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Sample records for profiles remained unchanged

  1. Mortality of acute mesenteric ischemia remains unchanged despite significant increase in utilization of endovascular techniques.

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    Eslami, Mohammad H; Rybin, Denis; Doros, Gheorghe; McPhee, James T; Farber, Alik

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated if increase in utilization of endovascular surgery has affected in-hospital mortality rates among patients with acute mesenteric ischemia. The National Inpatient Sample (2003-2011) was queried for acute mesenteric ischemia using ICD-9 code for acute mesenteric ischemia (557.1). This cohort was divided into patients treated with open vascular surgery (open vascular group) and by endovascular therapies (endovascular group) based on the ICD-9CM procedure codes. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine temporal trend for mortality while adjusting for confounding variables. There was 1.45-fold increase in utilization of endovascular techniques in this study. In-hospital mortality rate, total median charges and length of stay were significantly lower among the endovascular group than the open vascular group despite having significantly higher Elixhauser comorbidities index (3 ± 0.1 vs. 2.7 ± 0.1, p = .003). Over the course of the study period, there was no change in the overall mortality rate despite higher endovascular utilization. Factors associated with increased mortality included age, open surgical repair (Odds ratio: 1.45, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.10-1.91, p = .016) and bowel resection Odds ratio: 2.88, 95% Confidence Interval: 2.01-4.12). The mortality rate for acute mesenteric ischemia remains unchanged throughout this contemporary study. Open surgical intervention, bowel resection and age were associated with increased mortality. Endovascular group patients had better survival despite higher morbidity indices. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Holotranscobalamin remains unchanged during pregnancy. Longitudinal changes of cobalamins and their binding proteins during pregnancy and postpartum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Anne Louise; Hvas, Anne-Mette; Milman, Nils

    2007-01-01

    We confirm a decrease in cobalamins during pregnancy, and report that the active part of cobalamins (holotranscobalamin, holoTC) remains unchanged. The decrease in cobalamins is explained by a decreased holohaptocorrin (holoHC), suggesting that holoTC rather than cobalamins should be used as a ma...

  3. DNA methylation and transcription in HERV (K, W, E) and LINE sequences remain unchanged upon foreign DNA insertions.

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    Weber, Stefanie; Jung, Susan; Doerfler, Walter

    2016-02-01

    DNA methylation and transcriptional profiles were determined in the regulatory sequences of the human endogenous retroviral (HERV-K, -W, -E) and LINE-1.2 elements and were compared between non-transgenomic and plasmid-transgenomic cells. DNA methylation profiles in the HERV (K, W, E) and LINE sequences were determined by bisulfite genomic sequencing. The transcription of these genome segments was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. In HERV-K, HERV-W and LINE-1.2 the levels of DNA methylation ranged between 75 and 98%, while in HERV-E they were around 60%. Nevertheless, the HERV and LINE-1.2 sequences were actively transcribed. No differences were found in comparisons of HERV and LINE-1.2 CpG methylation and transcription patterns between non-transgenomic and plasmid-transgenomic HCT116 cells. The insertion of a 5.6 kbp plasmid into the HCT116 genome had no effect on the HERV and LINE-1.2 methylation and transcription profiles, although other parts of the HCT116 genome had shown marked changes. These repetitive sequences are transcribed, probably because the large number of HERV and LINE-1.2 elements harbor copies with non- or hypo-methylated long terminal repeat sequences.

  4. Shotgun microbial profiling of fossil remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Ermini, Luca; Jónsson, Hákon

    2014-01-01

    Millions to billions of DNA sequences can now be generated from ancient skeletal remains thanks to the massive throughput of next-generation sequencing platforms. Except in cases of exceptional endogenous DNA preservation, most of the sequences isolated from fossil material do not originate from...... community profiling of the seven specimens revealed site-specific environmental signatures. These microbial communities appear to comprise mainly organisms that colonized the fossils recently. Our approach significantly extends the amount of useful data that can be recovered from ancient specimens using...

  5. Experimental warming in a dryland community reduced plant photosynthesis and soil CO2 efflux although the relationship between the fluxes remained unchanged

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    Wertin, Timothy M.; Belnap, Jayne; Reed, Sasha C.

    2016-01-01

    1. Drylands represent our planet's largest terrestrial biome and, due to their extensive area, maintain large stocks of carbon (C). Accordingly, understanding how dryland C cycling will respond to climate change is imperative for accurately forecasting global C cycling and future climate. However, it remains difficult to predict how increased temperature will affect dryland C cycling, as substantial uncertainties surround the potential responses of the two main C fluxes: plant photosynthesis and soil CO2 efflux. In addition to a need for an improved understanding of climate effects on individual dryland C fluxes, there is also notable uncertainty regarding how climate change may influence the relationship between these fluxes.2. To address this important knowledge gap, we measured a growing season's in situphotosynthesis, plant biomass accumulation, and soil CO2 efflux of mature Achnatherum hymenoides (a common and ecologically important C3 bunchgrass growing throughout western North America) exposed to ambient or elevated temperature (+2°C above ambient, warmed via infrared lamps) for three years.3. The 2°C increase in temperature caused a significant reduction in photosynthesis, plant growth, and soil CO2 efflux. Of important note, photosynthesis and soil respiration appeared tightly coupled and the relationship between these fluxes was not altered by the elevated temperature treatment, suggesting C fixation's strong control of both above-ground and below-ground dryland C cycling. Leaf water use efficiency was substantially increased in the elevated temperature treatment compared to the control treatment.4. Taken together, our results suggest notable declines in photosynthesis with relatively subtle warming, reveal strong coupling between above- and below-ground C fluxes in this dryland, and highlight temperature's strong effect on fundamental components of dryland C and water cycles.

  6. Rates of abuse of tramadol remain unchanged with the introduction of new branded and generic products: results of an abuse monitoring system, 1994-2004.

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    Cicero, Theodore J; Inciardi, James A; Adams, Edgar H; Geller, Anne; Senay, Edward C; Woody, George E; Muñoz, Alvaro

    2005-12-01

    The analgesic Tramadol HCl (Ultram) was approved in 1994 as a non-scheduled drug under the CSA provided that a novel risk-management program would be developed by an Independent Steering Committee (ISC). The risk-management program began in 1995 with the launch of Ultram, and has been modified over the past decade to accommodate Ultracet (Ultram and acetaminophen) in 2001 and generic tramadol in 2002. This provided a unique opportunity to study the potential changes in abuse as the generic and combination products became available. To proactively detect cases of abuse and diversion, the ISC developed a comprehensive questionnaire which was completed quarterly by an extensive network of drug abuse experts (n = 309) and police agencies (n = 100) who were asked to indicate how many diversion cases involving Ultram, Ultracet, and generic tramadol were identified during the preceding 3 months and what were the ten most commonly diverted drugs in their catchment area during that period. The data generated demonstrate that the abuse of tramadol remained very low despite new branded and generic formulations. Contrary to the hypothesis that cheaper generic drugs would lead to higher rates of abuse, we found no increase in abuse with the introduction of generic tramadol. Ultracet abuse rates, unlike those found with other widely used hydrocodone and oxycodone combination products, have been even lower than that observed for tramadol. Since the FDA has now mandated that proactive risk-management plans be implemented for new drugs, the tramadol risk-management plan may be useful as a prototypic model which can be modified to accommodate other drugs with abuse potential. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. VAP rates unchanged

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    Robbins RA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. In a research letter to JAMA Metersky and colleagues (1 report that ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP rates have remained near 10% since 2005. The authors reviewed Medicare Patient Safety Monitoring System (MPSMS data on a representative sample of more than 86,000 critically ill patients treated at 1330 US hospitals between 2005 and 2013. To meet a diagnosis of VAP patients were required to have at least 2 days' ventilation in intensive care units; a chest radiograph with a new finding suggesting pneumonia; a physician diagnosis of pneumonia; and an order for antibiotics. VAP incidence was 10.8% (95% confidence interval, 7.4% - 14.4% during 2005 to 2006 and 9.7% (95% confidence interval, 5.1% - 14.9% during 2012 to 2013. In contrast, data from the CDC's National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN have shown declines in VAP rates of 71% and 62% in medical and surgical intensive care units, respectively, between 2006 and 2012 …

  8. Copeptin levels remain unchanged during the menstrual cycle.

    OpenAIRE

    Blum Claudine A; Mirza Uzma; Christ-Crain Mirjam; Mueller Beat; Schindler Christian; Puder Jardena J

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Copeptin, a surrogate marker for arginin vasopressin production, is evaluated as an osmo-dependent stress and inflammatory biomarker in different diseases. We investigated copeptin during the menstrual cycle and its relationship to sex hormones, markers of subclinical inflammation and estimates of body fluid. METHODS: In 15 healthy women with regular menstrual cycles, blood was drawn on fifteen defined days of their menstrual cycle and was assayed for copeptin, progesterone, es...

  9. Copeptin levels remain unchanged during the menstrual cycle.

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    Blum, Claudine A; Mirza, Uzma; Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Mueller, Beat; Schindler, Christian; Puder, Jardena J

    2014-01-01

    Copeptin, a surrogate marker for arginin vasopressin production, is evaluated as an osmo-dependent stress and inflammatory biomarker in different diseases. We investigated copeptin during the menstrual cycle and its relationship to sex hormones, markers of subclinical inflammation and estimates of body fluid. In 15 healthy women with regular menstrual cycles, blood was drawn on fifteen defined days of their menstrual cycle and was assayed for copeptin, progesterone, estradiol, luteinizing hormone, high-sensitive C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and procalcitonin. Symptoms of fluid retention were assessed on each visit, and bio impedance analysis was measured thrice to estimate body fluid changes. Mixed linear model analysis was performed to assess the changes of copeptin across the menstrual cycle and the relationship of sex hormones, markers of subclinical inflammation and estimates of body fluid with copeptin. Copeptin levels did not significantly change during the menstrual cycle (p = 0.16). Throughout the menstrual cycle, changes in estradiol (p = 0.002) and in the physical premenstrual symptom score (p = 0.01) were positively related to copeptin, but changes in other sex hormones, in markers of subclinical inflammation or in bio impedance analysis-estimated body fluid were not (all p = ns). Although changes in estradiol and the physical premenstrual symptom score appear to be related to copeptin changes, copeptin does not significantly change during the menstrual cycle.

  10. Copeptin levels remain unchanged during the menstrual cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine A Blum

    Full Text Available Copeptin, a surrogate marker for arginin vasopressin production, is evaluated as an osmo-dependent stress and inflammatory biomarker in different diseases. We investigated copeptin during the menstrual cycle and its relationship to sex hormones, markers of subclinical inflammation and estimates of body fluid.In 15 healthy women with regular menstrual cycles, blood was drawn on fifteen defined days of their menstrual cycle and was assayed for copeptin, progesterone, estradiol, luteinizing hormone, high-sensitive C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and procalcitonin. Symptoms of fluid retention were assessed on each visit, and bio impedance analysis was measured thrice to estimate body fluid changes. Mixed linear model analysis was performed to assess the changes of copeptin across the menstrual cycle and the relationship of sex hormones, markers of subclinical inflammation and estimates of body fluid with copeptin.Copeptin levels did not significantly change during the menstrual cycle (p = 0.16. Throughout the menstrual cycle, changes in estradiol (p = 0.002 and in the physical premenstrual symptom score (p = 0.01 were positively related to copeptin, but changes in other sex hormones, in markers of subclinical inflammation or in bio impedance analysis-estimated body fluid were not (all p = ns.Although changes in estradiol and the physical premenstrual symptom score appear to be related to copeptin changes, copeptin does not significantly change during the menstrual cycle.

  11. Recovery of human DNA profiles from poached deer remains part 2: improved recovery protocol without the need for LCN analysis.

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    Tobe, Shanan S; Bailey, Stuart; Govan, James; Welch, Lindsey A

    2013-03-01

    Although poaching is a common wildlife crime, the high and prohibitive cost of specialised animal testing means that many cases are left un-investigated. We previously described a novel approach to wildlife crime investigation that looked at the identification of human DNA on poached animal remains (Tobe, Govan and Welch, 2011). Human DNA was successfully isolated and amplified from simulated poaching incidents, however a low template protocol was required which made this method unsuitable for use in many laboratories. We now report on an optimised recovery and amplification protocol which removes the need for low template analysis. Samples from 10 deer (40 samples total - one from each leg) analysed in the original study were re-analysed in the current study with an additional 11 deer samples. Four samples analysed using Chelex did not show any results and a new method was devised whereby the available DNA was concentrated. By combining the DNA extracts from all tapings of the same deer remains followed by concentration, the recovered quantity of human DNA was found to be 29.5pg±43.2pg, 31× greater than the previous study. The use of the Investigator Decaplex SE (QIAGEN) STR kit provided better results in the form of more complete profiles than did the AmpFℓSTR® SGM Plus® kit at 30cycles (Applied Biosystems). Re-analysis of the samples from the initial study using the new, optimised protocol resulted in an average increase of 18% of recovered alleles. Over 17 samples, 71% of the samples analysed using the optimised protocol showed sufficient amplification for comparison to a reference profile and gave match probabilities ranging from 7.7690×10(-05) to 2.2706×10(-14). The removal of low template analysis means this optimised method provides evidence of high probative value and is suitable for immediate use in forensic laboratories. All methods and techniques used are standard and are compatible with current SOPs. As no high cost non-human DNA analysis is

  12. Apoptotic transcriptional profile remains activated in late remodeled left ventricle after myocardial infarction in swine infarcted hearts with preserved ejection fraction.

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    Prescimone, Tommaso; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Cabiati, Manuela; Caselli, Chiara; Aquaro, Giovanni D; Matteucci, Marco; Del Ry, Silvia; Giannessi, Daniela

    2013-04-01

    Apoptosis is involved in both acute and chronic loss of cardiomyocytes after myocardial infarction (MI). To date, the pathophysiological significance of an apoptotic transcriptional profile activated in the post-ischemic remodeled myocardium, in the absence of hemodynamic factors secondary to left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, still remains to be determined. The mRNA expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic factors was determined in a swine model of non-reperfused MI with preserved LV ejection fraction. The extent of cell death was evaluated by histological analysis. Male adult farm pigs with MI (n=5), induced by permanent surgical ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery and sham-operated adult farm pigs as control (n=7) were studied. Tissue samples were collected from the border (BZ) and remote zone (RZ) of the infarcted area to identify possible regional effects. After 4 weeks post-MI, the infarct size was 13±1% of the LV wall mass in absence of contractile dysfunction. In BZ, there was increased mRNA expression of Casp-3 (BZ vs Controls: 0.51±0.15 vs 1.39±0.04, pporcine model of MI with normal overall function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Unchanged cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism after acclimatization to high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten; Paulson, Olaf B; Hornbein, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    . Global cerebral blood flow at rest and during exercise on a bicycle ergometer was measured by the Kety-Schmidt technique. Cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen, glucose, and lactate were calculated by the Fick principle. Cerebral function was assessed by a computer-based measurement of reaction time...... and cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen and glucose also remained unchanged, whereas cerebral metabolic rates of lactate increased slightly but nonsignificantly at high altitude during exercise compared with high altitude at rest. Reaction time was unchanged. The data indicate that cerebral blood flow......The authors investigated the effect of acclimatization to high altitude on cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism at rest and during exercise. Nine healthy, native sea-level residents were studied 3 weeks after arrival at Chacaltaya, Bolivia (5,260 m) and after reacclimatization to sea level...

  14. Noncaged laying hens remain unflappable while wearing body-mounted sensors: Levels of agonistic behaviors remain unchanged and resource use is not reduced after habituation.

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    Daigle, C L; Banerjee, D; Biswas, S; Siegford, J M

    2012-10-01

    Unique markings or body-mounted sensors facilitate data collection from individuals in large groups of similar-looking conspecifics but may have unintended consequences on behavior. A wireless sensor attached to the back of laying hens via a harness has been developed to monitor space use and activity. Prior to collecting experimental data, effects of the sensor on resource use and social interactions were assessed. Four rooms of 135 hens each were weighed and 10 hens/room were randomly fitted with sensors at 11 wk of age (0 d). Instantaneous scan samples recorded the number of hens (SEN: sensor-wearing hen, and NON: hen without sensor) using resources (feeder, water, nest box, perch) every 5 min over 24 h on -5 d, -4 d, -2 d, -1 d, 1 d, 2 d, 4 d, 8 d, and 16 d. Logistic regression determined that SEN feeder use was less on 1 d and 2 d and more on 16 d than NON feeder use. The SEN water use was reduced only on 1 d. The SEN nest box use increased on 1 d, 2 d, and 16 d. The SEN perched more on 1 d, 2 d, and 4 d, and less on 8 d. Initial resource use was affected by wearing a sensor, but by 16 d, all resources were used similarly or more by SEN than NON. No difference in BW was observed on 17 d, suggesting that long-term resource use was not affected. No differences were observed among the number of agonistic observations -5 d, 8 d, and 16 d. With the exception of SEN hens acting as aggressors toward NON hens, agonistic interaction types occurred close to expected proportions. These factors indicate that hens habituate to wearing sensors within 2 wk.

  15. Fish remains and humankind

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    Andrew K G Jones

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The four papers in this issue represent a trawl of the reports presented to the Fourth meeting of the International Council for Archaeozoology (ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group, which met at the University of York in 1987. The conference discussed material from many parts of the world - from Australasia to the north-west coast of America - and many eras, ranging in date from the early Pleistocene to the 1980s. It demonstrated both the variety of work being carried out and the growing interest in ancient fish remains. Internet Archaeology plans to publish other batches of papers from this conference. These reports will demonstrate the effort being made to distinguish between assemblages of fish remains which have been deposited by people and those which occur in ancient deposits as a result of the action of other agents. To investigate this area, experiments with modern material and observations of naturally occurring fish bone assemblages are supplemented with detailed analysis of ancient and modern fish remains. The papers published here illustrate the breadth of research into osteology, biogeography, documentary research, and the practicalities of recovering fish remains. Read, digest and enjoy them! Using the Internet for publishing research papers is not only ecologically sound (saving paper, etc. it disseminates scholarship to anyone anywhere on the planet with access to what is gradually becoming necessary technology in the late 20th century. Hopefully, future groups of papers will include video and audio material recorded at the conference, and so enable those who could not attend to gain further insights into the meeting and the scholarship underpinning this area of research.

  16. Hand and foot surgery rates in rheumatoid arthritis have declined from 1986 to 2011, but large-joint replacement rates remain unchanged: results from two UK inception cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiphorou, Elena; Carpenter, Lewis; Morris, Stephen; Macgregor, Alex J; Dixey, Josh; Kiely, Patrick; James, David W; Walsh, David A; Norton, Sam; Young, Adam

    2014-05-01

    To assess whether there have been any secular changes in orthopedic interventions in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) since 1986, as examined in 2 early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) inception cohorts with up to 25 years of followup. The study examined orthopedic data from the UK Early RA Study (1986-1999, 9 centers; n = 1,465) and the UK Early RA Network (2002-2012, 23 centers; n = 1,236) with linkage to national data sets (Hospital Episode Statistics, National Joint Registry, and Office of National Statistics). Clinical and laboratory measures and hand and foot radiographs were standardized and obtained yearly in both cohorts. The use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), corticosteroids, and biologic therapies reflected the contemporary conventional practices and guidelines of the time frames examined. Recruitment years were grouped into 6 periods, and interventions were classified into major, intermediate, and minor categories. A total of 1,602 orthopedic surgical procedures were performed in 770 patients (29%) over a maximum of 25 years of followup. The 25-year cumulative incidence rate of major interventions was 21.7% (range 19.4-24.0%), and that of intermediate interventions was 21.5% (range 17.8-25.5%). There was a decline in the 10-year cumulative incidence of intermediate surgeries over time (P foot surgery showed a consistent decline from 1986 to 2011. Possible explanations include differences in the pathophysiologic processes affecting the joints, variations in the responses to therapy between large-joint and small-joint destructive processes, and changes in service provision and thresholds for surgery over time. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  17. Difficulties of Portuguese Patients Following Acute Myocardial Infarction: Predictors of Readmissions and Unchanged Lifestyles

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    Sofia Nunes, PhD

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The analysis revealed significant predictors of readmission amongst patients with hypertension and three-vessel disease. Specifically, the number of people in the household, per capita income, and a lack of information/education provided at discharge as well as problems related to mental health after discharge predicted unchanged lifestyle. An educational program might be advantageous to clarify doubts and involve patients in their own disease management.

  18. A comparative review of estimates of the proportion unchanged genes and the false discovery rate

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    Broberg Per

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the analysis of microarray data one generally produces a vector of p-values that for each gene give the likelihood of obtaining equally strong evidence of change by pure chance. The distribution of these p-values is a mixture of two components corresponding to the changed genes and the unchanged ones. The focus of this article is how to estimate the proportion unchanged and the false discovery rate (FDR and how to make inferences based on these concepts. Six published methods for estimating the proportion unchanged genes are reviewed, two alternatives are presented, and all are tested on both simulated and real data. All estimates but one make do without any parametric assumptions concerning the distributions of the p-values. Furthermore, the estimation and use of the FDR and the closely related q-value is illustrated with examples. Five published estimates of the FDR and one new are presented and tested. Implementations in R code are available. Results A simulation model based on the distribution of real microarray data plus two real data sets were used to assess the methods. The proposed alternative methods for estimating the proportion unchanged fared very well, and gave evidence of low bias and very low variance. Different methods perform well depending upon whether there are few or many regulated genes. Furthermore, the methods for estimating FDR showed a varying performance, and were sometimes misleading. The new method had a very low error. Conclusion The concept of the q-value or false discovery rate is useful in practical research, despite some theoretical and practical shortcomings. However, it seems possible to challenge the performance of the published methods, and there is likely scope for further developing the estimates of the FDR. The new methods provide the scientist with more options to choose a suitable method for any particular experiment. The article advocates the use of the conjoint information

  19. The renal clearance of unchanged cisplatin during furosemide and mannitol diuresis is dependent on glomerular filtration rate in rats.

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    Nagai, N; Ogata, H

    1996-07-01

    The disposition of unchanged cisplatin (CDDP) in plasma and urine after bolus injection of CDDP (5 mg/kg) was compared in rats treated with furosemide (25 mg/kg as a 40-min iv infusion) and mannitol (2 g/kg as a 40-min iv infusion). Forced diuresis significantly increased renal clearance (Clr) of unchanged CDDP in the first 10-min period after CDDP administration, compared to that in the rats given CDDP alone. Compared with furosemide, mannitol showed greater modification in Clr of unchanged CDDP in the early phase and more accelerated urinary excretion of unchanged CDDP during the study. Furosemide increased plasma concentration and reduced urinary excretion of unchanged CDDP in the terminal phase. Clr of unchanged CDDP was found to be dependent of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) during diuretic coadministration. Linear relationships among urine flow rate, GFR, and Clr of unchanged CDDP were observed only in diuretic-treated rats. Although the relationships between GFR and Clr were almost identical, there was a difference in the GFR-urine flow rate relationship between furosemide- and mannitol-treated rats. GFR was gradually reduced during diuretic treatment, and furosemide induced greater GFR reduction than mannitol. This resulted in a modification of unchanged CDDP disposition by furosemide in the terminal phase. The present study suggests that careful monitoring and maintaining of GFR during coadministration of diuretic may be useful for predicting the urinary excretion behavior of unchanged CDDP in CDDP chemotherapy.

  20. Difficulties of Portuguese Patients Following Acute Myocardial Infarction: Predictors of Readmissions and Unchanged Lifestyles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Sofia; Rego, Guilhermina; Nunes, Rui

    2016-06-01

    Myocardial infarction can occur due to known risk factors and lifestyle choices. The difficulties that patients experience after discharge can lead to readmission and nonadherence to lifestyle change. The purpose of this study was to analyze the difficulties experienced by patients after hospitalization due to myocardial infarction and to identify the predictors of readmission and unchanged lifestyles. The study used a mixed-methods design across 106 patients who had experienced a first episode of acute myocardial infarction. The data were collected from two patient interviews and the patients' medical records. A logistic regression was used to predict unchanged lifestyle and readmission. In the first interview, 74.5% of the patients reported receiving information prior to discharge. Six months after discharge, 80.2% mentioned that they had changed their lifestyles, but only 59.4% reported that their health had improved, and 75.5% continued to have concerns regarding their health. Patients described difficulties with regard to psychological problems, family dynamics, professional issues, problems with managing cardiovascular symptoms, and complications associated with hospital interventions. A follow-up assessment revealed that 12.3% of patients had been readmitted for cardiovascular disease. The analysis revealed significant predictors of readmission amongst patients with hypertension and three-vessel disease. Specifically, the number of people in the household, per capita income, and a lack of information/education provided at discharge as well as problems related to mental health after discharge predicted unchanged lifestyle. An educational program might be advantageous to clarify doubts and involve patients in their own disease management. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Herniated disks unchanged over time: Size reduced after oxygen-ozone therapy.

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    Bonetti, Matteo; Zambello, Alessio; Leonardi, Marco; Princiotta, Ciro

    2016-08-01

    The spontaneous regression of disk herniation secondary to dehydration is a much-debated topic in medicine. Some physicians wonder whether surgical removal of the extruded nucleus pulposus is really necessary when the spontaneous disappearance of a herniated lumbar disk is a well-known phenomenon. Unfortunately, without spontaneous regression, chronic pain leads to progressive disability for which surgery seems to be the only solution. In recent years, several studies have demonstrated the utility of oxygen-ozone therapy in the treatment of disk herniation, resulting in disk shrinkage. This retrospective study evaluates the outcomes of a series of patients with a history of herniated disks neuroradiologically unchanged in size for over two years, treated with oxygen-ozone therapy at our center over the last 15 years. We treated 96 patients, 84 (87.5%) presenting low back pain complicated or not by chronic sciatica. No drug therapy had yielded significant benefits. A number of specialists had been consulted in two or more years resulting in several neuroradiological scans prior to the decision to undertake oxygen-ozone therapy. Our study documents how ozone therapy for slipped disks "unchanged over time" solved the problem, with disk disruption or a significant reduction in the size of the prolapsed disk material extruded into the spinal canal. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Herniated disks unchanged over time: Size reduced after oxygen–ozone therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, Matteo; Zambello, Alessio; Princiotta, Ciro

    2016-01-01

    The spontaneous regression of disk herniation secondary to dehydration is a much-debated topic in medicine. Some physicians wonder whether surgical removal of the extruded nucleus pulposus is really necessary when the spontaneous disappearance of a herniated lumbar disk is a well-known phenomenon. Unfortunately, without spontaneous regression, chronic pain leads to progressive disability for which surgery seems to be the only solution. In recent years, several studies have demonstrated the utility of oxygen–ozone therapy in the treatment of disk herniation, resulting in disk shrinkage. This retrospective study evaluates the outcomes of a series of patients with a history of herniated disks neuroradiologically unchanged in size for over two years, treated with oxygen–ozone therapy at our center over the last 15 years. We treated 96 patients, 84 (87.5%) presenting low back pain complicated or not by chronic sciatica. No drug therapy had yielded significant benefits. A number of specialists had been consulted in two or more years resulting in several neuroradiological scans prior to the decision to undertake oxygen–ozone therapy. Our study documents how ozone therapy for slipped disks “unchanged over time” solved the problem, with disk disruption or a significant reduction in the size of the prolapsed disk material extruded into the spinal canal. PMID:27066816

  3. Improved visual function in IDDM patients with unchanged cumulative incidence of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, K; Jacobsen, P; Rossing, P

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate trends in visual acuity and the cumulative incidence of diabetic retinopathy in a clinic-based observational follow-up study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: All patients visiting Hvidore Hospital in 1984 whose diagnosis of IDDM had been made before 41 years of age and between...... retinopathy, maculopathy, and laser-treated retinopathy 15 years after onset of diabetes were, respectively, 13+/-3, 11+/-3, and 12+/-3 in group A; 16+/-3, 12+/-3, and 21+/-4 in group B; 11+/-3, 5+/-2, and 12+/-3 in group C, respectively (NS). The development of proliferative retinopathy was associated...... with the degree of retinopathy and albuminuria at baseline and the mean HbA1c during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed an improvement in visual acuity with increasing calendar year of diabetes onset but an unchanged cumulative incidence of diabetic retinopathy....

  4. Parasite remains in archaeological sites

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    Françoise Bouchet

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic remains can be found in many different environments. They are the most significant source for paleoparasitological studies as well as for other paleoecological reconstruction. Preserved paleoparasitological remains are found from the driest to the moistest conditions. They help us to understand past and present diseases and therefore contribute to understanding the evolution of present human sociality, biology, and behavior. In this paper, the scope of the surviving evidence will be briefly surveyed, and the great variety of ways it has been preserved in different environments will be discussed. This is done to develop to the most appropriated techniques to recover remaining parasites. Different techniques applied to the study of paleoparasitological remains, preserved in different environments, are presented. The most common materials used to analyze prehistoric human groups are reviewed, and their potential for reconstructing ancient environment and disease are emphasized. This paper also urges increased cooperation among archaeologists, paleontologists, and paleoparasitologists.

  5. Unchanged mitochondrial phenotype, but accumulation of lipids in the myometrium in obese pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gam, Christiane Marie Bourgin Folke; Larsen, Lea Hüche; Mortensen, Ole Hartvig

    2017-01-01

    KEY POINTS: Obesity during pregnancy and childbirth is associated with labour dystocia leading to instrumental or operative delivery, but the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear and insufficient uterine contractility has been suggested. This study examined whether reduced...

  6. New hominin remains from Uzbekistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glantz, Michelle; Viola, Bence; Wrinn, Patrick; Chikisheva, Tatiana; Derevianko, Anatoly; Krivoshapkin, Andrei; Islamov, Uktur; Suleimanov, Rustam; Ritzman, Terrence

    2008-08-01

    Although the Paleolithic occupations of Uzbekistan and the neighboring foothill regions of Tajikistan and Kazakhstan are well-documented, almost no hominin fossil material has been discovered in the area since Teshik-Tash 1 in 1938. Here we describe and offer a preliminary comparative framework for hominin remains that were recovered in 2003 from two Middle Paleolithic sites in Uzbekistan, Obi-Rakhmat Grotto and Anghilak Cave. The description of Teshik-Tash as a Neandertal and the preponderance of lithic assemblages identified as Mousterian in character has supported the interpretation of the region as the eastern-most extent of the Neandertal range. The material from Obi-Rakhmat (OR-1), a subadult represented by part of a permanent maxillary dentition and a fragmentary cranium, expresses a relatively Neandertal-like dentition coupled with more ambiguous cranial anatomy. The remains from Anghilak Cave include a non-diagnostic, diminutive right fifth metatarsal (AH-1). These findings are important additions to the Central Asia hominin fossil record.

  7. CONTROL CHART FOR MONITORING NONPARAMETRIC PROFILES WITH ARBITRARY DESIGN

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peihua Qiu; Changliang Zou

    2010-01-01

    .... It is widely used in industry for the purpose of quality control of a process. Existing NPM approaches require the assumption that design points within a profile are deterministic, and are unchanged from one profile to another...

  8. The Human Remains from HMS Pandora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Steptoe

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1977 the wreck of HMS Pandora (the ship that was sent to re-capture the Bounty mutineers was discovered off the north coast of Queensland. Since 1983, the Queensland Museum Maritime Archaeology section has carried out systematic excavation of the wreck. During the years 1986 and 1995-1998, more than 200 human bone and bone fragments were recovered. Osteological investigation revealed that this material represented three males. Their ages were estimated at approximately 17 +/-2 years, 22 +/-3 years and 28 +/-4 years, with statures of 168 +/-4cm, 167 +/-4cm, and 166cm +/-3cm respectively. All three individuals were probably Caucasian, although precise determination of ethnicity was not possible. In addition to poor dental hygiene, signs of chronic diseases suggestive of rickets and syphilis were observed. Evidence of spina bifida was seen on one of the skeletons, as were other skeletal anomalies. Various taphonomic processes affecting the remains were also observed and described. Compact bone was observed under the scanning electron microscope and found to be structurally coherent. Profiles of the three skeletons were compared with historical information about the 35 men lost with the ship, but no precise identification could be made. The investigation did not reveal the cause of death. Further research, such as DNA analysis, is being carried out at the time of publication.

  9. The interactive effect of the degradation of cotton clothing and decomposition fluid production associated with decaying remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueland, Maiken; Nizio, Katie D; Forbes, Shari L; Stuart, Barbara H

    2015-10-01

    Textiles are a commonly encountered source of evidence in forensic cases. In the past, most research has been focused on how textiles affect the decomposition process while little attention has been paid to how the decomposition products interact with the textiles. While some studies have shown that the presence of remains will have an effect on the degradation of clothing associated with a decaying body, very little work has been carried out on the specific mechanisms that prevent or delay textile degradation when in contact with decomposing remains. In order to investigate the effect of decomposition fluid on textile degradation, three clothed domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) carcasses were placed on a soil surface, textile specimens were collected over a period of a year and were then analysed using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and GC-MS. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to analyse the data. Cotton specimens not associated with remains degraded markedly, whereas the samples exposed to decomposition fluids remained relatively intact over the same time frame. An investigation of the decomposition by-products found that the protein-related bands remained stable and unchanged throughout the experiment. Lipid components, on the other hand, demonstrated a significant change; this was confirmed with the use of both ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and GC-MS. Through an advanced statistical approach, information about the decomposition by-products and their characteristics was obtained. There is potential that the lipid profile in a textile specimen could be a valuable tool used in the examination of clothing located at a crime scene. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Scott's Lake Excavation Letters on Human Remains

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is two letters written about the repatriation of Santee Indian human remains and funerary objects to Santee Sioux Tribe. Includes an inventory of human remains...

  11. The adaptor protein alpha-syntrophin is reduced in human non-alcoholic steatohepatitis but is unchanged in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein-Fischboeck, Lisa; Pohl, Rebekka; Haberl, Elisabeth M; Weiss, Thomas S; Buechler, Christa

    2017-10-01

    The adaptor protein alpha-syntrophin (SNTA) is differentially expressed in varying types of cancer and affects triglyceride levels, inflammatory response and cell proliferation. However, little is known about the expression of SNTA in liver diseases. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by hepatic steatosis, inflammation and eventually fibrosis, and may progress to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, SNTA mRNA was analyzed in liver tissues from 71 non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients and 32 controls to assess associations with disease characteristics. SNTA mRNA expression was reduced in NASH liver and negatively correlated with steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis and NASH scores. In the NASH patients, those with type 2 diabetes had a higher fibrosis score, reduced inflammation and increased hepatic SNTA mRNA levels demonstrating a strong association of SNTA mRNA levels with inflammation. Recently, we have shown diminished expression of the high-density lipoprotein scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) in the liver of syntrophin-deficient mice. Indeed, hepatic SNTA and SR-BI mRNA were positively correlated. SNTA protein was further determined in tumor and non-tumorous tissues of 21 HCC patients. Protein expression was unchanged in the tumor and not related to staging and grading. Present study identified associations of hepatic SNTA mRNA levels with SR-BI and features of NASH assuming a function of this protein in chronic liver disease and cholesterol metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Proteomic patterns analysis with multivariate calculations as a promising tool for prompt differentiation of early stage lung tissue with cancer and unchanged tissue material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grodzki Tomasz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer diagnosis in tissue material with commonly used histological techniques is sometimes inconvenient and in a number of cases leads to ambiguous conclusions. Frequently advanced immunostaining techniques have to be employed, yet they are both time consuming and limited. In this study a proteomic approach is presented which may help provide unambiguous pathologic diagnosis of tissue material. Methods Lung tissue material found to be pathologically changed was prepared to isolate proteome with fast and non selective procedure. Isolated peptides and proteins in ranging from 3.5 to 20 kDa were analysed directly using high resolution mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF/TOF with sinapic acid as a matrix. Recorded complex spectra of a single run were then analyzed with multivariate statistical analysis algorithms (principle component analysis, classification methods. In the applied protocol we focused on obtaining the spectra richest in protein signals constituting a pattern of change within the sample containing detailed information about its protein composition. Advanced statistical methods were to indicate differences between examined groups. Results Obtained results indicate changes in proteome profiles of changed tissues in comparison to physiologically unchanged material (control group which were reflected in the result of principle component analysis (PCA. Points representing spectra of control group were located in different areas of multidimensional space and were less diffused in comparison to cancer tissues. Three different classification algorithms showed recognition capability of 100% regarding classification of examined material into an appropriate group. Conclusion The application of the presented protocol and method enabled finding pathological changes in tissue material regardless of localization and size of abnormalities in the sample volume. Proteomic profile as a complex, rich in signals spectrum of proteins

  13. Mammalian Remains from Indian Sites on Aruba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1960-01-01

    Mr. H. R. VAN HEEKEREN and Mr. C. J. DU RY, of the Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde at Leiden, entrusted me with the identification of some animal remains collected from Indian sites on Aruba by Professor J. P. B. DE JOSSELIN DE JONG in 1923. These remains relate for the most part to marine turtles

  14. Luminescence of thermally altered human skeletal remains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krap, Tristan; Nota, Kevin; Wilk, Leah; van de Goot, Frank; Ruijter, Jan; Duijst, Wilma; Oostra, Roelof Jan

    2017-01-01

    Literature on luminescent properties of thermally altered human remains is scarce and contradictory. Therefore, the luminescence of heated bone was systemically reinvestigated. A heating experiment was conducted on fresh human bone, in two different media, and cremated human remains were recovered

  15. EDITORIAL MALARIA DIAGNOSIS Malaria remains the most ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2005-03-02

    Mar 2, 2005 ... Malaria remains the most significant parasitic disease affecting man. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of malaria is the key to cost effective management (1). Since the identification of Plasmodium parasites in human blood in 1880, the diagnosis of malaria has remained a hot bed of scientific discussion.

  16. Remaining Life Expectancy With and Without Polypharmacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wastesson, Jonas W; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the remaining life expectancy with and without polypharmacy for Swedish women and men aged 65 years and older. DESIGN: Age-specific prevalence of polypharmacy from the nationwide Swedish Prescribed Drug Register (SPDR) combined with life tables from Statistics Sweden...... was used to calculate the survival function and remaining life expectancy with and without polypharmacy according to the Sullivan method. SETTING: Nationwide register-based study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1,347,564 individuals aged 65 years and older who had been prescribed and dispensed a drug from July 1...... to September 30, 2008. MEASUREMENTS: Polypharmacy was defined as the concurrent use of 5 or more drugs. RESULTS: At age 65 years, approximately 8 years of the 20 remaining years of life (41%) can be expected to be lived with polypharmacy. More than half of the remaining life expectancy will be spent...

  17. Mass Remaining During Evaporation of Sessile Drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    oscillations in the mass remaining. • TRANSFORM ED t TRUEt TRUEtCont 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 TIMI (Hr) Figure 13. Effect of 3 min...2.5 2.55 2.8 TIMI (Hr) 2.86 2.1 275 2.8 Figure 14. Mass Remaining vs. Time Expanded Scale The assumed sinusoidal variation of the friction velocity

  18. Fish remains and humankind: part two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K G Jones

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The significance of aquatic resources to past human groups is not adequately reflected in the published literature - a deficiency which is gradually being acknowledged by the archaeological community world-wide. The publication of the following three papers goes some way to redress this problem. Originally presented at an International Council of Archaeozoology (ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group meeting in York, U.K. in 1987, these papers offer clear evidence of the range of interest in ancient fish remains across the world. Further papers from the York meeting were published in Internet Archaeology 3 in 1997.

  19. The annuity puzzle remains a puzzle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peijnenburg, Kim; Nijman, Theo; Werker, Bas J. M.

    We examine incomplete annuity menus, background risk, bequest motives, and default risk as possible drivers of divergence from full annuitization. Contrary to what is often suggested in the literature, we find that full annuitization remains optimal if saving is possible after retirement. This holds

  20. Predicting the remaining service life of concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, J.F.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear power plants are providing, currently, about 17 percent of the U.S. electricity and many of these plants are approaching their licensed life of 40 years. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory are carrying out a program to develop a methodology for assessing the remaining safe-life of the concrete components and structures in nuclear power plants. This program has the overall objective of identifying potential structural safety issues, as well as acceptance criteria, for use in evaluations of nuclear power plants for continued service. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is contributing to this program by identifying and analyzing methods for predicting the remaining life of in-service concrete materials. This report examines the basis for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials of nuclear power facilities. Methods for predicting the service life of new and in-service concrete materials are analyzed. These methods include (1) estimates based on experience, (2) comparison of performance, (3) accelerated testing, (4) stochastic methods, and (5) mathematical modeling. New approaches for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials are proposed and recommendations for their further development given. Degradation processes are discussed based on considerations of their mechanisms, likelihood of occurrence, manifestations, and detection. They include corrosion, sulfate attack, alkali-aggregate reactions, frost attack, leaching, radiation, salt crystallization, and microbiological attack.

  1. The case for fencing remains intact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, C; Swanson, A; Canney, S; Loveridge, A; Garnett, S; Pfeifer, M; Burton, A C; Bauer, H; MacNulty, D

    2013-11-01

    Creel et al. argue against the conservation effectiveness of fencing based on a population measure that ignores the importance of top predators to ecosystem processes. Their statistical analyses consider, first, only a subset of fenced reserves and, second, an incomplete examination of 'costs per lion.' Our original conclusions remain unaltered. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  2. Kadav Moun PSA (:60) (Human Remains)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-02-18

    This is an important public health announcement about safety precautions for those handling human remains. Language: Haitian Creole.  Created: 2/18/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/18/2010.

  3. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  4. Improved Acuity and Dexterity but Unchanged Touch and Pain Thresholds following Repetitive Sensory Stimulation of the Fingers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Kowalewski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroplasticity underlies the brain’s ability to alter perception and behavior through training, practice, or simply exposure to sensory stimulation. Improvement of tactile discrimination has been repeatedly demonstrated after repetitive sensory stimulation (rSS of the fingers; however, it remains unknown if such protocols also affect hand dexterity or pain thresholds. We therefore stimulated the thumb and index finger of young adults to investigate, besides testing tactile discrimination, the impact of rSS on dexterity, pain, and touch thresholds. We observed an improvement in the pegboard task where subjects used the thumb and index finger only. Accordingly, stimulating 2 fingers simultaneously potentiates the efficacy of rSS. In fact, we observed a higher gain of discrimination performance as compared to a single-finger rSS. In contrast, pain and touch thresholds remained unaffected. Our data suggest that selecting particular fingers modulates the efficacy of rSS, thereby affecting processes controlling sensorimotor integration.

