, Anna; López, Marta; Teixidó, Irene; Pericot, Anna; Figueras, Francesc; Palacio, Montse; Cobo, Teresa; Bosch, Jordi; Soto, Sara M

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal Escherichia coli colonization is related to obstetric infections and the consequent development of infections in newborns. Ampicillin resistance among E. coli strains is increasing, which is the main choice for treating empirically many obstetric and neonatal infections. Vaginal E. coli strains are very similar to extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli with regards to the virulence factors and the belonging to phylogroup B2. We studied the antimicrobial resistance and the genetic virulence profile of 82 E. coli isolates from 638 vaginal samples and 63 isolated from endometrial aspirate, placental and amniotic fluid samples from pregnant women with obstetric infections. The prevalence of E. coli in the vaginal samples was 13%, which was significant among women with associated risk factors during pregnancy, especially premature preterm rupture of membranes (pinfections showed higher resistance levels than vaginal isolates, particularly for gentamicin (p = 0.001). The most prevalent virulence factor genes were those related to the iron uptake systems revealing clear targets for interventions. More than 50% of the isolates belonged to the virulent B2 group possessing the highest number of virulence factor genes. The ampicillin-resistant isolates had high number of virulence factors primarily related to pathogenicity islands, and the remarkable gentamicin resistance in E. coli isolates from women presenting obstetric infections, the choice of the most appropriate empiric treatment and clinical management of pregnant women and neonates should be carefully made. Taking into account host-susceptibility, the heterogeneity of E. coli due to evolution over time and the geographical area, characterization of E. coli isolates colonizing the vagina and causing obstetric infections in different regions may help to develop interventions and avoid the aetiological link between maternal carriage and obstetric and subsequent puerperal infections.

  1. Metabolic profiling for detection of Staphylococcus aureus infection and antibiotic resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Antti

    Full Text Available Due to slow diagnostics, physicians must optimize antibiotic therapies based on clinical evaluation of patients without specific information on causative bacteria. We have investigated metabolomic analysis of blood for the detection of acute bacterial infection and early differentiation between ineffective and effective antibiotic treatment. A vital and timely therapeutic difficulty was thereby addressed: the ability to rapidly detect treatment failures because of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA were used in vitro and for infecting mice, while natural MSSA infection was studied in humans. Samples of bacterial growth media, the blood of infected mice and of humans were analyzed with combined Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. Multivariate data analysis was used to reveal the metabolic profiles of infection and the responses to different antibiotic treatments. In vitro experiments resulted in the detection of 256 putative metabolites and mice infection experiments resulted in the detection of 474 putative metabolites. Importantly, ineffective and effective antibiotic treatments were differentiated already two hours after treatment start in both experimental systems. That is, the ineffective treatment of MRSA using cloxacillin and untreated controls produced one metabolic profile while all effective treatment combinations using cloxacillin or vancomycin for MSSA or MRSA produced another profile. For further evaluation of the concept, blood samples of humans admitted to intensive care with severe sepsis were analyzed. One hundred thirty-three putative metabolites differentiated severe MSSA sepsis (n = 6 from severe Escherichia coli sepsis (n = 10 and identified treatment responses over time. Combined analysis of human, in vitro, and mice samples identified 25 metabolites indicative of effective treatment of S. aureus sepsis. Taken together, this

  2. EVALUATION OF CORROSION RESISTANCE OF STEEL SHEETS FOR AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY WITH THE USE OF THE SPOTFACE TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Nei Carvalho Costa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Innovation, leading to weight and cost reduction, is a key word concerning the design of steel auto body for auto makers that aim to keep and improve their market share worldwide. On the other hand, auto body life, which is related to the corrosion resistance of the materials employed, should always be considered. The latter has led the auto makers to team up with suppliers to find the best solutions concerning the materials selection. The end result always points towards different sets of steels either zinc-coated or zinc alloyed-coated. Taking all these aspects into consideration, the overall challenge the auto makers face is to mitigate the time required for selection and narrow down the options available. This paper studies the corrosion resistance of several materials applied on steel auto bodies using the technique named spotface, which main advantage is reducing the time required by the traditional scribe to evaluate and compare different materials, when they are submitted either to accelerated or field corrosion testing. Concerning the accelerated corrosion testing, they were performed according to the General Motors do Brasil’s requirements.

  3. Association between markers of systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid profiles, and insulin resistance in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zatollah Asemi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increased levels of pro-inflammatory factors, markers of oxidative stress and lipid profiles are known to be associated with several complications. The aim of this study was to determine the association of markers of systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and lipid profiles with insulin resistance in pregnant women in Kashan, Iran. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, serum insulin, 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydroguanine (8-oxo-G, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, and plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC were measured among 89 primigravida singleton pregnant women aged 18-30 years at 24-28 weeks of gestation. Pearson’s correlation and multiple linear regressions were used to assess their relationships with homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. RESULTS: We found that among biochemical indicators of pregnant women, serum hs-CRP and total cholesterol levels were positively correlated with HOMA-IR (β = 0.05, P = 0.006 for hs-CRP and β = 0.006, P = 0.006 for total cholesterol. These associations remained significant even after mutual effect of other biochemical indicators were controlled (β = 0.04, P = 0.01 for hs-CRP and β = 0.007, P = 0.02 for total cholesterol. Further adjustment for body mass index made the association of hs-CRP and HOMA-IR disappeared; however, the relationship for total cholesterol remained statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that serum total cholesterol is independently correlated with HOMA-IR score. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings. Keywords: Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, Insulin Resistance, Pregnancy

  4. Insulin resistance, adipokine profile and hepatic expression of SOCS-3 gene in chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Kamila; Jabłonowska, Elżbieta; Omulecka, Aleksandra; Piekarska, Anna

    2014-08-14

    To analyze adipokine concentrations, insulin resistance and hepatic expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS-3) in patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 with normal body weight, glucose and lipid profile. The study group consisted of 31 patients with chronic hepatitis C and 9 healthy subjects. Total levels of adiponectin, leptin, resistin, visfatin, omentin, osteopontin and insulin were measured using an ELISA kit. The hepatic expression of SOCS-3 was determined by the use of the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method. Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values were significantly higher in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients without metabolic disorders compared to healthy controls (2.24 vs 0.59, P = 0.0003). Hepatic steatosis was observed in 32.2% of patients with HCV infection and was found in patients with increased HOMA-IR index (2.81 vs 1.99, P = 0.05) and reduced adiponectin level (5.96 vs 8.37, P = 0.04). Inflammatory activity (G ≥ 2) was related to increased osteopontin concentration (34.04 vs 23.35, P = 0.03). Advanced liver fibrosis (S ≥ 2) was associated with increased levels of omentin and osteopontin (436.94 vs 360.09, P = 0.03 and 32.84 vs 20.29, P = 0.03) and reduced resistin concentration (1.40 vs 1.74, P = 0.047). No correlations were reported between adipokine profile, HOMA-IR values and hepatic expression of the SOCS-3 gene. We speculated that no relationship between adipokines and HOMA-IR values may indicate that HCV can induce insulin resistance itself. Some adipokines appear to be biochemical markers of steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis in patients with chronic HCV infection. © 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Clonal profile, virulence and resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from sheep milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katheryne Benini Martins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the clonal profile, virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance, particularly oxacillin resistance, of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from sheep milk. Milk samples were collected from all teats for the California Mastitis Test (CMT, somatic cell count, identification of S. aureus, investigation in these strains of genes encoding toxins (sea, seb, sec, sed, tst, biofilm (icaA, icaC, icaD, bap, leukocidin (luk-PV oxacillin resistance by mecA gene detection and susceptibility testing (12 antibiotics. Messenger RNA expression was evaluated by RT-PCR in isolates carrying toxin and biofilm genes. Biofilm formation was also evaluated phenotypically by adherence to polystyrene plates. The clonal profile of S. aureus was investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A total of 473 milk samples were collected from 242 animals on three farms and 20 S. aureus strains were isolated and none carried the mecA gene. The two sec gene-positive isolates and the isolates carrying the tst and luk-PV genes were positive by RT-PCR. Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the three flocks studied showed high susceptibility to the drugs tested and none was biofilm producer, indicating that biofilm formation was not a virulence factor causing infection by these strains. The typing of 17 S. aureus isolates revealed the presence of a common clone on the three farms studied, and the presence and expression of the sec and tst genes in one strain of this clone suggest the possible acquisition of virulence genes by this clone, a fact that is important for animal health and food hygiene.

  6. Clonal profile, virulence and resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from sheep milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Katheryne Benini; Faccioli-Martins, Patricia Yoshida; Riboli, Danilo Flávio Moraes; Pereira, Valéria Cataneli; Fernandes, Simone; Oliveira, Aline A; Dantas, Ariane; Zafalon, Luiz Francisco; da Cunha, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the clonal profile, virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance, particularly oxacillin resistance, of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from sheep milk. Milk samples were collected from all teats for the California Mastitis Test (CMT), somatic cell count, identification of S. aureus, investigation in these strains of genes encoding toxins (sea, seb, sec, sed, tst), biofilm (icaA, icaC, icaD, bap), leukocidin (luk-PV) oxacillin resistance by mecA gene detection and susceptibility testing (12 antibiotics). Messenger RNA expression was evaluated by RT-PCR in isolates carrying toxin and biofilm genes. Biofilm formation was also evaluated phenotypically by adherence to polystyrene plates. The clonal profile of S. aureus was investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A total of 473 milk samples were collected from 242 animals on three farms and 20 S. aureus strains were isolated and none carried the mecA gene. The two sec gene-positive isolates and the isolates carrying the tst and luk-PV genes were positive by RT-PCR. Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the three flocks studied showed high susceptibility to the drugs tested and none was biofilm producer, indicating that biofilm formation was not a virulence factor causing infection by these strains. The typing of 17 S. aureus isolates revealed the presence of a common clone on the three farms studied, and the presence and expression of the sec and tst genes in one strain of this clone suggest the possible acquisition of virulence genes by this clone, a fact that is important for animal health and food hygiene.

  7. Clonal profile, virulence and resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from sheep milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Katheryne Benini; Faccioli-Martins, Patricia Yoshida; Riboli, Danilo Flávio Moraes; Pereira, Valéria Cataneli; Fernandes, Simone; Oliveira, Aline A.; Dantas, Ariane; Zafalon, Luiz Francisco; da Cunha, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the clonal profile, virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance, particularly oxacillin resistance, of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from sheep milk. Milk samples were collected from all teats for the California Mastitis Test (CMT), somatic cell count, identification of S. aureus, investigation in these strains of genes encoding toxins (sea, seb, sec, sed, tst), biofilm (icaA, icaC, icaD, bap), leukocidin (luk-PV) oxacillin resistance by mecA gene detection and susceptibility testing (12 antibiotics). Messenger RNA expression was evaluated by RT-PCR in isolates carrying toxin and biofilm genes. Biofilm formation was also evaluated phenotypically by adherence to polystyrene plates. The clonal profile of S. aureus was investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A total of 473 milk samples were collected from 242 animals on three farms and 20 S. aureus strains were isolated and none carried the mecA gene. The two sec gene-positive isolates and the isolates carrying the tst and luk-PV genes were positive by RT-PCR. Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the three flocks studied showed high susceptibility to the drugs tested and none was biofilm producer, indicating that biofilm formation was not a virulence factor causing infection by these strains. The typing of 17 S. aureus isolates revealed the presence of a common clone on the three farms studied, and the presence and expression of the sec and tst genes in one strain of this clone suggest the possible acquisition of virulence genes by this clone, a fact that is important for animal health and food hygiene. PMID:26273271

  8. Effector genomics accelerates discovery and functional profiling of potato disease resistance and phytophthora infestans avirulence genes.

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    Vivianne G A A Vleeshouwers

    Full Text Available Potato is the world's fourth largest food crop yet it continues to endure late blight, a devastating disease caused by the Irish famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Breeding broad-spectrum disease resistance (R genes into potato (Solanum tuberosum is the best strategy for genetically managing late blight but current approaches are slow and inefficient. We used a repertoire of effector genes predicted computationally from the P. infestans genome to accelerate the identification, functional characterization, and cloning of potentially broad-spectrum R genes. An initial set of 54 effectors containing a signal peptide and a RXLR motif was profiled for activation of innate immunity (avirulence or Avr activity on wild Solanum species and tentative Avr candidates were identified. The RXLR effector family IpiO induced hypersensitive responses (HR in S. stoloniferum, S. papita and the more distantly related S. bulbocastanum, the source of the R gene Rpi-blb1. Genetic studies with S. stoloniferum showed cosegregation of resistance to P. infestans and response to IpiO. Transient co-expression of IpiO with Rpi-blb1 in a heterologous Nicotiana benthamiana system identified IpiO as Avr-blb1. A candidate gene approach led to the rapid cloning of S. stoloniferum Rpi-sto1 and S. papita Rpi-pta1, which are functionally equivalent to Rpi-blb1. Our findings indicate that effector genomics enables discovery and functional profiling of late blight R genes and Avr genes at an unprecedented rate and promises to accelerate the engineering of late blight resistant potato varieties.

  9. Chronic hepatitis C infection is associated with insulin resistance and lipid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chia-Yen; Yeh, Ming-Lun; Huang, Chung-Feng; Hou, Chen-Hsiu; Hsieh, Ming-Yen; Huang, Jee-Fu; Lin, I-Ling; Lin, Zu-Yau; Chen, Shinn-Chern; Wang, Liang-Yen; Chuang, Wan-Long; Yu, Ming-Lung; Tung, Hung-Da

    2015-05-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been suggested to be associated with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and lipid profiles. This study aimed to investigate the possible relationships of insulin resistance (IR) and lipid profiles with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients in Taiwan. We enrolled 160 hospital-based CHC patients with liver biopsy and the 480 controlled individuals without CHC and chronic hepatitis B from communities without known history of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TGs), alanine aminotransferase, and serum insulin levels, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) were tested. When comparing factors between CHC patients, and sex- and age-matched controls who had no HCV infection, patients with HCV infection had a significantly higher alanine aminotransferase level, fasting plasma glucose level, insulin level, and HOMA-IR (P C and LDL-C levels (all P  2.5]), a high body mass index, TGs, and HCV RNA level are independent factors significantly associated with high HOMA-IR in multivariate logistic analyses. Chronic HCV infection was associated with metabolic characteristics including IR and lipid profile. IR was also associated with virological characteristics. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Tyrosine Is Associated with Insulin Resistance in Longitudinal Metabolomic Profiling of Obese Children

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    Christian Hellmuth

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In obese children, hyperinsulinaemia induces adverse metabolic consequences related to the risk of cardiovascular and other disorders. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA and acylcarnitines (Carn, involved in amino acid (AA degradation, were linked to obesity-associated insulin resistance, but these associations yet have not been studied longitudinally in obese children. We studied 80 obese children before and after a one-year lifestyle intervention programme inducing substantial weight loss >0.5 BMI standard deviation scores in 40 children and no weight loss in another 40 children. At baseline and after the 1-year intervention, we assessed insulin resistance (HOMA index, fasting glucose, HbA1c, 2 h glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test, AA, and Carn. BMI adjusted metabolite levels were associated with clinical markers at baseline and after intervention, and changes with the intervention period were evaluated. Only tyrosine was significantly associated with HOMA (p<0.05 at baseline and end and with change during the intervention (p<0.05. In contrast, ratios depicting BCAA metabolism were negatively associated with HOMA at baseline (p<0.05, but not in the longitudinal profiling. Stratified analysis revealed that the children with substantial weight loss drove this association. We conclude that tyrosine alterations in association with insulin resistance precede alteration in BCAA metabolism. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00435734.

  11. MicroRNA expression profiles of drug-resistance breast cancer cells and their exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shanliang; Chen, Xiu; Wang, Dandan; Zhang, Xiaohui; Shen, Hongyu; Yang, Sujin; Lv, Mengmeng; Tang, Jinhai; Zhao, Jianhua

    2016-04-12

    Exosomes have been shown to transmit drug resistance through delivering miRNAs. We aimed to explore their roles in breast cancer. Three resistant sublines were established by exposing parental MDA-MB-231 cell line to docetaxel, epirubicin and vinorelbine, respectively. Preneoadjuvant chemotherapy biopsies and paired surgically-resected specimens embedded in paraffin from 23 breast cancer patients were collected. MiRNA expression profiles of the cell lines and their exosomes were evaluated using microarray. The result showed that most miRNAs in exosomes had a lower expression level than that in cells, however, some miRNAs expressed higher in exosomes than in cells, suggesting a number of miRNAs is concentrated in exosomes. Among the dysregulated miRNAs, 22 miRNAs were consistently up-regulated in exosomes and their cells of origin. We further found that 12 of the 22 miRNAs were significantly up-regulated after preneoadjuvant chemotherapy. Further study of the role of these 12 miRNAs in acquisition of drug resistance is needed to clarify their contribution to chemoresistance.

  12. Phenotypic and genotypic profile of clinical and animal multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica isolates from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Montes de Oca, S; Talavera-Rojas, M; Soriano-Vargas, E; Barba-León, J; Vázquez-Navarrete, J; Acosta-Dibarrat, J; Salgado-Miranda, C

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain a phenotypic and genotypic profile of Salmonella enterica including multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates from food-producing animals and clinical isolates, as well as their genetic relatedness in two different States of Mexico (Jalisco and State of Mexico). A total of 243 isolates were evaluated in terms of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and related genes through a disk diffusion method and PCR respectively; we found 16 MDR isolates, all of them harbouring the bla CMY gene but not qnr genes, these isolates represent less than 10% of the collection. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed a higher genotypic similitude within isolates of State of Mexico than Jalisco. A low percentage of Salmonella isolates were resistant to relevant antibiotics in human health, nevertheless, the AMR and involved genes were similar despite the different serovars and origin of the isolates. This investigation provided an insight of the current status of AMR of Salmonella isolates in two States of Mexico and pinpoint the genes involved in AMR and their epidemiological relationship, the information could help to determine an adequate therapy in human and veterinary medicine. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Global transcriptional profiling of longitudinal clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis exhibiting rapid accumulation of drug resistance.

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    Anirvan Chatterjee

    Full Text Available The identification of multidrug resistant (MDR, extensively and totally drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, in vulnerable sites such as Mumbai, is a grave threat to the control of tuberculosis. The current study aimed at explaining the rapid expression of MDR in Directly Observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS compliant patients, represents the first study comparing global transcriptional profiles of 3 pairs of clinical Mtb isolates, collected longitudinally at initiation and completion of DOTS. While the isolates were drug susceptible (DS at onset and MDR at completion of DOTS, they exhibited identical DNA fingerprints at both points of collection. The whole genome transcriptional analysis was performed using total RNA from H37Rv and 3 locally predominant spoligotypes viz. MANU1, CAS and Beijing, hybridized on MTBv3 (BuG@S microarray, and yielded 36, 98 and 45 differentially expressed genes respectively. Genes encoding transcription factors (sig, rpoB, cell wall biosynthesis (emb genes, protein synthesis (rpl and additional central metabolic pathways (ppdK, pknH, pfkB were found to be down regulated in the MDR isolates as compared to the DS isolate of the same genotype. Up regulation of drug efflux pumps, ABC transporters, trans-membrane proteins and stress response transcriptional factors (whiB in the MDR isolates was observed. The data indicated that Mtb, without specific mutations in drug target genes may persist in the host due to additional mechanisms like drug efflux pumps and lowered rate of metabolism. Furthermore this population of Mtb, which also showed reduced DNA repair activity, would result in selection and stabilization of spontaneous mutations in drug target genes, causing selection of a MDR strain in the presence of drug pressures. Efflux pump such as drrA may play a significant role in increasing fitness of low level drug resistant cells and assist in survival of Mtb till acquisition of drug resistant mutations with

  14. Adrenal hyperandrogenism does not deteriorate insulin resistance and lipid profile in women with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschou, Stavroula A; Palioura, Eleni; Ioannidis, Dimitrios; Anagnostis, Panagiotis; Panagiotakou, Argyro; Loi, Vasiliki; Karageorgos, Georgios; Goulis, Dimitrios G; Vryonidou, Andromachi

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of adrenal hyperandrogenism on insulin resistance and lipid profile in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We studied 372 women with PCOS according to the NIH criteria. 232 age- and BMI-matched women served as controls in order to define adrenal hyperandrogenism (DHEA-S >95th percentile). Then, patients with PCOS were classified into two groups: with adrenal hyperandrogenism (PCOS-AH, n  = 108) and without adrenal hyperandrogenism (PCOS-NAH, n  = 264). Anthropometric measurements were recorded. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, lipid profile, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and androgen (TT, Δ4A, DHEA-S) concentrations were assessed. Free androgen index (FAI) and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index were calculated. Women with PCOS-AH were younger than PCOS-NAH ( P   0.05). These metabolic parameters did not differ between the two groups even after correction for age. Women with PCOS-AH had lower SHBG (29.2 ± 13.8 vs 32.4 ± 11.8 nmol/L, P  = 0.025) and higher TT (1.0 ± 0.2 vs 0.8 ± 0.4 ng/mL, P  = 0.05) and Δ4A (3.9 ± 1.2 vs 3.4 ± 1.0 ng/mL, P  = 0.007) concentrations, as well as FAI (14.1 ± 8.0 vs 10.2 ± 5.0, P  PCOS and adrenal hyperandrogenism do not exhibit any deterioration in insulin resistance and lipid profile despite the higher degree of total androgens. © 2017 The authors.

  15. Antibiotic resistance profile and virulence genes of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates in relation to phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, N; Ghanbarpour, R; Solatzadeh, H; Alizade, H

    2014-03-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains are the major cause of urinary tract infections (UTI) and belong to the large group of extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli. The purposes of this study were to determine the antibiotic resistance profile, virulence genes and phylogenetic background of E. coli isolates from UTI cases. A total of 137 E. coli isolates were obtained from UTI samples. The antimicrobial susceptibility of confirmed isolates was determined by disk diffusion method against eight antibiotics. The isolates were examined to determine the presence and prevalence of selected virulence genes including iucD, sfa/focDE, papEF and hly. ECOR phylo-groups of isolates were determined by detection of yjaA and chuA genes and fragment TspE4.C2. The antibiogram results showed that 71% of the isolates were resistant to cefazolin, 60.42% to co-trimoxazole, 54.16% to nalidixic acid, 36.45% to gentamicin, 29.18% to ciprofloxacin, 14.58% to cefepime, 6.25% to nitrofurantoin and 0.00% to imipenem. Twenty-two antibiotic resistance patterns were observed among the isolates. Virulence genotyping of isolates revealed that 58.39% isolates had at least one of the four virulence genes. The iucD gene was the most prevalent gene (43.06%). The other genes including sfa/focDE, papEF and hly genes were detected in 35.76%, 18.97% and 2.18% isolates, respectively. Nine combination patterns of the virulence genes were detected in isolates. Phylotyping of 137 isolates revealed that the isolates fell into A (45.99%), B1 (13.14%), B2 (19.71%) and D (21.16%) groups. Phylotyping of multidrug resistant isolates indicated that these isolates are mostly in A (60.34%) and D (20.38%) groups. In conclusion, the isolates that possessed the iucD, sfa/focDE, papEF and hly virulence genes mostly belonged to A and B2 groups, whereas antibiotic resistant isolates were in groups A and D. Escherichia coli strains carrying virulence factors and antibiotic resistance are distributed in specific phylogenetic

  16. Analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by IS1181 profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symms, C; Cookson, B; Stanley, J; Hookey, J V

    1998-06-01

    Variation in the genomic location and copy number of the insertion element IS1181 in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was investigated. Sixty-three isolates representing the Jevons type strain (NCTC 10442), phage-propagating strains, and epidemic strains were examined. A PCR amplicon of the insertion element was used to probe genomic restriction endonuclease digests. HindIII genomic digests gave 25 distinct IS1181 patterns, while EcoRI digests gave 20 patterns. EMRSA-01, -02, -04, -06, -07, -09, -10, -11, -13 and -14 contained the element but could not be subtyped by profiling it. EMRSA-16 did not contain IS1181, consistent with a unique evolutionary origin for this major UK epidemic strain. Marked heterogeneity was observed among isolates of EMRSA-03. Each EMRSA-03 strain examined gave a unique pattern, thereby allowing subtyping of an important epidemic phage type for the purposes of hospital cross-infection control.

  17. Association between markers of systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid profiles, and insulin resistance in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asemi, Zatollah; Jazayeri, Shima; Najafi, Mohammad; Samimi, Mansooreh; Shidfar, Farzad; Tabassi, Zohreh; Shahaboddin, Mohamadesmaeil; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2013-05-01

    Increased levels of pro-inflammatory factors, markers of oxidative stress and lipid profiles are known to be associated with several complications. The aim of this study was to determine the association of markers of systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and lipid profiles with insulin resistance in pregnant women in Kashan, Iran. In a cross-sectional study, serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), serum insulin, 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydroguanine (8-oxo-G), total cholesterol, triglyceride, High density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol), and plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured among 89 primigravida singleton pregnant women aged 18-30 years at 24-28 weeks of gestation. Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regressions were used to assess their relationships with homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). We found that among biochemical indicators of pregnant women, serum hs-CRP and total cholesterol levels were positively correlated with HOMA-IR (β = 0.05, P = 0.006 for hs-CRP and β = 0.006, P = 0.006 for total cholesterol). These associations remained significant even after mutual effect of other biochemical indicators were controlled (β = 0.04, P = 0.01 for hs-CRP and β = 0.007, P = 0.02 for total cholesterol). Further adjustment for body mass index made the association of hs-CRP and HOMA-IR disappeared; however, the relationship for total cholesterol remained statistically significant. Our findings showed that serum total cholesterol is independently correlated with HOMA-IR score. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  18. Terpene Profile, Leaf Anatomy, and Enzyme Activity of Resistant and Susceptible Cocoa Clonesto Vascular Streak Dieback Disease

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    Adi Prawoto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vascular-streak dieback (VSD, Oncobasidium theobromae is the most prevalent disease of Theobroma cacao L. in Indonesia. This study aims to analyze resistance mechanism to VSD based on terpene profile, leaf anatomy, chitinase, and peroxidase study. Resistant clones of Sulawesi 1 and Sca 6 and susceptible clones of ICS 60 and TSH 858 were used for terpene profile, leaf anatomy analysis, chitinase, peroxides, polyphenol, lignin, and cellulose analysis. Those clones and KEE 2, KKM 22 and ICS 13 were used for peroxides analysis. For trichome study, the resistant clones of Sulawesi 1, Sca 6, KEE 2, and KKM 22, and susceptible clones of ICS 60 and TSH 858 were used. GCMS analysis showed that chromatogram pattern of resistant and susceptible groups were quite similar, but resistant clones contained 22% more components than the susceptible ones. Resistant clones contained groups of pinene, decane, myrcene, and octadecanoic acid, while those substances on usceptible clones were absent. Trichome was thicker on younger leaf, and its density on the basal was higher than that on the middle and tip leaf parts. Trichome density of resistant clone was not always thicker than that of susceptible ones. On resistant clones, stomatal density was lower and width of stomate pits was narrower, while thickness of epidermis layer and pallisade parenchym were higher. Polyphenol content of resistant clones were higher but lignin and cellulose of both groups were similar. Chitinase activity which has a role in hydrolysis of mycelia cell wall was higher on the resistant clones, but peroxides which has a role in polymeration of lignin biosynthesis was similar between both groups. It is concluded that groups of terpene pinene, decane, myrcene, and octadecanoic acid, thickness of leaf epidermis, density and width of stomata pit, and chitinase activity plays important role in cocoa resistance to VSD. Key words: Theobroma cacaoL., clone, vascular-streak dieback, resistance, leaf

  19. Gonococcal infections in Austria: a long-term observation of prevalence and resistance profiles from 1999 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stary, Angelika; Heller-Vitouch, Claudia; Binder, Michael; Geusau, Alexandra; Stary, Georg; Rappersberger, Klemens; Komericki, Peter; Hoepfl, Reinhard; Haller, Maria

    2015-11-01

    The increase in minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of cephalosporins for Neisseria gonorrhoeae has given rise to concerns regarding potentially untreatable gonococcal infections. The goal was to ascertain the prevalence of gonorrhea in a Viennese patient group and determine resistance patterns. Another objective was to evaluate resistance profiles and MIC values of gonococcal isolates in an Austria-wide surveillance project. From 1999 to 2014, 350,000 individuals were tested for gonococci at the Viennese Outpatient Clinic. In addition, from 2010 to 2014, the MICs of recommended antibiotics was determined in 3,584 gonococcal isolates, initially by agar dilution and breakpoint determination, and, from 2012 onwards, by Etest®. During the observation period, the prevalence of gonorrhea increased eightfold, with a significantly greater number of quinolone, penicillin, and tetracycline- resistant strains. In gonococcal strains isolated from across Austria, there was an increase in cefixime and ceftriaxone MICs toward breakpoints. Twenty-one isolates showed cefixime resistance, and while there was an increase in azithromycin resistance from 0.9 % (2013) to 3.2 % (2014), no resistance to ceftriaxone was observed. Currently, there is no imminent risk of untreatable gonorrhea in Austria. However, continuing the use of gonococcal cultures as a diagnostic tool for establishing resistance profiles is essential in order to monitor trends in the development of Neisseria (N.) gonorrhoeae resistance. © 2015 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Using Metabolomic Profiles as Biomarkers for Insulin Resistance in Childhood Obesity: A Systematic Review

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    Xue Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence has shown the intimate relationship between metabolomic profiles and insulin resistance (IR in obese adults, while little is known about childhood obesity. In this review, we searched available papers addressing metabolomic profiles and IR in obese children from inception to February 2016 on MEDLINE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, and EMASE. HOMA-IR was applied as surrogate markers of IR and related metabolic disorders at both baseline and follow-up. To minimize selection bias, two investigators independently completed this work. After critical selection, 10 studies (including 2,673 participants were eligible and evaluated by using QUADOMICS for quality assessment. Six of the 10 studies were classified as “high quality.” Then we generated all the metabolites identified in each study and found amino acid metabolism and lipid metabolism were the main affected metabolic pathways in obese children. Among identified metabolites, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs, aromatic amino acids (AAAs, and acylcarnitines were reported to be associated with IR as biomarkers most frequently. Additionally, BCAAs and tyrosine seemed to be relevant to future metabolic risk in the long-term follow-up cohorts, emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis and prevention strategy. Because of limited scale and design heterogeneity of existing studies, future studies might focus on validating above findings in more large-scale and longitudinal studies with elaborate design.

  1. Effects of moxifloxacin exposure on the conjunctival flora and antibiotic resistance profile following repeated intravitreal injections

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    Mustafa Ataş

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the effects of moxifloxacin exposure on the conjunctival flora and antibiotic resistance profile following repeated intravitreal injections.METHODS:Seventy-two eyes of 36 patients [36 eyes in control group, 36 eyes in intravitreal injection (IVI group] were enrolled in the study. All the eyes had at least one IVI and had diabetic macular edema (DME or age-related macular degeneration (ARMD. Moxifloxacin was prescribed to all the patients four times a day for five days following injection. Conjunctival cultures were obtained from the lower fornix via standardized technique with every possible effort made to minimize contamination from the lids, lashes, or skin. Before the application of any ophthalmic medication, conjunctival cultures were obtained from both eyes using sterile cotton culture. An automated microbiology system was used to identify the growing bacteria and determine antibiotic sensitivity. RESULTS:The bacterial cultures were isolated from 72 eyes of 36 patients, sixteen of whom patients (44.4% were male and twenty (55.6% were female. Average age was 68.4±9.0 (range 50-86. The average number of injections before taking cultures was 3.1+1.0. Forty-eight (66.7% of 72 eyes had at least one significant organism. There was no bacterial growth in 8 (20.5% of IVI eyes and in 16 (44.4% of control eyes (P=0.03. Of the bacteria isolated from culture, 53.8% of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS in IVI eyes and 47.2% CoNS in control eyes. This difference between IVI eyes and control eyes about bacteria isolated from culture was not statistically significant (P=0.2. Eleven of 25 bacteria (44.0% isolated from IVI eyes and 11 (57.9% of 19 bacteria isolated from control eyes were resistant to oxacillin. The difference in frequency of moxifloxacine resistance between two groups was not statistically significant (12.0% in IVI eyes and 21.1% in control eyes (P=0.44. There were no cases of resistance to vancomycin, teicoplanin and

  2. Genetic profiles of ten Dirofilaria immitis isolates susceptible or resistant to macrocyclic lactone heartworm preventives

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    Catherine Bourguinat

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For dogs and cats, chemoprophylaxis with macrocyclic lactone (ML preventives for heartworm disease is widely used in the United States and other countries. Since 2005, cases of loss of efficacy (LOE of heartworm preventives have been reported in the U.S. More recently, ML-resistant D. immitis isolates were confirmed. Previous work identified 42 genetic markers that could predict ML response in individual samples. For field surveillance, it would be more appropriate to work on microfilarial pools from individual dogs with a smaller subset of genetic markers. Methods MiSeq technology was used to identify allele frequencies with the 42 genetic markers previously reported. Microfilaria from ten well-characterized new isolates called ZoeKY, ZoeMI, ZoeGCFL, ZoeAL, ZoeMP3, ZoeMO, ZoeAMAL, ZoeLA, ZoeJYD-34, and Metairie were extracted from fresh blood from dogs. DNA were extracted and sequenced with MiSeq technology. Allele frequencies were calculated and compared with the previously reported susceptible, LOE, and resistant D. immitis populations. Results The allele frequencies identified in the current resistant and susceptible isolates were in accordance with the allele frequencies previously reported in related phenotypes. The ZoeMO population, a subset of the ZoeJYD-34 population, showed a genetic profile that was consistent with some reversion towards susceptibility compared with the parental ZoeJYD-34 population. The Random Forest algorithm was used to create a predictive model using different SNPs. The model with a combination of three SNPs (NODE_42411_RC, NODE_21554_RC, and NODE_45689 appears to be suitable for future monitoring. Conclusions MiSeq technology provided a suitable methodology to work with the microfilarial samples. The list of SNPs that showed good predictability for ML resistance was narrowed. Additional phenotypically well characterized D. immitis isolates are required to finalize the best set of SNPs to be

  3. Molecular insights into Cassava brown streak virus susceptibility and resistance by profiling of the early host response

    OpenAIRE

    Anjanappa, Ravi B; Mehta, Devang; Okoniewski, Michal J; Szabelska-Berȩsewicz, Alicja; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Vanderschuren, Hervé

    2018-01-01

    Cassava brown streak viruses (CBSVs) are responsible for significant cassava yield losses in eastern sub-Saharan Africa. To study the possible mechanisms of plant resistance to CBSVs we inoculated CBSV-susceptible and -resistant cassava varieties with a mixed infection of CBSVs using top-cleft grafting. Transcriptome profiling of the two cassava varieties was performed at the earliest time-point of full infection (28 days after grafting) in the susceptible scions. The expression of genes enco...

  4. Virulence Genes and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Pasteurella multocida Strains Isolated from Rabbits in Brazil

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    Thais Sebastiana Porfida Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida is responsible for a wide range of diseases in domestic animals. In rabbits, the agent is related to nasal discharge, pneumonia, otitis media, pyometra, orchitis, abscess, and septicemia. One hundred and forty rabbits with respiratory diseases from four rabbitries in São Paulo State, Brazil were evaluated for the detection of P. multocida in their nasal cavities. A total of twenty-nine animals were positive to P. multocida isolation, and 46 strains were selected and characterized by means of biochemical tests and PCR. P. multocida strains were tested for capsular type, virulence genes, and resistance profile. A total of 45.6% (21/46 of isolates belonged to capsular type A, and 54.34% (25/46 of the isolates were untypeable. None of the strains harboured toxA or pfhA genes. The frequency of the other twenty genes tested was variable, and the data generated was used to build a dendrogram, showing the relatedness of strains, which were clustered according to origin. Resistance revealed to be more common against sulfonamides and cotrimoxazole, followed by erythromycin, penicillin, and amoxicillin.

  5. Muscle function and body composition profile in adolescents with restrictive anorexia nervosa: does resistance training help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-del-Valle, Maria; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Morande-Lavin, Gonzalo; Perez Ruiz, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of short-term resistance training on the body composition profile and muscle function in a group of Anorexia Nervosa restricting type (AN-R) patients. The sample consisted of AN-R female adolescents (12.8 ± 0.6 years) allocated into the control and intervention groups (n = 18 each). Body composition and relative strength were assessed at baseline, after 8 weeks and 4 weeks following the intervention. Body mass index (BMI) increased throughout the study (p = 0.011). Significant skeletal muscle mass (SMM) gains were found in the intervention group (p = 0.045, d = 0.6) that correlated to the change in BMI (r = 0.51, p  0.60) with change in BMI in both the groups. Significant relative strength increases (p Anorexia Nervosa Restricting Type (AN-R) AN-R is a psychiatric disorder that has a major impact on muscle mass content and function. However, little or no attention has been paid to muscle recovery. High intensity resistance training is safe for AN-R after hospitalization and enhances the force generating capacity as well as muscle mass gains. Skeletal muscle mass content and muscular function improvements are partially maintained for a short period of time when the exercise program ceases.

  6. Insulin Resistance and Obesity Affect Lipid Profile in the Salivary Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Matczuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world wrong nutritional habits together with a low level of physical activity have given rise to the development of obesity and its comorbidity, insulin resistance. More specifically, many researches indicate that lipids are vitally involved in the onset of a peripheral tissue (e.g., skeletal muscle, heart, and liver insulin resistance. Moreover, it seems that diabetes can also induce changes in respect of lipid composition of both the salivary glands and saliva. However, judging by the number of research articles, the salivary glands lipid profile still has not been sufficiently explored. In the current study we aim to assess the changes in the main lipid fractions, namely, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, free fatty acids, and diacylglycerols, in the parotid and the submandibular salivary glands of rats exposed to a 5-week high fat diet regimen. We observed that the high caloric fat diet caused a significant change in the salivary glands lipid composition, especially with respect to PH and TG, but not DAG or FFAs, classes. The observed reduction in PH concentration is an interesting phenomenon frequently signifying the atrophy and malfunctions in the saliva secreting organs. On the other hand, the increased accumulation of TG in the glands may be an important clinical manifestation of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  7. Multifractal analysis of vertical profiles of soil penetration resistance at the field scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Siqueira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil penetration resistance (PR is widely used as an indirect indicator of soil strength. Soil PR is linked to basic soil properties and correlated to root growth and plant production, and as such it is extensively used as a practical tool for assessing soil compaction and to evaluate the effects of soil management. This study investigates how results from multifractal analysis can quantify key elements of depth-dependent soil PR profiles and how this information can be used at the field scale. We analysed multifractality of 50 PR vertical profiles, measured from 0 to 60 cm depth and randomly located on a 6.5 ha sugar cane field in northeastern Brazil. The scaling property of each profile was typified by singularity, and Rényi spectra estimated by the method of moments. The Hurst exponent was used to parameterize the autocorrelation of the vertical PR data sets. The singularity and Rènyi spectra showed that the vertical PR data sets exhibited a well-defined multifractal structure. Hurst exponent values were close to 1, ranging from 0.944 to 0.988, indicating strong persistence in PR variation with soil depth. Also, the Hurst exponent was negatively and significantly correlated to coefficient of variation (CV, skewness and maximum values of the depth-dependent PR. Multifractal analysis added valuable information to describe the spatial arrangement of depth-dependent penetrometer data sets, which was not taken into account by classical statistical indices. Multifractal parameters were mapped over the experimental field and compared with mean and maximum values of PR. Combination of spatial variability survey and multifractal analysis appear to be useful to manage soil compaction.

  8. Amino acid profiles of young adults differ by sex, body mass index and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Cruz, M; Vargas-Morales, J M; Méndez-García, A L; López-Barradas, A M; Granados-Portillo, O; Ordaz-Nava, G; Rocha-Viggiano, A K; Gutierrez-Leyte, C A; Medina-Cerda, E; Rosado, J L; Morales, J C; Torres, N; Tovar, A R; Noriega, L G

    2018-04-01

    An increase in plasma branched-chain amino acids is associated with a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known about the basal plasma amino acid concentrations in young adults. Our aim was to determine the plasma amino acid profiles of young adults and to evaluate how these profiles were modified by sex, body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance (IR). We performed a transversal study with 608 Mexican young adults aged 19.9 ± 2.4 years who were applicants to the Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí. The subjects underwent a physical examination and provided a clinical history and a blood sample for biochemical, hormonal and amino acid analyses. The women had higher levels of arginine, aspartate and serine and lower levels of α-aminoadipic acid, cysteine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, proline, tryptophan, tyrosine, urea and valine than the men. The obese subjects had higher levels of alanine, aspartate, cysteine, ornithine, phenylalanine, proline and tyrosine and lower levels of glycine, ornithine and serine than the normal weight subjects. Subjects with IR (defined as HOMA > 2.5) had higher levels of arginine, alanine, aspartate, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, proline, tyrosine, taurine and valine than the subjects without IR. Furthermore, we identified two main groups in the subjects with obesity and/or IR; one group was composed of amino acids that positively correlated with the clinical, biochemical and hormonal parameters, whereas the second group exhibited negative correlations. This study demonstrates that young adults with obesity or IR have altered amino acid profiles characterized by an increase in alanine, aspartate, proline and tyrosine and a decrease in glycine. Copyright © 2018 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II

  9. Multifractal analysis of vertical profiles of soil penetration resistance at the field scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, G. M.; Silva, E. F. F.; Montenegro, A. A. A.; Vidal Vázquez, E.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.

    2013-07-01

    Soil penetration resistance (PR) is widely used as an indirect indicator of soil strength. Soil PR is linked to basic soil properties and correlated to root growth and plant production, and as such it is extensively used as a practical tool for assessing soil compaction and to evaluate the effects of soil management. This study investigates how results from multifractal analysis can quantify key elements of depth-dependent soil PR profiles and how this information can be used at the field scale. We analysed multifractality of 50 PR vertical profiles, measured from 0 to 60 cm depth and randomly located on a 6.5 ha sugar cane field in northeastern Brazil. The scaling property of each profile was typified by singularity, and Rényi spectra estimated by the method of moments. The Hurst exponent was used to parameterize the autocorrelation of the vertical PR data sets. The singularity and Rènyi spectra showed that the vertical PR data sets exhibited a well-defined multifractal structure. Hurst exponent values were close to 1, ranging from 0.944 to 0.988, indicating strong persistence in PR variation with soil depth. Also, the Hurst exponent was negatively and significantly correlated to coefficient of variation (CV), skewness and maximum values of the depth-dependent PR. Multifractal analysis added valuable information to describe the spatial arrangement of depth-dependent penetrometer data sets, which was not taken into account by classical statistical indices. Multifractal parameters were mapped over the experimental field and compared with mean and maximum values of PR. Combination of spatial variability survey and multifractal analysis appear to be useful to manage soil compaction.

  10. Impact of restricted amoxicillin/clavulanic acid use on Escherichia coli resistance--antibiotic DU90% profiles with bacterial resistance rates: a visual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimica Matanovic, Suzana; Bergman, Ulf; Vukovic, Dubravka; Wettermark, Björn; Vlahovic-Palcevski, Vera

    2010-10-01

    High use of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC) at the University Hospital Osijek (Croatia) contributed to high rates of resistance in Enterobacteriaceae, in particular Escherichia coli (50%). Thus, in order to decrease bacterial resistance, AMC use was restricted. We present results of the restriction on resistance amongst antibiotics accounting for 90% of antibiotic use [drug utilisation 90% (DU90%)]. Data were analysed on antibiotic use and microbiological susceptibility of E. coli during two 9-month periods, before and after the restriction of AMC use. Drug use was presented as numbers of defined daily doses (DDDs) and DDDs/100 bed-days. Resistance of E. coli to antibiotics was presented as percentages of isolated strains in the DU90% segment. Use of AMC was 16 DDDs/100 bed-days or 30% of all antibiotics before the intervention. Use of AMC fell to 2 DDDs/100 bed-days or 4% after the intervention, and resistance of E. coli fell from 37% to 11%. In conclusion, restricted use of AMC resulted in a significant decrease of E. coli resistance. DU90% resistance profiles are simple and useful tools in highlighting problems in antibiotic use and resistance but may also be useful in long-term follow-up of antibiotic policy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  11. Phenotypic and genotypic anti-microbial resistance profiles of campylobacters from untreated feedlot cattle and their environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minihan, D; Whyte, P; O'mahony, M; Cowley, D; O'halloran, F; Corcoran, D; Fanning, S; Collins, J D

    2006-05-01

    Anti-microbial resistance is an emerging public health issue. Farmed animals may act as reservoirs and potential sources of anti-microbial resistant Campylobacters. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-microbial resistance profile of cattle and environmental Campylobacter isolates from normal untreated feedlot cattle, the role of the gyrA Thr-86-Ile mutation in ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter jejuni isolates and the involvement of the tripartite CmeABC efflux system for multi-resistant C. jejuni isolates. The phenotypic anti-microbial resistance testing was carried out on 500 Campylobacter isolates (445 cattle isolates and 55 environmental isolates). In general, there was a higher level of anti-microbial resistance for the environmental isolates compared with the animal isolates, 45% of the animal isolates were resistant to one or more of the seven anti-microbials compared with 84% of the environmental isolates. The combined cattle and environmental Campylobacters had 34 (6.8%) isolates resistant to three or more of the seven anti-microbials tested on all isolates and 11 (2.2%) isolates were resistant to the seven anti-microbials. There was a substantial level of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacters in both animal (8.5%) and environmental (21.8%) isolates. The gyrA Thr-86-Ile mutation was only present in five of 22 ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni isolates investigated. No multi-drug-resistant associated mutation was detected in the CmeB or the CmeR regions investigated. In conclusion, our study observed a substantial level of Campylobacter anti-microbial resistance, highlighting the need for an active anti-microbial surveillance program for food animals in Ireland and the importance of the chosen sampling point can have on the findings of such a program.