  5. [Remaining solvents in dry cleaned over clothes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, H; Fujishiro, K; Matsuno, K; Kawamoto, T; Okubo, T

    1999-03-01

    We examined remaining solvents in dry cleaned trousers to estimate the magnitude of environmental pollution. A cleaning solvent of petroleum hydrocarbon was analyzed by means of capillary column mass spectrum gas chromatography. Principal ingredients were identified to be nonane, decane and undecane. The same main components were detected in dry cleaned trousers. Total amounts of evaporated vapor from a pair of trousers (480 g) in 5 days after dry cleaning were nonane (0.73 mg), decane (1.53 mg) and undecane (1.09 mg). The levels on the fifth day were 5%(nonane), 18%(decane) and 32%(undecane) of the first day's concentration, respectively. The half times of the remaining solvents were 1.0 day (nonane), 1.7 days (decane) and 2.7 days (undecane), respectively.

  6. SMART POINT CLOUD: DEFINITION AND REMAINING CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    Poux, Florent; Neuville, Romain; Hallot, Pierre; Billen, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Dealing with coloured point cloud acquired from terrestrial laser scanner, this paper identifies remaining challenges for a new data structure: the smart point cloud. This concept arises with the statement that massive and discretized spatial information from active remote sensing technology is often underused due to data mining limitations. The generalisation of point cloud data associated with the heterogeneity and temporality of such datasets is the main issue regarding structure, segmenta...

  7. [Professional confidentiality: speak out or remain silent? ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubigney, Jean-claude

    2014-01-01

    People who work with children, in their daily tasks, must choose whether to disclose information entrusted to them. However, they are subject to the law, which authorises or imposes speaking out or remaining silent. In terms of ethics, they can seek the best possible response while respecting professional secrecy when meeting an individual, in a situation, in a place or at a particular time. They must then take responsibility for that decision.

  8. Distribution of albatross remains in the Far East regions during the Holocene, based on zooarchaeological remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eda, Masaki; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2004-07-01

    Many albatross remains have been found in the Japanese Islands and the surrounding areas, such as Sakhalin and South Korea. These remains are interesting for two reasons: numerous sites from which albatross remains have been found are located in coastal regions of the Far East where no albatrosses have been distributed recently, and there are some sites in which albatross remains represent a large portion of avian remains, although albatrosses are not easily preyed upon by human beings. We collected data on albatross remains from archaeological sites in the Far East regions during the Holocene and arranged the remains geographically, temporally and in terms of quantity. Based on these results, we showed that coastal areas along the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan have rarely been used by albatrosses in Modern times, though formerly there were many albatrosses. We proposed two explanations for the shrinkage of their distributional range: excessive hunting in the breeding areas, and distributional changes of prey for albatrosses.

  9. Does hypertension remain after kidney transplantation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Pourmand

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common complication of kidney transplantation with the prevalence of 80%. Studies in adults have shown a high prevalence of hypertension (HTN in the first three months of transplantation while this rate is reduced to 50- 60% at the end of the first year. HTN remains as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, lower graft survival rates and poor function of transplanted kidney in adults and children. In this retrospective study, medical records of 400 kidney transplantation patients of Sina Hospital were evaluated. Patients were followed monthly for the 1st year, every two months in the 2nd year and every three months after that. In this study 244 (61% patients were male. Mean ± SD age of recipients was 39.3 ± 13.8 years. In most patients (40.8% the cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD was unknown followed by HTN (26.3%. A total of 166 (41.5% patients had been hypertensive before transplantation and 234 (58.5% had normal blood pressure. Among these 234 individuals, 94 (40.2% developed post-transplantation HTN. On the other hand, among 166 pre-transplant hypertensive patients, 86 patients (56.8% remained hypertensive after transplantation. Totally 180 (45% patients had post-transplantation HTN and 220 patients (55% didn't develop HTN. Based on the findings, the incidence of post-transplantation hypertension is high, and kidney transplantation does not lead to remission of hypertension. On the other hand, hypertension is one of the main causes of ESRD. Thus, early screening of hypertension can prevent kidney damage and reduce further problems in renal transplant recipients.

  10. Hematological profile and martial status in rugby players during whole body cryostimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Lombardi

    Full Text Available Cold-based therapies are commonly applied to alleviate pain symptoms secondary to inflammatory diseases, but also to treat injuries or overuse, as done in sports rehabilitation. Whole body cryotherapy, a relatively new form of cold therapy, consists of short whole-body exposure to extremely cold air (-110°C to -140°C. Cryostimulation is gaining wider acceptance as an effective part of physical therapy to accelerate muscle recovery in rugby players. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of repeated cryostimulation sessions on the hematological profile and martial status markers in professional rugby players. Twenty-seven professional rugby players received 2 daily cryostimulation treatments for 7 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected before and after administration of the cryotherapic protocol and hematological profiles were obtained. No changes in the leukocyte count or composition were seen. There was a decrease in the values for erythrocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin content, and an increase in mean corpuscular volume and red cell distribution width. Platelet count and mean volume remained unchanged. Serum transferrin and ferritin decreased, while soluble transferrin receptor increased. Serum iron and transferrin saturation were unchanged, as was reticulocyte count, whereas the immature reticulocyte fraction decreased substantially. In conclusion, in this sample of professional rugby players, cryostimulation modified the hematological profile, with a reduction in erythrocyte count and hemoglobinization paralleled by a change in martial status markers.

  11. Hematological profile and martial status in rugby players during whole body cryostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Giovanni; Lanteri, Patrizia; Porcelli, Simone; Mauri, Clara; Colombini, Alessandra; Grasso, Dalila; Zani, Viviana; Bonomi, Felice Giulio; Melegati, Gianluca; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Cold-based therapies are commonly applied to alleviate pain symptoms secondary to inflammatory diseases, but also to treat injuries or overuse, as done in sports rehabilitation. Whole body cryotherapy, a relatively new form of cold therapy, consists of short whole-body exposure to extremely cold air (-110°C to -140°C). Cryostimulation is gaining wider acceptance as an effective part of physical therapy to accelerate muscle recovery in rugby players. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of repeated cryostimulation sessions on the hematological profile and martial status markers in professional rugby players. Twenty-seven professional rugby players received 2 daily cryostimulation treatments for 7 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected before and after administration of the cryotherapic protocol and hematological profiles were obtained. No changes in the leukocyte count or composition were seen. There was a decrease in the values for erythrocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin content, and an increase in mean corpuscular volume and red cell distribution width. Platelet count and mean volume remained unchanged. Serum transferrin and ferritin decreased, while soluble transferrin receptor increased. Serum iron and transferrin saturation were unchanged, as was reticulocyte count, whereas the immature reticulocyte fraction decreased substantially. In conclusion, in this sample of professional rugby players, cryostimulation modified the hematological profile, with a reduction in erythrocyte count and hemoglobinization paralleled by a change in martial status markers.

  12. There's more to the picture than meets the eye: A comparison of downsizing survivors with changed and unchanged job content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Hellgren

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Organisational downsizing has become a frequently used strategy to improve organisational effectiveness and competitive ability. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of downsizing on employee work stress, attitudes and well-being by comparing survivors who had their work situation changed as a function of the downsizing process with survivors whose situation remained unaffected. Longitudinal questionnaire data were obtained during the course of downsizing. Survivors with a changed work situation reported higher levels of work stress, less favourable work attitudes and more health complaints as compared to survivors who did not have their work situation changed. Opsomming Organisasie hersturkturering het ’n voortdurende strategie geword om organisasie effektiwiteit en kompeterende vermoëns te verbeter. Die doel van die studie was om die effek wat herstrukturering op werknemers se werkstres, gesindhede en welstand het, te ondersoek, deur oorblywende personeel wie se werksomgewing verander is deur hersturkturereing te vergelyk met oorblywende personeel wie se werksomgewings onveranderd gebly het. Longitudinale vraelysdata is ingesamel gedurende herstrukturering. Oorblywendes wie se werksomgewing verander het, het hoër vlakke van werkstres, minder gewensde gesindhede en meer gesondheidsprobleme getoon as die individue wie se situasie onveranderd gebly het.

  13. Age estimation in subadult Egyptian remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccone, S; Micheletti Cremasco, M; Bortoluzzi, S; Moggi-Cecchi, J; Rabino Massa, E

    2010-10-01

    In anthropological analyses of past populations, it is very important to be able to accurately reconstruct the palaeodemographic profile in order to interpret infant mortality as an indicator of the environmental, social and cultural conditions. There are various methods to evaluate the age of immature individuals but some of these methods are strongly influenced by the different rates of skeletal development observed in populations from various geographical areas and/or from various time periods, as well as between the sexes. Clearly, there is a need for adopting a method of estimation of age at death, which will be the one most suitable for analysing the particular skeletal sample. In this study we investigated subadults from the Egyptian osteological collection housed in the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography of the University of Turin. For each individual, the age at death was estimated based on the degree of eruption and mineralisation of the teeth. Then the estimated age at death was correlated with the measurements of the long bones and ilium. We showed that greater regularity and constancy of rates of skeletal growth could be assessed with measurements, alternative to using maximum length of diaphysis. Moreover, using alternative characters, it was possible to markedly increase the number of individuals whose age at death could be estimated. Our study also showed the need to use a reference sample consistent with the sample being analysed and, which was derived from similar biological-environmental context. Therefore, our proposed method can be used for the estimation of age at death in pre/protohistorical populations from the Mediterranean region. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. SMART POINT CLOUD: DEFINITION AND REMAINING CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Poux

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with coloured point cloud acquired from terrestrial laser scanner, this paper identifies remaining challenges for a new data structure: the smart point cloud. This concept arises with the statement that massive and discretized spatial information from active remote sensing technology is often underused due to data mining limitations. The generalisation of point cloud data associated with the heterogeneity and temporality of such datasets is the main issue regarding structure, segmentation, classification, and interaction for an immediate understanding. We propose to use both point cloud properties and human knowledge through machine learning to rapidly extract pertinent information, using user-centered information (smart data rather than raw data. A review of feature detection, machine learning frameworks and database systems indexed both for mining queries and data visualisation is studied. Based on existing approaches, we propose a new 3-block flexible framework around device expertise, analytic expertise and domain base reflexion. This contribution serves as the first step for the realisation of a comprehensive smart point cloud data structure.

  15. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  16. Highly efficient DNA extraction method from skeletal remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Zupanič Pajnič

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper precisely describes the method of DNA extraction developed to acquire high quality DNA from the Second World War skeletal remains. The same method is also used for molecular genetic identification of unknown decomposed bodies in routine forensic casework where only bones and teeth are suitable for DNA typing. We analysed 109 bones and two teeth from WWII mass graves in Slovenia. Methods: We cleaned the bones and teeth, removed surface contaminants and ground the bones into powder, using liquid nitrogen . Prior to isolating the DNA in parallel using the BioRobot EZ1 (Qiagen, the powder was decalcified for three days. The nuclear DNA of the samples were quantified by real-time PCR method. We acquired autosomal genetic profiles and Y-chromosome haplotypes of the bones and teeth with PCR amplification of microsatellites, and mtDNA haplotypes 99. For the purpose of traceability in the event of contamination, we prepared elimination data bases including genetic profiles of the nuclear and mtDNA of all persons who have been in touch with the skeletal remains in any way. Results: We extracted up to 55 ng DNA/g of the teeth, up to 100 ng DNA/g of the femurs, up to 30 ng DNA/g of the tibias and up to 0.5 ng DNA/g of the humerus. The typing of autosomal and YSTR loci was successful in all of the teeth, in 98 % dekalof the femurs, and in 75 % to 81 % of the tibias and humerus. The typing of mtDNA was successful in all of the teeth, and in 96 % to 98 % of the bones. Conclusions: We managed to obtain nuclear DNA for successful STR typing from skeletal remains that were over 60 years old . The method of DNA extraction described here has proved to be highly efficient. We obtained 0.8 to 100 ng DNA/g of teeth or bones and complete genetic profiles of autosomal DNA, Y-STR haplotypes, and mtDNA haplotypes from only 0.5g bone and teeth samples.

  17. Ciguatera: recent advances but the risk remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehane, L; Lewis, R J

    2000-11-01

    Ciguatera is an important form of human poisoning caused by the consumption of seafood. The disease is characterised by gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular disturbances. In cases of severe toxicity, paralysis, coma and death may occur. There is no immunity, and the toxins are cumulative. Symptoms may persist for months or years, or recur periodically. The epidemiology of ciguatera is complex and of central importance to the management and future use of marine resources. Ciguatera is an important medical entity in tropical and subtropical Pacific and Indian Ocean regions, and in the tropical Caribbean. As reef fish are increasingly exported to other areas, it has become a world health problem. The disease is under-reported and often misdiagnosed. Lipid-soluble, polyether toxins known as ciguatoxins accumulated in the muscles of certain subtropical and tropical marine finfish cause ciguatera. Ciguatoxins arise from biotransformation in the fish of less polar ciguatoxins (gambiertoxins) produced by Gambierdiscus toxicus, a marine dinoflagellate that lives on macroalgae, usually attached to dead coral. The toxins and their metabolites are concentrated in the food chain when carnivorous fish prey on smaller herbivorous fish. Humans are exposed at the end of the food chain. More than 400 species of fish can be vectors of ciguatoxins, but generally only a relatively small number of species are regularly incriminated in ciguatera. Ciguateric fish look, taste and smell normal, and detection of toxins in fish remains a problem. More than 20 precursor gambiertoxins and ciguatoxins have been identified in G. toxicus and in herbivorous and carnivorous fish. The toxins become more polar as they undergo oxidative metabolism and pass up the food chain. The main Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX-1) causes ciguatera at levels=0.1 microg/kg in the flesh of carnivorous fish. The main Caribbean ciguatoxin (C-CTX-1) is less polar and 10-fold less toxic than P-CTX-1. Ciguatoxins

  18. Effect of weight loss on the cardiovascular risk profile of obese patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Zachariae, Claus; Christensen, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is associated with obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors including endothelial dysfunction. We aimed to investigate the effects of weight loss on the cardiovascular risk profile of obese patients with psoriasis. A randomised controlled study was conducted in which we measured...... the microvascular endothelial function with peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT), selected plasma markers of endothelial function, and traditional cardiovascular risk factors in 60 obese patients with psoriasis. The participants were randomised to either low-energy diet (n = 30) providing 800-1,000 kcal/day for 8...... cholesterol, triglyceride, plasma glucose, glycated haemoglobin, and tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor. Microvascular endothelial function assessed by PAT remained unchanged. We conclude that certain components of the cardiovascular risk profile of obese patients with psoriasis can be significantly...

  19. The human vascular endothelial cell line HUV-EC-C harbors the integrated HHV-6B genome which remains stable in long term culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioda, Setsuko; Kasai, Fumio; Ozawa, Midori; Hirayama, Noriko; Satoh, Motonobu; Kameoka, Yousuke; Watanabe, Ken; Shimizu, Norio; Tang, Huamin; Mori, Yasuko; Kohara, Arihiro

    2017-07-28

    Human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) is a common human pathogen that is most often detected in hematopoietic cells. Although human cells harboring chromosomally integrated HHV-6 can be generated in vitro, the availability of such cell lines originating from in vivo tissues is limited. In this study, chromosomally integrated HHV-6B has been identified in a human vascular endothelial cell line, HUV-EC-C (IFO50271), derived from normal umbilical cord tissue. Sequence analysis revealed that the viral genome was similar to the HHV-6B HST strain. FISH analysis using a HHV-6 DNA probe showed one signal in each cell, detected at the distal end of the long arm of chromosome 9. This was consistent with a digital PCR assay, validating one copy of the viral DNA. Because exposure of HUV-EC-C to chemicals did not cause viral reactivation, long term cell culture of HUV-EC-C was carried out to assess the stability of viral integration. The growth rate was altered depending on passage numbers, and morphology also changed during culture. SNP microarray profiles showed some differences between low and high passages, implying that the HUV-EC-C genome had changed during culture. However, no detectable change was observed in chromosome 9, where HHV-6B integration and the viral copy number remained unchanged. Our results suggest that integrated HHV-6B is stable in HUV-EC-C despite genome instability.

  20. Intra-aneurysm sac pressure measurements after endovascular aneurysm repair: differences between shrinking, unchanged, and expanding aneurysms with and without endoleaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Nuno V; Ivancev, Krassi; Malina, Martin; Resch, Timothy; Lindblad, Bengt; Sonesson, Björn

    2004-06-01

    Our objective was to study intra-aneurysm pressure after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in shrinking, unchanged, and expanding abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) with and without endoleaks. Direct intra-aneurysm sac pressure measurement (DISP) by percutaneous translumbar puncture of the AAA under fluoroscopic guidance was performed 46 times during the follow-up of 37 patients (30 men; median age, 73 years [range, 58-82 years]; AAA diameter: median, 60 mm [range, 48-84 mm]). Three patients were included in two different groups because DISP was performed more than once with different indications. Tip-pressure sensors mounted on 0.014-inch guidewires were used for simultaneous measurement of systemic and AAA sac pressures. Mean pressure index (MPI) was calculated as the percentage of mean intra-aneurysm pressure relative to the simultaneous mean intra-aortic pressure. Median MPI was 19% in shrinking (11 patients), 30% in unchanged (10 patients), and 59% in expanding (9 patients) aneurysms without endoleaks. Pulse pressure was also higher in expanding (10 mm Hg) compared with shrinking (2 mm Hg; P pressure reduction. Intra-aneurysm sac pressure measurement is an important adjunctive for EVAR evaluation, possibly allowing early detection of failures. High pressure is associated with AAA expansion and low pressure with shrinkage. Type II endoleaks can be responsible for AAA pressurization, and successful embolization appears to result in pressure reduction.

  1. DNA typing for the identification of old skeletal remains from Korean War victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwan Young; Kim, Na Young; Park, Myung Jin; Sim, Jeong Eun; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2010-11-01

    The identification of missing casualties of the Korean War (1950-1953) has been performed using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) profiles, but recent advances in DNA extraction techniques and approaches using smaller amplicons have significantly increased the possibility of obtaining DNA profiles from highly degraded skeletal remains. Therefore, 21 skeletal remains of Korean War victims and 24 samples from biological relatives of the supposed victims were selected based on circumstantial evidence and/or mtDNA-matching results and were analyzed to confirm the alleged relationship. Cumulative likelihood ratios were obtained from autosomal short tandem repeat, Y-chromosomal STR, and mtDNA-genotyping results, and mainly confirmed the alleged relationship with values over 10⁵. The present analysis emphasizes the value of mini- and Y-STR systems as well as an efficient DNA extraction method in DNA testing for the identification of old skeletal remains. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. 7 CFR 160.29 - Containers to remain intact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Containers to remain intact. 160.29 Section 160.29... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.29 Containers to remain intact... the containers holding such naval stores remain intact as sampled until the analysis, classification...

  3. Enhanced glucose cycling and suppressed de novo synthesis of glucose-6-phosphate result in a net unchanged hepatic glucose output in ob/ob mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bandsma, RHJ; Grefhorst, A; van Dijk, TH; van der Sluijs, FH; Hammer, A; Reijngoud, DJ; Kuipers, F

    2004-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis. Leptin-deficient ob/ob mice are hyperinsulinaemic and hyperglycaemic; however, the cause of hyperglycaemia remains largely unknown. Methods. Glucose metabolism in vivo in 9-h fasted ob/ob mice and lean littermates was studied by infusing [U-C-13]-glucose, [2-C-13]-glycerol,

  4. Bird remains from the Maastrichtian type area (Late Cretaceous)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dyke, Gareth J.; Schulp, A. S.; Jagt, J. W M

    2008-01-01

    Remains of Late Cretaceous birds are rare, which is especially true for Europe and the type area of the Maastrichtian Stage (southeast Netherlands, northeast Belgium) in particular. In the present paper, we record new remains (isolated tarsometatarsus and radius) that document the presence of both

  5. Identification of human remains from the Second World War mass graves uncovered in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanović, Damir; Hadžić Metjahić, Negra; Čakar, Jasmina; Džehverović, Mirela; Dogan, Serkan; Ferić, Elma; Džijan, Snježana; Škaro, Vedrana; Projić, Petar; Madžar, Tomislav; Rod, Eduard; Primorac, Dragan

    2015-06-01

    To present the results obtained in the identification of human remains from World War II found in two mass graves in Ljubuški, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Samples from 10 skeletal remains were collected. Teeth and femoral fragments were collected from 9 skeletons and only a femoral fragment from 1 skeleton. DNA was isolated from bone and teeth samples using an optimized phenol/chloroform DNA extraction procedure. All samples required a pre-extraction decalcification with EDTA and additional post-extraction DNA purification using filter columns. Additionally, DNA from 12 reference samples (buccal swabs from potential living relatives) was extracted using the Qiagen DNA extraction method. QuantifilerTM Human DNA Quantification Kit was used for DNA quantification. PowerPlex ESI kit was used to simultaneously amplify 15 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci, and PowerPlex Y23 was used to amplify 23 Y chromosomal STR loci. Matching probabilities were estimated using a standard statistical approach. A total of 10 samples were processed, 9 teeth and 1 femoral fragment. Nine of 10 samples were profiled using autosomal STR loci, which resulted in useful DNA profiles for 9 skeletal remains. A comparison of established victims' profiles against a reference sample database yielded 6 positive identifications. DNA analysis may efficiently contribute to the identification of remains even seven decades after the end of the World War II. The significant percentage of positively identified remains (60%), even when the number of the examined possible living relatives was relatively small (only 12), proved the importance of cooperation with the members of the local community, who helped to identify the closest missing persons' relatives and collect referent samples from them.

  6. Amino Acid Profiles in Term and Preterm Human Milk through Lactation: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiying Zhang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Amino acid profile is a key aspect of human milk (HM protein quality. We report a systematic review of total amino acid (TAA and free amino acid (FAA profiles, in term and preterm HM derived from 13 and 19 countries, respectively. Of the 83 studies that were critically reviewed, 26 studies with 3774 subjects were summarized for TAA profiles, while 22 studies with 4747 subjects were reviewed for FAA. Effects of gestational age, lactation stage, and geographical region were analyzed by Analysis of Variance. Data on total nitrogen (TN and TAA composition revealed general inter-study consistency, whereas FAA concentrations varied among studies. TN and all TAA declined in the first two months of lactation and then remained relatively unchanged. In contrast, the FAA glutamic acid and glutamine increased, peaked around three to six months, and then declined. Some significant differences were observed for TAA and FAA, based on gestational age and region. Most regional TAA and FAA data were derived from Asia and Europe, while information from Africa was scant. This systematic review represents a useful evaluation of the amino acid composition of human milk, which is valuable for the assessment of protein quality of breast milk substitutes.

  7. Amino acid profiles in term and preterm human milk through lactation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiying; Adelman, Alicia S; Rai, Deshanie; Boettcher, Julia; Lőnnerdal, Bo

    2013-11-26

    Amino acid profile is a key aspect of human milk (HM) protein quality. We report a systematic review of total amino acid (TAA) and free amino acid (FAA) profiles, in term and preterm HM derived from 13 and 19 countries, respectively. Of the 83 studies that were critically reviewed, 26 studies with 3774 subjects were summarized for TAA profiles, while 22 studies with 4747 subjects were reviewed for FAA. Effects of gestational age, lactation stage, and geographical region were analyzed by Analysis of Variance. Data on total nitrogen (TN) and TAA composition revealed general inter-study consistency, whereas FAA concentrations varied among studies. TN and all TAA declined in the first two months of lactation and then remained relatively unchanged. In contrast, the FAA glutamic acid and glutamine increased, peaked around three to six months, and then declined. Some significant differences were observed for TAA and FAA, based on gestational age and region. Most regional TAA and FAA data were derived from Asia and Europe, while information from Africa was scant. This systematic review represents a useful evaluation of the amino acid composition of human milk, which is valuable for the assessment of protein quality of breast milk substitutes.

  8. Descriptions of the dental remains of Homo floresiensis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    KAIFU, YOUSUKE; KONO, REIKO T; SUTIKNA, THOMAS; SAPTOMO, E. WAHYU; JATMIKO; AWE, ROKUS DUE; BABA, HISAO

    2015-01-01

    Dental remains of Homo floresiensis excavated during 2002–2004 at Liang Bua, Flores, Indonesia, consist of one partial maxillary dentition, two nearly complete mandibular dentitions, and four isolated teeth...

  9. A Bayesian Framework for Remaining Useful Life Estimation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The estimation of remaining useful life (RUL) of a faulty component is at the center of system prognostics and health management. It gives operators a potent tool in...

  10. Skeletal sexing standards of human remains in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Gulhan, O

    2017-01-01

    The identification of victims involved in mass fatality incidents, as well as the identification of unknown individuals in criminal cases has become an increasingly important issue nowadays. Sex assessment represents a key point in forensic evaluations due to its significance in providing biological identity. Even though the availability of documented skeletal remains to forensic practitioners is a common practice in many countries, in Turkey, contemporary documented skeletal remains are not ...

  11. Method for recovering elemental silicon from cutting remains.

    OpenAIRE

    Ulset, Torgeir; Julrud, Stein; Cassayre, Laurent; Chamelot, Pierre; Massot, Laurent; Taxil, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for recovering elemental silicon cutting remains containing silicon particles, wherein the method comprises manufacturing solid anodes from the cutting remains, arranging one or more manufactured anode (s) in an electrolytic cell with a molten salt electrolyte and one or more cathode (s), and applying a potential difference between the one or more anode (s) and cathode (s) to obtain an oxidation of metallic silicon in the one or more anode (s), tran...

  12. Data Profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Hladíková, Radka

    2010-01-01

    Title: Data Profiling Author: Radka Hladíková Department: Department of Software Engineering Supervisor: Ing. Vladimír Kyjonka Supervisor's e-mail address: Abstract: This thesis puts mind on problems with data quality and data profiling. This Work analyses and summarizes problems of data quality, data defects, process of data quality, data quality assessment and data profiling. The main topic is data profiling as a process of researching data available in existing...

  13. An analysis of the alleged skeletal remains of Carin Göring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kjellström

    Full Text Available In 1991, treasure hunters found skeletal remains in an area close to the destroyed country residence of former Nazi leader Hermann Göring in northeastern Berlin. The remains, which were believed to belong to Carin Göring, who was buried at the site, were examined to determine whether it was possible to make a positive identification. The anthropological analysis showed that the remains come from an adult woman. The DNA analysis of several bone elements showed female sex, and a reference sample from Carin's son revealed mtDNA sequences identical to the remains. The profile has one nucleotide difference from the Cambridge reference sequence (rCRS, the common variant 263G. A database search resulted in a frequency of this mtDNA sequence of about 10% out of more than 7,000 European haplotypes. The mtDNA sequence found in the ulna, the cranium and the reference sample is, thus, very common among Europeans. Therefore, nuclear DNA analysis was attempted. The remains as well as a sample from Carin's son were successfully analysed for the three nuclear markers TH01, D7S820 and D8S1179. The nuclear DNA analysis of the two samples revealed one shared allele for each of the three markers, supporting a mother and son relationship. This genetic information together with anthropological and historical files provides an additional piece of circumstantial evidence in our efforts to identify the remains of Carin Göring.

  14. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation on apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients and fermentation profile in healthy horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenthun, E; Coenen, M; Vervuert, I

    2013-05-01

    Supplementation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) in horses may have some potential to modify microbial populations and thereby improve fibre digestibility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of SC on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients, with a special focus on fibre digestion in healthy horses. The fermentation profile of microbial populations was another focus of interest. Twelve geldings were randomly assigned to three groups. The basal diet consisted of cracked corn (2 g starch/kg body weight [BW]) and hay (1.2 kg/100 kg BW). During adaptation (3 weeks) and the total faecal collection period (5 days), cracked corn was fed once daily either as control (0 g SC) or supplemented with 1 or 3 g SC (1 g SC = 2 × 10(10) colony-forming units [cfu]). There was a 4-week wash-out period between the different SC regimes. Faeces were sampled by rectal collection for the analysis of pH, nitrogen, lactic acid, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and SC. In faeces, mean SC cfu was significantly lower than the quantity supplemented: 0 g SC, no detection; 1 g SC, 1.1 × 10(6) cfu; 3 g SC, 3.6 × 10(6) cfu. Apparent total tract digestibility of crude fibre varied approximately 40% without any treatment-related effects. Short-chain fatty acids, lactic acids and pH in faeces were not significantly affected by SC supplementation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation was not associated with any changes in the fermentation profiles, and fibre digestion accordingly remained unchanged in intact and healthy horses. Taking into account that fibre digestion remained unchanged and recovery rate of SC in faeces was mariginal, colonization and proliferation of SC in the healthy equine intestinal tract seems to be unlikely. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Forensic considerations when dealing with incinerated human dental remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reesu, Gowri Vijay; Augustine, Jeyaseelan; Urs, Aadithya B

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the human dental identification process relies upon sufficient post-mortem data being recovered to allow for a meaningful comparison with ante-mortem records of the deceased person. Teeth are the most indestructible components of the human body and are structurally unique in their composition. They possess the highest resistance to most environmental effects like fire, desiccation, decomposition and prolonged immersion. In most natural as well as man-made disasters, teeth may provide the only means of positive identification of an otherwise unrecognizable body. It is imperative that dental evidence should not be destroyed through erroneous handling until appropriate radiographs, photographs, or impressions can be fabricated. Proper methods of physical stabilization of incinerated human dental remains should be followed. The maintenance of integrity of extremely fragile structures is crucial to the successful confirmation of identity. In such situations, the forensic dentist must stabilise these teeth before the fragile remains are transported to the mortuary to ensure preservation of possibly vital identification evidence. Thus, while dealing with any incinerated dental remains, a systematic approach must be followed through each stage of evaluation of incinerated dental remains to prevent the loss of potential dental evidence. This paper presents a composite review of various studies on incinerated human dental remains and discusses their impact on the process of human identification and suggests a step by step approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  16. Major Upgrades to the AIRS Version-6 Ozone Profile Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena

    2015-01-01

    This research is a continuation of part of what was shown at the last AIRS Science Team Meeting in the talk Improved Water Vapor and Ozone Profiles in SRT AIRS Version-6.X and the AIRS February 11, 2015 NetMeeting Further improvements in water vapor and ozone profiles compared to Version-6.AIRS Version-6 was finalized in late 2012 and is now operational. Version-6 contained many significant improvements in retrieval methodology compared to Version-5. However, Version-6 retrieval methodology used for the water vapor profile q(p) and ozone profile O3(p) retrievals is basically unchanged from Version-5, or even from Version-4. Subsequent research has made significant improvements in both water vapor and O3 profiles compared to Version-6. This talk will concentrate on O3 profile retrievals. Improvements in water vapor profile retrievals are given in a separate presentation.

  17. Cognitive bias in forensic anthropology: visual assessment of skeletal remains is susceptible to confirmation bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhaeizadeh, Sherry; Dror, Itiel E; Morgan, Ruth M

    2014-05-01

    An experimental study was designed to examine cognitive biases within forensic anthropological non-metric methods in assessing sex, ancestry and age at death. To investigate examiner interpretation, forty-one non-novice participants were semi randomly divided into three groups. Prior to conducting the assessment of the skeletal remains, two of the groups were given different extraneous contextual information regarding the sex, ancestry and age at death of the individual. The third group acted as a control group with no extraneous contextual information. The experiment was designed to investigate if the interpretation and conclusions of the skeletal remains would differ amongst participants within the three groups, and to assess whether the examiners would confirm or disagree with the given extraneous context when establishing a biological profile. The results revealed a significant biasing effect within the three groups, demonstrating a strong confirmation bias in the assessment of sex, ancestry and age at death. In assessment of sex, 31% of the participants in the control group concluded that the skeleton remains were male. In contrast, in the group that received contextual information that the remains were male, 72% concluded that the remains were male, and in the participant group where the context was that the remains were of a female, 0% of the participants concluded that the remains were male. Comparable results showing bias were found in assessing ancestry and age at death. These data demonstrate that cognitive bias can impact forensic anthropological non-metric methods on skeletal remains and affects the interpretation and conclusions of the forensic scientists. This empirical study is a step in establishing an evidence base approach for dealing with cognitive issues in forensic anthropological assessments, so as to enhance this valuable forensic science discipline. Copyright © 2013 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  18. On random age and remaining lifetime for populations of items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finkelstein, M.; Vaupel, J.

    2015-01-01

    We consider items that are incepted into operation having already a random (initial) age and define the corresponding remaining lifetime. We show that these lifetimes are identically distributed when the age distribution is equal to the equilibrium distribution of the renewal theory. Then we...

  19. Holocene insect remains from south-western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøcher, Jens Jensenius; Bennike, Ole; Wagner, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Remains of plants and invertebrates from Holocene deposits in south-western Greenland include a number of insect fragments from Heteroptera and Coleoptera. Some of the finds extend the known temporal range of the species considerably back in time, and one of the taxa has not previously been found...... of terrestrial insects complement the scarce fossil Greenland record of the species concerned....

  20. Remaining childless : Causes and consequences from a life course perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, R.

    2010-01-01

    Little is know about childless individuals in the Netherlands, although currently one out of every five Dutch individuals remains childless. Who are they? How did they end up being childless? How and to what extent are their life outcomes influenced by their childlessness? By focusing on individual

  1. Predicting the Remaining Useful Life of Rolling Element Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hooghoudt, Jan Otto; Jantunen, E; Yi, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Condition monitoring of rolling element bearings is of vital importance in order to keep the industrial wheels running. In wind industry this is especially important due to the challenges in practical maintenance. The paper presents an attempt to improve the capability of prediction of remaining...

  2. Remaining a Nonparticipant in a Cooperative Group Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deardoff, Richard

    1996-01-01

    A high school history teacher of gifted students examined difficulties in establishing cooperative groups when members changed frequently. Student interviews and surveys indicated that some students were happy to remain nonparticipants in any group. Participation was less a factor of group makeup than a factor of student opinion about grades.…

  3. Dinosaur remains from the type Maastrichtian: An update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weishampel, David B.; Mulder, Eric W A; Dortangs, Rudi W.; Jagt, John W M; Jianu, Coralia Maria; Kuypers, Marcel M M; Peeters, Hans H G; Schulp, Anne S.

    1999-01-01

    Isolated cranial and post-cranial remains of hadrosaurid dinosaurs have been collected from various outcrops in the type area of the Maastrichtian stage during the last few years. In the present contribution, dentary and maxillary teeth are recorded from the area for the first time. Post-cranial

  4. Ancient DNA in human bone remains from Pompeii archaeological site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollaro, M; Di Bernardo, G; Galano, G; Galderisi, U; Guarino, F; Angelini, F; Cascino, A

    1998-06-29

    aDNA extraction and amplification procedures have been optimized for Pompeian human bone remains whose diagenesis has been determined by histological analysis. Single copy genes amplification (X and Y amelogenin loci and Y specific alphoid repeat sequences) have been performed and compared with anthropometric data on sexing.

  5. The Workers' Value of the Remaining Employment Contract Duration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommeren, van Jos; Hazans, Mihails

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces and applies a method for estimating workers' marginal willingness to pay for job attributes employing data on job search activity. Worker's willingness to pay for the remaining duration of the employment contract is derived. We provide evidence that workers attach substantial

  6. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Pearce

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1 what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2 what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving.

  7. Five reasons why South African librarianship remains untransformed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... librarianship remains untransformed. These reasons are the result of misunderstandings by librarians about the historical process, social change, political change, professional change and the intellectual roles of librarians. Suggestions for dealing with these misunderstandings are provided. (Innovation: 2002 25: 27-36) ...

  8. Molecular genetic identification of skeletal remains of apartheid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Truth and Reconciliation Commission made significant progress in examining abuses committed during the apartheid era in South Africa. Despite information revealed by the commission, a large number of individuals remained missing when the commission closed its proceedings. This provided the impetus for the ...

  9. The experiences of remaining nurse tutors during the transformation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transformation of public services and education in South Africa is part of the political and socioeconomic transition to democracy. Changes are occurring in every fi eld, including that of the health services. A qualitative study was undertaken to investigate the experiences of the remaining nurse tutors at a school of ...

  10. The treatment of human remains | Satyapal | South African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concerns regarding treatment of the dead in scientific and public arenas, issues related to consent, respect for human dignity, scientific integrity, societal expectations, and why treatment of cadavers are ethically significant are highlighted. The display of human remains claimed as 'edutainment' or 'anatomy art' in Body ...

  11. Collegial Climate and Novice Teachers' Intent to Remain Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogodzinski, Ben; Youngs, Peter; Frank, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Using survey data from novice teachers across 99 schools, we estimated multilevel regressions to identify the association between novices' intent to remain teaching within their schools and their perceptions of the collegial climate. The results suggest that novice teachers who perceive a more positive collegial climate marked by higher degrees…

  12. Remaining teeth, cardiovascular morbidity and death among adult Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, B L; Gamborg, M

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine if number of remaining teeth was associated with development of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality over 5-12 years. METHODS: Prospective observational study among 1474 men and 1458 women born 1922, 1932, 1942 or 1952 from The Danish MONICA follow up study (MONItoring......, incidence of cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease, during averagely 7.5 years of follow-up. Compared to those with most teeth remaining, the edentulous suffered >3-fold increased Hazard (HR) of developing stroke (HR=3.25; 95% CI: 1.48-7.14), whereas the risk of developing any cardiovascular...... disease was increased by 50% (HR=1.50; 95% CI: 1.02-2.19). Risk for coronary heart disease was increased by 31%, but was not significant, after the adjustment for education, age, smoking, diabetes, alcohol intake, systolic blood pressure and body mass index (HR= 1.31; 95% CI: 0.74-2.31). Associations were...

  13. Mandibular remains support taxonomic validity of Australopithecus sediba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Darryl J; DeWitt, Thomas J; Carlson, Keely B; Brophy, Juliet K; Schroeder, Lauren; Ackermann, Rebecca R; Churchill, Steven E; Berger, Lee R

    2013-04-12

    Since the announcement of the species Australopithecus sediba, questions have been raised over whether the Malapa fossils represent a valid taxon or whether inadequate allowance was made for intraspecific variation, in particular with reference to the temporally and geographically proximate species Au. africanus. The morphology of mandibular remains of Au. sediba, including newly recovered material discussed here, shows that it is not merely a late-surviving morph of Au. africanus. Rather-as is seen elsewhere in the cranium, dentition, and postcranial skeleton-these mandibular remains share similarities with other australopiths but can be differentiated from the hypodigm of Au. africanus in both size and shape as well as in their ontogenetic growth trajectory.

  14. Suicidal terrorist bombings in Israel--identification of human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahana, T; Freund, M; Hiss, J

    1997-03-01

    Positive identification of human remains is one of the most important tasks in mass disaster investigations. Religious and jurisdictional demands in Israel, require the identification process to be completed in the shortest possible time. In the 18 suicidal terrorist bombings that took place in Israel between the years 1993-1996, 127 victims and 19 perpetrators were killed, and their severely fragmented bodies were identified within 24 h. The efficient completion of the identification endeavor was enabled by the implementation of a variety of techniques and the close collaboration in the investigation between the different emergency and forensic agencies. This paper presents the mass disaster identification policy and techniques currently used in Israel. The importance of an interdisciplinary approach for the identification of extremely fragmented human remains from mass disasters and the creation of a central data bank of fingerprints and genetic markers is emphasized.

  15. The impact of downsizing on remaining workers' sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østhus, Ståle; Mastekaasa, Arne

    2010-10-01

    It is generally assumed that organizational downsizing has considerable negative consequences, not only for workers that are laid off, but also for those who remain employed. The empirical evidence with regard to effects on sickness absence is, however, inconsistent. This study employs register data covering a major part of the total workforce in Norway over the period 2000-2003. The number of sickness absence episodes and the number of sickness absence days are analysed by means of Poisson regression. To control for both observed and unobserved stable individual characteristics, we use conditional (fixed effects) estimation. The analyses provide some weak indications that downsizing may lead to slightly less sickness absence, but the overall impression is that downsizing has few if any effects on the sickness absence of the remaining employees. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mineral remains of early life on Earth? On Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberall, Robbins E.; Iberall, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of early life. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors

  17. Neanderthal infant and adult infracranial remains from Marillac (Charente, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolores Garralda, María; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-09-01

    At the site of Marillac, near the Ligonne River in Marillac-le-Franc (Charente, France), a remarkable stratigraphic sequence has yielded a wealth of archaeological information, palaeoenvironmental data, as well as faunal and human remains. Marillac must have been a sinkhole used by Neanderthal groups as a hunting camp during MIS 4 (TL date 57,600 ± 4,600BP), where Quina Mousterian lithics and fragmented bones of reindeer predominate. This article describes three infracranial skeleton fragments. Two of them are from adults and consist of the incomplete shafts of a right radius (Marillac 24) and a left fibula (Marillac 26). The third fragment is the diaphysis of the right femur of an immature individual (Marillac 25), the size and shape of which resembles those from Teshik-Tash and could be assigned to a child of a similar age. The three fossils have been compared with the remains of other Neanderthals or anatomically Modern Humans (AMH). Furthermore, the comparison of the infantile femora, Marillac 25 and Teshik-Tash, with the remains of several European children from the early Middle Ages clearly demonstrates the robustness and rounded shape of both Neanderthal diaphyses. Evidence of peri-mortem manipulations have been identified on all three bones, with spiral fractures, percussion pits and, in the case of the radius and femur, unquestionable cutmarks made with flint implements, probably during defleshing. Traces of periostosis appear on the fibula fragment and on the immature femoral diaphysis, although their aetiology remains unknown. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Osteometric sex determination of burned human skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, D; Thompson, T J U; Cunha, E

    2013-10-01

    Sex determination of human burned skeletal remains is extremely hard to achieve because of heat-related fragmentation, warping and dimensional changes. In particular, the latter is impeditive of osteometric analyses that are based on references developed on unburned bones. New osteometric references were thus obtained which allow for more reliable sex determinations. The calcined remains of cremated Portuguese individuals were examined and specific standard measurements of the humerus, femur, talus and calcaneus were recorded. This allowed for the compilation of new sex discriminating osteometric references which were then tested on independent samples with good results. Both the use of simple section points and of logistic regression equations provided successful sex classification scores. These references may now be used for the sex determination of burned skeletons. Its reliability is highest for contemporary Portuguese remains but nonetheless these results have important repercussion for forensic research. More conservative use of these references may also prove valuable for other populations as well as for archaeological research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. Field contamination of skeletonized human remains with exogenous DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edson, Suni M; Christensen, Alexander F

    2013-01-01

    The Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory reports the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of over 800 skeletal samples a year for the Joint POW/MIA Accounting Command-Central Identification Laboratory. These sequences are generated from degraded skeletal remains that are presumed to belong to U.S. service members missing from past military conflicts. In the laboratory, it is possible to control for contamination of remains; however, in the field, it can be difficult to prevent modern DNA from being transferred to skeletal elements and being carried forward through the analysis process. Four such cases are described here along with the controls in place in the laboratory to eliminate the possibility of the exogenous DNA being reported as authentic. In each case, the controls implemented by the laboratories prevented the false reporting of contaminant exogenous DNA from remains that were either faunal or human, but lacked endogenous DNA. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  20. Postmortem Scavenging of Human Remains by Domestic Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Suntirukpong, M.D.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Crime scene investigators, forensic medicine doctors and pathologists, and forensic anthropologists frequently encounter postmortem scavenging of human remains by household pets. Case presentation: The authors present a case report of a partially skeletonized adult male found dead after more than three months in his apartment in Thailand. The body was in an advanced stage of decomposition with nearly complete skeletonization of the head, neck, hands, and feet. The presence of maggots and necrophagous (flesh eating beetles on the body confirmed that insects had consumed much of the soft tissues. Examination of the hand and foot bones revealed canine tooth puncture marks. Evidence of chewing indicated that one or more of the decedent’s three house cats had fed on the body after death. Recognizing and identifying carnivore and rodent activity on the soft flesh and bones of human remains is important in interpreting and reconstructing postmortem damage. Thorough analysis may help explain why skeletal elements are missing, damaged, or out of anatomical position. Conclusion: This report presents a multi-disciplinary approach combining forensic anthropology and forensic medicine in examining and interpreting human remains.

  1. Choosing and remaining in nursing: Iranian male nurses' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Azadi, Arman; Valizadeh, Leila; Keogh, Brian; Monadi, Morteza; Negarandeh, Reza

    2013-10-01

    Iranian male nurses' career-choosing practices have not been well investigated. The aim of this study was to explore the reasons why Iranian male nurses choose nursing as a career. In addition it sought to understand the reasons why they remain in nursing. An exploratory descriptive design, employing a qualitative approach was used. Eighteen semi-structured interviews were conducted and analyzed using content analysis. The analysis culminated in the development of three themes which described the participants' motivations for choosing nursing as a career as well as the factors that influenced their decisions to remain in nursing following qualification. Practical motivations such as job security were important factors in choosing nursing. The most common reason for remaining in nursing was desire to care for others, for God's sake. Factors that influenced their decision to leave mainly centered on the public view to nursing as a feminine discipline. However, the nurses in this study believed that nursing was a profession appropriate for both men and women because of gendered nursing care and preferences of patient in Iran.

  2. Dynamics of GnRH Neuron Ionotropic GABA and Glutamate Synaptic Receptors Are Unchanged during Estrogen Positive and Negative Feedback in Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinhuai; Porteous, Robert; Herbison, Allan E

    2017-01-01

    Inputs from GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons are suspected to play an important role in regulating the activity of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. The GnRH neurons exhibit marked plasticity to control the ovarian cycle with circulating estradiol concentrations having profound "feedback" effects on their activity. This includes "negative feedback" responsible for suppressing GnRH neuron activity and "positive feedback" that occurs at mid-cycle to activate the GnRH neurons to generate the preovulatory luteinizing hormone surge. In the present study, we employed brain slice electrophysiology to question whether synaptic ionotropic GABA and glutamate receptor signaling at the GnRH neuron changed at times of negative and positive feedback. We used a well characterized estradiol (E)-treated ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model to replicate negative and positive feedback. Miniature and spontaneous postsynaptic currents (mPSCs and sPSCs) attributable to GABA A and glutamatergic receptor signaling were recorded from GnRH neurons obtained from intact diestrous, OVX, OVX + E (negative feedback), and OVX + E+E (positive feedback) female mice. Approximately 90% of GnRH neurons exhibited spontaneous GABA A -mPSCs in all groups but no significant differences in the frequency or kinetics of mPSCs were found at the times of negative or positive feedback. Approximately 50% of GnRH neurons exhibited spontaneous glutamate mPSCs but again no differences were detected. The same was true for spontaneous PSCs in all cases. These observations indicate that the kinetics of ionotropic GABA and glutamate receptor synaptic transmission to GnRH neurons remain stable across the different estrogen feedback states.

  3. Local interactions influence the fibrillation kinetics, structure and dynamics of Aβ(1-40) but leave the general fibril structure unchanged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Juliane; Scheidt, Holger A; Krüger, Martin; Thomas, Lars; Huster, Daniel

    2014-04-28

    A series of peptide mutants was studied to understand the influence of local physical interactions on the fibril formation mechanism of amyloid β (Aβ)(1-40). In the peptide variants, the well-known hydrophobic contact between residues phenylalanine 19 and leucine 34 was rationally modified. In single site mutations, residue phenylalanine 19 was replaced by amino acids that introduce higher structural flexibility by a glycine mutation or restrict the backbone flexibility by introduction of proline. Next, the aromatic phenylalanine was replaced by tyrosine or tryptophan, respectively, to probe the influence of additional hydrogen bond forming capacity in the fibril interior. Furthermore, negatively charged glutamate or positively charged lysine was introduced to probe the influence of electrostatics. In double mutants, the hydrophobic contact was replaced by a putative salt bridge (glutamate and lysine) or two electrostatically repelling lysine residues. The influence of these mutations on the fibrillation kinetics and morphology, cross-β structure as well as the local structure and dynamics was probed using fluorescence, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. While the fibrillation kinetics and the local structure and dynamics of the peptide variants were influenced by the introduction of these local fields, the overall morphology and cross-β structure of the fibrils remained very robust against all the probed interactions. Overall, 7 out of the 8 mutated peptides formed fibrils of very similar morphology compared to the wildtype. However, characteristic local structural and dynamical changes indicate that amyloid fibrils show an astonishing ability to respond to local perturbations but overall show a very homogenous mesoscopic organization.

  4. State and municipal innovations in obesity policy: why localities remain a necessary laboratory for innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Belinda; Ashe, Marice; Farias, Ruben; Gostin, Lawrence

    2015-03-01

    Municipal and state governments are surging ahead in obesity prevention, providing a testing ground for innovative policies and shifting social norms in the process. Though high-profile measures such as New York City's soda portion rule attract significant media attention, we catalog the broader array of initiatives in less-known localities. Local innovation advances prevention policy, but faces legal and political constraints-constitutional challenges, preemption, charges of paternalism, lack of evidence, and widening health inequalities. These arguments can be met with astute framing, empirical evidence, and policy design, enabling local governments to remain at the forefront in transforming obesogenic environments.

  5. The penalty points system in Ireland - Does it remain effective 14 years on?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, C; Donnelly, M

    2017-05-23

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) are the leading cause of trauma related mortality in Ireland. The penalty points system (PPS) was introduced in Ireland in 2002 to incentivise safer driving and reduce injury. Its early effect was studied previously1 which concluded that there was a slight reduction in RTA related femoral shaft fractures (a sensitive indicator of high energy trauma) and a dramatic reduction in RTA related discharges. We hypothesized that over the following 14 years, the penalty points system might lose its effectiveness. Data was again collected from the same HIPE departments from six Dublin teaching hospitals and also University Hospital Waterford (to represent both an urban and a more rural population cohort respectively) examining RTA related femoral shaft fractures over an identical 6 month period (October-April). RTA related discharge data over an identical 6 month period was again acquired and analysed from Beaumont Hospital, Dublin (identical data source to previous study). These results were compared with the identical 6 month period in 2001/02 & 2002/03 (October-April). The total number of RTA related femoral shaft fracture discharges in Dublin decreased from 16 post introduction of PPS in the 2002/03 6-month period to 7 in 2015/16 6-month period. The number remained the same in the Waterford region (n = 5). The total RTA related discharges in Beaumont Hospital, Dublin decreased from 70 post PPS introduction to 57 in the 2015/16 6-month period. This represents an incidence rate of 4.5/1000 discharges (vs 6.9 post introduction) which was a statistically significant reduction (p = 0.014). The mean length of stay for these patients reduced from 13 to 7.7 days. There were consistent reductions in head injury (major & minor), lower limb fracture and facial fracture since the introduction of the PPS. The upper limb, pelvic/acetabular and thoracic injuries remained largely unchanged. Whilst RTA related spinal and abdominal injuries decreased

  6. Pacific salmon extinctions: quantifying lost and remaining diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Richard G; Waples, Robin S; Myers, James M; Weitkamp, Laurie A; Bryant, Gregory J; Johnson, Orlay W; Hard, Jeffrey J

    2007-08-01

    Widespread population extirpations and the consequent loss of ecological, genetic, and life-history diversity can lead to extinction of evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) and species. We attempted to systematically enumerate extinct Pacific salmon populations and characterize lost ecological, life history, and genetic diversity types among six species of Pacific salmon (Chinook [Oncorhynchus tshawytscha], sockeye [O. nerka], coho [O. kisutch], chum [O. keta], and pink salmon [O. gorbuscha] and steelhead trout [O. mykiss]) from the western contiguous United States. We estimated that, collectively, 29% of nearly 1400 historical populations of these six species have been lost from the Pacific Northwest and California since Euro-American contact. Across all species there was a highly significant difference in the proportion of population extinctions between coastal (0.14 extinct) and interior (0.55 extinct) regions. Sockeye salmon (which typically rely on lacustrine habitats for rearing) and stream-maturing Chinook salmon (which stay in freshwater for many months prior to spawning) had significantly higher proportional population losses than other species and maturation types. Aggregate losses of major ecological, life-history, and genetic biodiversity components across all species were estimated at 33%, 15%, and 27%, respectively. Collectively, we believe these population extirpations represent a loss of between 16% and 30% of all historical ESUs in the study area. On the other hand, over two-thirds of historical Pacific salmon populations in this area persist, and considerable diversity remains at all scales. Because over one-third of the remaining populations belong to threatened or endangered species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act, it is apparent that a critical juncture has been reached in efforts to preserve what remains of Pacific salmon diversity. It is also evident that persistence of existing, and evolution of future, diversity will depend

  7. Studies on protozoa in ancient remains - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Frías

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Paleoparasitological research has made important contributions to the understanding of parasite evolution and ecology. Although parasitic protozoa exhibit a worldwide distribution, recovering these organisms from an archaeological context is still exceptional and relies on the availability and distribution of evidence, the ecology of infectious diseases and adequate detection techniques. Here, we present a review of the findings related to protozoa in ancient remains, with an emphasis on their geographical distribution in the past and the methodologies used for their retrieval. The development of more sensitive detection methods has increased the number of identified parasitic species, promising interesting insights from research in the future.

  8. Tuberculosis remains a challenge despite economic growth in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarajia, M; Goodridge, A

    2014-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease associated with inequality, and wise investment of economic resources is considered critical to its control. Panama has recently secured its status as an upper-middle-income country with robust economic growth. However, the prioritisation of resources for TB control remains a major challenge. In this article, we highlight areas that urgently require action to effectively reduce TB burden to minimal levels. Our conclusions suggest the need for fund allocation and a multidisciplinary approach to ensure prompt laboratory diagnosis, treatment assurance and workforce reinforcement, complemented by applied and operational research, development and innovation.

  9. "Recent" macrofossil remains from the Lomonosov Ridge, central Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Duc, Cynthia; de Vernal, Anne; Archambault, Philippe; Brice, Camille; Roberge, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The examination of surface sediment samples collected from 17 sites along the Lomonosov Ridge at water depths ranging from 737 to 3339 meters during Polarstern Expedition PS87 in 2014 (Stein, 2015), indicates a rich biogenic content almost exclusively dominated by calcareous remains. Amongst biogenic remains, microfossils (planktic and benthic foraminifers, pteropods, ostracods, etc.) dominate but millimetric to centrimetric macrofossils occurred frequently at the surface of the sediment. The macrofossil remains consist of a large variety of taxa, including gastropods, bivalvia, polychaete tubes, scaphopods, echinoderm plates and spines, and fish otoliths. Among the Bivalvia, the most abundant taxa are Portlandia arctica, Hyalopecten frigidus, Cuspidaria glacilis, Policordia densicostata, Bathyarca spp., and Yoldiella spp. Whereas a few specimens are well preserved and apparently pristine, most mollusk shells displayed extensive alteration features. Moreover, most shells were covered by millimeter scale tubes of the serpulid polychaete Spirorbis sp. suggesting transport from low intertidal or subtidal zone. Both the ecological affinity and known geographic distribution of identified bivalvia as named above support the hypothesis of transportation rather than local development. In addition to mollusk shells, more than a hundred fish otoliths were recovered in surface sediments. The otoliths mostly belong to the Gadidae family. Most of them are well preserved and without serpulid tubes attached to their surface, suggesting a local/regional origin, unlike the shell remains. Although recovered at the surface, the macrofaunal assemblages of the Lomonosov Ridge do not necessarily represent the "modern" environments as they may result from reworking and because their occurrence at the surface of the sediment may also be due to winnowing of finer particles. Although the shells were not dated, we suspect that their actual ages may range from modern to several thousands of

  10. The Artificial Leaf: Recent Progress and Remaining Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Symes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The prospect of a device that uses solar energy to split water into H2 and O2 is highly attractive in terms of producing hydrogen as a carbon-neutral fuel. In this mini review, key research milestones that have been reached in this field over the last two decades will be discussed, with special focus on devices that use earth-abundant materials. Finally, the remaining challenges in the development of such “artificial leaves” will be highlighted.

  11. Yellow Fever Remains a Potential Threat to Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Monath, Thomas P

    2016-08-01

    Yellow fever (YF) remains a serious public health threat in endemic countries. The recent re-emergence in Africa, initiating in Angola and spreading to Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, with imported cases in China and Kenya is of concern. There is such a shortage of YF vaccine in the world that the World Health Organization has proposed the use of reduced doses (1/5) during emergencies. In this short communication, we discuss these and other problems including the risk of spread of YF to areas free of YF for decades or never before affected by this arbovirus disease.

  12. Bayesian Estimation of Remaining Useful Life for Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Sønderkær; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2017-01-01

    To optimally plan maintenance of wind turbine blades, knowledge of the degradation processes and the remaining useful life is essential. In this paper, a method is proposed for calibration of a Markov deterioration model based on past inspection data for a range of blades, and updating of the model...... for a specific wind turbine blade, whenever information is available from inspections and/or condition monitoring. Dynamic Bayesian networks are used to obtain probabilities of inspection outcomes for a maximum likelihood estimation of the transition probabilities in the Markov model, and are used again when...

  13. REMAINED DENTAL PARTICLES IN THE JAWS OF EDENTULOUSPATIENTS (ISFAHAN. 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R MOSHARRAF

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Remained teeth and other lesions such as cysts, abcesses and tumors is one of the important problems in edentulous patients. In a cross-sectional study, 330 edentulous patients were evaluated radiographically. The radiographic evaluation of patients revealed the presence of 86 residual roots in 58 radiographs. 17.58% of patients had residual roots & 5.8% of patients had Impacted teeth. 58.1% of residual roots and 45% of impacted teeth were in the maxilla and others were in mandible. Maximum Percentage of residual roots (58.1% and impacted teeth (70% were found in molar region. In this study revealed 23.3% of examined patients had remaining dental fragments. From these patients, 5.76% had impacted teeth and 17.58% had residual roots, and maximum percentage of rooth fragments (58.1% were found in molar region. In similar study by spyropoulus, maximum percentage of root fragments (45.6% reported in molar region and maximum percentage of impacted teeth were found in molar and canine region (41.2% in molar and 41.2 in canine region. In this study, 58.1% of root fragments and 45% of impacted teeth were found in the maxilla but in spyropoulos" report, 71.9% of root fragments and 94.1% of impacted teeth were found in the maxilla.

  14. Prions and lymphoid organs: solved and remaining mysteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Tracy; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    Prion colonization of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) is a critical step preceding neuroinvasion in prion pathogenesis. Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), which depend on both tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) signaling for maintenance, are thought to be the primary sites of prion accumulation in SLOs. However, prion titers in RML-infected TNFR1 (-/-) lymph nodes and rates of neuroinvasion in TNFR1 (-/-) mice remain high despite the absence of mature FDCs. Recently, we discovered that TNFR1-independent prion accumulation in lymph nodes relies on LTβR signaling. Loss of LTβR signaling in TNFR1 (-/-) lymph nodes coincided with the de-differentiation of high endothelial venules (HEVs)-the primary sites of lymphocyte entry into lymph nodes. These findings suggest that HEVs are the sites through which prions initially invade lymph nodes from the bloodstream. Identification of HEVs as entry portals for prions clarifies a number of previous observations concerning peripheral prion pathogenesis. However, a number of questions still remain: What is the mechanism by which prions are taken up by HEVs? Which cells are responsible for delivering prions to lymph nodes? Are HEVs the main entry site for prions into lymph nodes or do alternative routes also exist? These questions and others are considered in this article.

  15. Mechanical determinants of bone form: insights from skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, C B

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of skeletal remains from humans living in the past forms an important complement to observational and experimental studies of living humans and animal models. Including earlier humans in such analyses increases the range of variation in both behavior and body size and shape that are represented, and can provide insights into the adaptive potential of the modern human skeleton. I review here a variety of studies of archaeological and paleontological remains that have investigated differences in skeletal structure from a mechanical perspective, focusing in particular on diaphyseal strength of the limb bones. Several conclusions can be drawn from these studies: 1) there has been a decline in overall skeletal strength relative to body size over the course of human evolution that has become progressively steeper in recent millennia, probably due to increased sedentism and technological advancement; 2) differences in pelvic structure and hip mechanical loadings affect femoral shape; 3) activity patterns affect overall strength and shape of both the lower and upper limb bones; and 4) responsiveness to changes in mechanical loading varies between skeletal features (e.g., articulations versus diaphyses) and by age.

  16. Detection of Buried Human Remains Using Bioreporter Fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vass, A. Dr.; Singleton, G. B.

    2001-10-01

    The search for buried human remains is a difficult, laborious and time-consuming task for law enforcement agencies. This study was conducted as a proof of principle demonstration to test the concept of using bioreporter microorganisms as a means to cover large areas in such a search. These bioreporter microorganisms are affected by a particular component of decaying organic matter that is distinct from decaying vegetation. The diamino compounds cadaverine and putrescine were selected as target compounds for the proof-of-principle investigation, and a search for microorganisms and genes that are responsive to either of these compounds was conducted. One recombinant clone was singled out for characterization based on its response to putrescine. The study results show that small concentrations of putrescine increased expression from this bioreporter construct. Although the level of increase was small (making it difficult to distinguish the signal from background), the results demonstrate the principle that bioreporters can be used to detect compounds resulting from decaying human remains and suggest that a wider search for target compounds should be conducted.

  17. Determination of Remaining Useful Life of Gas Turbine Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meor Said Mior Azman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the remaining useful life of gas turbine blade, using service-exposed turbine blades. This task is performed using Stress Rupture Test (SRT under accelerated test conditions where the applied stresses to the specimen is between 400 MPa to 600 MPa and the test temperature is 850°C. The study will focus on the creep behaviour of the 52000 hours service-exposed blades, complemented with creep-rupture modelling using JMatPro software and microstructure examination using optical microscope. The test specimens, made up of Ni-based superalloy of the first stage turbine blades, are machined based on International Standard (ISO 24. The results from the SRT will be analyzed using these two main equations – Larson-Miller Parameter and Life Fraction Rule. Based on the results of the remaining useful life analysis, the 52000h service-exposed blade has the condition to operate in the range of another 4751 hr to 18362 hr. The microstructure examinations shows traces of carbide precipitation that deteriorate the grain boundaries that occurs during creep process. Creep-rupture life modelling using JMatPro software has shown good agreement with the accelerated creep rupture test with minimal error.

  18. Duplex Alu Screening for Degraded DNA of Skeletal Human Remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Haß

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The human-specific Alu elements, belonging to the class of Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs, have been shown to be a powerful tool for population genetic studies. An earlier study in this department showed that it was possible to analyze Alu presence/absence in 3000-year-old skeletal human remains from the Bronze Age Lichtenstein cave in Lower Saxony, Germany. We developed duplex Alu screening PCRs with flanking primers for two Alu elements, each combined with a single internal Alu primer. By adding an internal primer, the approximately 400–500 bp presence signals of Alu elements can be detected within a range of less than 200 bp. Thus, our PCR approach is suited for highly fragmented ancient DNA samples, whereas NGS analyses frequently are unable to handle repetitive elements. With this analysis system, we examined remains of 12 individuals from the Lichtenstein cave with different degrees of DNA degradation. The duplex PCRs showed fully informative amplification results for all of the chosen Alu loci in eight of the 12 samples. Our analysis system showed that Alu presence/absence analysis is possible in samples with different degrees of DNA degradation and it reduces the amount of valuable skeletal material needed by a factor of four, as compared with a singleplex approach.

  19. Double-shell tank remaining useful life estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anantatmula, R.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-02

    The existing 28 double-shell tanks (DSTS) at Hanford are currently planned to continue operation through the year 2028 when disposal schedules show removal of waste. This schedule will place the DSTs in a service life window of 4O to 60 years depending on tank construction date and actual retirement date. This paper examines corrosion- related life-limiting conditions of DSTs and reports the results of remaining useful life models developed for estimating remaining tank life. Three models based on controllable parameters such as temperature, chemistry, and relative humidity are presented for estimates to the year in which a particular DST may receive a breach in the primary tank due to pitting in the liquid or vapor region. Pitting is believed to be the life-limiting condition for DSTs,however, the region of the most aggressive pitting (vapor space or liquid) requires further investigation. The results of the models presented suggest none of the existing DSTs should fail by through-wall pitting until well beyond scheduled retrieval in 2028. The estimates of tank breach years (the year in which a tank may be expected to breach the primary tank wall) range from 2056 for pitting corrosion in the liquid region of tank 104-AW to beyond the next millennium for several tanks in the vapor region.

  20. Radiocarbon analysis of human remains: a review of forensic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubelaker, Douglas H

    2014-11-01

    Radiocarbon analysis of organic materials, with the comparison of values with those of the post-1950 modern bomb curve, has proven useful in forensic science to help evaluate the antiquity of evidence. Applications are particularly helpful in the study of human remains, especially with those displaying advanced decomposition of soft tissues. Radiocarbon analysis can reveal if the remains relate to the modern, post-1950 era and if so, also provide information needed to evaluate the death and birth date. Sample selection and interpretation of results must be guided by knowledge of the formation and remodeling of different human tissues, as well as contextual information and the approximate age at death of the individual represented. Dental enamel does not remodel and thus captures dietary radiocarbon values at the time of juvenile formation. Most other human tissues do remodel but at differing rates and therefore collectively offer key information relative to the estimation of the death date. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Chronic ozone exposure alters the secondary metabolite profile, antioxidant potential, anti-inflammatory property, and quality of red pepper fruit from Capsicum baccatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; Caregnato, Fernanda Freitas; Divan Junior, Armando Molina; Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Moresco, Karla Suzana; Rios, Alessandro de Oliveira; Salvi, Aguisson de Oliveira; Ortmann, Caroline Flach; de Carvalho, Pâmela; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2016-07-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) background concentrations have increased since pre-industrial times, reaching phytotoxic concentrations in many regions globally. However, the effect of high O3 concentrations on quality of fruit and vegetables remains unknown. Here, we evaluated whether O3 pollution alters the quality of Capsicum baccatum peppers by changing the secondary compound profiles and biological activity of the fruit. C. baccatum pepper plants were exposed to ozone for 62 days in an open-top chamber at a mean O3 concentration of 171.6µg/m(3). Capsaicin levels decreased by 50% in the pericarp, but remained unchanged in the seeds. In contrast, the total carotenoid content increased by 52.8% in the pericarp. The content of total phenolic compounds increased by 17% in the pericarp. The total antioxidant potential decreased by 87% in seeds of O3-treated plants. The seeds contributed more than the pericarp to the total radical-trapping antioxidant potential and total antioxidant reactivity. O3 treatment impaired the ferric-reducing antioxidant power of the seeds and reduced NO(•)-scavenging activity in the pericarp. However, O3 treatment increased ferrous ion-chelating activity and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in the pericarp. Our results confirm that O3 alters the secondary metabolite profile of C. baccatum pepper fruits and, consequently, their biological activity profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of two fire victims by comparative nuclear DNA typing of skeletal remains and stored umbilical tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calacal, Gayvelline C; De Ungria, Maria Corazon A; Delfin, Frederick C; Lara, Myra C; Magtanong, Danilo L; Fortun, Raquel

    2003-06-01

    We describe here our collaborative efforts in identifying 2 fatalities of a fire disaster by using a variety of identification techniques. Postmortem findings in both cases were reinforced using Short Tandem Repeat (STR) DNA technology to establish with a high degree of certainty the identities of 2 child victims. STR markers used in the present study include HUMAMEL, HUMCSFIPO, HUMTHO1, HUMvWA, HUMFES/FPS, HUMF13A01, HUMFOLP23, D8S3O6, HUMFGA, and HUMTPOX. Unambiguous identification was made possible through matching DNA profiles generated from skeletal remains with those from umbilical tissues. These tissues were kept by their mothers in accordance with a Philippine tradition and were submitted for DNA analysis. Of the DNA profiles generated from exhumed bone samples of 21 child victims, comparison with the genetic profiles of children A and B obtained from umbilical tissues showed consistent DNA matches with remains 1756 and 1758, respectively.

  3. GPR investigation to allocate the archaeological remains in Mut temple, Luxor, Upper Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Atya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available GPR investigation has been conducted on Mut temple; to the south portion of Al-Karnak temple at the eastern bank of Luxor city. Within the survey, the GPR SIR system-10A has been used connected to 100/500 MHz antenna. The present work is oriented to allocate the buried Archaeological ruins at the site, and also to evaluate the archaeological significance of the artifacts in concern to the hydro-situation. The survey is composed of three data sets; the first set (A includes three GPR profiles located inside the temple palisade at the western bank of the holy lake, the second set (B includes four profiles distributed on the yard between Mute and Al Karnak temples, and the third set (C includes three profiles oriented to study the EW Sphinx Avenue front of Mute temple. The measured GPR data has been processed and visualized in different ways to show the infra-content of the artifacts in the buried subsurface of the temple. Furthermore, intensive mutual work and discussion with the local inspectorate at Luxor about the results would lead to detect the zones of possible findings and, as much as possible, to define their identities. A series of sectional GPR records, time slices, maps, and 3D graphs are introduced to represent the remains of Mut temple and its infrastructure.

  4. Homo naledi pelvic remains from the Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanSickle, Caroline; Cofran, Zachary; García-Martínez, Daniel; Williams, Scott A; Churchill, Steven E; Berger, Lee R; Hawks, John

    2017-11-20

    In the hominin fossil record, pelvic remains are sparse and are difficult to attribute taxonomically when they are not directly associated with craniodental material. Here we describe the pelvic remains from the Dinaledi Chamber in the Rising Star cave system, Cradle of Humankind, South Africa, which has produced hominin fossils of a new species, Homo naledi. Though this species has been attributed to Homo based on cranial and lower limb morphology, the morphology of some of the fragmentary pelvic remains recovered align more closely with specimens attributed to the species Australopithecus afarensis and Australopithecus africanus than they do with those of most (but not all) known species of the genus Homo. As with A. afarensis and A. africanus, H. naledi appears to have had marked lateral iliac flare and either a weakly developed or non-existent acetabulocristal buttress or a distinct, albeit weakly developed, acetabulospinous buttress. At the same time, H. naledi has robust superior pubic and ischiopubic rami and a short ischium with a narrow tuberoacetabular sulcus, similar to those found in modern humans. The fragmentary nature of the Dinaledi pelvic assemblage makes the attribution of sex and developmental age to individual specimens difficult, which in turn diminishes our ability to identify the number of individuals represented in the assemblage. At present, we can only confidently say that the pelvic fossils from Rising Star represent at least four individuals based on the presence of four overlapping right ischial fossils (whereas a minimum of 15 individuals can be identified from the Dinaledi dental assemblage). A primitive, early Australopithecus-like false pelvis combined with a derived Homo-like true pelvis is morphologically consistent with evidence from the lower ribcage and proximal femur of H. naledi. The overall similarity of H. naledi ilia to those of australopiths supports the inference, drawn from the observation of primitive pelvic

  5. Plasma and Urinary Phenolic Profiles after Acute and Repetitive Intake of Wild Blueberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo P. Feliciano

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that blueberries may have cardiovascular and cognitive health benefits. In this work, we investigated the profile of plasma and urine (polyphenol metabolites after acute and daily consumption of wild blueberries for 30 days in 18 healthy men. The inter-individual variability in plasma and urinary polyphenol levels was also investigated. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 2 h post-consumption on day 1 and day 30. Twenty-four-hour urine was also collected on both days. A total of 61 phenolic metabolites were quantified in plasma at baseline, of which 43 increased after acute or chronic consumption of blueberries over one month. Benzoic and catechol derivatives represented more than 80% of the changes in phenolic profile after 2 h consumption on day 1, whereas hippuric and benzoic derivatives were the major compounds that increased at 0 and 2 h on day 30, respectively. The total (polyphenol urinary excretion remained unchanged after 30 days of wild blueberry intake. The inter-individual variability ranged between 40%–48% in plasma and 47%–54% in urine. Taken together, our results illustrate that blueberry (polyphenols are absorbed and extensively metabolized by phase II enzymes and by the gut microbiota, leading to a whole array of metabolites that may be responsible for the beneficial effects observed after blueberry consumption.

  6. Effect of weight loss on the cardiovascular risk profile of obese patients with psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Peter; Zachariae, Claus; Christensen, Robin; Geiker, Nina R W; Schaadt, Bente K; Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Hansen, Peter R; Skov, Lone

    2014-11-01

    Psoriasis is associated with obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors including endothelial dysfunction. We aimed to investigate the effects of weight loss on the cardiovascular risk profile of obese patients with psoriasis. A randomised controlled study was conducted in which we measured the microvascular endothelial function with peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT), selected plasma markers of endothelial function, and traditional cardiovascular risk factors in 60 obese patients with psoriasis. The participants were randomised to either low-energy diet (n = 30) providing 800-1,000 kcal/day for 8 weeks followed by 8 weeks of reduced food intake reaching 1,200 kcal/day or normal healthy foods (n = 30) for 16 weeks. The intervention group lost significantly more weight than controls, which resulted in significant reductions of diastolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, total cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, triglyceride, plasma glucose, glycated haemoglobin, and tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor. Microvascular endothelial function assessed by PAT remained unchanged. We conclude that certain components of the cardiovascular risk profile of obese patients with psoriasis can be significantly improved by weight reduction.

  7. Effects of osmotic pretreatments on oxidative stress, antioxidant profiles and cryopreservation of olive somatic embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Paul T; Siddika, Ayesha; Johnston, Jason W; Trigwell, Susan M; Mehra, Aradhana; Benelli, Carla; Lambardi, Maurizio; Benson, Erica E

    2011-07-01

    A three-day pretreatment of olive somatic embryos (SE) with 0.75 M sucrose, combined with cryoprotection (0.5M DMSO, 1M sucrose, 0.5M glycerol and 0.009 M proline) and controlled rate cooling, supported regrowth (as 34.6% fresh weight gain) and resumption of embryo development after cryopreservation. Pretreatment with mannitol or sorbitol did not support regrowth. Profiles of sugars, proline, antioxidant enzymes, Reactive oxygen species (ROS), secondary oxidation products and ethylene were constructed for the most successful (0.75 M) pretreatment series. Sucrose was the optimal pretreatment for supporting recovery, it also elevated glutathione reductase (GR) activity compared to controls, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and guaiacol peroxidase activities remained relatively unchanged. Superoxide dismutase activity was higher in SE pretreated with sucrose, compared with those pretreated with polyols; H(2)O(2) was enhanced in SE pretreated with sorbitol and sucrose compared to mannitol. The overall trend for ethylene and OH production revealed their levels were highest in SE pretreated with polyols albeit, for individual treatments this was not always the case. Generally, pretreatments did not significantly change embryo secondary oxidation profiles of ThioBarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) and Schiff's bases. In combination these studies suggest oxidative processes may influence regrowth of cryopreserved olive SE and that optimal pretreatments could, in part, increase tolerance by an overall enhancement of endogenous antioxidants (particularly GR), proline and sugars. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Paclitaxel: What has been done and the challenges remain ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabeu, Ezequiel; Cagel, Maximiliano; Lagomarsino, Eduardo; Moretton, Marcela; Chiappetta, Diego A

    2017-06-30

    In recent years, the nanotechnology has offered researchers the opportunity to solve the problems caused by the vehicle of the standard and first formulation of paclitaxel (Taxol®), while maximizing the proven antineoplastic activity of the drug against many solid tumors. Hence, different types of nanocarriers have been employed to improve the efficacy, safety, physicochemical properties and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile of this drug. To date, paclitaxel is the unique drug that is marketed in three different nanoplatforms for its parenteral delivery: polymeric nanoparticles (Abraxane®), liposomes (Lipusu®), and polymeric micelles (Genexol®, Nanoxel® and Paclical®). Indeed, a fourth nanocarrier might be available soon, because phase III studies of Opaxio™, a polymeric-conjugated, are near completion. Furthermore, other several nanoformulations are currently in various stages of clinical trials. Therefore, it is only through the critical analysis of clinical evidence from these studies that we can get a more concrete idea of what has been achieved with pharmaceutical nanotechnology so far. This review attempts to summarize current information available regarding the clinical status and the physicochemical characteristic of different nanocarriers for paclitaxel delivery in cancer therapy. We present an overview of the preclinical and clinical data of these systems including their pharmacokinetics, dose and administration, adverse events and clinical efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Pathophysiology of obesity: why surgery remains the most effective treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Talat; Mogensen, Kris M; Lautz, David B; Robinson, Malcolm K

    2007-10-01

    Obesity is a rapidly increasing, worldwide epidemic. Despite recent scientific advances, no currently recommended dietary program or medication results in long-term weight loss of more than 10% of body weight for the vast majority of people who attempt these interventions. Hence, surgical intervention is recommended for patients with a BMI > or =40 kg/m2. Although surgery is an effective, sustainable treatment of obesity, it can be associated with potentially significant perioperative risks and long-term complications. Current research is focused on developing a medical therapy, which produces more effective and sustainable weight loss, yet avoids the risks inherent in major surgery. With a reduced risk profile, such therapy could also be appropriately offered to those who are less obese and, in theory, help those who have BMIs as low as 27 kg/m2. Toward that end, numerous scientists are working to both unravel the pathophysiology of obesity and to determine why surgical intervention is so effective. This review briefly examines the current status of obesity pathophysiology and management, the reasons for failure of conventional medical treatments, and the success of surgical intervention. Finally, future areas of research are discussed.

  10. Weight references for burned human skeletal remains from Portuguese samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, David; Cunha, Eugénia; Thompson, Tim J U

    2013-09-01

    Weight is often one of the few recoverable data when analyzing human cremains but references are still rare, especially for European populations. Mean weights for skeletal remains were thus documented for Portuguese modern cremations of both recently deceased individuals and dry skeletons, and the effect of age, sex, and the intensity of combustion was investigated using both multivariate and univariate statistics. The cremains from fresh cadavers were significantly heavier than the ones from dry skeletons regardless of sex and age cohort (p skeletal weight. The effect of the intensity of combustion in cremains weight was unclear. These weight references may, in some cases, help estimating the minimum number of individuals, the completeness of the skeletal assemblage, and the sex of an unknown individual. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Psychotherapy for Borderline Personality Disorder: Progress and Remaining Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links, Paul S; Shah, Ravi; Eynan, Rahel

    2017-03-01

    The main purpose of this review was to critically evaluate the literature on psychotherapies for borderline personality disorder (BPD) published over the past 5 years to identify the progress with remaining challenges and to determine priority areas for future research. A systematic review of the literature over the last 5 years was undertaken. The review yielded 184 relevant abstracts, and after applying inclusion criteria, 16 articles were fully reviewed based on the articles' implications for future research and/or clinical practice. Our review indicated that patients with various severities benefited from psychotherapy; more intensive therapies were not significantly superior to less intensive therapies; enhancing emotion regulation processes and fostering more coherent self-identity were important mechanisms of change; therapies had been extended to patients with BPD and posttraumatic stress disorder; and more research was needed to be directed at functional outcomes.

  12. Tactile display on the remaining hand for unilateral hand amputees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human rely profoundly on tactile feedback from fingertips to interact with the environment, whereas most hand prostheses used in clinics provide no tactile feedback. In this study we demonstrate the feasibility to use a tactile display glove that can be worn by a unilateral hand amputee on the remaining healthy hand to display tactile feedback from a hand prosthesis. The main benefit is that users could easily distinguish the feedback for each finger, even without training. The claimed advantage is supported by preliminary tests with healthy subjects. This approach may lead to the development of effective and affordable tactile display devices that provide tactile feedback for individual fingertip of hand prostheses.

  13. Reidentification of avian embryonic remains from the cretaceous of mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varricchio, David J; Balanoff, Amy M; Norell, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic remains within a small (4.75 by 2.23 cm) egg from the Late Cretaceous, Mongolia are here re-described. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRCT) was used to digitally prepare and describe the enclosed embryonic bones. The egg, IGM (Mongolian Institute for Geology, Ulaanbaatar) 100/2010, with a three-part shell microstructure, was originally assigned to Neoceratopsia implying extensive homoplasy among eggshell characters across Dinosauria. Re-examination finds the forelimb significantly longer than the hindlimbs, proportions suggesting an avian identification. Additional, postcranial apomorphies (strut-like coracoid, cranially located humeral condyles, olecranon fossa, slender radius relative to the ulna, trochanteric crest on the femur, and ulna longer than the humerus) identify the embryo as avian. Presence of a dorsal coracoid fossa and a craniocaudally compressed distal humerus with a strongly angled distal margin support a diagnosis of IGM 100/2010 as an enantiornithine. Re-identification eliminates the implied homoplasy of this tri-laminate eggshell structure, and instead associates enantiornithine birds with eggshell microstructure composed of a mammillary, squamatic, and external zones. Posture of the embryo follows that of other theropods with fore- and hindlimbs folded parallel to the vertebral column and the elbow pointing caudally just dorsal to the knees. The size of the egg and embryo of IGM 100/2010 is similar to the two other Mongolian enantiornithine eggs. Well-ossified skeletons, as in this specimen, characterize all known enantiornithine embryos suggesting precocial hatchlings, comparing closely to late stage embryos of modern precocial birds that are both flight- and run-capable upon hatching. Extensive ossification in enantiornithine embryos may contribute to their relatively abundant representation in the fossil record. Neoceratopsian eggs remain unrecognized in the fossil record.

  14. Reidentification of avian embryonic remains from the cretaceous of mongolia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Varricchio

    Full Text Available Embryonic remains within a small (4.75 by 2.23 cm egg from the Late Cretaceous, Mongolia are here re-described. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRCT was used to digitally prepare and describe the enclosed embryonic bones. The egg, IGM (Mongolian Institute for Geology, Ulaanbaatar 100/2010, with a three-part shell microstructure, was originally assigned to Neoceratopsia implying extensive homoplasy among eggshell characters across Dinosauria. Re-examination finds the forelimb significantly longer than the hindlimbs, proportions suggesting an avian identification. Additional, postcranial apomorphies (strut-like coracoid, cranially located humeral condyles, olecranon fossa, slender radius relative to the ulna, trochanteric crest on the femur, and ulna longer than the humerus identify the embryo as avian. Presence of a dorsal coracoid fossa and a craniocaudally compressed distal humerus with a strongly angled distal margin support a diagnosis of IGM 100/2010 as an enantiornithine. Re-identification eliminates the implied homoplasy of this tri-laminate eggshell structure, and instead associates enantiornithine birds with eggshell microstructure composed of a mammillary, squamatic, and external zones. Posture of the embryo follows that of other theropods with fore- and hindlimbs folded parallel to the vertebral column and the elbow pointing caudally just dorsal to the knees. The size of the egg and embryo of IGM 100/2010 is similar to the two other Mongolian enantiornithine eggs. Well-ossified skeletons, as in this specimen, characterize all known enantiornithine embryos suggesting precocial hatchlings, comparing closely to late stage embryos of modern precocial birds that are both flight- and run-capable upon hatching. Extensive ossification in enantiornithine embryos may contribute to their relatively abundant representation in the fossil record. Neoceratopsian eggs remain unrecognized in the fossil record.

  15. Premortal data in the process of skeletal remains identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Nadica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The basic task of a forensic examiner during the exhumation of mass graves or in mass accidents is to establish identity of a person. The results obtained through these procedures depend on the level of perceptibility of post mortal changes and they are compared with premortal data obtained from family members of those missing or killed. Experience with exhumations has shown significant differences between the results obtained through exhumation and the premortal data. The aim of the study was to suggest the existance of the difference between premortal data and the results obtained by exhumation regarding the some parameters, as well as to direct premortal data colection to the specific skeletal forms. Methods. We performed comparative analysis of the results of exhumation of skeletal remains in a mass grave and the premortal data concerning the identified persons. The least number of individuals in this mass grave was calculated according to the upper parts of the right femur and it helped in calculating the smallest number of individuals in mass graves to be 48. A total of 27 persons were identified. Sex was determined by metrics and morphology of the pelvis. Personal age in the moment of death was determined by morphology features of groin symphisis and morphology of sternal edge of ribs and other parts of scelets observations. The hight was calculated as average results of length of long bones and Rollet coefficients. Results. There was a complete match in terms of sex and age matched within an interval that could be established based on the skeletal remains. All the other parameters were different, however, which made identification significantly more difficult. Conclusion. The premortal data is an important element of identification process and it should be obtained by the forensic doctor and directed towards more detailed examination of the skeletal system.

  16. Biophysical Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and pregnancy High-risk pregnancy Biophysical profile About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  17. Profiling cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciro, Marco; Bracken, Adrian P; Helin, Kristian

    2003-01-01

    In the past couple of years, several very exciting studies have demonstrated the enormous power of gene-expression profiling for cancer classification and prediction of patient survival. In addition to promising a more accurate classification of cancer and therefore better treatment of patients......, gene-expression profiling can result in the identification of novel potential targets for cancer therapy and a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cancer....

  18. Calculation note for an underground leak which remains underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, H.J.