  12. Ohm's law for a current sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, L. R.; Speiser, T. W.

    1985-01-01

    The paper derives an Ohm's law for single-particle motion in a current sheet, where the magnetic field reverses in direction across the sheet. The result is considerably different from the resistive Ohm's law often used in MHD studies of the geomagnetic tail. Single-particle analysis is extended to obtain a self-consistency relation for a current sheet which agrees with previous results. The results are applicable to the concept of reconnection in that the electric field parallel to the current is obtained for a one-dimensional current sheet with constant normal magnetic field. Dissipated energy goes directly into accelerating particles within the current sheet.

  13. Comparison of genotypic resistance profiles and virological response between patients starting nevirapine and efavirenz in EuroSIDA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bannister, Wendy P; Ruiz, Lidia; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare virological outcome and genotypic resistance profiles in HIV-1-infected patients starting non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-containing regimens. METHODS: NNRTI-naive patients were included who started treatment with nevirapine (NVP) or efavirenz (EFV) wi...

  14. Microbiota and anthropic interference on antimicrobial resistance profile of bacteria isolated from Brazilian maned-wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olney Vieira-da-Motta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Both the study of Brazilian wild mammal fauna and the conditions that foster the preservation of endangered species, such as Brazilian Maned-wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus, in wild life are of extreme importance. In order to study the resistance profile of microbiota bacterial colonizing Brazilian Maned-wolf, this work investigated samples from eight male captive and free roaming animals originating from different Brazilian geographical regions. Samples for microbiological purposes were collected with swabs and kept in appropriate transport medium. Using routine microbiological techniques, the isolated bacteria were tested toward antimicrobial drugs by the agar disk diffusion method. Results showed that all samples from wild animals were sensitive toward all drugs tested. Conversely, the resistance profile of bacteria isolated from captive animals varied among strains and animal body site location. Escherichia coli samples from prepuce, anus and ear showed multi-resistance toward at least four drugs, especially against erythromycin and tetracycline, followed by Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris strains isolated from anus and ear. Among Gram-positive bacteria, strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci showed multi-resistance mainly toward erythromycin and amoxicillin. The work discusses these findings and suggests that profile of multi-resistance bacteria from captive subjects may be attributed to direct contact with human or through lifestyle factors such as feeding, predation or contact of animals with urban animals such as birds, rodents, and insects from surrounding environments.

  15. Microbiota and anthropic interference on antimicrobial resistance profile of bacteria isolated from Brazilian Maned-wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-da-Motta, Olney; Eckhardt-de-Pontes, Luiz Antonio; Petrucci, Melissa Paes; dos Santos, Israel Pereira; da Cunha, Isabel Candia Nunes; Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves

    2013-12-01

    Both the study of Brazilian wild mammal fauna and the conditions that foster the preservation of endangered species, such as Brazilian Maned-wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), in wild life are of extreme importance. In order to study the resistance profile of microbiota bacterial colonizing Brazilian Maned-wolf, this work investigated samples from eight male captive and free roaming animals originating from different Brazilian geographical regions. Samples for microbiological purposes were collected with swabs and kept in appropriate transport medium. Using routine microbiological techniques, the isolated bacteria were tested toward antimicrobial drugs by the agar disk diffusion method. Results showed that all samples from wild animals were sensitive toward all drugs tested. Conversely, the resistance profile of bacteria isolated from captive animals varied among strains and animal body site location. Escherichia coli samples from prepuce, anus and ear showed multi-resistance toward at least four drugs, especially against erythromycin and tetracycline, followed by Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris strains isolated from anus and ear. Among Gram-positive bacteria, strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci showed multi-resistance mainly toward erythromycin and amoxicillin. The work discusses these findings and suggests that profile of multi-resistance bacteria from captive subjects may be attributed to direct contact with human or through lifestyle factors such as feeding, predation or contact of animals with urban animals such as birds, rodents, and insects from surrounding environments.

  16. Correlation between Group B Streptococcal Genotypes, Their Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles, and Virulence Genes among Pregnant Women in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Hannoun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 76 Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococci [GBS] isolates from vaginal specimens of pregnant women near term were correlated to their genotypes generated by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA analysis and their virulence factors encoding genes cylE, lmb, scpB, rib, and bca by PCR. Based on the distribution of the susceptibility patterns, six profiles were generated. RAPD analysis detected 7 clusters of genotypes. The cylE gene was present in 99% of the isolates, the lmb in 96%, scpB in 94.7%, rib in 33%, and bca in 56.5% of isolates. The isolates demonstrated a significant correlation between antimicrobial resistance and genotype clusters denoting the distribution of particular clones with different antimicrobial resistance profiles, entailing the practice of caution in therapeutic options. All virulence factors encoding genes were detected in all seven genotypic clusters with rib and bca not coexisting in the same genome.

  17. Distribution and Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Yersinia Species Isolated From Chicken and Beef Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Aghamohammad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Foodborne diseases are widespread and growing public health problem in developed and developing countries. There are many microorganisms act as etiological agents for foodborne diseases such as Campylobacter spp., Listeria, Staphylococcos, Salmonella, Bacillus, Yersinia spp. High prevalence of gastrointestinal illness, including fatal cases attributable to yersiniosis, is also observed in many developing countries. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica and other Yersinia species in meat and chicken samples in various seasons and to determine their antibiotic resistance profile. Materials and Methods: To investigate the prevalence of Yersinia spp., a total of 450 samples, including chicken (n = 226 and beef meat (n = 224 were collected from supermarkets in Tehran. All samples were transported on ice to the laboratory and microbiological analysis was carried out within 2 hours after the collection. Susceptibility testing of bacterial strains was according to CLSI guideline at 28˚C by the disk diffusion assay. Results: From a total of 450 samples, (226 chickens and 224 beef meats, 70 (15.5% samples were positive for Yersinia spp. Of these isolates, (80% 56 species were identified as Y. enterocolitica, 8 (11% as Y. frederiksenii, 5 (7% as Y. intermedia and 1 (1.4% as Y. kristensenii. The highest rate of resistance was seen against cephalotin (98%, and ampicillin (52%. However, gentamicin and chloramphenicol were the most active antibiotics against the target cultures. Considering the season of isolation, Yersinia spp. were frequently isolated in autumn (52%, followed by spring (29%. Conclusions: Y. enterocolitica was the most spp. distributed among other species. Many factors, such as isolation assay, season, and geographical location play critical role in reports of increase or decrease in the prevalence of the Yersinia spp. all over the world. Our findings demonstrate that

  18. Gene Expression Profiling and Identification of Resistance Genes to Aspergillus flavus Infection in Peanut through EST and Microarray Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baozhu Guo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus infect peanut seeds and produce aflatoxins, which are associated with various diseases in domestic animals and humans throughout the world. The most cost-effective strategy to minimize aflatoxin contamination involves the development of peanut cultivars that are resistant to fungal infection and/or aflatoxin production. To identify peanut Aspergillus-interactive and peanut Aspergillus-resistance genes, we carried out a large scale peanut Expressed Sequence Tag (EST project which we used to construct a peanut glass slide oligonucleotide microarray. The fabricated microarray represents over 40% of the protein coding genes in the peanut genome. For expression profiling, resistant and susceptible peanut cultivars were infected with a mixture of Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus spores. The subsequent microarray analysis identified 62 genes in resistant cultivars that were up-expressed in response to Aspergillus infection. In addition, we identified 22 putative Aspergillus-resistance genes that were constitutively up-expressed in the resistant cultivar in comparison to the susceptible cultivar. Some of these genes were homologous to peanut, corn, and soybean genes that were previously shown to confer resistance to fungal infection. This study is a first step towards a comprehensive genome-scale platform for developing Aspergillus-resistant peanut cultivars through targeted marker-assisted breeding and genetic engineering.

  19. High resolution resistivity profiling using STRATAGEM system; Stratagem wo mochiita kobunkainohi teiko kozo tansarei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, K; Inoue, J; Takasugi, S [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Inazaki, T [Public Works Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    A tensor type CSMT method (STRATAGEM) was introduced for the purpose of investigating shallow subsurface, and a field test has been carried out thereon. This system consists of a transmission section, and a sensor section and a data acquisition and processing section to observe waveforms in a responsive electromagnetic field. The signal source is a semi-circular air loop with a radius of a little smaller than 2 m. The measuring points were selected at locations about 200 m apart from the signal source to measure two electric field components and two magnetic field components by using sensors installed on the ground surface. The field test was performed at the Yutsubo area in Oita Prefecture, Japan. The electric field dipole is basically 5 m long, while S and E lines are 10 m long. The measurement frequency ranges from 96 kHz to 1000 kHz. The measurement time was about five minutes, and the whole measurement work including apparatus set-up and withdrawal was completed in about 15 minutes to minimize interference with the field which is a meadow. The field test result revealed that resistivity profile in shallow subsurface can be obtained much more easily than with the conventional CSMT method. 2 refs., 10 figs.

  20. Metabolite profiles of rice cultivars containing bacterial blight-resistant genes are distinctive from susceptible rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao Wu; Haichuan Yu; Haofu Dai; Wenli Mei; Xin Huang; Shuifang Zhu; Ming Peng

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic changes of bacterial blight-resistant line C418/Xa23 generated by molecular marker-assisted selection (n =12),transgenic variety C418-Xa21 generated by using the Agrobacterium-mediated system (n =12),and progenitor cultivar C418 (n =12) were monitored using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.The validation,discrimination,and establishment of correlative relationships between metabolite signals were performed by cluster analysis,principal component analysis,and partial least squares-discriminant analysis.Significant and unintended changes were observed in 154 components in C418/Xa23 and 48 components in C418-Xa21 compared with C418 (P < 0.05,Fold change > 2.0).The most significant decreases detected (P< 0.001) in both C418/Xa23 and C418-Xa21 were in three amino acids: glycine,tyrosine,and alanine,and four identified metabolites: malic acid,ferulic acid,succinic acid,and glycerol.Linoleic acid was increased specifically in C418/Xa23 which was derived from traditional breeding.This line,possessing a distinctive metabolite profile as a positive control,shows more differences vs.the parental than the transgenic line.Only succinic acid that falls outside the boundaries of natural variability between the two non-transgenic varieties C418 and C418/Xa23 should be further investigated with respect to safety or nutritional impact.

  1. Toxigenic profile of methicillin-sensitive and resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from special groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Camila Sena Martins; Fortaleza, Carlos Magno Castelo Branco; Witzel, Claudia Lima; Silveira, Mônica; Bonesso, Mariana Fávero; Marques, Silvio Alencar; Cunha, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da

    2016-02-16

    Staphylococcus aureus is characterized by its pathogenicity and high prevalence, causing disease in both healthy and immunocompromised individuals due to its easy dissemination. This fact is aggravated by the widespread dissemination of S. aureus carrying toxigenic genes. The objective of this study was to determine the toxigenic profile of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in patients with purulent skin and/or soft tissue infections seen at the Dermatology Department of the University Hospital of the Botucatu Medical School, asymptomatic adults older than 60 years living in nursing homes, and prison inmates of the Avaré Detention Center. PCR was used for the detection of the mecA gene, enterotoxin genes (sea, seb, and sec), exfoliative toxins A and B (eta and etb), toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (tst), panton-valentine leukocidin (lukS-PV and lukF-PV), and alpha- and delta-hemolysins or cytotoxins (hla and hld). The results showed a significant prevalence of toxigenic genes among S. aureus isolates from asymptomatic individuals, with the observation of a higher prevalence of cytotoxin genes. However, the panton-valentine leukocidin gene was only detected in MSSA isolated from patients with skin infections and the tst gene was exclusively found in MSSA isolated from prison inmates. The present study demonstrated a significant prevalence of toxigenic genes in MSSA and MRSA strains isolated from asymptomatic S. aureus carriers. There was a higher prevalence of cytotoxin genes.

  2. Direct-current resistivity profiling at the Pecos River Ecosystem Project study site near Mentone, Texas, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeple, Andrew; McDonald, Alyson K.; Payne, Jason; Kress, Wade H.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Texas A&M University AgriLife, did a surface geophysical investigation at the Pecos River Ecosystem Project study site near Mentone in West Texas intended to determine shallow (to about 14 meters below the water [river] surface) subsurface composition (lithology) in and near treated (eradicated of all saltcedar) and control (untreated) riparian zone sites during June-August 2006. Land-based direct-current resistivity profiling was applied in a 240-meter section of the riverbank at the control site, and waterborne direct-current continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) was applied along a 2.279-kilometer reach of the river adjacent to both sites to collect shallow subsurface resistivity data. Inverse modeling was used to obtain a nonunique estimate of the true subsurface resistivity from apparent resistivity calculated from the field measurements. The land-based survey showed that the sub-surface at the control site generally is of relatively low resis-tivity down to about 4 meters below the water surface. Most of the section from about 4 to 10 meters below the water surface is of relatively high resistivity. The waterborne CRP surveys convey essentially the same electrical representation of the lithology at the control site to 10 meters below the water surface; but the CRP surveys show considerably lower resistivity than the land-based survey in the subsection from about 4 to 10 meters below the water surface. The CRP surveys along the 2.279-kilometer reach of the river adjacent to both the treated and control sites show the same relatively low resistivity zone from the riverbed to about 4 meters below the water surface evident at the control site. A slightly higher resistivity zone is observed from about 4 to 14 meters below the water surface along the upstream approximately one-half of the profile than along the downstream one-half. The variations in resistivity could not be matched to variations in lithology because

  3. Profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Profiles is a synthetic overview of more than 100 national energy markets in the world, providing insightful facts and key energy statistics. A Profile is structured around 6 main items and completed by key statistics: Ministries, public agencies, energy policy are concerned; main companies in the oil, gas, electricity and coal sectors, status, shareholders; reserve, production, imports and exports, electricity and refining capacities; deregulation of prices, subsidies, taxes; consumption trends by sector, energy market shares; main energy projects, production and consumption prospects. Statistical Profiles are present in about 3 pages the main data and indicators on oil, gas, coal and electricity. (A.L.B.)

  4. Anti-Microbial Resistance Profiles Of E. Coli Isolated From Free Range Chickens In Urban And Rural Environments Of Imo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Okoli I, Dr. Charles

    2006-01-01

    Information on the resistance profiles of normal intestinal flora of extensively reared chickens that hardly receive antibiotics in the developing countries can serve as important means of understanding the human/animal pathogens drug resistance interactions in the zone. Three hundred and fifty E. coli isolates, comprising 133 from urban and 217 from rural sites in Imo state, Nigeria, were screened for anti-microbial resistance profile against 10 antibiotics using the disc diffusion method. O...

  5. Resistance profiles to antimicrobial agents in bacteria isolated from acute endodontic infections: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Pauline M; Jacinto, Rogério C; Dal Pizzol, Tatiane S; Ferreira, Maria Beatriz C; Montagner, Francisco

    2016-11-01

    Infected root canal or acute apical abscess exudates can harbour several species, including Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Parvimonas, Streptococcus, Treponema, Olsenella and not-yet cultivable species. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to assess resistance rates to antimicrobial agents in clinical studies that isolated bacteria from acute endodontic infections. Electronic databases and the grey literature were searched up to May 2015. Clinical studies in humans evaluating the antimicrobial resistance of primary acute endodontic infection isolates were included. PRISMA guidelines were followed. A random-effect meta-analysis was employed. The outcome was described as the pooled resistance rates for each antimicrobial agent. Heterogeneity and sensitivity analyses were performed. Subgroup analyses were conducted based upon report or not of the use of antibiotics prior to sampling as an exclusion factor (subgroups A and B, respectively). Data from seven studies were extracted. Resistance rates for 15 different antimicrobial agents were evaluated (range, 3.5-40.0%). Lower resistance rates were observed for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and amoxicillin; higher resistance rates were detected for tetracycline. Resistance rates varied according to previous use of an antimicrobial agent as demonstrated by the subgroup analyses. Heterogeneity was observed for the resistance profiles of penicillin G in subgroup A and for amoxicillin, clindamycin, metronidazole and tetracycline in subgroup B. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that resistance rates changed for metronidazole, clindamycin, tetracycline and amoxicillin. These findings suggest that clinical isolates had low resistance to β-lactams. Further well-designed studies are needed to clarify whether the differences in susceptibility among the antimicrobial agents may influence clinical responses to treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights

  6. Expression profile of genes during resistance reversal in a temephos selected strain of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Strode

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mosquito Aedes aegypti is one of the most important disease vectors because it transmits two major arboviruses, dengue and yellow fever, which cause significant global morbidity and mortality. Chemical insecticides form the cornerstone of vector control. The organophosphate temephos a larvicide recommended by WHO for controlling Ae. aegypti, however, resistance to this compound has been reported in many countries, including Brazil. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The aim of this study was to identify genes implicated in metabolic resistance in an Ae. aegypti temephos resistant strain, named RecR, through microarray analysis. We utilized a custom 'Ae. aegypti detox chip' and validated microarray data through RT-PCR comparing susceptible and resistant individuals. In addition, we analyzed gene expression in 4(th instar larvae from a reversed susceptible strain (RecRev, exposed and unexposed to temephos. The results obtained revealed a set of 13 and 6 genes significantly over expressed in resistant adult mosquitoes and larvae, respectively. One of these genes, the cytochrome P450 CYP6N12, was up-regulated in both stages. RT-PCR confirmed the microarray results and, additionally, showed no difference in gene expression between temephos exposed and unexposed RecRev mosquitoes. This suggested that the differences in the transcript profiles among the strains are heritable due to a selection process and are not caused by immediate insecticide exposure. Reversal of temephos resistance was demonstrated and, importantly, there was a positive correlation between a decrease in the resistance ratio and an accompanying decrease in the expression levels of previously over expressed genes. Some of the genes identified here have also been implicated in metabolic resistance in other mosquito species and insecticide resistant populations of Ae. aegypti. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The identification of gene expression signatures associated to

  7. High throughput resistance profiling of Plasmodium falciparum infections based on custom dual indexing and Illumina next generation sequencing-technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nag, Sidsel; Dalgaard, Marlene Danner; Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    2017-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms in P. falciparum can be used to indicate the parasite's susceptibility to antimalarial drugs as well as its geographical origin. Both of these factors are key to monitoring development and spread of antimalarial drug resistance. In this study, we combine multiplex PCR, custom...... designed dual indexing and Miseq sequencing for high throughput SNP-profiling of 457 malaria infections from Guinea-Bissau, at the cost of 10 USD per sample. By amplifying and sequencing 15 genetic fragments, we cover 20 resistance-conferring SNPs occurring in pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfdhfr, pfdhps, as well...

  8. Strongyle Infection and Gut Microbiota: Profiling of Resistant and Susceptible Horses Over a Grazing Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Clark

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal strongyles are a major threat to horses' health and welfare. Given that strongyles inhabit the same niche as the gut microbiota, they may interact with each other. These beneficial or detrimental interactions are unknown in horses and could partly explain contrasted susceptibility to infection between individuals. To address these questions, an experimental pasture trial with 20 worm-free female Welsh ponies (10 susceptible (S and 10 resistant (R to parasite infection was implemented for 5 months. Fecal egg counts (FEC, hematological and biochemical data, body weight and gut microbiological composition were studied in each individual after 0, 24, 43, 92 and 132 grazing days. R and S ponies displayed divergent immunological profiles and slight differences in microbiological composition under worm-free conditions. After exposure to natural infection, the predicted R ponies exhibited lower FEC after 92 and 132 grazing days, and maintained higher levels of circulating monocytes and eosinophils, while lymphocytosis persisted in S ponies. Although the overall gut microbiota diversity and structure remained similar during the parasite infection between the two groups, S ponies exhibited a reduction of bacteria such as Ruminococcus, Clostridium XIVa and members of the Lachnospiraceae family, which may have promoted a disruption of mucosal homeostasis at day 92. In line with this hypothesis, an increase in pathobionts such as Pseudomonas and Campylobacter together with changes in several predicted immunological pathways, including pathogen sensing, lipid metabolism, and activation of signal transduction that are critical for the regulation of immune system and energy homeostasis were observed in S relative to R ponies. Moreover, S ponies displayed an increase in protozoan concentrations at day 92, suggesting that strongyles and protozoa may contribute to each other's success in the equine intestines. It could also be that S individuals

  9. The Effect of Renal Denervation on Plasma Adipokine Profile in Patients with Treatment Resistant Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Eikelis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: We previously demonstrated the effectiveness of renal denervation (RDN to lower blood pressure (BP at least partially via the reduction of sympathetic stimulation to the kidney. A number of adipocyte-derived factors are implicated in BP control in obesity.Aim: The aim of this study was to examine whether RDN may have salutary effects on the adipokine profile in patients with resistant hypertension (RH.Methods: Fifty seven patients with RH undergoing RDN program have been included in this study (65% males, age 60.8 ± 1.5 years, BMI 32.6 ± 0.7 kg/m2, mean ± SEM. Throughout the study, the patients were on an average of 4.5 ± 2.7 antihypertensive drugs. Automated seated office BP measurements and plasma concentrations of leptin, insulin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, adiponectin and resistin were assessed at baseline and the 3 months after RDN.Results: There was a significant reduction in mean office systolic (168.75 ± 2.57 vs. 155.23 ± 3.17 mmHg, p < 0.001 and diastolic (90.68 ± 2.31 vs. 83.74 ± 2.36 mmHg, p < 0.001 BP 3 months after RDN. Body weight, plasma leptin and resistin levels and heart rate remained unchanged. Fasting insulin concentration significantly increased 3 months after the procedure (20.05 ± 1.46 vs. 29.70 ± 2.51 uU/ml, p = 0.002. There was a significant drop in circulating NEFA at follow up (1.01 ± 0.07 vs. 0.47 ± 0.04 mEq/l, p < 0.001. Adiponectin concentration was significantly higher after RDN (5,654 ± 800 vs. 6,644 ± 967 ng/ml, p = 0.024.Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate that RDN is associated with potentially beneficial effects on aspects of the adipokine profile. Increased adiponectin and reduced NEFA production may contribute to BP reduction via an effect on metabolic pathways.Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT00483808, NCT00888433.

  10. HORMONAL PROFILE AND NONSPECIFIC RESISTANCE IN BOAR UNDER PRE-SLAUGHTER STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Grabovskyi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to determination of hormonal profile and nonspecific resistance in boars blood before slaughter after using of biologically active substances — animal origin antistressors andimmunostimulators. The purpose of research — determination of changes of insulin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, cortisol content in boars blood before slaughter and their correction of natural origin biologically active substances of spleen extract. Object and research methods. The spleen extract has been additionally entered to the boars feed at 5 days before slaughter as an antistressors and immunostimulators in pre-slaughter period. The experiment was conducted on 15 boars with standard diet. Three groups of boars six months of age (5 boars each were formed for research. The pig’s spleen extract was obtained with ultrasound application (Iresearch group were using as a biologically active substances to the feed boars in pre-slaughter period. The extracts were applied to dry feed by aerosol method (70 % alcohol solution of spleen extract volume of 1.4 ml per kg body weight. The boars of II research group in the same way received to the feed of 70 % ethanol solution in the same volume. The boars of control group received only dry feed economy. Theboars slaughter was held on day 13 hours a.m. Mathematical treatment of the research results worked statistically using the software package Statistica 6.0. Results and discussion. The ACTH and cortisol level in the boars’ blood plasma of experimental and control groups significantly increased after transportation (before the slaughter compared with the indexes before transportation to meat plant. The ACTH concentration in the boars’ blood plasma of І experimental group, which was added to the basic diet spleen extract, was 10 % lower than in the control group boars compared with indicators before and after transportation

  11. Microbiota and anthropic interference on antimicrobial resistance profile of bacteria isolated from Brazilian maned-wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus)

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira-da-Motta, Olney; Eckhardt-de-Pontes, Luiz Antonio; Petrucci, Melissa Paes; dos Santos, Israel Pereira; da Cunha, Isabel Candia Nunes; Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Both the study of Brazilian wild mammal fauna and the conditions that foster the preservation of endangered species, such as Brazilian Maned-wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), in wild life are of extreme importance. In order to study the resistance profile of microbiota bacterial colonizing Brazilian Maned-wolf, this work investigated samples from eight male captive and free roaming animals originating from different Brazilian geographical regions. Samples for microbiological purposes were collect...

  12. Frequency Of Isolation Of Salmonella From Commercial Poultry Feeds And Their Anti-Microbial Resistance Profiles, Imo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Okoli IC; Ndujihe GE; Ogbuewu IP

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the frequency of isolation of salmonella and their microbial resistance profiles across different commercial poultry feeds sold in Imo State, Nigeria. Thirty-six bulk feed samples were colleted from 154 bag across different feed types and brands which included Guinea (GF), Top (TF), Vital (VF), Extra (EF), Animal care (AF) and livestock (LF) feeds. The salmonella isolated were tested against 14 anti-microbial drugs using the disc diffusion method. Bacteri...

  13. Association between genotype and drug resistance profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains circulating in China in a national drug resistance survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Yang; van den Hof, Susan; Wang, Shengfen; Pang, Yu; Zhao, Bing; Xia, Hui; Anthony, Richard; Ou, Xichao; Li, Qiang; Zheng, Yang; Song, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Yanlin; van Soolingen, Dick

    2017-01-01

    We describe the population structure of a representative collection of 3,133 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates, collected within the framework of a national resistance survey from 2007 in China. Genotyping data indicate that the epidemic strains in China can be divided into seven major complexes,

  14. Interplay among Resistance Profiles, High-Risk Clones, and Virulence in the Caenorhabditis elegans Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Diener, Irina; Zamorano, Laura; López-Causapé, Carla; Cabot, Gabriel; Mulet, Xavier; Peña, Carmen; Del Campo, Rosa; Cantón, Rafael; Doménech-Sánchez, Antonio; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Arcos, Susana C; Navas, Alfonso; Oliver, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    The increasing prevalence of nosocomial infections produced by multidrug-resistant (MDR) or extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa is frequently linked to widespread international strains designated high-risk clones. In this work, we attempted to decipher the interplay between resistance profiles, high-risk clones, and virulence, testing a large ( n = 140) collection of well-characterized P. aeruginosa isolates from different sources (bloodstream infections, nosocomial outbreaks, cystic fibrosis, and the environment) in a Caenorhabditis elegans infection model. Consistent with previous data, we documented a clear inverse correlation between antimicrobial resistance and virulence in the C. elegans model. Indeed, the lowest virulence was linked to XDR profiles, which were typically linked to defined high-risk clones. However, virulence varied broadly depending on the involved high-risk clone; it was high for sequence type 111 (ST111) and ST235 but very low for ST175. The highest virulence of ST235 could be attributed to its exoU + type III secretion system (TTSS) genotype, which was found to be linked with higher virulence in our C. elegans model. Other markers, such as motility or pigment production, were not essential for virulence in the C. elegans model but seemed to be related with the higher values of the statistical normalized data. In contrast to ST235, the ST175 high-risk clone, which is widespread in Spain and France, seems to be associated with a particularly low virulence in the C. elegans model. Moreover, the previously described G154R AmpR mutation, prevalent in ST175, was found to contribute to the reduced virulence, although it was not the only factor involved. Altogether, our results provide a major step forward for understanding the interplay between P. aeruginosa resistance profiles, high-risk clones, and virulence. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. Elemental depth profiles and plasma etching rates of positive-tone electron beam resists after sequential infiltration synthesis of alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Yuki; Ito, Shunya; Hiroshiba, Nobuya; Nakamura, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Masaru

    2018-06-01

    By scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM–EDS), we investigated the elemental depth profiles of organic electron beam resist films after the sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS) of inorganic alumina. Although a 40-nm-thick poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) film was entirely hybridized with alumina, an uneven distribution was observed near the interface between the substrate and the resist as well as near the resist surface. The uneven distribution was observed around the center of a 100-nm-thick PMMA film. The thicknesses of the PMMA and CSAR62 resist films decreased almost linearly as functions of plasma etching period. The comparison of etching rate among oxygen reactive ion etching, C3F8 reactive ion beam etching (RIBE), and Ar ion beam milling suggested that the SIS treatment enhanced the etching resistance of the electron beam resists to chemical reactions rather than to ion collisions. We proposed oxygen- and Ar-assisted C3F8 RIBE for the fabrication of silica imprint molds by electron beam lithography.

  16. Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Bacteria Isolated from the Nasal Cavity of Camels in Samburu, Nakuru, and Isiolo Counties of Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Mutua

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine antimicrobial resistance profiles of bacteria isolated from the nasal cavity of healthy camels. A total of 255 nasal samples (swabs were collected in Isiolo, Samburu, and Nakuru counties, Kenya, from which 404 bacterial isolates belonging to various genera and species were recovered. The bacterial isolates included Bacillus (39.60%, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (29.95%, Streptococcus species other than Streptococcus agalactiae (25.74%, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (3.96%, and Streptococcus agalactiae (0.74%. Isolates were most susceptible to Gentamicin (95.8%, followed by Tetracycline (90.5%, Kanamycin and Chloramphenicol (each at 85.3%, Sulphamethoxazole (84.2%, Co-trimoxazole (82.1%, Ampicillin (78.9%, and finally Streptomycin (76.8%. This translated to low resistance levels. Multidrug resistance was also reported in 30.5% of the isolates tested. Even though the antibiotic resistance demonstrated in this study is low, the observation is significant, since the few resistant normal flora could be harboring resistance genes which can be transferred to pathogenic bacteria within the animal, to other animals’ bacteria and, most seriously, to human pathogens.

  17. Resistivity profiling for mapping gravel layers that may control contaminant migration at the Amargosa Desert Research Site, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Abraham, Jared D.; Burton, Bethany L.

    2008-01-01

    Gaseous contaminants, including CFC 113, chloroform, and tritiated compounds, move preferentially in unsaturated subsurface gravel layers away from disposal trenches at a closed low-level radioactive waste-disposal facility in the Amargosa Desert about 17 kilometers south of Beatty, Nevada. Two distinct gravel layers are involved in contaminant transport: a thin, shallow layer between about 0.5 and 2.2 meters below the surface and a layer of variable thickness between about 15 and 30 meters below land surface. From 2003 to 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey used multielectrode DC and AC resistivity surveys to map these gravel layers. Previous core sampling indicates the fine-grained sediments generally have higher water content than the gravel layers or the sediments near the surface. The relatively higher electrical resistivity of the dry gravel layers, compared to that of the surrounding finer sediments, makes the gravel readily mappable using electrical resistivity profiling. The upper gravel layer is not easily distinguished from the very dry, fine-grained deposits at the surface. Two-dimensional resistivity models, however, clearly identify the resistive lower gravel layer, which is continuous near the facility except to the southeast. Multielectrode resistivity surveys provide a practical noninvasive method to image hydrogeologic features in the arid environment of the Amargosa Desert.

  18. An NS5A single optimized method to determine genotype, subtype and resistance profiles of Hepatitis C strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Andre-Garnier

    Full Text Available The objective was to develop a method of HCV genome sequencing that allowed simultaneous genotyping and NS5A inhibitor resistance profiling. In order to validate the use of a unique RT-PCR for genotypes 1-5, 142 plasma samples from patients infected with HCV were analysed. The NS4B-NS5A partial region was successfully amplified and sequenced in all samples. In parallel, partial NS3 sequences were analyzed obtained for genotyping. Phylogenetic analysis showed concordance of genotypes and subtypes with a bootstrap >95% for each type cluster. NS5A resistance mutations were analyzed using the Geno2pheno [hcv] v0.92 tool and compared to the list of known Resistant Associated Substitutions recently published. In conclusion, this tool allows determination of HCV genotypes, subtypes and identification of NS5A resistance mutations. This single method can be used to detect pre-existing resistance mutations in NS5A before treatment and to check the emergence of resistant viruses while undergoing treatment in major HCV genotypes (G1-5 in the EU and the US.

  19. Sonic profile simulation from the profiles of gamma ray and resistivity in the wells from Campos Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Marcos; Carrasquilla, Abel; Silva, Jadir da

    2008-01-01

    The knowledge of the mechanical properties of the rocks is essential in the calculation of the stability of the oil wells and in the elaboration of drilling projects, because they help in the selection of the best equipment for each geologic scene. In these activities, the most important mechanical property is the rock compressibility, which can be calculated from the sonic geophysical log, but this one, not always available in the well data set. In order to minimize this limitation, it was developed, in this work, a methodology to simulate it through an algorithm that utilizes fuzzy logic concepts, using as input data gamma ray and resistivity logs. The basic principle of this methodology is to propose that any geophysical log, including the sonic log, can be considered function of other measured geophysical logs in the same depths. On the other hand, to test the confidence of this approach, it was compared with two others commonly used in the simulation of logs: the linear multiple regression and the neural network back-propagation, showing, our methodology, however, better results. Finally, to validate the method, it was tested using wells from Namorado Oil Field in Campos Basin, which contains gamma ray, sonic and resistivity logs. (author)

  20. Comparative transcriptome profiling of resistant and susceptible rice genotypes in response to the seedborne pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matić, Slavica; Bagnaresi, Paolo; Biselli, Chiara; Orru', Luigi; Amaral Carneiro, Greice; Siciliano, Ilenia; Valé, Giampiero; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Spadaro, Davide

    2016-08-11

    Fusarium fujikuroi is the causal agent of bakanae, the most significant seed-borne disease of rice. Molecular mechanisms regulating defence responses of rice towards this fungus are not yet fully known. To identify transcriptional mechanisms underpinning rice resistance, a RNA-seq comparative transcriptome profiling was conducted on infected seedlings of selected rice genotypes at one and three weeks post germination (wpg). Twelve rice genotypes were screened against bakanae disease leading to the identification of Selenio and Dorella as the most resistant and susceptible cultivars, respectively. Transcriptional changes were more appreciable at 3 wpg, suggesting that this infection stage is essential to study the resistance mechanisms: 3,119 DEGs were found in Selenio and 5,095 in Dorella. PR1, germin-like proteins, glycoside hydrolases, MAP kinases, and WRKY transcriptional factors were up-regulated in the resistant genotype upon infection with F. fujikuroi. Up-regulation of chitinases and down-regulation of MAP kinases and WRKY transcriptional factors were observed in the susceptible genotype. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analyses detected in Selenio GO terms specific to response to F. fujikuroi: 'response to chitin', 'jasmonic acid biosynthetic process', and 'plant-type hypersensitive response', while Dorella activated different mechanisms, such as 'response to salicylic acid stimulus' and 'gibberellin metabolic process', which was in agreement with the production of gibberellin A3 in Dorella plants. RNA-seq profiling was performed for the first time to analyse response of rice to F. fujikuroi infection. Our findings allowed the identification of genes activated in one- and three- week-old rice seedlings of two genotypes infected with F. fujikuroi. Furthermore, we found the pathways involved in bakanae resistance, such as response to chitin, JA-dependent signalling and hypersensitive response. Collectively, this provides important information to elucidate the

  1. Integron types, gene cassettes and antimicrobial resistance profile of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from BAL samples in Babol, north of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrami, Fariba; Shahandashti, Elaheh Ferdosi; Yahyapour, Yousef; Sadeghi, Mohsen; Khafri, Soraya; Pournajaf, Abazar; Rajabnia, Ramazan

    2017-08-01

    Multi-drug resistant isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii have created therapeutic problems worldwide. This current study was intended to determine the Integron types, gene cassettes and antimicrobial resistance profile of A. baumannii isolated from BAL samples in Babol, north of Iran. During a 15-month period, 35 A. baumannii isolates were studied. Different classes of antimicrobial agents were used to determine the resistance ratios. Multiplex-PCR was used to detect different types of integrons and associated gene cassettes. The resistance rates to GM, FEP, AK, TOB, CP, PIP, SAM, IPM, SXT, CTX, CAZ, CL, TIM, MEM, and TZP were 85.7%, 100%, 91.4%, 68.5%, 94.3%, 88.5%, 97.1%, 94.3%, 100%, 100%, 100%, 0.0%, 91.4%, 94.3% and 91.4%, respectively. The distribution analysis of int genes showed that 25.7%, 88.6% and 28.6% of isolates carried the intI, intII and intIII genes, respectively. The prevalence of aadB, dfrA1, bla-OXA 30 and aadA1 genes were 94.3%, 77.1%, 40% and 5.7%, respectively. The current study showed that a high level of A. baumannii isolates harbor integrons in our therapeutic center, which may lead to distribution of multiple antimicrobial resistance. The different types of gene cassette arrays in the present study highlight the important role of geographical features in MDR isolates dissemination which could be credited to different profiles of drug consumption in different areas. The findings emphasized that the need for continuous surveillance to prevent distribution of multidrug resistance among A. baumannii strains in Iran. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes profiling of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates in a burn center: A 5-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bei; Yin, Supeng; You, Bo; Gong, Yali; Huang, Guangtao; Yang, Zichen; Zhang, Yulong; Chen, Yu; Chen, Jing; Yuan, Zhiqiang; Hu, Xiaomei; Peng, Yizhi

    2018-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has attracted more and more attention in recent years, especially in burn medical centers. Here we conducted a 5-year period study to evaluate the MRSA infection in our burn center. The staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) typing, antimicrobials susceptibility and virulence profiles were also performed among the MRSA isolates. Of the 259 S. aureus isolates, 239 (92.28%) isolates were identified as MRSA. A decreased trend of MRSA isolation rate over time was found (P = 0.0063). Majority of MRSA isolates in our center belonged to SCCmec type III (230/239, 96.23%). Antimicrobials susceptibility tests of the MRSA isolates revealed significantly decreased resistance to clindamycin (P = 0.0183), and increased resistance to chloramphenicol (P = 0.0020) and minocycline (P Virulence factors profiling showed that most of MRSA isolates in our center carried the virulence factor pattern of cna-clfA-clfB-eno-fib-icaA-icaD-sea-psmα-lukED-hlg-hlgv-hla-hld (214/239, 89.54%). In conclusion, our study suggests that MRSA infection is serious in our burn center, but presented decreased trend over time. Most of MRSA isolates in our center presented the same virulence factor profile. More attention should be attached to nosocomial infection in burn medical center. Antimicrobials susceptibility changing over time was observed. Antimicrobials susceptibility monitoring is necessary and helps to select appropriate drugs against MRSA infections. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Chlamydia - CDC Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ( ... sheet Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) – CDC fact sheet Gonorrhea – CDC fact sheet STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis ( ...

  4. Association between insulin resistance and plasma amino acid profile in non-diabetic Japanese subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Chizumi; Kondo, Masumi; Kishimoto, Noriaki; Shibata, Takeo; Nagai, Yoko; Imanishi, Tadashi; Oroguchi, Takashige; Ishii, Naoaki; Nishizaki, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Elevation of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), valine, leucine and isoleucine; and the aromatic amino acids, tyrosine and phenylalanine, has been observed in obesity-related insulin resistance. However, there have been few studies on Asians, who are generally less obese and less insulin-resistant than Caucasian or African-Americans. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and plasma ami...

  5. APRIL is a novel clinical chemo-resistance biomarker in colorectal adenocarcinoma identified by gene expression profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, Russell D; Wang, Weiguang; Gilbert, Fiona; Semple, Scot; Collie-Duguid, Elaina SR; Samuel, Leslie M; Murray, Graeme I; MacDonald, Graham; O'Kelly, Terrence; Loudon, Malcolm; Binnie, Norman; Aly, Emad; McKinlay, Aileen

    2009-01-01

    5-Fluorouracil(5FU) and oral analogues, such as capecitabine, remain one of the most useful agents for the treatment of colorectal adenocarcinoma. Low toxicity and convenience of administration facilitate use, however clinical resistance is a major limitation. Investigation has failed to fully explain the molecular mechanisms of resistance and no clinically useful predictive biomarkers for 5FU resistance have been identified. We investigated the molecular mechanisms of clinical 5FU resistance in colorectal adenocarcinoma patients in a prospective biomarker discovery project utilising gene expression profiling. The aim was to identify novel 5FU resistance mechanisms and qualify these as candidate biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Putative treatment specific gene expression changes were identified in a transcriptomics study of rectal adenocarcinomas, biopsied and profiled before and after pre-operative short-course radiotherapy or 5FU based chemo-radiotherapy, using microarrays. Tumour from untreated controls at diagnosis and resection identified treatment-independent gene expression changes. Candidate 5FU chemo-resistant genes were identified by comparison of gene expression data sets from these clinical specimens with gene expression signatures from our previous studies of colorectal cancer cell lines, where parental and daughter lines resistant to 5FU were compared. A colorectal adenocarcinoma tissue microarray (n = 234, resected tumours) was used as an independent set to qualify candidates thus identified. APRIL/TNFSF13 mRNA was significantly upregulated following 5FU based concurrent chemo-radiotherapy and in 5FU resistant colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines but not in radiotherapy alone treated colorectal adenocarcinomas. Consistent withAPRIL's known function as an autocrine or paracrine secreted molecule, stromal but not tumour cell protein expression by immunohistochemistry was correlated with poor prognosis (p = 0.019) in the independent set

  6. GASN sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    This document gathers around 50 detailed sheets which describe and present various aspects, data and information related to the nuclear sector or, more generally to energy. The following items are addressed: natural and artificial radioactive environment, evolution of energy needs in the world, radioactive wastes, which energy for France tomorrow, the consequences in France of the Chernobyl accident, ammunitions containing depleted uranium, processing and recycling of used nuclear fuel, transport of radioactive materials, seismic risk for the basic nuclear installations, radon, the precautionary principle, the issue of low doses, the EPR, the greenhouse effect, the Oklo nuclear reactors, ITER on the way towards fusion reactors, simulation and nuclear deterrence, crisis management in the nuclear field, does nuclear research put a break on the development of renewable energies by monopolizing funding, nuclear safety and security, the plutonium, generation IV reactors, comparison of different modes of electricity production, medical exposure to ionizing radiations, the control of nuclear activities, food preservation by ionization, photovoltaic solar collectors, the Polonium 210, the dismantling of nuclear installations, wind energy, desalination and nuclear reactors, from non-communication to transparency about nuclear safety, the Jules Horowitz reactor, CO 2 capture and storage, hydrogen, solar energy, the radium, the subcontractors of maintenance of the nuclear fleet, biomass, internal radio-contamination, epidemiological studies, submarine nuclear propulsion, sea energy, the Three Mile Island accident, the Chernobyl accident, the Fukushima accident, the nuclear after Fukushima

  7. Antimicrobial resistance profiles of common mastitis pathogens on Canadian dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, V; McClure, J T; Léger, D; Keefe, G P; Scholl, D T; Morck, D W; Barkema, H W

    2012-08-01

    Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria has clinical and public health significance. The present study determined prevalence of AMR in common mastitis pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA; n=1,810), Escherichia coli (n=394), and Klebsiella species (n=139), including extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli and Klebsiella species, isolated from milk samples on 89 dairy farms in 6 Canadian provinces. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined using the Sensititer bovine mastitis plate (Trek Diagnostic Systems Inc., Cleveland, OH) and a National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System gram-negative panel containing antimicrobials commonly used for mastitis treatment and control. Denim blue chromogenic agar and real-time PCR were used to screen and confirm MRSA, respectively. Resistance proportion estimates ranged from 0% for cephalothin and oxacillin to 8.8% for penicillin in Staph. aureus isolates, and 15% of the resistant Staph. aureus isolates were multidrug resistant. One MRSA isolate was confirmed (prevalence: 0.05%). Resistance proportion estimates ranged from 0% for ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin to 14.8% for tetracycline in E. coli, and 0% for amikacin, ceftiofur, ciprofloxacin, and nalidixic acid to 18.6% for tetracycline in Klebsiella species isolates. Further, 62.8 and 55% of the resistant E. coli and Klebsiella species isolates were multidrug resistant, respectively. Resistance to >5 and >2 antimicrobials was most common in E. coli and Klebsiella species isolates, respectively, and no ESBL producers were found. Prevalence of AMR in bovine mastitis pathogens was low. Most gram-negative udder pathogens were multidrug resistant; MRSA was rarely found, and ESBL E. coli and Klebsiella species isolates were absent in Canadian milk samples. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Transcription profiling of a recently colonised pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae strain from Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnelly Martin J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquito resistance to the pyrethroid insecticides used to treat bednets threatens the sustainability of malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa. While the impact of target site insensitivity alleles is being widely discussed the implications of insecticide detoxification – though equally important – remains elusive. The successful development of new tools for malaria intervention and management requires a comprehensive understanding of insecticide resistance, including metabolic resistance mechanisms. Although three enzyme families (cytochrome P450s, glutathione S-transferases and carboxylesterases have been widely associated with insecticide detoxification the role of individual enzymes is largely unknown. Results Here, constitutive expression patterns of genes putatively involved in conferring pyrethroid resistance was investigated in a recently colonised pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae strain from Odumasy, Southern Ghana. RNA from the resistant strain and a standard laboratory susceptible strain, of both sexes was extracted, reverse transcribed and labelled with either Cy3- or Cy5-dye. Labelled cDNA was co-hybridised to the detox chip, a custom-made microarray containing over 230 A. gambiae gene fragments predominantly from enzyme families associated with insecticide resistance. After hybridisation, Cy3- and Cy5-signal intensities were measured and compared gene by gene. In both females and males of the resistant strain the cytochrome P450s CYP6Z2 and CYP6M2 are highly over-expressed along with a member of the superoxide dismutase (SOD gene family. Conclusion These genes differ from those found up-regulated in East African strains of pyrethroid resistant A. gambiae and constitute a novel set of candidate genes implicated in insecticide detoxification. These data suggest that metabolic resistance may have multiple origins in A. gambiae, which has strong implications for the management of resistance.