    1997-05-20

    This calculation note supports the subsurface leak accident scenario which remains subsurface. It is assumed that a single walled pipe carrying waste from tank 106-C ruptures, releasing the liquid waste into the soil. In this scenario, the waste does not form a surface pool, but remains subsurface. However, above the pipe is a berm, 0.762 m (2.5 ft) high and 2.44 m (8 ft) wide, and the liquid released from the leak rises into the berm. The slurry line, which transports a source term of higher activity than the sluice line, leaks into the soil at a rate of 5% of the maximum flow rate of 28.4 L/s (450 gpm) for twelve hours. The dose recipient was placed a perpendicular distance of 100 m from the pipe. Two source terms were considered, mitigated and unmitigated release as described in section 3.4.1 of UANF-SD-WM-BIO-001, Addendum 1. The unmitigated consisted of two parts of AWF liquid and one part AWF solid. The mitigated release consisted of two parts SST liquid, eighteen parts AWF liquid, nine parts SST solid, and one part AWF solid. The isotopic breakdown of the release in these cases is presented. Two geometries were considered in preliminary investigations, disk source, and rectangular source. Since the rectangular source results from the assumption that the contamination is wicked up into the berm, only six inches of shielding from uncontaminated earth is present, while the disk source, which remains six inches below the level of the surface of the land is often shielded by a thick shield due to the slant path to the dose point. For this reason, only the rectangular source was considered in the final analysis. The source model was a rectangle 2.134 m (7 ft) thick, 0.6096 m (2 ft) high, and 130.899 m (131 ft) long. The top and sides of this rectangular source was covered with earth of density 1.6 g/cm{sup 3} to a thickness of 15.24 cm (6 in). This soil is modeled as 40% void space. The source consisted of earth of the same density with the void spaces filled with

  19. Mineralized Remains of Morphotypes of Filamentous Cyanobacteria in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2005-01-01

    ) investigations of freshly fractured interior surfaces of carbonaceous meteorites, terrestrial rocks, and recent microbial extremophiles and filamentous cyanobacteria. These studies have resulted in the detection in a several carbonaceous meteorites of the mineralized remains of a wide variety of complex filamentous trichomic microorganisms. These embedded forms are consistent in size and microstructure with well-preserved morphotypes of mat- forming filamentous trichomic cyanobacteria and the degraded remains of microfibrils of cyanobacterial sheaths. We present the results of comparative imaging studies and EDAX elemental analyses of recent cyanobacteria (e.g. Calothrix, Oscillatoria, and Lyngbya) that are similar in size, morphology and microstructure to morphotypes found embedded in meteorites. EDAX elemental studies reveal that forms found in carbonaceous meteorites often have highly carbonized sheaths in close association with permineralized filaments, trichomes and microbial cells. Ratios of critical bioelements (C:O, C:N, C:P, and C:S) reveal dramatic differences between microfossils in Earth rocks and meteorites and in filaments, trichomes, hormogonia, and cells of recent cyanobacteria.

  20. Future Remains: Industrial Heritage at the Hanford Plutonium Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, Brian

    This dissertation argues that U.S. environmental and historic preservation regulations, industrial heritage projects, history, and art only provide partial frameworks for successfully transmitting an informed story into the long range future about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy. This argument is important because plutonium from nuclear weapons production is toxic to humans in very small amounts, threatens environmental health, has a half-life of 24, 110 years and because the industrial heritage project at Hanford is the first time an entire U.S. Department of Energy weapons production site has been designated a U.S. Historic District. This research is situated within anthropological interest in industrial heritage studies, environmental anthropology, applied visual anthropology, as well as wider discourses on nuclear studies. However, none of these disciplines is really designed or intended to be a completely satisfactory frame of reference for addressing this perplexing challenge of documenting and conveying an informed story about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy into the long range future. Others have thought about this question and have made important contributions toward a potential solution. Examples here include: future generations movements concerning intergenerational equity as evidenced in scholarship, law, and amongst Native American groups; Nez Perce and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation responses to the Hanford End State Vision and Hanford's Canyon Disposition Initiative; as well as the findings of organizational scholars on the advantages realized by organizations that have a long term future perspective. While these ideas inform the main line inquiry of this dissertation, the principal approach put forth by the researcher of how to convey an informed story about nuclear technology and waste into the long range future is implementation of the proposed Future Remains clause, as

  1. Antenatal genetic testing and the right to remain in ignorance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, R

    2001-09-01

    As knowledge increases about the human genome, prenatal genetic testing will become cheaper, safer and more comprehensive. It is likely that there will be a great deal of support for making prenatal testing for a wide range of genetic disorders a routine part of antenatal care. Such routine testing is necessarily coercive in nature and does not involve the same standard of consent as is required in other health care settings. This paper asks whether this level of coercion is ethically justifiable in this case, or whether pregnant women have a right to remain in ignorance of the genetic make-up of the fetus they are carrying. While information gained by genetic testing may be useful for pregnant women when making decisions about their pregnancy, it does not prevent harm to future children. It is argued that as this kind of testing provides information in the interests of the pregnant women and not in the interests of any future child, the same standards of consent that are normally required for genetic testing should be required in this instance.

  2. Prions adhere to soil minerals and remain infectious.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Johnson

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available An unidentified environmental reservoir of infectivity contributes to the natural transmission of prion diseases (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies [TSEs] in sheep, deer, and elk. Prion infectivity may enter soil environments via shedding from diseased animals and decomposition of infected carcasses. Burial of TSE-infected cattle, sheep, and deer as a means of disposal has resulted in unintentional introduction of prions into subsurface environments. We examined the potential for soil to serve as a TSE reservoir by studying the interaction of the disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc with common soil minerals. In this study, we demonstrated substantial PrP(Sc adsorption to two clay minerals, quartz, and four whole soil samples. We quantified the PrP(Sc-binding capacities of each mineral. Furthermore, we observed that PrP(Sc desorbed from montmorillonite clay was cleaved at an N-terminal site and the interaction between PrP(Sc and Mte was strong, making desorption of the protein difficult. Despite cleavage and avid binding, PrP(Sc bound to Mte remained infectious. Results from our study suggest that PrP(Sc released into soil environments may be preserved in a bioavailable form, perpetuating prion disease epizootics and exposing other species to the infectious agent.

  3. Factors influencing home care nurse intention to remain employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourangeau, Ann; Patterson, Erin; Rowe, Alissa; Saari, Margaret; Thomson, Heather; MacDonald, Geraldine; Cranley, Lisa; Squires, Mae

    2014-11-01

    To identify factors affecting Canadian home care nurse intention to remain employed (ITR). In developed nations, healthcare continues to shift into community settings. Although considerable research exists on examining nurse ITR in hospitals, similar research related to nurses employed in home care is limited. In the face of a global nursing shortage, it is important to understand the factors influencing nurse ITR across healthcare sectors. A qualitative exploratory descriptive design was used. Focus groups were conducted with home care nurses. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Six categories of influencing factors were identified by home care nurses as affecting ITR: job characteristics; work structures; relationships/communication; work environment; nurse responses to work; and employment conditions. Findings suggest the following factors influence home care nurse ITR: having autonomy; flexible scheduling; reasonable and varied workloads; supportive work relationships; and receiving adequate pay and benefits. Home care nurses did not identify job satisfaction as a single concept influencing ITR. Home care nursing management should support nurse autonomy, allow flexible scheduling, promote reasonable workloads and create opportunities for team building that strengthen supportive relationships among home care nurses and other health team members. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. [Bacterial vaginosis in 2011: a lot of questions remain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohbot, J-M; Lepargneur, J-P

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is one of the most frequent vaginal affections. It results from a deep imbalance of the vaginal ecosystem whose mechanisms remain mysterious, even if recent progress were accomplished in their comprehension: if the flora implied in the bacterial vaginosis is recognized like polymorphic, it appears that Gardnerella vaginalis plays a major part with two genomically different forms: a commensal form (slightly adhesive to the epithelial cells), and a pathogenic one (strongly adhesive to the epithelial cells); the changes in lactobacilli are also to take into account: L. iners could be a marker of the vaginal flora imbalance whereas L. crispatus is generally met in the normal vaginal flora. These findings could influence the composition of coming probiotics; it is recognized that bacterial vaginosis is involved in the risk of prematurity but molecular quantification of G. vaginalis (and of Atopobium vaginae) is more sensitive for the diagnosis of BV what could improve the detection of high-risk pregnant women. The isolated antibiotic treatments are not very effective on the prevention of recurrences. The rebalancing of the vaginal flora is essential. In this field, the local estrogens showed some effectiveness. The use of probiotics is promising and can be recommended in complement of the antibiotic treatment even if the results of the clinical studies are still too heterogeneous to lead to precise indications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Anion exchange membrane fuel cells: Current status and remaining challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesfeld, Shimshon; Dekel, Dario R.; Page, Miles; Bae, Chulsung; Yan, Yushan; Zelenay, Piotr; Kim, Yu Seung

    2018-01-01

    The anion exchange membrane fuel cell (AEMFC) is an attractive alternative to acidic proton exchange membrane fuel cells, which to date have required platinum-based catalysts, as well as acid-tolerant stack hardware. The AEMFC could use non-platinum-group metal catalysts and less expensive metal hardware thanks to the high pH of the electrolyte. Over the last decade, substantial progress has been made in improving the performance and durability of the AEMFC through the development of new materials and the optimization of system design and operation conditions. In this perspective article, we describe the current status of AEMFCs as having reached beginning of life performance very close to that of PEMFCs when using ultra-low loadings of Pt, while advancing towards operation on non-platinum-group metal catalysts alone. In the latter sections, we identify the remaining technical challenges, which require further research and development, focusing on the materials and operational factors that critically impact AEMFC performance and/or durability. These perspectives may provide useful insights for the development of next-generation of AEMFCs.

  6. Barrett's esophagus-related diseases remain uncommon in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qin; Fang, Dian Chun; Yu, Cheng Gong; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Min Hu

    2011-12-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE)-related esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has shown the fastest rise in incidence in Western countries; however, research data on BE-related diseases from China are inconclusive. We aimed to review and analyze the published results on these diseases in China. We searched PubMed and Chinese medical literature for key words: BE, EAC, Chinese and China. Relevant research papers along with the study results from our own groups were reviewed and analyzed. Using standardized criteria, columnar-lined esophagus (CLE) was found in as many as 29% of resection specimens in Chinese patients with proximal gastric cancer. However, BE with intestinal metaplasia was rare, ranging from 0.06% in the general population to disease and tobacco or alcohol abuse, but not male gender or obesity. At endoscopy, most CLE/BE were diseases, except for CLE, are rare in China. The clinical significance and malignant potential of CLE in the Chinese population remain elusive. Further investigation on these diseases is in progress. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Digestive Diseases © 2011 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. New Evidence Links Stellar Remains to Oldest Recorded Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Recent observations have uncovered evidence that helps to confirm the identification of the remains of one of the earliest stellar explosions recorded by humans. The new study shows that the supernova remnant RCW 86 is much younger than previously thought. As such, the formation of the remnant appears to coincide with a supernova observed by Chinese astronomers in 185 A.D. The study used data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton Observatory, "There have been previous suggestions that RCW 86 is the remains of the supernova from 185 A.D.," said Jacco Vink of University of Utrecht, the Netherlands, and lead author of the study. "These new X-ray data greatly strengthen the case." When a massive star runs out of fuel, it collapses on itself, creating a supernova that can outshine an entire galaxy. The intense explosion hurls the outer layers of the star into space and produces powerful shock waves. The remains of the star and the material it encounters are heated to millions of degrees and can emit intense X-ray radiation for thousands of years. Animation of a Massive Star Explosion Animation of a Massive Star Explosion In their stellar forensic work, Vink and colleagues studied the debris in RCW 86 to estimate when its progenitor star originally exploded. They calculated how quickly the shocked, or energized, shell is moving in RCW 86, by studying one part of the remnant. They combined this expansion velocity with the size of the remnant and a basic understanding of how supernovas expand to estimate the age of RCW 86. "Our new calculations tell us the remnant is about 2,000 years old," said Aya Bamba, a coauthor from the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Japan. "Previously astronomers had estimated an age of 10,000 years." The younger age for RCW 86 may explain an astronomical event observed almost 2000 years ago. In 185 AD, Chinese astronomers (and possibly the Romans) recorded the appearance of a new

  8. The remaining challenges of pneumococcal disease in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ludwig

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pneumococcal disease can be divided into invasive disease, i.e. when bacteria are detected in normally sterile body fluids, and noninvasive disease. Pneumococcal disease occurs more frequently in younger children and older adults. It is estimated that, in 2050, 30.3% of the European population will be ≥65 yrs old, compared with 15.7% in 2000. Preventive medicine, including vaccination, is essential for the promotion of healthy ageing. Uptake rates for influenza vaccination in the elderly are generally low, despite recommendations in many countries. In addition, it has been reported that influenza infections can make people more susceptible to pneumococcal infections. Despite pneumococcal vaccination, case fatality rates for patients hospitalised with invasive pneumococcal disease have remained at around 12% since the 1950s. Even when effective antibiotic therapy is administered, mortality can be high amongst immunocompetent patients in intensive care. Timely and accurate diagnosis of pneumococcal disease and identification of patients at high risk of poor outcome is essential to ensure that adequate treatment, including hospitalisation when necessary, is implemented as early as possible. Improved diagnostic techniques and more efficacious treatments may help to reduce the burden of pneumococcal disease, but preventive measures, such as influenza and pneumococcal vaccination, should be promoted in order to avoid preventable disease, particularly in the elderly.

  9. Cohesin Can Remain Associated with Chromosomes during DNA Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D.P. Rhodes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To ensure disjunction to opposite poles during anaphase, sister chromatids must be held together following DNA replication. This is mediated by cohesin, which is thought to entrap sister DNAs inside a tripartite ring composed of its Smc and kleisin (Scc1 subunits. How such structures are created during S phase is poorly understood, in particular whether they are derived from complexes that had entrapped DNAs prior to replication. To address this, we used selective photobleaching to determine whether cohesin associated with chromatin in G1 persists in situ after replication. We developed a non-fluorescent HaloTag ligand to discriminate the fluorescence recovery signal from labeling of newly synthesized Halo-tagged Scc1 protein (pulse-chase or pcFRAP. In cells where cohesin turnover is inactivated by deletion of WAPL, Scc1 can remain associated with chromatin throughout S phase. These findings suggest that cohesion might be generated by cohesin that is already bound to un-replicated DNA.

  10. Cohesin Can Remain Associated with Chromosomes during DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, James D P; Haarhuis, Judith H I; Grimm, Jonathan B; Rowland, Benjamin D; Lavis, Luke D; Nasmyth, Kim A

    2017-09-19

    To ensure disjunction to opposite poles during anaphase, sister chromatids must be held together following DNA replication. This is mediated by cohesin, which is thought to entrap sister DNAs inside a tripartite ring composed of its Smc and kleisin (Scc1) subunits. How such structures are created during S phase is poorly understood, in particular whether they are derived from complexes that had entrapped DNAs prior to replication. To address this, we used selective photobleaching to determine whether cohesin associated with chromatin in G1 persists in situ after replication. We developed a non-fluorescent HaloTag ligand to discriminate the fluorescence recovery signal from labeling of newly synthesized Halo-tagged Scc1 protein (pulse-chase or pcFRAP). In cells where cohesin turnover is inactivated by deletion of WAPL, Scc1 can remain associated with chromatin throughout S phase. These findings suggest that cohesion might be generated by cohesin that is already bound to un-replicated DNA. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Detecting buried remains in Florida using ground-penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, John Joseph

    differentiating the cadaver anomalies from general background noise. Postprocessing of the profile was not needed unless excessive horizontal banding was noted.

  12. Somatic symptom profiles in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Jørgensen, Torben; Schröder, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    . The profiles were further described by their association with age, sex, chronic disease, and self-perceived health. RESULTS: We identified 10 different somatic symptom profiles defined by number, type, and site of the symptoms. The majority of the population (74.0%) had a profile characterized...... by no considerable bothering symptoms, while a minor group of 3.9% had profiles defined by a high risk of multiple somatic symptoms. The remaining profiles were more likely to be characterized by a few specific symptoms. The profiles could further be described by their associations with age, sex, chronic disease...

  13. Remaining lifetime modeling using State-of-Health estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beganovic, Nejra; Söffker, Dirk

    2017-08-01

    Technical systems and system's components undergo gradual degradation over time. Continuous degradation occurred in system is reflected in decreased system's reliability and unavoidably lead to a system failure. Therefore, continuous evaluation of State-of-Health (SoH) is inevitable to provide at least predefined lifetime of the system defined by manufacturer, or even better, to extend the lifetime given by manufacturer. However, precondition for lifetime extension is accurate estimation of SoH as well as the estimation and prediction of Remaining Useful Lifetime (RUL). For this purpose, lifetime models describing the relation between system/component degradation and consumed lifetime have to be established. In this contribution modeling and selection of suitable lifetime models from database based on current SoH conditions are discussed. Main contribution of this paper is the development of new modeling strategies capable to describe complex relations between measurable system variables, related system degradation, and RUL. Two approaches with accompanying advantages and disadvantages are introduced and compared. Both approaches are capable to model stochastic aging processes of a system by simultaneous adaption of RUL models to current SoH. The first approach requires a priori knowledge about aging processes in the system and accurate estimation of SoH. An estimation of SoH here is conditioned by tracking actual accumulated damage into the system, so that particular model parameters are defined according to a priori known assumptions about system's aging. Prediction accuracy in this case is highly dependent on accurate estimation of SoH but includes high number of degrees of freedom. The second approach in this contribution does not require a priori knowledge about system's aging as particular model parameters are defined in accordance to multi-objective optimization procedure. Prediction accuracy of this model does not highly depend on estimated SoH. This model

  14. Mineralized remains of morphotypes of filamentous cyanobacteria in carbonaceous meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2005-09-01

    rocks, living, cryopreserved and fossilized extremophiles and cyanobacteria. These studies have resulted in the detection of mineralized remains of morphotypes of filamentous cyanobacteria, mats and consortia in many carbonaceous meteorites. These well-preserved and embedded microfossils are consistent with the size, morphology and ultra-microstructure of filamentous trichomic prokaryotes and degraded remains of microfibrils of cyanobacterial sheaths. EDAX elemental studies reveal that the forms in the meteorites often have highly carbonized sheaths in close association with permineralized filaments, trichomes, and microbial cells. The eextensive protocols and methodologies that have been developed to protect the samples from contamination and to distinguish recent contaminants from indigenous microfossils are described recent bio-contaminants. Ratios of critical bioelements (C:O, C:N, C:P, and C:S) reveal dramatic differences between microfossils in Earth rocks and meteorites and in the cells, filaments, trichomes, and hormogonia of recently living cyanobacteria. The results of comparative optical, ESEM and FESEM studies and EDAX elemental analyses of recent cyanobacteria (e.g. Calothrix, Oscillatoria, and Lyngbya) of similar size, morphology and microstructure to microfossils found embedded in the Murchison CM2 and the Orgueil CI1 carbonaceous meteorites are presented

  15. Unchanged acetylation of isoniazid by alcohol intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcke, J T R; Døssing, M; Angelo, H R

    2004-01-01

    SETTING: In 10 healthy subjects, the influence of acute alcohol intake on the pharmacokinetics of isoniazid (INH) was studied. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that alcohol increases the conversion of INH by acetylation into its metabolite acetylisoniazid. DESIGN: In a crossover design, an oral...

  16. More comprehensive forensic genetic marker analyses for accurate human remains identification using massively parallel DNA sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angie D. Ambers

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the primary objective of forensic DNA analyses of unidentified human remains is positive identification, cases involving historical or archaeological skeletal remains often lack reference samples for comparison. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS offers an opportunity to provide biometric data in such cases, and these cases provide valuable data on the feasibility of applying MPS for characterization of modern forensic casework samples. In this study, MPS was used to characterize 140-year-old human skeletal remains discovered at a historical site in Deadwood, South Dakota, United States. The remains were in an unmarked grave and there were no records or other metadata available regarding the identity of the individual. Due to the high throughput of MPS, a variety of biometric markers could be typed using a single sample. Results Using MPS and suitable forensic genetic markers, more relevant information could be obtained from a limited quantity and quality sample. Results were obtained for 25/26 Y-STRs, 34/34 Y SNPs, 166/166 ancestry-informative SNPs, 24/24 phenotype-informative SNPs, 102/102 human identity SNPs, 27/29 autosomal STRs (plus amelogenin, and 4/8 X-STRs (as well as ten regions of mtDNA. The Y-chromosome (Y-STR, Y-SNP and mtDNA profiles of the unidentified skeletal remains are consistent with the R1b and H1 haplogroups, respectively. Both of these haplogroups are the most common haplogroups in Western Europe. Ancestry-informative SNP analysis also supported European ancestry. The genetic results are consistent with anthropological findings that the remains belong to a male of European ancestry (Caucasian. Phenotype-informative SNP data provided strong support that the individual had light red hair and brown eyes. Conclusions This study is among the first to genetically characterize historical human remains with forensic genetic marker kits specifically designed for MPS. The outcome demonstrates that

  17. More comprehensive forensic genetic marker analyses for accurate human remains identification using massively parallel DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambers, Angie D; Churchill, Jennifer D; King, Jonathan L; Stoljarova, Monika; Gill-King, Harrell; Assidi, Mourad; Abu-Elmagd, Muhammad; Buhmeida, Abdelbaset; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-10-17

    Although the primary objective of forensic DNA analyses of unidentified human remains is positive identification, cases involving historical or archaeological skeletal remains often lack reference samples for comparison. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) offers an opportunity to provide biometric data in such cases, and these cases provide valuable data on the feasibility of applying MPS for characterization of modern forensic casework samples. In this study, MPS was used to characterize 140-year-old human skeletal remains discovered at a historical site in Deadwood, South Dakota, United States. The remains were in an unmarked grave and there were no records or other metadata available regarding the identity of the individual. Due to the high throughput of MPS, a variety of biometric markers could be typed using a single sample. Using MPS and suitable forensic genetic markers, more relevant information could be obtained from a limited quantity and quality sample. Results were obtained for 25/26 Y-STRs, 34/34 Y SNPs, 166/166 ancestry-informative SNPs, 24/24 phenotype-informative SNPs, 102/102 human identity SNPs, 27/29 autosomal STRs (plus amelogenin), and 4/8 X-STRs (as well as ten regions of mtDNA). The Y-chromosome (Y-STR, Y-SNP) and mtDNA profiles of the unidentified skeletal remains are consistent with the R1b and H1 haplogroups, respectively. Both of these haplogroups are the most common haplogroups in Western Europe. Ancestry-informative SNP analysis also supported European ancestry. The genetic results are consistent with anthropological findings that the remains belong to a male of European ancestry (Caucasian). Phenotype-informative SNP data provided strong support that the individual had light red hair and brown eyes. This study is among the first to genetically characterize historical human remains with forensic genetic marker kits specifically designed for MPS. The outcome demonstrates that substantially more genetic information can be obtained from

  18. Sky-view factor visualization for detection of archaeological remains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokalj, Žiga; Oštir, Krištof; Zakšek, Klemen

    2013-04-01

    Many archaeological remains are covered by sand or vegetation but it still possible to detect them by remote sensing techniques. One of them is airborne laser scanning that enables production of digital elevation models (DEM) of very high resolution (better than 1 m) with high relative elevation accuracy (centimetre level), even under forest. Thus, it has become well established in archaeological applications. However, effective interpretation of digital elevation models requires appropriate data visualization. Analytical relief shading is used in most cases. Although widely accepted, this method has two major drawbacks: identifying details in deep shades and inability to properly represent linear features lying parallel to the light beam. Several authors have tried to overcome these limitations by changing the position of the light source or by filtering. This contribution addresses the DEM visualization problem by sky-view factor, a visualization technique based on diffuse light that overcomes the directional problems of hill-shading. Sky-view factor is a parameter that describes the portion of visible sky limited by relief. It can be used as a general relief visualization technique to show relief characteristics. In particular, we show that this visualization is a very useful tool in archaeology. Applying the sky-view factor for visualization purposes gives advantages over other techniques because it reveals small (or large, depending on the scale of the observed phenomenon and consequential algorithm settings) relief features while preserving the perception of general topography. In the case study (DEM visualization of a fortified enclosure of Tonovcov grad in Slovenia) we show that for the archaeological purposes the sky-view factor is the optimal DEM visualization method. Its ability to consider the neighborhood context makes it an outstanding tool when compared to other visualization techniques. One can choose a large search radius and the most important

  19. The Right to Remain Silent in Criminal Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianina Anemona Radu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A person's right not to incriminate oneself or to remain silent and not contribute to their own incrimination is a basic requirement of due process, although the right not to testify against oneself is not expressly guaranteed. This legal right is intended to protect the accused/ the defendant against the authorities’ abusive coercion. The scope of the right not to incriminate oneself is related to criminal matter under the Convention, and thus susceptible or applicable to criminal proceedings concerning all types of crimes as a guarantee to a fair trial. The European Court of Justice ruled that despite the fact that art. 6 paragraph 2 of the Convention does not expressly mention the right not to incriminate oneself and the right not to contribute to their own incrimination (nemo tenetur are ipsum accusare these are generally recognized international rules that are in consistence with the notion of “fair trial” stipulated in art. 6. By virtue of the right to silence, the person charged with a crime is free to answer the questions or not, as he/she believes it is in his/her interest. Therefore, the right to silence involves not only the right not to testify against oneself, but also the right of the accused/ defendant not to incriminate oneself. Thus, the accused/defendant cannot be compelled to assist in the production of evidence and cannot be sanctioned for failing to provide certain documents or other evidence. Obligation to testify against personal will, under the constraint of a fine or any other form of coercion constitutes an interference with the negative aspect of the right to freedom of expression which must be necessary in a democratic society. It is essential to clarify certain issues as far as this right is concerned. First of all, the statutory provision in question is specific to adversarial systems, which are found mainly in Anglo-Saxon countries and are totally different from that underlying the current Romanian Criminal

  20. Genetic identification of missing persons: DNA analysis of human remains and compromised samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Cubero, M J; Saiz, M; Martinez-Gonzalez, L J; Alvarez, J C; Eisenberg, A J; Budowle, B; Lorente, J A

    2012-01-01

    Human identification has made great strides over the past 2 decades due to the advent of DNA typing. Forensic DNA typing provides genetic data from a variety of materials and individuals, and is applied to many important issues that confront society. Part of the success of DNA typing is the generation of DNA databases to help identify missing persons and to develop investigative leads to assist law enforcement. DNA databases house DNA profiles from convicted felons (and in some jurisdictions arrestees), forensic evidence, human remains, and direct and family reference samples of missing persons. These databases are essential tools, which are becoming quite large (for example the US Database contains 10 million profiles). The scientific, governmental and private communities continue to work together to standardize genetic markers for more effective worldwide data sharing, to develop and validate robust DNA typing kits that contain the reagents necessary to type core identity genetic markers, to develop technologies that facilitate a number of analytical processes and to develop policies to make human identity testing more effective. Indeed, DNA typing is integral to resolving a number of serious criminal and civil concerns, such as solving missing person cases and identifying victims of mass disasters and children who may have been victims of human trafficking, and provides information for historical studies. As more refined capabilities are still required, novel approaches are being sought, such as genetic testing by next-generation sequencing, mass spectrometry, chip arrays and pyrosequencing. Single nucleotide polymorphisms offer the potential to analyze severely compromised biological samples, to determine the facial phenotype of decomposed human remains and to predict the bioancestry of individuals, a new focus in analyzing this type of markers. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. The carnivore remains from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, N; Arsuaga, J L; Torres, T

    1997-01-01

    Remains of carnivores from the Sima de los Huesos site representing at least 158 adult individuals of a primitive (i.e., not very speleoid) form of Ursus deningeri Von Reichenau 1906, have been recovered through the 1995 field season. These new finds extend our knowledge of this group in the Sierra de Atapuerca Middle Pleistocene. Material previously classified as Cuoninae indet, is now assigned to Canis lupus and a third metatarsal assigned in 1987 to Panthera of gombaszoegensis, is in our opinion only attributable to Panthera sp. The family Mustelidae is added to the faunal list and includes Martes sp. and a smaller species. The presence of Panthera leo cf. fossilis, Lynx pardina spelaea and Felis silvestris, is confirmed. The presence of a not very speloid Ursus deningeri, together with the rest of the carnivore assemblage, points to a not very late Middle Pleistocene age, i.e., oxygen isotope stage 7 or older. Relative frequencies of skeletal elements for the bear and fox samples are without major biases. The age structure of the bear sample, based on dental wear stages, does not follow the typical hibernation mortality profile and resembles a catastrophic profile. The site was not a natal or refuge den. The hypothesis that the site was a natural trap is the most plausible. If the Sima de los Huesos functioned as a natural trap (without an egress out), the human accumulation cannot be attributed to carnivore: activities and must be explained differently.

  2. Fellow Profile

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fellow Profile. Elected: 1971 Section: Chemistry. Narasimhan, Prof. Palliakaranai Thirumalai Ph.D. (Madras), FNA, FNASc. Date of birth: 28 July 1928. Date of death: 3 May 2013. Specialization: Theoretical Chemistry and Magnetic Resonance Last known address: 1013, Lupine Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94086, USA. YouTube ...

  3. Detection of decomposition volatile organic compounds in soil following removal of remains from a surface deposition site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, Katelynn A; Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues; Stuart, Barbara H; Rai, Tapan; Focant, Jean-François; Forbes, Shari L

    2015-09-01

    Cadaver-detection dogs use volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to search for human remains including those deposited on or beneath soil. Soil can act as a sink for VOCs, causing loading of decomposition VOCs in the soil following soft tissue decomposition. The objective of this study was to chemically profile decomposition VOCs from surface decomposition sites after remains were removed from their primary location. Pig carcasses were used as human analogues and were deposited on a soil surface to decompose for 3 months. The remains were then removed from each site and VOCs were collected from the soil for 7 months thereafter and analyzed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS). Decomposition VOCs diminished within 6 weeks and hydrocarbons were the most persistent compound class. Decomposition VOCs could still be detected in the soil after 7 months using Principal Component Analysis. This study demonstrated that the decomposition VOC profile, while detectable by GC×GC-TOFMS in the soil, was considerably reduced and altered in composition upon removal of remains. Chemical reference data is provided by this study for future investigations of canine alert behavior in scenarios involving scattered or scavenged remains.

  4. Recent advances in sex identification of human skeletal remains in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Štrkalj

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We review methods of sex estimation from human skeletal remains in South Africa within the forensic context. Sex is one of the key variables in obtaining a biological profile of the individual or population whose remains are analysed. Sex estimation based on the morphological characteristics of skeletal elements is population specific and thus the establishment of regional criteria is one of the imperatives for modern forensic anthropology. A literature review was carried out wherein the available methods of sex identification (morphological, metrical, geometric morphometrics and molecular from South African skeletal material were critically examined. The approaches to sex estimation based on bone morphology have a long and productive history in South Africa. A number of approaches providing accurate results on the local populations have been developed. Research in molecular sex determination methods is still in its infancy in South Africa and the first innovative studies appeared only in recent years. While each of the four methods analysed is bounded by a number of constraints, they seem to complement each other and provide the best results when applied in conjunction with each other.

  5. An adaptive remaining energy prediction approach for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujie; Zhang, Chenbin; Chen, Zonghai

    2016-02-01

    With the growing number of electric vehicle (EV) applications, the function of the battery management system (BMS) becomes more sophisticated. The accuracy of remaining energy estimation is critical for energy optimization and management in EVs. Therefore the state-of-energy (SoE) is defined to indicate the remaining available energy of the batteries. Considering that there are inevitable accumulated errors caused by current and voltage integral method, an adaptive SoE estimator is first established in this paper. In order to establish a reasonable battery equivalent model, based on the experimental data of the LiFePO4 battery, a data-driven model is established to describe the relationship between the open-circuit voltage (OCV) and the SoE. What is more, the forgetting factor recursive least-square (RLS) method is used for parameter identification to get accurate model parameters. Finally, in order to analyze the robustness and the accuracy of the proposed approach, different types of dynamic current profiles are conducted on the lithium-ion batteries and the performances are calculated and compared. The results indicate that the proposed approach has robust and accurate SoE estimation results under dynamic working conditions.

  6. Obesity alters immune and metabolic profiles: New insight from obese-resistant mice on high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boi, Shannon K; Buchta, Claire M; Pearson, Nicole A; Francis, Meghan B; Meyerholz, David K; Grobe, Justin L; Norian, Lyse A

    2016-10-01

    Diet-induced obesity has been shown to alter immune function in mice, but distinguishing the effects of obesity from changes in diet composition is complicated. It was hypothesized that immunological differences would exist between diet-induced obese (DIO) and obese-resistant (OB-Res) mice fed the same high-fat diet (HFD). BALB/c mice were fed either standard chow or HFD to generate lean or DIO and OB-Res mice, respectively. Resulting mice were analyzed for serum immunologic and metabolic profiles and cellular immune parameters. BALB/c mice on HFD were categorized as DIO or OB-Res, based on body weight versus lean controls. DIO mice were physiologically distinct from OB-Res mice, whose serum insulin, leptin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, and eotaxin concentrations remained similar to lean controls. DIO mice had increased macrophage(+) crown-like structures in white adipose tissue, although macrophage percentages were unchanged from OB-Res and lean mice. DIO mice also had decreased splenic CD4(+) T cells, elevated serum GM-CSF, and increased splenic CD11c(+) dendritic cells, but impaired dendritic cell stimulatory capacity (P Diet-induced obesity results in alterations in immune and metabolic profiles that are distinct from effects caused by HFD alone. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  7. Vitamin D3supplementation does not modify cardiovascular risk profile of adults with inadequate vitamin D status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Eric; Lehmann, Ulrike; Riedel, Annett; Ulrich, Christof; Hirche, Frank; Brandsch, Corinna; Dierkes, Jutta; Girndt, Matthias; Stangl, Gabriele I

    2017-03-01

    The Nutrition Societies in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland recommend a daily intake of 20 µg vitamin D 3 for adults when endogenous synthesis is absent. The current study aimed to elucidate whether this vitamin D 3 dose impacts cardiovascular risk markers of adults during the winter months. The study was conducted in Halle (Saale), Germany (51 o northern latitude) as a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomised trial (from January to April). A total of 105 apparently healthy subjects (male and female, 20-71 years old) were included. Subjects were randomly allocated to two groups. One group received a daily 20-µg vitamin D 3 dose (n = 54), and the other group received a placebo (n = 51) for 12 weeks. Outcome measures included blood pressure, heart rate, concentrations of renin, aldosterone, serum lipids and vascular calcification markers, and haematologic variables such as pro-inflammatory monocytes. Blood pressure and systemic cardiovascular risk markers remained unchanged by vitamin D 3 supplementation, although serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 increased from 38 ± 14 to 73 ± 16 nmol/L at week 12. The placebo and vitamin D groups did not differ in their final cardiovascular risk profile. Daily supplementation of 20 µg vitamin D 3 during winter is unlikely to change cardiovascular risk profile.

  8. AETIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF PATIENTS PRESENTING WITH UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Govind Kamat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In the recent years, the number of studies exclusively examining epidemiologic patterns of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding (UGIB has been quite limited. However, most epidemiologic studies have shown a decrease in the incidence of all causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Although, the incidences of peptic ulcers have remained unchanged. Gastrointestinal bleeding is a very common emergency accounting for 7-8% of acute medical admissions. UGIB is 4-5 times more common than the lower GI haemorrhage. Acute erosive gastritis is the most common cause followed by oesophageal varices, peptic ulcer and reflux oesophagitis. Upper GI bleed is more common in men than women (ratio 3:2 and the frequency increases with age. Hence, the present study was designed to study the aetiological profile of patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. MATERIALS AND METHODS This one year cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2013 to December 2013. Sample size of 50 was considered. Patients aged 18 years and above presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding and who are fit for endoscopy were selected. Endoscopy was performed in all patients within 24 hrs. of admission and data was plotted in terms of rates, ratios and percentages and continuous data was expressed as mean ± standard deviation. RESULTS In the present study, most of the patients reported past history of liver disease and intake of NSAIDs and aspirins. In the present study, on clinical examination, most of the patients had pallor followed by tenderness. In the present study, the commonest diagnosis was cirrhosis of liver due to alcohol-induced with portal hypertension. CONCLUSION Upper GI endoscopy revealed varices as most common cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

  9. Avocado fruit maturation and ripening: dynamics of aliphatic acetogenins and lipidomic profiles from mesocarp, idioblasts and seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-López, Carlos Eduardo; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen; Treviño, Víctor; Díaz de la Garza, Rocío I

    2017-09-29

    Avocado fruit contains aliphatic acetogenins (oft-acetylated, odd-chain fatty alcohols) with promising bioactivities for both medical and food industries. However, we have scarce knowledge about their metabolism. The present work aimed to study changes in acetogenin profiles from mesocarp, lipid-containing idioblasts, and seeds from 'Hass' cultivar during fruit development, germination, and three harvesting years. An untargeted LC-MS based lipidomic analysis was also conducted to profile the lipidome of avocado fruit in each tissue. The targeted analysis showed that acetogenin profiles and contents remained unchanged in avocado mesocarp during maturation and postharvest ripening, germination, and different harvesting years. However, a shift in the acetogenin profile distribution, accompanied with a sharp increase in concentration, was observed in seed during early maturation. Untargeted lipidomics showed that this shift was accompanied with remodeling of glycerolipids: TAGs and DAGs decreased during fruit growing in seed. Remarkably, the majority of the lipidome in mature seed was composed by acetogenins; we suggest that this tissue is able to synthesize them independently from mesocarp. On the other hand, lipid-containing idioblasts accumulated almost the entire acetogenin pool measured in the whole mesocarp, while only having 4% of the total fatty acids. The lipidome of this cell type changed the most when the fruit was ripening after harvesting, TAGs decreased while odd-chain DAGs increased. Notably, idioblast lipidome was more diverse than that from mesocarp. Evidence shown here suggests that idioblasts are the main site of acetogenin biosynthesis in avocado mesocarp. This work unveiled the prevalence of aliphatic acetogenins in the avocado fruit lipidome and evidenced TAGs as initial donors of the acetogenin backbones in its biosynthesis. It also sets evidence for acetogenins being included in future works aimed at characterizing the avocado seed, as they are

  10. MPI Profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, D K; Jones, T R

    2005-02-11

    The Message Passing Interface (MPI) is the de facto message-passing standard for massively parallel programs. It is often the case that application performance is a crucial factor, especially for solving grand challenge problems. While there have been many studies on the scalability of applications, there have not been many focusing on the specific types of MPI calls being made and their impact on application performance. Using a profiling tool called mpiP, a large spectrum of parallel scientific applications were surveyed and their performance results analyzed.

  11. Molecular genetic identification of skeletal remains from the Second World War Konfin I mass grave in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupanic Pajnic, Irena; Gornjak Pogorelc, Barbara; Balazic, Joze

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes molecular genetic identification of one third of the skeletal remains of 88 victims of postwar (June 1945) killings found in the Konfin I mass grave in Slovenia. Living relatives were traced for 36 victims. We analyzed 84 right femurs and compared their genetic profiles to the genetic material of living relatives. We cleaned the bones, removed surface contamination, and ground the bones into powder. Prior to DNA isolation using Biorobot EZ1 (Qiagen), the powder was decalcified. The nuclear DNA of the samples was quantified using the real-time polymerase chain reaction method. We extracted 0.8 to 100 ng DNA/g of bone powder from 82 bones. Autosomal genetic profiles and Y-chromosome haplotypes were obtained from 98% of the bones, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes from 95% of the bones for the HVI region and from 98% of the bones for the HVII region. Genetic profiles of the nuclear and mtDNA were determined for reference persons. For traceability in the event of contamination, we created an elimination database including genetic profiles of the nuclear and mtDNA of all persons that had been in contact with the skeletal remains. When comparing genetic profiles, we matched 28 of the 84 bones analyzed with living relatives (brothers, sisters, sons, daughters, nephews, or cousins). The statistical analyses showed a high confidence of correct identification for all 28 victims in the Konfin I mass grave (posterior probability ranged from 99.9% to more than 99.999999%).

  12. Metabolic profiles of exercise in patients with McArdle disease or mitochondrial myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Nigel F; Sharma, Rohit; Tadvalkar, Laura; Clish, Clary B; Haller, Ronald G; Mootha, Vamsi K

    2017-08-01

    McArdle disease and mitochondrial myopathy impair muscle oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) by distinct mechanisms: the former by restricting oxidative substrate availability caused by blocked glycogen breakdown, the latter because of intrinsic respiratory chain defects. We applied metabolic profiling to systematically interrogate these disorders at rest, when muscle symptoms are typically minimal, and with exercise, when symptoms of premature fatigue and potential muscle injury are unmasked. At rest, patients with mitochondrial disease exhibit elevated lactate and reduced uridine; in McArdle disease purine nucleotide metabolites, including xanthine, hypoxanthine, and inosine are elevated. During exercise, glycolytic intermediates, TCA cycle intermediates, and pantothenate expand dramatically in both mitochondrial disease and control subjects. In contrast, in McArdle disease, these metabolites remain unchanged from rest; but urea cycle intermediates are increased, likely attributable to increased ammonia production as a result of exaggerated purine degradation. Our results establish skeletal muscle glycogen as the source of TCA cycle expansion that normally accompanies exercise and imply that impaired TCA cycle flux is a central mechanism of restricted oxidative capacity in this disorder. Finally, we report that resting levels of long-chain triacylglycerols in mitochondrial myopathy correlate with the severity of OXPHOS dysfunction, as indicated by the level of impaired O 2 extraction from arterial blood during peak exercise. Our integrated analysis of exercise and metabolism provides unique insights into the biochemical basis of these muscle oxidative defects, with potential implications for their clinical management.

  13. Physiological profile of a professional boxer preparing for Title Bout: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Israel; Hughes, Steven; Chapman, Dale W

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to (1) profile a professional boxer (23 years and 80 kg) with boxing-specific, muscle function, aerobic capacity and body composition tests, and (2) quantify how these measures varied during an 8-week preparation phase leading to, and post a state-Title Bout fought in the 76.2-kg class. A series of boxing-specific and muscle function tests were completed on 11 occasions: 9 prior and twice after the bout, each separated by approximately 2 weeks. The boxing test included 36 maximal punches (9 of each: lead and rear straights, lead and rear hooks) to a punching integrator measuring forces and velocity. Muscle function tests included countermovement jump, drop-jumps, isometric mid-thigh pull and isometric bench-press. Body composition was assessed using skin-fold measurements on three occasions and one dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Aerobic capacity was assessed using 2 VO2 max tests. Leading up to the bout, performance decreased in isometric mid-thigh pull (8%), isometric bench-press (5%), countermovement jump (15%) and impact forces in 3 of 4 punches (4%-7%). Whereas measures of dynamic and isometric muscle function remained depressed or unchanged post competition, punching forces (6%-15%) and aerobic power (6%) increased. Data suggest the athlete may have super-compensated following rest as fatigue dissipated and further adaptation occurred.

  14. Effects of dietary coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Monica L; Ferreira, Haroldo S; dos Santos, Aldenir F; Cabral, Cyro R; Florêncio, Telma M M T

    2009-07-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation with coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting waist circumferences (WC) >88 cm (abdominal obesity) were investigated. The randomised, double-blind, clinical trial involved 40 women aged 20-40 years. Groups received daily dietary supplements comprising 30 mL of either soy bean oil (group S; n = 20) or coconut oil (group C; n = 20) over a 12-week period, during which all subjects were instructed to follow a balanced hypocaloric diet and to walk for 50 min per day. Data were collected 1 week before (T1) and 1 week after (T2) dietary intervention. Energy intake and amount of carbohydrate ingested by both groups diminished over the trial, whereas the consumption of protein and fibre increased and lipid ingestion remained unchanged. At T1 there were no differences in biochemical or anthropometric characteristics between the groups, whereas at T2 group C presented a higher level of HDL (48.7 +/- 2.4 vs. 45.00 +/- 5.6; P = 0.01) and a lower LDL:HDL ratio (2.41 +/- 0.8 vs. 3.1 +/- 0.8; P = 0.04). Reductions in BMI were observed in both groups at T2 (P coconut oil does not cause dyslipidemia and seems to promote a reduction in abdominal obesity.

  15. The impact of the modified Atkins diet on lipid profiles in adults with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervenka, Mackenzie C; Patton, Katlyn; Eloyan, Ani; Henry, Bobbie; Kossoff, Eric H

    2016-01-01

    The modified Atkins diet (MAD) is a high fat, low carbohydrate ketogenic diet used to treat intractable seizures in children and adults. The long-term impact on fasting lipid profiles (FLPs) remains unknown. This study was designed to detect significant lipid changes in adults on MAD. Patients were observed prospectively. A FLP was obtained in all patients at the first visit then serially. Patients were started on a 20 g per day net carbohydrate limit MAD. They were screened for risk for coronary heart disease and counseled to reduce saturated fats by a registered dietitian if deemed at risk. Patients that remained on MAD for 3 or more months with one or more follow-up FLP were included. Thirty-seven patients (14 male), mean age 33 years (SD 13, range 18-59) met study criteria. Median diet duration was 16 months (range 3-41). Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) increased significantly over the first 3 months of MAD (P = 0.01 and 0.008, respectively), but were not significantly different from baseline after 1 year of treatment (P = 0.2 and P = 0.5, respectively). High-density lipoprotein levels trended upward in the first 3 months (P = 0.05) and triglycerides remained unchanged (P = 0.5). In 12 patients followed for 3 or more years, no cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events were reported. Although total cholesterol and LDL increased over the first 3 months of the MAD, these values normalized within a year of treatment, including in patients treated with MAD for more than 3 years.

  16. Flight Tests of a Remaining Flying Time Prediction System for Small Electric Aircraft in the Presence of Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogge, Edward F.; Kulkarni, Chetan S.; Vazquez, Sixto L.; Smalling, Kyle M.; Strom, Thomas H.; Hill, Boyd L.; Quach, Cuong C.

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of building trust in the online prediction of a battery powered aircraft's remaining flying time. A series of flight tests is described that make use of a small electric powered unmanned aerial vehicle (eUAV) to verify the performance of the remaining flying time prediction algorithm. The estimate of remaining flying time is used to activate an alarm when the predicted remaining time is two minutes. This notifies the pilot to transition to the landing phase of the flight. A second alarm is activated when the battery charge falls below a specified limit threshold. This threshold is the point at which the battery energy reserve would no longer safely support two repeated aborted landing attempts. During the test series, the motor system is operated with the same predefined timed airspeed profile for each test. To test the robustness of the prediction, half of the tests were performed with, and half were performed without, a simulated powertrain fault. The pilot remotely engages a resistor bank at a specified time during the test flight to simulate a partial powertrain fault. The flying time prediction system is agnostic of the pilot's activation of the fault and must adapt to the vehicle's state. The time at which the limit threshold on battery charge is reached is then used to measure the accuracy of the remaining flying time predictions. Accuracy requirements for the alarms are considered and the results discussed.

  17. 76 FR 14058 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... University of Wyoming Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY. The human remains were..., Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, professional staff in consultation with representatives of...

  18. Heart rate recovery and heart rate variability are unchanged in patients with coronary artery disease following 12 weeks of high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity endurance exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Katharine D; Rosen, Lee M; Millar, Philip J; McKelvie, Robert S; MacDonald, Maureen J

    2013-06-01

    Decreased heart rate variability and attenuated heart rate recovery following exercise are associated with an increased risk of mortality in cardiac patients. This study investigated the effects of 12 weeks of moderate-intensity endurance exercise (END) and a novel low-volume high-intensity interval exercise protocol (HIT) on measures of heart rate recovery and heart rate variability in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Fourteen males with CAD participated in 12 weeks of END or HIT training, each consisting of 2 supervised exercise sessions per week. END consisted of 30-50 min of continuous cycling at 60% peak power output (PPO). HIT involved ten 1-min intervals at 88% PPO separated by 1-min intervals at 10% PPO. Heart rate recovery at 1 min and 2 min was measured before and after training (pre- and post-training, respectively) using a submaximal exercise bout. Resting time and spectral and nonlinear domain measures of heart rate variability were calculated. Following 12 weeks of END and HIT, there was no change in heart rate recovery at 1 min (END, 40 ± 12 beats·min(-1) vs. 37 ± 19 beats·min(-1); HIT, 31 ± 8 beats·min(-1) vs. 35 ± 8 beats·min(-1); p ≥ 0.05 for pre- vs. post-training) or 2 min (END, 44 ± 18 beats·min(-1) vs. 43 ± 19 beats·min(-1); HIT, 42 ± 10 beats·min(-1) vs. 50 ± 6 beats·min(-1); p ≥ 0.05 for pre- vs. post-training). All heart rate variability indices were unchanged following END and HIT training. In conclusion, neither END nor HIT exercise programs elicited training-induced improvements in cardiac autonomic function in patients with CAD. The absence of improvements with training may be attributed to the optimal medical management and normative pretraining state of our sample.

  19. Identification of bacterial isolates obtained from intestinal contents associated with 12,000-year-old mastodon remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, A N; Urbance, J W; Youga, H; Corlew-Newman, H; Reddy, C A; Klug, M J; Tiedje, J M; Fisher, D C

    1998-02-01

    Mastodon (Mammut americanum) remains unearthed during excavation of ancient sediments usually consist only of skeletal material, due to postmortem decomposition of soft tissues by microorganisms. Two recent excavations of skeletal remains in anoxic sediments in Ohio and Michigan, however, have uncovered organic masses which appear to be remnants of the small and large intestines, respectively. Macrobotanical examinations of the composition of these masses revealed assemblages of plant material radiocarbon dated to approximately 11,500 years before the present and thought to be incompletely digested food remains from this extinct mammal. We attempted to cultivate and identify bacteria from the intestinal contents, bone-associated sediments, and sediments not in proximity to the remains using a variety of general and selective media. In all, 295 isolates were cultivated, and 38 individual taxa were identified by fatty acid-methyl ester (FAME) profiles and biochemical characteristics (API-20E). The taxonomic positions of selected enteric and obligately anaerobic bacteria were confirmed by 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing. Results indicate that the intestinal and bone-associated samples contained the greatest diversity of bacterial taxa and that members of the family Enterobacteriaceae represented 41% of all isolates and were predominant in the intestinal masses and sediments in proximity to the skeleton but were uncommon in the background sediments. Enterobacter cloacae was the most commonly identified isolate, and partial rDNA sequencing revealed that Rahnella aquatilis was the correct identity of strains suggested by FAME profiles to be Yersinia enterocolitica. No Bacteroides spp. or expected intestinal anaerobes were recovered. The only obligate anaerobes recovered were clostridia, and these were not recovered from the small intestinal masses. Microbiological evidence from this study supports other, macrobotanical data indicating the intestinal origin of these

  20. Health Profiles and Profile Specific Health Expectancies of Older Women and Men: The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deeg, D.J.; Portrait, F.R.M.; Lindeboom, M.

    2002-01-01

    This study focuses on gender differences in health profiles, and examines which health profiles drive gender differences in remaining life expectancy in women and men aged 65 and over in The Netherlands. Data from the first two cycles of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (n = 2,141 and 1,659,

  1. Effect of one week of CPAP treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea on 24-hour profiles of glucose, insulin and counter-regulatory hormones in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhlesi, Babak; Grimaldi, Daniela; Beccuti, Guglielmo; Van Cauter, Eve

    2017-03-01

    Studies examining the impact of CPAP treatment on glycaemic control have yielded conflicting results, partly because of insufficient nightly CPAP use. We examined the 24-hour profiles of glucose, insulin and counter-regulatory hormones in 12 subjects with type 2 diabetes and OSA before and after 1 week of effective in-laboratory CPAP therapy over an entire 8-hour night thus ensuring optimal CPAP compliance. Blood samples were collected every 15 to 30 minutes for 24 hours under controlled conditions. The 24-hour mean glucose decreased from 153.2 ± 33.0 to 139.7 ± 24.2 mg/dL with CPAP (-13.5 ± 13.5 mg/dL; P = .005) without change in insulin levels. Morning fasting glucose levels decreased by 14.6 ± 3 mg/dL (P = .001) and the dawn phenomenon decreased by 7.8 ± 9.8 mg/dL (P = .019). CPAP treatment decreased norepinephrine levels while the 24-hour profiles of growth hormone and cortisol remained unchanged. In conclusion, 1 week of effective treatment of OSA over an entire 8-hour night results in a clinically significant improvement in glycaemic control via an amelioration of evening fasting glucose metabolism and a reduction in the dawn phenomenon, a late-night glucose increase that is not adequately treated by oral medications. Clinical Trials Information: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01136785. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The effect of common imaging and hot water maceration on DNA recovery from skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Emilie M; Mundorff, Amy Z; Davoren, Jon M

    2015-12-01

    Identifying human remains often begins with cleaning and imaging the material. Hot water maceration is used to remove adherent soft tissue from bone and radiographs are taken to better visualize osseous details. Heat and radiation are known to have harmful effects on DNA, but their ability to degrade DNA when used for cleaning and imaging has not been well studied. To better understand their individual and combined effects on the recoverability of DNA from bone, skeletal samples were subjected to (1) hot water maceration (62 °C for 45 min); (2) CT scanning (0.6mm slices, 120 kV, 10.4s); (3) X-ray (50 kVp, 150 mA, 0.03 s, 40 in); and (4) all 3 treatments combined. Forty-eight DNA samples were extracted, quantified and amplified with the AmpFLSTR(®) Identifiler(®) system. Nearly all of the processed samples had reduced RFU values relative to the unprocessed samples, indicating some amount of genetic loss. This loss did not always translate into loss of profile completeness, since only a few samples had a reduction in the number of loci detected after processing. DNA yields were not significantly reduced by any one of the processing methods, however the results indicate that the damaging effects are additive. It is possible that processing may reduce a bone's DNA reservoir and as more procedures are preformed, the pool of available genetic information might be diminished. Many intrinsic and extrinsic factors can affect the recoverability of DNA from bone. Collecting a DNA sample prior to processing avoids the negative effects from hot water maceration and radiological imaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Profiling and Racial Profiling: An Interactive Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Racial Profiling has been recognized as a serious problem that affects many segments of our society and is especially notable in law enforcement. Governments and police services have pronounced that racial profiling is not acceptable and will not be tolerated. They have gone to great lengths in trying to eradicate racial profiling through…

  4. Orthodontic Treatment of an Adult Class III Malocclusion with Severe Transverse Dental Compensation by Remaining of Buccal Crossbite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshiki; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Kanzaki, Hiroyuki; Wada, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes the importance of preventing more excessive transverse dental compensation during orthodontic treatment for a patient with severe transverse skeletal discrepancy. The patient, a 33-years-old Japanese woman, had severe transverse skeletal discrepancy involving the maxilla and mandible. In addition, she had an extreme transverse dental compensation of the posterior teeth in mandibular arch (i.e. excessive lingual inclination of mandibular molars). Therefore, the main treatment objectives were to prevent more excessive transverse dental compensation by orthodontic treatment and improve the occlusal function. We chose non-surgical orthodontic treatment. Because this patient did not think that the esthetic improvement with surgery would be worth the risk. The orthodontic treatment resulted in sufficient elimination of the transverse dental compensation and movement of the teeth into their proper position where basal bone firmly support them. Anterior crossbite was corrected with remaining buccal crossbite, facial profile was improved and functional occlusion was obtained. At 2 years 2 months after the orthodontic treatment, the facial profile and occlusion remained favorable. This report would become an alternative to ideal treatment for a case with transverse skeletal discrepancy.

  5. Digging up the recent Spanish memory: genetic identification of human remains from mass graves of the Spanish Civil War and posterior dictatorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeta, Miriam; Núñez, Carolina; Cardoso, Sergio; Palencia-Madrid, Leire; Herrasti, Lourdes; Etxeberria, Francisco; de Pancorbo, Marian M

    2015-11-01

    The Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) and posterior dictatorship (until 1970s) stands as one of the major conflicts in the recent history of Spain. It led to nearly two hundred thousand men and women executed or murdered extra-judicially or after dubious legal procedures. Nowadays, most of them remain unidentified or even buried in irretraceable mass graves across Spain. Here, we present the genetic identification of human remains found in 26 mass graves located in Northern Spain. A total of 252 post-mortem remains were analyzed and compared to 186 relatives, allowing the identification of 87 victims. Overall, a significant success of DNA profiling was reached, since informative profiles (≥ 12 STRs and/or mitochondrial DNA profile) were obtained in 85.71% of the remains. This high performance in DNA profiling from challenging samples demonstrated the efficacy of DNA extraction and amplification methods used herein, given that only around 14.29% of the samples did not provide an informative genetic profile for the analysis performed, probably due to the presence of degraded and/or limited DNA in these remains. However, this study shows a partial identification success rate, which is clearly a consequence of the lack of both appropriate family members for genetic comparisons and accurate information about the victims' location. Hence, further perseverance in the exhumation of other intact graves as well as in the search of more alleged relatives is crucial in order to facilitate and increase the number of genetic identifications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of thermal processing on the profile of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of fermented orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero-López, Blanca; Cerrillo, Isabel; Gil-Izquierdo, Ángel; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso; Herrero-Martín, Griselda; Berná, Genoveva; Medina, Sonia; Ferreres, Federico; Martín, Franz; Fernández-Pachón, María-Soledad

    2016-11-01

    Previously, we reported that alcoholic fermentation enhanced flavanones and carotenoids content of orange juice. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of pasteurization on the qualitative and quantitative profile of bioactive compounds and the antioxidant capacity of fermented orange juice. Ascorbic acid (203 mg/L), total flavanones (647 mg/L), total carotenoids (7.07 mg/L) and provitamin A (90.06 RAEs/L) values of pasteurized orange beverage were lower than those of fermented juice. Total phenolic remained unchanged (585 mg/L) and was similar to that of original juice. The flavanones naringenin-7-O-glucoside, naringenin-7-O-rutinoside, hesperetin-7-O-rutinoside, hesperetin-7-O-glucoside and isosakuranetin-7-O-rutinoside, and the carotenoids karpoxanthin and isomer, neochrome, lutein, ζ-carotene, zeaxanthin, mutatoxanthin epimers, β-cryptoxanthin and auroxanthin epimers were the major compounds. Pasteurization produced a decrease in antioxidant capacity of fermented juice. However, TEAC (5.45 mM) and ORAC (6353 μM) values of orange beverage were similar to those of original orange juice. The novel orange beverage could be a valuable source of bioactive compounds with antioxidant capacity and exert potential beneficial effects.

  7. Metabolite profiling of phenolic and carotenoid contents in tomatoes after moderate-intensity pulsed electric field treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Oms-Oliu, Gemma; Odriozola-Serrano, Isabel; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Martín-Belloso, Olga; Elez-Martínez, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    A metabolite profiling approach was used to study the effect of moderate-intensity pulsed electric field (MIPEF) treatments on the individual polyphenol and carotenoid contents of tomato fruit after refrigeration at 4°C for 24h. The MIPEF processing variables studied were electric field strength (from 0.4 to 2.0kV/cm) and number of pulses (from 5 to 30). Twenty four hours after MIPEF treatments, an increase was observed in hydroxycinnamic acids and flavanones, whereas flavonols, coumaric and ferulic acid-O-glucoside were not affected. Major changes were also observed for carotenoids, except for the 5-cis-lycopene isomer, which remain unchanged after 24h of MIPEF treatments. MIPEF treatments, conducted at 1.2kV/cm and 30 pulses, led to the greatest increases in chlorogenic (152%), caffeic acid-O-glucoside (170%) and caffeic (140%) acids. On the other hand, treatments at 1.2kV/cm and 5 pulses led to maximum increases of α-carotene, 9- and 13-cis-lycopene, which increased by 93%, 94% and 140%, respectively. Therefore, MIPEF could stimulate synthesis of secondary metabolites and contribute to production of tomatoes with high individual polyphenol and carotenoid contents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. iTRAQ-Based Proteomic Profiling of the Barnacle Balanus amphitrite in Response to the Antifouling Compound Meleagrin

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Zhuang

    2013-05-03

    Marine biofouling refers to the unwanted accumulation of fouling organisms, such as barnacles, on artificial surfaces, resulting in severe consequences for marine industries. Meleagrin is a potential nontoxic antifoulant that is isolated from the fungus Penicillium sp.; however, its mechanistic effect mode of action on larval settlement remains unknown. Here, we applied iTRAQ coupled with 2D LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis to investigate the effect of meleagrin on the proteomic expression profile of cyprid development and aging in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite. Fifty proteins were differentially expressed in response to treatment with meleagrin, among which 26 proteins were associated with cyprid development/aging and 24 were specifically associated with the meleagrin treatment. The 66 proteins that were associated with aging only remained unaltered during exposure to meleagrin. Using KEGG analysis, those proteins were assigned to several groups, including metabolic pathways, ECM-receptor interactions, and the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Among the 24 proteins that were not related to the development/aging process, expression of the cyprid major protein (CMP), a vitellogenin-like protein, increased after the meleagrin treatment, which suggested that meleagrin might affect the endocrine system and prevent the larval molting cycle. With the exception of the chitin binding protein that mediates the molting process and ATPase-mediated energy processes, the majority of proteins with significant effects in previous studies in response to cyprid treatment with butenolide and polyether B remained unchanged in the present study, suggesting that meleagrin may exhibit a different mechanism. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  9. 76 FR 14057 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... possession and control of the University of Wyoming Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository... of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, professional staff in consultation...

  10. ASSESSING RAPTOR DIET: COMPARING PELLETS, PREY REMAINS, AND OBSERVATIONAL DATA AT HEN HARRIER NESTS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stephen M. Redpath; Roger Clarke; Mike Madders; Simon J. Thirgood

    2001-01-01

    Abstract We compared techniques to assess diet at 17 Hen Harrier (Circus cyaneus) nests. Diet was measured directly from observations and compared to estimates from pellets, prey remains and a combination of pellets and remains...

  11. Determining buried grid street system and native of the remains with GPR and petrography, in ancient Nysa city, Aydin - Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioglu, Selma; Kadioglu, Musa; Kadioglu, Yusuf K.

    2010-05-01

    Nysa, is one of the most important ancient cities of the region of Caria in Anatolia (Asia Minor), was built on the slopes on the sides of the stream called Tekkecik, in a 3 km North of Sultanhisar, East of Aydın city of Turkey. The buildings, streets and public squares of the ancient city were supported by vaulted substructures adapted to the topographic conditions. There are important ruins on the site from the Hellenistic and the Roman periods and the Byzantine era. Now the Greek theatre and its walled entrance are intact. Other important remains are the gymnasium, stadium, library, temple, nymphaeum, bridge a tunnel like structure and the Byzantine churches in the West; the agora, Bouleuterion / Gerontikon, and the Roman public baths in the East. The first aim of the study was to determine the locations of the buried streets thought grid system according to the some excavated results already in the east and west side of the Nysa. Therefore the GPR studies were realized selected areas, which could include the streets, around the Bouleuterion / Gerontikon and at the South of the library. Two dimensional (2D) GPR data were measured on the parallel GPR profiles spaced 1m apart on each part of the study areas using 250 MHz shielded antennas. The processed parallel profile data set was formed through a solid 3D view by aligning the profiles respectively. A simplified amplitude-color range and appropriate opacity function were constructed to activate buried remains. Interactive interpretation was done with time slices and transparent sub-blocks of the 3D volume by arranging an opaque function. It was known that the maximum amplitudes represented the remains. So, weak amplitude range around the zero amplitude was eliminated by giving zero opacity value and transparent 3D imaging was obtained. The second known was that the amplitudes were decreased according to time. Therefore, amplitude scale could be weighted by a constant coefficient changing with the time range of

  12. Evolution of drug resistance in HIV infected patients remaining on a virologically failing cART regimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cozzi-Lepri, A; Phillips, AN; Ruiz, L

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the extent of drug resistance accumulation in patients kept on a virologically failing regimen and its determinants in the clinical setting. DESIGN: The study focused on 110 patients of EuroSIDA on an unchanged regimen who had two genotypic tests performed at two time points...

  13. Evolution of drug resistance in HIV-infected patients remaining on a virologically failing combination antiretroviral therapy regimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Phillips, Andrew N; Ruiz, Lidia

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the extent of drug resistance accumulation in patients kept on a virologically failing regimen and its determinants in the clinical setting. DESIGN: The study focused on 110 patients of EuroSIDA on an unchanged regimen who had two genotypic tests performed at two time point...

  14. Review of the Dinosaur Remains from the Middle Jurassic of Scotland, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D. L. Clark

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dinosaurs are rare from the Middle Jurassic worldwide. The Isle of Skye, is the only place in Scotland thus far to have produced dinosaur remains. These remains consist mainly of footprints, but also several bones and teeth. These Bajocian and Bathonian remains represent an important collection of a basal eusauropod, early examples of non-neosauropod and possible basal titanosauriform eusauropods, and theropod remains that may belong to an early coelurosaur and a possible megalosaurid, basal tyrannosauroid, or dromaeosaurid. The footprints from here also suggest a rich and diverse dinosaur fauna for which further better diagnosable remains are likely to be found.

  15. Study on Rail Profile Optimization Based on the Nonlinear Relationship between Profile and Wear Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxi Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a rail profile optimization method that takes account of wear rate within design cycle so as to minimize rail wear at the curve in heavy haul railway and extend the service life of rail. Taking rail wear rate as the object function, the vertical coordinate of rail profile at range optimization as independent variable, and the geometric characteristics and grinding depth of rail profile as constraint conditions, the support vector machine regression theory was used to fit the nonlinear relationship between rail profile and its wear rate. Then, the profile optimization model was built. Based on the optimization principle of genetic algorithm, the profile optimization model was solved to achieve the optimal rail profile. A multibody dynamics model was used to check the dynamic performance of carriage running on optimal rail profile. The result showed that the average relative error of support vector machine regression model remained less than 10% after a number of training processes. The dynamic performance of carriage running on optimized rail profile met the requirements on safety index and stability. The wear rate of optimized profile was lower than that of standard profile by 5.8%; the allowable carrying gross weight increased by 12.7%.

  16. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest developments in the field of renewables at country level around the world. Each profile combines analysis by IRENA's specialists with the latest available country data and additional information from a wide array of sources. The resulting reports provide a brief yet comprehensive picture of the situation with regard to renewable energy, including energy supply, electrical generation and grid capacity, and access. Energy policies, targets and projects are also considered, along with each country's investment climate and endowment with renewable energy resources. The energy statistics presented here span the period from 2009 until 2012, reflecting varying timelines in the source material. Since data availability differs from country to country, wider regional comparisons are possible only for the latest year with figures available for every country included. Despite the time lag in some cases, the evident differences and disparities between countries and regions around the world remain striking. The current package of country profiles is just a starting point. The geographic scope will continue to expand, and existing profiles will be enhanced with new indicators, with the whole series maintained as a live product on the IRENA website (www.irena.org)

  17. Data-driven remaining useful life prognosis techniques stochastic models, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Si, Xiao-Sheng; Hu, Chang-Hua

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces data-driven remaining useful life prognosis techniques, and shows how to utilize the condition monitoring data to predict the remaining useful life of stochastic degrading systems and to schedule maintenance and logistics plans. It is also the first book that describes the basic data-driven remaining useful life prognosis theory systematically and in detail. The emphasis of the book is on the stochastic models, methods and applications employed in remaining useful life prognosis. It includes a wealth of degradation monitoring experiment data, practical prognosis methods for remaining useful life in various cases, and a series of applications incorporated into prognostic information in decision-making, such as maintenance-related decisions and ordering spare parts. It also highlights the latest advances in data-driven remaining useful life prognosis techniques, especially in the contexts of adaptive prognosis for linear stochastic degrading systems, nonlinear degradation modeling based pro...

  18. Alteration of N-glycan expression profile and glycan pattern of glycoproteins in human hepatoma cells after HCV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Tian; Yang, Ganglong; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Yidan; Fu, Zhongxiao; Lu, Fangfang; Gu, Jianguo; Taniguchi, Naoyuki; Tan, Zengqi; Chen, Xi; Xie, Yan; Guan, Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Lian

    2017-05-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes chronic liver diseases, liver fibrosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However little is known about any information of N-glycan pattern in human liver cell after HCV infection. The altered profiles of N-glycans in HCV-infected Huh7.5.1 cell were analyzed by using mass spectrometry. Then, lectin microarray, lectin pull-down assay, reverse transcription-quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR) and western-blotting were used to identify the altered N-glycosylated proteins and glycosyltransferases. Compared to uninfected cells, significantly elevated levels of fucosylated, sialylated and complex N-glycans were found in HCV infected cells. Furthermore, Lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA)-binding glycoconjugates were increased most. Then, the LCA-agarose was used to precipitate the specific glycosylated proteins and identify that fucosylated modified annexin A2 (ANXA2) and heat shock protein 90 beta family member 1 (HSP90B1) was greatly increased in HCV-infected cells. However, the total ANXA2 and HSP90B1 protein levels remained unchanged. Additionally, we screened the mRNA expressions of 47 types of different glycosyltransferases and found that α1,6-fucosyltransferase 8 (FUT8) was the most up-regulated and contributed to strengthen the LCA binding capability to fucosylated modified ANXA2 and HSP90B1 after HCV infection. HCV infection caused the altered N-glycans profiles, increased expressions of FUT8, fucosylated ANXA2 and HSP90B1 as well as enhanced LCA binding to Huh7.5.1. Our results may lay the foundation for clarifying the role of N-glycans and facilitate the development of novel diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets based on the increased FUT8, fucosylated ANXA2 and HSP90B1 after HCV infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Adult monozygotic twins discordant for intra-uterine growth have indistinguishable genome-wide DNA methylation profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Low birth weight is associated with an increased adult metabolic disease risk. It is widely discussed that poor intra-uterine conditions could induce long-lasting epigenetic modifications, leading to systemic changes in regulation of metabolic genes. To address this, we acquire genome-wide DNA methylation profiles from saliva DNA in a unique cohort of 17 monozygotic monochorionic female twins very discordant for birth weight. We examine if adverse prenatal growth conditions experienced by the smaller co-twins lead to long-lasting DNA methylation changes. Results Overall, co-twins show very similar genome-wide DNA methylation profiles. Since observed differences are almost exclusively caused by variable cellular composition, an original marker-based adjustment strategy was developed to eliminate such variation at affected CpGs. Among adjusted and unchanged CpGs 3,153 are differentially methylated between the heavy and light co-twins at nominal significance, of which 45 show sensible absolute mean β-value differences. Deep bisulfite sequencing of eight such loci reveals that differences remain in the range of technical variation, arguing against a reproducible biological effect. Analysis of methylation in repetitive elements using methylation-dependent primer extension assays also indicates no significant intra-pair differences. Conclusions Severe intra-uterine growth differences observed within these monozygotic twins are not associated with long-lasting DNA methylation differences in cells composing saliva, detectable with up-to-date technologies. Additionally, our results indicate that uneven cell type composition can lead to spurious results and should be addressed in epigenomic studies. PMID:23706164

  20. Trust as a determinant of entrepreneurs' preference to remain tenants in Turkish business incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aşcigil, Semra F; Magner, Nace R; Temel, Elif Karabulut

    2011-08-01

    Relations of two types of trust by entrepreneurs with the entrepreneurs' preference to remain an incubator tenant were examined using questionnaire data from 67 owners of companies in 6 Turkish incubators. As hypothesized, trust in incubator management had a positive and unique relation with preference to remain an incubator tenant. However, trust in other incubator tenants did not show the hypothesized positive and unique relation with preference to remain a tenant; the results indicated the relation is negative.

  1. Decomposition patterns of buried remains at different intervals in the Central Highveld region of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais-Werner, A; Myburgh, J; Meyer, A; Nienaber, W C; Steyn, M

    2017-07-01

    Burial of remains is an important factor when one attempts to establish the post-mortem interval as it reduces, and in extreme cases, excludes oviposition by Diptera species. This in turn leads to modification of the decomposition process. The aim of this study was to record decomposition patterns of buried remains using a pig model. The pattern of decomposition was evaluated at different intervals and recorded according to existing guidelines. In order to contribute to our knowledge on decomposition in different settings, a quantifiable approach was followed. Results indicated that early stages of decomposition occurred rapidly for buried remains within 7-33 days. Between 14 and 33 days, buried pigs displayed common features associated with the early to middle stages of decomposition, such as discoloration and bloating. From 33 to 90 days advanced decomposition manifested on the remains, and pigs then reached a stage of advanced decomposition where little change was observed in the next ±90-183 days after interment. Throughout this study, total body scores remained higher for surface remains. Overall, buried pigs followed a similar pattern of decomposition to those of surface remains, although at a much slower rate when compared with similar post-mortem intervals in surface remains. In this study, the decomposition patterns and rates of buried remains were mostly influenced by limited insect activity and adipocere formation which reduces the rate of decay in a conducive environment (i.e. burial in soil).

  2. Remaining time and opportunities at work: Relationships between age, work characteristics, and occupational future time perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacher, Hannes; Frese, Michael

    2009-06-01

    The authors adapted the concept of future time perspective (FTP) to the work context and examined its relationships with age and work characteristics (job complexity and control). Structural equation modeling of data from 176 employees of various occupations showed that age is negatively related to 2 distinct dimensions of occupational FTP: remaining time and remaining opportunities. Work characteristics (job complexity and control) were positively related to remaining opportunities and moderated the relationship between age and remaining opportunities, such that the relationship became weaker with increasing levels of job complexity and control. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Decontamination and Management of Human Remains Following Incidents of Hazardous Chemical Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Army Public Health Command; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Bock, Robert Eldon [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To provide specific procedural guidance and resources for identification, assessment, control, and mitigation of compounds that may contaminate human remains resulting from chemical attack or release. Design: A detailed technical, policy, and regulatory review is summarized. Setting: Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present. Settings would include sites of transportation accidents, natural disasters, terrorist or military operations, mortuary affairs or medical examiner processing and decontamination points, and similar. Patients, Participants: While recommended procedures have not been validated with actual human remains, guidance has been developed from data characterizing controlled experiments with fabrics, materiel, and laboratory animals. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presentation of logic and specific procedures for remains management, protection and decontamination of mortuary affairs personnel, as well as decision criteria for determining when remains are sufficiently decontaminated so as to pose no chemical health hazard. Results: Established procedures and existing equipment/materiel available for decontamination and verification provide appropriate and reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from remains. Extensive characterization of issues related to remains decontamination indicates that supra-lethal concentrations of liquid chemical warfare agent VX may prove difficult to decontaminate and verify in a timely fashion. Specialized personnel can and should be called upon to assist with monitoring necessary to clear decontaminated remains for transport and processing. Conclusions: Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for remains processing and transport to the decedent s family and the continental United States can be followed.

  4. GLL RPT IONOSPHERE PROFILES

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Galileo Radio Propagation Team Ionosphere Profile data set is small number of electron density profiles derived from radio occultation data collected while...

  5. GHGRP Industrial Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program periodically produces detailed profiles of the various industries that report under the program. These profiles contain detailed analyses. This page hosts data highlights for all sectors.

  6. HOPWA Performance Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HOPWA Performance Profiles are generated quarterly for all agencies receiving HOPWA formula or competitive grants. Performance Profiles are available at the national...

  7. Proteomic profiling of the antifungal drug response of Aspergillus fumigatus to voriconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarsaikhan, Nansalmaa; Albrecht-Eckardt, Daniela; Sasse, Christoph; Braus, Gerhard H; Ogel, Zumrut B; Kniemeyer, Olaf

    2017-10-01

    Antifungal resistance is an emerging problem and one of the reasons for treatment failure of invasive aspergillosis (IA). Voriconazole has become a standard therapeutic for the treatment of this often fatal infection. We studied the differentially expressed proteins as a response of Aspergillus fumigatus to voriconazole by employing the two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) technique. Due to addition of drug, a total of 135 differentially synthesized proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-mass spectrometry. In particular, the level of proteins involved in the general stress response and cell detoxification increased prominently. In contrast, cell metabolism and energy proteins were down-regulated, which suggests the cellular effort to maintain balance in energy utilization while trying to combat the cellular stress exerted by the drug. We detected several so-far uncharacterized proteins which may play a role in stress response and drug metabolism and which could be future targets for antifungal treatment. A mutant strain, which is deleted in the cross-pathway control gene cpcA, was treated with voriconazole to investigate the contribution of the general control of amino acid biosynthesis to drug resistance. We compared the mutant strain's protein expression profile with the wild-type strain. The absence of CpcA led to an increased resistance to voriconazole and a reduced activation of some general stress response proteins, while the transcript level of the triazole target gene erg11A (cyp51A) remained unchanged. In contrast, the sensitivity of strain ΔcpcA to terbinafine and amphotericin B was slightly increased. These findings imply a role of CpcA in the cellular stress response to azole drugs at the post transcriptional level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. 78 FR 2618 - Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus Remaining Service-Life Indicator Performance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... service-life indicators or warning devices. These indicators are built into a respirator to alert the user... should be modified to state: ``Each remaining service-life indicator or warning device shall give an... indicators; minimum requirements. * * * * * (f) Each remaining service-life indicator or warning device must...

  9. Observations on food remains in faeces of elephant, leopard and crabeater seals

    OpenAIRE

    Green, K.; Williams, R.

    1986-01-01

    Faecal material of leopard, crabeater and elephant seals was collected from the vicinity of Davis station, Antarctica. Very few identifiable remains were found in elephant seal droppings. Fish remains, mainly of Pleuragramma antarcticum, were found in both leopard and crabeater seal droppings. The mysid Antarctomysis maxima was also found in crabeater seal droppings and amphipods and decapod crustaceans in leopard seal droppings.

  10. Career Motivation in Newly Licensed Registered Nurses: What Makes Them Remain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Zarata Mann; Bailey, Jessica H.

    2010-01-01

    Despite vast research on newly licensed registered nurses (RNs), we don't know why some newly licensed registered nurses remain in their current jobs and others leave the nursing profession early in their career. Job satisfaction, the most significant factor emerging from the literature, plays a significant role in nurses' decisions to remain in…

  11. PROFILER: 1D galaxy light profile decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciambur, Bogdan C.

    2017-05-01

    Written in Python, PROFILER analyzes the radial surface brightness profiles of galaxies. It accurately models a wide range of galaxies and galaxy components, such as elliptical galaxies, the bulges of spiral and lenticular galaxies, nuclear sources, discs, bars, rings, and spiral arms with a variety of parametric functions routinely employed in the field (Sérsic, core-Sérsic, exponential, Gaussian, Moffat and Ferrers). In addition, Profiler can employ the broken exponential model (relevant for disc truncations or antitruncations) and two special cases of the edge-on disc model: namely along the major axis (in the disc plane) and along the minor axis (perpendicular to the disc plane).

  12. Antimicrobial, heavy metal resistance and plasmid profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial, heavy metal resistance patterns and plasmid profiles of Coliforms (Enterobacteriacea) isolated from nosocomial infections and healthy human faeces were compared. Fifteen of the 25 isolates from nosocomial infections were identified as Escherichia coli, and remaining as Kelebsiella pneumoniae.

  13. Study of dental occlusion in ancient human remains: a methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorin, Elena; Cadafalch, Joan; Ceperuelo, Dolors; Adserias Adserias, Maria José; Chimenos-Küstner, Eduard; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2014-09-01

    The anthropological dental and maxillary study in human skeletal remains usually refers to alterations or conditions of the oral cavity. These alterations could have repercussions on life style, dietary habits and diseases. In this particular context, dental occlusion is not often analyzed due to the fragmented condition of the remains, and especially due to the lack of methodology adapted to study ancient remains. The aim of this study is to propose an anthropological method based on clinical dental practice. In the method presented in this work, odontological parameters such as overjet, overbite, and Angle's Classification of Malocclusion, are evaluated.

  14. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence development for the subsurface leak remaining subsurface accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-12

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Subsurface Leak Remaining Subsurface. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  15. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence development for the subsurface leak remaining subsurface accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-19

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Subsurface Leak Remaining Subsurface. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  16. RSPF-based Prognosis Framework for Estimation of Remaining Useful Life in Energy Storage Devices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper presents a case study where a RSPF-based prognosis framework is applied to estimate the remaining useful life of an energy storage device (Li-Ion...

  17. Pittsburgh Coal Bed Remaining Resources by County in Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Pittsburgh coal bed resource areas and attributed with remaining resource values in...

  18. Scott's Lake Site/Santee Indian Mound/Fort Watson Human Remains

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a generic dataset collected on human remains and funerary objects during Scott's Lake Site Excavation. Excavated by Dr. Leland G. Ferguson of SCIAA in 1973,...

  19. Incidental Findings in the Use of DNA to Identify Human Remains: An Ethical Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Lisa S.; London, Alex John; Aronson, Jay D.

    2012-01-01

    DNA analysis is increasingly used to identify the remains of victims of conflicts and disasters. This is especially true in cases where remains are badly damaged and fragmented, or where antemortem records are unavailable. Incidental findings (IFs)—that is, genetics-related information for which investigators were not looking—may result from these identification efforts employing DNA analysis. Because of the critical role played by family members of the missing in identification efforts, as w...

  20. The macrofaunal remains of wild animals from Abbofs Cave and Lame Sheep Shelter, Seacow Valley, Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Plug

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available The faunal remains from two adjacent shelters in the Seacow Valley provide evidence of seasonal predation on springbok by hunter-gatherer societies. The unusually high proportion of foetal and neonate remains indicate the hunting of pregnant ewes and/or ewes with newborn lambs. The deposits are disturbed by ground squirrel burrowing, but these did not influence the species representation. The coming of pre-colonial pastoralists and trekboer farmers did not initially influenced the availability of game.

  1. Influence of oral health behavior and sociodemographic factors on remaining teeth in Korean adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, In-Seok; Han, Kyungdo; Choi, Yeon-Jo; Ryu, Jae-Jun; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this study, the number and location of remaining teeth were analyzed according to sociodemographic variables, anthropometric measurements, and oral health behavior patterns. The hypothesis was that the number and location of remaining teeth would be affected by oral health behavior and by sociodemographic factors, such as education levels, household income, and urban/rural residency. This nationwide cross-sectional study was performed with a total of 36,026 representative Korean adults aged 19 and older. The data were taken from the 2012–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Men had, on average, significantly more remaining teeth than women did. Women brushed their teeth more often than men per day and were more likely to brush their teeth after meals. The participants with higher education levels or household income had significantly more remaining teeth; the number of daily tooth brushing was positively associated with the number of remaining teeth; urban residents had significantly more remaining teeth than rural residents; and elderly adults had fewer remaining teeth than younger adults had (all with P teeth than maxillary teeth, but among molars, they had more maxillary teeth than mandibular teeth. Elementary graduates with low household income had fewer remaining teeth than did university graduates with high household income (P teeth than anterior teeth compared to those with low socioeconomic status. The participants who brushed their teeth fewer times per day, those with low household incomes and/or education levels, and those who lived in rural districts had significantly higher prevalence of tooth loss than did other groups in Korean adults. Participants had more anterior and premolar teeth on mandible, but they had more molars on maxilla. In addition, participants with high socioeconomic status were more likely to lose their molar teeth than anterior teeth compared to those with low socioeconomic status. PMID

  2. Influence of oral health behavior and sociodemographic factors on remaining teeth in Korean adults

    OpenAIRE

    Song, In-Seok; Han, Kyungdo; Choi, Yeon-Jo; Ryu, Jae-Jun; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this study, the number and location of remaining teeth were analyzed according to sociodemographic variables, anthropometric measurements, and oral health behavior patterns. The hypothesis was that the number and location of remaining teeth would be affected by oral health behavior and by sociodemographic factors, such as education levels, household income, and urban/rural residency. This nationwide cross-sectional study was performed with a total of 36,026 representative Korean a...

  3. Reintegration of the regenerated and the remaining tissues during joint regeneration in the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takeshi; Yamada, Shigehito

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Urodele amphibians, such as newts, can regenerate a functional limb, including joints, after amputation at any level along the proximal−distal axis of the limb. The blastema can regenerate the limb morphology largely independently of the stump after proximal−distal identity has been established, but the remaining and regenerated tissues must be structurally reintegrated (matched in size and shape). Here we used newt joint regeneration as a model to investigate reintegration, because a functionally interlocking joint requires structural integration between its opposing skeletal elements. After forelimbs were amputated at the elbow joint, the joint was regenerated between the remaining and regenerated skeletal elements. The regenerated cartilage was thick around the amputated joint to make a reciprocally interlocking joint structure with the remaining bone. Furthermore, during regeneration, the extracellular matrix of the remaining tissues was lost, suggesting that the remaining tissues might contribute to the morphogenesis of regenerating cartilage. Our results showed that the area of the regenerated cartilage matched the area of the apposed remaining cartilage, thus contributing to formation of a functional structure. PMID:27499865

  4. Uncertainty Quantification in Remaining Useful Life of Aerospace Components using State Space Models and Inverse FORM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankararaman, Shankar; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of the inverse first-order reliability method (inverse- FORM) to quantify the uncertainty in the remaining useful life (RUL) of aerospace components. The prediction of remaining useful life is an integral part of system health prognosis, and directly helps in online health monitoring and decision-making. However, the prediction of remaining useful life is affected by several sources of uncertainty, and therefore it is necessary to quantify the uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction. While system parameter uncertainty and physical variability can be easily included in inverse-FORM, this paper extends the methodology to include: (1) future loading uncertainty, (2) process noise; and (3) uncertainty in the state estimate. The inverse-FORM method has been used in this paper to (1) quickly obtain probability bounds on the remaining useful life prediction; and (2) calculate the entire probability distribution of remaining useful life prediction, and the results are verified against Monte Carlo sampling. The proposed methodology is illustrated using a numerical example.

  5. Decomposition of Concealed and Exposed Porcine Remains in the North Carolina Piedmont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammack, J A; Cohen, A C; Kreitlow, K L; Roe, R M; Watson, D W

    2016-01-01

    We examined the decomposition and subsequent insect colonization of small pig carrion (Sus scrofa (L.)) placed in concealed and open environments during spring, summer, and fall in Raleigh, North Carolina, as a model for juvenile human remains. Remains were concealed in simulated attics in three manners, ranging from minimal to well-concealed. Concealment had a significant effect on the insect community colonizing the remains across all three seasons; the beetles Necrobia rufipes (DeGeer) (Cleridae) and Dermestes maculatus (DeGeer) (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) were the only species indicative of remains located indoors, whereas numerous fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Sepsidae, and Piophilidae) and beetle (Coleoptera: Silphidae, Staphylinidae, and Histeridae) species and an ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Prenolepis sp.) were indicative of remains located outdoors. Season also significantly affected the insect species, particularly the blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) colonizing remains: Lucilia illustris (Meigen) was indicative of the spring, Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) and Chrysomya megacephala (F.) were indicative of the summer, and Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and Calliphora vomitoria (L.) were indicative of the fall. In addition, across all seasons, colonization was delayed by 35–768 h, depending on the degree of concealment. These differences among the insect communities across seasons and concealment treatments, and the effects of concealment on colonization indicate that such information is important and should to be considered when analyzing entomological evidence for criminal investigations.