  9. Frequency Of Isolation Of Salmonella From Commercial Poultry Feeds And Their Anti-Microbial Resistance Profiles, Imo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoli IC

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the frequency of isolation of salmonella and their microbial resistance profiles across different commercial poultry feeds sold in Imo State, Nigeria. Thirty-six bulk feed samples were colleted from 154 bag across different feed types and brands which included Guinea (GF, Top (TF, Vital (VF, Extra (EF, Animal care (AF and livestock (LF feeds. The salmonella isolated were tested against 14 anti-microbial drugs using the disc diffusion method. Bacterial load enumeration of the samples indicated a range of <30 colony forming unit (CFU to overgrowth at 104 serial dilutions. Eight feed samples (22.2% which cuts across the entire feed brands expect EF were positive for salmonella. The highest prevalence of 28.8% and 25.0% were recorded for LF and TF respectively, while VF, GF and AF had 11.1 and 10.0% respectively. Salmonella isolates showed high rates of resistance (51-100% against nitrofurantoin, ampicillin, tetracycline and ceftriazole, while moderate rates (31-50% were recorded for chloramphenicol, oxfloxacin and cotrimoxazole. Low resistance rates (1-30% were on the other hand recorded against ciprofloxacin and amoxycillin clavulanate (Augumentine, whereas zero resistance was demonstrated against pefloxacin, gentamycin, streptomycin and nalidixic. Commercial feeds form important channels for the dissemination of multi-drug resistant salmonella in Imo State, Nigeria.

  10. The Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of Bacterial Strains Isolated from Patients with Hospital-Acquired Bloodstream and Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Ghadiri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of nosocomial infections is becoming difficult due to the increasing trend of antibiotics resistance. Current knowledge on antibiotic resistance pattern is essential for appropriate therapy. We aimed to evaluate antibiotic resistance profiles in nosocomial bloodstream and urinary tract pathogens. A total of 129 blood stream and 300 urinary tract positive samples were obtained from patients referring to Besat hospital over a two-year period (2009 and 2010. Antibiotic sensitivity was ascertained using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion technique according to CLSI guidelines. Patient's data such as gender and age were recorded. The ratio of gram-negative to gram-positive bacteria in BSIs was 1.6 : 1. The most prevalent BSI pathogen was Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci (CoNS. The highest resistance rate of CoNS was against penicillin (91.1% followed by ampicillin (75.6%, and the lowest rate was against vancomycin (4.4%. Escherichia coli was the most prevalent pathogen isolated from urinary tract infections (UTIs. Ratio of gram-negative to gram-positive bacteria was 3.2 : 1. The highest resistance rate of E. coli isolates was against nalidixic acid (57.7%. The present study showed that CoNS and E. coli are the most common causative agents of nosocomial BSIs and UTIs, and control of infection needs to be addressed in both antibiotic prescription and general hygiene.

  11. Molecular serotyping and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolated from pigs in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Boram; Hur, Jin; Lee, Ji Yeong; Choi, Yoonyoung; Lee, John Hwa

    2016-09-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) causes porcine pleuropneumonia (PP). Serotypes and antimicrobial resistance patterns in APP isolates from pigs in Korea were examined. Sixty-five APP isolates were genetically serotyped using standard and multiplex PCR (polymerase chain reaction). Antimicrobial susceptibilities were tested using the standardized disk-agar method. PCR was used to detect β-lactam, gentamicin and tetracycline-resistance genes. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) patterns were determined by PCR. Korean pigs predominantly carried APP serotypes 1 and 5. Among 65 isolates, one isolate was sensitive to all 12 antimicrobials tested in this study. Sixty-two isolates was resistant to tetracycline and 53 isolates carried one or five genes including tet(B), tet(A), tet(H), tet(M)/tet(O), tet(C), tet(G) and/or tet(L)-1 markers. Among 64 strains, 9% and 26.6% were resistance to 10 and three or more antimicrobials, respectively. Thirteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed and RAPD analysis revealed a separation of the isolates into two clusters: cluster II (6 strains resistant to 10 antimicrobials) and cluster I (the other 59 strains). Results show that APP serotypes 1 and 5 are the most common in Korea, and multi-drug resistant strains are prevalent. RAPD analysis demonstrated that six isolates resistant to 10 antimicrobials belonged to the same cluster.

  12. Identification of a putative protein-profile associating with tamoxifen therapy-resistance in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Umar (Arzu); J.W.M. Martens (John); J.A. Foekens (John); L. Paša-Tolić (Ljiljana); H. Kang; A.M. Timmermans (Mieke); M.P. Look (Maxime); M.E. Meijer van Gelder (Marion); N. Jaitly (Navdeep); M.A. den Bakker (Michael)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractTamoxifen-resistance is a major cause of death in patients with recurrent breast cancer. Current clinical parameters can correctly predict therapy response in only half of the treated patients. Identification of proteins that associate with tamoxifen-resistance is a first step towards

  13. Better Renal Resistive Index Profile in Subjects with Beta Thalassemia Minor .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basut, Fahrettin; Keşkek, Şakir Özgür; Gülek, Bozkurt

    2018-05-03

    Beta thalassaemia minor is a common genetic disorder without any characteristic symptoms except mild anemia. It is found to be associated with some cardiovascular risk factors such as insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. The renal resistive index (RRI) is a measure of renal arterial resistance to blood flow. The aim of this study was to evaluate the renal resistive index in subjects with beta thalassaemia minor (BTM). A total of 253 subjects were included in this cross-sectional study. The study group consisted of 148 subjects with BTM and the control group consisted of 105 healthy subjects. Beta thalassaemia minor was diagnosed by complete blood count and hemoglobin electrophoresis. Blood pressure measurement and biochemical tests were performed. Renal resistive index of all subjects was measured using renal Doppler ultrasonography. Subjects with beta thalassemia minor had lower renal resistive indices compared to healthy subjects (0.58 ± 0.04 vs. 0.60 ± 0.06, p = 0.0016). Additionally, the RRI levels of subjects with BTM were correlated with systolic blood pressure (p = 0.017, r = 0.194). In this study, lower renal resistive index was found in subjects with BTM. This may be associated with decreased vascular resistance and blood viscosity in these subjects. ©2018The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. MicroRNA Expression Profiles Associated with Development of Drug Resistance in Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Susanne; Søkilde, Rolf; Rask, Lene

    2011-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) poses a major obstacle to successful chemotherapeutic treatment of cancer, and often involves multiple genes, which may be regulated post-transcriptionally by microRNAs (miRNAs). The purpose of the present study was therefore to identify any resistance-associated change...

  15. HIV Resistance Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 14, 2016 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 126 HIV Resistance Testing WHAT IS RESISTANCE? HOW DOES RESISTANCE ... ARVs. If you miss doses of your medications, HIV will multiply more easily. More mutations will occur. ...

  16. Transcriptome profiling of resistant and susceptible Cavendish banana roots following inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chun-yu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fusarium wilt, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (Foc TR4, is considered the most lethal disease of Cavendish bananas in the world. The disease can be managed in the field by planting resistant Cavendish plants generated by somaclonal variation. However, little information is available on the genetic basis of plant resistance to Foc TR4. To a better understand the defense response of resistant banana plants to the Fusarium wilt pathogen, the transcriptome profiles in roots of resistant and susceptible Cavendish banana challenged with Foc TR4 were compared. Results RNA-seq analysis generated more than 103 million 90-bp clean pair end (PE reads, which were assembled into 88,161 unigenes (mean size = 554 bp. Based on sequence similarity searches, 61,706 (69.99% genes were identified, among which 21,273 and 50,410 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology (GO categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG, respectively. Searches in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG mapped 33,243 (37.71% unigenes to 119 KEGG pathways. A total of 5,008 genes were assigned to plant-pathogen interactions, including disease defense and signal transduction. Digital gene expression (DGE analysis revealed large differences in the transcriptome profiles of the Foc TR4-resistant somaclonal variant and its susceptible wild-type. Expression patterns of genes involved in pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP recognition, activation of effector-triggered immunity (ETI, ion influx, and biosynthesis of hormones as well as pathogenesis-related (PR genes, transcription factors, signaling/regulatory genes, cell wall modification genes and genes with other functions were analyzed and compared. The results indicated that basal defense mechanisms are involved in the recognition of PAMPs, and that high levels of defense-related transcripts may contribute to Foc TR4 resistance in

  17. Mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling of gemcitabine-sensitive and gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Yoshinori; Ikenaga, Naoki; Ohuchida, Kenoki; Setoyama, Daiki; Irie, Miho; Miura, Daisuke; Wariishi, Hiroyuki; Murata, Masaharu; Mizumoto, Kazuhiro; Hashizume, Makoto; Tanaka, Masao

    2014-03-01

    Gemcitabine resistance (GR) is one of the critical issues for therapy for pancreatic cancer, but the mechanism still remains unclear. Our aim was to increase the understanding of GR by metabolic profiling approach. To establish GR cells, 2 human pancreatic cancer cell lines, SUIT-2 and CAPAN-1, were exposed to increasing concentration of gemcitabine. Both parental and chemoresistant cells obtained by this treatment were subjected to metabolic profiling based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Multivariate statistical analyses, both principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis, distinguished metabolic signature of responsiveness and resistance to gemcitabine in both SUIT-2 and CAPAN-1 cells. Among significantly different (P metabolic pathways such as amino acid, nucleotide, energy, cofactor, and vitamin pathways. Decreases in glutamine and proline levels as well as increases in aspartate, hydroxyproline, creatine, and creatinine levels were observed in chemoresistant cells from both cell lines. These results suggest that metabolic profiling can isolate distinct features of pancreatic cancer in the metabolome of gemcitabine-sensitive and GR cells. These findings may contribute to the biomarker discovery and an enhanced understanding of GR in pancreatic cancer.

  18. Clinical features and antimicrobial resistance profiles of important Enterobacteriaceae pathogens in Guangzhou representative of Southern China, 2001-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jinhong; Peters, Brian M; Li, Bing; Li, Lin; Yu, Guangchao; Xu, Zhenbo; Shirtliff, Mark E

    2017-06-01

    This surveillance aimed to investigate the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Enterobacteriaceae pathogens in Southern China during 2001-2015. A total of 6858 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were collected, including 4276 E. coli, 1992 K. pneumoniae and 590 Enterobacter spp. Disk diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentrations method were used for susceptibility testing, with results interpreted by the CLSI (2015). Urinary tract remained the dominant isolated site among E. coli (49.88%), whereas 53.26% K. pneumoniae and 45.25% Enterobacter spp. were from Sputum. The carbapenems maintained the highest antimicrobial activity (resistance rates Enterobacteriaceae pathogens during the studied period, with ceftazidime as the most active third-generation cephalosporin against Enterobacteriaceae. Isolates from ICU department showed higher or similar resistance rates among Enterobacteriaceae pathogens compared to other wards. Carbapenems are the most potent antibiotic agents against Enterobacteriaceae pathogens. Due to the complicated susceptibility profiles, prescribing guidelines should be based on the knowledge of antibiogram of pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Changes in Amino Acid Profile in Roots of Glyphosate Resistant and Susceptible Soybean (Glycine max) Induced by Foliar Glyphosate Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldes, Carlos Alberto; Cantarelli, Miguel Angel; Camiña, José Manuel; Tsai, Siu Mui; Azevedo, Ricardo Antunes

    2017-10-11

    Amino acid profiles are useful to analyze the responses to glyphosate in susceptible and resistant soybean lines. Comparisons of profiles for 10 amino acids (Asp, Asn, Glu, Gln, Ser, His, Gly, Thr, Tyr, Leu) by HPLC in soybean roots were performed in two near isogenic pairs (four varieties). Foliar application of glyphosate was made to soybean plants after 5 weeks of seeding. Roots of four varieties were collected at 0 and 72 h after glyphosate application (AGA) for amino acid analysis by HPLC. Univariate analysis showed a significant increase of several amino acids in susceptible as well as resistant soybean lines; however, amino acids from the major pathways of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolism, such as Asp, Asn, Glu and Gln, and Ser, increased significantly in susceptible varieties at 72 h AGA. Multivariate analysis using principal component analysis (2D PCA and 3D PCA) allowed different groups to be identified and discriminated based on the soybean genetic origin, showing the amino acid responses on susceptible and resistant varieties. Based on the results, it is possible to infer that the increase of Asn, Asp, Glu, Gln, and Ser in susceptible varieties would be related to the deregulation of C and N metabolism, as well as changes in the growth mechanisms regulated by Ser.

  20. Comparing the Genetic Diversity and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Campylobacter jejuni Recovered from Cattle and Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonhee Cha

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni, a leading cause of gastroenteritis in humans, is a foodborne pathogen that can reside in chickens, pigs, and cattle. Because resistance to fluoroquinolones and macrolides, which are commonly used to treat human infections, has emerged in C. jejuni, it is imperative to continously monitor resistance patterns and examine the genetic variation in strains from human infections and animal reservoirs. Our previous study of C. jejuni from human campylobacteriosis cases showed a significantly higher rate of tetracycline resistance compared to national trends, and identified multilocus sequence type (ST-982 and a history of cattle contact to be associated with tetracycline resistance. To further investigate these associations, we conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the frequency of antimicrobial resistance and examine the genetic diversity of C. jejuni recovered from 214 cattle at three Michigan herds. Overall, the prevalence of C. jejuni was 69.2% (range: 58.6–83.8% for the three farms, and 83.7% (n = 113 of isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobials. Resistance to only tetracycline predominated among the cattle isolates (n = 89; 65.9% with most resistant strains belonging to ST-459 (96.5% or ST-982 (86.4%. Among the 22 STs identified, STs 459 and 982 were more prevalent in one feedlot, which reported the use of chlortetracycline in feed upon arrival of a new herd. PCR-based fingerprinting demonstrated that the ST-982 isolates from cattle and humans had identical banding patterns, suggesting the possibility of interspecies transmission. Resistance to macrolides (1.5% and ciprofloxacin (16.3% was also observed; 14 of the 22 ciprofloxacin resistant isolates represented ST-1244. Together, these findings demonstrate a high prevalence of antimicrobial resistant C. jejuni in cattle and identify associations with specific genotypes. Continuous monitoring and identification of risk factors for resistance emergence

  1. Thermomechanical processing of plasma sprayed intermetallic sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Scorey, Clive; Sikka, Vinod K.; Deevi, Seetharama C.; Fleischhauer, Grier; Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton; German, Randall M.

    2001-01-01

    A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3% Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence profile of enterococci isolated from poultry and cattle sources in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngbede, Emmanuel Ochefije; Raji, Mashood Abiola; Kwanashie, Clara Nna; Kwaga, Jacob Kwada Paghi

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the occurrence, antimicrobial resistance and virulence of Enterococcus from poultry and cattle farms. Three hundred and ninety samples: cloacal/rectal swabs (n = 260) and manure (n = 130] were processed for recovery of Enterococcus species. Standard bacteriological methods were used to isolate, identify and characterize Enterococcus species for antimicrobial susceptibility and expression of virulence traits. Detection of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes was carried out by polymerase chain reaction. Enterococcus was recovered from 167 (42.8%) of the 390 samples tested with a predominance of Enterococcus faecium (27.7%). Other species detected were Enterococcus gallinarum, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus hirae, Enterococcus raffinosus, Enterococcus avium, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus mundtii and Enterococcus durans. All the isolates tested were susceptible to vancomycin, but resistance to tetracycline, erythromycin, ampicillin and gentamicin was also observed among 61.0, 61.0, 45.1 and 32.7% of the isolates, respectively. Sixty (53.1%) of the isolates were multidrug resistant presenting as 24 different resistance patterns with resistance to gentamicin-erythromycin-streptomycin-tetracycline (CN-ERY-STR-TET) being the most common (n = 11) pattern. In addition to expression of virulence traits (haemolysin, gelatinase, biofilm production), antibiotic resistance (tetK, tetL, tetM, tetO and ermB) and virulence (asa1, gelE, cylA) genes were detected among the isolates. Also, in vitro transfer of resistance determinants was observed among 75% of the isolates tested. Our data revealed poultry, cattle and manure in this area are hosts to varying Enterococcus species harbouring virulence and resistance determinants that can be transferred to other organisms and also are important for causing nosocomial infection.

  3. Effect of resistivity profile on current decay time of initial phase of current quench in neon-gas-puff inducing disruptions of JT-60U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, S.; Ohno, N. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Shibata, Y.; Isayama, A.; Kawano, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Watanabe, K. Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Takizuka, T. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Okamoto, M. [Ishikawa National College of Technology, Ishikawa 929-0392 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    According to an early work [Y. Shibata et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 025015 (2010)] on the behavior of the plasma current decay in the JT-60U disruptive discharges caused by the radiative collapse with a massive neon-gas-puff, the increase of the internal inductance mainly determined the current decay time of plasma current during the initial phase of current quench. To investigate what determines the increase of the internal inductance, we focus attention on the relationship between the electron temperature (or the resistivity) profile and the time evolution of the current density profile and carry out numerical calculations. As a result, we find the reason of the increase of the internal inductance: The current density profile at the start of the current quench is broader than an expected current density profile in the steady state, which is determined by the temperature (or resistivity) profile. The current density profile evolves into peaked one and the internal inductance is increasing.

  4. Fusarium head blight resistance and mycotoxin profiles of four Triticum species genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz GÓRAL

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB resistance was evaluated for accessions of four Triticum species, including bread wheat (modern and old cultivars, spelt, emmer, and einkorn. Fusarium head infection, Fusarium kernel damage and accumulation of trichothecene toxins (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol in grains were analysed. Modern bread wheat cultivars were the most susceptible to head infection, and emmer and einkorn accessions were the most resistant. Kernel damage was the least for emmer and spelt and greatest for bread wheat. No significant differences between the four host species were observed for toxin accumulation. However, the greatest amounts of deoxynivalenol were detected in the grains of modern wheat cultivars and the least in old bread wheat cultivars. The greatest amount of nivalenol was detected in einkorn grains and the least in old bread wheat cultivars. Wide variability of resistance of all types in all four species was observed. Accessions resistant to FHB and toxin accumulation in grains were identified.

  5. Cytosolic proteome profiling of aminoglycosides resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates using MALDI-TOF/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divakar Sharma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Emergence of extremely drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB is the consequence of the failure of second line TB treatment. Aminoglycosides are the important second line anti-TB drugs used to treat the multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB. Main known mechanism of action of aminoglycosides is to inhibit the protein synthesis by inhibiting the normal functioning of ribosome. Primary target of aminoglycosides are the ribosomal RNA and its associated proteins. Various mechanisms have been proposed for aminoglycosides resistance but still some are unsolved. As proteins are involved in most of the biological processes, these act as a potential diagnostic markers and drug targets. In the present study we analyzed the purely cytosolic proteome of amikacin (AK and kanamycin (KM resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates by proteomic and bioinformatic approaches. Twenty protein spots were found to have over expressed in resistant isolates and were identified. Among these Rv3208A, Rv2623, Rv1360, Rv2140c, Rv1636 and Rv2185c are six proteins with unknown functions or undefined role. Docking results showed that AK and KM binds to the conserved domain (DUF, USP-A, Luciferase, PEBP and Polyketidecyclase/dehydrase domain of these hypothetical proteins and over expression of these proteins might neutralize/modulate the effect of drug molecules. TBPred and GPS-PUP predicted cytoplasmic nature and potential pupylation sites within these identified proteins respectively. String analysis also suggested that over expressed proteins along with their interactive partners might be involved in aminoglycosides resistance. Cumulative effect of these over expressed proteins could be involved in AK and KM resistance by mitigating the toxicity, repression of drug target and neutralizing affect. These findings need further exploitation for the expansion of newer therapeutics or diagnostic markers against AK and KM resistance so that an extreme condition like XDR-TB can

  6. Cytosolic Proteome Profiling of Aminoglycosides Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical Isolates Using MALDI-TOF/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Divakar; Lata, Manju; Singh, Rananjay; Deo, Nirmala; Venkatesan, Krishnamurthy; Bisht, Deepa

    2016-01-01

    Emergence of extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is the consequence of the failure of second line TB treatment. Aminoglycosides are the important second line anti-TB drugs used to treat the multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Main known mechanism of action of aminoglycosides is to inhibit the protein synthesis by inhibiting the normal functioning of ribosome. Primary target of aminoglycosides are the ribosomal RNA and its associated proteins. Various mechanisms have been proposed for aminoglycosides resistance but still some are unsolved. As proteins are involved in most of the biological processes, these act as a potential diagnostic markers and drug targets. In the present study we analyzed the purely cytosolic proteome of amikacin (AK) and kanamycin (KM) resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates by proteomic and bioinformatic approaches. Twenty protein spots were found to have over expressed in resistant isolates and were identified. Among these Rv3208A, Rv2623, Rv1360, Rv2140c, Rv1636, and Rv2185c are six proteins with unknown functions or undefined role. Docking results showed that AK and KM binds to the conserved domain (DUF, USP-A, Luciferase, PEBP and Polyketidecyclase/dehydrase domain) of these hypothetical proteins and over expression of these proteins might neutralize/modulate the effect of drug molecules. TBPred and GPS-PUP predicted cytoplasmic nature and potential pupylation sites within these identified proteins, respectively. String analysis also suggested that over expressed proteins along with their interactive partners might be involved in aminoglycosides resistance. Cumulative effect of these over expressed proteins could be involved in AK and KM resistance by mitigating the toxicity, repression of drug target and neutralizing affect. These findings need further exploitation for the expansion of newer therapeutics or diagnostic markers against AK and KM resistance so that an extreme condition like XDR-TB can be prevented.

  7. Antibiotic resistance & pathogen profile in ventilator-associated pneumonia in a tertiary care hospital in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Chaudhury

    2016-01-01

    Results: VAP rates of 44.1, 43.8 and 26.3 were seen in 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. In all the three years, non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli were the predominant organisms, followed by Pseudomonas spp. and Klebsiella spp. Staphylococcus aureus exhibited a downwards trend in prevalence from 50.0 per cent in 2011 to 34.9 per cent in 2013. An increase in vancomycin-resistant enterococci was seen from 4.3 per cent in 2012 to 8.3 per cent in 2013, while methicillin resistance amongst the S. aureus crossed the 50 per cent mark in 2013. An increasing trend in resistance was shown by Pseudomonas spp. for piperacillin-tazobactam (PTZ, amikacin and imipenem (IPM. For the non-fermenters, resistance frequency remained very high except for IPM (33.1% and polymyxin-B (2.4%. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings show VAP as an important problem in the ICU setting. The incidence of multidrug-resistant pathogens was on the rise. The resistance pattern of these pathogens can help an institution to formulate effective antimicrobial policy. To have a comprehensive pan-India picture, multicentric studies are needed.

  8. Identification, Typing, Antifungal Resistance Profile, and Biofilm Formation of Candida albicans Isolates from Lebanese Hospital Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Bitar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As leading opportunistic fungal pathogens identification and subtyping of Candida species are crucial in recognizing outbreaks of infection, recognizing particularly virulent strains, and detecting the emergence of drug resistant strains. In this study our objective was to compare identification of Candida albicans by the hospitals through the use of conventional versus identification based on the ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer and to assess biofilm forming capabilities, drug resistance patterns and correlate these with MLST typing. ITS typing revealed a 21.2% hospital misidentification rate. Multidrug resistance to three drugs out of four tested was detected within 25% of the isolates raising concerns about the followed treatment regimens. Drug resistant strains as well as biofilm formers were phylogenetically related, with some isolates with significant biofilm forming capabilities being correlated to those that were multidrug resistant. Such isolates were grouped closely together in a neighbor-joining tree generated by MLST typing indicating phylogenetic relatedness, microevolution, or recurrent infection. In conclusion, this pilot study gives much needed insight concerning C. albicans isolates circulating in Lebanese hospitals and is the first study of its kind correlating biofilm formation, antifungal resistance, and evolutionary relatedness.

  9. Transcriptional profiles of pulmonary innate immune responses to isogenic antibiotic-susceptible and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vincent H; Pérez, Cynthia; Ledesma, Kimberly R; Lewis, Russell E

    2018-04-01

    The virulence of an isogenic pair of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains was studied under similar experimental conditions in two animal infection models. The time to death was significantly longer for the multidrug resistant (MDR) than the wild-type strain. The transcriptional profiles of 84 innate immune response genes in the lungs of immune competent Balb/C mice were further compared. Significantly weaker expression of genes involved in production of soluble pattern recognition receptor and complement were observed in animals infected with the MDR strain. Altered patterns of innate immune system activation may explain the attenuated virulence in MDR bacteria. © 2018 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Un nuevo sistema de diseño de embuticiones en láminas de acero para maximizar resistencia de losas compuestas A new system for designing embossments in steel sheets to increase composite slabs shear resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melchor López Ávila

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un resumen de algunos de los principales antecedentes históricos en el análisis de las losas compuestas con láminas metálicas colaborantes sometidas a flexión, así como de los principales métodos de diseño, instrumentación y ensayo aceptados por las distintas normas internacionales. Se analizan cada uno de los parámetros fundamentales que influencian el comportamiento estructural de las losas compuestas, y a partir del estudio numérico de estos se propone un método de optimización del sistema de embuticiones, implementado en hojas de cálculo, con el cual es posible estimar una resistencia a esfuerzos cortantes para las láminas de perfilado abierto y entregando los resultados de los parámetros más importantes, y que empleándolos en forma comparativa es posible determinar el sistema de embuticiones óptimo a incluir en una lámina de perfilado abierto. Aplicando el método propuesto obtuve un sistema de embuticiones tecnológicamente posible y con un coste mínimo de inversiones para una línea industrial de láminas de perfilado abierto.A summary is presented with the main historical background in the analysis of the composite slabs with steel sheets subjected to flexion, as well as of the main methods of design, instrumentation and tests accepted by different International Standards. They fundamental parameters that influence the structural behaviour of the composite slabs are analyzed, and with a numeric study an analytical optimization method of the embossments system, is proposed and implemented in a spread sheet is possible to estimate the shear resistance of open web sheets and by comparing them, is possible to determine the better embossments system to include in a open web sheet with such method. Applying the proposed method a technologically possible embossments system can be obtained with a minimum cost for an industrial line of open web sheets.

  11. The survey of shigellosis frequency and determination of antibiotic resistance profile of isolated strains from infected children in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Abbaspour

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shigellosis is endemic throughout the world and it is among the most common causes of bacterial diarrheal diseases. Antibiotic resistance of Shigella is becoming a progressive problem in world. The aim of this study was the survey of shigellosis frequency and determination of antibiotic resistance profile of isolated strains from infected children in Tehran. Material and Methods: This study conducted on 9131 patients with acute diarrheal disease. For isolation of Shigella spp. from stool samples, culture performed on different selective and differential media. After confirmation of bacteria by biochemical tests, susceptibility testing was done by disc diffusion method according to clinical and laboratory standards (CLSI recomendations. Results: Among 9131 stool samples, Shigella spp. was isolated from 90 cases. Shigella sonnei was the most common isolated species. 92/2 % of isolates were resistant to cotrimoxazole. In contrast, most of the Shigella spp. was founded to be sensitive to ciprofloxacin, imipenem and third-generation cephalosporins. Conclusion: Surveillance programs on antimicrobial resistance not only identify pathogenic bacterial species, by reporting data like serotyping, microorganisms incidence rates, and susceptibility to the antimicrobial agents currently used for treatment, but also contribute to monitoring the intervention strategies including removing organism from reservoirs.

  12. Isolation of Environmental Bacteria from Surface and Drinking Water in Mafikeng, South Africa, and Characterization Using Their Antibiotic Resistance Profiles

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    Suma George Mulamattathil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate and identify environmental bacteria from various raw water sources as well as the drinking water distributions system in Mafikeng, South Africa, and to determine their antibiotic resistance profiles. Water samples from five different sites (raw and drinking water were analysed for the presence of faecal indicator bacteria as well as Aeromonas and Pseudomonas species. Faecal and total coliforms were detected in summer in the treated water samples from the Modimola dam and in the mixed water samples, with Pseudomonas spp. being the most prevalent organism. The most prevalent multiple antibiotic resistance phenotype observed was KF-AP-C-E-OT-K-TM-A. All organisms tested were resistant to erythromycin, trimethoprim, and amoxicillin. All isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and faecal coliforms and Pseudomonas spp. to neomycin and streptomycin. Cluster analysis based on inhibition zone diameter data suggests that the isolates had similar chemical exposure histories. Isolates were identified using gyrB, toxA, ecfX, aerA, and hylH gene fragments and gyrB, ecfX, and hylH fragments were amplified. These results demonstrate that (i the drinking water from Mafikeng contains various bacterial species and at times faecal and total coliforms. (ii The various bacteria are resistant to various classes of antibiotics.

  13. Bactericidal Specificity and Resistance Profile of Poly(Quaternary Ammonium) Polymers and Protein-Poly(Quaternary Ammonium) Conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Weihang; Koepsel, Richard R; Murata, Hironobu; Zadan, Sawyer; Campbell, Alan S; Russell, Alan J

    2017-08-14

    Antibacterial polymers are potentially powerful biocides that can destroy bacteria on contact. Debate in the literature has surrounded the mechanism of action of polymeric biocides and the propensity for bacteria to develop resistance to them. There has been particular interest in whether surfaces with covalently coupled polymeric biocides have the same mechanism of action and resistance profile as similar soluble polymeric biocides. We designed and synthesized a series of poly(quaternary ammonium) polymers, with tailorable molecular structures and architectures, to engineer their antibacterial specificity and their ability to delay the development of bacterial resistance. These linear poly(quaternary ammonium) homopolymers and block copolymers, generated using atom transfer radical polymerization, had structure-dependent antibacterial specificity toward Gram positive and negative bacterial species. When single block copolymers contained two polymer segments of differing antibacterial specificity, the polymer combined the specificities of its two components. Nanoparticulate human serum albumin-poly(quaternary ammonium) conjugates of these same polymers, synthesized via "grafting from" atom transfer radical polymerization, were strongly biocidal and also exhibited a marked decrease in the rate of bacterial resistance development relative to linear polymers. These protein-biocide conjugates mimicked the behavior of surface-presented polycationic biocides rather than their nonproteinaceous counterparts.

  14. Helicobacter pylori strains from a Nigerian cohort show divergent antibiotic resistance rates and a uniform pathogenicity profile.

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    Ute Harrison

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori is a factor preventing its successful eradication. Particularly in developing countries, resistance against commonly used antibiotics is widespread. Here, we present an epidemiological study from Nigeria with 111 isolates. We analyzed the associated disease outcome, and performed a detailed characterization of these isolated strains with respect to their antibiotic susceptibility and their virulence characteristics. Furthermore, statistical analysis was performed on microbiological data as well as patient information and the results of the gastroenterological examination. We found that the variability concerning the production of virulence factors between strains was minimal, with 96.4% of isolates being CagA-positive and 92.8% producing detectable VacA levels. In addition, high frequency of bacterial resistance was observed for metronidazole (99.1%, followed by amoxicillin (33.3%, clarithromycin (14.4% and tetracycline (4.5%. In conclusion, this study indicated that the infection rate of H. pylori infection within the cohort in the present study was surprisingly low (36.6%. Furthermore, an average gastric pathology was observed by histological grading and bacterial isolates showed a uniform pathogenicity profile while indicating divergent antibiotic resistance rates.

  15. Transcriptome profiling to discover putative genes associated with paraquat resistance in goosegrass (Eleusine indica L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing An

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Goosegrass (Eleusine indica L., a serious annual weed in the world, has evolved resistance to several herbicides including paraquat, a non-selective herbicide. The mechanism of paraquat resistance in weeds is only partially understood. To further study the molecular mechanism underlying paraquat resistance in goosegrass, we performed transcriptome analysis of susceptible and resistant biotypes of goosegrass with or without paraquat treatment. RESULTS: The RNA-seq libraries generated 194,716,560 valid reads with an average length of 91.29 bp. De novo assembly analysis produced 158,461 transcripts with an average length of 1153.74 bp and 100,742 unigenes with an average length of 712.79 bp. Among these, 25,926 unigenes were assigned to 65 GO terms that contained three main categories. A total of 13,809 unigenes with 1,208 enzyme commission numbers were assigned to 314 predicted KEGG metabolic pathways, and 12,719 unigenes were categorized into 25 KOG classifications. Furthermore, our results revealed that 53 genes related to reactive oxygen species scavenging, 10 genes related to polyamines and 18 genes related to transport were differentially expressed in paraquat treatment experiments. The genes related to polyamines and transport are likely potential candidate genes that could be further investigated to confirm their roles in paraquat resistance of goosegrass. CONCLUSION: This is the first large-scale transcriptome sequencing of E. indica using the Illumina platform. Potential genes involved in paraquat resistance were identified from the assembled sequences. The transcriptome data may serve as a reference for further analysis of gene expression and functional genomics studies, and will facilitate the study of paraquat resistance at the molecular level in goosegrass.

  16. Transcriptome profiling to discover putative genes associated with paraquat resistance in goosegrass (Eleusine indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jing; Shen, Xuefeng; Ma, Qibin; Yang, Cunyi; Liu, Simin; Chen, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Goosegrass (Eleusine indica L.), a serious annual weed in the world, has evolved resistance to several herbicides including paraquat, a non-selective herbicide. The mechanism of paraquat resistance in weeds is only partially understood. To further study the molecular mechanism underlying paraquat resistance in goosegrass, we performed transcriptome analysis of susceptible and resistant biotypes of goosegrass with or without paraquat treatment. The RNA-seq libraries generated 194,716,560 valid reads with an average length of 91.29 bp. De novo assembly analysis produced 158,461 transcripts with an average length of 1153.74 bp and 100,742 unigenes with an average length of 712.79 bp. Among these, 25,926 unigenes were assigned to 65 GO terms that contained three main categories. A total of 13,809 unigenes with 1,208 enzyme commission numbers were assigned to 314 predicted KEGG metabolic pathways, and 12,719 unigenes were categorized into 25 KOG classifications. Furthermore, our results revealed that 53 genes related to reactive oxygen species scavenging, 10 genes related to polyamines and 18 genes related to transport were differentially expressed in paraquat treatment experiments. The genes related to polyamines and transport are likely potential candidate genes that could be further investigated to confirm their roles in paraquat resistance of goosegrass. This is the first large-scale transcriptome sequencing of E. indica using the Illumina platform. Potential genes involved in paraquat resistance were identified from the assembled sequences. The transcriptome data may serve as a reference for further analysis of gene expression and functional genomics studies, and will facilitate the study of paraquat resistance at the molecular level in goosegrass.

  17. [Current antibiotic resistance profile of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains and therapeutic consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bouamri, M C; Arsalane, L; Kamouni, Y; Yahyaoui, H; Bennouar, N; Berraha, M; Zouhair, S

    2014-12-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are a very common reason for consultation and prescription in current practice. Excessive or inappropriate use of antibiotics in treating urinary tract infections is responsible for the emergence and spread of multiresistant uropathogenic bacteria. To evaluate the isolation frequency and antibiotic resistance of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated at the Marrakech region. We conducted a retrospective study over a period of three years (from 1st January 2010 to 31 December 2012). It included all non-redundant uropathogenic E. coli strains isolated in the microbiology laboratory of the Avicenne hospital of Marrakech, Morocco. During this study, 1472 uropathogenic enterobacteriaceae were isolated including 924 non-repetitive E. coli strains, an overall isolation frequency of 63%. Antibiotic resistance of isolated E. coli strains showed resistance rates to amoxicillin (65%), sulfamethoxazole-triméthropime (55%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (43%), ciprofloxacin (22%), gentamicin (14%), nitrofurans (11%), amikacin (8%) and fosfomycin (7%). The number of E. coli strains resistant to C3G by ESBL production was 67, an average frequency of 4.5% of all isolated uropathogenic enterobacteria. The associated antibiotic resistance in the case of ESBL-producing E. coli were 82% for ciprofloxacin, 76% for sulfamethozole trimethoprim, 66% for gentamicin and 56% for amikacin. No resistance to imipenem was recorded for the isolated E. coli strains, which represents an imipenem sensitivity of 100%. Antibiotic resistance of uropathogenic E. coli strains limits treatment options and therefore constitutes a real public health problem. The regular updating of antibiotic susceptibility statistics of E. coli strains allows a better adaptation of the probabilistic antibiotic therapy to local epidemiological data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of the resistivity profile on the formation of a reversed configuration and single helicity states in compressible simulations of the reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofri, M.; Malara, F.

    2013-01-01

    Compressible magnetohydrodynamics simulations of the reversed-field pinch (RFP) are presented. Previous simulations of the RFP, including density and pressure evolution, showed that a stationary state with a reversed toroidal magnetic field could not be obtained, contrary to the results produced with numerical codes neglecting density and pressure dynamics. The simulations described in the present paper show that including density and pressure evolution, a stationary RFP configuration can be obtained if the resistivity has a radial profile steeply increasing close to the wall. Such resistivity profile is more realistic than a uniform resistivity, since the temperature at the wall is lower than in the plasma core

  19. Virulence Genes Profile of Multidrug Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Iranian Children with UTIs

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    Zohreh Heidary

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Virulent and resistant strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa is one of the most important cause of UTIs in pediatrics. The present study was carried to investigate the frequency of virulence factors in the multi-drug resistant strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from pediatrics hospitalized due to the UTIs. One - hundred and forty three urine samples were collected from pediatric patients suffered from UTIs. Samples were cultured and those that were P. aeruginosa positive were analyzed for the presence of putative virulence genes. Seventy one out of 143 samples (49.65% were positive for P. aeruginosa. Monthly, sex and age-dependent prevalence were seen for P. aeruginosa. Bacterial strains had the highest levels of resistance against ampicillin (95.77%, gentamicin (92.95% and ciprofloxacin (81.69%. Of 71 P. aeruginosa isolates, 12 strains were resistant to more than 9 antibiotics (16.90%. The most commonly detected virulence factors in the cases of urethral infections were exoU and plcH while those of pyelonephritis and cystitis were were exoS and lasB. Our findings should raise awareness about antibiotic resistance in hospitalized pediatrics with UTIs in Iran. Clinicians should exercise caution in prescribing antibiotics, especially in cases of UTIs. Such information can help in identifying these virulence genes as useful diagnostic markers for clinical P. aeruginosa strains isolated from UTIs.

  20. Analytical profiling of mutations in quinolone resistance determining region of gyrA gene among UPEC.

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    Lesley R Varughese

    Full Text Available Mutations in gyrA are the primary cause of quinolone resistance encountered in gram-negative clinical isolates. The prospect of this work was to analyze the role of gyrA mutations in eliciting high quinolone resistance in uropathogenic E.coli (UPEC through molecular docking studies. Quinolone susceptibility testing of 18 E.coli strains isolated from UTI patients revealed unusually high resistance level to all the quinolones used; especially norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. The QRDR of gyrA was amplified and sequenced. Mutations identified in gyrA of E.coli included Ser83Leu, Asp87Asn and Ala93Gly/Glu. Contrasting previous reports, we found Ser83Leu substitution in sensitive strains. Strains with S83L, D87N and A93E (A15 and A26 demonstrated norfloxacin MICs ≥1024mg/L which could be proof that Asp87Asn is necessary for resistance phenotype. Resistance to levofloxacin was comparatively lower in all the isolates. Docking of 4 quinolones (ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin and norfloxacin to normal and mutated E.coli gyrase A protein demonstrated lower binding energies for the latter, with significant displacement of norfloxacin in the mutated GyrA complex and least displacement in case of levofloxacin.

  1. Metagenomic profiling of antibiotic resistance genes and mobile genetic elements in a tannery wastewater treatment plant.

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    Zhu Wang

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are often used to prevent sickness and improve production in animal agriculture, and the residues in animal bodies may enter tannery wastewater during leather production. This study aimed to use Illumina high-throughput sequencing to investigate the occurrence, diversity and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs in aerobic and anaerobic sludge of a full-scale tannery wastewater treatment plant (WWTP. Metagenomic analysis showed that Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria dominated in the WWTP, but the relative abundance of archaea in anaerobic sludge was higher than in aerobic sludge. Sequencing reads from aerobic and anaerobic sludge revealed differences in the abundance of functional genes between both microbial communities. Genes coding for antibiotic resistance were identified in both communities. BLAST analysis against Antibiotic Resistance Genes Database (ARDB further revealed that aerobic and anaerobic sludge contained various ARGs with high abundance, among which sulfonamide resistance gene sul1 had the highest abundance, occupying over 20% of the total ARGs reads. Tetracycline resistance genes (tet were highly rich in the anaerobic sludge, among which tet33 had the highest abundance, but was absent in aerobic sludge. Over 70 types of insertion sequences were detected in each sludge sample, and class 1 integrase genes were prevalent in the WWTP. The results highlighted prevalence of ARGs and MGEs in tannery WWTPs, which may deserve more public health concerns.

  2. Indicadores do perfil lipídico plasmático relacionados à resistência à insulina Plasmatic lipid profile indicators related to insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Junqueira Vasques

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Investigar a habilidade de indicadores bioquímicos do perfil lipídico plasmático em identificar resistência à insulina (RI, avaliada pelo índice HOMA-IR (Homeostasis Model Assessment - Insulin Resistance. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 138 homens saudáveis (20-59 anos. Analisaram-se os seguintes indicadores bioquímicos do perfil lipídico: triglicérides (TG, colesterol total (CT, HDL-C, LDL-C, e as relações CT/HDL-C e TG/HDL-C. Considerou-se o percentil 75 como ponto de corte para o índice HOMA-IR. A análise estatística constou do cálculo do coeficiente de correlação de Spearman e da construção de curvas ROC, com o cálculo das áreas abaixo da curva (AUC. RESULTADOS: A relação TG/HDL-C (r = 0.334 e AUC = 0.724 ± 0.046 p 0,05. CONCLUSÃO: A relação TG/HDL-C apresentou melhor habilidade em identificar RI, representando um instrumento alternativo e de fácil acesso para a avaliação da RI na prática clínica, proporcionando intervenções de caráter preventivo de doenças na população do sexo masculino.PURPOSE: To investigate the effectiveness of biochemical indicators from the plasmatic lipid profile to identify the insulin resistance (IR, assessed by the HOMA-IR index (Homeostasis Model Assessment -Insulin Resistance. METHODS: 138 healthy men (20-59 years were evaluated. The lipid profile biochemical indicators analyzed were the following: triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, and TC/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C ratios. The percentile 75 was considered as the cut-off point for IR. Statistical analysis consisted of Spearman correlation coefficient, ROC curves and calculation of the areas under the curve (AUC. RESULT: The TG/HDL-C ratio showed the strongest correlation and the greatest AUC (r = 0.334 and AUC = 0.724 ± 0.046, p 0.05. CONCLUSION: The TG/HDL-C ratio showed the greatest ability to identify IR, proved to be an alternative and easy access instrument to assess IR in clinical practice, therefore

  3. Prevalence, Virulence Genes and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Salmonella Serovars from Retail Beef in Selangor, Malaysia

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    Tze Y. Thung

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in retail beef from different retail markets of Selangor area, as well as, to assess their pathogenic potential and antimicrobial resistance. A total of 240 retail beef meat samples (chuck = 60; rib = 60; round = 60; sirloin = 60 were randomly collected. The multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR in combination with the most probable number (MPN method was employed to detect Salmonella spp., S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium in the meat samples. The prevalence of Salmonella spp., S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium in 240 beef meat samples were 7.50, 1.25, and 0.83%, respectively. The microbial loads of total Salmonella was found in the range of <3 to 15 MPN/g. Eight different serovars of Salmonella were identified among the 23 isolates, and S. Agona was the predominant serovar (26.09%. Interestingly, all the Salmonella isolates were resistant to penicillin, erythromycin and vancomycin, but the sensitivity was observed for tetracycline, gentamicin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. All 23 isolates were resistant to at least three antibiotics. Two S. Typhimurium isolates (8.70% exhibited the highest multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR index value of 0.56 which shown resistance to nine antibiotics. PCR analysis of virulence genes showed that all Salmonella isolates (100% were positive for the invA gene. Meanwhile, pefA was only identified in S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium. The findings in this study indicate that retail beef products tested were widely contaminated with multi-drug resistant (MDR Salmonella and various virulence genes are present among the isolated Salmonella serovars.