  6. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  7. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  8. Geophysical validation of SCIAMACHY Limb Ozone Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Brinksma

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the quality of the two available SCIAMACHY limb ozone profile products. They were retrieved with the University of Bremen IFE's algorithm version 1.61 (hereafter IFE, and the official ESA offline algorithm (hereafter OL versions 2.4 and 2.5. The ozone profiles were compared to a suite of correlative measurements from ground-based lidar and microwave, sondes, SAGE II and SAGE III (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment. To correct for the expected Envisat pointing errors, which have not been corrected implicitly in either of the algorithms, we applied a constant altitude shift of -1.5 km to the SCIAMACHY ozone profiles. The IFE ozone profile data between 16 and 40 km are biased low by 3-6%. The average difference profiles have a typical standard deviation of 10% between 20 and 35 km. We show that more than 20% of the SCIAMACHY official ESA offline (OL ozone profiles version 2.4 and 2.5 have unrealistic ozone values, most of these are north of 15° S. The remaining OL profiles compare well to correlative instruments above 24 km. Between 20 and 24 km, they underestimate ozone by 15±5%.

  9. Work-related factors influencing home care nurse intent to remain employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourangeau, Ann E; Patterson, Erin; Saari, Margaret; Thomson, Heather; Cranley, Lisa

    Health care is shifting out of hospitals into community settings. In Ontario, Canada, home care organizations continue to experience challenges recruiting and retaining nurses. However, factors influencing home care nurse retention that can be modified remain largely unexplored. Several groups of factors have been identified as influencing home care nurse intent to remain employed including job characteristics, work structures, relationships and communication, work environment, responses to work, and conditions of employment. The aim of this study was to test and refine a model that identifies which factors are related to home care nurse intentions to remain employed for the next 5 years with their current home care employer organization. A cross-sectional survey design was implemented to test and refine a hypothesized model of home care nurse intent to remain employed. Logistic regression was used to determine which factors influence home care nurse intent to remain employed. Home care nurse intent to remain employed for the next 5 years was associated with increasing age, higher nurse-evaluated quality of care, having greater variety of patients, experiencing greater meaningfulness of work, having greater income stability, having greater continuity of client care, experiencing more positive relationships with supervisors, experiencing higher work-life balance, and being more satisfied with salary and benefits. Home care organizations can promote home care nurse intent to remain employed by (a) ensuring nurses have adequate training and resources to provide quality client care, (b) improving employment conditions to increase income stability and satisfaction with pay and benefits, (c) ensuring manageable workloads to facilitate improved work-life balance, and (d) ensuring leaders are accessible and competent.

  10. [Study of remains and dental wastes of a First World War German rest camp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, R; Tzortzis, S; Desfosses, Y; Signoli, M; Tardivo, D

    2014-12-01

    This article presents the analysis of dental remains and waste from the dental office of a German rest camp of the First World War in order to study the living conditions of the soldiers, the care policy and the prosthetic rehabilitation techniques used in this context. The study included both dental and prosthetic remains, revealed during the excavation. The criteria to determine dental and periodontal health were the presence or absence of caries, wear, tartar and periodontal lesion. Location, severity and frequency of each of these parameters were examined. Regarding the prosthetic remains, the type of prosthesis and the materials used were determined. Three hundred and twenty seven (327) dental remains were analyzed. A high prevalence of large caries, especially in the molar areas, was highlighted. The incisal areas had however more wear and tartar. 183 casts of plaster dental arcade allowed to highlight a significant proportion of posterior edentulous. Prosthetic remains and laboratory waste revealed the use of vulcanite and porcelain for making dentures.

  11. New paleoradiological investigations of ancient human remains from North West Lombardy archaeological excavations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licata, Marta; Borgo, Melania; Armocida, Giuseppe; Nicosia, Luca; Ferioli, Elena [University of Insubria (Varese), Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, Varese (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    Since its birth in 1895, radiology has been used to study ancient mummies. The purpose of this article is to present paleoradiological investigations conducted on several medieval human remains in Varese province. Anthropological (generic identification) and paleopathological analyses were carried out with the support of diagnostic imaging (X-ray and CT scans). Human remains were discovered during excavations of medieval archaeological sites in northwest Lombardy. Classical physical anthropological methods were used for the macroscopic identification of the human remains. X-ray and CT scans were performed on the same scanner (16-layer Hitachi Eclos 16 X-ray equipment). Radiological analysis permitted investigating (1) the sex, (2) age of death, (3) type of trauma, (4) therapeutic interventions and (5) osteomas in ancient human remains. In particular, X-ray and CT examinations showed dimorphic facial traits on the mummified skull, and the same radiological approaches allowed determining the age at death from a mummified lower limb. CT analyses allow investigating different types of traumatic lesions in skulls and postcranial skeleton portions and reconstructing the gait and functional outcomes of a fractured femur. Moreover, one case of possible Gardner's syndrome (GS) was postulated from observing multiple osteomas in an ancient skull. Among the medical tests available to the clinician, radiology is the most appropriate first-line procedure for a diagnostic approach to ancient human remains because it can be performed without causing any significant damage to the specimen. (orig.)

  12. YOUNG ATHLETES' MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Moreno Murcia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between motivational characteristics and dispositional flow. In order to accomplish this goal, motivational profiles emerging from key constructs within Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory were related to the dispositional flow measures. A sample of 413 young athletes (Age range 12 to 16 years completed the PMCSQ-2, POSQ, SMS and DFS measures. Cluster analysis results revealed three profiles: a "self-determined profile" characterised by higher scores on the task-involving climate perception and on the task orientation; a "non-self-determined profile", characterised by higher scores on ego-involving climate perception and ego orientation; and a "low self-determined and low non-self-determined profile" which had the lowest dispositional flow. No meaningful differences were found between the "self-determined profile" and the "non-self-determined profile" in dispositional flow. The "self-determined profile" was more commonly associated with females, athletes practising individual sports and those training more than three days a week. The "non-self-determined profile" was more customary of males and athletes practising team sports as well as those training just two or three days a week

  13. Guide Map for Preserving Remaining Ability of Nursing Home Residents With Physical-Cognitive Functional Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HyunJu; Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Mi So; Choi, Jung Eun; Chang, Sung Ok

    2017-02-01

    As the population ages, preserving the remaining ability of residents is emphasized in nursing homes. Establishing the nursing knowledge of nursing home-specific practice should be included in the continuing education of new nursing home nurses. This study developed a practical guide map for preserving the remaining ability of nursing home residents by analyzing 144 residents' case data pertaining to the nursing care provided by 19 nurses skilled in nursing homes, as well as conducting a literature review. From the collected data, 236 nursing diagnoses were given to the 144 cases. As the residents' physical conditions and psychosocial characteristics were linked with the nursing process, various steps were needed to plan the nursing process of preserving the remaining ability of nursing home residents. This practical guide map will be useful for new nurses in nursing homes to improve the quality care of elderly residents. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2017;48(2):73-80. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Exploring the world of micro sculptures - subfossil Cladocera remains under the SEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Zawiska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The scanning electron microscope (SEM is widely used for the identification of microstructural characteristics and morphology of different microorganisms. Common procedures are based and developed for remains of living species. This paper presents an effective method for drying and preparing subfossil Cladocera remains for SEM observation, which has been recently adapted and tested on several samples originating from different American and European lakes. This method results to be fast and cheap, as it excludes the use of expensive and toxic reagents. Moreover, it allows to recognize the micro sculpture and other species specific characteristics present on the different body parts of the Cladocera remains. The present contribution provides 29 high quality pictures of 12 cladoceran species at magnification between 200x and 11,000x. SEM images reveal  that the patterns observed on the shells under the light microscope actually are always three dimensional structures.

  15. Bodily matters above and below ground: the treatment of American remains from the Korean War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Judith

    2010-02-01

    Throughout most of the twentieth century, depending on the capabilities of the military mortuary services and the time limits set by government, the bodies of the American fallen in foreign wars have been repatriated home to their families. In the Korean War the conditions of combat posed large challenges to the recovery and returns of bodily remains. Almost half a century after that conflict, the American missing in Korea have become significant players within the government's expanding efforts that were prompted in answer to demands to locate American soldiers who remain unaccounted for from the Vietnam War. The essay traces the background to U.S. military mortuary services and the operation in the Korean War and in the subsequent joint expeditions in North Korea. The analysis concludes that in most of these ventures the outlay of resources has produced few remains.

  16. Optimization of DNA recovery and amplification from non-carbonized archaeobotanical remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wales, Nathan; Andersen, Kenneth; Cappellini, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    resolution. Therefore, in this paper, we compare a variety of DNA extraction techniques on primarily desiccated archaeobotanical remains and identify which method consistently yields the greatest amount of purified DNA. In addition, we test five DNA polymerases to determine how well they replicate DNA...... extracted from non-charred ancient plant remains. Based upon the criteria of resistance to enzymatic inhibition, behavior in quantitative real-time PCR, replication fidelity, and compatibility with aDNA damage, we conclude these polymerases have nuanced properties, requiring researchers to make educated......Ancient DNA (aDNA) recovered from archaeobotanical remains can provide key insights into many prominent archaeological research questions, including processes of domestication, past subsistence strategies, and human interactions with the environment. However, it is often difficult to isolate aDNA...

  17. Prognostic and Remaining Life Prediction of Electronic Device under Vibration Condition Based on CPSD of MPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prognostic of electronic device under vibration condition can help to get information to assist in condition-based maintenance and reduce life-cycle cost. A prognostic and remaining life prediction method for electronic devices under random vibration condition is proposed. Vibration response is measured and monitored with acceleration sensor and OMA parameters, including vibration resonance frequency, especially first-order resonance frequency, and damping ratio is calculated with cross-power spectrum density (CPSD method and modal parameter identification (MPI algorithm. Steinberg vibration fatigue model which considers transmissibility factor is used to predict the remaining life of electronic component. Case study with a test board is carried out and remaining life is predicted. Results show that with this method the vibration response characteristic can be monitored and predicted.

  18. First sauropod (Dinosauria: Saurischia) remains from the Guichón Formation, Late Cretaceous of Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Matías; Perea, Daniel; Cambiaso, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    We report the first sauropod remains recorded in the Guichón Formation, western Uruguay. The materials belong to a middle-sized sauropod represented by more than one individual, and among other remains include more than fifty caudal centra. Close to the bones, several eggshell fragments resembling Sphaerovum erbeniMones, 1980 were found. We discuss the biostratigraphic implications of these findings, which for the first time allow us to confidently refer the Guichón Formation to the Late Cretaceous. The combination of several synapomorphies such as a biconvex first caudal centrum, strongly procoelous middle and distal caudal centra, and a pyramidal astragalus suggests that the sauropod remains belong to a derived lithostrotian, probably related to Pellegrinisaurus powelli, Baurutitan britoi and Alamosaurus sanjuanensis. A few isolated teeth (now lost) referred by Frederich von Huene in 1934 to ornithomimid theropods and ornithischians are herein reinterpreted as belonging to indeterminate theropods and basal iguanodontians.

  19. Properties and effects of remaining carbon from waste plastics gasifying on iron scale reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongmin; Chen, Shuwen; Miao, Xincheng; Yuan, Hao

    2011-06-01

    The carbonous activities of three kinds of carbon-bearing materials gasified from plastics were tested with coal coke as reference. The results showed that the carbonous activities of these remaining carbon-bearing materials were higher than that of coal-coke. Besides, the fractal analyses showed that the porosities of remaining carbon-bearing materials were higher than that of coal-coke. It revealed that these kinds of remaining carbon-bearing materials are conducive to improve the kinetics conditions of gas-solid phase reaction in iron scale reduction. Copyright © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluating the impact of water processing on wood charcoal remains: Tell Qarassa North, a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otaegui, Amaia Arranz; Zapata, Lydia; Colledge, Sue

    . In this work a comparison of the results obtained from water processing and hand-picking of wood charcoal remains at the Neolithic site of Tell Qarassa North (south Syria) is presented. The material comes from a burnt roof structure, where a total of 50 hand-picked wood samples and four flotation samples (120...... such as vitrification and those related to decay. The results showed large differences in the taxonomic and taphonomic composition of wood remains retrieved in situ and through flotation. While Amygdalus had same proportions in both assemblages, in those derived by flotation, there were greater proportions of Pistacia...... of different anatomic elements of the wood, which binds the cells and may increase resistance to mechanical damage during processes as flotation. This may explain why vitrification was better represented in the roof samples processed by flotation, since water might have destroyed weaker wood charcoal remains...

  1. Updated Estimates of the Remaining Market Potential of the U.S. ESCO Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Peter H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Carvallo Bodelon, Juan Pablo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Murphy, Sean [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Stuart, Elizabeth [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.

    2017-04-01

    The energy service company (ESCO) industry has a well-established track record of delivering energy and economic savings in the public and institutional buildings sector, primarily through the use of performance-based contracts. The ESCO industry often provides (or helps arrange) private sector financing to complete public infrastructure projects with little or no up-front cost to taxpayers. In 2014, total U.S. ESCO industry revenue was estimated at $5.3 billion. ESCOs expect total industry revenue to grow to $7.6 billion in 2017—a 13% annual growth rate from 2015-2017. Researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) were asked by the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to update and expand our estimates of the remaining market potential of the U.S. ESCO industry. We define remaining market potential as the aggregate amount of project investment by ESCOs that is technically possible based on the types of projects that ESCOS have historically implemented in the institutional, commercial, and industrial sectors using ESCO estimates of current market penetration in those sectors. In this analysis, we report U.S. ESCO industry remaining market potential under two scenarios: (1) a base case and (2) a case “unfettered” by market, bureaucratic, and regulatory barriers. We find that there is significant remaining market potential for the U.S. ESCO industry under both the base and unfettered cases. For the base case, we estimate a remaining market potential of $92-$201 billion ($2016). We estimate a remaining market potential of $190-$333 billion for the unfettered case. It is important to note, however, that there is considerable uncertainty surrounding the estimates for both the base and unfettered cases.

  2. Do Maltreated Children who Remain at Home Function Better than Those who Are Placed?

    OpenAIRE

    Mennen, Ferol E.; Brensilver, Matthew; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of children in the child welfare system remain with their maltreating parents, yet little is known about their level of functioning and whether they are in need of mental health intervention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mental health functioning of an ethnically diverse sample of 302 maltreated children and 151 non maltreated children ages 9–12 to see if there were differences between those who remained at home, those placed in kin care, non-relative foster care...

  3. A Study on Generic Representation of Skeletal Remains Replication of Prehistoric Burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-W. Shao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Generic representation of skeletal remains from burials consists of three dimensions which include physical anthropologists, replication technicians, and promotional educators. For the reason that archaeological excavation is irreversible and disruptive, detail documentation and replication technologies are surely needed for many purposes. Unearthed bones during the process of 3D digital scanning need to go through reverse procedure, 3D scanning, digital model superimposition, rapid prototyping, mould making, and the integrated errors generated from the presentation of colours and textures are important issues for the presentation of replicate skeleton remains among professional decisions conducted by physical anthropologists, subjective determination of makers, and the expectations of viewers. This study presents several cases and examines current issues on display and replication technologies for human skeletal remains of prehistoric burials. This study documented detail colour changes of human skeleton over time for the reference of reproduction. The tolerance errors of quantification and required technical qualification is acquired according to the precision of 3D scanning, the specification requirement of rapid prototyping machine, and the mould making process should following the professional requirement for physical anthropological study. Additionally, the colorimeter is adopted to record and analyse the “colour change” of the human skeletal remains from wet to dry condition. Then, the “colure change” is used to evaluate the “real” surface texture and colour presentation of human skeletal remains, and to limit the artistic presentation among the human skeletal remains reproduction. The“Lingdao man No.1”, is a well preserved burial of early Neolithic period (8300 B.P. excavated from Liangdao-Daowei site, Matsu, Taiwan , as the replicating object for this study. In this study, we examined the reproduction procedures step by

  4. Transparent 3D Visualization of Archaeological Remains in Roman Site in Ankara-Turkey with Ground Penetrating Radar Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioglu, S.

    2009-04-01

    Transparent 3D Visualization of Archaeological Remains in Roman Site in Ankara-Turkey with Ground Penetrating Radar Method Selma KADIOGLU Ankara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Geophysical Engineering, 06100 Tandogan/ANKARA-TURKEY kadioglu@eng.ankara.edu.tr Anatolia has always been more the point of transit, a bridge between West and East. Anatolia has been a home for ideas moving from all directions. So it is that in the Roman and post-Roman periods the role of Anatolia in general and of Ancyra (the Roman name of Ankara) in particular was of the greatest importance. Now, the visible archaeological remains of Roman period in Ankara are Roman Bath, Gymnasium, the Temple of Augustus of Rome, Street, Theatre, City Defence-Wall. The Caesar Augustus, the first Roman Emperor, conquered Asia Minor in 25 BC. Then a marble temple was built in Ancyra, the administrative capital of province, today the capital of Turkish Republic, Ankara. This monument was consecrated to the Empreror and to the Goddess Rome. This temple is supposed to have built over an earlier temple dedicated to Kybele and Men between 25 -20 BC. After the death of the Augustus in 14AD, a copy of the text of "Res Gestae Divi Augusti" was inscribed on the interior of the pronaos in Latin, whereas a Greek translation is also present on an exterior wall of the cella. In the 5th century, it was converted in to a church by the Byzantines. The aim of this study is to determine old buried archaeological remains in the Augustus temple, Roman Bath and in the governorship agora in Ulus district. These remains were imaged with transparent three dimensional (3D) visualization of the ground penetrating radar (GPR) data. Parallel two dimensional (2D) GPR profile data were acquired in the study areas, and then a 3D data volume were built using parallel 2D GPR data. A simplified amplitude-colour range and appropriate opacity function were constructed and transparent 3D image were obtained to activate buried

  5. The Effect of Renal Denervation on Plasma Adipokine Profile in Patients with Treatment Resistant Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Eikelis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: We previously demonstrated the effectiveness of renal denervation (RDN to lower blood pressure (BP at least partially via the reduction of sympathetic stimulation to the kidney. A number of adipocyte-derived factors are implicated in BP control in obesity.Aim: The aim of this study was to examine whether RDN may have salutary effects on the adipokine profile in patients with resistant hypertension (RH.Methods: Fifty seven patients with RH undergoing RDN program have been included in this study (65% males, age 60.8 ± 1.5 years, BMI 32.6 ± 0.7 kg/m2, mean ± SEM. Throughout the study, the patients were on an average of 4.5 ± 2.7 antihypertensive drugs. Automated seated office BP measurements and plasma concentrations of leptin, insulin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, adiponectin and resistin were assessed at baseline and the 3 months after RDN.Results: There was a significant reduction in mean office systolic (168.75 ± 2.57 vs. 155.23 ± 3.17 mmHg, p < 0.001 and diastolic (90.68 ± 2.31 vs. 83.74 ± 2.36 mmHg, p < 0.001 BP 3 months after RDN. Body weight, plasma leptin and resistin levels and heart rate remained unchanged. Fasting insulin concentration significantly increased 3 months after the procedure (20.05 ± 1.46 vs. 29.70 ± 2.51 uU/ml, p = 0.002. There was a significant drop in circulating NEFA at follow up (1.01 ± 0.07 vs. 0.47 ± 0.04 mEq/l, p < 0.001. Adiponectin concentration was significantly higher after RDN (5,654 ± 800 vs. 6,644 ± 967 ng/ml, p = 0.024.Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate that RDN is associated with potentially beneficial effects on aspects of the adipokine profile. Increased adiponectin and reduced NEFA production may contribute to BP reduction via an effect on metabolic pathways.Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT00483808, NCT00888433.

  6. A Compact SIW-Fed Dielectric Antenna with Equivalently Tapered E-plane Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yang; Zhang, Yingsong; Qian, Zuping

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a compact substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) fed dielectric antenna with equivalently tapered E-plane profile is proposed and investigated. Firstly, transition from SIW to broadwall-detached SIW (DSIW) is analyzed, which provides basis for designing a compact SIW-fed dielectric antenna. Secondly, in order to realize an effective radiation structure while keeping geometrical size unchanged, a gradually tapered profile in E-plane is realized through perforating air-vias with different diameters into the DSIW. Effect of transition stage(s) is compared to validate the function of equivalently tapered profile. Results indicate the proposed antenna operates with 27.7 % fractional bandwidth ranging from 20.2 GHz to 26.7 GHz. Moreover, stable end-fire radiation patterns can be observed in the whole operating band. Above all, this antenna shows similarity with E-plane waveguide horn antenna but maintains advantage of planar configuration.

  7. Anthropological analysis of the Second World War skeletal remains from three karst sinkholes located in southern Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerković, Ivan; Bašić, Željana; Bečić, Kristijan; Jambrešić, Gordana; Grujić, Ivan; Alujević, Antonio; Kružić, Ivana

    2016-11-01

    Although in the cases of war crimes the main effort goes to the identification of victims, it is crucial to consider the execution event as a whole. Thus, the goal of the research was to determine the trauma type and probable cause of death on skeletal remains of civilians executed by partisans from WWS found in the three karst sinkholes and to explain the context in which the injuries occurred. We determined biological profiles, pathological conditions, traumas, and assessed their lethality. Nineteen skeletons were found, 68.4% had, at least, one perimortem trauma, classified as lethal/lethal if untreated in 69.2% cases. The type of execution and administered violence showed to be age and health dependent: elderly and diseased were executed with the intention to kill, by the gunshot facing victims, whilst the more violent behavior expressed towards younger and healthy individuals was indicated by the higher frequency of blunt force trauma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. Digital Marketing Budgets for Independent Hotels: Continuously Shifting to Remain Competitive in the Online World

    OpenAIRE

    Leora Halpern Lanz; Megan Carmichael

    2015-01-01

    The hotel marketing budget, typically amounting to approximately 4-5% of an asset’s total revenue, must remain fluid, so that the marketing director can constantly adapt the marketing tools to meet consumer communications methods and demands. This article suggests how an independent hotel can maximize their marketing budget by using multiple channels and strategies.

  9. International standards to document remaining autonomic function after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krassioukov, Andrei; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Donovan, William

    2012-01-01

    This is the first guideline describing the International Standards to document remaining Autonomic Function after Spinal Cord Injury (ISAFSCI). This guideline should be used as an adjunct to the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) including the ...

  10. Taming Disruptive Technologies, or How To Remain Relevant in the Digital Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Philip

    2001-01-01

    Discusses electronic books as a disruptive technology, that is, a technology that has appeal to its users but upsets the traditional models. Highlights include a history of print technology; types of electronic books; reader devices; stakeholders, including users, librarians, and publishers; and how vendors can remain relevant. (LRW)

  11. "Game Remains": A Platform Design Grounded in Indigenous Knowledge Systems for Dialogue and Composition Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Cristobal M.; Ingram-Goble, Adam; Twist, Kade L.; Chacon, Raven

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the design and implementation of a game as an instrument for dialogue, both as a social tool and a shared interface for music performance. Beyond describing the design of "Game Remains," the article shares the details of an impact story of how an installation in Guelph's Musagetes Boarding House Arts in Canada has…

  12. Dementia and Friendship: The Quality and Nature of the Relationships That Remain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Phyllis Braudy

    2013-01-01

    Friendships are an integral part of the human experience. Yet, dementia often takes a toll on social relationships, and many friends withdraw. This research, however, focuses on friendships that remain, despite a diagnosis of dementia. It examines the quality of the friendships of people with dementia and long-term friendships. Data were collected…

  13. 19 CFR 123.28 - Merchandise remaining in or exported to Canada or Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Merchandise remaining in or exported to Canada or Mexico. 123.28 Section 123.28 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through...

  14. Remaining load carrying capacity of gas pipelines damaged by surface corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenta, F.; Sochor, M.; Spaniel, M.; Michalec, J. (Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czechoslovakia). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    The influence of surface corrosive defects on the remaining working ability of transit gas pipelines of big diameters is discussed. An analytical and a FEM-numerical approach to the problem are presented. Finally a comparison of some of the authors' experimental results (to verify the theoretical solutions) with ANSI/ASME Code recommendations is given. (author)

  15. Digital Marketing Budgets for Independent Hotels: Continuously Shifting to Remain Competitive in the Online World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leora Halpern Lanz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The hotel marketing budget, typically amounting to approximately 4-5% of an asset’s total revenue, must remain fluid, so that the marketing director can constantly adapt the marketing tools to meet consumer communications methods and demands. This article suggests how an independent hotel can maximize their marketing budget by using multiple channels and strategies.

  16. Beyond Race and Gender: Motivating Enlisted Personnel to Remain in Today's Military

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, Brenda

    2001-01-01

    ... to remain in the military than do the race, gender, or racial climate variables. Satisfaction with pay and benefits has a significant positive effect on the likelihood that respondents will stay in the military, but pride in service is more robust...

  17. Optimization of DNA recovery and amplification from non-carbonized archaeobotanical remains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Wales

    Full Text Available Ancient DNA (aDNA recovered from archaeobotanical remains can provide key insights into many prominent archaeological research questions, including processes of domestication, past subsistence strategies, and human interactions with the environment. However, it is often difficult to isolate aDNA from ancient plant materials, and furthermore, such DNA extracts frequently contain inhibitory substances that preclude successful PCR amplification. In the age of high-throughput sequencing, this problem is even more significant because each additional endogenous aDNA molecule improves analytical resolution. Therefore, in this paper, we compare a variety of DNA extraction techniques on primarily desiccated archaeobotanical remains and identify which method consistently yields the greatest amount of purified DNA. In addition, we test five DNA polymerases to determine how well they replicate DNA extracted from non-charred ancient plant remains. Based upon the criteria of resistance to enzymatic inhibition, behavior in quantitative real-time PCR, replication fidelity, and compatibility with aDNA damage, we conclude these polymerases have nuanced properties, requiring researchers to make educated decisions as to which one to use for a given task. The experimental findings should prove useful to the aDNA and archaeological communities by guiding future research methodologies and ensuring precious archaeobotanical remains are studied in optimal ways, and may thereby yield important new perspectives on the interactions between humans and past plant communities.

  18. Detection Method of the Remaining Files Based on Logs Regarding Changed Directory and Hash Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizawa, Chikako; Andoh, Yuu; Nishida, Makoto

    There are a lot of information leakages because the files are copied from the removable storage medium and are left in the storage unit of personal computer without deleting. In order to prevent human mistakes, this paper proposes a method for detecting the remaining files copied from the removable storage medium. The proposed method records logs regarding changed information registering in a directory that is management list of files in storage unit and the hash values of file contents. The remaining files are detected when the removable storage medium removes from the personal computer, and they are displayed on the monitor. The detection processing works in five steps. First, copy operation toward file is detected by tracing the sequence of logs. Secondly, files copied from the removable storage medium are distinguished based on hash values. Thirdly, file operation and folder operation to copied files are distinguished. Fourthly, the deletion operation against the copied file is detected by using file name and path matching. Finally, file name and path using for tracing are changed according to folder operation. In case of the deletion operation is not found, it is judged that copied files are remaining. Our experimental result suggests that the proposed method can accurately detect remaining files left on the storage unit.

  19. On the prediction of the remaining vase life of cut roses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, S.O.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Vollebregt, H.M.; Woltering, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present paper was to examine the hypothesis that the time–temperature sum built up during storage and transport at constant as well as stepwise changing temperatures is a good predictor of the remaining vase life of cut roses. Theoretical calculations and graphing of functions

  20. The importance of job control for workers with decreased work ability to remain productive at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.I.J. van den Berg (Tilja); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); J.F. Plat (Jan); M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Workers with decreased work ability are at greater risk of reduced productivity at work. We hypothesized that work-related characteristics play an important role in supporting workers to remain productive despite decreased work ability. Methods: The study population consisted of

  1. The Class of 2012: Labor Market for Young Graduates Remains Grim. EPI Briefing Paper #340

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shierholz, Heidi; Sabadish, Natalie; Wething, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    Though the labor market is slowly improving, the Great Recession that began in December 2007 was so long and severe that the crater it left in the labor market continues to be devastating for workers of all ages. Unemployment has been above eight percent for more than three years, and 12.7 million workers remain unemployed today. The weak labor…

  2. Skeletal Indicators of Shark Feeding on Human Remains: Evidence from Florida Forensic Anthropology Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Michala K; Winburn, Allysha P; Burgess, George H

    2017-05-02

    This research examines a series of six Florida forensic anthropology cases that exhibit taphonomic evidence of marine deposition and shark-feeding activities. In each case, we analyzed patterns of trauma/damage on the skeletal remains (e.g., sharp-force bone gouges and punctures) and possible mechanisms by which they were inflicted during shark predation/scavenging. In some cases, shark teeth were embedded in the remains; in the absence of this evidence, we measured interdental distance from defects in the bone to estimate shark body length, as well as to draw inferences about the potential species responsible. We discuss similarities and differences among the cases and make comparisons to literature documenting diagnostic shark-inflicted damage to human remains from nearby regions. We find that the majority of cases potentially involve bull or tiger sharks scavenging the remains of previously deceased, adult male individuals. This scavenging results in a distinctive taphonomic signature including incised gouges in cortical bone. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Factors associated with numbers of remaining teeth among type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jui-Chu; Peng, Yun-Shing; Fan, Jun-Yu; Jane, Sui-Whi; Tu, Liang-Tse; Chang, Chang-Cheng; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2013-07-01

    To explore the factors associated with the numbers of remaining teeth among type 2 diabetes community residents. Promoting oral health is an important nursing role for patients with diabetes, especially in disadvantaged areas. However, limited research has been carried out on the relationship between numbers of remaining teeth, diabetes-related biomarkers and personal oral hygiene among diabetic rural residents. A cross-sectional, descriptive design with a simple random sample was used. This study was part of a longitudinal cohort study of health promotion for preventing diabetic foot among rural community diabetic residents. It was carried out in 18 western coastal and inland districts of Chiayi County in central Taiwan. In total, 703 participants were enrolled in this study. The findings indicated that a high percentage of the participants (26%) had no remaining natural teeth. Nearly three quarters (74%) had fewer than 20 natural teeth. After controlling for the potential confounding factors, multivariate analysis demonstrated that the factors determining numbers of remaining teeth were age (p teeth were less tooth-brushing with dental floss, abnormal ankle brachial pressure and poor glycemic control. This study highlights the importance of nursing intervention in oral hygiene for patients with type 2 diabetes. It is necessary to initiate oral health promotion activities when diabetes is first diagnosed, especially for older diabetic residents of rural or coastal areas who are poorly educated. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. How do Older Employees with Health Problems Remain Productive at Work? : A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, Fenna; van den Heuvel, Swenneke; Geuskens, Goedele; Ybema, Jan Fekke; de Wind, Astrid; Burdorf, Alex; Robroek, Suzan

    Purpose The goal of this qualitative study was to gain insight into how older employees remain productive at work in spite of health problems. Methods Twenty-six semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with older employees, 46-63 years of age, who reported a poor health in the Study on

  5. How do Older Employees with Health Problems Remain Productive at Work?: A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, F.; Heuvel, S. van den; Geuskens, G.; Ybema, J.F.; Wind, A. de; Burdorf, A.; Robroek, S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this qualitative study was to gain insight into how older employees remain productive at work in spite of health problems. Methods Twenty-six semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with older employees, 46-63 years of age, who reported a poor health in the Study on

  6. How do Older Employees with Health Problems Remain Productive at Work?: A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.R.M. Leijten (Fenna); S.G. van den Heuvel (Swenneke); G.A. Geuskens (Goedele); J.F. Ybema (Jan Fekke); A. de Wind (Astrid); A. Burdorf (Alex); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPurpose The goal of this qualitative study was to gain insight into how older employees remain productive at work in spite of health problems. Methods Twenty-six semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with older employees, 46-63 years of age, who reported a poor health in

  7. Online Remaining Fatigue Life Prognosis for Composite Materials Based on Strain Data and Stochastic Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eleftheroglou, N.; Zarouchas, D.; Loutas, T.; Alderliesten, R.C.; Benedictus, R.

    2016-01-01

    The present study utilizes a state-of-the-art stochastic modeling with structural health monitoring (SHM) data derived from strain measurements, in order to assess the remaining useful life (RUL) online in composite materials under fatigue loading. Non-Homogenous Hidden Semi Markov model (NHHSMM) is

  8. Using endocarp-remains of seeds of wild apricot Prunus armeniaca to identify rodent seed predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmao ZHANG, Wei WANG

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Some rodent-dispersed seeds have a hard seed-coat (e.g. woody endocarp. Specific scrapes or dental marks on the hard seed-coat left by rodents when they eat these seeds can be used to identify seed predators. In this study we measured the morphological traits of endocarp-remains of seeds of wild apricot Prunus armeniaca used by Chinese white-bellied rats Niviventor confucianus and Korean field mice Apodemus peninsulae. We established their Fisher′s linear discriminant functions to separate endocarp-remains between the two predators. A total of 90.0 % of the endocarp-remains left by Korean field mice and 88.0 % of those left by Chinese white-bellied rats were correctly classified. The overall percentage of correct classification was 89.0 %. One hundred and sixty endocarp-remains of unknown what species predated them were classified using the functions. The method may allow more reliable quantitative studies of the effects of Chinese white-bellied rats and Korean field mice on seed consumption and dispersal of wild apricot and this study might be used for reference in other studies of seed predators identification on hard seeds [Current Zoology 55 (6: 396 –400, 2009].

  9. What Makes Hotel Expatriates Remain in Their Overseas Assignments: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Zoe Ju-Yu

    2012-01-01

    In this study the researcher uses a qualitative research design to discover what makes hotel expatriates remain in their overseas assignments. In-depth interviews, participant observations, and personal documents are used as data collection methods. Four hotel expatriates are recruited as participants of the study. The collected interview…

  10. Mesolithic and Neolithic human remains in the Netherlands : physical anthropological and stable isotope investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Liesbeth; Plicht, Hans van der

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the interdisciplinary study of skeletal remains from Late Mesolithic and Middle Neolithic sites in the Lower Rhine Basin. The combination of archaeological, physical anthropological and chemical analysis has led to a better understanding of the treatment of the

  11. Dating rice remains through phytolith carbon-14 study reveals domestication at the beginning of the Holocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xinxin; Lu, Houyuan; Jiang, Leping; Zhang, Jianping; Yang, Xiaoyan; Huan, Xiujia; He, Keyang; Wang, Can; Wu, Naiqin

    2017-06-20

    Phytolith remains of rice (Oryza sativa L.) recovered from the Shangshan site in the Lower Yangtze of China have previously been recognized as the earliest examples of rice cultivation. However, because of the poor preservation of macroplant fossils, many radiocarbon dates were derived from undifferentiated organic materials in pottery sherds. These materials remain a source of debate because of potential contamination by old carbon. Direct dating of the rice remains might serve to clarify their age. Here, we first validate the reliability of phytolith dating in the study region through a comparison with dates obtained from other material from the same layer or context. Our phytolith data indicate that rice remains retrieved from early stages of the Shangshan and Hehuashan sites have ages of approximately 9,400 and 9,000 calibrated years before the present, respectively. The morphology of rice bulliform phytoliths indicates they are closer to modern domesticated species than to wild species, suggesting that rice domestication may have begun at Shangshan during the beginning of the Holocene.

  12. Explaining why nurses remain in or leave bedside nursing: a critical ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Paula; McPherson, Gladys

    2014-09-01

    To describe the application of critical ethnography to explain nurses' decisions to remain in or leave bedside nursing, and to describe researcher positioning and reflexivity. Enquiry into hospital nurses' decisions to remain in or leave bedside nursing positions has been conducted from a variety of theoretical perspectives by researchers adopting a range of methodological approaches. This research helps to explain how work environments can affect variables such as job satisfaction and turnover, but provides less insight into how personal and professional factors shape decisions to remain in or leave bedside nursing. A critical theoretical perspective was taken to examine the employment decisions made by nurses in a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Data was collected from nurses (n=31) through semi-structured interviews and unobtrusive observation. The authors describe critical ethnography as a powerful research framework for enquiry that allowed them to challenge assumptions about why nurses remain in or leave their jobs, and to explore how issues of fairness and equity contribute to these decisions. Critical ethnography offers a powerful methodology for investigations into complex interactions, such as those between nurses in a PICU. In adopting this methodology, researchers should be sensitised to manifestations of power, attend to their stance and location, and reflexion. The greatest challenges from this research included how to make sense of the insider position, how to acknowledge assumptions and allow these to be challenged, and how to ensure that power relationships in the environment and in the research were attended to.

  13. A remarkable collection of Late Pleistocene reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) remains from Woerden (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolfschoten, T. van; Jagt, I. van der; Beeren, Z.; Argiti, V.; Leije, J. van der; Essen, H. van; Busschers, F.S.; Stoel, P.; Plicht, H. van der

    2011-01-01

    Woerden, in the central part of The Netherlands, is a locality where the amateur-archaeologist Pieter Stoel collected several thousands of fossil mammalian remains of Pleistocene age. The stratigraphically-mixed assemblage includes a broad variety of taxa including species that are indicative of

  14. Stratigraphy and chronology of the WLH 50 human remains, Willandra Lakes World Heritage Area, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grün, Rainer; Spooner, Nigel; Magee, John; Thorne, Alan; Simpson, John; Yan, Ge; Mortimer, Graham

    2011-05-01

    We present a detailed description of the geological setting of the burial site of the WLH 50 human remains along with attempts to constrain the age of this important human fossil. Freshwater shells collected at the surface of Unit 3, which is most closely associated with the human remains, and a carbonate sample that encrusted the human bone were analysed. Gamma spectrometry was carried out on the WLH 50 calvaria and TIMS U-series analysis on a small post-cranial bone fragment. OSL dating was applied to a sample from Unit 3 at a level from which the WLH 50 remains may have eroded, as well as from the underlying sediments. Considering the geochemistry of the samples analysed, as well as the possibility of reworking or burial from younger layers, the age of the WLH 50 remains lies between 12.2 ± 1.8 and 32.8 ± 4.6 ka (2-σ errors). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 77 FR 68825 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... Casa Grande Ruins National Monument, National Park Service, Coolidge, AZ; Correction AGENCY: National... Interior, National Park Service, Casa Grande Ruins National Monument, Coolidge, AZ. The human remains and... notice are the sole responsibility of the Superintendent, Casa Grande Ruins National Monument. This...

  16. Female College Presidents: Characteristics to Become and Remain Chief Executive Officer of a College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balram, Arlette

    2012-01-01

    Through an ethnographic approach, the perceptions of female college presidents from the northeastern region of the United States regarding leadership styles and the characteristics to become and remain the chief executive officer of a college were investigated. Six presidents from various types of four-year colleges were interviewed. Themes,…

  17. Point Cloud Metrics for Separating Standing Archaeological Remains and Low Vegetation in ALS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, R.; Nuninger, L.

    2013-07-01

    The integration of Airborne Laser Scanning survey into archaeological research and cultural heritage management has substantially added to our knowledge of archaeological remains in forested areas, and is changing our understanding of how these landscapes functioned in the past. While many types of archaeological remains manifest as micro-topography, several important classes of features commonly appear as standing remains. The identification of these remains is important for archaeological prospection surveys based on ALS data, and typically represent structures from the Roman, Medieval and early Modern periods. Standing structures in mixed scenes with vegetation are not well addressed by standard classification approaches developed to identify bare earth (terrain), individual trees or plot characteristics, or buildings (roofed structures). In this paper we propose an approach to the identification of these structures in the point cloud based on multi-scale measures of local density, roughness, and normal orientation. We demonstrate this approach using discrete-return ALS data collected in the Franche-Comte region of France at a nominal point density of 8 pts/m2, a resolution which, in coming years, will become increasingly available to archaeologists through government supported mapping schemes.

  18. Morphogen profiles can be optimized to buffer against noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Timothy E.; Howard, Martin

    2009-10-01

    Morphogen profiles play a vital role in biology by specifying position in embryonic development. However, the factors that influence the shape of a morphogen profile remain poorly understood. Since morphogens should provide precise positional information, one significant factor is the robustness of the profile to noise. We compare three experimentally relevant classes of morphogen profiles (linear, exponential, and algebraic) to see which is most precise when subject to both external embryo-to-embryo fluctuations and internal fluctuations due to intrinsically random processes such as diffusion. We find that both the kinetic parameters and the overall gradient shape (e.g., exponential versus algebraic) can be optimized to generate maximally precise positional information.

  19. Personalization in E-commerce using profiles similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu LIXANDROIU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the use needs is one of the key factors of an online project. If these needs are quickly identified, the customer can be offered the best products immediately. Creating profiles allows the identification and communication of needs efficiently and effectively. Basically if these profiles are well established, it remains to identify just which is the closest profile to the online client. Profiling is a useful tool in marketing, increasing the functionality of sales application. These tools fall into customer-oriented tools, together with the analytical techniques ones and those suggesting the desired products.

  20. Criminal Psychological Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-18

    landmark report became known to the general population. Dr. Langer’s profile broke new ground. While the practice of psychoanalysis was not new, this marked...school or college dropout. Suspect is probably suffering from one or more forms of paranoid psychosis .6 Perpetrator: Based on this profile, the police

  1. Compton profile of tantalum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    scale-Compton profile is directly related to the momentum distribution of the electrons. The spectral analysis ... proximation, the Compton profile J(q) is the projection of the target's electron momentum distribution, n(p) ... densed matter and serves as a reliable test of the accuracy of the calculated wave functions. Such basic ...

  2. Reinforced aerodynamic profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to the prevention of deformations in an aerodynamic profile caused by lack of resistance to the bending moment forces that are created when such a profile is loaded in operation. More specifically, the invention relates to a reinforcing element inside an aerodynamic...

  3. Chemical profiling of explosives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brust, G.M.H.

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of this thesis is to develop analytical methods for the chemical profiling of explosives. Current methodologies for the forensic analysis of explosives focus on identification of the explosive material. However, chemical profiling of explosives becomes increasingly important, as

  4. La Ferrassie 8 Neandertal child reloaded: New remains and re-assessment of the original collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Balzeau, Antoine

    2015-05-01

    The first evidence of the partial infant Neandertal skeleton La Ferrassie 8 (LF8) was discovered in 1970, although most of the remains were found in 1973 as part of the 1968-1973 work at the site by H. Delporte. This individual and the other Neandertal children from La Ferrassie were published in the early 1980s by J.-L. Heim, and since then LF8 has been regarded as coming from a poorly documented excavation. The recent rediscovery of the box that contained the hominin bones given by Delporte to Heim in the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (MNHN) collection provided new fossils and helped to locate LF8 in the site: level M2 in square 1. Two visits to the Musée d'Archéologie nationale et Domaine national de Saint-Germain-en-Laye (MAN) yielded additional fossil remains from both the 1970 and 1973 excavations and resulted in the discovery of all of the notes from the excavation of H. Delporte between 1968 and 1973. Here the new fossil remains (47 after performing all possible refits), representing significant portions of the cranium, mandible, and vertebral column together with fragmentary hand and costal remains, are described. Unsurprisingly, the morphology of the bony labyrinth and of a complete stapes from the nearly complete left temporal show clear Neandertal affinities. Additionally, a complete reassessment of the original LF8 collection has resulted in the identification of several errors in the anatomical determination. Despite the significant increase in the anatomical representation of LF8, the skeletal remains are still limited to the head, thorax, pelvis, and four hand phalanges, with some very fragile elements relatively well preserved. Different hypotheses are proposed to explain this anatomical representation, which can be tested during future fieldwork. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cognitive and Motivational Profile Shape Predicts Mathematical Skills over and above Profile Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Giselle; Stoecklin, Markus; Lavallee, Kristen; Gut, Janine; Frischknecht, Marie-Claire; Grob, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The interpretation of subtest profiles from intelligence testing remains popular among many practitioners who use subtest performance to draw diagnostic conclusions, in spite of criticism by some researchers, who point to the low reliability and predictive validity of subtest scores in predicting achievement outcomes. Prior research outlines two…

  6. Metabolite profiling of 14C-omacetaxine mepesuccinate in plasma and excreta of cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijenhuis, Cynthia M; Lucas, Luc; Rosing, Hilde; Robertson, Philmore; Hellriegel, Edward T; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, And Jos H

    2016-12-01

    Omacetaxine mepesuccinate (hereafter referred to as omacetaxine) is a protein translation inhibitor approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for adult patients with chronic myeloid leukemia with resistance and/or intolerance to two or more tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The objective was to investigate the metabolite profile of omacetaxine in plasma, urine and faeces samples collected up to 72 h after a single 1.25-mg/m2 subcutaneous dose of 14C-omacetaxine in cancer patients. High-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (MS) (high resolution) in combination with off-line radioactivity detection was used for metabolite identification. In total, six metabolites of omacetaxine were detected. The reactions represented were mepesuccinate ester hydrolysis, methyl ester hydrolysis, pyrocatechol conversion from the 1,3-dioxole ring. Unchanged omacetaxine was the most prominent omacetaxine-related compound in plasma. In urine, unchanged omacetaxine was also dominant, together with 4'-DMHHT. In feces very little unchanged omacetaxine was found and the pyrocatechol metabolite of omacetaxine, M534 and 4'-desmethyl homoharringtonine (4'-DMHHT) was the most abundant metabolites. Omacetaxine was extensively metabolized, with subsequent renal and hepatic elimination of the metabolites. The low levels of the metabolites found in plasma indicate that the metabolites are unlikely to contribute materially to the efficacy and/or toxicity of omacetaxine.

  7. Bringing colour back after 70 years: Predicting eye and hair colour from skeletal remains of World War II victims using the HIrisPlex system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitanya, Lakshmi; Pajnič, Irena Zupanič; Walsh, Susan; Balažic, Jože; Zupanc, Tomaž; Kayser, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    Retrieving information about externally visible characteristics from DNA can provide investigative leads to find unknown perpetrators, and can also help in disaster victim and other missing person identification cases. Aiming for the application to both types of forensic casework, we previously developed and forensically validated the HIrisPlex test system enabling parallel DNA prediction of eye and hair colour. Although a recent proof-of-principle study demonstrated the general suitability of the HIrisPlex system for successfully analysing DNA from bones and teeth of various storage times and conditions, practical case applications to human remains are scarce. In this study, we applied the HIrisPlex system to 49 DNA samples obtained from bones or teeth of World War II victims excavated at six sites, mostly mass graves, in Slovenia. PCR-based DNA quantification ranged from 4pg/μl to 313pg/μl and on an average was 41pg/μl across all samples. All 49 samples generated complete HIrisPlex profiles with the exception of one MC1R DNA marker (N29insA) missing in 83.7% of the samples. In 44 of the 49 samples (89.8%) complete 15-loci autosomal STR (plus amelogenin) profiles were obtained. Of 5 pairs of skeletal remains for which STR profiling suggested an origin in the same individuals, respectively, 4 showed the same HIrisPlex profiles and predicted eye and hair colours, respectively, while discrepancies in one pair (sample 26 and 43) are likely to be explained by DNA quantity and quality issues observed in sample 43. Sample 43 had the lowest DNA concentration of only 4pg/μl, producing least reliable STR results and could be misleading in concluding that samples 43 and 26 originate from the same individual. The HIrisPlex-predicted eye and hair colours from two skeletal samples, suggested to derive from two brothers via STR profiling together with a living sister, were confirmed by the living sister's report. Overall, we demonstrate that after more than 70 years, HIris

  8. Remaining Technical Challenges and Future Plans for Oil-Free Turbomachinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Bruckner, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The application of Oil-Free technologies (foil gas bearings, solid lubricants and advanced analysis and predictive modeling tools) to advanced turbomachinery has been underway for several decades. During that time, full commercialization has occurred in aircraft air cycle machines, turbocompressors and cryocoolers and ever-larger microturbines. Emerging products in the automotive sector (turbochargers and superchargers) indicate that high volume serial production of foil bearings is imminent. Demonstration of foil bearings in APU s and select locations in propulsion gas turbines illustrates that such technology also has a place in these future systems. Foil bearing designs, predictive tools and advanced solid lubricants have been reported that can satisfy anticipated requirements but a major question remains regarding the scalability of foil bearings to ever larger sizes to support heavier rotors. In this paper, the technological history, primary physics, engineering practicalities and existing experimental and experiential database for scaling foil bearings are reviewed and the major remaining technical challenges are identified.

  9. Psychosocial stressors perceived in the process of social reintegration and compliance time remaining in prison sentence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. García-Jarillo

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study shows the results obtained from evaluating the main psychosocial stressors perceived in the process of social reintegration and their relation to a remaining sentence time in prison. Material and methods: A questionnaire based on an ad hoc design was administered, using a Likert scale, with a total of 383 inmates serving sentences in southeast Spain. Results: Findings show that inmates with a remaining sentence period of more than one year, like those who had served more than a year of their sentence, showed greater concern about possible economic difficulties. Conclusions: The psychosocial stressors studied might provide relevant information to facilitate the process of social reintegration after the completion of a prison sentence.

  10. Study of sexual dimorphism of Malaysian crania: an important step in identification of the skeletal remains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Abdelnasser; Alias, Aspalilah; Swarhib, Mohamed; Abu Bakar, Siti Noorain; Das, Srijit

    2017-01-01

    Sex determination is one of the main steps in the identification of human skeletal remains. It constitutes an initial step in personal identification from the skeletal remains. The aim of the present study was to provide the population-specific sex discriminating osteometric standards to aid human identification. The present study was conducted on 87 (174 sides) slices of crania using postmortem computed tomography in 45 males and 42 females, aged between 18 and 75 years. About 22 parameters of crania were measured using Osirix software 3-D Volume Rendering. Results showed that all parameters were significantly higher in males than in females except for orbital height of the left eye by independent t test (Pforensic tool for identification of unknown crania. PMID:28713610

  11. Study of sexual dimorphism of Malaysian crania: an important step in identification of the skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Abdelnasser; Alias, Aspalilah; Nor, Faridah Mohd; Swarhib, Mohamed; Abu Bakar, Siti Noorain; Das, Srijit

    2017-06-01

    Sex determination is one of the main steps in the identification of human skeletal remains. It constitutes an initial step in personal identification from the skeletal remains. The aim of the present study was to provide the population-specific sex discriminating osteometric standards to aid human identification. The present study was conducted on 87 (174 sides) slices of crania using postmortem computed tomography in 45 males and 42 females, aged between 18 and 75 years. About 22 parameters of crania were measured using Osirix software 3-D Volume Rendering. Results showed that all parameters were significantly higher in males than in females except for orbital height of the left eye by independent t test (Ppopulation. The results of the present study can be used as a forensic tool for identification of unknown crania.

  12. Remaining inconsistencies with solar neutrinos: can spin flavour precession provide a clue?

    CERN Document Server

    Pulido, Joao; Picariello, Marco

    2009-01-01

    A few inconsistencies remain after it has been ascertained that LMA is the dominant solution to the solar neutrino problem: why is the SuperKamiokande spectrum flat and why is the Chlorine rate prediction over two standard deviations above the data. There also remains the ananswered and important question of whether the active neutrino flux is constant or time varying. We propose a scenario involving spin flavour precession to sterile neutrinos with three active flavours that predicts a flat SuperK spectrum and a Chlorine rate prediction more consistent with data. We also argue that running the Borexino experiment during the next few years may provide a very important clue as to the possible variability of the solar neutrino flux.

  13. Archaeobotanical study of ancient food and cereal remains at the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    Full Text Available Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3(rd to 9(th centuries is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life.

  14. DNA analyses of the remains of the Prince Branciforte Barresi family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickards, O; Martínez-Labarga, C; Favaro, M; Frezza, D; Mallegni, F

    2001-01-01

    The five skeletons found buried in the church of Militello di Catania, Sicily, were tentatively identified by morphological analysis and historical reports as the remains of Prince Branciforte Barresi, two of his children, his brother and another juvenile member of the family (sixteenth and seventeenth centuries). In order to attempt to clarify the degree of relationships of the five skeletons, sex testing and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence analysis of the hypervariable segments I and II (HV1 and HV2) of control region were performed. Moreover, the 9 bp-deletion marker of region V (COII/tRNAlys) was examined. Molecular genetic analyses were consistent with historical expectations, although they did not directly demonstrate that these are in fact the remains of the Prince and his relatives, due to the impossibility of obtaining DNA from living maternal relatives of the Prince.

  15. "Why we stay": immigrants' motivations for remaining in communities impacted by anti-immigration policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Carmen R; Lewis Valentine, Jessa; Padilla, Brian

    2013-07-01

    Although restrictive immigration policy is intended to reduce incentives for unauthorized immigrants to remain in the United States, many immigrants remain in their U.S. community despite the anti-immigration climate surrounding them. This study explores motivations shaping immigrants' intentions to stay in Arizona after passage of Senate Bill 1070 in 2010, one of the most restrictive immigration policies in recent decades. We conducted three focus groups in a large metropolitan city in Arizona with Mexican immigrant parents (N = 25). Themes emerging from the focus groups described multiple and interlocking personal, family and community, and contemporary sociopolitical motivations to stay in their community, and suggest that some important motivating factors have evolved as a result of immigrants' changing environment. Implications for research and social policy reform are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Constant negotiating: managing work-related musculoskeletal disorders while remaining at the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Young, Joanne; Solberg, Shirley; Gaudine, Alice

    2014-02-01

    We used grounded theory to explore processes and strategies used by workers affected by work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) while they remained in the workplace, and we developed a theory to describe the overall process. Participants included 25 workers affected by WMSDs who were currently employed in various workplaces in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. The theoretical model has five main phases: (a) becoming concerned, (b) getting medical help, (c) dealing with the workplace, (d) making adjustments to lifestyle, and (e) taking charge, each with separate subphases. Constant negotiating was the core variable that explained the overall process, with workers engaged in negotiations with others in occupational, health, and social contexts. Using a two-dimensional figure, we illustrate the negotiation strategies workers used. We discuss implications for health care, workplaces, education, and research for creating a culture of understanding and respect for injured workers who wish to remain working after developing WMSDs.

  17. The Insta-Dead: The rhetoric of the human remains trade on Instagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Huffer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a thriving trade, and collector community, around human remains that is facilitated by posts on new social media such as Instagram, Facebook, Etsy, and, until recently, eBay. In this article, we examine several thousand Instagram posts and perform some initial text analysis on the language and rhetoric of these posts to understand something about the function of this community, what they value and how they trade, buy, and sell, human remains. Our results indicate a well-connected network of collectors and dealers both specialist and generalist, with a surprisingly wide-reaching impact on the 'enthusiasts' who, through their rhetoric, support the activities of this collecting community, in the face of legal and ethical issues generated by its existence.

  18. Case Study of Remaining Service Life Assessment of a Cooling Water Intake Concrete Structure in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sigit Darmawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the assessment of remaining service life of a cooling water intake concrete structure (CWICS subjected to corrosion due to chloride attacks. Field and laboratory tests were performed to determine the current existing condition of the structure. Both destructive and nondestructive tests were employed to obtain the parameter needed for the assessment. Based on the current condition and test results, structural analysis was carried out and the remaining safety factor of CWICS was determined. From the analysis, it was found that most concrete elements of CWICS had safety factor greater than unity and might fulfil its intended service life up to the year 2033. However, fewer elements require immediate strengthening to extend their service life.

  19. Development of remaining wall thickness measurement system for boiler wall tube using gamma scattering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durongsak, K.; Yenjai, C.; Rassame, S.

    2017-06-01

    In this study, the General Monte Carlo N-Particle version 5 (MCNP5) simulation of the measuring system for the remaining thickness of the wall tube using gamma scattering technique is performed to investigate the applicability of this technique and to find the optimum geometrical setup for the experimental setup. The numerical results show that the optimal geometry condition to provide the highest ratio between the gamma flux changes per thickness variation, namely, the measurement sensitivity, is the alignment of the source incidence angle of 30 degree and detector scattering angle of 30 degrees. Sequentially, the preliminary experiment of thickness measurement system for the tube using the gamma scattering technique is conducted based on the selected geometrical test setup by the simulation. It is found that the experimental results have generally a good agreement with the calculated results. Conclusively, it is suggested that the gamma scattering technique has a potential method to measure the remaining wall thickness in the boiler wall tube.

  20. Location of Ancient Building Remains by Geophysical Surveys in the Bogoroditsky Nunnery of Kazan, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepak, Z.

    2003-04-01

    In the beginning of the 20th cent., several cathedrals, towers and fence of the Bogoroditsky Nunnery, an architectural monument of the 18-19th cent., were destroyed. However, some attempts to rebuild the nunnery have been made in the recent years. For this purpose, transient electromagnetic sounding, using the equipment ImpulseAuto M-1/0-20, was conducted in 2000-02 to locate the remains of ancient buildings in the cultural layer. The resulting vertical sections of total electric conduction S(H) along the survey lines revealed the former position of the Our Lady Church, Candlemas Day Church, Trinity Cathedral, Cathedral of Our Lady of Kazan (COLK), and of some towers and walls. Archaeological excavations revealed the remains of a stone apse of the COLK's eastern part. Preserved drawings permitted the precise location of the Cathedral. These data will be used for the minimising further excavations and in engineering and restoration works.

  1. Spectral analysis of pharmaceutical formulations prepared according to ancient recipes in comparison with old museum remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamberini, M Cristina; Baraldi, C; Freguglia, G; Baraldi, P

    2011-10-01

    A study of the composition of the remains of ancient ointments from museums was undertaken to enable understanding of the preparation techniques. Comparison of ancient recipes from different historical periods and spectroscopic characteristics of inorganic and/or organic remains recovered in museum vessels enabled preparation of ancient pharmaceutical-cosmetic formulations. Farmacopea Augustana by Occo was one the most important books studied for the 14 formulations prepared in the laboratory. Three formulations are discussed in detail and raw materials and new preparations were proposed for ozone ageing. The most important micro Raman results are discussed. The spectra of the raw materials lipids, beeswax, and resins are discussed; beeswax and pig suet (axŭngia) Raman spectra were found to be similar, but different from those of the aged oils. SERS was applied to ancient ointments and galbanum and the Raman spectra are reported and discussed for the first time.

  2. Radiological assessment of the skeletal remains from Hiraizumi, Japan: review of results from the 1950 investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Akio; Nakasato, Tatsuhiko; Tarusawa, Teruo; Ehara, Shigeru

    2017-11-01

    Scientific investigations on the skeletal remains of four generations of the Fujiwara clan enshrined at the Chusonji World Heritage Site were carried out in March 1950. Although an official report on this investigation was published at the time, it did not merit much public attention. Thus, the purpose of this review is to describe the radiological aspects of the investigation, which may be of interest in the context of eleventh and twelfth century Japanese history.

  3. Analysis of Subfossil Molecular Remains of Purple Sulfur Bacteria in a Lake Sediment

    OpenAIRE

    Coolen, Marco J. L.; Overmann, Jörg

    1998-01-01

    Molecular remains of purple sulfur bacteria (Chromatiaceae) were detected in Holocene sediment layers of a meromictic salt lake (Mahoney Lake, British Columbia, Canada). The carotenoid okenone and bacteriophaeophytin a were present in sediments up to 11,000 years old. Okenone is specific for only a few species of Chromatiaceae, including Amoebobacter purpureus, which presently predominates in the chemocline bacterial community of the lake. With a primer set specific for Chromatiaceae in combi...

  4. Coastal structural remains on the east coast of India: Evidence of maritime activities and their significance

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    in relation to the maritime history of the east coast of India. Keywords: Coastal structures, Ancient ports, Maritime activities, Structural remains, East coast of India. Introduction The Indian Peninsula has noticed a chain of development of seaports... number of ancient ports of India were located at the mouth of rivers and in case of lagoons at the outlets to the sea, where cargo can be handled easily and vessels can be anchored properly. Further, to corroborate the fact, the ancient Indian text...

  5. Optimization of Aeroengine Shop Visit Decisions Based on Remaining Useful Life and Stochastic Repair Time

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Cai; Xin Li; Xi Chen

    2016-01-01

    Considering the wide application of condition-based maintenance in aeroengine maintenance practice, it becomes possible for aeroengines to carry out their preventive maintenance in just-in-time (JIT) manner by reasonably planning their shop visits (SVs). In this study, an approach is proposed to make aeroengine SV decisions following the concept of JIT. Firstly, a state space model (SSM) for aeroengine based on exhaust gas temperature margin is developed to predict the remaining useful life (...

  6. Methods for Predicting Remaining Service Life of Power Transformers and Their Components

    OpenAIRE

    Badune, J; Vītoliņa, S; Maskaļonoks, V

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the overview of methods for prediction of remaining service life of power transformers and the analysis of possibility to apply these methods to transformers in power system in Latvia. Particular attention is paid to the methodology for the analysis of transformer components since due to statistical data of faults this issue is topical for transformers in Latvia. Calculations, performed for 4 power transformers, are presented as a case study.

  7. Evaluation of the fracture resistance of remaining thin-walled roots restored with different post systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pinho, Luis Gustavo Nunes Dias; Vinholi, Gustavo Helder; Coelho, Tulio Kalife; Rodrigues Neto, Dimas João; Cerutti Kopplin, Daiane; Silva, Anísio Lima

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work was evaluating the fracture strength of bovine roots weakened experimentally, restored with two different techniques: internal reinforcement of root canal walls with composite resin and a cast metal post and core or anatomic post (glass fiber post associated with composite resin). Thirty bovine lower central incisive were selected and transversally sectioned, remaining 14 mm of root in order to approximate to the human maxillary central incisive.  A sequence of standa...

  8. Effect of interaction of embedded crack and free surface on remaining fatigue life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genshichiro Katsumata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Embedded crack located near free surface of a component interacts with the free surface. When the distance between the free surface and the embedded crack is short, stress at the crack tip ligament is higher than that at the other area of the cracked section. It can be easily expected that fatigue crack growth is fast, when the embedded crack locates near the free surface. To avoid catastrophic failures caused by fast fatigue crack growth at the crack tip ligament, fitness-for-service (FFS codes provide crack-to-surface proximity rules. The proximity rules are used to determine whether the cracks should be treated as embedded cracks as-is, or transformed to surface cracks. Although the concepts of the proximity rules are the same, the specific criteria and the rules to transform embedded cracks into surface cracks differ amongst FFS codes. This paper focuses on the interaction between an embedded crack and a free surface of a component as well as on its effects on the remaining fatigue lives of embedded cracks using the proximity rules provided by the FFS codes. It is shown that the remaining fatigue lives for the embedded cracks strongly depend on the crack aspect ratio and location from the component free surface. In addition, it can be said that the proximity criteria defined by the API and RSE-M codes give overly conservative remaining lives. On the contrary, the WES and AME codes always give long remaining lives and non-conservative estimations. When the crack aspect ratio is small, ASME code gives non-conservative estimation.

  9. FORECASTING OF A REMAINING LIFE OF ENGINEERING SYSTEMS BY USING THE PARAMETRIC MODELS OF RELIABILITY VARIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadiy A. Berketov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of forecasting of a remaining life of complex engineering systems at the operational stage. The example of solving this problem is replacement of devices if their specified life has been completed (preventive replacements or if we extend the lifetime a system in addition to guarantee. This method allows to organize a preventive maintenance of a system taking into account its technical position at this moment all that lead to reducing the maintenance costs.

  10. Human remains from Valdegoba Cave (Huérmeces, Burgos, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Quam, R.; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Díez Fernández-Lomana, Juan Carlos; Lorenzo Merino, Carlos; Carretero, José Miguel; García García, Nuria; Ortega Martínez, Ana Isabel

    2001-01-01

    Systematic excavations, begun in 1987, at the Valdegoba cave site in northern Spain have yielded the remains of five individuals associated with a Middle Paleolithic stone tool technology and Pleistocene fauna. A fragmentary mandible of an adolescent (VB1), preserving nearly a full set of teeth, exhibits a symphyseal tubercle and slight incurvatio mandibulae anterior on the external symphysis. Both the superior and inferior transverse tori are present on the internal aspect....

  11. Skeletal remains from Punic Carthage do not support systematic sacrifice of infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey H Schwartz

    Full Text Available Two types of cemeteries occur at Punic Carthage and other Carthaginian settlements: one centrally situated housing the remains of older children through adults, and another at the periphery of the settlement (the "Tophet" yielding small urns containing the cremated skeletal remains of very young animals and humans, sometimes comingled. Although the absence of the youngest humans at the primary cemeteries is unusual and worthy of discussion, debate has focused on the significance of Tophets, especially at Carthage, as burial grounds for the young. One interpretation, based on two supposed eye-witness reports of large-scale Carthaginian infant sacrifice [Kleitarchos (3(rd c. BCE and Diodorus Siculus (1(st c. BCE], a particular translation of inscriptions on some burial monuments, and the argument that if the animals had been sacrificed so too were the humans, is that Tophets represent burial grounds reserved for sacrificial victims. An alternative hypothesis acknowledges that while the Carthaginians may have occasionally sacrificed humans, as did their contemporaries, the extreme youth of Tophet individuals suggests these cemeteries were not only for the sacrificed, but also for the very young, however they died. Here we present the first rigorous analysis of the largest sample of cremated human skeletal remains (348 burial urns, N = 540 individuals from the Carthaginian Tophet based on tooth formation, enamel histology, cranial and postcranial metrics, and the potential effects of heat-induced bone shrinkage. Most of the sample fell within the period prenatal to 5-to-6 postnatal months, with a significant presence of prenates. Rather than indicating sacrifice as the agent of death, this age distribution is consistent with modern-day data on perinatal mortality, which at Carthage would also have been exacerbated by numerous diseases common in other major cities, such as Rome and Pompeii. Our diverse approaches to analyzing the cremated human

  12. Plant remains from the Polish Triassic. Present knowledge and future prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Pacyna Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    The Triassic plant macrofossils of Poland are very poorly known. There are few Triassic rock exposures here, they contain very few plant specimens, there is little scientific interest in the subject, and the rare plant remains found in drill cores are of low stratigraphical significance. The Lower Triassic macroflora is surprisingly poorer taxonomically than coeval European floras, and only single specimens have been found. The flora of the Middle Triassic is even poorer as a result of the Mu...

  13. Fish Remains from the Karlo Site (CA-Las-7), Lassen County, California

    OpenAIRE

    Follett, W. I

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes fish remains included among the archaeological materials recovered from the Karlo site (CA-Las-7), Lassen County, California, during the summer of 1955 by Francis A. Riddell and his associates, of the University of California Archaeological Survey (Riddell 19566:63, 1960^:3). In using this designation rather than Las-7, which was used for the Karlo site by Riddell (1960a:2), I follow Heizer (1968).

  14. A simple metric sexing method for unknown skeletal remains: the Sacro-Clavicular Index (SCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, Martin; Trautmann, Iris

    2014-01-01

    Sex diagnosis on human skeletal remains from forensic or archaeological contexts is often hampered by poor preservation or completeness. The successful application of most identification methods demands the presence of skull or pelvis, since most reliable sex-determining features can be found here; unfortunately, because of their fragile anatomy, these bones are frequently damaged or destroyed. To compensate for this, we tested the effectiveness of two often well preserved postcranial structures as instrument of sexing skeletal individuals. Preliminary results are promising.

  15. Unilateral nephrectomy elongates primary cilia in the remaining kidney via reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang Jun; Jang, Hee-Seong; Kim, Jee In; Lipschutz, Joshua H; Park, Kwon Moo

    2016-02-29

    The length of primary cilia is associated with normal cell and organ function. In the kidney, the change of functional cilia length/mass is associated with various diseases such as ischemia/reperfusion injury, polycystic kidney disease, and congenital solitary kidney. Here, we investigate whether renal mass reduction affects primary cilia length and function. To induce renal mass reduction, mice were subjected to unilateral nephrectomy (UNx). UNx increased kidney weight and superoxide formation in the remaining kidney. Primary cilia were elongated in proximal tubule cells, collecting duct cells and parietal cells of the remaining kidney. Mn(III) Tetrakis (1-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin (MnTMPyP), an antioxidant, reduced superoxide formation in UNx-mice and prevented the elongation of primary cilia. UNx increased the expression of phosphorylated ERK, p21, and exocyst complex members Sec8 and Sec10, in the remaining kidney, and these increases were prevented by MnTMPyP. In MDCK, a kidney tubular epithelial cell line, cells, low concentrations of H2O2 treatment elongated primary cilia. This H2O2-induced elongation of primary cilia was also prevented by MnTMPyP treatment. Taken together, these data demonstrate that kidney compensation, induced by a reduction of renal mass, results in primary cilia elongation, and this elongation is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  16. The use of fish remains in sediments for the reconstruction of paleoproductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drago, T; Santos, A M P; Pinheiro, J [Institute Nacional de Recursos Biologicos (INRB), L-IPIMAR, Av. 5 de Outubro s/n 8700-305 OLHaO (Portugal); Ferreira-Bartrina, V [Centra de Investigacion CientIfica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada- CICESE, Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana, C.P.22860, Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)], E-mail: tdrago@ipimar.pt

    2009-01-01

    The majority of the works concerning fish productivity are based in fish landing records. However, in order to understand the causes of variability in fish productivity (natural and/or anthropogenic) it is essential to have information from periods when human impacts (e.g., fisheries) are considered unimportant. This can be achieved through the use of fish remains, i.e. scales, vertebrae and otoliths, from sediment records. The obtained data can be used to develop time series of fish stocks revealing the history of fish population dynamics over the last centuries or millennia. The majority of these works are located in Eastern Boundary Current Systems (e.g., Benguela, Peru-Humboldt, California), because these are associated with coastal upwelling and high productivity, which in some cases is at the origin of low bottom oxygen levels, leading to scale preservation. A search for fish remains in the Portuguese margin sediments is in progress in the context of the ongoing research project POPEI (High-resolution oceanic paleoproductivity and environmental changes; correlation with fish populations), which intend to fill the gap in studies of this type for the Canary Current System. In this paper we review some general ideas of the use of fish remains, related studies, methodologies and data processing, as well as presenting the first results of POPEI.

  17. Remaining useful life assessment of lithium-ion batteries in implantable medical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chao; Ye, Hui; Jain, Gaurav; Schmidt, Craig

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a prognostic study on lithium-ion batteries in implantable medical devices, in which a hybrid data-driven/model-based method is employed for remaining useful life assessment. The method is developed on and evaluated against data from two sets of lithium-ion prismatic cells used in implantable applications exhibiting distinct fade performance: 1) eight cells from Medtronic, PLC whose rates of capacity fade appear to be stable and gradually decrease over a 10-year test duration; and 2) eight cells from Manufacturer X whose rates appear to be greater and show sharp increase after some period over a 1.8-year test duration. The hybrid method enables online prediction of remaining useful life for predictive maintenance/control. It consists of two modules: 1) a sparse Bayesian learning module (data-driven) for inferring capacity from charge-related features; and 2) a recursive Bayesian filtering module (model-based) for updating empirical capacity fade models and predicting remaining useful life. A generic particle filter is adopted to implement recursive Bayesian filtering for the cells from the first set, whose capacity fade behavior can be represented by a single fade model; a multiple model particle filter with fixed-lag smoothing is proposed for the cells from the second data set, whose capacity fade behavior switches between multiple fade models.

  18. Evidence of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy in human skeletal remains from pre-Hispanic Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lavín, M; Mansilla, J; Pineda, C; Pijoán, C; Ochoa, P

    1994-02-01

    Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy is one of the earliest recognized disease entities in the history of medicine. It has a peculiar periosteal proliferation distinctive from other bone diseases. In its advanced stage, it leaves an indelible mark on the skeleton. It has been recently shown that digital clubbing is accompanied by a bone remodeling process of the underlying phalanges. Thus, theoretically, this entity can be recognized in ancient human skeletal remains. We studied part of the collection of skeletal remains from pre-Hispanic Mesoamerica preserved at the National Museum of Anthropology of Mexico City. We examined 1000 specimens and found 2 skeletons with widespread, bilateral, symmetric periosteal proliferation of the tubular bones in addition to the bone remodeling changes of the distal phalanges. One of the specimens was from the Formative period (2000 B.C. to 100 A.D.). We conclude that hypertrophic osteoarthropathy can be recognized in ancient human skeletal remains and that this disease was present in Mesoamerica near the time of the original description of clubbing by Hippocrates about 2500 years ago.

  19. A Re-Appraisal of the Early Andean Human Remains from Lauricocha in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzminsky, Susan; Rohland, Nadin; Santos, Fabrício R.; Kaulicke, Peter; Valverde, Guido; Richards, Stephen M.; Nordenfelt, Susanne; Seidenberg, Verena; Mallick, Swapan; Cooper, Alan; Reich, David; Haak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of human remains from the Lauricocha cave in the Central Andean highlands in the 1960’s provided the first direct evidence for human presence in the high altitude Andes. The skeletons found at this site were ascribed to the Early to Middle Holocene and represented the oldest known population of Western South America, and thus were used in several studies addressing the early population history of the continent. However, later excavations at Lauricocha led to doubts regarding the antiquity of the site. Here, we provide new dating, craniometric, and genetic evidence for this iconic site. We obtained new radiocarbon dates, generated complete mitochondrial genomes and nuclear SNP data from five individuals, and re-analyzed the human remains of Lauricocha to revise the initial morphological and craniometric analysis conducted in the 1960’s. We show that Lauricocha was indeed occupied in the Early to Middle Holocene but the temporal spread of dates we obtained from the human remains show that they do not qualify as a single contemporaneous population. However, the genetic results from five of the individuals fall within the spectrum of genetic diversity observed in pre-Columbian and modern Native Central American populations. PMID:26061688

  20. Method and apparatus to predict the remaining service life of an operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Kangas, Lars J.; Terrones, Kristine M.; Maynard, Melody A.; Pawlowski, Ronald A. , Ferryman; Thomas A.; Skorpik, James R.; Wilson, Bary W.

    2008-11-25

    A method and computer-based apparatus for monitoring the degradation of, predicting the remaining service life of, and/or planning maintenance for, an operating system are disclosed. Diagnostic information on degradation of the operating system is obtained through measurement of one or more performance characteristics by one or more sensors onboard and/or proximate the operating system. Though not required, it is preferred that the sensor data are validated to improve the accuracy and reliability of the service life predictions. The condition or degree of degradation of the operating system is presented to a user by way of one or more calculated, numeric degradation figures of merit that are trended against one or more independent variables using one or more mathematical techniques. Furthermore, more than one trendline and uncertainty interval may be generated for a given degradation figure of merit/independent variable data set. The trendline(s) and uncertainty interval(s) are subsequently compared to one or more degradation figure of merit thresholds to predict the remaining service life of the operating system. The present invention enables multiple mathematical approaches in determining which trendline(s) to use to provide the best estimate of the remaining service life.

  1. Neanderthal hand and foot remains from Moula-Guercy, Ardèche, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersey, Ben; Jabbour, Rebecca S; Brudvik, Kyle; Defleur, Alban

    2013-12-01

    The hand and foot remains from Moula-Guercy cave (Ardèche, France) comprise 24 specimens of Eemian age (ca. 120 ka). The specimens include primarily complete elements, which are rare among the Moula-Guercy postcrania. The hand remains have several characteristic Neanderthal traits including a laterally facing (parasagittally oriented) second metacarpal-capitate articulation, a short styloid process, a wide proximal articular surface on the third metacarpal, and absolutely expanded apical tuberosities on the distal hand phalanges relative to modern humans. The foot remains include several incomplete elements along with an antimeric pair of naviculars, a medial cuneiform and cuboid, and a single complete element from each of the distal segments (one each: metatarsal, proximal foot phalanx, intermediate foot phalanx, distal foot phalanx). Consistent among the specimens are relatively wide diaphyses for length in the metatarsals and phalanges and large and prominent muscle attachments, both consistent with previously published Neanderthal morphology. The hand and foot collection from Moula-Guercy is an important dataset for future studies of Neanderthal functional morphology, dexterity, and behavior as it represents a previously undersampled time period for European Neanderthals. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. New Neanderthal remains from Mani peninsula, Southern Greece: the Kalamakia Middle Paleolithic cave site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvati, Katerina; Darlas, Andreas; Bailey, Shara E; Rein, Thomas R; El Zaatari, Sireen; Fiorenza, Luca; Kullmer, Ottmar; Psathi, Eleni

    2013-06-01

    The Kalamakia cave, a Middle Paleolithic site on the western coast of the Mani peninsula, Greece, was excavated in 1993-2006 by an interdisciplinary team from the Ephoreia of Paleoanthropology and Speleology (Greek Ministry of Culture) and the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (Paris). The site is dated to between ca. 100,000 and >39,000 years BP (Before Present) and has yielded Mousterian lithics, a rich fauna, and human remains from several layers. The latter include 10 isolated teeth, a cranial fragment and three postcranial elements. The remains represent at least eight individuals, two of them subadults, and show both carnivore and anthropogenic modifications. They can be identified as Neanderthal on the basis of diagnostic morphology on most specimens. A diet similar to that of Neanderthals from mixed habitat is suggested by our analysis of dental wear (occlusal fingerprint analysis) and microwear (occlusal texture microwear analysis), in agreement with the faunal and palynological analyses of the site. These new fossils significantly expand the Neanderthal sample known from Greece. Together with the human specimens from Lakonis and Apidima, the Kalamakia human remains add to the growing evidence of a strong Neanderthal presence in the Mani region during the Late Pleistocene. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Neanderthal axial and appendicular remains from Moula-Guercy, Ardèche, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersey, Ben; Brudvik, Kyle; Black, Michael T; Defleur, Alban

    2013-12-01

    Excavations carried out during the 1990s at Moula-Guercy cave Ardèche, France, yielded 108 hominid specimens dating to 100-120 Ka. In this paper, we describe and compare the 39 axial and appendicular specimens not including hand and foot bones. Among these remains are a large adult femur, several clavicles, a likely antimeric pair of radial heads, and a nearly complete superior pubic ramus. Analyses of this material indicate a clear affinity with Neanderthals by the presence of large and robust muscle attachments, thick long bone cortices, a long pubic ramus, and a superoinferiorly flattened clavicle shaft. The recovered remains reveal the presence of a mature male, a smaller mature individual, possibly a reproductive age female, an immature individual of age 10-12, and a second immature individual of age 4. Future analyses on the Moula-Guercy remains will illuminate ties to other known Neanderthal populations and contribute to the ongoing debate over the relative rate of Neanderthal metric growth. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A review of sex estimation techniques during examination of skeletal remains in forensic anthropology casework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Kewal; Chatterjee, Preetika M; Kanchan, Tanuj; Kaur, Sandeep; Baryah, Neha; Singh, R K

    2016-04-01

    Sex estimation is considered as one of the essential parameters in forensic anthropology casework, and requires foremost consideration in the examination of skeletal remains. Forensic anthropologists frequently employ morphologic and metric methods for sex estimation of human remains. These methods are still very imperative in identification process in spite of the advent and accomplishment of molecular techniques. A constant boost in the use of imaging techniques in forensic anthropology research has facilitated to derive as well as revise the available population data. These methods however, are less reliable owing to high variance and indistinct landmark details. The present review discusses the reliability and reproducibility of various analytical approaches; morphological, metric, molecular and radiographic methods in sex estimation of skeletal remains. Numerous studies have shown a higher reliability and reproducibility of measurements taken directly on the bones and hence, such direct methods of sex estimation are considered to be more reliable than the other methods. Geometric morphometric (GM) method and Diagnose Sexuelle Probabiliste (DSP) method are emerging as valid methods and widely used techniques in forensic anthropology in terms of accuracy and reliability. Besides, the newer 3D methods are shown to exhibit specific sexual dimorphism patterns not readily revealed by traditional methods. Development of newer and better methodologies for sex estimation as well as re-evaluation of the existing ones will continue in the endeavour of forensic researchers for more accurate results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Female reproductive decline is determined by remaining ovarian reserve and age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Wilkosz

    Full Text Available The early decline and loss of female fertility in humans and other species represents an evolutionary paradox. Despite being born with a vast stock of oocytes, females encounter an exhaustion of ovarian reserve and sterility half way through their natural lives. Female reproductive ageing has been proposed to proceed as an ongoing decline in ovarian reserve, determined by remaining ovarian follicle number. However, despite extensive modelling, the respective contributions of intra-, inter-, and extra-ovarian signalling have not been fully characterised. It remains unclear whether reproductive ageing progresses simply as a pre-determined function of remaining ovarian follicles, or as an age-dependent process in humans. Here, we have analysed ovarian response to hormonal stimulation in women who have undergone surgical removal of a single ovary, in order to investigate the relative contributions of intra-, inter, and extra-ovarian signalling on reproductive ageing. Our data show that in unilaterally oophorectomised women, ovarian response to follicle stimulating hormone (FSH declines beyond levels predicted by a total ovarian follicle pool model of reproductive ageing. Maintenance of ovarian function later in reproductive life, despite the removal of half of the total ovarian reserve, suggests a role for an extra-ovarian age-dependent regulation of reproductive decline. This highlights the need for further work to identify signalling factors that communicate age-related signals between the soma and the germline.

  6. Taphonomy of child-sized remains: a study of scattering and scavenging in Virginia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Robert J; Lord, Wayne D

    2006-05-01

    Child-sized pig carcasses (Sus scrofa) were placed in surface deposit and buried scenarios in a wooded area of Virginia from May 1998 through December 2000, to examine the taphonomic effects of decompositional changes, predator scavenging, and the extent of remains scattering. Changes were observed through on-site examination, charting of remains, and recorded video imaging. Analysis of data revealed that utilization of corpses as food sources by vertebrates was dependent upon invertebrate colonization. Vertebrates avoided feeding on the corpses while invertebrate colonization was active, and would feed before invertebrates successfully colonized a corpse, or would wait until the invertebrate populations migrated away from the corpse. Among vertebrates, there was no apparent succession order for the animals utilizing the remains as a food source. Different vertebrates would feed at different times based upon diurnal or nocturnal predilection. Analysis noted an accidental cooperative relationship between the invertebrates and vertebrates scavenging on the corpses. Certain vertebrates gained access to the internal tissues by utilizing openings in the corpses caused by invertebrate and other vertebrate scavenging. Alternately, carrion-frequenting insects were afforded access to previously inaccessible colonization sites as a result of scavenging vertebrate activities.

  7. Do Maltreated Children who Remain at Home Function Better than Those who Are Placed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennen, Ferol E; Brensilver, Matthew; Trickett, Penelope K

    2010-12-01

    The majority of children in the child welfare system remain with their maltreating parents, yet little is known about their level of functioning and whether they are in need of mental health intervention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mental health functioning of an ethnically diverse sample of 302 maltreated children and 151 non maltreated children ages 9-12 to see if there were differences between those who remained at home, those placed in kin care, non-relative foster care or a comparison group of children who were not maltreated. Children were evaluated on multiple measures of mental health functioning, both self report and caregiver report. Results showed that the maltreated children did not differ by placement type but did score significantly higher than the comparison children on many measures. There were substantial numbers of maltreated children scoring in the clinical range of measures in all placement types with over 60% of those remaining with birth parents being seen as functioning at a level that indicated a need for mental health intervention. While fewer comparison children had scores indicating a need for mental health care, the numbers were higher than noted in national studies. Implications of the findings are presented.