  4. Investigation into the prevalence, persistence and antibiotic resistance profiles of staphylococci isolated from euro currency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, E M; Coffey, A; O'Mahony, J M

    2013-08-01

    The study set out to sample € 10 banknotes for the presence of coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS) such as Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) in Southern Ireland, to assess the levels of antibiotic resistance among those isolated, and determine the persistence of S. aureus on € 10 banknotes and € 2 coins. We report that 97% of € 10 banknotes screened (n = 155) harboured multiple species of staphylococci. From the generated bank of strains, a total of 150 representative staphylococci isolates were used for further study, 71 were CPS and 79 were CoNS. Of these, we found that 62% of the staphylococci demonstrated resistance to at least one of the first-line antibiotics (52.11% of CPS isolates and 76.71% of the CoNS isolates). Resistance to multiple antibiotics was seen in 31.18% of the resistant isolates. In relation to persistence studies, S. aureus was shown to remain viable on euro banknotes and coins for significant periods (on average, 19.33 days on € 10 banknotes and 16.67 days on € 2 coins) as determined using bioluminescence. We advocate the expansion of antibiotic surveillance programs, with a view to tracking/monitoring antibiotic resistance dissemination among environmental contaminants. Additionally, we propose that 'cashless transactions' should be encouraged in high-risk environments such as hospitals and healthcare settings, as well as stricter infection controls. Although it is accepted that circulating currency has the potential to harbour disease-causing pathogens, studies investigating prevalence and persistence of such pathogens on euro currency are virtually nonexistent. In an attempt to rectify this, we examined the prevalence of staphylococci on € 10 banknotes in Ireland and reported relatively high levels of antibiotic resistance among the isolates. Furthermore, we have established the persistence of S. aureus on euro currency for the first time. © 2013 The Society for Applied

  5. Dynamic proteome profiling of individual proteins in human skeletal muscle after a high-fat diet and resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camera, Donny M; Burniston, Jatin G; Pogson, Mark A; Smiles, William J; Hawley, John A

    2017-12-01

    It is generally accepted that muscle adaptation to resistance exercise (REX) training is underpinned by contraction-induced, increased rates of protein synthesis and dietary protein availability. By using dynamic proteome profiling (DPP), we investigated the contribution of both synthesis and breakdown to changes in abundance on a protein-by-protein basis in human skeletal muscle. Age-matched, overweight males consumed 9 d of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet during which time they either undertook 3 sessions of REX or performed no exercise. Precursor enrichment and the rate of incorporation of deuterium oxide into newly synthesized muscle proteins were determined by mass spectrometry. Ninety proteins were included in the DPP, with 28 proteins exhibiting significant responses to REX. The most common pattern of response was an increase in turnover, followed by an increase in abundance with no detectable increase in protein synthesis. Here, we provide novel evidence that demonstrates that the contribution of synthesis and breakdown to changes in protein abundance induced by REX differ on a protein-by-protein basis. We also highlight the importance of the degradation of individual muscle proteins after exercise in human skeletal muscle.-Camera, D. M., Burniston, J. G., Pogson, M. A., Smiles, W. J., Hawley, J. A. Dynamic proteome profiling of individual proteins in human skeletal muscle after a high-fat diet and resistance exercise. © FASEB.

  6. [Aspects of the antimicrobial resistence profile in infections with Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in diabetic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovici, Cristina G; Dorobăţ, Carmen; Matei, Mioara; Teodor, Andra; Luca, V; Miftode, Egidia

    2011-01-01

    Infections in diabetic patient remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality, triggering and maintaining a prolonged metabolic imbalance. Emergence of extented spectrum beta-lactmase (ESBL) in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae is a major concern, because of the atypical manner infection acts in this group of imunodepressed patients and also for the limited therapeutic solutions. For this reason we have evaluated the profile of antimicrobial resistance of these pathogens in both diabetic and non diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in a retrospective case control study, the antibiotic susceptibility pattern in isolates of E. coli and Klebsiella spp. from different biological products in 49 diabetics and 150 non-diabetics admitted in The Clinical Hospital of Infectious Diseases Iaşi over a period of two years. Most of strains of E. coli and Klebsiella spp. ESBL positive were found in uroculture. Significant differences in E. coli resistance rate between diabetics and nondiabetics were noted for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ciprofloxacin (31,4% vs.13,98%, p=0,04, respectively 52,9% vs. 24,46%, p=0,004). More isolates of ESBL positive K. pneumoniae were found in diabetic patients (50% vs. 24%). Ciprofloxacin resistance of K. pneumoniae was significantly higher in diabetics (75% vs 39%; p=0,05). There was no resistance in E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates to imipenem in the diabetic group. The high resistance rate to quinolones and 3rd generation cefalosporins limits their use for the treatment of Escherichia coli and K. pneumoniae infections. Other alternatives for empiric therapy in community and nosocomial-acquired infections in diabetic patient remains carbapenems, aminoglycosides and colimycin.

  7. Antimicrobial resistance profile of Enterococcus spp isolated from food in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboldi, Gustavo Pelicioli; Frazzon, Jeverson; d’Azevedo, Pedro Alves; Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-six Enterococcus spp. strains were isolated from foods in Southern Brazil, confirmed by PCR and classified as Enterococcus faecalis (27), Enterococcus faecium (23) and Enterococcus spp (6). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed resistance phenotypes to a range of antibiotics widely administrated in humans such as gentamycin, streptomycin, ampicillin and vancomycin. PMID:24031330

  8. Analysis of the protein profiles of the antibiotic-resistant Salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The emergent Salmonella typhimurium definitive phage type (DT) 104 is of particular global concern due to its frequent isolation and multiple antibiotic resistances. There is thus a need to know the kind of proteins expressed by S. typhimurium DT104 so as to provide a basis for developing an intervention. This study ...

  9. Antibiotic resistance profiling and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from aquatic sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumide A. Odeyemi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate antibiotics resistance pattern and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from different aquatic sources in Melaka, Malaysia. A total of 53 Aeromonas species were isolated from the following sources: sediment (n = 13, bivalve (n = 10, sea cucumber (n = 16 and sea water (n = 14 and resistance to 12 antibiotics – Tetracycline (30 μg, Kanamycin (30 μg, Oxytetracycline (30 μg, Ampicillin (10 μg, Streptomycin (10 μg, Gentamicin (10 μg, Sulphamethoxazole (25 μg, Nalixidic acid (30 μg, Trimethoprim (1.25 μg, Novobiocin (5 μg, Penicilin (10 μg and Chloramphenicol (10 μg was tested. The results obtained from this study reveal multi drug resistance pattern among the isolates. All the isolates were completely resistant to Ampicillin, Novobiocin, Sulphamethoxazole and Trimethoprim, respectively but susceptible to Tetracycline (100%, Kanamycin (5.7%, Gentamicin (5.7% and Oxytetracycline (24.5%. Antibiotics phenotyping of the bacteria revealed 21 different phenotypes among the isolates.

  10. The effects of incomplete annealing on the temperature dependence of sheet resistance and gage factor in aluminum and phosphorus implanted silicon on sapphire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisciotta, B. P.; Gross, C.

    1976-01-01

    Partial annealing of damage to the crystal lattice during ion implantation reduces the temperature coefficient of resistivity of ion-implanted silicon, while facilitating controlled doping. Reliance on this method for temperature compensation of the resistivity and strain-gage factor is discussed. Implantation conditions and annealing conditions are detailed. The gage factor and its temperature variation are not drastically affected by crystal damage for some crystal orientations. A model is proposed to account for the effects of electron damage on the temperature dependence of resistivity and on silicon piezoresistance. The results are applicable to the design of silicon-on-sapphire strain gages with high gage factors.

  11. Transcriptome Profiling to Identify Genes Involved in Mesosulfuron-Methyl Resistance in Alopecurus aequalis

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    Ning Zhao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-target-site resistance (NTSR to herbicides is a worldwide concern for weed control. However, as the dominant NTSR mechanism in weeds, metabolic resistance is not yet well-characterized at the genetic level. For this study, we have identified a shortawn foxtail (Alopecurus aequalis Sobol. population displaying both TSR and NTSR to mesosulfuron-methyl and fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, yet the molecular basis for this NTSR remains unclear. To investigate the mechanisms of metabolic resistance, an RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis was used to find candidate genes that may confer metabolic resistance to the herbicide mesosulfuron-methyl in this plant population. The RNA-Seq libraries generated 831,846,736 clean reads. The de novo transcriptome assembly yielded 95,479 unigenes (averaging 944 bp in length that were assigned putative annotations. Among these, a total of 29,889 unigenes were assigned to 67 GO terms that contained three main categories, and 14,246 unigenes assigned to 32 predicted KEGG metabolic pathways. Global gene expression was measured using the reads generated from the untreated control (CK, water-only control (WCK, and mesosulfuron-methyl treatment (T of R and susceptible (S. Contigs that showed expression differences between mesosulfuron-methyl-treated R and S biotypes, and between mesosulfuron-methyl-treated, water-treated and untreated R plants were selected for further quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR validation analyses. Seventeen contigs were consistently highly expressed in the resistant A. aequalis plants, including four cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CytP450 genes, two glutathione S-transferase (GST genes, two glucosyltransferase (GT genes, two ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter genes, and seven additional contigs with functional annotations related to oxidation, hydrolysis, and plant stress physiology. These 17 contigs could serve as major candidate genes for contributing to metabolic mesosulfuron-methyl resistance; hence

  12. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Genotype Diversity and Drug Resistance Profiles in a Pediatric Population in Mexico

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    Mercedes Macías Parra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of drug resistance and the clonality of genotype patterns in M. tuberculosis clinical isolates from pediatric patients in Mexico (n=90 patients from 19 states; time period—January 2002 to December 2003. Pulmonary disease was the most frequent clinical manifestation (71%. Children with systemic tuberculosis (TB were significantly younger compared to patients with localized TB infections (mean 7.7±6.2 years versus 15±3.4 years P=0.001. Resistance to any anti-TB drug was detected in 24/90 (26.7% of the isolates; 21/90 (23.3% and 10/90 (11.1% were resistant to Isoniazid and Rifampicin, respectively, and 10/90 (11.1% strains were multidrug-resistant (MDR. Spoligotyping produced a total of 55 different patterns; 12/55 corresponded to clustered isolates (n=47, clustering rate of 52.2%, and 43/55 to unclustered isolates (19 patterns were designated as orphan by the SITVIT2 database. Database comparison led to designation of 36 shared types (SITs; 32 SITs (n=65 isolates matched a preexisting shared type in SITVIT2, whereas 4 SITs (n=6 isolates were newly created. Lineage classification based on principal genetic groups (PGG revealed that 10% of the strains belonged to PGG1 (Bovis and Manu lineages. Among PGG2/3 group, the most predominant clade was the Latin-American and Mediterranean (LAM in 27.8% of isolates, followed by Haarlem and T lineages. The number of single drug-resistant (DR and multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB isolates in this study was similar to previously reported in studies from adult population with risk factors. No association between the spoligotype, age, region, or resistance pattern was observed. However, contrary to a study on M. tuberculosis spoligotyping in Acapulco city that characterized a single cluster of SIT19 corresponding to the EAI2-Manila lineage in 70 (26% of patients, not a single SIT19 isolate was found in our pediatric patient population. Neither did we find any

  13. BACTERIAL PROFILE, ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY AND RESISTANCE OF LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS IN UPPER EGYPT

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    Gamal Agmy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI account for a considerable proportion of morbidity and antibiotic use. We aimed to identify the causative bacteria, antibiotic sensitivity and resistance of hospitalized adult patients due to LRTI in Upper Egypt. METHODS: A multicentre prospective study was performed at 3 University Hospitals for 3 years. Samples included sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL for staining and culture, and serum for serology. Samples were cultured on 3 bacteriological media (Nutrient, Chocolate ,MacConkey's agars.Colonies were identified via MicroScan WalkAway-96. Pneumoslide IgM kit was used for detection of atypical pathogens via indirect immunofluorescent assay. RESULTS: The predominant isolates in 360 patients with CAP were S.pneumoniae (36%, C. pneumoniae (18%, and M. pneumoniae (12%. A higher sensitivity was recorded for moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, macrolides, and cefepime. A higher of resistance was recorded for doxycycline, cephalosporins, and β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitors. The predominant isolates in 318 patients with HAP were, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; MRSA (23%, K. pneumoniae (14%, and polymicrobial in 12%. A higher sensitivity was recorded for vancomycin, ciprofloxacin, and moxifloxacin. Very high resistance was recorded for β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitors and cephalosporins. The predominant organisms in 376 patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (AECOPD were H. influnzae (30%, S. pneumoniae (25%, and M. catarrhalis(18%. A higher sensitivity was recorded for moxifloxacin, macrolides and cefepime. A higher rate of resistance was recorded for aminoglycosides and cephalosporins CONCLUSIONS: The most predominant bacteria for CAP in Upper Egypt are S. pneumoniae and atypical organisms, while that for HAP are MRSA and Gram negative bacteria. For acute exacerbation of COPD,H.influnzae was the commonest organism. Respiratory quinolones

  14. Fatty acid profiles from the plasma membrane and detergent resistant membranes of two plant species.

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    Carmona-Salazar, Laura; El Hafidi, Mohammed; Gutiérrez-Nájera, Nora; Noyola-Martínez, Liliana; González-Solís, Ariadna; Gavilanes-Ruíz, Marina

    2015-01-01

    It is essential to establish the composition of the plant plasma membrane in order to understand its organization and behavior under continually changing environments. Knowledge of the lipid phase, in particular the fatty acid (FA) complex repertoire, is important since FAs determine many of the physical-chemical membrane properties. FAs are constituents of the membrane glycerolipid and sphingolipid backbones and can also be linked to some sterols. In addition, FAs are components of complex lipids that can constitute membrane micro-domains, and the use of detergent-resistant membranes is a common approach to study their composition. The diversity and cellular allocation of the membrane lipids containing FAs are very diverse and the approaches to analyze them provide only general information. In this work, a detailed FA analysis was performed using highly purified plasma membranes from bean leaves and germinating maize embryos and their respective detergent-resistant membrane preparations. The analyses showed the presence of a significant amount of very long chain FAs (containing 28C, 30C and 32C), in both plasma membrane preparations from bean and maize, that have not been previously reported. Herein is demonstrated that a significant enrichment of very long chain saturated FAs and saturated FAs can occur in detergent-resistant membrane preparations, as compared to the plasma membranes from both plant species. Considering that a thorough analysis of FAs is rarely performed in purified plasma membranes and detergent-resistant membranes, this work provides qualitative and quantitative evidence on the contributions of the length and saturation of FAs to the organization of the plant plasma membrane and detergent-resistant membranes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Extracts of Canadian first nations medicinal plants, used as natural products, inhibit neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with different antibiotic resistance profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cybulska, Paulina; Thakur, Sidharath D; Foster, Brian C; Scott, Ian M; Leduc, Renée I; Arnason, John T; Dillon, Jo-Anne R

    2011-07-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ng) has developed resistance to most antimicrobial agents and the antibiotics recommended for therapy are restricted, for the most part, to third generation cephalosporins. In order to investigate new potential sources of antimicrobial agents, the antibacterial properties of 14 Canadian plants used in traditional First Nations' medicine were tested against Ng isolates having differing antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. Ethanolic extracts of 14 Canadian botanicals, analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, were tested for their antimicrobial activity (disc diffusion and/or agar dilution assays) against susceptible Ng reference strains and a panel of 28 Ng isolates with various antimicrobial resistance profiles. Extracts of Arctostaphylos uva ursi (kinnikinnick or bearberry), Hydrastis canadensis (goldenseal), Prunus serotina (black cherry), and Rhodiola rosea (roseroot) inhibited the growth of all Ng isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 32 μg/mL, 4 to 32 μg/mL, 16 to >32 μg/mL, and 32 to 64 μg/mL, respectively. Extracts of Acorus americanus (sweet flag), Berberis vulgaris (barberry), Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh), Equisetum arvense (field horsetail), Gaultheria procumbens (wintergreen), Ledum groenlandicum (Labrador tea), Ledum palustre (marsh Labrador tea), Oenothera biennis (common evening primrose), Sambucus nigra (elderberry), and Zanthoxylum americanum (prickly ash) had weak or no antimicrobial activity against the Ng isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations ≥256 μg/mL. The phytochemical berberine from H. canadensis inhibited the growth of all Ng isolates. The phytochemicals, salidroside and rosavin, present in R. rosea, also showed inhibitory activity against Ng strains. Canadian botanicals represent a potential source of novel compounds which inhibit Ng, including isolates resistant to antibiotics.

  16. Antimicrobial Resistance, Virulence Profile, and Molecular Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated from Ready-to-eat Food in China, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shao Fei; Wang, Wei; Bai, Li; Hu, Yu Jie; Dong, Yin Ping; Xu, Jin; Li, Feng Qin

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the potential pathogenic profile and antibiotic resistance of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from ready-to-eat food in China. Antimicrobial resistance was determined by broth microdilution following the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute protocol. Molecular serotyping, virulence, and resistance genes were identified using PCR. Multi-locus sequence typing was performed on resistant strains. A total of 11.53% (113/980) isolates were resistant, from which 82.3% (93/113) harbored all the virulence genes tested. The resistant strains were subtyped into 18 sequence types (STs), from which ST2, ST5, ST8, and ST9 were involved in listeriosis. This study indicated that several L. monocytogenes isolates from ready-to-eat foods in China have pathogenic potential and are resistant to antibiotics, including antibiotics used as medicines by humans for listeriosis treatment. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Endurance, Strength and Combined Training on Lipid Profile, Insulin Resistance, and Serum Adiponectin Levels in Inactive Obese Children

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    AR Ramezani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Nowadays, Iranian lifestyles are changing, especially children may be effected by the increase of cardiovascular diseases. Studies have shown that different methods of exercise are the most important determinants of cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this study was to survey the lipid profile, insulin resistance, and adiponectin levels following eight weeks of endurance, strength and combined training in inactive obese children. Methods: The present quasi-experimental field was conducted on Sixty obese male children (age: 8-12 years, BMI between 30-35 kg/m2 according to the World Health Organization who were purposefully selected and randomly divided into four experimental groups of 15 individuals including endurance exercise, resistance exercise, combined exercise and control. Exercise training programs were performed four times a week for eight weeks. To assess variable changes, ANOVA with repeated measurement and one way ANOVA was used. Results: Results showed that after three types of exercise training  the BMI, total chlostrol, TG, LDL, VLDL, and insulin resistance significantly decreased in experimental groups compared to control group (P=0.001. Serum HDL and adiponectin was significantly increased after different training in experimental groups in comparison to control group (P=0.001.  Conclusion: According to the findings, it is suggested that among three types of exercise applied in this study, particularly, endurance training is use to prevent and reduce the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and obesity-related disorders in inactive obese children. .

  18. Determination antimicrobial resistance profile of Acinetobacter strains isolated from hospitalized patients in Different Part of Taleghani Hospital (Ahvaz, Iran

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    Khadijah Ahmadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The members of the genus Acinetobacter are Gram-negative cocobacilli that are frequently found in the environment but also in the hospital setting where they have been associated with outbreaks of nosocomial infections such as meningitis, endocarditis, skin and soft tissue infections, urinary tract infection, conjunctivitis, burn wound infection and bacteremia. This organism has been shown resistance to different antimicrobial agents. The aim of this study was to determination antibiotic resistance profile of Acinetobacter strains isolated from hospitalized patients in Taleghani hospital (Ahvaz, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 43 Acinetobacter strains isolated from hospitalized patients. Clinical specimens were cultured on microbiological media. Subsequently, drug susceptibility test was performed using the disc diffusion method according to CLSI recommendations. Results: Acinetobacter strains were isolated from different specimens consisting biopsy 24 (55.8%, wound 13 (30/2% and blood 6 (14%. In antimicrobial susceptibility testing, colistin exhibited the greatest activity (60.5% against isolated strains. 33 (76/7% isolates demonstrated resistance to imipenem. Conclusion: In outbreak situations, surveillance cultures of patients involved in the outbreak or who are deemed at risk for colonization/infection with the outbreak organism are often parts of the planned intervention.

  19. Thyroid profiles in a patient with resistance to thyroid hormone and episodes of thyrotoxicosis, including repeated painless thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniyama, Matsuo; Otsuka, Fumiko; Tozaki, Teruaki; Ban, Yoshiyuki

    2013-07-01

    Thyrotoxic disease can be difficult to recognize in patients with resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) because the clinical symptoms of thyrotoxicosis cannot be observed, and thyrotropin (TSH) may not be suppressed because of hormone resistance. Painless thyroiditis is a relatively common cause of thyrotoxicosis, but its occurrence in RTH has not been reported. We assessed the thyroid profile in a patient with RTH and episodes of thyrotoxicosis who experienced repeated painless thyroiditis. A 44-year-old Japanese woman with RTH, which was confirmed by the presence of a P453A mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) gene, showed a slight elevation of the basal levels of thyroid hormones, which indicated that her pituitary RTH was mild. She experienced a slight exacerbation of hyperthyroxinemia concomitant with TSH suppression. A diagnosis of painless thyroiditis was made because of the absence of TSH receptor antibodies, low Tc-99m pertechnetate uptake by the thyroid gland, and transient suppression followed by a slight elevation of TSH following the elevation of thyroid hormones. The patient's complaints of general malaise and occasional palpitations did not change throughout the course of painless thyroiditis. Three years later, painless thyroiditis occurred again without any deterioration of the clinical manifestations. Mild pituitary RTH can be overcome by slight exacerbation of hyperthyroxinemia during mild thyrotoxicosis. When pituitary resistance is severe and TSH is not suppressed, thyrotoxicosis may be overlooked.

  20. Prevalence, Virulence Genes and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Salmonella Serovars from Retail Beef in Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thung, Tze Y; Radu, Son; Mahyudin, Nor A; Rukayadi, Yaya; Zakaria, Zunita; Mazlan, Nurzafirah; Tan, Boon H; Lee, Epeng; Yeoh, Soo L; Chin, Yih Z; Tan, Chia W; Kuan, Chee H; Basri, Dayang F; Wan Mohamed Radzi, Che W J

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in retail beef from different retail markets of Selangor area, as well as, to assess their pathogenic potential and antimicrobial resistance. A total of 240 retail beef meat samples (chuck = 60; rib = 60; round = 60; sirloin = 60) were randomly collected. The multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) in combination with the most probable number (MPN) method was employed to detect Salmonella spp., S . Enteritidis and S . Typhimurium in the meat samples. The prevalence of Salmonella spp., S . Enteritidis and S . Typhimurium in 240 beef meat samples were 7.50, 1.25, and 0.83%, respectively. The microbial loads of total Salmonella was found in the range of retail beef products tested were widely contaminated with multi-drug resistant (MDR) Salmonella and various virulence genes are present among the isolated Salmonella serovars.

  1. Acinetobacter Infection and Resistance Profile of Intensive Care Units In a City of Northwestern Anatolia

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    İsa Yıldız

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Determination of suitable antibiotics in treatment of Acinetobacter infections is through the hospital ascertaining the resistance state to bacteria causing the problem. In this study, the evaluation of antibiotics sensitivity of Acinetobacter strains isolated as infection factor in patients hospitalized in intensive care units is aimed. METHODS: Acinetobacter strains isolated from the samples of patients hospitalized in the 2nd and 3rd Stage adult intensive care units of a province in in northwestern Anatolia have been studied. RESULTS: A total of 165 patients were included in the study. The most isolated samples were respiratory tract samples, blood and urine. The antibiotics which the factors were most sensitive were cholistin (66,1% gentamicin (22,4% and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole (18,2%. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: We face increasing resistance ratios in Acinetobacter strains. Necessary precautions should be taken for this.

  2. Transcriptome profiling and digital gene expression analysis of genes associated with salinity resistance in peanut

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    Jiongming Sui

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Soil salinity can significantly reduce crop production, but the molecular mechanism of salinity tolerance in peanut is poorly understood. A mutant (S1 with higher salinity resistance than its mutagenic parent HY22 (S3 was obtained. Transcriptome sequencing and digital gene expression (DGE analysis were performed with leaves of S1 and S3 before and after plants were irrigated with 250 mM NaCl. Results: A total of 107,725 comprehensive transcripts were assembled into 67,738 unigenes using TIGR Gene Indices clustering tools (TGICL. All unigenes were searched against the euKaryotic Ortholog Groups (KOG, gene ontology (GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG databases, and these unigenes were assigned to 26 functional KOG categories, 56 GO terms, 32 KEGG groups, respectively. In total 112 differentially expressed genes (DEGs between S1 and S3 after salinity stress were screened, among them, 86 were responsive to salinity stress in S1 and/or S3. These 86 DEGs included genes that encoded the following kinds of proteins that are known to be involved in resistance to salinity stress: late embryogenesis abundant proteins (LEAs, major intrinsic proteins (MIPs or aquaporins, metallothioneins (MTs, lipid transfer protein (LTP, calcineurin B-like protein-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED and oleosins, etc. Of these 86 DEGs, 18 could not be matched with known proteins. Conclusion: The results from this study will be useful for further research on the mechanism of salinity resistance and will provide a useful gene resource for the variety breeding of salinity resistance in peanut. Keywords: Digital gene expression, Gene, Mutant, NaCl, Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L., RNA-seq, Salinity stress, Salinity tolerance, Soil salinity, Transcripts, Unigenes

  3. Plasma fatty acid profile in depressive disorder resembles insulin resistance state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vareka, Tomas; Vecka, Marek; Jirak, Roman; Tvrzicka, Eva; Macasek, Jaroslav; Zak, Ales; Zeman, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Depressive disorder is related to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Insulin resistance (IR), connected with altered fatty acid (FA) composition, namely with decreased proportion of polyunsaturated FA could participate in these associations. The aim of the study was to investigate the composition of FA in plasma cholesterol esters (CE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) as well as indices of insulin resistance and oxidative stress in the patients with depressive disorder. Parameters of lipid and glucose homeostasis, concentrations of FA in plasma cholesteryl esters (CE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) and conjugated dienes in LDL were investigated in a group of 47 patients (9M/38F) with depression and compared with 47 control persons (16M/31F). Delta-9 desaturase (D9D) and D6D desaturase were estimated as product to precursor fatty acid ratios. In depressive patients increased concentrations of palmitoleic acid and total monounsaturated FA with decreased proportion of total polyunsaturated FA n-6 (PUFA n-6) (all pinsulin resistance. Dysregulation of FA could participate in the pathogenesis of depression and be associated with an increased risk of CVD and DM2.

  4. Molecular Characteristics and Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of Klebsiella Isolates in Mthatha, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

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    Sandeep Vasaikar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the incidence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase- (ESBL- producing Klebsiella species has become a serious problem worldwide, because of their incrimination in antibiotic resistance. The objective of this study is to investigate the resistance genes responsible for ESBL-producing Klebsiella species and carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella (CRE isolated in Mthatha and to study their epidemiology. A prospective, descriptive study of 202 nonrepetitive samples from patients was obtained from Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital. The cultured Klebsiella isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests and the polymerase chain reaction of blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaSHV, blaKPC, and blaNDM genes. Overall K. pneumoniae were the majority with 169 (83.7% species isolates, followed by K. oxytoca with 29 (14.4%, while K. ozaenae and Raoultella ornithinolytica were 2 (0.9% each. The prevalence of ESBL production in all Klebsiella species was 117 (57.9%. ESBL-genotypic resistance is driven in Mthatha by blaSHV 121 (77.1% followed by blaTEM 105 (66.9% and blaCTX-M at 89 (56.7%. The most common ESBL genotype combination among the Klebsiella was blaTEM+blaSHV + blaCTX-M at 79 (50.3%. There is a steady increase in the rate of ESBL genes in the last five years.

  5. Molecular Characteristics and Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of Klebsiella Isolates in Mthatha, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasaikar, Sandeep; Obi, Larry; Morobe, Isaac; Bisi-Johnson, Mary

    2017-01-01

    The increase in the incidence of extended-spectrum β -lactamase- (ESBL-) producing Klebsiella species has become a serious problem worldwide, because of their incrimination in antibiotic resistance. The objective of this study is to investigate the resistance genes responsible for ESBL-producing Klebsiella species and carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella (CRE) isolated in Mthatha and to study their epidemiology. A prospective, descriptive study of 202 nonrepetitive samples from patients was obtained from Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital. The cultured Klebsiella isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests and the polymerase chain reaction of bla CTX-M , bla TEM , bla SHV , bla KPC , and bla NDM genes. Overall K. pneumoniae were the majority with 169 (83.7%) species isolates, followed by K. oxytoca with 29 (14.4%), while K. ozaenae and Raoultella ornithinolytica were 2 (0.9%) each. The prevalence of ESBL production in all Klebsiella species was 117 (57.9%). ESBL-genotypic resistance is driven in Mthatha by bla SHV 121 (77.1%) followed by bla TEM 105 (66.9%) and bla CTX-M at 89 (56.7%). The most common ESBL genotype combination among the Klebsiella was bla TEM + bla SHV + bla CTX-M at 79 (50.3%). There is a steady increase in the rate of ESBL genes in the last five years.

  6. Antimicrobial resistance profile of urinary tract infection at a secondary care hospital in Medan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, A.; Saragih, R. H.; Nainggolan, R.

    2018-03-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a considerable health problem which ranks as the second leading cause of infection after respiratory tract one. Antimicrobial resistance in UTI has become a burden in the management of the disease due to high usage of antibiotics. A comprehensive understanding of the etiology and the antimicrobial resistance of the uropathogenic bacteria is essential to provide adequate treatment. This study aims to determine the etiologic agents and their susceptibility pattern in UTI patients. The analysis was performed retrospectively on culture isolates obtained from urine samples received at the Department of Microbiology, Dr.Pirngadi General Hospital, Medan, Indonesia in the period from January 2015 until December 2016. Higher prevalence of UTI was found in female participants of the study in comparison with males. Enterobacter (64.58%) was the most common bacteria revealed as the etiologic agent, followed by E. coli (11.46%), Citrobacter and Klebsiella (9.38% each). Amikacin and meropenem were the most sensitive antimicrobial agents for Enterobacter, E. coli, Citrobacter, and Klebsiella, showing low resistance rate. This study showed that Enterobacter was the most dominant bacterial pathogen of UTI. Amikacin and meropenem were the antibiotics with high sensitivity for UTI treatment.

  7. Comparisons of protein profiles of beech bark disease resistant and susceptible American beech (Fagus grandifolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Beech bark disease is an insect-fungus complex that damages and often kills American beech trees and has major ecological and economic impacts on forests of the northeastern United States and southeastern Canadian forests. The disease begins when exotic beech scale insects feed on the bark of trees, and is followed by infection of damaged bark tissues by one of the Neonectria species of fungi. Proteomic analysis was conducted of beech bark proteins from diseased trees and healthy trees in areas heavily infested with beech bark disease. All of the diseased trees had signs of Neonectria infection such as cankers or fruiting bodies. In previous tests reported elsewhere, all of the diseased trees were demonstrated to be susceptible to the scale insect and all of the healthy trees were demonstrated to be resistant to the scale insect. Sixteen trees were sampled from eight geographically isolated stands, the sample consisting of 10 healthy (scale-resistant) and 6 diseased/infested (scale-susceptible) trees. Results Proteins were extracted from each tree and analysed in triplicate by isoelectric focusing followed by denaturing gel electrophoresis. Gels were stained and protein spots identified and intensity quantified, then a statistical model was fit to identify significant differences between trees. A subset of BBD differential proteins were analysed by mass spectrometry and matched to known protein sequences for identification. Identified proteins had homology to stress, insect, and pathogen related proteins in other plant systems. Protein spots significantly different in diseased and healthy trees having no stand or disease-by-stand interaction effects were identified. Conclusions Further study of these proteins should help to understand processes critical to resistance to beech bark disease and to develop biomarkers for use in tree breeding programs and for the selection of resistant trees prior to or in early stages of BBD development in stands. Early

  8. [Profile of bacterial resistance in pediatric urinary tract infections in 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammang, A; Morello, R; Vergnaud, M; Brouard, J; Eckart, P

    2017-03-01

    In pediatric units, bacteria-producing extended-spectrum-betalactamase (ESBL) have an increasing prevalence among bacteria causing febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology of bacteria resistance patterns observed in UTIs, in order to assess the current antibiotic treatment protocols. This study is based upon a single-center retrospective chart review of the cytobacteriological urine cultures performed in UTIs between 1 January and 31 December 2014, in the medical pediatric unit of the Caen University Hospital. Out of the total of 219 cases of UTI, 26.9% were recurrences of UTI, 18.3% were infections in infants less than 3 months old, 21% of the patients suffered from underlying uropathy, and 16.4% of the patients had recently been exposed to antibiotics. In 80.3% of the cases, Escherichia coli was found, while Enterococcus faecalis was found in 5.6%. The antibiograms proved that 33.5% of the bacteria were sensitive. Half of E. coli were resistant to ampicillin, 4.9% to cefixime, 4.9% to ceftriaxone, 1.1% to gentamicin, and 27.8% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Nine E. coli and one Enterobacter cloacae produced ESBL, accounting for 4.6% of the UTIs. We did not find any bacteria-producing high-level cephalosporinase. Cefixime resistance was statistically linked to ongoing antibiotic treatment (OR=5.98; 95% CI [1.44; 24.91], P=0.014) and underlying uropathy (OR=6.24; 95% CI [1.47; 26.42], P=0.013). Ceftriaxone resistance was statistically related to ongoing antibiotic treatment (OR=6.93; 95% CI [1.45; 33.13], P=0.015). These results argue in favor of maintaining intravenous ceftriaxone for probabilistic ambulatory treatment. However, in case of hospitalization, cefotaxime can replace ceftriaxone, due to its lower ecological impact. Moreover, it is necessary to continue monitoring bacterial resistance and regularly review our treatment protocols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Measuring The Contact Resistances Of Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Simple method devised to measure contact resistances of photovoltaic solar cells. Method uses readily available equipment and applicable at any time during life of cell. Enables evaluation of cell contact resistance, contact-end resistance, contact resistivity, sheet resistivity, and sheet resistivity under contact.

  10. Rice Gene Network Inferred from Expression Profiling of Plants Overexpressing OsWRKY13,a Positive Regulator of Disease Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deyun Qiu; Jun Xiao; Weibo Xie; Hongbo Liu; Xianghua Li; Lizhong Xiong; Shiping Wang

    2008-01-01

    Accumulating information indicates that plant disease resistance signaling pathways frequently interact with other pathways regulating developmental processes or abiotic stress responses. However, the molecular mechanisms of these types of crosstalk remain poorly understood in most cases. Here we report that OsWRKY13, an activator of rice resistance to both bacterial and fungal pathogens, appears to function as a convergent point for crosstalk among the pathogen-induced salicylate-dependent defense pathway and five other physiologic pathways. Genome-wide analysis of the expression profiles of OsWRKY13-overexpressing lines suggests that OsWRKY13 directly or indirectly regulates the expression of more than 500 genes that are potentially involved in different physiologic processes according to the classification of the Gene Ontology database. By comparing the expression patterns of genes functioning in known pathways or cellular processes of pathogen infection and the phenotypes between OsWRKY13-overexpressing and wildtype plants, our data suggest that OsWRKY13 is also a regulator of other physiologic processes during pathogen infection. The OsWRKY13-associated disease resistance pathway synergistically interacts via OsWRKY13 with the glutathione/glutaredoxin system and flavonoid biosynthesis pathway to monitor redox homeostasis and to putatively enhance the biosynthesis of antimicrobial flavonoid phytoalexins, respectively, in OsWRKY13-overexpressing lines. Meanwhile, the OsWRKY13-associated disease resistance pathway appears to interact antagonistically with the SNAC1-mediated abiotic stress defense pathway, jasmonic acid signaling pathway, and terpenoid metabolism pathway via OsWRKY13 to suppress salt and cold defense responses as well as to putatively retard rice growth and development.

  11. Incidence, microbiological profile of nosocomial infections, and their antibiotic resistance patterns in a high volume Cardiac Surgical Intensive Care Unit

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    Manoj Kumar Sahu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nosocomial infections (NIs in the postoperative period not only increase morbidity and mortality, but also impose a significant economic burden on the health care infrastructure. This retrospective study was undertaken to (a evaluate the incidence, characteristics, risk factors and outcomes of NIs and (b identify common microorganisms responsible for infection and their antibiotic resistance profile in our Cardiac Surgical Intensive Care Unit (CSICU. Patients and Methods: After ethics committee approval, the CSICU records of all patients who underwent cardiovascular surgery between January 2013 and December 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. The incidence of NI, distribution of NI sites, types of microorganisms and their antibiotic resistance, length of CSICU stay, and patient-outcome were determined. Results: Three hundred and nineteen of 6864 patients (4.6% developed NI after cardiac surgery. Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs accounted for most of the infections (44.2% followed by surgical-site infection (SSI, 11.6%, bloodstream infection (BSI, 7.5%, urinary tract infection (UTI, 6.9% and infections from combined sources (29.8%. Acinetobacter, Klebsiella, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus were the most frequent pathogens isolated in patients with LRTI, BSI, UTI, and SSI, respectively. The Gram-negative bacteria isolated from different sources were found to be highly resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Conclusion: The incidence of NI and sepsis-related mortality, in our CSICU, was 4.6% and 1.9%, respectively. Lower respiratory tract was the most common site of infection and Gram-negative bacilli, the most common pathogens after cardiac surgery. Antibiotic resistance was maximum with Acinetobacter spp.

  12. Characterization of major lithologic units underlying the lower American River using water-borne continuous resistivity profiling, Sacramento, California, June 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lyndsay B.; Teeple, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The levee system of the lower American River in Sacramento, California, is situated above a mixed lithology of alluvial deposits that range from clay to gravel. In addition, sand deposits related to hydraulic mining activities underlie the floodplain and are preferentially prone to scour during high-flow events. In contrast, sections of the American River channel have been observed to be scour resistant. In this study, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, explores the resistivity structure of the American River channel to characterize the extent and thickness of lithologic units that may impact the scour potential of the area. Likely lithologic structures are interpreted, but these interpretations are non-unique and cannot be directly related to scour potential. Additional geotechnical data would provide insightful data on the scour potential of certain lithologic units. Additional interpretation of the resistivity data with respect to these results may improve interpretations of lithology and scour potential throughout the American River channel and floodplain. Resistivity data were collected in three profiles along the American River using a water-borne continuous resistivity profiling technique. After processing and modeling these data, inverted resistivity profiles were used to make interpretations about the extent and thickness of possible lithologic units. In general, an intermittent high-resistivity layer likely indicative of sand or gravel deposits extends to a depth of around 30 feet (9 meters) and is underlain by a consistent low-resistivity layer that likely indicates a high-clay content unit that extends below the depth of investigation (60 feet or 18 meters). Immediately upstream of the Watt Avenue Bridge, the high-resistivity layer is absent, and the low-resistivity layer extends to the surface where a scour-resistant layer has been previously observed in the river bed.

  13. Anti-Microbial Resistance Profiles Of E. Coli Isolated From Free Range Chickens In Urban And Rural Environments Of Imo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoli IC

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Information on the resistance profiles of normal intestinal flora of extensively reared chickens that hardly receive antibiotics in the developing countries can serve as important means of understanding the human/animal pathogens drug resistance interactions in the zone. Three hundred and fifty E. coli isolates, comprising 133 from urban and 217 from rural sites in Imo state, Nigeria, were screened for anti-microbial resistance profile against 10 antibiotics using the disc diffusion method. Overall percentage anti-microbial resistance of the isolates against cotrimoxazole, ampicillin, nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol and nitrofurantoin (72–92% were very high. The organisms were highly sensitive to other antibiotics, especially gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. The 59.5% overall mean percentage resistance recorded at the urban area was significantly higher than the 46.8% recorded at the rural area (p<0.05. With the exception of the figures for cotrimoxazole and ampicillin, resistance values obtained against the other antibiotics at the urban sites were statistically higher than those obtained at the rural sites (p<0.05. Zero resistance was recorded against the fluoroquinolones, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin at all the rural sites except at Enyiogwugwu where a 28.6% resistance was obtained against norfloxacin. Since free-range chickens rarely receive antibiotic medication, it is concluded that the highly resistant E. coli organisms isolated from them may be reflecting consequences of human drug use in the study areas.

  14. High-throughput profiling of antibiotic resistance genes in drinking water treatment plants and distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Like; Ouyang, Weiying; Qian, Yanyun; Su, Chao; Su, Jianqiang; Chen, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are present in surface water and often cannot be completely eliminated by drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs). Improper elimination of the ARG-harboring microorganisms contaminates the water supply and would lead to animal and human disease. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to determine the most effective ways by which DWTPs can eliminate ARGs. Here, we tested water samples from two DWTPs and distribution systems and detected the presence of 285 ARGs, 8 transposases, and intI-1 by utilizing high-throughput qPCR. The prevalence of ARGs differed in the two DWTPs, one of which employed conventional water treatments while the other had advanced treatment processes. The relative abundance of ARGs increased significantly after the treatment with biological activated carbon (BAC), raising the number of detected ARGs from 76 to 150. Furthermore, the final chlorination step enhanced the relative abundance of ARGs in the finished water generated from both DWTPs. The total enrichment of ARGs varied from 6.4-to 109.2-fold in tap water compared to finished water, among which beta-lactam resistance genes displayed the highest enrichment. Six transposase genes were detected in tap water samples, with the transposase gene TnpA-04 showing the greatest enrichment (up to 124.9-fold). We observed significant positive correlations between ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) during the distribution systems, indicating that transposases and intI-1 may contribute to antibiotic resistance in drinking water. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the diversity and abundance of ARGs in drinking water treatment systems utilizing high-throughput qPCR techniques in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The influence of snow grain size and impurities on the vertical profiles of actinic flux and associated NOx emissions on the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Zatko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We use observations of the absorption properties of black carbon and non-black carbon impurities in near-surface snow collected near the research stations at South Pole and Dome C, Antarctica, and Summit, Greenland, combined with a snowpack actinic flux parameterization to estimate the vertical profile and e-folding depth of ultraviolet/near-visible (UV/near-vis actinic flux in the snowpack at each location. We have developed a simple and broadly applicable parameterization to calculate depth and wavelength dependent snowpack actinic flux that can be easily integrated into large-scale (e.g., 3-D models of the atmosphere. The calculated e-folding depths of actinic flux at 305 nm, the peak wavelength of nitrate photolysis in the snowpack, are 8–12 cm near the stations and 15–31 cm away (>11 km from the stations. We find that the e-folding depth is strongly dependent on impurity content and wavelength in the UV/near-vis region, which explains the relatively shallow e-folding depths near stations where local activities lead to higher snow impurity levels. We calculate the lifetime of NOx in the snowpack interstitial air produced by photolysis of snowpack nitrate against wind pumping (τwind pumping from the snowpack, and compare this to the calculated lifetime of NOx against chemical conversion to HNO3 (τchemical to determine whether the NOx produced at a given depth can escape from the snowpack to the overlying atmosphere. Comparison of τwind pumping and τchemical suggests efficient escape of photoproduced NOx in the snowpack to the overlying atmosphere throughout most of the photochemically active zone. Calculated vertical actinic flux profiles and observed snowpack nitrate concentrations are used to estimate the potential flux of NOx from the snowpack. Calculated NOx fluxes of 4.4 × 108–3.8 × 109 molecules cm−2 s−1 in remote polar locations and 3.2–8.2 × 108 molecules cm−2 s−1 near polar stations for January at Dome C and

  16. Semiparametric profile likelihood estimation for continuous outcomes with excess zeros in a random-threshold damage-resistance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, John D; Tsodikov, Alex

    2017-05-30

    Continuous outcome data with a proportion of observations equal to zero (often referred to as semicontinuous data) arise frequently in biomedical studies. Typical approaches involve two-part models, with one part a logistic model for the probability of observing a zero and some parametric continuous distribution for modeling the positive part of the data. We propose a semiparametric model based on a biological system with competing damage manifestation and resistance processes. This allows us to derive a closed-form profile likelihood based on the retro-hazard function, leading to a flexible procedure for modeling continuous data with a point mass at zero. A simulation study is presented to examine the properties of the method in finite samples. We apply the method to a data set consisting of pulmonary capillary hemorrhage area in lab rats subjected to diagnostic ultrasound. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Resistive flux saving and current profile control during lower hybrid waves assisted current rise in TORE SUPRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Houtte, D.; Hoang, G.T.; Joffrin, E.; Lecoustey, P.; Moreau, D.; Parlange, F.; Tonon, G.; Vallet, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    Resistive flux saving at densities n e = (1 - 2) x 10 19 m -3 has been studied. High flux saving efficiency (0.7 x 10 13 Wb/J/m -1 ) can be achieved for a low rf power (P LH = 0.5 MW) due to the beneficial effect of the electric field on the suprathermal electrons. However for power higher than 1 MW, the efficiency is 0.25 x 10 13 Wb/J/m -1 . This flux saving efficiency is comparable to the one obtained during the flat top phase. The application of the LH power during a low density current ramp-up tends to peak the electron temperature and current density profiles. The rf power level, the parallel wavenumber and the current ramp rate allow to control the trajectories of the plasma discharges during the current rise inside the MHD stable domain

  18. Positive effects of football on fitness, lipid profile, and insulin resistance in Brazilian patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Sousa, M V; Fukui, R; Krustrup, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of recreational football training combined with calorie-restricted diet (football + diet) vs calorie-restricted diet alone (diet) on aerobic fitness, lipid profile, and insulin resistance indicators in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. Forty-four T2D patients aged 48-68 years...... (27 females, 17 males) were randomly allocated to the football + diet group (FDG; n = 22) or to the diet group (DG; n = 22), of whom 19 FDG and 15 DG subjects completed the study. The football training was performed for 3 × 40 min/week for 12 weeks. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning, treadmill...... testing, and fasting blood samplings were performed pre and post-intervention. After 12 weeks, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max ) was elevated (P 

  19. Nickel Alloy, Corrosion and Heat-Resistant, Sheet, Strip, and Plate 72Ni - 15.5Cr - 0.95 (Cb (Nb) + Ta) - 2.5Ti - 0.70Al - 7.0Fe Consumable Electrode, Remelted or Vacuum Induction Melted, Solution Heat Treated, Precipitation-Hardenable

    CERN Document Server

    SAE Aerospace Standards. London

    2012-01-01

    Nickel Alloy, Corrosion and Heat-Resistant, Sheet, Strip, and Plate 72Ni - 15.5Cr - 0.95 (Cb (Nb) + Ta) - 2.5Ti - 0.70Al - 7.0Fe Consumable Electrode, Remelted or Vacuum Induction Melted, Solution Heat Treated, Precipitation-Hardenable

  20. Comparative proteomic and metabolomic profiling of citrus fruit with enhancement of disease resistance by postharvest heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ze; Gao, Huijun; Liu, Ping; Liu, Shuzhen; Luo, Tao; Jin, Shuai; Xu, Qiang; Xu, Juan; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2013-03-16

    From field harvest to the consumer's table, fresh citrus fruit spends a considerable amount of time in shipment and storage. During these processes, physiological disorders and pathological diseases are the main causes of fruit loss. Heat treatment (HT) has been widely used to maintain fruit quality during postharvest storage; however, limited molecular information related to this treatment is currently available at a systemic biological level. Mature 'Kamei' Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) fruits were selected for exploring the disease resistance mechanisms induced by HT during postharvest storage. Proteomic analyses based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and metabolomic research based on gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF-MS) were conducted. The results show resistance associated proteins were up-regulated in heat treated pericarp, such as beta-1, 3-glucanase, Class III chitinase, 17.7 kDa heat shock protein and low molecular weight heat-shock protein. Also, redox metabolism enzymes were down-regulated in heat treated pericarp, including isoflavone reductase, oxidoreductase and superoxide dismutase. Primary metabolic profiling revealed organic acids and amino acids were down-regulated in heat treated pericarp; but significant accumulation of metabolites, including tetradecanoic acid, oleic acid, ornithine, 2-keto-d-gluconic acid, succinic acid, turanose, sucrose, galactose, myo-inositol, glucose and fructose were detected. Noticeably, H2O2 content decreased, while, lignin content increased in heat treated pericarp compared to the control, which might increase fruit resistibility in response to external stress. Also, flavonoids, substances which are well-known to be effective in reducing external stress, were up-regulated in heat treated pericarp. This study provides a broad picture of differential accumulation of proteins and metabolites in

  1. Comparison of Corrosion Behavior of Electrochemically Deposited Nano-Cobalt-Coated Ni Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Al-Aqeeli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion behavior of nano-coblat-coated Ni sheet was compared with pure Ni and 20% Fe-Ni alloy sheet using potentiodynamic polarization and linear polarization technique in 0.1 M NaCl solution at room temperature. Results showed that corrosion resistance properties of nano-Co-coated Ni sheet were almost same as that of pure Ni sheet, however corrosion resistance of 20% Fe-Ni sheet was decreased significantly. Pitting potential of 20% Fe-Ni sheet was subsequently decreased as compared to pure Ni sheet as well as nano-cobalt-coated Ni sheet. SEM/EDS analysis of the corroded surfaces showed that both pure Ni and nano-coblat-coated Ni sheet did not show any appreciable corrosion however significant corrosion was observed in the case of 20% Fe-Ni sheet.

  2. Acute resistance exercise modulates microRNA expression profiles: Combined tissue and circulatory targeted analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall F D'Souza

    Full Text Available A subset of short non-coding RNAs, microRNAs (miRs, have been identified in the regulation of skeletal muscle hypertrophy and atrophy. Expressed within cells, miRs are also present in circulation (c-miR and have a putative role in cross-tissue signalling. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of a single bout of high intensity resistance exercise (RE on skeletal muscle and circulatory miRs harvested simultaneously. Resistance trained males (n = 9, 24.6 ± 4.9 years undertook a single bout of high volume RE with venous blood and muscle biopsies collected before, 2 and 4hr post-exercise. Real time polymerase chain reaction (Rt-PCR analyses was performed on 30 miRs that have previously been shown to be required for skeletal muscle function. Of these, 6 miRs were significantly altered within muscle following exercise; miR-23a, -133a, -146a, -206, -378b and 486. Analysis of these same miRs in circulation demonstrated minimal alterations with exercise, although c-miR-133a (~4 fold, p = 0.049 and c-miR-149 (~2.4 fold; p = 0.006 were increased 4hr post-exercise. Thus a single bout of RE results in the increased abundance of a subset of miRs within the skeletal muscle, which was not evident in plasma. The lack a qualitative agreement in the response pattern of intramuscular and circulating miR expression suggests the analysis of circulatory miRs is not reflective of the miR responses within skeletal muscle after exercise.

  3. [Optimization of cluster analysis based on drug resistance profiles of MRSA isolates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Hiroya; Kishi, Takahiko; Gotoh, Minehiro; Yamagishi, Yuka; Mikamo, Hiroshige

    2015-12-01

    We examined 402 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated from clinical specimens in our hospital between November 19, 2010 and December 27, 2011 to evaluate the similarity between cluster analysis of drug susceptibility tests and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The results showed that the 402 strains tested were classified into 27 PFGE patterns (151 subtypes of patterns). Cluster analyses of drug susceptibility tests with the cut-off distance yielding a similar classification capability showed favorable results--when the MIC method was used, and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were used directly in the method, the level of agreement with PFGE was 74.2% when 15 drugs were tested. The Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic mean (UPGMA) method was effective when the cut-off distance was 16. Using the SIR method in which susceptible (S), intermediate (I), and resistant (R) were coded as 0, 2, and 3, respectively, according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) criteria, the level of agreement with PFGE was 75.9% when the number of drugs tested was 17, the method used for clustering was the UPGMA, and the cut-off distance was 3.6. In addition, to assess the reproducibility of the results, 10 strains were randomly sampled from the overall test and subjected to cluster analysis. This was repeated 100 times under the same conditions. The results indicated good reproducibility of the results, with the level of agreement with PFGE showing a mean of 82.0%, standard deviation of 12.1%, and mode of 90.0% for the MIC method and a mean of 80.0%, standard deviation of 13.4%, and mode of 90.0% for the SIR method. In summary, cluster analysis for drug susceptibility tests is useful for the epidemiological analysis of MRSA.

  4. Corrosion Resistant FBG-Based Quasi-Distributed Sensor for Crude Oil Tank Dynamic Temperature Profile Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Marques, Rogério; Prado, Adilson Ribeiro; da Costa Antunes, Paulo Fernando; de Brito André, Paulo Sérgio; Ribeiro, Moisés R. N.; Frizera-Neto, Anselmo; Pontes, Maria José

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a corrosion resistant, maneuverable, and intrinsically safe fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based temperature optical sensor. Temperature monitoring is a critical activity for the oil and gas industry. It typically involves acquiring the desired parameters in a hazardous and corrosive environment. The use of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was proposed as a means of simultaneously isolating the optical fiber from the corrosive environment and avoiding undesirable mechanical tensions on the FBGs. The presented sensor head is based on multiple FBGs inscribed in a lengthy single mode fiber. The sensor presents an average thermal sensitivity of 8.82 ± 0.09 pm/°C, resulting in a typical temperature resolution of ~0.1 °C and an average time constant value of 6.25 ± 0.08 s. Corrosion and degradation resistance were verified by infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy during 90 days exposure to high salinity crude oil samples. The developed sensor was tested in a field pilot test, mimicking the operation of an inland crude tank, demonstrating its abilities to dynamically monitor temperature profile. PMID:26690166

  5. Bacteria isolated from pristine high altitude environments in the Argentinean Andean wetlands: plasmid profile and multiple antibiotic resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dib, J.R.; Martinez, M.A.; Sineriz, F.; Farias, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Andean wetlands, placed in the North-Western Argentine at 4,600 m altitude, are attractive for both, environmental and biotechnology studies. Most of these wetlands are completely remote and inaccessible, having a high salinity and metal contents, a wide range of daily temperature changes, and an important intensity of solar UV-B radiation. Bacteria isolated from these environments were identified by 16SrDNA sequence and resulted in Gram-positive colored bacteria. Interesting features, to our knowledge never reported so far from bacteria isolates from these pristine high altitude lake-environments, such as similar plasmids profiles and multiple antibiotic resistances are the focus of this work. At least two plasmids were found in all isolates studied by using modifications of the alkaline Iysis method. Their preliminary characterization in this work includes size, incompatibility group through PCR, genetic transference to suitable hosts by transformation and conjugation, and studies of possible relationships of them with antibiotic resistances. (author)

  6. In Vitro Antiviral Activity and Resistance Profile Characterization of the Hepatitis C Virus NS5A Inhibitor Ledipasvir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guofeng; Tian, Yang; Doehle, Brian; Peng, Betty; Corsa, Amoreena; Lee, Yu-Jen; Gong, Ruoyu; Yu, Mei; Han, Bin; Xu, Simin; Dvory-Sobol, Hadas; Perron, Michel; Xu, Yili; Mo, Hongmei; Pagratis, Nikos; Link, John O; Delaney, William

    2016-01-11

    Ledipasvir (LDV; GS-5885), a component of Harvoni (a fixed-dose combination of LDV with sofosbuvir [SOF]), is approved to treat chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Here, we report key preclinical antiviral properties of LDV, including in vitro potency, in vitro resistance profile, and activity in combination with other anti-HCV agents. LDV has picomolar antiviral activity against genotype 1a and genotype 1b replicons with 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of 0.031 nM and 0.004 nM, respectively. LDV is also active against HCV genotypes 4a, 4d, 5a, and 6a with EC50 values of 0.11 to 1.1 nM. LDV has relatively less in vitro antiviral activity against genotypes 2a, 2b, 3a, and 6e, with EC50 values of 16 to 530 nM. In vitro resistance selection with LDV identified the single Y93H and Q30E resistance-associated variants (RAVs) in the NS5A gene; these RAVs were also observed in patients after a 3-day monotherapy treatment. In vitro antiviral combination studies indicate that LDV has additive to moderately synergistic antiviral activity when combined with other classes of HCV direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents, including NS3/4A protease inhibitors and the nucleotide NS5B polymerase inhibitor SOF. Furthermore, LDV is active against known NS3 protease and NS5B polymerase inhibitor RAVs with EC50 values equivalent to those for the wild type. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Relationships between lipid profiles and metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and serum high molecular adiponectin in Japanese community-dwelling adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayama Shuzo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few studies to demonstrate the associations between newly addressed lipid profiles and metabolic syndrome (MetS-associated variables. Methods Study participants without medications for hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia {614 men aged 58 ± 14 (mean ± standard deviation; range, 20-89 years and 779 women aged 60 ± 12 (range, 21-88 years} were randomly recruited from a single community at the time of their annual health examination. The association between lipid profiles (total cholesterol (T-C, triglycerides (TG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, non-HDL-C, T-C/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio and MetS, Insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, and serum HMW adiponectin were analyzed. Results In multiple linear regression analysis, TG/HDL-C and T-C/HDL-C ratios as well as TG showed significantly strong associations with all three MetS-associated variables in both men and women. In men, the ROC curve analyses showed that the best marker for these variables was TG/HDL-C ratio, with the AUC for presence of MetS (AUC, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.77-0.87, HOMA-IR (AUC, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.70-0.80, and serum HMW adiponectin (AUC, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.63-0.71, respectively. The T-C/HDL-C ratio, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, and non-HDL-C also discriminated these markers; however all their AUC estimates were lower than TG/HDL-C ratio. These results were similar in women. Conclusion In Japanese community-dwelling adults, lipid ratios of TG/HDL-C, T-C/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C as well as TG and HDL-C were consistently associated with MetS, insulin resistance and serum HMW adiponectin. Lipid ratios may be used as reliable markers.

  8. Periodic folding of viscous sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribe, Neil M.

    2003-09-01

    The periodic folding of a sheet of viscous fluid falling upon a rigid surface is a common fluid mechanical instability that occurs in contexts ranging from food processing to geophysics. Asymptotic thin-layer equations for the combined stretching-bending deformation of a two-dimensional sheet are solved numerically to determine the folding frequency as a function of the sheet’s initial thickness, the pouring speed, the height of fall, and the fluid properties. As the buoyancy increases, the system bifurcates from “forced” folding driven kinematically by fluid extrusion to “free” folding in which viscous resistance to bending is balanced by buoyancy. The systematics of the numerically predicted folding frequency are in good agreement with laboratory experiments.

  9. The change of antibiotic resistance profiles over the years in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cem Şirin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistance profiles of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from patients in our hospital intensive care units (ICUs between the years 2011-2014 and to investigate the changes of these profiles over the years. Methods: Identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of the strains were performed by automated system. Cefoperazone-sulbactam and tigecycline susceptibility was determined by disk diffusion method. Imipenem, meropenem and colistin resistance was confirmed by E-test method. Chi-square and Fisher's exact test were used to compare the antibiotic susceptibilities statistically. Results: The highest resistance rates were determined for imipenem (50.2%, meropenem (51.9% and piperacillin-tazobactam (64.0% in P. aeruginosa strains (n=722. The changes in the rates of antibiotic resistance were not statistically significant in P. aeruginosa strains between the years 2011 and 2014. The decrease in gentamicin, amikacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance and the increase in cefoperazone-sulbactam and tigecycline resistance was found to be statistically significant in A. baumannii strains (n=1044 between the years 2011 and 2014. The increase in imipenem and meropenem resistance was found to be statistically significant between the years 2012 and 2013. Piperacillin-tazobactam, ceftazidime, cefepime, imipenem and meropenem resistances in A. baumannii strains were found to be over 95% in all the years. Colistin was found to be the most effective antimicrobial agent for both bacteria. Conclusion: The determination of considerably high antibiotic resistance rates in P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii strains isolated from our hospital ICUs has indicated that rational antibiotic use policies and more effective infection control programs should be applied along with monitoring the antibiotic susceptibility profiles constantly. J Clin Exp Invest 2015

  10. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Subclinical Infection in Pigs: Bacteriological and Genotypic Characterization and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moredo, Fabiana A; Piñeyro, Pablo E; Márquez, Gabriela C; Sanz, Marcelo; Colello, Rocío; Etcheverría, Analía; Padola, Nora L; Quiroga, María A; Perfumo, Carlos J; Galli, Lucía; Leotta, Gerardo A

    2015-08-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the major pathogen responsible for neonatal diarrhea, postweaning diarrhea, and edema disease in pigs. Although it can be harmless, ETEC is also present in the intestines of other animal species and humans, causing occasional diarrhea outbreaks. The evaluation of this pathogen's presence in food sources is becoming an increasingly important issue in human health. In order to determine the prevalence of ETEC in nondiarrheic pigs, 990 animals from 11 pig farms were sampled. Using end-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), eltA, estI genes, or both, were detected in 150 (15.2%) animals. From the positive samples, 40 (26.6%) ETEC strains were isolated, showing 19 antibiotic-resistance patterns; 52.5% of these strains had multiple antibiotic resistances, and 17.5% carried the intI2 gene. The most prevalent genotypes were rfb(O157)/estII/aidA (32.5%) and estI/estII (25.0%). The estII gene was identified most frequently (97.5%), followed by estI (37.5%), astA (20.0%), and eltA (12.5%). The genes coding the fimbriae F5, F6, and F18 were detected in three single isolates. The aidA gene was detected in 20 ETEC strains associated with the estII gene. Among the isolated ETEC strains, stx(2e)/estI, stx(2e)/estI/estII, and stx(2e)/estI/estII/intI2 genotypes were identified. The ETEC belonged to 12 different serogroups; 37.5% of them belonged to serotype O157:H19. Isolates were grouped by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR into 5 clusters with 100.0% similarity. In this study, we demonstrated that numerous ETEC genotypes cohabit and circulate in swine populations without clinical manifestation of neonatal diarrhea, postweaning diarrhea, or edema disease in different production stages. The information generated is important not only for diagnostic and epidemiological purposes, but also for understanding the dynamics and ecology of ETEC in pigs in different production stages that can be potentially transmitted to humans

  11. On the profile of frequency and voltage dependent interface states and series resistance in MIS structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doekme, Ilbilge [Science Education Department, Faculty of Kirsehir Education, Gazi University, Kirsehir (Turkey)]. E-mail: ilbilgedokme@gazi.edu.tr; Altindal, Semsettin [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Gazi University, 06500, Teknikokullar, Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-04-30

    The variation in the capacitance-voltage (C-V) and conductance-voltage (G/{omega}-V) characteristics of Au/SiO{sub 2}/n-Si metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure have been systematically investigated as a function of frequencies in the frequency range 0.5 kHz-10 MHz at room temperature. In addition, the forward and reverse bias current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of this structure were measured at room temperature. The high value of ideality factor was attributed to the high density of interface states localized at Si/SiO{sub 2} interface and interfacial oxide layer. The density of interface states (N{sub ss}) and the series resistance (R{sub ss}) were calculated from I-V and C-V measurements using different methods and the effect of them on C-V and G/{omega}-V characteristics were deeply researched. At the same energy position near the top of valance band, the calculated N{sub ss} values, obtained without taking into account the series resistance of the devices almost one order of magnitude larger than N{sub ss} values obtained by taking into account R{sub ss} values. It is found that the C-V and G/{omega}-V curves exhibit a peak at low frequencies and the peak values of C and G/{omega} decrease with increasing frequency. Also, the plots of R {sub s} as a function of bias give two peaks in the certain voltage range at low frequencies. These observations indicate that at low frequencies, the charges at interface states can easily follow an AC signal and the number of them increases with decreasing frequency. The I-V, C-V and G/{omega}-V characteristics of the MIS structure are affected not only with R {sub s} but also N {sub ss}. Experimental results show that both the R{sub s} and C{sub o} values should be taken into account in determining frequency-dependent electrical characteristics.

  12. Profile of apalutamide in the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: evidence to date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Julio T; Oh, William K; Liaw, Bobby C

    2018-01-01

    Advances in therapies have led to the approval of six therapeutic agents since 2004, each demonstrating overall survival benefit in randomized studies, and these have significantly improved the outlook for men facing metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). More recently, efforts have been directed at trying to effect change at earlier phases of the disease. Apalutamide (ARN-509), a second-generation androgen receptor antagonist, recently received approval in the nonmetastatic (M0) CRPC space. Similar to enzalutamide, apalutamide inhibits the binding of androgen to androgen receptor (AR), nuclear translocation of the androgen-AR complex, and binding of AR transcription complex to DNA-binding sites and transcription elements. Phase I and II trial experience demonstrates the safety and tolerability of apalutamide, as well as its efficacy in effecting prostate-specific antigen response and radiographic-free survival in CRPC. US Food and Drug Administration approval in M0 CRPC was granted following positive results from the phase III SPARTAN study, where apalutamide demonstrated significant improvements in metastasis-free survival and time to symptomatic progression as compared to placebo.

  13. Activation of ion implanted Si for backside processing by Ultra-fast Laser Thermal Annealing: Energy homogeneity and micro-scale sheet resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huet, K.; Lin, Rong; Boniface, C

    2009-01-01

    In this paper ion activation of implanted silicon using ultra-fast laser thermal annealing (LTA) process was discussed. The results stated that there was high dopant activation using LTA process for over 70%, excellent within shot activation uniformity, and there was a possibility for overlap...... parameter optimization. It was observed that, for activation LTA process, shallow box-shaped profiles- high diffusivity of B in liquids and high-temperatures was observed only near the surface in a submicrosecond timescale. Possible solutions were suggested as to low-cost and high-end for overlap...

  14. Mutational profiling of non-small-cell lung cancer patients resistant to first-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors using next generation sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ying; Shao, Yang; Shi, Xun; Lou, Guangyuan; Zhang, Yiping; Wu, Xue; Tong, Xiaoling; Yu, Xinmin

    2016-01-01

    Patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring sensitive epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations invariably develop acquired resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Identification of actionable genetic alterations conferring drug-resistance can be helpful for guiding the subsequent treatment decision. One of the major resistant mechanisms is secondary EGFR-T790M mutation. Other mechanisms, such as HER2 and MET amplifications, and PIK3CA mutations, were also reported. However, the mechanisms in the remaining patients are still unknown. In this study, we performed mutational profiling in a cohort of 83 NSCLC patients with TKI-sensitizing EGFR mutations at diagnosis and acquired resistance to three different first-generation EGFR TKIs using targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) of 416 cancer-related genes. In total, we identified 322 genetic alterations with a median of 3 mutations per patient. 61% of patients still exhibit TKI-sensitizing EGFR mutations, and 36% of patients acquired EGFR-T790M. Besides other known resistance mechanisms, we identified TET2 mutations in 12% of patients. Interestingly, we also observed SOX2 amplification in EGFR-T790M negative patients, which are restricted to Icotinib treatment resistance, a drug widely used in Chinese NSCLC patients. Our study uncovered mutational profiles of NSCLC patients with first-generation EGFR TKIs resistance with potential therapeutic implications. PMID:27528220

  15. Beta-lactamic resistance profiles in Porphyromonas, Prevotella, and Parvimonas species isolated from acute endodontic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagner, Francisco; Jacinto, Rogério Castilho; Correa Signoretti, Fernanda Graziela; Scheffer de Mattos, Vanessa; Grecca, Fabiana Soares; Gomes, Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida

    2014-03-01

    Susceptibility to beta-lactamic agents has changed among anaerobic isolates from acute endodontic infections. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of the cfxA/cfxA2 gene in Prevotella spp., Porphyromonas spp., and Parviomonas micra strains and show its phenotypic expression. Root canal samples from teeth with acute endodontic infections were collected and Porphyromonas, Prevotella, and Parvimonas micra strains were isolated and microbiologically identified with conventional culture techniques. The susceptibility of the isolates was determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration of benzylpenicillin, amoxicillin, and amoxicillin + clavulanate using the E-test method (AB BIODISK, Solna, Sweden). The presence of the cfxA/cfxA2 gene was determined through primer-specific polymerase chain reaction. The nitrocefin test was used to determine the expression of the lactamase enzyme. Prevotella disiens, Prevotella oralis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and P. micra strains were susceptible to benzylpenicillin, amoxicillin, and amoxicillin + clavulanate. The cfxA/cfxA2 gene was detected in 2 of 29 isolates (6.9%). Simultaneous detection of the cfxA/cfxA2 gene and lactamase production was observed for 1 Prevotella buccalis strain. The gene was in 1 P. micra strain but was not expressed. Three strains were positive for lactamase production, but the cfxA/cfxA2 gene was not detected through polymerase chain reaction. There is a low prevalence of the cfxA/cfxA2 gene and its expression in Porphyromonas spp., Prevotella spp., and P. micra strains isolated from acute endodontic infections. Genetic and phenotypic screening must be performed simultaneously to best describe additional mechanisms involved in lactamic resistance for strict anaerobes. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sensory characteristics and volatile profiles of parsley ( Petroselinum crispum [Mill.] Nym.) in correlation to resistance properties against Septoria Blight ( Septoria petroselini ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Detlef; Bruchmüller, Tobias; Krüger, Hans; Marthe, Frank

    2011-10-12

    Sixteen different genotypes of parsley, including two cultivars, six populations, and eight inbred lines, were investigated regarding their sensory characteristics in relation to the volatile patterns and resistance to Septoria petroselini . The sensory quality was determined by a combination of profile analysis and preference test, whereas the volatile patterns were analyzed by headspace-SPME-GC of leaf homogenates with subsequent nontargeted data processing to prevent a possible overlooking of volatile compounds. The more resistant genotypes are characterized by several negative sensory characteristics such as bitter, grassy, herbaceous, pungent, chemical, and harsh. In contrast, the contents of some volatile compounds correlate highly and significantly either with resistance (e.g., hexanal and α-copaene) or with susceptibility (e.g., p-menthenol). Some of these compounds with very strong correlation to resistance are still unidentified and are presumed to act as resistance markers.

  17. Transport Properties, Mechanical Behavior, Thermal and Chemical Resistance of Asymmetric Flat Sheet Membrane Prepared from PSf/PVDF Blended Membrane on Gauze Supporting Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nita Kusumawati

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric polysulfone (PSf membrane is prepared using phase inversion method and blending with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF on the gauze solid support. Casting solution composition optimization has been done to get PSf/PVDF membrane with best characteristics and permeability. The result shows that blending on PSf with PVDF polymer using phase inversion method has been very helpful in creating an asymmetric porous membrane. Increased level of PVDF in casting solution has increased the formation of asymmetry structure and corresponding flux membrane. The result from thermal test using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC-Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA shows the resistance of the membrane to temperature 460 °C. Membrane resistance against acid looks from undetectable changes on infrared spectra after immersion process in H2SO4 6–98 v/v%. While membrane color changes from white to brownish and black is detected after the immersion process in sodium hydroxide (NaOH 0.15–80 w/v%.

  18. Determination of antibiotic resistance profile in Klebsiella pneumonia strains isolated from urinary tract infections of patients hospitalized in Peyambaran hospital (Tehran-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Tavakol

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI is the second prevalent infection in human mostly caused by Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistance profile and detect the prevalence of antibiotic resistance encoding genes in K .pneumoniae isolated from UTI. Materials and Methods: Fifty K. pneumonia strains isolated from 122 UTI samples of hospitalized patients in Payambaran Hospital (Tehran, Iran which were subjected to this study (2014 were confirmed by standard biochemical tests. Isolates were tested for susceptibility to 10 antimicrobial drugs by using disk diffusion method. Antibiotic resistance encoding genes frequently include the aadA1, aac(3-IV, sul1, blaSHV, Cat1, cmlA, tetA, tetB, dfrA1, CITM, qnr in isolates were determined by PCR. Results: The highest antibiotic resistance in K. pneumoniae isolates were for Tetracycline and the lowest resistance (2% for Gentamicin and Imipenem. To determine the frequency of antibiotic resistant genes, 64% and 4% of isolates had tetA and Gentamicin-(aac(3-IV resistant genes, respectively. Conclusion: Frequency of antibiotic resistance encoding genes may have important and basic role in the occurrence and transfer of antibiotic resistance which can be due to the indiscriminate use of antibiotics.

  19. Potent Allosteric Dengue Virus NS5 Polymerase Inhibitors: Mechanism of Action and Resistance Profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Pheng Lim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Flaviviruses comprise major emerging pathogens such as dengue virus (DENV or Zika virus (ZIKV. The flavivirus RNA genome is replicated by the RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase (RdRp domain of non-structural protein 5 (NS5. This essential enzymatic activity renders the RdRp attractive for antiviral therapy. NS5 synthesizes viral RNA via a "de novo" initiation mechanism. Crystal structures of the flavivirus RdRp revealed a "closed" conformation reminiscent of a pre-initiation state, with a well ordered priming loop that extrudes from the thumb subdomain into the dsRNA exit tunnel, close to the "GDD" active site. To-date, no allosteric pockets have been identified for the RdRp, and compound screening campaigns did not yield suitable drug candidates. Using fragment-based screening via X-ray crystallography, we found a fragment that bound to a pocket of the apo-DENV RdRp close to its active site (termed "N pocket". Structure-guided improvements yielded DENV pan-serotype inhibitors of the RdRp de novo initiation activity with nano-molar potency that also impeded elongation activity at micro-molar concentrations. Inhibitors exhibited mixed inhibition kinetics with respect to competition with the RNA or GTP substrate. The best compounds have EC50 values of 1-2 μM against all four DENV serotypes in cell culture assays. Genome-sequencing of compound-resistant DENV replicons, identified amino acid changes that mapped to the N pocket. Since inhibitors bind at the thumb/palm interface of the RdRp, this class of compounds is proposed to hinder RdRp conformational changes during its transition from initiation to elongation. This is the first report of a class of pan-serotype and cell-active DENV RdRp inhibitors. Given the evolutionary conservation of residues lining the N pocket, these molecules offer insights to treat other serious conditions caused by flaviviruses.

  20. Understanding the influence of tellurium oxide in front Ag paste for contacting silicon solar cells with homogeneous high sheet resistance emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebong, Abasifreke; Bezawada, Nirupama; Batchu, Kartheek

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates TeO2, one of the front Ag paste additives, to understand its role in low contact and gridline resistances for screen-printed Si solar cell. It is concluded that TeO2 aids the reduction of molten glass frit viscosity during contact co-firing. This in turn, leads to uniform flow of molten glass frit, both in the gridline bulk and interface of gridline and SiN x . Therefore, the uniform wetting and etching of SiN x and consequently larger contact area of metal to Si compared to its counterpart without TeO2. Hence, the current transport mechanism from Si to gridline can be said to be both direct and tunneling. The Raman spectra showed a blue shift in the phase of the TeO2 after contact co-firing in the gridline bulk confirming a crystalline γ-TeO2.

  1. Gene expression profile in long-term non progressor HIV infected patients: in search of potential resistance factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Maria Carolina; Santos, Camila C; Mairena, Eliane C; Wilkinson, Peter; Boucher, Genèvieve; Segurado, Aluisio C; Fonseca, Luiz A; Sabino, Ester; Kalil, Jorge E; Cunha-Neto, Edecio

    2014-11-01

    Long-term non-progressors (LTNP) represent a minority (1-5%) of HIV-infected individuals characterized by documented infection for more than 7-10 years, a stable CD4+ T cell count over 500/mm(3) and low viremia in the absence of antiretroviral treatment. Protective factors described so far such as the CCR5delta32 deletion, protective HLA alleles, or defective viruses fail to fully explain the partial protection phenotype. The existence of additional host resistance mechanisms in LTNP patients was investigated here using a whole human genome microarray study comparing gene expression profiles of unstimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from LTNP patients, HIV-1 infected patients under antiretroviral therapy with CD4+ T cell levels above 500/mm(3) (ST), as well as healthy individuals. Genes that were up- or downregulated exclusively in LTNP, ST or in both groups in comparison to controls were identified and classified in functional categories using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. ST and LTNP patient groups revealed distinct genetic profiles, regarding gene number in each category and up- or downregulation of specific genes, which could have a bearing on the outcome of each group. We selected some relevant genes to validate the differential expression using quantitative real-time qRT-PCR. Among others, we found several genes related to the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway. Our results identify new possible host genes and molecules that could be involved in the mechanisms leading to the slower progression to AIDS and sustained CD4+ T cell counts that is peculiar to LTNP patients. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Low fish oil intake improves insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and muscle metabolism on insulin resistant MSG-obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Ricardo K; Brito, Gleisson A P; Coelho, Isabela; Pequitto, Danielle C T; Yamaguchi, Adriana A; Borghetti, Gina; Schiessel, Dalton Luiz; Kryczyk, Marcelo; Machado, Juliano; Rocha, Ricelli E R; Aikawa, Julia; Iagher, Fabiola; Naliwaiko, Katya; Tanhoffer, Ricardo A; Nunes, Everson A; Fernandes, Luiz Claudio

    2011-04-28

    Obesity is commonly associated with diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The purpose of this study was to determinate the effect of a lower dose of fish oil supplementation on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, and muscle metabolism in obese rats. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) (4 mg/g body weight) was injected in neonatal Wistar male rats. Three-month-old rats were divided in normal-weight control group (C), coconut fat-treated normal weight group (CO), fish oil-treated normal weight group (FO), obese control group (Ob), coconut fat-treated obese group (ObCO) and fish oil-treated obese group (ObFO). Obese insulin-resistant rats were supplemented with fish oil or coconut fat (1 g/kg/day) for 4 weeks. Insulin sensitivity, fasting blood biochemicals parameters, and skeletal muscle glucose metabolism were analyzed. Obese animals (Ob) presented higher Index Lee and 2.5 fold epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue than C. Insulin sensitivity test (Kitt) showed that fish oil supplementation was able to maintain insulin sensitivity of obese rats (ObFO) similar to C. There were no changes in glucose and HDL-cholesterol levels amongst groups. Yet, ObFO revealed lower levels of total cholesterol (TC; 30%) and triacylglycerol (TG; 33%) compared to Ob. Finally, since exposed to insulin, ObFO skeletal muscle revealed an increase of 10% in lactate production, 38% in glycogen synthesis and 39% in oxidation of glucose compared to Ob. Low dose of fish oil supplementation (1 g/kg/day) was able to reduce TC and TG levels, in addition to improved systemic and muscle insulin sensitivity. These results lend credence to the benefits of n-3 fatty acids upon the deleterious effects of insulin resistance mechanisms.

  3. Low fish oil intake improves insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and muscle metabolism on insulin resistant MSG-obese rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iagher Fabiola

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is commonly associated with diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The purpose of this study was to determinate the effect of a lower dose of fish oil supplementation on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, and muscle metabolism in obese rats. Methods Monosodium glutamate (MSG (4 mg/g body weight was injected in neonatal Wistar male rats. Three-month-old rats were divided in normal-weight control group (C, coconut fat-treated normal weight group (CO, fish oil-treated normal weight group (FO, obese control group (Ob, coconut fat-treated obese group (ObCO and fish oil-treated obese group (ObFO. Obese insulin-resistant rats were supplemented with fish oil or coconut fat (1 g/kg/day for 4 weeks. Insulin sensitivity, fasting blood biochemicals parameters, and skeletal muscle glucose metabolism were analyzed. Results Obese animals (Ob presented higher Index Lee and 2.5 fold epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue than C. Insulin sensitivity test (Kitt showed that fish oil supplementation was able to maintain insulin sensitivity of obese rats (ObFO similar to C. There were no changes in glucose and HDL-cholesterol levels amongst groups. Yet, ObFO revealed lower levels of total cholesterol (TC; 30% and triacylglycerol (TG; 33% compared to Ob. Finally, since exposed to insulin, ObFO skeletal muscle revealed an increase of 10% in lactate production, 38% in glycogen synthesis and 39% in oxidation of glucose compared to Ob. Conclusions Low dose of fish oil supplementation (1 g/kg/day was able to reduce TC and TG levels, in addition to improved systemic and muscle insulin sensitivity. These results lend credence to the benefits of n-3 fatty acids upon the deleterious effects of insulin resistance mechanisms.

  4. Symmetry breaking bifurcations of a current sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, R.D.; Dewar, R.L.; Johnson, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Using a time evolution code with periodic boundary conditions, the viscoresistive hydromagnetic equations describing an initially static, planar current sheet with large Lundquist number have been evolved for times long enough to reach a steady state. A cosh 2 x resistivity model was used. For long periodicity lengths L p , the resistivity gradient drives flows that cause forced reconnection at X point current sheets. Using L p as a bifurcation parameter, two new symmetry breaking bifurcations were found: a transition to an asymmetric island chain with nonzero, positive, or negative phase velocity, and a transition to a static state with alternating large and small islands. These states are reached after a complex transient behavior, which involves a competition between secondary current sheet instability and coalescence

  5. Symmetry breaking bifurcations of a current sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, R.D.; Dewar, R.L.; Johnson, J.L.

    1988-08-01

    Using a time evolution code with periodic boundary conditions, the viscoresistive hydromagnetic equations describing an initially static, planar current sheet with large Lundquist number have been evolved for times long enough to reach a steady state. A cosh 2 x resistivity model was used. For long periodicity lengths, L p , the resistivity gradient drives flows which cause forced reconnection at X point current sheets. Using L p as a bifurcation parameter, two new symmetry breaking bifurcations were found - a transition to an asymmetric island chain with nonzero, positive or negative phase velocity, and a transition to a static state with alternating large and small islands. These states are reached after a complex transient behavior which involves a competition between secondary current sheet instability and coalescence. 31 refs., 6 figs

  6. Virulence profiles and innate immune responses against highly lethal, multidrug-resistant nosocomial isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii from a tertiary care hospital in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayosso-Vázquez, Catalina; Fernández-Vázquez, José Luis; Jarillo-Quijada, Ma Dolores; Rivera-Benítez, César; Santos-Preciado, José Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    Virulence profiles and innate immune responses were studied in Acinetobacter baumannii from nosocomial infections collected over one year in a tertiary care hospital in Mexico. A. baumannii were identified by VITEK 2 System followed by susceptibility tests. Carbapenemase genes, active efflux mechanism to imipenem and meropenem and outer membrane proteins profile were analyzed to evaluate their role on the activity of carbapenem resistance. All isolates were genotyped by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The ability to form biofilm was determined on a polystyrene surface. The resistance to complement was determined with a pooled human normal serum and TNFα release by infected macrophages was determined by ELISA. The 112 isolates from this study were associated with a 52% of mortality. All were resistance to β-lactams, fluoroquinolones, and trimethroprim-sulfamethoxal, 96 and 90% were resistant to meropenem and imipenem, respectively, but with high susceptibility to polymyxin B, colistin and tigecyclin. Isolates were classified in 11 different clones. Most isolates, 88% (99/112), were metallo-β-lactamases and carbapenemases producers, associated in 95% with the presence of blaOXA-72 gene. Only 4/99 and 1/99 of the carbapenem-resistant isolates were related to efflux mechanism to meropenem or imipenem resistance, respectively. The loss of expression of 22, 29, and/or 33-36-kDa proteins was detected in 8/11 of the clinical isolates with resistance to carbapenem. More than 96% (108/112) of the isolates were high producers of biofilms on biotic surfaces. Finally, all isolates showed variable resistance to normal human serum activity and were high inductors of TNFα release by macrophages. In summary, these results suggest that multidrug-resistant A. baumannii can persist in the hospital environment through its ability to form biofilms. The high mortality observed was due to their ability to survive normal human serum activity and capability to induce potent

  7. The antimicrobial potential of algicolous marine fungi for counteracting multidrug-resistant bacteria: phylogenetic diversity and chemical profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnavi, Giorgio; Palma Esposito, Fortunato; Festa, Carmen; Poli, Anna; Tedesco, Pietro; Fani, Renato; Monti, Maria Chiara; de Pascale, Donatella; D'Auria, Maria Valeria; Varese, Giovanna Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Marine fungi represent an important but still largely unexplored source of novel and potentially bioactive secondary metabolites. The antimicrobial activity of nine sterile mycelia isolated from the green alga Flabellia petiolata collected from the Mediterranean Sea was tested on four antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains using extracellular and intracellular extracts obtained from each fungal strain. The isolated fungi were identified at the molecular level and assigned to one of the Dothideomycetes, Sordariomycetes or Eurotiomycetes classes. Following assessment of inhibition of bacterial growth (IC50), all crude extracts were subjected to preliminary (1)H NMR and TLC analysis. According to preliminary pharmacologic and spectroscopic/chromatographic results, extracts of fungal strains MUT 4865, classified as Beauveria bassiana, and MUT 4861, classified as Microascacea sp.2, were selected for LC-HRMS analysis. Chemical profiling of antibacterial extracts from MUT 4861 and MUT 4865 by LC HRMS allowed identification of the main components of the crude extracts. Several sphingosine bases were identified, including a compound previously unreported from natural sources, which gave a rationale to the broad spectrum of antibacterial activity exhibited. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Early-postnatal changes in adiposity and lipids profile by transgenerational developmental programming in swine with obesity/leptin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio; Astiz, Susana; Ovilo, Cristina; Lopez-Bote, Clemente J; Sanchez-Sanchez, Raul; Perez-Solana, Maria L; Torres-Rovira, Laura; Ayuso, Miriam; Gonzalez, Jorge

    2014-10-01

    Maternal malnutrition during pregnancy, both deficiency and excess, induces changes in the intrauterine environment and the metabolic status of the offspring, playing a key role in the growth, status of fitness/obesity and appearance of metabolic disorders during postnatal life. There is increasing evidence that these effects may not be only limited to the first generation of descendants, the offspring directly exposed to metabolic challenges, but to subsequent generations. This study evaluated, in a swine model of obesity/leptin resistance, the existence and extent of transgenerational developmental programming effects. Pre- and postnatal development, adiposity and metabolic features were assessed in the second generation of piglets, descendant of sows exposed to either undernutrition or overnutrition during pregnancy. The results indicated that these piglets exhibited early-postnatal increases in adiposity and disturbances in lipid profiles compatible with the early prodrome of metabolic syndrome, with liver tissue also displaying evidence of paediatric liver disease. These features indicative of early-life metabolic disorders were more evident in the males that were descended from overfed grandmothers and during the transition from milk to solid feeding. Thus, this study provides evidence supporting transgenerational developmental programming and supports the necessity for the development of strategies for avoiding the current epidemics of childhood overweight and obesity. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  9. Comparative transcriptional profiling of Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis in response to salicylic acid- and methyl jasmonate-mediated heat resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangjun Wang

    Full Text Available Culturing the economically important macroalga Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta is limited due to the high temperatures in the summertime on the southern Chinese coast. Previous studies have demonstrated that two phytohormones, salicylic acid (SA and methyl jasmonate (MJ, can alleviate the adverse effects of high-temperature stress on Gp. lemaneiformis. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying SA- and MJ-mediated heat tolerance, we performed comprehensive analyses of transcriptome-wide gene expression profiles using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq technology. A total of 14,644 unigenes were assembled, and 10,501 unigenes (71.71% were annotated to the reference databases. In the SA, MJ and SA/MJ treatment groups, 519, 830, and 974 differentially expressed unigenes were detected, respectively. Unigenes related to photosynthesis and glycometabolism were enriched by SA, while unigenes associated with glycometabolism, protein synthesis, heat shock and signal transduction were increased by MJ. A crosstalk analysis revealed that 216 genes were synergistically regulated, while 18 genes were antagonistically regulated by SA and MJ. The results indicated that the two phytohormones could mitigate the adverse effects of heat on multiple pathways, and they predominantly acted synergistically to resist heat stress. These results will provide new insights into how SA and MJ modulate the molecular mechanisms that counteract heat stress in algae.

  10. Arbitrary Control of Polarization and Intensity Profiles of Diffraction-Attenuation-Resistant Beams along the Propagation Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corato-Zanarella, Mateus; Dorrah, Ahmed H.; Zamboni-Rached, Michel; Mojahedi, Mo

    2018-02-01

    We report on the theory and experimental generation of a class of diffraction-attenuation-resistant beams with state of polarization (SOP) and intensity that can be controlled on demand along the propagation direction. This control is achieved by a suitable superposition of Bessel beams, whose parameters are systematically chosen based on closed-form analytic expressions provided by the frozen waves method. Using an amplitude-only spatial light modulator, we experimentally demonstrate three scenarios. In the first, the SOP of a horizontally polarized beam evolves to radial polarization and is then changed to vertical polarization, with the beam intensity held constant. In the second, we simultaneously control the SOP and the longitudinal intensity profile, which is chosen such that the beam's central ring can be switched off over predefined space regions, thus generating multiple foci with different SOPs and at different intensity levels along the propagation. Finally, the ability to control the SOP while overcoming attenuation inside lossy fluids is shown experimentally. We envision our proposed method to be of great interest for many applications, such as optical tweezers, atom guiding, material processing, microscopy, and optical communications.

  11. [Resistance to first-line drugs and major genotypic lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the 3 French Department of the Americas: Profiles, evolution, and trends (1995-2011)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, J; Berchel, M; Prudenté, F; Streit, E; Bomer, A-G; Schuster, F; Vanhomwegen, J; Paasch, D; Galbert, I; Valery, E; Aga, R; Rastogi, N

    2014-05-01

    This is the first overview on resistant and multidrug resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis circulating in the French Department of the Americas (Guadeloupe, Martinique, and French Guiana) over 17 years (January 1995-December 2011). A total of 1,239 cases were studied: 1,199 new cases (primary and multidrug resistance of 11.8 and 1.6% respectively), and 40 persistent (defined as cases with a previous history of positive culture over 6 months interval and whose spoligotypes remain unchanged), in which significantly higher proportions of resistance to at least isoniazid (22.5%, P = 0.002), rifampicin (20.0%, P < 0.001), and multidrug resistance (17.5%, P < 0.001) were observed as compared to new cases. The 281 spoligotypes obtained showed the presence of five major lineages, T (29.9%), LAM (23.9%), Haarlem (22.1%), EAI (7.1%), and X (6.7%). Two of these lineages, X and LAM, predominate among resistant and multidrug resistant isolates respectively (X: 10.5% of resistant isolates, P = 0.04; LAM: 42.3% of multidrug resistant isolates, P = 0.02). Four of the 19 major spoligo-profiles, corresponding to SIT 20, 64, 45, and 46, were significantly associated with drug resistance. Among them, genotype SIT 20, associated with monoresistance to isoniazid and multidrug resistance, would be actively and persistently in circulation, since 1999, in French Guiana, department in which one may also observe the presence of strains of M. tuberculosis phylogeographically associated to Guiana and Suriname (SIT 131 and SIT 1340).

  12. Ice sheet in peril

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, Christine Schøtt

    2016-01-01

    Earth's large ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica are major contributors to sea level change. At present, the Greenland Ice Sheet (see the photo) is losing mass in response to climate warming in Greenland (1), but the present changes also include a long-term response to past climate transitions...

  13. Mobility Balance Sheet 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorritsma, P.; Derriks, H.; Francke, J.; Gordijn, H.; Groot, W.; Harms, L.; Van der Loop, H.; Peer, S.; Savelberg, F.; Wouters, P.

    2009-06-01

    The Mobility Balance Sheet provides an overview of the state of the art of mobility in the Netherlands. In addition to describing the development of mobility this report also provides explanations for the growth of passenger and freight transport. Moreover, the Mobility Balance Sheet also focuses on a topical theme: the effects of economic crises on mobility. [nl

  14. Towards Better Precision Medicine: PacBio Single-Molecule Long Reads Resolve the Interpretation of HIV Drug Resistant Mutation Profiles at Explicit Quasispecies (Haplotype) Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Da Wei; Raley, Castle; Jiang, Min Kang; Zheng, Xin; Liang, Dun; Rehman, M Tauseef; Highbarger, Helene C; Jiao, Xiaoli; Sherman, Brad; Ma, Liang; Chen, Xiaofeng; Skelly, Thomas; Troyer, Jennifer; Stephens, Robert; Imamichi, Tomozumi; Pau, Alice; Lempicki, Richard A; Tran, Bao; Nissley, Dwight; Lane, H Clifford; Dewar, Robin L

    2016-01-01

    Development of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations (HDRMs) is one of the major reasons for the clinical failure of antiretroviral therapy. Treatment success rates can be improved by applying personalized anti-HIV regimens based on a patient's HDRM profile. However, the sensitivity and specificity of the HDRM profile is limited by the methods used for detection. Sanger-based sequencing technology has traditionally been used for determining HDRM profiles at the single nucleotide variant (SNV) level, but with a sensitivity of only ≥ 20% in the HIV population of a patient. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies offer greater detection sensitivity (~ 1%) and larger scope (hundreds of samples per run). However, NGS technologies produce reads that are too short to enable the detection of the physical linkages of individual SNVs across the haplotype of each HIV strain present. In this article, we demonstrate that the single-molecule long reads generated using the Third Generation Sequencer (TGS), PacBio RS II, along with the appropriate bioinformatics analysis method, can resolve the HDRM profile at a more advanced quasispecies level. The case studies on patients' HIV samples showed that the quasispecies view produced using the PacBio method offered greater detection sensitivity and was more comprehensive for understanding HDRM situations, which is complement to both Sanger and NGS technologies. In conclusion, the PacBio method, providing a promising new quasispecies level of HDRM profiling, may effect an important change in the field of HIV drug resistance research.

  15. Prediction of the binding mode and resistance profile for a dual-target pyrrolyl diketo acid scaffold against HIV-1 integrase and reverse-transcriptase-associated ribonuclease H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fengyuan; Zheng, Guoxun; Fu, Tingting; Li, Xiaofeng; Tu, Gao; Li, Ying Hong; Yao, Xiaojun; Xue, Weiwei; Zhu, Feng

    2018-06-27

    The rapid emergence of drug-resistant variants is one of the most common causes of highly active antiretroviral therapeutic (HAART) failure in patients infected with HIV-1. Compared with the existing HAART, the recently developed pyrrolyl diketo acid scaffold targeting both HIV-1 integrase (IN) and reverse transcriptase-associated ribonuclease H (RNase H) is an efficient approach to counteract the failure of anti-HIV treatment due to drug resistance. However, the binding mode and potential resistance profile of these inhibitors with important mechanistic principles remain poorly understood. To address this issue, an integrated computational method was employed to investigate the binding mode of inhibitor JMC6F with HIV-1 IN and RNase H. By using per-residue binding free energy decomposition analysis, the following residues: Asp64, Thr66, Leu68, Asp116, Tyr143, Gln148 and Glu152 in IN, Asp443, Glu478, Trp536, Lys541 and Asp549 in RNase H were identified as key residues for JMC6F binding. And then computational alanine scanning was carried to further verify the key residues. Moreover, the resistance profile of the currently known major mutations in HIV-1 IN and 2 mutations in RNase H against JMC6F was predicted by in silico mutagenesis studies. The results demonstrated that only three mutations in HIV-1 IN (Y143C, Q148R and N155H) and two mutations in HIV-1 RNase H (Y501R and Y501W) resulted in a reduction of JMC6F potency, thus indicating their potential role in providing resistance to JMC6F. These data provided important insights into the binding mode and resistance profile of the inhibitors with a pyrrolyl diketo acid scaffold in HIV-1 IN and RNase H, which would be helpful for the development of more effective dual HIV-1 IN and RNase H inhibitors.

  16. NMR-Based Metabolic Profiling of Field-Grown Leaves from Sugar Beet Plants Harbouring Different Levels of Resistance to Cercospora Leaf Spot Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyo Sekiyama

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cercospora leaf spot (CLS is one of the most serious leaf diseases for sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. worldwide. The breeding of sugar beet cultivars with both high CLS resistance and high yield is a major challenge for breeders. In this study, we report the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-based metabolic profiling of field-grown leaves for a subset of sugar beet genotypes harbouring different levels of CLS resistance. Leaves were collected from 12 sugar beet genotypes at four time points: seedling, early growth, root enlargement, and disease development stages. 1H-NMR spectra of foliar metabolites soluble in a deuterium-oxide (D2O-based buffer were acquired and subjected to multivariate analyses. A principal component analysis (PCA of the NMR data from the sugar beet leaves shows clear differences among the growth stages. At the later time points, the sugar and glycine betaine contents were increased, whereas the choline content was decreased. The relationship between the foliar metabolite profiles and resistance level to CLS was examined by combining partial least squares projection to latent structure (PLS or orthogonal PLS (OPLS analysis and univariate analyses. It was difficult to build a robust model for predicting precisely the disease severity indices (DSIs of each genotype; however, GABA and Gln differentiated susceptible genotypes (genotypes with weak resistance from resistant genotypes (genotypes with resistance greater than a moderate level before inoculation tests. The results suggested that breeders might exclude susceptible genotypes from breeding programs based on foliar metabolites profiled without inoculation tests, which require an enormous amount of time and effort.

  17. Genome analysis of cytochrome P450s and their expression profiles in insecticide resistant mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Yang

    Full Text Available Here we report a study of the 204 P450 genes in the whole genome sequence of larvae and adult Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. The expression profiles of the P450 genes were compared for susceptible (S-Lab and resistant mosquito populations, two different field populations of mosquitoes (HAmCq and MAmCq, and field parental mosquitoes (HAmCq(G0 and MAmCq(G0 and their permethrin selected offspring (HAmCq(G8 and MAmCq(G6. While the majority of the P450 genes were expressed at a similar level between the field parental strains and their permethrin selected offspring, an up- or down-regulation feature in the P450 gene expression was observed following permethrin selection. Compared to their parental strains and the susceptible S-Lab strain, HAmCq(G8 and MAmCq(G6 were found to up-regulate 11 and 6% of total P450 genes in larvae and 7 and 4% in adults, respectively, while 5 and 11% were down-regulated in larvae and 4 and 2% in adults. Although the majority of these up- and down-regulated P450 genes appeared to be developmentally controlled, a few were either up- or down-regulated in both the larvae and adult stages. Interestingly, a different gene set was found to be up- or down-regulated in the HAmCq(G8 and MAmCq(G6 mosquito populations in response to insecticide selection. Several genes were identified as being up- or down-regulated in either the larvae or adults for both HAmCq(G8 and MAmCq(G6; of these, CYP6AA7 and CYP4C52v1 were up-regulated and CYP6BY3 was down-regulated across the life stages and populations of mosquitoes, suggesting a link with the permethrin selection in these mosquitoes. Taken together, the findings from this study indicate that not only are multiple P450 genes involved in insecticide resistance but up- or down-regulation of P450 genes may also be co-responsible for detoxification of insecticides, insecticide selection, and the homeostatic response of mosquitoes to changes in cellular environment.

  18. Associations of Low-Intensity Resistance Training with Body Composition and Lipid Profile in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasaki, Hidetaka; Kawashima, Yu; Tamada, Yoshiki; Furuta, Masashi; Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Sako, Akahito; Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2015-01-01

    Resistance training to increase muscle mass and functional capacity is an integral part of diet and exercise programs for the management of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Low-intensity resistance training with slow movement and tonic force generation (LST) may be a practical and safe regimen for elderly obese individuals but the health benefits are uncertain. This study investigated the effects of LST on body composition and metabolic parameters in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Twenty-six obese patients with type 2 diabetes engaged in LST training during hospitalization and were advised to maintain this regimen for 12 weeks after discharge. We compared lipid profile, arterial stiffness, and body composition before and after LST training. After 12 weeks of LST training, the ratio of lower extremity muscle mass to body weight increased significantly (0.176 ± 0.028 to 0.184 ± 0.023, mean ± SD), while body fat mass and body fat percentage decreased significantly (36.2 ± 10.9 kg to 34.3 ± 9.4 kg and 41.2 ± 8.6% to 40.1 ± 7.7%, respectively). Moreover, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly increased (42.2 ± 14 mg/dl to 46.3 ± 12.4 mg/dl) and both free fatty acids and lipoprotein(a) were decreased (665.2 ± 212.1 μEq/l to 525.4 ± 231.3 μEq/l and 15.4 ± 18 mg/dl to 13.8 ± 18 mg/dl, respectively). No significant change was observed in arterial stiffness. Although this study was a non-controlled investigation and some confounding factors including dietary intake, medication and compliance with training might affect the study result, a brief (12-week) LST training program may be a safe and effective strategy for the management of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  19. Associations of Low-Intensity Resistance Training with Body Composition and Lipid Profile in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetaka Hamasaki

    Full Text Available Resistance training to increase muscle mass and functional capacity is an integral part of diet and exercise programs for the management of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Low-intensity resistance training with slow movement and tonic force generation (LST may be a practical and safe regimen for elderly obese individuals but the health benefits are uncertain. This study investigated the effects of LST on body composition and metabolic parameters in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Twenty-six obese patients with type 2 diabetes engaged in LST training during hospitalization and were advised to maintain this regimen for 12 weeks after discharge. We compared lipid profile, arterial stiffness, and body composition before and after LST training. After 12 weeks of LST training, the ratio of lower extremity muscle mass to body weight increased significantly (0.176 ± 0.028 to 0.184 ± 0.023, mean ± SD, while body fat mass and body fat percentage decreased significantly (36.2 ± 10.9 kg to 34.3 ± 9.4 kg and 41.2 ± 8.6% to 40.1 ± 7.7%, respectively. Moreover, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly increased (42.2 ± 14 mg/dl to 46.3 ± 12.4 mg/dl and both free fatty acids and lipoprotein(a were decreased (665.2 ± 212.1 μEq/l to 525.4 ± 231.3 μEq/l and 15.4 ± 18 mg/dl to 13.8 ± 18 mg/dl, respectively. No significant change was observed in arterial stiffness. Although this study was a non-controlled investigation and some confounding factors including dietary intake, medication and compliance with training might affect the study result, a brief (12-week LST training program may be a safe and effective strategy for the management of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  20. Transcriptomic profiling-based mutant screen reveals three new transcription factors mediating menadione resistance in Neurospora crassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jufen; Yu, Xinxu; Xie, Baogui; Gu, Xiaokui; Zhang, Zhenying; Li, Shaojie

    2013-06-01

    To gain insight into the regulatory mechanisms of oxidative stress responses in filamentous fungi, the genome-wide transcriptional response of Neurospora crassa to menadione was analysed by digital gene expression (DGE) profiling, which identified 779 upregulated genes and 576 downregulated genes. Knockout mutants affecting 130 highly-upregulated genes were tested for menadione sensitivity, which revealed that loss of the transcription factor siderophore regulation (SRE) (a transcriptional repressor for siderophore biosynthesis), catatase-3, cytochrome c peroxidase or superoxide dismutase 1 copper chaperone causes hypersensitivity to menadione. Deletion of sre dramatically increased transcription of the siderophore biosynthesis gene ono and the siderophore iron transporter gene sit during menadione stress, suggesting that SRE is required for repression of iron uptake under oxidative stress conditions. Contrary to its phenotype, the sre deletion mutant showed higher transcriptional levels of genes encoding reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers than wild type during menadione stress, which implies that the mutant suffers a higher level of oxidative stress than wild type. Uncontrolled iron uptake in the sre mutant might exacerbate cellular oxidative stress. This is the first report of a negative regulator of iron assimilation participating in the fungal oxidative stress response. In addition to SRE, eight other transcription factor genes were also menadione-responsive but their single gene knockout mutants showed wild-type menadione sensitivity. Two of them, named as mit-2 (menadione induced transcription factor-2) and mit-4 (menadione induced transcription factor-4), were selected for double mutant analysis. The double mutant was hypersensitive to menadione. Similarly, the double mutation of mit-2 and sre also had additive effects on menadione sensitivity, suggesting multiple transcription factors mediate oxidative stress resistance in an additive manner

  1. Alterations in mRNA profiles of trastuzumab‑resistant Her‑2‑positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Zhao, Yang; Sun, Yan; Niu, Haitao; Sheng, Long; Huang, Dongfang; Li, Li

    2018-05-07

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. Neoadjuvant trastuzumab therapy improves the prognosis of certain Her‑2‑positive breast cancer patients, however around two‑thirds of patients with Her‑2‑positive breast cancer do not benefit from Her‑2‑targeted therapy. To investigate the key mechanisms in trastuzumab resistance, potential biomarkers for neoadjuvant trastuzumab sensitivity were investigated using the gene expression omnibus (GEO) database for mRNA microarray data of Her‑2‑positive breast cancer patients who received neoadjuvant trastuzumab therapy. GEO profiles of 22 patients with a complete response and 48 patients with a partial response were identified in the GSE22358, GSE62327 and GSE66305 datasets. A total of 2,376, 1,000 and 1,152 differentially expressed genes in GSE22358, GSE62327 and GSE66305 datasets were demonstrated, respectively, utilizing GEO2R software. Furthermore, enriched gene ontology terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways were analyzed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery software. Subsequently, a protein‑protein interaction network was established using STRING software. The results demonstrated that low sex‑determining region Y‑box 11 and high Bcl‑2 expression may be employed as markers for neoadjuvant trastuzumab therapy for Her‑2‑positive breast cancer. More importantly, phosphoinositide 3‑kinase/Akt and angiogenesis pathways, which are known to be the key targets of trastuzumab, were activated at a lower level in the partial response patients, while the Wnt and estrogen receptor signaling pathways were activated in these patients. Therefore, combination therapy of trastuzumab and anti‑Wnt or hormone therapy may be a promising treatment modality and should be tested in further studies.

  2. Local epidemiology and resistance profiles in acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) in women: a prospective cohort study in an urban urological ambulatory setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Michael; Stief, Christian; Waidelich, Raphaela

    2017-10-16

    Acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) is a common ailment in the urological setting. Guidelines for urinary tract infections are based on large-scale multi-centre, epidemiological and international studies. The objective of this observational study was to establish whether the results of a multi-centre study on the resistance profile of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in patients with AUC could be directly applied to an urological practice in a major European city or whether there are divergences in the resistance profile. An observational study was applied prospectively to 502 patients with AUC between January 2015 and January 2017). Personal data were anonymised. Exclusion criteria were the patient's age (AUC should therefore only be treated with TRS, CIP and AMC after a susceptibility test has been carried out.

  3. Carbon sheet pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, N.; Sagara, A.; Kawamura, T.; Motojima, O.; Ono, T.

    1993-07-01

    A new hydrogen pumping scheme has been proposed which controls recycling of the particles for significant improvement of the energy confinement in toroidal magnetic fusion devices. In this scheme, a part of the vacuum vessel surface near the divertor is covered with carbon sheets of a large surface area. Before discharge initiation, the sheets are baked up to 700 ∼ 1000degC to remove the previously trapped hydrogen atoms. After being cooled down to below ∼ 200degC, the unsaturated carbon sheets trap high energy charge exchange hydrogen atoms effectively during a discharge and overall pumping efficiency can be as high as ∼ 50 %. (author)

  4. A Phytosterol-Enriched Spread Improves Lipid Profile and Insulin Resistance of Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Double-Blind Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Xing, Baoheng

    2016-08-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has become a serious health risk among pregnant women throughout the world. Phytosterol-enriched margarines are capable of lowering total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), but little is known about its effects on GDM. We aimed to examine the effects of daily consumption of a phytosterol-enriched spread on insulin resistance and lipid profile in pregnant GDM women. Pregnant women suffering from GDM in their second trimester were recruited and randomly assigned to consume a margarine spread either with or without phytosterols daily for 16 weeks. Serum lipid profile and glucose and insulin metabolisms were assessed at week 0 (baseline) and week 16 (end of trial). After 16 weeks, levels of triacylglycerol, TC, and LDL were significantly decreased, while high-density lipoprotein was significantly increased, compared with the baseline in the phytosterol group. In addition, in the same treatment group, glucose metabolic parameters, including fasting plasma glucose, serum insulin levels, the quantitative insulin check index, homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance, and β-cell function, were also significantly improved. Daily consumption of a phytosterol-enriched spread improved insulin resistance and lipid profile in women with GDM.

  5. Anesthesia Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education About NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Anesthesia Anesthesia Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area En español ... Version (464 KB) Other Fact Sheets What is anesthesia? Anesthesia is a medical treatment that prevents patients ...

  6. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Structural Biology Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area PDF Version (688 KB) Other Fact Sheets What is structural biology? Structural biology is the study of how biological ...

  7. Global ice sheet modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, T.J.; Fastook, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    The University of Maine conducted this study for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate modeling task for site characterization of the potential nuclear waste respository site at Yucca Mountain, NV. The purpose of the study was to develop a global ice sheet dynamics model that will forecast the three-dimensional configuration of global ice sheets for specific climate change scenarios. The objective of the third (final) year of the work was to produce ice sheet data for glaciation scenarios covering the next 100,000 years. This was accomplished using both the map-plane and flowband solutions of our time-dependent, finite-element gridpoint model. The theory and equations used to develop the ice sheet models are presented. Three future scenarios were simulated by the model and results are discussed

  8. Expression profiling of the VKORC1 and Calumenin gene in a Danish strain of bromadiolone-resistant Norway rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette Drude; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Fredholm, Merete

    2008-01-01

    in European strains of Norway rats while high hepatic levels of calumenin has been suggested responsible for resistance in an US strain of rats. To characterize the resistance mechanism in a Danish strain of bromadiolone-resistant Norway rats (with an Y139C-VKORC1 mutation), we compared VKORC1 and Calumenin......Anticoagulant resistance in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) has been associated with two genes, VKORC1 and Calumenin, which encodes proteins essential to the vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylation system. Mutations in the VKORC1 gene are considered the genetic basis for anticoagulant resistance...... liver gene expression between resistant and anticoagulant-susceptible rats upon saline and bromadiolone-administration. The resistant male and female rats had significantly lower constitutive VKORC1 expression (57 % and 63 %) compared to the susceptible rats (100 %) while the constitutive Calumenin...

  9. Energy information sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  10. Antibiotic resistance profiles of Escherichia coli isolated from different water sources in the Mmabatho locality, Northwest Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Njie Ateba

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The antibiotic resistance profiles of Escherichia coli (E. coli, isolated from different water sources in the Mmabatho locality were evaluated. Water samples were collected from the local wastewater- and water-treatment plants, the Modimola Dam and homes in the area, and then analysed for the presence of E. coli, using standard methods. Presumptive isolates obtained were confirmed by the analytical profile index test. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by the disc diffusion method. Of the 230 E. coli isolates tested, marked antibiotic resistances (over 70% were observed for erythromycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and norfloxacin. Multiple antibiotic resistance patterns were also compiled. Overall, the phenotype T-Ap-E was frequent for E. coli isolated from the local wastewater and water-treatment plants, Modimola Dam and tap water. Cluster analysis performed showed a unique antibiotic resistance pattern which suggested a link between isolates from all sampling points. The findings indicated that improper wastewater treatment may have a potential impact on the dissemination and survival of E. coli, as well as other pathogenic bacteria in water for human and animal consumption. This may result in water- and food-borne disease outbreaks with a negative effect on antibiotic therapy.

  11. Induction of resistance to gray mold with benzothiadiazole modifies amino acid profile and increases proanthocyanidins in grape: primary versus secondary metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriti, Marcello; Rossoni, Mara; Borgo, Michele; Ferrara, Luigia; Faoro, Franco

    2005-11-16

    Field treatments of grapevine (cv. Merlot) with the plant activator benzothiadiazole (BTH, 0.3 mM) induced resistance against gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea. Both incidence and severity of the disease were reduced. The resistance was associated with an increase of total polyphenols in berry skins, in particular, the proanthocyanidin fraction, that increased up to 36%. The amino acid profile of leaves was also modified by treatments, particularly lysine, that augmented 4-fold. Other amino acids involved in resistance mechanisms to either biotic or abiotic stress increased as well. These results indicate that BTH treatments can be used to control gray mold, thereby limiting an excessive use of fungicides, and could be exploited to increase the content of micronutrients of high nutritional value, arising from both primary and secondary metabolisms.

  12. Relation between current sheets and vortex sheets in stationary incompressible MHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Nickeler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamic configurations with strong localized current concentrations and vortices play an important role in the dissipation of energy in space and astrophysical plasma. Within this work we investigate the relation between current sheets and vortex sheets in incompressible, stationary equilibria. For this approach it is helpful that the similar mathematical structure of magnetohydrostatics and stationary incompressible hydrodynamics allows us to transform static equilibria into stationary ones. The main control function for such a transformation is the profile of the Alfvén-Mach number MA, which is always constant along magnetic field lines, but can change from one field line to another. In the case of a global constant MA, vortices and electric current concentrations are parallel. More interesting is the nonlinear case, where MA varies perpendicular to the field lines. This is a typical situation at boundary layers like the magnetopause, heliopause, the solar wind flowing around helmet streamers and at the boundary of solar coronal holes. The corresponding current and vortex sheets show in some cases also an alignment, but not in every case. For special density distributions in 2-D, it is possible to have current but no vortex sheets. In 2-D, vortex sheets of field aligned-flows can also exist without strong current sheets, taking the limit of small Alfvén Mach numbers into account. The current sheet can vanish if the Alfvén Mach number is (almost constant and the density gradient is large across some boundary layer. It should be emphasized that the used theory is not only valid for small Alfvén Mach numbers MA MA ≲ 1. Connection to other theoretical approaches and observations and physical effects in space plasmas are presented. Differences in the various aspects of theoretical investigations of current sheets and vortex sheets are given.

  13. Large Oncosomes: A Novel Liquid Biopsy for Genetic Profiling in Patients with Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Resistant Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dolores Di Vizio, MD, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Cedars-Sinai Medical Center Los Angeles...Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0397 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Dolores Di...biopsy” changing the landscape of precision medicine. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Metastatic Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer , Extracellular Vesicles

  14. Molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis isolates from food and human samples by serotyping, antimicrobial resistance, plasmid profiling, (GTG5-PCR and ERIC-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fardsanei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis has been a primary cause of human salmonellosis in many countries. The major objective of this study was to investigate genetic diversity among Salmonella Enteritidis strains from different origins (food and human by Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC -PCR, as well as to assess their plasmid profiling and antimicrobial resistance. A total of 30 Salmonella Enteritidis isolates, 15 from food samples (chicken, lamb, beef and duck meats and 15 from clinical samples were collected in Tehran. Identification of isolates as Salmonella was confirmed by using conventional standard biochemical and serological tests. Multiplex-PCR was used for serotyping of isolates to identify Salmonella Enteritidis. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing to 16 agents founds drug resistance patterns among Salmonella Enteritidis isolates. No resistance was observed to cephalexin, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime and cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, imipenem or meropenem, chloramphenicol and gentamicin. The highest resistance (96.7% was observed to nitrofurantoin. Seven plasmid profiles (P1–P7 were detected, and a 68-kb plasmid was found in all isolates. Two different primers; ERIC and (GTG5 were used for genotyping, which each produced four profiles. The majority of clinical and food isolates fell into two separate common types (CTs with a similar percentage of 95% by ERIC-PCR. Using primer (GTG5, 29 isolates incorporated in three CTs with 70% of isolates showing a single banding pattern. Limited genetic diversity among human and food isolates of Salmonella Enteritidis may indicate that contaminated foods were possibly the source of human salmonellosis. These results confirmed that ERIC-PCR genotyping has limited discriminatory power for Salmonella Enteritidis of different origin.

  15. Shape Optimization of Swimming Sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkening, J.; Hosoi, A.E.

    2005-03-01

    The swimming behavior of a flexible sheet which moves by propagating deformation waves along its body was first studied by G. I. Taylor in 1951. In addition to being of theoretical interest, this problem serves as a useful model of the locomotion of gastropods and various micro-organisms. Although the mechanics of swimming via wave propagation has been studied extensively, relatively little work has been done to define or describe optimal swimming by this mechanism.We carry out this objective for a sheet that is separated from a rigid substrate by a thin film of viscous Newtonian fluid. Using a lubrication approximation to model the dynamics, we derive the relevant Euler-Lagrange equations to optimize swimming speed and efficiency. The optimization equations are solved numerically using two different schemes: a limited memory BFGS method that uses cubic splines to represent the wave profile, and a multi-shooting Runge-Kutta approach that uses the Levenberg-Marquardt method to vary the parameters of the equations until the constraints are satisfied. The former approach is less efficient but generalizes nicely to the non-lubrication setting. For each optimization problem we obtain a one parameter family of solutions that becomes singular in a self-similar fashion as the parameter approaches a critical value. We explore the validity of the lubrication approximation near this singular limit by monitoring higher order corrections to the zeroth order theory and by comparing the results with finite element solutions of the full Stokes equations.

  16. Clinical and Biochemical Profiles according to Homeostasis Model Assessment-insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) in Korean Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da Eun; Park, Soo Yeon; Park, So Yun; Lee, Sa Ra; Chung, Hye Won; Jeong, Kyungah

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and biochemical profiles according to homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in Korean polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. In 458 PCOS patients diagnosed by the Rotterdam European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) criteria, measurements of somatometry, blood test of hormones, glucose metabolic and lipid profiles, and transvaginal or transrectal ultrasonogram were carried out. HOMA-IR was then calculated and compared with the clinical and biochemical profiles related to PCOS. The patients were divided into 4 groups by quartiles of HOMA-IR. The mean level of HOMA-IR was 2.18 ± 1.73. Among the four groups separated according to HOMA-IR, body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, lipid accumulation product (LAP) index, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), Apoprotein B, free testosterone, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were found to be significantly different. TG, LAP index, glucose metabolic profiles, and hs-CRP were positively correlated with HOMA-IR after adjustment for BMI. Our results suggest that the clinical and biochemical profiles which are applicable as cardiovascular risk factors are highly correlated with HOMA-IR in Korean women with PCOS.

  17. In vivo quantitative phosphoproteomic profiling identifies novel regulators of castration-resistant prostate cancer growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Nan; Hjorth-Jensen, Kim; Hekmat, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide owing to our inability to treat effectively castration-resistant tumors. To understand the signaling mechanisms sustaining castration-resistant growth, we implemented a mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomic app...

  18. Comparison of protein profiles of beech bark disease-resistant or beech bark disease-susceptible American beech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary E. Mason; Marek Krasowski; Judy Loo; Jennifer. Koch

    2011-01-01

    Proteomic analysis of beech bark proteins from trees resistant and susceptible to beech bark disease (BBD) was conducted. Sixteen trees from eight geographically isolated stands, 10 resistant (healthy) and 6 susceptible (diseased/infested) trees, were studied. The genetic complexity of the sample unit, the sampling across a wide geographic area, and the complexity of...

  19. Temporal distribution and insecticide resistance profile of two major arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Yaoundé, the capital city of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamgang, Basile; Yougang, Aurelie P; Tchoupo, Micareme; Riveron, Jacob M; Wondji, Charles

    2017-10-10

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the major epidemic vectors of several arbovirus diseases such as yellow fever, dengue, Zika and chikungunya worldwide. Both Aedes vectors are presents in Cameroon; however, knowledge on the dynamic of the distribution of these species across cities and their resistance profile to insecticide are limited. Here, we assessed the current distribution of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in Yaoundé, the Capital City, established the resistance profile to insecticides and explored the resistance mechanisms involved. Immature stages of Aedes were sampled in several breeding sites in December 2015 (dry season) and June 2016 (rainy season) in three central neighborhoods and four peripheral neighborhoods and reared to adult stage. The G0 adults were used for molecular identification and genotyping of F1534C mutation in Ae. aegypti. Bioassays and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) assays were carried out according to WHO guidelines. Analysis revealed that both species Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus are present in all prospected sites in Yaounde. However, in the dry season Ae. aegypti is most abundant in neighborhoods located in downtown. In contrast, Ae. albopictus was found most prevalent in suburbs whatever the season and in downtown during the rainy season. Bioassay analysis showed that both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, are resistant to 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.1% bendiocarb and 4% dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). A decreased of susceptibility to 0.75% permethrin and a full susceptibility to malathion 5% was observed. The mortality rate was increased after pre-exposure to synergist PBO. None of Ae. aegypti assayed revealed the presence of F1534C mutation. These findings are useful to planning vector control programme against arbovirus vectors in Cameroon and can be used as baseline in Africa where data on Aedes resistance is very scarce to plan further works.

  20. Food-borne outbreaks, distributions, virulence, and antibiotic resistance profiles of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Korea from 2003 to 2016: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunbawui Park

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of the most common causes of seafood-borne illnesses in Korea, either directly or indirectly, by consuming infected seafood. Many studies have demonstrated the antibiotic susceptibility profile of V. parahaemolyticus. This strain has developed multiple antibiotic resistance, which has raised serious public health and economic concerns. This article reviews the food-borne outbreaks, distributions, virulence, and antibiotic resistance profiles of V. parahaemolyticus in Korea during 2003–2016. Main body V. parahaemolyticus infections appeared to be seasonally dependent, because 69.7% of patient infections occurred in both August and September during 2003–2016. In addition, the occurrence of V. parahaemolyticus in marine environments varies seasonally but is particularly high in July, August, and September. V. parahaemolyticus isolated from aquaculture sources on the Korean coast varied in association with virulence genes, some did not possess either the tdh (thermostable direct hemolysin or trh (tdh-related hemolysin genes, and a few were positive for only the trh gene or both genes. The high percentage of ampicillin resistance against V. parahaemolyticus in the aquatic environment suggests that ampicillin cannot be used to effectively treat infections caused by this organism. Short conclusion This study shows that the observed high percentage of multiple antibiotic resistance to V. parahaemolyticus is due to conventionally used antibiotics. Therefore, monitoring the antimicrobial resistance patterns at a national level and other solutions are needed to control aquaculture infections, ensure seafood safety, and avoid threats to public health caused by massive misuse of antibiotics.

  1. Drug resistance in colorectal cancer cell lines is partially associated with aneuploidy status in light of profiling gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Jiao; Xu, Shaohang; Huang, Xuanlin

    2016-01-01

    A priority in solving the problem of drug resistance is to understand the molecular mechanism of how a drug induces the resistance response within cells. Because many cancer cells exhibit chromosome aneuploidy, we explored whether changes of aneuploidy status result in drug resistance. Two typical...... colorectal cancer cells, HCT116 and LoVo, were cultured with the chemotherapeutic drugs irinotecan (SN38) or oxaliplatin (QxPt), and the non- and drug-resistant cell lines were selected. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was employed to evaluate the aneuploidy status of these cells, and RNAseq and LC-MS/MS were...... the aneuploidy status in cancer cells, which was partially associated with the acquired drug resistance....

  2. Hysteresis-controlled instability waves in a scale-free driven current sheet model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Uritsky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetospheric dynamics is a complex multiscale process whose statistical features can be successfully reproduced using high-dimensional numerical transport models exhibiting the phenomenon of self-organized criticality (SOC. Along this line of research, a 2-dimensional driven current sheet (DCS model has recently been developed that incorporates an idealized current-driven instability with a resistive MHD plasma system (Klimas et al., 2004a, b. The dynamics of the DCS model is dominated by the scale-free diffusive energy transport characterized by a set of broadband power-law distribution functions similar to those governing the evolution of multiscale precipitation regions of energetic particles in the nighttime sector of aurora (Uritsky et al., 2002b. The scale-free DCS behavior is supported by localized current-driven instabilities that can communicate in an avalanche fashion over arbitrarily long distances thus producing current sheet waves (CSW. In this paper, we derive the analytical expression for CSW speed as a function of plasma parameters controlling local anomalous resistivity dynamics. The obtained relation indicates that the CSW propagation requires sufficiently high initial current densities, and predicts a deceleration of CSWs moving from inner plasma sheet regions toward its northern and southern boundaries. We also show that the shape of time-averaged current density profile in the DCS model is in agreement with steady-state spatial configuration of critical avalanching models as described by the singular diffusion theory of the SOC. Over shorter time scales, SOC dynamics is associated with rather complex spatial patterns and, in particular, can produce bifurcated current sheets often seen in multi-satellite observations.

  3. Disintegration of liquid sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Adel; Chigier, Norman

    1990-01-01

    The development, stability, and disintegration of liquid sheets issuing from a two-dimensional air-assisted nozzle is studied. Detailed measurements of mean drop size and velocity are made using a phase Doppler particle analyzer. Without air flow the liquid sheet converges toward the axis as a result of surface tension forces. With airflow a quasi-two-dimensional expanding spray is formed. The air flow causes small variations in sheet thickness to develop into major disturbances with the result that disruption starts before the formation of the main break-up region. In the two-dimensional variable geometry air-blast atomizer, it is shown that the air flow is responsible for the formation of large, ordered, and small chaotic 'cell' structures.

  4. Safety advice sheets

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    You never know when you might be faced with questions such as: when/how should I dispose of a gas canister? Where can I find an inspection report? How should I handle/store/dispose of a chemical substance…?   The SI section of the DGS/SEE Group is primarily responsible for safety inspections, evaluating the safety conditions of equipment items, premises and facilities. On top of this core task, it also regularly issues “Safety Advice Sheets” on various topics, designed to be of assistance to users but also to recall and reinforce safety rules and procedures. These clear and concise sheets, complete with illustrations, are easy to display in the appropriate areas. The following safety advice sheets have been issued so far: Other sheets will be published shortly. Suggestions are welcome and should be sent to the SI section of the DGS/SEE Group. Please send enquiries to general-safety-visits.service@cern.ch.

  5. DNA microarray genotyping and virulence and antimicrobial resistance gene profiling of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream isolates from renal patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNicholas, Sinead

    2012-02-01

    Thirty-six methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream isolates from renal patients were genetically characterized by DNA microarray analysis and spa typing. The isolates were highly clonal, belonging mainly to ST22-MRSA-IV. The immune evasion and enterotoxin gene clusters were found in 29\\/36 (80%) and 33\\/36 (92%) isolates, respectively.

  6. DNA microarray genotyping and virulence and antimicrobial resistance gene profiling of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream isolates from renal patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNicholas, Sinead

    2011-12-01

    Thirty-six methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream isolates from renal patients were genetically characterized by DNA microarray analysis and spa typing. The isolates were highly clonal, belonging mainly to ST22-MRSA-IV. The immune evasion and enterotoxin gene clusters were found in 29\\/36 (80%) and 33\\/36 (92%) isolates, respectively.

  7. IDENTIFICATION AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE PROFILE OFENTEROBACTERIACEAE SPECIES AND LACTOBACILLUS SPP. ISOLATED FROM HONEY BEES (APIS MELLIFERA DIGESTIVE TRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Hleba

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees play important role in agricultural environment as main pollinators. Its important for many agricultural and wild plants. Also honey bee are producers of honey, which is consumed directly and it should be not a heat treatment. Many bacteria can be survive in honey for long time. Some of these bacteria are human and animal facultative pathogens, including Enterobactericaeae genera. If these bacteria contain antibiotic resistant genes than it can to leads to troubles in healing of some of bacterial infections. Lactobacillus spp. can be a reservoir of resistant genes for pathogenic bacterial strains. In this study we isolated Enterobacteriaceae strains from digestive tracts of honey bees. These strains was tested to the eight selected antibiotics by disc diffusion method and strains were indentified by MALDI TOF MS Biotyper. From this study we determined resistance to piperacillin in the highest level. Equally, we determined that Citrobacter gillenii was resistant to three antibiotics (piperacillin, chloramphenicol and levofloxacin from eight. Resistance to other antibiotics were determined in low levels and other indentified bacteria were resistant to one antibiotic, if any. Also we detected resistance in Lactobacillus spp. and determined MICs distribution for some selected antibiotics. For absence of similar studies we could not to discuss our results and we think that further experiments and studies are needed.

  8. Bacterial profile and their antimicrobial resistance pattern in an intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital in Dhaka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovely Barai

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Critically ill patients admitted in intensive care units (ICU are always at a higher risk of developing infections with various antibiotic resistant organisms. The objective of this study was to know the antibiotic resistance pattern of the common isolates from blood, urine, respiratory secretions and pus/wound swab of patients admitted in ICU at BIRDEM (Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorder hospital, during a one year period from March 2006 to February 2007. A total of 1660 samples were analyzed. Growth was obtained in 34% of the samples yielding 632 organisms. The major organism isolated were Pseudomonas sp. (29.1%, Acinetobacter sp. (27.5%, Candida sp. (12.8%, Escherichia coli (10.3% and Klebsiella sp. (9.7%. Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter sp, Citrobacter sp, Enterococcus sp, Providencia sp and Serratia sp accounted for 10.6% of the isolates. All the isolates were highly resistant (>80% to cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones. The frequency of third generation cephalosporin resistant E. coli, Klebsiella and imipenem resistant Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter were >50%. Acinetobacter was remarkably resistant to most antibiotics including imipenem (>70% resistant, but most of the members of the Enterobacteriacae group showed maximum sensitivity to imipenem (50%-94%. The findings of this study might help clinicians to formulate their first line empirical antibiotic treatment regimens for the patients admitted in ICUs. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2010; 4(2: 66-69

  9. Comparison of antibiotic resistance, virulence gene profiles, and pathogenicity of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus using a Caenorhabditis elegans infection model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Terissa; Brown, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study compared the presence of 35 virulence genes, resistance phenotypes to 11 anti-staphylococcal antibiotics, and pathogenicity in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). Methods: Multiplex PCR analysis was used to differentiate Staphylococcus aureus isolates (n = 102) based on characterization of the Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec). Singleplex and multiplex PCR assays targeting 35 virulence determinants were used to analyze the virulence repertoire of S. aureus. In vitro activities of the antibiotics were determined by the disk-diffusion method. The pathogenicity of representative isolates was assessed using Caenorhabditis elegans survival assays. Significance in virulence distribution and antibiotic resistance phenotypes was assessed using the Chi-squared tests. Kaplan–Meier survival estimates were used to analyze nematode survival and significance of survival rates evaluated using the log-rank test. Results: Except for sei (staphylococcal enterotoxin I) (P  =  0.027), all other virulence genes were not significantly associated with MRSA. Resistance to clindamycin (P  =  0.03), tetracycline (P  =  0.048), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (P  =  0.038), and oxacillin (P  =  0.004) was significantly associated with MRSA. Survival assay showed MSSA having a lower median lifespan of 3 days than MRSA that had a median lifespan of 6 days. The difference in the killing time of MRSA and MSSA was significant (P virulence genes. The quicker killing potential of MSSA compared to MRSA suggests that carriage of virulence determinants per se does not determine pathogenicity in S. aureus. Pathogenicity is impacted by other factors, possibly antibiotic resistance. PMID:25319852

  10. Antibiotic Resistance Profile in Relation to Phylogenetic Background in Escherichia coli Isolated From Fecal Samples of Healthy Ostrich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Mohamadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: E. coli is regarded as a reservoir for antibiotic resistance in foods of animal origin. E. coli can be categories into four mainphylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2 and D. The commensal E. coli strains mostly are assigned to the phylo-groups A and B1. Objectives: The purposes of this study were to determine the phylogenetic group/subgroups and antibiotic resistance patterns of ostrich E. coli isolates in Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 126 E. coli isolates were obtained from cloacae swabs of the healthy ostrich in Kerman, Iran. The E. coliisolates were confirmed using biochemical API 20E identification system. The confirmed isolates were studied to determine phylogeneticbackground by PCR. The isolates were tested for antibiotic resistance against 12 different antibiotic disk by disk diffusion method. Results: Phylotyping of E. coli isolates indicated that 74 isolates belonged to A, 27 isolates to B1, 7 isolates to B2, and 18 isolates to D groups.Also the isolates fell into six phylogenetic subgroups, including 34 isolates in A0, 40 isolates in A1, one isolate in B22, 6 isolates in B23, 11isolates in D1 and 7 isolates in subgroup D2. In the examined E. coli isolates, the maximum rate of resistance was against tetracycline, andthe minimum rate of resistance was against amoxicillin. Twenty three antibiotic resistance patterns were detected among the isolates. Thecefoxitin and tetracycline resistance pattern was the most prevalent in the isolates that belonged to phylo-group A. Conclusions: In conclusion, the result of the present study revealed a low frequency of antibiotic resistance in ostrich E. coli isolates.The antibiotic resistance patterns were in relation to A and D phylogenetic groups. Further studies are needed to better understand thedistribution of phylogenetic groups in poultry isolates.

  11. Phenotypic and genotypic profiling of antimicrobial resistance in enteric Escherichia coli communities isolated from finisher pigs in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M G; Jordan, D; Gibson, J S; Cobbold, R N; Chapman, T A; Abraham, S; Trott, D J

    2016-10-01

    To assess herd-to-herd variation in antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and associated antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) in faecal commensal Escherichia coli communities isolated from Australian slaughter-age pigs. Hydrophobic grid-membrane filtration (HGMF) was used to screen populations of E. coli isolated from faecal samples obtained from pigs prior to or at slaughter. Multiplex PCRs were applied to the pooled DNA extracted from the samples to identify specific ARGs. Pooled faecal samples from 30 finishers, from 72 different Australian pig farms, produced 5003 isolates for screening. HGMF techniques and image analysis were used to confirm E. coli resistance phenotypes to four antimicrobial agents (ampicillin, gentamicin, florfenicol and ceftiofur) using selective agars. Multiplex PCRs were performed on DNA from pooled samples for 35 ARGs associated with seven chemical classes. The prevalence of E. coli isolates showing no resistance to any of the drugs was 50.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) 41.8-58.6%). Ceftiofur resistance was very low (1.8%; CI 0.8-3.9%) and no ARGs associated with 3rd-generation cephalosporin resistance were detected. By contrast, ampicillin (29.4%, CI 22.8-37.0%), florfenicol (24.3%, CI 17.8-32.3%) and gentamicin (CI 17.5%, 10.7-27.2%) resistance prevalence varied greatly between farms and associated ARGs were common. The most common combined resistance phenotype was ampicillin-florfenicol. The use of registered antimicrobials in Australian pigs leads to the enteric commensal populations acquiring associated ARGs. However, despite a high intensity of sampling, ARGs imparting resistance to the critically important 3rd-generation cephalosporins were not detected. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  12. Ice Sheets & Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Troels Bøgeholm

    Since the discovery of the Ice Ages it has been evident that Earth’s climate is liable to undergo dramatic changes. The previous climatic period known as the Last Glacial saw large oscillations in the extent of ice sheets covering the Northern hemisphere. Understanding these oscillations known....... The first part concerns time series analysis of ice core data obtained from the Greenland Ice Sheet. We analyze parts of the time series where DO-events occur using the so-called transfer operator and compare the results with time series from a simple model capable of switching by either undergoing...

  13. Energy information sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-02

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. Written for the general public, the EIA publication Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption and capability. The information contained herein pertains to energy data as of December 1991. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other EIA publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  14. Effects of electron pressure anisotropy on current sheet configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Angelopoulos, V.; Runov, A.; Vasko, I. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Recent spacecraft observations in the Earth's magnetosphere have demonstrated that the magnetotail current sheet can be supported by currents of anisotropic electron population. Strong electron currents are responsible for the formation of very thin (intense) current sheets playing the crucial role in stability of the Earth's magnetotail. We explore the properties of such thin current sheets with hot isotropic ions and cold anisotropic electrons. Decoupling of the motions of ions and electrons results in the generation of a polarization electric field. The distribution of the corresponding scalar potential is derived from the electron pressure balance and the quasi-neutrality condition. We find that electron pressure anisotropy is partially balanced by a field-aligned component of this polarization electric field. We propose a 2D model that describes a thin current sheet supported by currents of anisotropic electrons embedded in an ion-dominated current sheet. Current density profiles in our model agree well with THEMIS observations in the Earth's magnetotail.

  15. Comparison of transcriptome profiles by Fusarium oxysporum inoculation between Fusarium yellows resistant and susceptible lines in Brassica rapa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Naomi; Shimizu, Motoki; Miyazaki, Junji; Osabe, Kenji; Sato, Maho; Ebe, Yusuke; Takada, Satoko; Kaji, Makoto; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Fujimoto, Ryo; Okazaki, Keiichi

    2017-12-01

    Resistant and susceptible lines in Brassica rapa have different immune responses against Fusarium oxysporum inoculation. Fusarium yellows caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans (Foc) is an important disease of Brassicaceae; however, the mechanism of how host plants respond to Foc is still unknown. By comparing with and without Foc inoculation in both resistant and susceptible lines of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis), we identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the bulked inoculated (6, 12, 24, and 72 h after inoculation (HAI)) and non-inoculated samples. Most of the DEGs were up-regulated by Foc inoculation. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR showed that most up-regulated genes increased their expression levels from 24 HAI. An independent transcriptome analysis at 24 and 72 HAI was performed in resistant and susceptible lines. GO analysis using up-regulated genes at 24 HAI indicated that Foc inoculation activated systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in resistant lines and tryptophan biosynthetic process and responses to chitin and ethylene in susceptible lines. By contrast, GO analysis using up-regulated genes at 72 HAI showed the overrepresentation of some categories for the defense response in susceptible lines but not in the resistant lines. We also compared DEGs between B. rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana after F. oxysporum inoculation at the same time point, and identified genes related to defense response that were up-regulated in the resistant lines of Chinese cabbage and A. thaliana. Particular genes that changed expression levels overlapped between the two species, suggesting that they are candidates for genes involved in the resistance mechanisms against F. oxysporum.

  16. HIV type-1 genotypic resistance profiles in vertically infected patients from Argentina reveal an association between K103N+L100I and L74V mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulicino, Paula C; Rocco, Carlos A; Mecikovsky, Debora; Bologna, Rosa; Mangano, Andrea; Sen, Luisa

    2010-01-01

    Patterns and pathways of HIV type-1 (HIV-1) antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance-associated mutations in clinical isolates are conditioned by ARV history and factors such as viral subtype and fitness. Our aim was to analyse the frequency and association of ARV drug resistance mutations in a group of long-term vertically infected patients from Argentina. Plasma samples from 71 patients (38 children and 33 adolescents) were collected for genotypic HIV-1 ARV resistance testing during the period between February 2006 and October 2008. Statistically significant pairwise associations between ARV resistance mutations in pol, as well as associations between mutations and drug exposure, were identified using Fisher's exact tests with Bonferroni and false discovery rate corrections. Phylogenetic analyses were performed for subtype assignment. In protease (PR), resistance-associated mutations M46I/L, I54M/L/V/A/S and V82A/F/T/S/M/I were associated with each other and with minor mutations at codons 10, 24 and 71. Mutations V82A/F/T/S/M/I were primarily selected by the administration of ritonavir (RTV) in an historical ARV regimen. In reverse transcriptase, thymidine analogue mutation (TAM)1 profile was more common than TAM2. The non-nucleoside K103N+L100I mutations were observed at high frequency (15.5%) and were significantly associated with the nucleoside mutation L74V in BF recombinants. Associations of mutations at PR sites reflect the frequent use of RTV at an early time in this group of patients and convergent resistance mechanisms driven by the high exposure to protease inhibitors, as well as local HIV-1 diversity. The results provide clinical evidence of a molecular interaction between K103N+L100I and L74V mutations at the reverse transcriptase gene in vivo, limiting the future use of second-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors such as etravirine.

  17. Treatment of resistant tattoos using a new generation Q-switched Nd:YAG laser: influence of beam profile and spot size on clearance success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsai, Syrus; Pfirrmann, Gudrun; Hammes, Stefan; Raulin, Christian

    2008-02-01

    Multiple treatments of resistant tattoos often result in fibrosis and visible textural changes that lessen response to subsequent treatments. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of beam profile and spot size on clearance rates and side effects in the setting of resistant tattoos. Thirty-six professional, black tattoos (32 patients) were treated unsuccessfully with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (MedLite C3, HoyaConBio Inc., Fremont, CA). Because of therapy resistance all tattoos were re-treated using a new generation Nd:YAG laser (MedLite C6, HoyaConBio Inc.). Maximum energy fluence (E (max)), mean energy fluence, mean spot size, level of clearance, side effects and beam profile (irradiance distribution) of both laser systems were assessed and evaluated in a retrospective study. All tattoos were previously treated with the C3 laser at 1,064 nm using a mean E(max) of 5.8+/-0.8 J/cm(2) (range 3.8-7.5 J/cm(2)) as compared with a mean E(max) of 6.4+/-1.6 J/cm(2) (range 3.2-9.0 J/cm(2)) during the C6 treatment course. Corresponding spot sizes were larger during C6 treatments as compared with C3 (5.0+/-0.9 and 3.6+/-0.2 mm, respectively). The C6 laser had a "flat top" and homogenous profile regardless of the spot size. For the C3 laser the beam shape was "Gaussian," and the homogeneity was reduced by numerous micro-spikes and micro-nadirs. After the C6 treatment course 33.3% of the tattoos showed clearance of grade 1 (0-25%), 16.7% of grade 2 (26-50%), 16.7% of grade 3 (51-75%), 30.5% of grade 4 (76-95%), 2.8% of grade 5 (96-100%). The total rate of side effects due to C6 treatment was 8.3% in all tattoos (hyperpigmentation 5.6%, hypopigmentation 2.7%, textural changes/scars 0%). This clinical study documents for the first time the impact of a 1,064-nm Nd:YAG laser with a more homogenous beam profile and a larger spot size on the management of resistant tattoos. Only a few treatment sessions were necessary to achieve an additional clearance with a low rate of

  18. Deep RNA-Seq profile reveals biodiversity, plant-microbe interactions and a large family of NBS-LRR resistance genes in walnut (Juglans regia) tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Britton, Monica; Martínez-García, P J; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2016-03-01

    Deep RNA-Seq profiling, a revolutionary method used for quantifying transcriptional levels, often includes non-specific transcripts from other co-existing organisms in spite of stringent protocols. Using the recently published walnut genome sequence as a filter, we present a broad analysis of the RNA-Seq derived transcriptome profiles obtained from twenty different tissues to extract the biodiversity and possible plant-microbe interactions in the walnut ecosystem in California. Since the residual nature of the transcripts being analyzed does not provide sufficient information to identify the exact strain, inferences made are constrained to the genus level. The presence of the pathogenic oomycete Phytophthora was detected in the root through the presence of a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Cryptococcus, the causal agent of cryptococcosis, was found in the catkins and vegetative buds, corroborating previous work indicating that the plant surface supported the sexual cycle of this human pathogen. The RNA-Seq profile revealed several species of the endophytic nitrogen fixing Actinobacteria. Another bacterial species implicated in aerobic biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (Methylibium petroleiphilum) is also found in the root. RNA encoding proteins from the pea aphid were found in the leaves and vegetative buds, while a serine protease from mosquito with significant homology to a female reproductive tract protease from Drosophila mojavensis in the vegetative bud suggests egg-laying activities. The comprehensive analysis of RNA-seq data present also unraveled detailed, tissue-specific information of ~400 transcripts encoded by the largest family of resistance (R) genes (NBS-LRR), which possibly rationalizes the resistance of the specific walnut plant to the pathogens detected. Thus, we elucidate the biodiversity and possible plant-microbe interactions in several walnut (Juglans regia) tissues in California using deep RNA-Seq profiling.

  19. [Epidemiological profile and antibiotic resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in burn and traumatology center in Tunisia over a three-year period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghlami, Ayoub; Kanzari, Lamia; Boukadida, Jalel; Messadi, Amen Allah; Ghanem, Abdelraouef

    2012-11-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a known opportunistic pathogen frequently causing serious infections in burned patients. To analyze the epidemiological profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated in a Tunisian burn unit. During a 3-year period (from 01 July 2008 to 30 June 2011), 544 non repetitive strains of P. aeruginosa were isolated from burn patients. Susceptibility to antibiotics was assessed according to CA-SFM guidelines. Serotypes were identified by slide agglutination test using P.aeruginosa O antisera (Biorad). Producing carbapenemase was analyzed for 202 imipenem resistant isolates by EDTA test. Susceptibility testing data were stored in a laboratory data base using whonet 5.3 software. The most frequent sites of isolation were cutaneous infections and blood cultures (83.4%). The percentages of resistant isolates were as follows: ceftazidime: 34%; imipenem: 37.1%, ciprofloxacin: 27.1% and amikacin: 29.6%. The most prevalent serotypes were: 011(51%), 06(17%), 03 (8%), 04(12%), 012(5%). Among the 202 imipenem resistant strains, 58% expressed a metallocarbapenemase. All theses strains were resistant to all tested antibiotics except colistin and belonged to the serotype O11. The dissemination of carbapenemases strains must be contained by implementation of timely identification, strict isolation methods and better hygienic procedures.

  20. Local cytokine profile and cytological status in children with community-acquired pneumonia arising on the background of the reduced resistance of the organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Malanicheva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research objective: to study the features of the cytokine profile and cytological status in children with community-acquired pneumonia, proceeding against a background of reduced resistance of the organism for improving treatment methods. 53 children aged 3 to 7 years were examined. The main group consisted of 30 children with community-acquired pneumonia, which ran against a background of reduced resistance of the body. The comparison group consisted of 23 children with community-acquired pneumonia who had good resistance. Local immunity was studied on the basis of  valuation of cytokine status parameters (tumor necrotic factor-α, interleukin-8, and interferon-γ and cellular composition with an estimate of destructive changes in neutrophils in induced sputum. It was revealed that in the main group of children there is a depression of the neutrophils’ release into the bronchial secretion and a marked increase in the number of neutrophils with maximum signs of destruction of the nucleus and cytoplasm against the background of cytokine status imbalance, manifested in an increase in the content of the tumor necrotic factor-α and a decrease in interleukin-8 and interferon- γ. Inclusion in the traditional therapy of community-acquired pneumonia in children who have a reduced resistance, anti-inflammatory drug fenspiride, eliminates the imbalance of proinflammatory cytokines and increases the release of functionally complete neutrophils in the bronchial secret.

  1. Detection of coliform bacteria, determination of phylogenetic typing and antibiotic resistance profile of Escherichia coli in qanats and springs of East-Azerbaijan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shabani Lokarani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli as a fecal contamination and is considered as an index in water. The aim of this study was to determine the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of E. coli and antibiotic resistance of the isolates collected from qanats and springs in East-Azerbaijan province. For this purpose, 118 samples were selected from above mentioned area and examined by MPN method. The positive coliform samples were identified by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Afterwards, to determine the genetic diversity of E. coli isolates, phylogenetic typing we conducted by means of multiplex PCR. To determine the antibiotic resistance profile, antibiotic discs of Nalidixic Acid, Co-trimoxazol, Amoxicillin, Gentamaicin Ciprofloxacin, Chloramphenicol, Imipenem, Cefotaxime and Ceftazidime antibiogram were used. Based on results, 48% of the samples were evaluated as positive for coliform including 40% for E. coli and 19% for Klebsiella. Amongst 23 isolates confirmed as E. coli by PCR. Phylogenetic typing revealed  that 44% of E. coli strains belonged to type D and B2 and 56% belonged to A and B1 phylotypes. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern showed that 92% of E. coli isolates were resistant to Amoxicillin. All E. coli isolates were sensitive to Imipenem. It was concluded that presence of pathogenic E. coli with high rate of antibacterial resistance in waters source could be considered as a human health hazard.

  2. [Identification of anaerobic gram-negative bacilli isolated from various clinical specimens and determination of antibiotic resistance profiles with E-test methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Cengiz; Keşli, Recep

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify gram-negative anaerobic bacilli isolated from various clinical specimens that were obtained from patients with suspected anaerobic infections and to determine the antibiotic resistance profiles by using the antibiotic concentration gradient method. The study was performed in Afyon Kocatepe University Ahmet Necdet Sezer Research and Practice Hospital, Medical Microbiology Laboratory between 1 November 2014 and 30 October 2015. Two hundred and seventyeight clinical specimens accepted for anaerobic culture were enrolled in the study. All the samples were cultivated anaerobically by using Schaedler agar with 5% defibrinated sheep blood and Schaedler broth. The isolated anaerobic gram-negative bacilli were identified by using both the conventional methods and automated identification system (VITEK 2, bioMerieux, France). Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed with antibiotic concentration gradient method (E-test, bioMerieux, France); against penicillin G, clindamycin, cefoxitin, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem and doripenem for each isolate. Of the 28 isolated anaerobic gram-negative bacilli; 14 were identified as Bacteroides fragilis group, 9 were Prevotella spp., and 5 were Fusobacterium spp. The highest resistance rate was found against penicillin (78.5%) and resistance rates against clindamycin and cefoxitin were found as 17.8% and 21.4%, respectively. No resistance was found against metronidazole, moxifloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem and doripenem. As a result, isolation and identification of anaerobic bacteria are difficult, time-consuming and more expensive when compared with the cost of aerobic culture. The rate of anaerobic bacteria isolation may be increased by obtaining the appropriate clinical specimen and appropriate transportation of these specimens. We believe that the data obtained from the study in our center may offer benefits for the follow up and treatment of infections

  3. Evaluation of left ventricular mass and function, lipid profile, and insulin resistance in Egyptian children with growth hormone deficiency: A single-center prospective case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotb Abbass Metwalley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Growth hormone deficiency (GHD in adults is associated with a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors that may contribute to an increased mortality for cardiovascular disease. In children, relatively few studies have investigated the effect of GHD and replacement therapy on cardiac performance and metabolic abnormalities that may place them at a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD at an early age. Aim: This study was aimed to assess the left ventricular function, lipid profile, and degree of insulin resistance in Egyptian children with GHD before and after 1 year of GH replacement therapy. Settings and Design: Prospective case-control study, single-center study. Materials and Methods: Thirty children with short stature due to GHD were studied in comparison to 20 healthy age- and sex-matched children. All subjects were subjected to history, clinical examination, auxological assessment, and echocardiography to assess the left ventricular function. Blood samples were collected for measuring IGF-1, lipid profile (Total, LDL, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and atherogenic index (AI, fasting blood sugar, and fasting insulin levels. In addition, basal and stimulated GH levels were measured in children with suspected GHD. Statistical Analysis Used: Student′s t-test was used for parametric data, and the Mann-Whitney U-test was used for non-parametric data. Results: Total, LDL cholesterol, triglyceride, AI, and insulin were significantly higher in children with GHD than in healthy controls at baseline. After 12 months of GH replacement therapy, total, LDL cholesterol, triglyceride, AI and insulin were significantly decreased, while homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR was significantly increased compared to both pre-treatment and control values. At baseline, the left ventricular mass (LVM and left ventricular mass index (LVMi were significantly lower in GHD children than in controls. After 12 months of GH

  4. Collisionless current sheet equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukirch, T.; Wilson, F.; Allanson, O.

    2018-01-01

    Current sheets are important for the structure and dynamics of many plasma systems. In space and astrophysical plasmas they play a crucial role in activity processes, for example by facilitating the release of magnetic energy via processes such as magnetic reconnection. In this contribution we will focus on collisionless plasma systems. A sensible first step in any investigation of physical processes involving current sheets is to find appropriate equilibrium solutions. The theory of collisionless plasma equilibria is well established, but over the past few years there has been a renewed interest in finding equilibrium distribution functions for collisionless current sheets with particular properties, for example for cases where the current density is parallel to the magnetic field (force-free current sheets). This interest is due to a combination of scientific curiosity and potential applications to space and astrophysical plasmas. In this paper we will give an overview of some of the recent developments, discuss their potential applications and address a number of open questions.

  5. Cholera Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cholera","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... that includes feedback at the local level and information-sharing at the global level. Cholera cases are ...

  6. Pseudomonas - Fact Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2012-01-01

    Fact sheet on Pseudomonas, including:What is Pseudomonas?What infections does it cause?Who is susceptible to pseudomonas infection?How will I know if I have pseudomonas infection?How can Pseudomonas be prevented from spreading?How can I protect myself from Pseudomonas?How is Pseudomonas infection treated?

  7. NTPR Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    History Documents US Underground Nuclear Test History Reports NTPR Radiation Exposure Reports Enewetak Atoll Cleanup Documents TRAC About Who We Are Our Values History Locations Our Leadership Director Support Center Contact Us FAQ Sheet Links Success Stories Contracts Business Opportunities Current

  8. Production (information sheets)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    Documentation sheets: Geo energy 2 Integrated System Approach Petroleum Production (ISAPP) The value of smartness 4 Reservoir permeability estimation from production data 6 Coupled modeling for reservoir application 8 Toward an integrated near-wellbore model 10 TNO conceptual framework for "E&P

  9. Hibernia fact sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This fact sheet gives details of the Hibernia oil field including its location, discovery date, oil company's interests in the project, the recoverable reserves of the two reservoirs, the production system used, capital costs of the project, and overall targets for Canadian benefit. Significant dates for the Hibernia project are listed. (UK)

  10. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  11. THE MOTRU MINING BASIN – GIS APPLICATION ON SHEET EROSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anghel TITU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The Motru Mining Basin – GIS Application on Sheet Erosion. The activation of the sheet erosion has important negative effects upon the soil profile. The anticipation of this geomorphologic process is important for taking some measures for protecting the susceptible areas. Within our study, we will carry out a quantitative estimation of the soil losses in the Motru Mining Basin, caused by the activation of the sheet erosion mechanism. We will apply the classic methodology proposed by the ROMSEM model of the USLE type by using the GIS technology

  12. Bacterial Etiology and Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections in a Cameroonian City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzalie, Rolf Nyah-Tuku; Gonsu, Hortense Kamga; Koulla-Shiro, Sinata

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Community-acquired urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are usually treated empirically. Geographical variations in etiologic agents and their antibiotic sensitivity patterns are common. Knowledge of antibiotic resistance trends is important for improving evidence-based recommendations for empirical treatment of UTIs. Our aim was to determine the major bacterial etiologies of CAUTIs and their antibiotic resistance patterns in a cosmopolitan area of Cameroon for comparison with prescription practices of local physicians. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional descriptive study at two main hospitals in Yaoundé, collecting a clean-catch mid-stream urine sample from 92 patients having a clinical diagnosis of UTI. The empirical antibiotherapy was noted, and identification of bacterial species was done on CLED agar; antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Results. A total of 55 patients had samples positive for a UTI. Ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid were the most empirically prescribed antibiotics (30.9% and 23.6%, resp.); bacterial isolates showed high prevalence of resistance to both compounds. Escherichia coli (50.9%) was the most common pathogen, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (16.4%). Prevalence of resistance for ciprofloxacin was higher compared to newer quinolones. Conclusions. E. coli and K. pneumoniae were the predominant bacterial etiologies; the prevalence of resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics was high.

  13. Bacterial Etiology and Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections in a Cameroonian City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Nyah-tuku Nzalie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Community-acquired urinary tract infections (CAUTIs are usually treated empirically. Geographical variations in etiologic agents and their antibiotic sensitivity patterns are common. Knowledge of antibiotic resistance trends is important for improving evidence-based recommendations for empirical treatment of UTIs. Our aim was to determine the major bacterial etiologies of CAUTIs and their antibiotic resistance patterns in a cosmopolitan area of Cameroon for comparison with prescription practices of local physicians. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional descriptive study at two main hospitals in Yaoundé, collecting a clean-catch mid-stream urine sample from 92 patients having a clinical diagnosis of UTI. The empirical antibiotherapy was noted, and identification of bacterial species was done on CLED agar; antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Results. A total of 55 patients had samples positive for a UTI. Ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid were the most empirically prescribed antibiotics (30.9% and 23.6%, resp.; bacterial isolates showed high prevalence of resistance to both compounds. Escherichia coli (50.9% was the most common pathogen, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (16.4%. Prevalence of resistance for ciprofloxacin was higher compared to newer quinolones. Conclusions. E. coli and K. pneumoniae were the predominant bacterial etiologies; the prevalence of resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics was high.

  14. Rubella - Fact Sheet for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and 4 through 6 years Fact Sheet for Parents Color [2 pages] Español: Rubéola The best way ... according to the recommended schedule. Fact Sheets for Parents Diseases and the Vaccines that Prevent Them Chickenpox ...

  15. Motion and shape of snowplough sheets in coaxial accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsagas, N.F.; Mair, G.L.R.; Prinn, A.E.

    1978-01-01

    A long coaxial accelerator is filled with helium at initial gas pressure between 0.2 and 4 Torr. When connected to a large capacitor at < - 10 kV a discharge is started at one end; the central electrode has negative polarity. The velocity of the plasma sheet, the snowplough, and its shape have been derived from streak photographs for terminal currents between about 100 and 300 kA. The motion of the sheet has been analysed by balancing the electromagnetic driving force against the inertia of the mass of the gas swept up by a plane sheet taken to be impenetrable to gas atoms. The calculated positions and average sheet velocities, which involve simplifying assumptions, have been found to be in good agreement with observations at different positions and pressures. Also the shape of the sheet has been derived by allowing for the sheet's curvature in the linear momentum equation while net radial motions causing variations in profile have, at first, been excluded. The calculated shape of the sheet is very nearly that photographically observed. The axial velocity of a sheet element is evaluated under the assumption that the plasma is azimuthally uniform, free of spikes and that the vessel's wall does not affect the shape. (author)

  16. Efficacy and safety profile of linezolid in the treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyeman, Akosua Adom; Ofori-Asenso, Richard

    2016-06-22

    Treatment options for drug-resistant tuberculosis are still limited. Linezolid has been recommended for treatment of patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) or extensively-drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis, although uncertainties remain regarding its safety and tolerability in these circumstances. To systematically evaluate the existing evidence regarding the efficacy and tolerability of linezolid in the treatment of MDR or XDR tuberculosis. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Searches were conducted in PubMed, Web of Science and EMBASE followed by direct search of abstracts in the International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease to retrieve primary studies published between January 2000 and January 2016 assessing linezolid efficacy and safety in the treatment of drug-resistant TB. We evaluated the occurrence of outcomes including culture conversion, treatment success and incidence of adverse events such as myelosuppression and neuropathy. Twenty-three (23) studies conducted in fourteen (14) countries and involving 507 patients were retrieved. Only 1 randomized controlled trial was identified and none of the identified studies involved participants from Africa. The pooled proportion for treatment success was 77.36 % (95 % CI = 71.38-82.83 %, I(2) = 37.6 %) with culture conversion rate determined as 88.45 % (95 % CI = 83.82-92.38 %, I(2) = 45.4 %). There was no strong evidence for both culture conversion (p = 0.0948) and treatment success (p = 0.0695) between linezolid daily doses ≤ 600 and > 600 mg. Only myelosuppression showed a strong statistical significance (p linezolid also showed no significance upon dose comparisons (p = 0.3213, p = 0.9050 respectively). Available evidence presents Linezolid as a viable option in the treatment of MDR/XDR TB although patients ought to be monitored closely for the incidence of major adverse events such as myelosuppression and

  17. Determination of antimicrobial and heavy metal resistance profiles of some bacteria isolated from aquatic amphibian and reptile species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacioglu, Nurcihan; Tosunoglu, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the level of antibiotic resistance patterns and distribution of heavy metal resistance of bacterial isolates from aquatic animals (Lissotriton vulgaris, Pelophylax ridibundus, Emys orbicularis, Mauremys rivulata, and Natrix natrix) in Turkey (Kavak Delta). A total of 153 bacteria have been successfully isolated from cloaca and oral samples of the aquatic amphibians and reptilians which were found, namely, Aeromonas sp. (n = 29), Plesiomonas sp. (n = 7), Vibrio sp. (n = 12), Citrobacter sp. (n = 12), Enterobacter sp. (n = 11), Escherichia sp. (n = 22), Klebsiella sp. (n = 22), Edwardsiella sp. (n = 6), Hafnia sp. (n = 1), Proteus sp. (n = 19), Providencia sp. (n = 8), and Pseudomonas sp. (n = 4). In terms of antibiotic and heavy metal susceptibility testing, each isolate was tested against 12 antibiotics and 4 metals. There was a high incidence of resistance to cefoxitin (46.40 %), ampicillin (44.44 %), erythromycin (35.29 %), and a low incidence of resistance to gentamicin (6.53 %), kanamycin (8.49 %), chloramphenicol (9.15 %), and cefotaxime (10.45 %). The multiple antibiotic resistance index of each bacterial species indicated that bacteria from raised amphibians and reptiles have been exposed to tested antibiotics, with results ranging from 0 to 0.58. Most isolates showed tolerance to different concentrations of heavy metals, and minimal inhibition concentrations ranged from100 to >3,200 μg/mL. According to these results, a significant occurrence of bacteria in the internal organs of reptiles and amphibians, with a high incidence of resistance against antibiotics and heavy metals, may risk aquatic animals and the public health. These data appoint the importance of epidemiological surveillance and microbiological monitoring and reinforce the need to implement environment protection programs for amphibian and reptile species.

  18. Campylobacter Species Isolated from Pigs in Grenada Exhibited Novel Clones: Genotypes and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Sequence Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadi, Victor A; Matthew-Belmar, Vanessa; Subbarao, Charmarthy; Kashoma, Isaac; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Sharma, Ravindra; Hariharan, Harry; Stone, Diana

    2017-07-01

    Infections caused by Campylobacter species pose a severe threat to public health worldwide. However, in Grenada, the occurrence and characteristics of Campylobacter in food animals, including pigs, remain mostly unknown. In this study, we identified the sequence types (STs) of Campylobacter from young healthy pigs in Grenada and compared the results with previous studies in Grenada and other countries. Antimicrobial resistance patterns and diversity of the Campylobacter clones were evaluated. Ninety-nine Campylobacter isolates (97 Campylobacter coli and 2 Campylobacter jejuni) were analyzed by multilocus sequence typing. Eighteen previously reported STs and 13 novel STs were identified. Of the 18 previously reported STs, eight STs (ST-854, -887, -1068, -1096, -1445, -1446, 1556, and -1579) have been associated with human gastroenteritis in different geographical regions. Among these 18 previously reported STs, ST-1428, -1096, -1450, and -1058 predominated and accounted for 18.2%, 14.1%, 11.1%, and 8.1% of all isolates, respectively. Of the 13 novel STs, ST-7675 predominated and accounted for 20% (4 of 20 isolates), followed by ST-7678, -7682, and -7691, each accounting for 10% (2 of 20 isolates). Antimicrobial resistance testing using Epsilometer test revealed a low resistance rate (1-3%) of all C. coli/jejuni STs to all antimicrobials except for tetracycline (1-10.1%). Some of the C. coli STs (13 STs, 24/99 isolates, 24.2%) were resistant to multiple antimicrobials. This is the first report on antimicrobial resistance and multidrug resistance patterns associated with Campylobacter STs recovered from swine in Grenada. This study showed that pigs in Grenada are not major reservoirs for STs of C. coli and C. jejuni that are associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide.

  19. Molecular and Conventional Analysis of Acute Diarrheal Isolates Identifies Epidemiological Trends, Antibiotic Resistance and Virulence Profiles of Common Enteropathogens in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate prevalence of acute diarrhea in Shanghai and analyze virulence associated-genes and antibiotic resistance of major enteropathogens using combination of conventional and molecular epidemiology methods.Method: The 412 stool specimens were obtained by systematic sampling from diarrhea patients throughout entire year 2016. Bacterial and viral pathogens were identified and bacterial isolates were cultured and screened for antibiotic resistance profiles. Two most prevalent bacteria, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Salmonella were further typed by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST and analyzed for presence of virulence-associated genes. The association between virulence genes, resistance phenotypes and genetic diversities was analyzed.Results: Among stool specimens testing positive for pathogens (23.1%, 59 bacterial and 36 viral pathogens were identified. V. parahaemolyticus (27/412, 6.6%, Salmonella (23/412, 5.6% and norovirus GII (21/412, 5.1% were three most-commonly found. Most bacterial isolates exhibited high levels of antibiotic resistance with high percentage of MDR. The drug resistance rates of V. parahaemolyticus and Salmonella isolates to cephalosporins were high, such as 100.0 and 34.8% to CFX, 55.6 and 43.4% to CTX, 92.6 and 95.7% to CXM, respectively. The most common resistance combination of V. parahaemolyticus and Salmonella was cephalosporins and quinolone. The dominant sequence types (STs of V. parahaemolyticus and Salmonella were ST3 (70.4% and ST11 (43.5%, respectively. The detection rates of virulence genes in V. parahaemolyticus were tlh (100% and tdh (92.6%, without trh and ureR. Most of the Salmonella isolates were positive for the Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs genes (87–100%, and some for Salmonella plasmid virulence (SPV genes (34.8% for spvA and spvB, 43.5% for spvC. In addition, just like the drug resistance, virulence genes exhibited wide-spread distribution among the different STs albeit

  20. Targeted Morphoproteomic Profiling of Ewing's Sarcoma Treated with Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R) Inhibitors: Response/Resistance Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbiah, Vivek; Naing, Aung; Brown, Robert E.; Chen, Helen; Doyle, Laurence; LoRusso, Patricia; Benjamin, Robert; Anderson, Pete; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2011-01-01

    Background Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) targeted therapies have resulted in responses in a small number of patients with advanced metastatic Ewing's sarcoma. We performed morphoproteomic profiling to better understand response/resistance mechanisms of Ewing's sarcoma to IGF1R inhibitor-based therapy. Methodology/Principal Findings This pilot study assessed two patients with advanced Ewing's sarcoma treated with IGF1R antibody alone followed by combined IGF1R inhibitor plus mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor treatment once resistance to single-agent IGF1R inhibitor developed. Immunohistochemical probes were applied to detect p-mTOR (Ser2448), p-Akt (Ser473), p-ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204), nestin, and p-STAT3 (Tyr 705) in the original and recurrent tumor. The initial remarkable radiographic responses to IGF1R-antibody therapy was followed by resistance and then response to combined IGF1R plus mTOR inhibitor therapy in both patients, and then resistance to the combination regimen in one patient. In patient 1, upregulation of p-Akt and p-mTOR in the tumor that relapsed after initial response to IGF1R antibody might explain the resistance that developed, and the subsequent response to combined IGF1R plus mTOR inhibitor therapy. In patient 2, upregulation of mTOR was seen in the primary tumor, perhaps explaining the initial response to the IGF1R and mTOR inhibitor combination, while the resistant tumor that emerged showed activation of the ERK pathway as well. Conclusion/Significance Morphoproteomic analysis revealed that the mTOR pathway was activated in these two patients with advanced Ewing's sarcoma who showed response to combined IGF1R and mTOR inhibition, and the ERK pathway in the patient in whom resistance to this combination emerged. Our pilot results suggests that morphoproteomic assessment of signaling pathway activation in Ewing's sarcoma merits further investigation as a guide to understanding response and resistance signatures. PMID

  1. Influence of a mini-trampoline rebound exercise program on insulin resistance, lipid profile and central obesity in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuhu, Jibril M; Maharaj, Sonill S

    2018-04-01

    Exercises are important as an adjuvant for managing diabetes but due to fatigue and time constraints, individuals with diabetes may not engage in them. Jumping on a mini-trampoline referred to as rebound exercise is an aerobic activity used for exercise training benefits but only little research is available on its effects in diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of mini-trampoline rebound exercise on insulin resistance, lipid profile and central obesity in type 2 diabetics. Sixty non-insulin dependent type 2 diabetics (median age: 39.0 years, median body mass index: 25.2 kg/m2) recruited using convenience sampling were randomized to a rebound exercise group (N.=30) or a control group (N.=30). The control group read health magazines or watched television while the rebound exercise group jumped on a mini-trampoline at moderate intensity for 30 minutes three times per week for 12 weeks. Postrebound exercise, significant improvements in insulin resistance, lipid profile and waist circumference were noted when compared to the control (Ptrampoline rebound exercise is beneficial for individuals with type 2 diabetes and can serve as a useful exercise approach in the management of cardiovascular risk in diabetes.

  2. Specific Clinical Profile and Risk Factors for Mortality in General Surgery Patients with Infections by Multi-Drug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Perez, Ines; Martin-Perez, Elena; Domingo-García, Diego; Garcia-Olmo, Damian

    2017-07-01

    The incidence of gram-negative multi-drug-resistant (MDR) infections is increasing worldwide. This study sought to determine the incidence, clinical profiles, risk factors, and mortality of these infections in general surgery patients. All general surgery patients with a clinical infection by gram-negative MDR bacteria were studied prospectively for a period of five years (2007-2011). Clinical, surgical, and microbiologic parameters were recorded, with a focus on the identification of risk factors for MDR infection and mortality. Incidence of MDR infections increased (5.6% to 15.2%) during the study period; 106 patients were included, 69.8% presented nosocomial infections. Mean age was 65 ± 15 years, 61% male. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) Escherichia coli was the most frequent MDR bacteria. Surgical site infections and abscesses were the most common culture locations. The patients presented multiple pre-admission risk factors and invasive measures during hospitalization. Mortality was 15%, and related to older age (odds ratio [OR] 1.07), malnutrition (OR 13.5), chronic digestive conditions (OR 4.7), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR 3.9), and surgical re-intervention (OR 9.2). Multi-drug resistant infections in the surgical population are increasing. The most common clinical profile is a 65-year-old male, with previous comorbidities, who has undergone a surgical intervention, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and invasive procedures and who has acquired the MDR infection in the nosocomial setting.

  3. Genetic diversity, anti-microbial resistance, plasmid profile and frequency of the Vi antigen in Salmonella Dublin strains isolated in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, F P; Frazão, M R; Rodrigues, D P; Costa, R G; Casas, M R T; Fernandes, S A; Falcão, J P; Campioni, F

    2018-02-01

    Salmonella Dublin is strongly adapted to cattle causing enteritis and/or systemic disease with high rates of mortality. However, it can be sporadically isolated from humans, usually causing serious disease, especially in patients with underlying chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to molecularly type S. Dublin strains isolated from humans and animals in Brazil to verify the diversity of these strains as well as to ascertain possible differences between strains isolated from humans and animals. Moreover, the presence of the capsular antigen Vi and the plasmid profile was characterized in addition to the anti-microbial resistance against 15 drugs. For this reason, 113 S. Dublin strains isolated between 1983 and 2016 from humans (83) and animals (30) in Brazil were typed by PFGE and MLVA. The presence of the capsular antigen Vi was verified by PCR, and the phenotypic expression of the capsular antigen was determined serologically. Also, a plasmid analysis for each strain was carried out. The strains studied were divided into 35 different PFGE types and 89 MLVA-types with a similarity of ≥80% and ≥17.5%, respectively. The plasmid sizes found ranged from 2 to >150 kb and none of the strains studied presented the capsular antigen Vi. Resistance or intermediate resistance was found in 23 strains (20.3%) that were resistant to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, imipenem, nalidixic acid, piperacillin, streptomycin and/or tetracycline. The majority of the S. Dublin strains studied and isolated over a 33-year period may descend from a common subtype that has been contaminating humans and animals in Brazil and able to cause invasive disease even in the absence of the capsular antigen. The higher diversity of resistance phenotypes in human isolates, as compared with animal strains, may be a reflection of the different anti-microbial treatments used to control S. Dublin infections in humans in Brazil. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. High throughput resistance profiling of Plasmodium falciparum infections based on custom dual indexing and Illumina next generation sequencing-technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nag, Sidsel; Dalgaard, Marlene Danner; Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    2017-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms in P. falciparum can be used to indicate the parasite's susceptibility to antimalarial drugs as well as its geographical origin. Both of these factors are key to monitoring development and spread of antimalarial drug resistance. In this study, we combine multiplex PCR, custo...

  5. Gene Expression Profiling Soybean Stem Tissue Early Response to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and In Silico Mapping in Relation to Resistance Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernarda Calla

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available White mold, caused by (Lib. de Bary, can be a serious disease of crops grown under cool, moist environments. In many plants, such as soybean [ (L. Merr.], complete genetic resistance does not exist. To identify possible genes involved in defense against this pathogen, and to determine possible physiological changes that occur during infection, a microarray screen was conducted using stem tissue to evaluate changes in gene expression between partially resistant and susceptible soybean genotypes at 8 and 14 hours post inoculation. RNA from 15 day-old inoculated plants was labeled and hybridized to soybean cDNA microarrays. ANOVA identified 1270 significant genes from the comparison between time points and 105 genes from the comparison between genotypes. Selected genes were classified into functional categories. The analyses identified changes in cell-wall composition and signaling pathways, as well as suggesting a role for anthocyanin and anthocyanidin synthesis in the defense against . In-silico mapping of both the differentially expressed transcripts and of public markers associated with partial resistance to white mold, provided evidence of several differentially expressed genes being closely positioned to white mold resistance markers, with the two most promising genes encoding a PR-5 and anthocyanidin synthase.

  6. Relationships between acylated ghrelin with growth hormone, insulin resistance, lipid profile, and cardio respiratory function in lean and obese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Matin Homaee

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Obese and lean inactive young men had different levels of acylated ghrelin, GH, insulin, insulin resistance index, cardiorespiratory function and body fat percent. Body fat percent, insulin, and GH levels appear to be best determinant factors of acylated ghrelin levels. Also, in both obese and lean young men, higher levels of cardiovascular function were associated with higher levels of acylated ghrelin.

  7. Identification of RFLP and NBS/PK profiling markers for disease resistance loci in genetic maps of oats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanz, M.J.; Loarce, Y.; Fominaya, A.; Vossen, J.H.; Ferrer, E.

    2013-01-01

    Two of the domains most widely shared among R genes are the nucleotide binding site (NBS) and protein kinase (PK) domains. The present study describes and maps a number of new oat resistance gene analogues (RGAs) with two purposes in mind: (1) to identify genetic regions that contain R genes and (2)

  8. Mutations Conferring Resistance to Viral DNA Polymerase Inhibitors in Camelpox Virus Give Different Drug-Susceptibility Profiles in Vaccinia Virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duraffour, S.; Andrei, G.; Topalis, D.; Krečmerová, Marcela; Crance, J. M.; Garin, D.; Snoeck, R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 13 (2012), s. 7310-7325 ISSN 0022-538X Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : camelpox virus * CMLV * vaccinia virus VACV * acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * HPMPDAP * cidofovir * drug resistance Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.076, year: 2012

  9. Characterization of a cadmium resistance Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strain by antioxidant assays and proteome profiles methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yao; Yang, Xuan; Lian, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Boyang; He, Xiaoyun; Xu, Wentao; Huang, Kunlun

    2016-09-01

    Heavy metal contamination poses a major threat to the environment and human health for their potential toxicity and non-biodegradable properties. At present, some probiotics bacteria are reported to have great potential to eliminate heavy metals from food and water. In this study, resistance properties of a newly isolated Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis for cadmium were studied by antioxidant assays and proteomics analysis. Antioxidant capacity of this strain was significantly activated under cadmium stress indicated by Fenton reaction, DPPH assay, SOD assay and GSH assay. Intracellular antioxidant enzyme systems, such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and catalase were suggested to play vital roles in the activated antioxidant capacity. The up-regulated cadA was associated with the activated P-type ATPases that plays an important role in cadmium resistance. Proteomics analysis identified 12 over-expressed proteins under 50mg/L cadmium stress and these proteins are abundant in oxidative stress response and energy metabolism regulation, which were considered as consequences as cadmium resistance of the strain. Thus, the probiotics Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis may resist cadmium stress through antioxidant approach and enhanced energy metabolism. The food grade lactis strain may be applied in metal decontamination in environment and food/feed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Film sheet cassette

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A novel film sheet cassette is described for handling CAT photographic films under daylight conditions and facilitating their imaging. A detailed description of the design and operation of the cassette is given together with appropriate illustrations. The resulting cassette is a low-cost unit which is easily constructed and yet provides a sure light-tight seal for the interior contents of the cassette. The individual resilient fingers on the light-trap permit the ready removal of the slide plate for taking pictures. The stippled, non-electrostatic surface of the pressure plate ensures an air layer and free slidability of the film for removal and withdrawal of the film sheet. The advantage of the daylight system is that a darkroom need not be used for inserting and removing the film in and out of the cassette resulting in a considerable time saving. (U.K.)

  11. Differences in the gene expression profiles of haemocytes from schistosome-susceptible and -resistant biomphalaria glabrata exposed to Schistosoma mansoni excretory-secretory products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahida Zahoor

    Full Text Available During its life cycle, the helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni uses the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata as an intermediate host to reproduce asexually generating cercariae for infection of the human definitive host. Following invasion of the snail, the parasite develops from a miracidium to a mother sporocyst and releases excretory-secretory products (ESPs that likely influence the outcome of host infection. To better understand molecular interactions between these ESPs and the host snail defence system, we determined gene expression profiles of haemocytes from S. mansoni-resistant or -susceptible strains of B. glabrata exposed in vitro to S. mansoni ESPs (20 μg/ml for 1 h, using a 5K B. glabrata cDNA microarray. Ninety-eight genes were found differentially expressed between haemocytes from the two snail strains, 57 resistant specific and 41 susceptible specific, 60 of which had no known homologue in GenBank. Known differentially expressed resistant-snail genes included the nuclear factor kappa B subunit Relish, elongation factor 1α, 40S ribosomal protein S9, and matrilin; known susceptible-snail specific genes included cathepsins D and L, and theromacin. Comparative analysis with other gene expression studies revealed 38 of the 98 identified genes to be uniquely differentially expressed in haemocytes in the presence of ESPs, thus identifying for the first time schistosome ESPs as important molecules that influence global snail host-defence cell gene expression profiles. Such immunomodulation may benefit the schistosome, enabling its survival and successful development in the snail host.

  12. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  13. Information sheets on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    These sheets, presented by the Cea, bring some information, in the energy domain, on the following topics: the world energy demand and the energy policy in France and in Europe, the part of the nuclear power in the energy of the future, the greenhouse gases emissions and the fight against the greenhouse effect, the carbon dioxide storage cost and the hydrogen economy. (A.L.B.)

  14. Biomolecular Science (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    A brief fact sheet about NREL Photobiology and Biomolecular Science. The research goal of NREL's Biomolecular Science is to enable cost-competitive advanced lignocellulosic biofuels production by understanding the science critical for overcoming biomass recalcitrance and developing new product and product intermediate pathways. NREL's Photobiology focuses on understanding the capture of solar energy in photosynthetic systems and its use in converting carbon dioxide and water directly into hydrogen and advanced biofuels.

  15. Effects of the dietary amount and source of protein, resistance training and anabolic-androgenic steroids on body weight and lipid profile of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, V A; Sánchez, C; Ortega, F B; Nebot, E; Kapravelou, G; Porres, J M; Aranda, P

    2013-01-01

    Dietary protein amount and source, hypertrophy resistance training (RT) and anabolicandrogenic steroids (AAS) may affect body weight and plasma and hepatic lipid profile. 157 adult male Wistar rats were randomly distributed in 16 experimental groups resulting in: normal-protein (NP) or high-protein (HP) diets, whey or soy-protein diets, with or without RT and with or without AAS, for 3 months. Final body weight was lower in the RT and AAS groups compared to sedentary and non- AAS groups, respectively (all, pweight of rats that performed RT or ingested a HP diet (all, p<0.05). HDL-cholesterol was higher when RT was combined with HP diets (p=0.010) or non-AAS and when HP diets were combined with non-AAS (both,p<0.001). Groups that combined RT with non-AAS administration obtained the lowest hepatic TAG (p<0.05). Among all the interventions tested, AAS was the factor that most negatively affected plasma and hepatic lipid profile, whereas HP diets and RT could benefit lipid profile, especially when combined. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. Sheet pinch devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, O.A.; Baker, W.R.; Ise, J. Jr.; Kunkel, W.B.; Pyle, R.V.; Stone, J.M.

    1958-01-01

    Three types of sheet-like discharges are being studied at Berkeley. The first of these, which has been given the name 'Triax', consists of a cylindrical plasma sleeve contained between two coaxial conducting cylinders A theoretical analysis of the stability of the cylindrical sheet plasma predicts the existence of a 'sausage-mode' instability which is, however, expected to grow more slowly than in the case of the unstabilized linear pinch (by the ratio of the radial dimensions). The second pinch device employs a disk shaped discharge with radial current guided between flat metal plates, this configuration being identical to that of the flat hydromagnetic capacitor without external magnetic field. A significant feature of these configurations is the absence of a plasma edge, i.e., there are no regions of sharply curved magnetic field lines anywhere in these discharges. The importance of this fact for stability is not yet fully investigated theoretically. As a third configuration a rectangular, flat pinch tube has been constructed, and the behaviour of a flat plasma sheet with edges is being studied experimentally

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of gram-negative bacteria causing infections collected across India during 2014–2016: Study for monitoring antimicrobial resistance trend report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Veeraraghavan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The emergence of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens in the hospital and community has increased the concern to the health-care providers due to the limited treatment options. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR in frequently isolated bacterial pathogens causing severe infections is of great importance. The data generated will be useful for the clinicians to decide empiric therapy on the local epidemiological resistance profile of the antimicrobial agents. This study aims to monitor the distribution of bacterial pathogen and their susceptibility pattern to the commonly used antimicrobial agents. Materials and Methods: This study includes Gram-negative bacilli collected from intra-abdominal, urinary tract and respiratory tract infections during 2014–2016. Isolates were collected from seven hospitals across India. All the study isolates were characterised up to species level, and minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for a wide range of antimicrobials included in the study panel. The test results were interpreted as per standard Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results: A total of 2731 isolates of gram-negative bacteria were tested during study period. The most frequently isolated pathogens were 44% of Escherichia coli (n = 1205 followed by 25% of Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 676 and 11% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 308. Among the antimicrobials tested, carbapenems were the most active, followed by amikacin and piperacillin/tazobactam. The rate of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-positive isolates were ranged from 66%–77% in E. coli to 61%–72% in K. pneumoniae, respectively. Overall, colistin retains its activity in > 90% of the isolates tested and appear promising. Conclusion: Increasing rates of ESBL producers have been noted, which is alarming. Further, carbapenem resistance was also gradually increasing, which needs much attention. Overall, this study data show that

  18. Comparison of the loads and antibiotic-resistance profiles of Enterococcus species from conventional and organic chicken carcasses in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y-J; Park, J-H; Seo, K-H

    2018-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria in poultry meat are a threat to public health. In this study, we compared the Enterococcus spp. loads and antibiotic-resistance profiles between carcasses of conventionally and organically raised chickens. A total of 144 chicken carcasses (72 conventional and 72 organic) was collected from local retail markets in Seoul, South Korea. Overall, 77.7% (112 of 144; 75% conventional and 80% organic) of chicken carcasses were positive for Enterococcus. The mean loads of Enterococcus spp. were greater in conventional chicken carcasses, at 2.9 ± 0.4 log CFU/mL, than those in organic chicken carcasses, at 1.78 ± 0.3 log CFU/mL (p organic chicken carcasses) was randomly selected for further analysis. The predominant species was Enterococcus faecalis in both conventional and organic chicken carcasses (57.7 and 76.9%, respectively; P > 0.05). Rates of resistance to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin, which are used in veterinary medicine in South Korea, were significantly higher in conventional chicken carcasses than in organic chicken carcasses. However, we found no difference between the rates of resistance to antibiotics such as vancomycin and tigecycline, which were not registered for use in veterinary medicine in South Korea, of Enterococcus isolates from conventional and organic chicken carcasses. In addition, although multidrug resistant isolates were obtained from both types of chicken samples, the prevalence of samples positive for Enterococcus was significantly higher in conventional chicken carcasses than in organic chicken carcasses (P organic chicken carcasses. A high level of gentamicin resistance was observed in isolates from not only conventional (5.8%) but also organic chicken (1.9%) carcasses, with no significant difference in rates between them (P > 0.05). Despite this, our results suggest that organic food certification is effective in reducing fecal contamination and the burden of antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus spp. in

  19. Resistive evolution of current profile in tokamaks, application to the optimization of Tore-supra plasma discharges; Evolution resistive du profil de courant dans les Tokamaks, application a l'optimisation des decharges de Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregeon, R

    1999-03-01

    In Tokamak plasma physics, current profile shaping has now become a key issue to improve the confinement properties of the plasma discharge. The objective of this work is to study the processes governing the current diffusion when non-inductive current are playing a major role in the discharge. Ultimately, this study aims to identify the key parameters to control the plasma current density profile with external current drive heating systems such as Lower Hybrid Current drive (LHCD) or self generated current drive such as the bootstrap current. Principles of non inductive current drive and heating systems are introduced as well as bootstrap current mechanisms. Then we present the experimental study of plasma parallel electric conductivity to validate existing models. Using these results, the poloidal magnetic field flux diffusion is modelled, using toroidal co-ordinates in order to give an accurate description of the current density profiles evolution. The initial and boundary conditions required for numerical resolution of the diffusion equation are also presented. Finally, we conclude this work with the simulations of two discharges: one with Fast Wave Electron Heating and the second using Lower Hybrid Current Drive. These simulations have multiples aims: validity test of our numerical tool and to show some limits of cylindrical models. Test of electric conductivity and bootstrap current models. To identify the key parameters involved in the current diffusion processes of a high performance plasma discharge on Tore Supra. Such simulations are crucial to determine the amount of non-inductive current required to control and sustain long plasma discharges in steady state. (author)

  20. Influence of curing profile and fibre architecture on the fatigue resistance of composite materials for wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    been investigated during a variety of curing profiles of the used epoxy material system. Thereby, it is possible to observe that even though the overall chemical shrinkage of the epoxy material system is independent on the chosen curing profile, the location of the gel-point and thereby the amount......The fatigue performance of unidirectional glass fibre reinforced epoxy is found to be highly dependent on the manufacturing conditions, where a low manufacturing temperature, for the investigated wind turbine relevant composite material system, is found to improve the tension/tension fatigue life....... It is a failure mechanism which is judge to be highly influenced by the magnitude of the residual stresses exhibit in the matrix material and therefore also in the secondary oriented backing bundles. Using fibre Bragg grated optical fibres2; the build-up of the cure-induced strains in the fibre-reinforcement has...

  1. Proteomic and transcriptomic profiling of in vitro established radiation resistant oral cancer cells for identification of radioresistance related biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yasser; Pawar, Sagar; Teni, Tanuja

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy is an integral part of oral cancer treatment, either alone or in combination with surgery. But, during radiotherapy, oral tumours of a subset of patients develop radioresistance that creates major obstruction towards its efficacy. The aim of our study was to establish radioresistant cell lines from different oral subsites using clinically admissible low dose radiation and profile them by proteomic and transcriptomic approaches to identify proteins associated with radioresistance in oral cancer

  2. Low fish oil intake improves insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and muscle metabolism on insulin resistant MSG-obese rats

    OpenAIRE

    Iagher Fabiola; Aikawa Julia; Rocha Ricelli ER; Machado Juliano; Kryczyk Marcelo; Schiessel Dalton; Borghetti Gina; Yamaguchi Adriana A; Pequitto Danielle CT; Coelho Isabela; Brito Gleisson AP; Yamazaki Ricardo K; Naliwaiko Katya; Tanhoffer Ricardo A; Nunes Everson A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity is commonly associated with diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The purpose of this study was to determinate the effect of a lower dose of fish oil supplementation on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, and muscle metabolism in obese rats. Methods Monosodium glutamate (MSG) (4 mg/g body weight) was injected in neonatal Wistar male rats. Three-month-old rats were divided in normal-weight control group (C), coconut fat-treated normal weight group (CO), fish...

  3. Fasting insulin has a stronger association with an adverse cardiometabolic risk profile than insulin resistance: the RISC study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Rooij, Susanne R; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Kozakova, Michaela

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fasting insulin concentrations are often used as a surrogate measure of insulin resistance. We investigated the relative contributions of fasting insulin and insulin resistance to cardiometabolic risk and preclinical atherosclerosis. DESIGN AND METHODS: The Relationship between Insulin...... of the metabolic syndrome in 1177 participants. Carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT) was measured by ultrasound to assess preclinical atherosclerosis. RESULTS: Fasting insulin was correlated with all elements of the metabolic syndrome. Insulin sensitivity (M/I) was correlated with most elements. The odds...... ratio for the metabolic syndrome of those in the highest quartile of fasting insulin compared with those in the lower quartiles was 5.4 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8-10.3, adjusted for insulin sensitivity) in men and 5.1 (2.6-9.9) in women. The odds ratio for metabolic syndrome of those with insulin...

  4. Analysis and comparison of magnetic sheet insulation tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion-Péra, M. C.; Kedous-Lebouc, A.; Cornut, B.; Brissonneau, P.

    1994-05-01

    Magnetic circuits of electrical machines are divided into coated sheets in order to limit eddy currents. The surface insulation resistance of magnetic sheets is difficult to evaluate because it depends on parameters like pressure and covers a wide range of values. Two methods of measuring insulation resistance are analyzed: the standardized 'Franklin device' and a tester developed by British Steel Electrical. Their main drawback is poor local repeatability. The Franklin method allows better quality control of industrial process because it measures only one insulating layer at a time. It also gives more accurate images of the distribution of possible defects. Nevertheless, both methods lead to similar classifications of insulation efficiency.

  5. In Vitro Antiviral Activity and Resistance Profile of the Next-Generation Hepatitis C Virus NS5A Inhibitor Pibrentasvir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Teresa I; Krishnan, Preethi; Pilot-Matias, Tami; Kati, Warren; Schnell, Gretja; Beyer, Jill; Reisch, Thomas; Lu, Liangjun; Dekhtyar, Tatyana; Irvin, Michelle; Tripathi, Rakesh; Maring, Clarence; Randolph, John T; Wagner, Rolf; Collins, Christine

    2017-05-01

    Pibrentasvir (ABT-530) is a novel and pan-genotypic hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A inhibitor with 50% effective concentration (EC 50 ) values ranging from 1.4 to 5.0 pM against HCV replicons containing NS5A from genotypes 1 to 6. Pibrentasvir demonstrated similar activity against a panel of chimeric replicons containing HCV NS5A of genotypes 1 to 6 from clinical samples. Resistance selection studies were conducted using HCV replicon cells with NS5A from genotype 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 4a, 5a, or 6a at a concentration of pibrentasvir that was 10- or 100-fold over its EC 50 for the respective replicon. With pibrentasvir at 10-fold over the respective EC 50 , only a small number of colonies (0.00015 to 0.0065% of input cells) with resistance-associated amino acid substitutions were selected in replicons containing genotype 1a, 2a, or 3a NS5A, and no viable colonies were selected in replicons containing NS5A from other genotypes. With pibrentasvir at 100-fold over the respective EC 50 , very few colonies (0.0002% of input cells) were selected by pibrentasvir in genotype 1a replicon cells while no colonies were selected in other replicons. Pibrentasvir is active against common resistance-conferring substitutions in HCV genotypes 1 to 6 that were identified for other NS5A inhibitors, including those at key amino acid positions 28, 30, 31, or 93. The combination of pibrentasvir with HCV inhibitors of other classes produced synergistic inhibition of HCV replication. In summary, pibrentasvir is a next-generation HCV NS5A inhibitor with potent and pan-genotypic activity, and it maintains activity against common amino acid substitutions of HCV genotypes 1 to 6 that are known to confer resistance to currently approved NS5A inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Ng et al.

  6. In vitro profiling of antimethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus activity of thymoquinone against selected type and clinical strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, P; Paul-Satyaseela, M; Gnanamani, A

    2016-03-01

    This study explores antimethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) activity of a bioactive phytochemical constituent, thymoquinone obtained from the medicinal herb, Nigella sativa Linn. Based on initial assessment on crude extract of seeds of Nigella sativa Linn, the pure active constituent was employed in the study. A total of 99 MRSA strains which comprised of 40 types and 59 clinical strains were selected for the study. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), bactericidal activity, postantibiotic effect (PAE) and propensity to select resistant mutants were determined using standard protocols. Results revealed that thymoquinone exhibited MIC in the range of 8-16 μg ml(-1) and MIC90 of 16 μg ml(-1) against MRSA strains. It was bactericidal to MRSA by demonstrating >3 log kill. It showed a longer PAE of 3·2 ± 0·2 h. Upon exposure to high-density inoculum of MRSA, it did not select resistant mutants. Transmission electron microscopy of thymoquinone-treated MRSA showed no lysis but damage to cell wall and cell membrane which corroborated well with the salt tolerance and bacteriolysis assays. In conclusion, MIC90 , bactericidal property, longer PAE, absence of resistant mutant selection and damages in cell membrane and cell wall imply a promising anti-MRSA activity of thymoquinone. This is the first detailed report on anti-MRSA activity of thymoquinone. The assessment was made with both type and clinical strains. Thymoquinone may be a potential lead compound which can be further optimized to discover novel anti-MRSA agents. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. The effects of high-intensity resistance exercise on the blood lipid profile and liver function in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frajacomo, Fernando Tadeu Trevisan; Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Fernandes, Cleverson Rodrigues; Martinello, Flávia; Bachur, José Alexandre; Uyemura, Sérgio Akira; Perez, Sérgio Eduardo de Andrade; Garcia, Sérgio Britto

    2012-06-01

    It is well established that atherogenic dyslipidemia, characterized by high levels of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, constitutes important risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Regular exercise has been associated with a reduced risk for metabolic diseases. However, studies supporting the concept that resistance exercise is a modifier of blood lipid parameters are often contradictory. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high-intensity resistance exercise on the serum levels of TG, TC, HDL and non-HDL cholesterol, glucose, and the liver function enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT, EC 2.6.1.2) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST, EC 2.6.1.1) in golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus (Waterhouse, 1839)) fed a hypercholesterolemic diet. Sedentary groups (S) and exercise groups (E) were fed a standard diet (SS and ES) or a cholesterol-enriched diet (standard plus 1% cholesterol, SC and EC). Resistance exercise was performed by jumps in the water, carrying a load strapped to the chest, representing 10 maximum repetitions (10 RM, 30 s rest, five days per week for five weeks). Mean blood sample comparisons were made by ANOVA + Tukey or ANOVA + Kruskal-Wallis tests (p 0.05). However, the EC group increased the glucose, non-HDL, and TC levels in comparison with the ES group. Moreover, the EC group increased the TG levels versus the SC group (p < 0.05). In addition, the ALT levels were increased only by diet treatment. These findings indicated that high-intensity resistance exercise contributed to dyslipidemia in hamsters fed a hypercholesterolemic diet, whereas liver function enzymes did not differ in regards to the exercise protocol.

  8. Profile of Virulence Factors in the Multi-Drug Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains of Human Urinary Tract Infections (UTI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Asghar; Honarmand, Ramin

    2015-12-01

    Putative virulence factors are responsible for the pathogenicity of UTIs caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). Resistance of P. aeruginosa to commonly used antibiotics is caused by the extreme overprescription of those antibiotics. The goal of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of virulence factors and the antibiotic resistance patterns of P. aeruginosa isolates in UTI cases in Iran. Two hundred and fifty urine samples were collected from patients who suffered from UTIs. Samples were cultured immediately, and those that were P. aeruginosa-positive were analyzed for the presence of virulence genes using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) was performed using the disk diffusion method. Of the 250 urine samples analyzed, 8 samples (3.2%) were positive for P. aeruginosa. The prevalence of P. aeruginosa in male and female patients was 2.7% and 3.5%, respectively, (P = 0.035). In patients less than 10 years old, it was 4.2%, and in patients more than 55 years old, it was 4.2%. These were the most commonly infected groups. The highest levels of resistance were seen against ampicillin (87.5%), norfloxacin (62.5%), gentamycin (62.5%), amikacin (62.5%), and aztreonam (62.5%), while the lowest were seen for meropenem (0%), imipenem (12.5%), and polymyxin B (12.5%). LasB (87.5%), pclH (75%), pilB (75%), and exoS (75%) were the most commonly detected virulence factors in the P. aeruginosa isolates. It is logical to first prescribe meropenem, imipenem, and polymyxin B in cases of UTIs caused by P. aeruginosa. Medical practitioners should be aware of the presence of levels of antibiotic resistance in hospitalized UTI patients in Iran.

  9. Antibiotic Resistance Profiling of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Clinical Specimens in a Tertiary Hospital from 2010 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain C. Juayang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MRSA infection can affect a wide array of individuals that may lead to treatment failure. Also, the infection has the potential to spread from one area to another particularly health care facilities or communities eventually causing minor outbreaks. With this premise, the study aimed to describe MRSA infections using the hospital-based data of a tertiary hospital in Bacolod City, Philippines, from 2010 to 2012. Specifically, this study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus isolated from clinical specimens and to put emphasis on the prevalence of MRSA and Inducible Clindamycin Resistance. A total of 94 cases from 2010 to 2012 were diagnosed to have S. aureus infection using conventional bacteriologic methods. From these cases, 38 (40.6% were identified as MRSA and 37 (39.4% were inducible clindamycin resistant. Wounds and abscesses were considered to be the most common specimens with MRSA infections having 71.05% while blood was the least with 5.3%. For drug susceptibility, out of the 94 S. aureus cases, including MRSA, 100% were susceptible to linezolid making it the drug of choice for this study. It was then followed by tetracycline having a mean susceptibility of 95%;, while penicillin G was ineffective with 94 cases having 0% susceptibility.

  10. [Metabolic profile in obese patients with obstructive sleep apnea. A comparison between patients with insulin resistance and with insulin sensitivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrache-Rujinski, Stefan; Dinu, Ioana; Călcăianu, George; Erhan, Ionela; Cocieru, Alexandru; Zaharia, Dragoş; Toma, Claudia Lucia; Bogdan, Miron Alexandru

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) may induce metabolic abnormalities through intermittent hypoxemia and simpathetic activation. It is difficult to demonstrate an independent role of OSAS in the occurrence of metabolic abnormalities, as obesity represents an important risk factor for both OSAS and metabolic abnormalities. to assess the relations between insulin resistance (IR), insulin sensitivity (IS), OSAS severity and nocturnal oxyhaemoglobin levels in obese, nondiabetic patients with daytime sleepiness. We evaluated 99 consecutive, obese, nondiabetic patients (fasting glycemia 5/hour and daytime sleepiness) by an ambulatory six channel cardio-respiratory polygraphy. Hight, weight serum triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were evaluated. Correlations between Apneea Hypopnea Index (AHI), Oxygen Desaturation Index (ODI), average and lowest oxyhaemoglobin saturation (SaO), body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance or sensitivity were assesed. IR was defined as a TG/ HDL-Cratio > 3, and insulin sensitivity (IS) as a TG/HDL-C ratio obese nondiabetic patients. Preserving insulin sensitivity is more likely when oxyhaemoglobin levels are higher and ODI is lower. Mean lowest nocturnal SaO2 levels seems to be independently involved in the development of insulin resistance as no statistically significant differences were found for BMI between the two groups.

  11. Comparative transcriptome profiling of a thermal resistant vs. sensitive silkworm strain in response to high temperature under stressful humidity condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfu Xiao

    Full Text Available Thermotolerance is important particularly for poikilotherms such as insects. Understanding the mechanisms by which insects respond to high temperatures can provide insights into their adaptation to the environment. Therefore, in this study, we performed a transcriptome analysis of two silkworm strains with significantly different resistance to heat as well as humidity; the thermo-resistant strain 7532 and the thermos-sensitive strain Knobbed. We identified in total 4,944 differentially expressed genes (DEGs using RNA-Seq. Among these, 4,390 were annotated and 554 were novel. Gene Ontology (GO analysis of 747 DEGs identified between RT_48h (Resistant strain with high-temperature Treatment for 48 hours and ST_48h (Sensitive strain with high-temperature Treatment for 48 hours showed significant enrichment of 12 GO terms including metabolic process, extracellular region and serine-type peptidase activity. Moreover, we discovered 12 DEGs that may contribute to the heat-humidity stress response in the silkworm. Our data clearly showed that 48h post-exposure may be a critical time point for silkworm to respond to high temperature and humidity. These results provide insights into the genes and biological processes involved in high temperature and humidity tolerance in the silkworm, and advance our understanding of thermal tolerance in insects.

  12. Preclinical and Clinical Resistance Profile of EDP-239, a Novel Hepatitis C Virus NS5A Inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Christopher M; Brasher, Bradley B; Polemeropoulos, Alex; Rhodin, Michael H J; McAllister, Nicole; Wong, Kelly A; Jones, Christopher T; Jiang, Lijuan; Lin, Kai; Or, Yat Sun

    2016-10-01

    EDP-239, a potent and selective hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) inhibitor developed for the treatment of HCV infection, has been investigated in vitro and in vivo This study sought to characterize genotypic changes in the HCV NS5A sequence of genotype 1 (GT1) replicons and to compare those changes to GT1 viral RNA mutations isolated from clinical trial patients. Resistance selection experiments in vitro using a subgenomic replicon identified resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) at GT1a NS5A amino acid positions 24, 28, 30, 31, and 93 that confer various degrees of resistance to EDP-239. Key RAMs were similarly identified in GT1b NS5A at amino acid positions 31 and 93. Mutations F36L in GT1a and A92V in GT1b do not confer resistance to EDP-239 individually but were found to enhance the resistance of GT1a K24R and GT1b Y93H. RAMs were identified in GT1 patients at baseline or after dosing with EDP-239 that were similar to those detected in vitro Baseline RAMs identified at NS5A position 93 in GT1, or positions 28 or 30 in GT1a only, correlated with a reduced treatment response. RAMs at additional positions were also detected and may have contributed to reduced EDP-239 efficacy. The most common GT1a and GT1b RAMs found to persist up to weeks 12, 24, or 48 were those at NS5A positions 28, 30, 31, 58 (GT1a only), and 93. Those RAMs persisting at the highest frequencies up to weeks 24 or 48 were L31M and Q30H/R for GT1a and L31M and Y93H for GT1b. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT01856426.). Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. [Ecology and fluoroquinolon resistance profiles in febrile urinary tract infections (FUTI) after prostate needle biopsy: A retrospective study in 466 biopsies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duboureau, H; Achkar, K; Stephan, R; Schmit, J L; Saint, F

    2017-05-01

    The biopsies of prostate are the reference examination to assert the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Even if the urinary infectious complications are rare thanks to the systematic oral antibiotic prophylaxis, they may still be serious. The SPILF (Society of Infectious Pathology and French language) published in 2014, an important increase of the resistances in fluoroquinolones for Escherichia coli (3 to 25%), whereas this is the most bacterium frequently found in the urinary infections (70-80%). The objectives of this study were to estimate the indicence of the febrile urinary tract infections after prostate needle biopsy and to define the ecology and the profile of E. coli's resistance. A total of 466 transrectal ultrasound-guided needle prostate biopsy were included in the study from 2012 to 2015. All the patients were taken care according to the recommendations of the AFU (Ouzzane et al., 2011). We estimated, for all the inclusive patients, if they had presented a clinic sign of urinary infection like fever or burning which suggestive of an urinary infection, and having a urines and blood culture, in the next 30 days the realization of the medical exam. Among 466 realized biopsies, seven patients developed a febril urinary tract infection (1.5%) [prostatitis (n=6), orchitis (n=1)]. Five infections to E. coli were identified; two were resistant for fluoroquinolones (40%). No germ was able to be identified for two patients. The infectious complications post-biopsy of prostate are rare (1.5%). E. coli is the germ most frequently identified with 40% of resistance with fluoroquinolones. 4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effect of Green Tea versus Sour Tea on Insulin Resistance, Lipids Profiles and Oxidative Stress in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mozaffari-Khosravi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: By decreasing oxidative stress and whereby decreasing insulin resistance, it may be possible to decrease complications of Diabetes Mellitus (DM. Green tea and sour tea contain phytochemicals which have anti-oxidative function. The aim of this study is to compare the effect of sour and green tea consumption on insulin resistance and oxidative stress in DM. Methods: This study is a randomized clinical trial in which 100 type 2 diabetes patients were randomly assigned into sour tea group (ST and green tea group (GT. The patients were instructed to drink 150ml sour tea and green tea infusion, respectively, three times a day for 4 weeks. Fasting blood sugar (FBS, fructosamine, lipid profiles, fasting blood insulin (FBI, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; beta cell function (b%, insulin sensitivity (S% and malondialdehyde (MDA were monitored. Results: HDL-c significantly increased in both groups. The median of FBI in GT showed significant decrease (8.5 to 6.6 μIU/mL unlike the ST which showed significant increase (8.2 to 16.3 μIU/mL. The median of HOMA-IR after the intervention in GT showed lower levels than the ST (1.1 vs. 1.6, P=0.004. The median of b% only in ST showed significant increase from 38.2% at the baseline to 47.7% after the intervention. The mean of S% only in ST showed significant decrease after the intervention. Conclusion: This study shows that the use of 150 ml infusion of green tea or sour tea, three times a day for four weeks, has positive effect on insulin resistance and certain lipoproteins in type 2 DM. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201107317161N1

  15. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis profiles of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli isolated from different retail foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Nakamura, Hiromi; Kage-Nakadai, Eriko; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Nishikawa, Yoshikazu

    2017-05-16

    Diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) isolates were recovered from local retail markets and the Osaka Municipal Central Wholesale Market in Japan. Retail food samples were collected for analysis in Osaka Japan from 2005 to 2008 and consisted of 32 beef, 28 pork, 20 poultry, 136 fish, 66 fruits and vegetables and 51 ready-to-eat (RTE) food samples. A total of 82 DEC strains were recovered from 64 (19%) food samples with the highest prevalence in poultry (100%, 20/20), followed by pork (54%, 15/28), beef (28%, 9/32), fruits and vegetables (12%, 8/66), fish (6.6%, 9/136) and RTE foods (5.9%, 3/51). Most of the strains belonged to E. coli possessing the enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) heat-stable enterotoxin 1 (EAST1) gene (EAST1EC; n=62, P3 antimicrobial agents. Isolates resistant to >5 antimicrobials were only found in the meat samples, while isolates from the fruits and vegetables as well as RTE foods showed resistance to only 1 or 2 antimicrobial agents. Sixty one percent of EAST1EC, 56% of EPEC and all of the EAEC and ETEC were resistant to at least 1 antimicrobial agent. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) was used in this study for genotyping of DEC. The 82 isolates collected for this study showed 77 distinct MLVA profiles located among 3 branches. The Simpson's Index of Diversity (D) was 99.9% at its highest. The high diversity of these food strains would suggest their originating from a variety of sources and environments. In conclusion, retail food samples in Japan were contaminated with DEC; EAST1EC, a putative DEC, were detected at high rates in poultry, pork and beef. Isolates resistant to >3 antimicrobials were found only in raw meat and fish. Food animals may act as the reservoir for multi-resistant bacteria. Due to the finding that nearly 1/3 of EAST1EC strains were resistant to >3 antimicrobials, additional surveillance for EAST1EC should be initiated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Dense sheet Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetsu, Miyamoto

    1999-01-01

    The steady state and quasi-steady processes of infinite- and finite-width sheet z-pinches are studied. The relations corresponding to the Bennett relation and Pease-Braginskii current of cylindrical fiber z-pinches depend on a geometrical factor in the sheet z-pinches. The finite-width sheet z-pinch is approximated by a segment of infinite-width sheet z-pinch, if it is wide enough, and corresponds to a number of (width/thickness) times fiber z-pinch plasmas of the diameter that equals the sheet thickness. If the sheet current equals this number times the fiber current, the plasma created in the sheet z-pinches is as dense as in the fiber z-pinches. The total energy of plasma and magnetic field per unit mass is approximately equal in both pinches. Quasi-static transient processes are different in several aspects from the fiber z-pinch. No radiation collapse occurs in the sheet z-pinch. The stability is improved in the sheet z-pinches. The fusion criterions and the experimental arrangements to produce the sheet z-pinches are also discussed. (author)

  17. HIV-1 infection and pregnancy in young women in Brazil: socioeconomic and drug resistance profiles in a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Yanna Andressa Ramos; Reis, Mônica Nogueira Guarda; Cardoso, Ludimila Paula Vaz; Stefani, Mariane Martins Araújo

    2016-07-05

    To describe socioeconomic and antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance profiles among young pregnant women infected with HIV-1. A public health antenatal programme responsible for screening ∼90 000 pregnant women per year for nine different infectious diseases in Central Western Brazil. 96 young pregnant women (15-24 years) infected with HIV-1. Standard interviews and blood samples were taken at the time of recruitment, at the first medical appointment after confirmation of diagnosis of HIV-1 infection, and before ARV prophylaxis initiation. Clinical and laboratory data were retrieved from medical files. HIV-1 pol gene sequences (entire protease/PR, partial reverse transcriptase/RT) were obtained from plasma RNA. ARV resistance mutations (CPR/Stanford HIV-1; International AIDS Society-USA databases) were identified. The median age was 21 years; most reported pregnancies. Possible heterosexual transmission by an HIV-1 infected partner (17%) and commercial sex work (2%) were reported. The median of CD4 cell count was 526 cells/mm(3); the median viral load was: 10 056 copies/mL in ARV-naïve (48/96) patients and 5881 copies/mL in ARV-exposed (48/96) patients. Two probable seroconversion cases during pregnancy were identified in adolescents. One mother-to-child transmission case (1.0%) was observed. Transmitted drug resistance among ARV-naïve patients was 9.3% (CI 95% 3.3% to 19.6%); secondary drug resistance among ARV-exposed patients was 12.5% (CI 95% 4.7% to 25.6%). Despite high access to antenatal care, the low socioeconomic-educational profiles seen in these young HIV-1-infected women highlight the necessity of improved public health educational and preventive strategies regarding HIV infection and early unplanned pregnancy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. A laser sheet self-calibration method for scanning PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Anna N.; Lawson, John M.; Dawson, James R.; Worth, Nicholas A.

    2017-10-01

    Knowledge of laser sheet position, orientation, and thickness is a fundamental requirement of scanning PIV and other laser-scanning methods. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a new laser sheet self-calibration method for stereoscopic scanning PIV, which allows the measurement of these properties from particle images themselves. The approach is to fit a laser sheet model by treating particles as randomly distributed probes of the laser sheet profile, whose position is obtained via a triangulation procedure enhanced by matching particle images according to their variation in brightness over a scan. Numerical simulations and tests with experimental data were used to quantify the sensitivity of the method to typical experimental error sources and validate its performance in practice. The numerical simulations demonstrate the accurate recovery of the laser sheet parameters over range of different seeding densities and sheet thicknesses. Furthermore, they show that the method is robust to significant image noise and camera misalignment. Tests with experimental data confirm that the laser sheet model can be accurately reconstructed with no impairment to PIV measurement accuracy. The new method is more efficient and robust in comparison with the standard (self-) calibration approach, which requires an involved, separate calibration step that is sensitive to experimental misalignments. The method significantly improves the practicality of making accurate scanning PIV measurements and broadens its potential applicability to scanning systems with significant vibrations.

  19. Comprehensive profiling of DNA repair defects in breast cancer identifies a novel class of endocrine therapy resistance drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anurag, Meenakshi; Punturi, Nindo; Hoog, Jeremy; Bainbridge, Matthew N; Ellis, Matthew J; Haricharan, Svasti

    2018-05-23

    This study was undertaken to conduct a comprehensive investigation of the role of DNA damage repair (DDR) defects in poor outcome ER+ disease. Expression and mutational status of DDR genes in ER+ breast tumors were correlated with proliferative response in neoadjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy trials (discovery data set), with outcomes in METABRIC, TCGA and Loi data sets (validation data sets), and in patient derived xenografts. A causal relationship between candidate DDR genes and endocrine treatment response, and the underlying mechanism, was then tested in ER+ breast cancer cell lines. Correlations between loss of expression of three genes: CETN2 (p<0.001) and ERCC1 (p=0.01) from the nucleotide excision repair (NER) and NEIL2 (p=0.04) from the base excision repair (BER) pathways were associated with endocrine treatment resistance in discovery data sets, and subsequently validated in independent patient cohorts. Complementary mutation analysis supported associations between mutations in NER and BER pathways and reduced endocrine treatment response. A causal role for CETN2, NEIL2 and ERCC1 loss in intrinsic endocrine resistance was experimentally validated in ER+ breast cancer cell lines, and in ER+ patient-derived xenograft models. Loss of CETN2, NEIL2 or ERCC1 induced endocrine treatment response by dysregulating G1/S transition, and therefore, increased sensitivity to CDK4/6 inhibitors. A combined DDR signature score was developed that predicted poor outcome in multiple patient cohorts. This report identifies DDR defects as a new class of endocrine treatment resistance drivers and indicates new avenues for predicting efficacy of CDK4/6 inhibition in the adjuvant treatment setting. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Perforation of metal sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, Jens Erik

    simulation is focused on the sheet deformation. However, the effect on the tool and press is included. The process model is based on the upper bound analysis in order to predict the force progress and hole characteristics etc. Parameter analyses are divided into two groups, simulation and experimental tests......The main purposes of this project are:1. Development of a dynamic model for the piercing and performation process2. Analyses of the main parameters3. Establishing demands for process improvements4. Expansion of the existing parameter limitsThe literature survey describes the process influence...

  1. Walnut consumption increases satiation but has no effect on insulin resistance or the metabolic profile over a 4-day period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Aoife M; Sweeney, Laura L; Liu, Xiaowen; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2010-06-01

    Obesity and diabetes have been associated with increased consumption of highly processed foods, and reduced consumption of whole grains and nuts. It has been proposed, mainly on the basis of observational studies, that nuts may provide superior satiation, may lead to reduced calorie consumption, and may decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes; but evidence from randomized, interventional studies is lacking. A total of 20 men and women with the metabolic syndrome participated in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study of walnut consumption. Subjects had two 4-day admissions to the clinical research center where they were fed an isocaloric diet. In addition, they consumed shakes for breakfast containing either walnuts or placebo (shakes were standardized for calories, carbohydrate, and fat content). Appetite, insulin resistance, and metabolic parameters were measured. We found an increased level of satiety (overall P value = 0.0079) and sense of fullness (P = 0.05) in prelunch questionnaires following the walnut breakfast as compared to the placebo breakfast, with the walnut effect achieving significance on day 3 and 4 (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03). We did not find any change in resting energy expenditure, hormones known to mediate satiety, or insulin resistance when comparing the walnut vs. placebo diet. Walnut consumption over 4 days increased satiety by day 3. Long-term studies are needed to confirm the physiologic role of walnuts, the duration of time needed for these effects to occur, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

  2. Prevalence and clinical profile of insulin resistance in young women of poly cystic ovary syndrome: A study from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Rumina; Imtiaz, Fouzia; Sharafat, Shaheen; Shukar-Ud-Din, Shazia; Nusrat, Uzma

    2013-04-01

    The aim was to estimate the prevalence of Insulin Resistance (IR) in Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and analyze its clinical parameters. This observational study was conducted at Dow University Hospital during June 2011 till May 2012. Patients of PCOS were selected, an anthropometric measurement, examination and fasting blood test for sugar (FBS) and insulin was performed. Data was collected on pre designed questionnaire, was analyzed by SPSS version 16. Forty-six cases of PCOS were included in the study. Prevalence of IR was 34.78%. Mean age of patients was 23.72 ± 4.37 years. Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) was raised in 42 (91.30%), acanthosis was found in 26(56.50%), impaired FBS was seen in 9 (19.6%) and raised fasting insulin in 16 (34.8%) patients. There was significant association between acanthosis and WHR (0.044) and between acanthosis and FBS (0.008). Correlation studies between parameters showed a significant correlation between Waist & Hips (0.93), similarly Waist & WHR showed positive correlation (0.59), at p< 0.01. Significant positive correlation was also found between waist and FBS (0.32) and FBS & WHR (0.378). Acanthosis nigrican, raised WHR and FBS are significant parameters for insulin resistance in cases of Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS).

  3. VRprofile: gene-cluster-detection-based profiling of virulence and antibiotic resistance traits encoded within genome sequences of pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Tai, Cui; Deng, Zixin; Zhong, Weihong; He, Yongqun; Ou, Hong-Yu

    2017-01-10

    VRprofile is a Web server that facilitates rapid investigation of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes, as well as extends these trait transfer-related genetic contexts, in newly sequenced pathogenic bacterial genomes. The used backend database MobilomeDB was firstly built on sets of known gene cluster loci of bacterial type III/IV/VI/VII secretion systems and mobile genetic elements, including integrative and conjugative elements, prophages, class I integrons, IS elements and pathogenicity/antibiotic resistance islands. VRprofile is thus able to co-localize the homologs of these conserved gene clusters using HMMer or BLASTp searches. With the integration of the homologous gene cluster search module with a sequence composition module, VRprofile has exhibited better performance for island-like region predictions than the other widely used methods. In addition, VRprofile also provides an integrated Web interface for aligning and visualizing identified gene clusters with MobilomeDB-archived gene clusters, or a variety set of bacterial genomes. VRprofile might contribute to meet the increasing demands of re-annotations of bacterial variable regions, and aid in the real-time definitions of disease-relevant gene clusters in pathogenic bacteria of interest. VRprofile is freely available at http://bioinfo-mml.sjtu.edu.cn/VRprofile. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Comparative analysis of methicillin-sensitive and resistant Staphylococcus aureus exposed to emodin based on proteomic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaoyu; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Peng, Yuanxia; Zhan, Ruoting; Xu, Hui; Ge, Xijin

    2017-12-09

    Emodin has a strong antibacterial activity, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However, the mechanism by which emodin induces growth inhibition against MRSA remains unclear. In this study, the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) proteomics approach was used to investigate the modes of action of emodin on a MRSA isolate and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus ATCC29213(MSSA). Proteomic analysis showed that expression levels of 145 and 122 proteins were changed significantly in MRSA and MSSA, respectively, after emodin treatment. Comparative analysis of the functions of differentially expressed proteins between the two strains was performed via bioinformatics tools blast2go and STRING database. Proteins related to pyruvate pathway imbalance induction, protein synthesis inhibition, and DNA synthesis suppression were found in both methicillin-sensitive and resistant strains. Moreover, Interference proteins related to membrane damage mechanism were also observed in MRSA. Our findings indicate that emodin is a potential antibacterial agent targeting MRSA via multiple mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Efficient three-dimensional resist profile-driven source mask optimization optical proximity correction based on Abbe-principal component analysis and Sylvester equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Chun; Yu, Chun-Chang; Chen, Charlie Chung-Ping

    2015-01-01

    As one of the critical stages of a very large scale integration fabrication process, postexposure bake (PEB) plays a crucial role in determining the final three-dimensional (3-D) profiles and lessening the standing wave effects. However, the full 3-D chemically amplified resist simulation is not widely adopted during the postlayout optimization due to the long run-time and huge memory usage. An efficient simulation method is proposed to simulate the PEB while considering standing wave effects and resolution enhancement techniques, such as source mask optimization and subresolution assist features based on the Sylvester equation and Abbe-principal component analysis method. Simulation results show that our algorithm is 20× faster than the conventional Gaussian convolution method.

  6. Trace elements profile is associated with insulin resistance syndrome and oxidative damage in thyroid disorders: Manganese and selenium interest in Algerian participants with dysthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maouche, Naima; Meskine, Djamila; Alamir, Barkahoum; Koceir, Elhadj-Ahmed

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between dysthyroidism and antioxidant trace elements (ATE) status is very subtle during oxidative stress (OS). This relationship is mediated by thyroid hormone (TH) disorder, insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate ATE such as selenium (Se), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) status on thyroid dysfunction, and their interaction with antioxidant enzyme activities, mainly, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), TH profile (TSH, T(3), T(4)) and IRS clusters. The study was undertaken on 220 Algerian adults (30-50 years), including 157 women and 63 men who were divided to 4 groups: subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 50), overt hypothyroidism (n = 60), Graves's disease hyperthyroidism (n = 60) and euthyroid controls (n = 50). The IRS was confirmed according to NCEP (National Cholesterol Education Program). Insulin resistance was evaluated by HOMA-IR model. Trace elements were determined by the Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (Flame-AAS) technique. The antioxidant enzymes activity and metabolic parameters were determined by biochemical methods. The TH profile and anti-Thyroperoxidase Antibodies (anti-TPO-Ab) were evaluated by radioimmunoassay. Results showed that the plasma manganese levels were significantly increased in all dysthyroidism groups (p ≤ 0.01). However, the plasma copper and zinc concentrations were maintained normal or not very disturbed vs control group. In contrast, the plasma selenium levels were highly decreased (p ≤ 0.001) and positively correlated with depletion of glutathione peroxidase activity; and associated both with anti-TPO-Ab overexpression and fulminant HS-CRP levels. This study confirms the oxidative stress-inflammation relationship in the dysthyroidism. The thyroid follicles antioxidant protection appears preserved in the cytosol (Cu/Zn-SOD), while it is altered in the mitochondria (Mn-SOD), which gives this cell organelle, a status of

  7. Malaria entomological profile in Tanzania from 1950 to 2010: a review of mosquito distribution, vectorial capacity and insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabula, Bilali; Derua, Yahya A; Tungui, Patrick; Massue, Dennis J; Sambu, Edward; Stanley, Grades; Mosha, Franklin W; Kisinza, William N

    2011-12-01

    In Sub Saharan Africa where most of the malaria cases and deaths occur, members of the Anopheles gambiae species complex and Anophelesfunestus species group are the important malaria vectors. Control efforts against these vectors in Tanzania like in most other Sub Saharan countries have failed to achieve the set objectives of eliminating transmission due to scarcity of information about the enormous diversity of Anopheles mosquito species and their susceptibility status to insecticides used for malaria vector control. Understanding the diversity and insecticide susceptibility status of these vectors and other factors relating to their importance as vectors (such as malaria transmission dynamics, vector biology, ecology, behaviour and population genetics) is crucial to developing a better and sound intervention strategies that will reduce man-vector contact and also manage the emergency of insecticide resistance early and hence .a success in malaria control. The objective of this review was therefore to obtain the information from published and unpublished documents on spatial distribution and composition of malaria vectors, key features of their behaviour, transmission indices and susceptibility status to insecticides in Tanzania. All data available were collated into a database. Details recorded for each data source were the locality, latitude/longitude, time/period of study, species, abundance, sampling/collection methods, species identification methods, insecticide resistance status, including evidence of the kdr allele, and Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite rate. This collation resulted in a total of 368 publications, encompassing 806,273 Anopheles mosquitoes from 157 georeferenced locations being collected and identified across Tanzania from 1950s to 2010. Overall, the vector species most often reported included An. gambiae complex (66.8%), An. funestus complex (21.8%), An. gambiae s.s. (2.1%) and An. arabiensis (9%). A variety of sampling/ collection and

  8. Adrenaline modulates the global transcriptional profile of Salmonella revealing a role in the antimicrobial peptide and oxidative stress resistance responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams P

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The successful interaction of bacterial pathogens with host tissues requires the sensing of specific chemical and physical cues. The human gut contains a huge number of neurons involved in the secretion and sensing of a class of neuroendocrine hormones called catecholamines. Recently, in Escherichia coli O157:H7, the catecholamines adrenaline and noradrenaline were shown to act synergistically with a bacterial quorum sensing molecule, autoinducer 3 (AI-3, to affect bacterial virulence and motility. We wished to investigate the impact of adrenaline on the biology of Salmonella spp. Results We have determined the effect of adrenaline on the transcriptome of the gut pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Addition of adrenaline led to an induction of key metal transport systems within 30 minutes of treatment. The oxidative stress responses employing manganese internalisation were also elicited. Cells lacking the key oxidative stress regulator OxyR showed reduced survival in the presence of adrenaline and complete restoration of growth upon addition of manganese. A significant reduction in the expression of the pmrHFIJKLM antimicrobial peptide resistance operon reduced the ability of Salmonella to survive polymyxin B following addition of adrenaline. Notably, both phenotypes were reversed by the addition of the β-adrenergic blocker propranolol. Our data suggest that the BasSR two component signal transduction system is the likely adrenaline sensor mediating the antimicrobial peptide response. Conclusion Salmonella are able to sense adrenaline and downregulate the antimicrobial peptide resistance pmr locus through the BasSR two component signalling system. Through iron transport, adrenaline may affect the oxidative stress balance of the cell requiring OxyR for normal growth. Both adrenaline effects can be inhibited by the addition of the β-adrenergic blocker propranolol. Adrenaline sensing may provide an environmental

  9. Experiments on sheet metal shearing

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Emil

    2013-01-01

    Within the sheet metal industry, different shear cutting technologies are commonly used in several processing steps, e.g. in cut to length lines, slitting lines, end cropping etc. Shearing has speed and cost advantages over competing cutting methods like laser and plasma cutting, but involves large forces on the equipment and large strains in the sheet material.Numerical models to predict forces and sheared edge geometry for different sheet metal grades and different shear parameter set-ups a...

  10. Scanning spreading resistance microscopy (SSRM) 2d carrier profiling for ultra-shallow junction characterization in deep-submicron technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyben, P.; Janssens, T.; Vandervorst, W.

    2005-01-01

    This work presents the recent progress in SSRM capabilities highlighting simultaneous performances in terms of sensitivity (<10%), spatial resolution (1-3 nm), dopant gradient resolution (1-2 nm/decade) and quantification accuracy (20-30%). The latter is illustrated through the analysis of different carrier profiling applications, i.e. the calibration of process simulations for a 90 nm n-MOS technology, the determination of the impact of nitridation on the lateral diffusion in a 40 nm n-MOS technology, the study of activation and diffusion problems in SPER-anneals of shallow implants, the observation of stress-induced diffusion mechanisms in the vicinity of shallow trench isolations (STI) and the study of diffusion and mobility mechanisms in SiGe MOS structures. Favorable comparisons with SCM and STM are also presented and do illustrate the unique capability of the SSRM technique

  11. A Shotgun Proteomic Approach Reveals That Fe Deficiency Causes Marked Changes in the Protein Profiles of Plasma Membrane and Detergent-Resistant Microdomain Preparations from Beta vulgaris Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Carbonell, Elain; Takahashi, Daisuke; Lüthje, Sabine; González-Reyes, José Antonio; Mongrand, Sébastien; Contreras-Moreira, Bruno; Abadía, Anunciación; Uemura, Matsuo; Abadía, Javier; López-Millán, Ana Flor

    2016-08-05

    In the present study we have used label-free shotgun proteomic analysis to examine the effects of Fe deficiency on the protein profiles of highly pure sugar beet root plasma membrane (PM) preparations and detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs), the latter as an approach to study microdomains. Altogether, 545 proteins were detected, with 52 and 68 of them changing significantly with Fe deficiency in PM and DRM, respectively. Functional categorization of these proteins showed that signaling and general and vesicle-related transport accounted for approximately 50% of the differences in both PM and DRM, indicating that from a qualitative point of view changes induced by Fe deficiency are similar in both preparations. Results indicate that Fe deficiency has an impact in phosphorylation processes at the PM level and highlight the involvement of signaling proteins, especially those from the 14-3-3 family. Lipid profiling revealed Fe-deficiency-induced decreases in phosphatidic acid derivatives, which may impair vesicle formation, in agreement with the decreases measured in proteins related to intracellular trafficking and secretion. The modifications induced by Fe deficiency in the relative enrichment of proteins in DRMs revealed the existence of a group of cytoplasmic proteins that appears to be more attached to the PM in conditions of Fe deficiency.

  12. Sex Differences in Biomarkers Associated With Insulin Resistance in Obese Adolescents: Metabolomic Profiling and Principal Components Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbern, Dorothee; Balikcioglu, Metin; Bain, James; Muehlbauer, Michael; Stevens, Robert; Ilkayeva, Olga; Dolinsky, Diana; Armstrong, Sarah; Irizarry, Krystal; Freemark, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Obesity and insulin resistance (IR) predispose to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Yet only half of obese adolescents have IR and far fewer progress to type 2 diabetes mellitus. We hypothesized that amino acid and fatty acid metabolites may serve as biomarkers or determinants of IR in obese teens. Research Design and Methods: Fasting blood samples were analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry in 82 obese adolescents. A principal components analysis and multiple linear regression models were used to correlate metabolic components with surrogate measures of IR: homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), adiponectin, and triglyceride (TG) to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio. Results: Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) levels and products of BCAA catabolism were higher (P BCAA, uric acid, and long-chain acylcarnitines and negatively with byproducts of complete fatty acid oxidation (R2 = 0.659, P < .0001). In contrast, only BMI z-score correlated with HOMA-IR in females. Adiponectin correlated inversely with BCAA and uric acid (R2 = 0.268, P = .0212) in males but not females. TG to HDL ratio correlated with BMI z-score and the BCAA signature in females but not males. Conclusions: BCAA levels and byproducts of BCAA catabolism are higher in obese teenage boys than girls of comparable BMI z-score. A metabolic signature comprising BCAA and uric acid correlates positively with HOMA-IR in males and TG to HDL ratio in females and inversely with adiponectin in males but not females. Likewise, byproducts of fatty acid oxidation associate inversely with HOMA-IR in males but not females. Our findings underscore the roles of sex differences in metabolic function and outcomes in pediatric obesity. PMID:25202817

  13. Multi-scale contact modeling of coated steels for sheet metal forming applications