  8. Using of microvertebrate remains in reconstruction of late quaternary (Holocene paleoclimate, Eastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Hashemi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction   Study of quaternary microvertebrate remains in eastern Iran, according to a few of the sediments is very important. Reconstruction of quaternary climate in many parts of West and North West of Iran as the biggest karst state is possible, such as cave Kani Mikaiel (Hashemi et al. 2005, 2006, 2007a;b, 2008; 2010, Jangjoo et al . 2010, Yafteh cave (Otte et al. 2007, Hashemi et al. 2015. However, such studies were very poor in eastern and north-eastern Iran (Hashemi and darvish 2006; Hashemi et al. 2008, 2015. Investigation of taxonomic identification; quantification and distribution of micromammals revealed that these remains are useful in paleontology and archaeological research, because their abundance is useful for paleobiostratigraphy and dating of continental sediments. The recent research is about reconstruction of paleoclimate in two archeological sites of Konar sandal (KS (Jiroft and Tapeh Naderi (TN (Mashhad based on the microvertebrate and especially Tatera indica species. In these sites we attempted to solve the palaeoenvironment condition by analysis of rodent remains which hold the greatest potential to monitoring of ecological parameters (Hoover et al. 1977; Getz 1961; Reig 1970; Merritt 1974. Combining of a rich network of data with using of morphological and morphometric methods; reconstruction of paleoenvironment; documentation and investigation of their relationship with the environment is the main result of this research .       Material & Methods   In both zooarchaeological samples which are composed of juveniles and young individual rodent, (KS, NISP=800 and TN, NISP=3 cranial and postcranial remains were sorted anatomically and washed with water. Dental pattern of mandible and maxillary tooth rows were drowns using a drawing tube connecting to a stereomicroscope (Olympus SZH-10. All recovered teeth fragments were measured based on the greatest dental length and width of the upper and lower jaw molars when

  9. Using of microvertebrate remains in reconstruction of late quaternary (Holocene paleoclimate, Eastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Aliabadian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction   Study of quaternary microvertebrate remains in eastern Iran, according to a few of the sediments is very important. Reconstruction of quaternary climate in many parts of West and North West of Iran as the biggest karst state is possible, such as cave Kani Mikaiel (Hashemi et al. 2005, 2006, 2007ab, 2008 2010, Jangjoo et al . 2010, Yafteh cave (Otte et al. 2007, Hashemi et al. 2015. However, such studies were very poor in eastern and north-eastern Iran (Hashemi and darvish 2006 Hashemi et al. 2008, 2015. Investigation of taxonomic identification quantification and distribution of micromammals revealed that these remains are useful in paleontology and archaeological research, because their abundance is useful for paleobiostratigraphy and dating of continental sediments. The recent research is about reconstruction of paleoclimate in two archeological sites of Konar sandal (KS (Jiroft and Tapeh Naderi (TN (Mashhad based on the microvertebrate and especially Tatera indica species. In these sites we attempted to solve the palaeoenvironment condition by analysis of rodent remains which hold the greatest potential to monitoring of ecological parameters (Hoover et al. 1977 Getz 1961 Reig 1970 Merritt 1974. Combining of a rich network of data with using of morphological and morphometric methods reconstruction of paleoenvironment documentation and investigation of their relationship with the environment is the main result of this research .       Material & Methods   In both zooarchaeological samples which are composed of juveniles and young individual rodent, (KS, NISP=800 and TN, NISP=3 cranial and postcranial remains were sorted anatomically and washed with water. Dental pattern of mandible and maxillary tooth rows were drowns using a drawing tube connecting to a stereomicroscope (Olympus SZH-10. All recovered teeth fragments were measured based on the greatest dental length and width of the upper and lower jaw molars

  10. Modelling of volunteer satisfaction and intention to remain in community service: A stepwise approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Hazlin; Wahid, Sharifah Norhuda Syed; Jais, Mohammad; Ridzuan, Arifi

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to obtain the most significant model of volunteer satisfaction and intention to remain in community service by using a stepwise approach. Currently, Malaysians, young and old are showing more interests in involving themselves in community service projects, either locally or internationally. This positive movement of serving the needy is somehow being halted by the lack of human and financial resources. Therefore, the trend today sees organizers of such projects depend heavily on voluntary supports as they enable project managers to add and to expand the quantity and diversity of services offered without exhausting the minimal budget available. Volunteers are considered a valuable commodity as the available pool of volunteers may be declining due to various reasons which include the volunteer satisfaction. In tandem with the existing situation, a selected sample of 215 diploma students from one of the public universities in Malaysia, who have been involved in at least one community service project, agreed that everybody should have a volunteering intention in helping others. The findings revealed that the most significant model obtained contains two factors that contributed towards intention to remain in community service; work assignment and organizational support, with work assignment becoming the most significant factor. Further research on the differences of intention to remain in community service between students' stream and gender would be conducted to contribute to the body of knowledge.

  11. The effect of limb amputation on standing weight distribution in the remaining three limbs in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Grayson Lee; Millis, Darryl

    2017-01-16

    Despite the fact that limb amputation is a commonly performed procedure in veterinary medicine, quantitative data regarding outcomes are lacking. The intention of this study was to evaluate the effect of limb amputation on weight distribution to the remaining three limbs at a stance in dogs. Ten dogs with a prior forelimb amputation and ten dogs with a prior hindlimb amputation; all of which had no history of orthopaedic or neural disease in the remaining three limbs were included in the study. Standing weight bearing was evaluated with a commercial stance analyzer in all dogs. Five valid trials were obtained and a mean percentage of weight bearing was calculated for each remaining limb. The dogs with a previous forelimb amputation, and also those with a previous hindlimb amputation, had the largest mean increase in weight bearing in the contralateral forelimb. In conclusion, proactive monitoring of orthopaedic disease in the contralateral forelimb may be advisable in dogs with a previous limb amputation. In addition, when determining candidacy for a limb amputation, disease of the contralateral forelimb should be thoroughly evaluated.

  12. A reassessment of the presumed Neandertal remains from San Bernardino Cave, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzi, Stefano; Peresani, Marco; Talamo, Sahra; Fu, Qiaomei; Mannino, Marcello A; Richards, Michael P; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2014-01-01

    In 1986-1987, three human remains were unearthed from macro-unit II of San Bernardino Cave (Berici Hills, Veneto, Italy), a deposit containing a late Mousterian lithic assemblage. The human remains (a distal phalanx, a lower right third molar and a lower right second deciduous incisor) do not show diagnostic morphological features that could be used to determine whether they were from Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens. Despite being of small size, and thus more similar to recent H. sapiens, the specimens were attributed to Neandertals, primarily because they were found in Mousterian layers. We carried out a taxonomic reassessment of the lower right third molar (LRM3; San Bernardino 4) using digital morphometric analysis of the root, ancient DNA analysis, carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses, and direct accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating of dentine collagen. Mitochondrial DNA analysis and root morphology show that the molar belongs to a modern human and not to a Neandertal. Carbon 14 ((14)C) dating of the molar attributes it to the end of the Middle Ages (1420-1480 cal AD, 2 sigma). Carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses suggest that the individual in question had a diet similar to that of Medieval Italians. These results show that the molar, as well as the other two human remains, belong to recent H. sapiens and were introduced in the Mousterian levels post-depositionally. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The clandestine multiple graves in Malaysia: The first mass identification operation of human skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Noor, Mohd Suhani; Khoo, Lay See; Zamaliana Alias, Wan Zafirah; Hasmi, Ahmad Hafizam; Ibrahim, Mohamad Azaini; Mahmood, Mohd Shah

    2017-09-01

    The first ever mass identification operation of skeletal remains conducted for the clandestine graves in Malaysia consisted of 165 individuals unearthed from 28 human trafficking transit camps located in Wang Kelian, along the Thai-Malaysia border. A DVI response was triggered in which expert teams comprising of pathologists, anthropologists, odontologists, radiologists and DNA experts were gathered at the identified operation centre. The Department of Forensic Medicine, Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah, Alor Star, Kedah, located approximately 75km away from Wang Kelian, was temporarily converted into a victim identification centre (VIC) as it is the nearest available forensic facility to the mass grave site. The mortuary operation was conducted over a period of 3 months from June to September 2015, and was divided into two phases; phase 1 involving the postmortem examination of the remains of 116 suspected individuals and for phase 2 the remains of 49 suspected individuals. The fact that the graves were of unknown individuals afforded the mass identification operation a sufficient duration of 2 weeks as preparatory phase enabling procedurals and daily victim identification workflow to be established, and the setting up of a temporary body storage for the designated mortuary. The temporary body storage has proven to be a significant factor in enabling the successful conclusion of the VIC operation to the final phase of temporary controlled burials. Recognition from two international observers, Mr. Andréas Patiño Umaña, from the International Committee of Red Cross (ICRC) and Prof. Noel Woodford from Victoria Institute of Forensic Medicine (VIFM) had proven the mortuary operation was in compliance to the international quality and standards. The overall victim identification and mortuary operation identified a number of significant challenges, in particular the management of commingled human remains as well as the compilation of postmortem data in the absence of

  14. Micromorphological Aspects of Forensic Geopedology: can vivianite be a marker of human remains permanence in soil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ern, Stephania Irmgard Elena; Trombino, Luca; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2010-05-01

    The number of death cases of forensic interest grows up every year. When decomposed or skeletal remains come out from the soil, the bones become of anthropological competence and the scene of crime become of soil specialists competence. The present study concerns real cases of buried/hidden remains in clandestine graves which have been studied in order to prove the permanence in soil even if the soil particles have been washed away or the body is no more buried. One hypothesis has been taken in account, related to the evidences of vivianite crystallization on the bones. The vivianite is an iron hydrate phosphate (Fe3(PO4)2·8(H2O)) that usually forms in anoxic, reducing and rich in organic matter conditions. In these conditions the iron in the soil is in reduced form (Fe2+) and associates with the phosphorous, present in the environment, as attested in archaeological contexts. Going back to the cases of buried/hidden remains, it is possible to state that the soil can be source of iron, while the bones can supply phosphorous and the decomposition process induces the anoxic/reducing conditions in the burial area. In this light, the presence of vivianite crystallizations on the bones could be a method to discriminate burial (i.e. permanence in soil) even if the remains are found in a different context than a clandestine grave. Analyses have been performed using petrographic microscope and scanning electron microscope microanalysis (SEM-EDS) on bones, and point out the presence of vivianite crystallizations on the bones. This evidence, thanks to the significance of vivianite in the archaeological context, can be regarded as a marker of the permanence of the human remains into the soil, like a ‘buried evidence' testimonial; on the contrary the absence of vivianite is not indicative of a ‘non buried status'. Further studies and new experiments are in progress in order to clarify the pathways of vivianite crystallization on different skeletal districts, in different

  15. Profiling the Mobile Customer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille Wegener; King, Nancy J.

    2010-01-01

    Mobile customers are increasingly being tracked and profiled by behavioural advertisers to enhance delivery of personalized advertising. This type of profiling relies on automated processes that mine databases containing personally-identifying or anonymous consumer data, and it raises a host...... of significant concerns about privacy and data protection. This second article in a two part series on "Profiling the Mobile Customer" explores how to best protect consumers' privacy and personal data through available mechanisms that include industry self-regulation, privacy-enhancing technologies...

  16. Circulatory adipocytokines and lipid profile variations in type-2 diabetic subjects: desirable side-effects of antidiabetic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadge, Abhijit A; Harke, Shubhangi M; Khadke, Suresh P; Diwan, Arundhati G; Pankaj, Madhu; Kulkarni, Omkar P; Ranjekar, Prabhakar K; Kuvalekar, Aniket A

    2014-01-01

    Inspite of availability of a variety of drugs to treat type 2 diabetes, little is known about their effects on other systems. Normalization of glucose metabolism by these drugs may consequently affect the secretory function in adipocytes. Secretory adipocytokines like adiponectin and leptin are emerging as novel therapeutic targets for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The present study was undertaken to analyze the effects of commonly used Oral Hypoglycemic Agents (OHAs) alone, or in combination with other drugs and/or insulin on circulatory adiponectin and leptin levels, lipid profile, and blood pressure in diabetic subjects. The study was undertaken at IRSHA and Bharati Vidyapeeth Medical College and Hospital, MS, India. Clinically diagnosed T2DM subjects and age, gender matched healthy controls were recruited. Fasting blood was collected from each subject and the blood samples were analyzed for circulatory adipocytokines and lipid parameters using commercial kits. Serum adiponectin levels were significantly increased while leptin significantly decreased in diabetic men (pblood pressure was significantly high in diabetic men but remained unchanged in women. Frequently used OHAs significantly improve circulatory levels of adipocytokines. Selecting best treatment option for each patient is a key, and 2012 European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) and ADA guidelines recommend diabetes treatment to be individualized depending on various socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. We recommend regular analysis of circulatory adipocytokines in T2DM patients to help clinicians select the best treatment option to normalize levels of these important therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2014 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Microbiological Surveillance of Peritoneal Dialysis Associated Peritonitis: Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles of a Referral Center in GERMANY over 32 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kitterer

    Full Text Available Peritonitis is one of the most important causes of treatment failure in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients. This study describes changes in characteristics of causative organisms in PD-related peritonitis and antimicrobial susceptibility.In this single center study we analyzed retrospective 487 susceptibility profiles of the peritoneal fluid cultures of 351 adult patients with peritonitis from 1979 to 2014 (divided into three time periods, P1-P3.Staphylococcus aureus decreased from P1 compared to P2 and P3 (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA occurred only in P3. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE increased in P3 over P1 and P2 (P <0.0001, respectively. In P2 and P3, vancomycin resistant enterococci were detected. The percentage of gram-negative organisms remained unchanged. Third generation cephalosporin resistant gram-negative rods (3GCR-GN were found exclusively in P3. Cefazolin-susceptible gram-positive organisms decreased over the three decades (93% in P1, 75% in P2 and 58% in P3, P<0.01, P<0.05 and P<0.0001, respectively. Vancomycin susceptibility decreased and gentamicin susceptibility in gram-negatives was 94% in P1, 82% in P2 and 90% in P3. Ceftazidim susceptibility was 84% in P2 and 93% in P3.Peritonitis caused by MSSA decreased, but peritonitis caused by MRSE increased. MRSA peritonitis is still rare. Peritonitis caused by 3GCR-GN is increasing. An initial antibiotic treatment protocol should be adopted for PD patients to provide continuous surveillance.

  18. The profile of ErbB/Her family genes copy number assessed by real-time PCR in parathyroid adenoma and hyperplasia associated with sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, Natalia; Błaut, Krzysztof; Sworczak, Krzysztof; Oseka, Tomasz; Bielawski, Krzysztof P

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is a relatively frequent endocrinopathy, however, the molecular mechanisms of its etiology remain poorly understood. This disorder is mainly associated with benign tumours (adenoma) and hyperplasia of the parathyroid, hence, the focus is directed also to genes that are likely to be involved in carcinogenesis. Among such genes are ErbB/Her family genes already used in diagnosis of other tumours (e.g., breast carcinoma) and reported also to play a role in development of endocrine lesions. So far, ErbB-1/Her-1/EGFR expression has been detected in pHPT-associated adenomas and hyperplasia as opposed to no expression in normal parathyroid tissue. Moreover, losses or gains of the fragments of chromosomes where ErbB/Her genes are located have been reported. In this study, the gene dosage of ErbB/Her family genes were determined for the first time in parathyroid adenomas, hyperplasia and morphologically unchanged tissue in order to establish their putative role in the development of the disease. Genomic DNA was isolated from 33 patients with sporadic hyperparathyroidism and the gene copy numbers were assessed using real-time PCR. The ErbB/Her genes' profile was unaltered in most of the examined samples. Two low-level amplifications of ErbB-1/Her-1/EGFR gene, two deletions of ErbB-2/Her-2, and six deletions of ErbB-4/Her-4 were found. The ErbB-3/Her-3 gene remained unaffected. No correlation with clinical parameters was found for any gene. Both the low number of alterations and a lack of their associations with clinical parameters exclude the prognostic value of the ErbB/Her genes family in parathyroid tumourigenesis. Nevertheless, the ErbB-4/Her-4 deletions seem to be interesting for further investigations, especially in the context of PTH secretion.

  19. Which Unchanged Components to Retest After a Technology Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-23

    êÅÜW=ÅêÉ~íáåÖ=ëóåÉêÖó=Ñçê=áåÑçêãÉÇ=ÅÜ~åÖÉ=======- 153 - = = Lammel, R. (2008, January). Google’s map reduce programming model—Revisited. Science of Computer Programming , 70

  20. Special Consolidated Checklists for Land Disposal Restrictions (unchanged since 1992)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This checklist consolidates LDR rules from the first rule promulgated on November 7, 1986 through June 30, 1992, including the Third Third Scheduled wastes (i.e., from Revision Checklist 34 through Revision Checklist 106, 57 FR 28628, June 26, 1992).

  1. Human heart rate variability relation is unchanged during motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, T. J.; Berger, R. D.; Oman, C. M.; Cohen, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    In a study of 18 human subjects, we applied a new technique, estimation of the transfer function between instantaneous lung volume (ILV) and instantaneous heart rate (HR), to assess autonomic activity during motion sickness. Two control recordings of ILV and electrocardiogram (ECG) were made prior to the development of motion sickness. During the first, subjects were seated motionless, and during the second they were seated rotating sinusoidally about an earth vertical axis. Subjects then wore prism goggles that reverse the left-right visual field and performed manual tasks until they developed moderate motion sickness. Finally, ILV and ECG were recorded while subjects maintained a relatively constant level of sickness by intermittent eye closure during rotation with the goggles. Based on analyses of ILV to HR transfer functions from the three conditions, we were unable to demonstrate a change in autonomic control of heart rate due to rotation alone or due to motion sickness. These findings do not support the notion that moderate motion sickness is manifested as a generalized autonomic response.

  2. Unchanging Incidence of Hip Fracture in Southeastern Norway

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Polesie, Sam; Sigurdsen, Ulf; Bjørgul, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to ascertain trends in the incidence of hip fracture in southeastern Norway by comparing the hip fracture incidence for the years 2008 to 2010 to that of a study from 1998...

  3. 'Being hit was normal': Teachers' (un)changing perceptions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teachers' perceptions of their experiences and practices of corporal punishment were explored through two dimensions of the Foucauldian concept of bio-power, namely, disciplinary power and governmentality. The findings show that although all teachers experienced corporal punishment negatively when they were ...

  4. Unchanged incidence of diabetic nephropathy in IDDM patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, P; Rossing, K; Jacobsen, P

    1995-01-01

    in the incidence of diabetic nephropathy. All 356 patients in whom IDDM was diagnosed before the age of 41 years between 1965 and 1979, identified in 1984, were followed until 1991 or until death. All patients were Caucasians and resided in Copenhagen. The cumulative incidences (life-table method) of diabetic......% (onset of diabetes 1975-1979, n = 113), respectively (NS at 15 years). The prevalence of persistent microalbuminuria (31-299 mg/24 h) at time of follow-up was 24% (95% confidence interval: 16-33) in the group with onset of diabetes in 1965-1969, 28% (20-36) with onset of diabetes in 1970-1974, and 19...

  5. Achilles tendon stiffness is unchanged one hour after a marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltonen, Jussi; Cronin, Neil J; Stenroth, Lauri; Finni, Taija; Avela, Janne

    2012-10-15

    Overuse-induced injuries have been proposed as a predisposing factor for Achilles tendon (AT) ruptures. If tendons can be overloaded, their mechanical properties should change during exercise. Because there data are lacking on the effects of a single bout of long-lasting exercise on AT mechanical properties, the present study measured AT stiffness before and after a marathon. AT stiffness was determined as the slope of the force-elongation curve between 10 and 80% of maximum voluntary force. AT force-elongation characteristics were measured in an ankle dynamometer using simultaneous motion-capture-assisted ultrasonography. Oxygen consumption and ankle kinematics were also measured on a treadmill at the marathon pace. All measurements were performed before and after the marathon. AT stiffness did not change significantly from the pre-race value of 197±62 N mm(-1) (mean ± s.d.) to the post-race value of 206±59 N mm(-1) (N=12, P=0.312). Oxygen consumption increased after the race by 7±10% (Pmarathon induced a change in their foot strike technique. The AT of the physically active individuals seems to be able to resist mechanical changes under physiological stress. We therefore suggest that natural loading, like in running, may not overstress the AT or predispose it to injury. In addition, decreased running economy, as well as altered foot strike technique, was probably attributable to muscle fatigue.

  6. Unchanging attitudes to autologous transfusion in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torella, F; Haynes, S L; Lardi, A; O'Dwyer, S T; McCollum, C N

    2001-02-01

    Our aim was to assess changes in attitudes to autologous transfusion amongst surgeons over a 10-year period in response to scientific evidence, public awareness, published guidelines, management and the increasing cost of blood products. Surgeons across the north-west of England completed questionnaires on knowledge, experience and attitude towards autologous transfusion in 1990, 1994 and 1999. Main outcome measures were changes in knowledge, experience and utilization of autologous transfusion; perceived advantages of autologous transfusion, obstacles to its implementation in surgical practice and preferences for specific techniques (preoperative autologous donation, acute normovolaemic haemodilution, intraoperative and postoperative cell salvage). There has been little change in practice over 10 years. Many more surgeons were keen to employ autologous transfusion than were using it. Autologous transfusion was only used in general, orthopaedic and cardiothoracic surgery. Safety and patient preference were the main arguments for implementation and logistics the main obstacles. Autologous transfusion was used sporadically in surgical practice. Clinical trials are needed to guide clinicians in the choice of transfusion techniques.

  7. Adipose Lipolysis Unchanged by Preexercise Carbohydrate regardless of Glycemic Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Daniel A; Willingham, Brandon D; Smith, Kyle A; Kisiolek, Jacob N; Morrissey, Margaret C; Saracino, Patrick G; Ragland, Tristan J; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2017-11-20

    To determine the impact of pre-exercise carbohydrate of different glycemic indices on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAAT) metabolism and running performance. Ten trained male runners completed three experimental trials consisting of 30 min at 60% VO2max, 30 min at 75% VO2max, and a 5-km time trial (TT). Thirty min prior to exercise, participants consumed one of three beverages: 1) 75 g low glycemic index modified starch supplement (UCAN), 2) 75 g high glycemic index glucose-based supplement (G), or 3) a flavor-matched non-caloric placebo (PL). SCAAT lipolysis was assessed via microdialysis. Prior to exercise, blood glucose and insulin were elevated with G vs. PL (+53.0 ± 21.3 mg[BULLET OPERATOR]dL [SD]; p glycemic index carbohydrate. However, these changes are not the result of alterations in SCAAT lipolysis, nor do they affect running performance.

  8. Earth's colour unchanged since 1967: results from earthshine observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thejll, Peter; Flynn, Chris; Gleisner, Hans; Schwarz, Henriette

    2014-05-01

    The colour of Earthlight is a function of atmospheric, surface and ocean conditions because each scatters light in a characteristic way. The colour of Earth can in principle be determined and monitored from satellites - but geostationary satellites do not observe in multiple visual bands, and low Earth orbit platforms do not provide instantaneous colour pictures of the terrestrial disc. Observations of the dark side of the Moon - illuminated by earthlight - can be used to determine the terrestrial colour, and was done accurately in 1967 with astronomical photometric techniques. Until now, such techniques have not been re-applied. We report on multi-band visual photometry of the earthshine in 2011/2012. Scattered light in the atmosphere and the equipment is a difficult issue to circumvent - but for a unique pair of observations in the Johnson B and V bands we have a situation where scattered light cancels closely and thus we can estimate the Johnson B-V colours of the earthshine itself. By arguing on the basis of changes in reflected sunlight we can estimate the colour of the earthlight striking the Moon - and hence the colour of the Earth at that particular time. We find good agreement with the a measurement performed 47 years previously, and broad agreement with historic measurements from the 1920s and 30s. This similarity has fundamental consequences for the climate system feedback mechanisms, discussed in this poster.

  9. Unchanged incidence of necrotising enterocolitis in a tertiary neonatal department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hein-Nielsen, Anne Lysbeck; Meinich Petersen, Sandra; Greisen, Gorm

    2015-01-01

    was to determine our local incidence of NEC from 1996 to 2009. METHODS: The data in departmental clinical database containing information about admissions in the 1996-2009 period was compared with data in the Danish Patient Registry. Inconsistencies were resolved by reviewing the clinical records. The population......INTRODUCTION: At the Department of Neonatology at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark, decades of extensive use of mother's milk and human donor milk should theoretically limit the incidence of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) among very low birth weight infants. The aim of this study...... of interest was infants inborn at Rigshospitalet with an age of 0-1 days on admission. RESULTS: A total of 8,893 infants were included in the study and 1,843 (20.7%) weighed less than 1,500 g at birth. NEC occurred in 111 of these (6.0%). The incidence ranged from 20.5% in the 500-599 g birth-weight group...

  10. Fishing Community Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To enable fisheries managers to comply with National Standard 8 (NS8), NMFS social scientists around the nation are preparing fishing community profiles that present...

  11. Wind Profiling Radar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Clutter present in radar return signals as used for wind profiling is substantially removed by carrying out a Daubechies wavelet transformation on a time series of...

  12. Prescription Drug Profiles PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Prescription Drug Profiles Public Use Files (PUFs) drawn from Medicare prescription drug claims for the year of the date on which the...

  13. Fire Management Species Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of the Fire Management Species Profile project is to identify habitat management objectives that are specific, measurable, achievable, clearly...

  14. Beach Profile Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Beaches are commonly characterized by cross-shore surveys. The resulting profiles represent the elevation of the beach surface and nearshore seabed from the back of...

  15. Prognostication of LED Remaining Useful Life and Color Stability in the Presence of Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lall, Pradeep; Zang, Hao; Davis, J Lynn

    2015-06-22

    The reliability of LED products may be affected by both luminous flux drop and color shift. Previous research on the topic focuses on either luminous maintenance or color shift. However, luminous flux degradation usually takes very long time to observe in LEDs under normal operating conditions. In this paper, the impact of a VOC (volatile organic compound) contaminated luminous flux and color stability are examined. As a result, both luminous degradation and color shift had been recorded in a short time. Test samples are white, phosphorconverted, high-power LED packages. Absolute radiant flux is measured with integrating sphere system to calculate the luminous flux. Luminous flux degradation and color shift distance were plotted versus aging time to show the degradation pattern. A prognostic health management (PHM) method based on the state variables and state estimator have been proposed in this paper. In this PHM framework, unscented kalman filter (UKF) was deployed as the carrier of all states. During the estimation process, third order dynamic transfer function was used to implement the PHM framework. Both of the luminous flux and color shift distance have been used as the state variable with the same PHM framework to exam the robustness of the method. Predicted remaining useful life is calculated at every measurement point to compare with the tested remaining useful life. The result shows that state estimator can be used as the method for the PHM of LED degradation with respect to both luminous flux and color shift distance. The prediction of remaining useful life of LED package, made by the states estimator and data driven approach, falls in the acceptable errorbounds (20%) after a short training of the estimator.

  16. Comparative microanatomical structure of gills and skin of remainers and skippers from Gunung Kidul intertidal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Rizka Apriani; Sukiya

    2017-08-01

    One type of adaptation needed in fish that live in Intertidal Zone is morphological adaptation. When the tide is low, oxygen circulation in this area is limited, causing tidepools that occurred during this time hypoxic for species that live inside. This research aimed to study the microanatomical structure of respiratory organ of two group of fish that live in intertidal zone and to investigate whether skin of these species can be used as respiratory surface to overcome hypoxic condition. Two species of fish (Bathygobiusfuscus of remainers group and Blenniellabilitonensis of skippers, respectively), were caught and sacrificed, then gills and skin of them were harvested. The organs then undergone further processing for microanatomical preparation with paraffin method and Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. Microanatomical structure of gills and skin analyzed descriptively. Gills were observed to study whether additional structure is presence and modification (in structure of epithelial cells and/or the length of secondary lamelae) is occurred as part of morphological change to absorb more oxygen during low tide. In skin, the thickness of epidermal layers were measured and the number of blood capillaries were counted to investigate whether it can also be used as additional respiratory surface. Quantitative data of skin and gills were statistically analyzed using Student's T-test. Results showed that there were no differences in gills structure between remainers and skippers. Additional structure in gills were absent in both species. However, quantitative measurements in skin showed that skippers have less layers of epidermal cells and high number of blood capillaries compared to remainers' skin. This results indicated that skippers were able to use their skin as additional respiratory surface outside gills.

  17. Role of sediment size and biostratinomy on the development of biofilms in recent avian vertebrate remains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Joseph E.; Lenczewski, Melissa E.; Clawson, Steven R.; Warnock, Jonathan P.

    2017-04-01

    Microscopic soft tissues have been identified in fossil vertebrate remains collected from various lithologies. However, the diagenetic mechanisms to preserve such tissues have remained elusive. While previous studies have described infiltration of biofilms in Haversian and Volkmann’s canals, biostratinomic alteration (e.g., trampling), and iron derived from hemoglobin as playing roles in the preservation processes, the influence of sediment texture has not previously been investigated. This study uses a Kolmogorov Smirnov Goodness-of-Fit test to explore the influence of biostratinomic variability and burial media against the infiltration of biofilms in bone samples. Controlled columns of sediment with bone samples were used to simulate burial and subsequent groundwater flow. Sediments used in this study include clay-, silt-, and sand-sized particles modeled after various fluvial facies commonly associated with fossil vertebrates. Extant limb bone samples obtained from Gallus gallus domesticus (Domestic Chicken) buried in clay-rich sediment exhibit heavy biofilm infiltration, while bones buried in sands and silts exhibit moderate levels. Crushed bones exhibit significantly lower biofilm infiltration than whole bone samples. Strong interactions between biostratinomic alteration and sediment size are also identified with respect to biofilm development. Sediments modeling crevasse splay deposits exhibit considerable variability; whole-bone crevasse splay samples exhibit higher frequencies of high-level biofilm infiltration, and crushed-bone samples in modeled crevasse splay deposits display relatively high frequencies of low-level biofilm infiltration. These results suggest that sediment size, depositional setting, and biostratinomic condition play key roles in biofilm infiltration in vertebrate remains, and may influence soft tissue preservation in fossil vertebrates.

  18. Assessment of lumen degradation and remaining useful life of LEDs using particle filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lall, Pradeep [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Zhang, Hao [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Davis, Lynn [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    2013-07-16

    With the development of light-emitting diode (LED) technology, light emitting diodes system is becoming a popular light source in daily life and industry area. It has shown that Led from same factory and work under same working condition, may have significantly different behavior. Therefore, it is very important to learn the fail mechanisms, especially in the case of safety critical and harsh environment application. This paper focus on a prognostic health management (PHM) method based on the measurement of forward voltage and forward current of bare LED under harsh environment. In this paper, experiment has been done with ten samples. Ten pristine bare LEDs have been tested at 85°C while simultaneously being subjected to 85% humid environment. Pulse width modulation (PWM) control method has been employed to drive the bare LED in order to reduce the heat effect caused by forward current and high frequency (300HZ) data acquisition has been used to measure the peak forward voltage and forward current. Test to failure (lumen drops to 70 percent) data has been measured to study the effects of high temperature and humid environment loadings on the bare LED. Also, solid state cooling method with peltier cooler has been used to control the temperature of LED in the integrating sphere when take the measurement of lumen flux. The shift of forward voltage forward current curve and lumen degradation has been recorded to help build the fail model and predicted the remaining useful life. In this method, particle filter has been employed to predict the remaining useful life (RUL) of the bare LED and give us a whole picture how Led system fails. Result shows that predication of remaining useful life of Led, made by the particle filter model works under reasonable limit, and hence this method can be employed to predict the failure of Led caused by thermal and humid stress under harsh environment.

  19. Incidental findings in the use of DNA to identify human remains: an ethical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa S; London, Alex John; Aronson, Jay D

    2013-02-01

    DNA analysis is increasingly used to identify the remains of victims of conflicts and disasters. This is especially true in cases where remains are badly damaged and fragmented, or where antemortem records are unavailable. Incidental findings (IFs)-that is, genetics-related information for which investigators were not looking-may result from these identification efforts employing DNA analysis. Because of the critical role played by family members of the missing in identification efforts, as well as the familial nature of DNA, identification initiatives employing DNA analysis are particularly prone to reveal IFs about familial relationships, such as misattributed paternity or false beliefs about sibling relationships. Despite forensic scientists' widespread awareness of the possibility of generating IFs, to date there has been relatively little explicit guidance about their management. This paper fills that gap. It offers substantive guidance about the ethical management of IFs in this context. To ensure that the analysis addresses actual needs and practices in the field, one author (JDA) conducted semi-structured interviews with key informants from six regionally diverse organizations involved in post-conflict or post-disaster identification efforts. The paper first describes how methods of DNA analysis give rise to IFs. Next, it explains the importance of developing an ethically justified general policy for managing IFs and discusses features of DNA identification efforts that are relevant to such a policy. Then it presents an argument in support of a general policy of nondisclosure-specifically, that considerations of fair access to the individual and social benefits of identification efforts, and the concern to minimize and fairly distribute the risks of participation, support a policy of nondisclosure. It concludes by considering some implications of this argument for the choice among scientific practices involved in using DNA analysis to identify human remains

  20. Skeletal remains of Dr. Eugenio Antonio Berríos Sagredo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solla, H E; Işcan, M Y

    2001-02-15

    It is often noted that even a well-designed osteological technique may not provide accurate results when applied to single forensic cases. Case studies are ideal to test if this concern is valid, and forensic anthropology is a testing ground for applying a population based standard to individual skeletal remains. Secondly, the increasing role anthropologists have played in forensic sciences has aided the medicolegal disciplines in a number of ways. For example, identification of skeletal remains is now more accurate than ever before. Many of these cases have brought perpetrators to court for justice. The purpose of this paper is to use osteological techniques to analyze skeletal remains and make a positive identification. The victim was found partially buried in the sand near El Pinar, Uruguay in 1995. The analysis indicated that the victim was a 45-year old, white, male who was about 170cm tall. Based on preliminary evidence that the victim might be Dr. Eugenio Antonio Berríos Sagredo, a digital superimposition was made using the victim's photograph and the unknown skull. This examination revealed that the skull corresponded consistently with the individual in the photograph. Results were supported by the fact that personal belongings, such as a medal and wrist watch, also pointed to the same individual. Dental records and radiographs when made available later also indicated the same identity. Dr. Berríos was accused of making nerve gas during the dictatorial regime of former Chilean President General Augusto Pinochet. It was also alleged that he made bombs that killed a Spanish diplomat in his laboratory and a Chilean diplomat in Washington, DC. Many complex techniques are often needed to make a positive identification and such was the case for this study. Because of the nature of anthropology as a holistic discipline, such complexity is an integral part of human biology and behavior and can be used successfully in the forensic sciences and medicolegal

  1. Household electricity demand profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •A 1-min resolution household electricity load model is presented. •Model adapts a bottom-up approach with single appliance as the main building block. •Load profiles are used to analyse the flexibility potential of household appliances. •Load profiles can be applied in other domains, e.......g. building energy simulations. •The demand level of houses with different number of occupants is well captured....

  2. The virtual approach to the assessment of skeletal injuries in human skeletal remains of forensic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanová, Petra; Ross, Ann H; Jurda, Mikoláš; Šplíchalová, Ivana

    2017-07-01

    While assessing skeletal injuries in human skeletal remains, forensic anthropologists are frequently presented with fractured, fragmented, or otherwise modified skeletal remains. The examination of evidence and the mechanisms of skeletal injuries often require that separate osseous elements be permanently or temporarily reassembled or reconstructed. If not dealt with properly, such reconstructions may impede accurate interpretation of the evidence. Nowadays, routine forensic examinations increasingly incorporate digital imaging technologies. As a result, a variety of PC-assisted imaging techniques, collectively referred to as the virtual approach, have been made available to treat fragmentary skeletal remains. The present study employs a 3D virtual approach to assess mechanisms of skeletal injuries, and provides an expert opinion of causative tools in three forensic cases involving human skeletal remains where integrity was compromised by multiple peri- or postmortem alterations resulting in fragmentation and/or incompleteness. Three fragmentary skulls and an incomplete set of foot bones with evidence of perimortem fractures (gunshot wounds) and sharp force trauma (saw marks) were digitized using a desktop laser scanner. The digitized skeletal elements were reassembled in the virtual workspace using functionalities incorporated in AMIRA ® version 5.0 software, and simultaneously in real physical space by traditional reconstructive approaches. For this study, the original skeletal fragments were substituted by replicas built by 3D printing. Inter-method differences were quantified by mesh-based comparison after the physically reassembled elements had been re-digitized. Observed differences were further reinforced by visualizing local variations using colormaps and other advanced 3D visualization techniques. In addition, intra-operator and inter-operator error was computed. The results demonstrate that the importance of incorporating the virtual approach into the

  3. Can we be (and stay) friends? Remaining friends after dissolution of a romantic relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Melinda; Hackathorn, Jana; Clark, Eddie M; Mattingly, Brent A

    2011-01-01

    Although many individuals report being friends with their ex-romantic partners (Wilmot, Carbaugh, & Baxter, 1985), the literature regarding post-romantic friendships is very limited. We investigated whether satisfaction in the dissolved romantic relationship could predict post-romantic friendships and friendship maintenance. We found that the more satisfied individuals were during the dissolved romance, the more likely they were to remain friends and the more likely they were to engage in friendship maintenance behaviors. We also found that friendship maintenance fully mediated the association between past romantic satisfaction and current friendship satisfaction.

  4. TANYSTROPHEUS (ARCHOSAUROMORPHA, PROLACERTIFORMES REMAINS FROM THE TRIASSIC OF THE NORTHERN FRIULI (NE ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABIO MARCO DALLA VECCHIA

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The first diagnostic remains of the large prolacertiform Tanystropheus are reported from northeastern Italy. They include a proximal caudal vertebra from the Middle Triassic of Aupa valley (Udine, Friuli and a cervical vertebra from the Carnian of Fusea (Udine. The cervical vertebra represents the first record of Tanystropheus in the Carnian and is the geologically youngest occurrence other than the Norian T. fossai. Tanystropheus lived along the coasts of the northwestern Tethys during the Late Triassic while it disappeared in Central Europe where continental environments were prevailing. 

  5. The 2009 Analysis of Information Remaining on Disks Offered for Sale on the Second Hand Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Jones

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The ever increasing use and reliance upon computers in both the public and private sector has led to enormous numbers of computers being disposed of at the end of their useful life within an organisation. As the cost of computers has dropped, their use in the home has also continued to increase. In most organisations, computers have a relatively short life and are replaced on a regular basis with the result that, if not properly cleansed of data, they are released into the public domain containing data that can be relatively up to date. This problem is exacerbated by the increasing popularity and use of smart phones, which also contain significant storage capacity. From the results of the research it remains clear that the majority of organisations and private individuals that are using these computers still remain ignorant or misinformed of the potential volume and type of information that is stored on the hard disks contained within these systems. The evidence of the research is that neither organisations nor individuals have considered, or are aware of, the potential impact of the information that is contained in the disks from these systems becoming available to an unintended third party.This is the fifth study in an ongoing research programme being conducted into the levels and types of information that remain on computer hard disks that have been offered for sale on the second hand market. This ongoing research series has been undertaken to gain an understanding of the level and types of information that remains on these disks, to determine the damage that could potentially be caused if the information was misused, and to determine whether there are any developing trends. The disks used have been purchased in a number of countries.The rationale for this was to determine whether there are any national or regional differences in the way that computer disks are disposed of and to compare the results for any regional or temporal trends. The

  6. Imaging of Scarce Archaeological Remains Using Microwave Tomographic Depictions of Ground Penetrating Radar Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Soldovieri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Romano-British site of Barcombe in East Sussex, England, has suffered heavy postdepositional attrition through reuse of the building materials for the effects of ploughing. A detailed GPR survey of the site was carried out in 2001, with results, achieved by usual radar data processing, published in 2002. The current paper reexamines the GPR data using microwave tomography approach, based on a linear inverse scattering model, and a 3D visualization that permits to improve the definition of the villa plan and reexamine the possibility of detecting earlier prehistoric remains.

  7. Skeletal Remains from Punic Carthage Do Not Support Systematic Sacrifice of Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jeffrey H.; Houghton, Frank; Macchiarelli, Roberto; Bondioli, Luca

    2010-01-01

    Two types of cemeteries occur at Punic Carthage and other Carthaginian settlements: one centrally situated housing the remains of older children through adults, and another at the periphery of the settlement (the “Tophet”) yielding small urns containing the cremated skeletal remains of very young animals and humans, sometimes comingled. Although the absence of the youngest humans at the primary cemeteries is unusual and worthy of discussion, debate has focused on the significance of Tophets, especially at Carthage, as burial grounds for the young. One interpretation, based on two supposed eye-witness reports of large-scale Carthaginian infant sacrifice [Kleitarchos (3rd c. BCE) and Diodorus Siculus (1st c. BCE)], a particular translation of inscriptions on some burial monuments, and the argument that if the animals had been sacrificed so too were the humans, is that Tophets represent burial grounds reserved for sacrificial victims. An alternative hypothesis acknowledges that while the Carthaginians may have occasionally sacrificed humans, as did their contemporaries, the extreme youth of Tophet individuals suggests these cemeteries were not only for the sacrificed, but also for the very young, however they died. Here we present the first rigorous analysis of the largest sample of cremated human skeletal remains (348 burial urns, N = 540 individuals) from the Carthaginian Tophet based on tooth formation, enamel histology, cranial and postcranial metrics, and the potential effects of heat-induced bone shrinkage. Most of the sample fell within the period prenatal to 5-to-6 postnatal months, with a significant presence of prenates. Rather than indicating sacrifice as the agent of death, this age distribution is consistent with modern-day data on perinatal mortality, which at Carthage would also have been exacerbated by numerous diseases common in other major cities, such as Rome and Pompeii. Our diverse approaches to analyzing the cremated human remains from

  8. Characterization of cultural remains associated to a human skeleton found at the site HMS Swift (1770)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, M. S.; Gómez, B. A.; Parera, S. D.; Elkin, D.; De Rosa, H.; Ciarlo, N. C.; Svoboda, H.

    2010-08-01

    Different types of materials found in association with a human skeleton found in an 18th century shipwreck in Patagonia (Argentina) were analyzed by means of OM, SEM-EDX, HPLC, and chemical analysis. Alizarin and purpurin, the main anthraquinones of the dye plant Rubia tinctorum L. (madder) were identified as the coloring matter of a red fabric attached to the skeleton. Metallographic and chemical analysis of one of the dome-shaped buttons associated to the human bones revealed that it was composed of a Pb-Sn-Cu alloy known as pewter. The results obtained support the hypothesis that the remains originally were part of a private marine uniform.

  9. Assessment of the Remaining Life of Bituminous Layers in Road Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kálmán Adorjányi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a mechanistic-empirical approach is presented for the assessment of bearing capacity condition of asphalt pavement layers by Falling Weight Deflectometer measurements and laboratory fatigue tests. The bearing capacity condition ratio was determined using past traffic data and the remaining fatigue life which was determined from multilayer pavement response model. The traffic growth rate was taken into account with finite arithmetic and geometric progressions. Fatigue resistance of layers’ bituminous materials was obtained with indirect tensile fatigue tests. Deduct curve of condition scores was derived with Weibull distribution.

  10. REMAINING LIFE PREDICTION BY THE ISO-STRESS METHOD OF BOILER TUBES AFTER PROLONGED SERVICE

    OpenAIRE

    Osamu, KANEMARU; Masaru, SHIMIZU; Toshio, OHBA; Hideko, MIYAZAKI; Fujio, ABE; Koichi, YAGI; Environmental Performance Division, National Research Institute for Metals

    1997-01-01

    The prediction of remaining creep life by the Iso-stress method was investigated for 153500 h service-exposed boiler stubes of 1.25Cr-0.5Mo-Si, 2.25Cr-1Mo and 9Cr-1Mo steels. At first, the internal pressure creep rupture strength of the service-exposed tube specimens of the steels was shown to be the same as the tensile creep rupture strength of the sheet specimens taken from the tubes. Then the temperature-accelerated creep rupture tests under iso-stress were carried out by the tensile creep...

  11. How do we Remain Us in a Time of Change: Culture and Knowledge Management at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph representation presents an overview of findings of a NASA agency-wide Knowledge Management Team considering culture and knowledge management issues at the agency. Specific issues identified by the team include: (1) NASA must move from being a knowledge hoarding culture to a knowledge sharing culture; (2) NASA must move from being center focused to being Agency focused; (3) NASA must capture the knowledge of a departing workforce. Topics considered include: what must NASA know to remain NASA, what were previous forms of knowledge reproduction and how has technological innovations changed these systems, and what changes in funding and relationships between contractors and NASA affected knowledge reproduction.

  12. Samantha Matthews. Poetical Remains – Poets’ Graves, Bodies, and Books in the Nineteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc PORÉE

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available What is left of poets after they have passed away? Graves and books, answers Samantha Matthews in Poetical Remains, a study which capitalizes on body-oriented essays, while threatening to drive the trend into the ground, since it offers the ultimate take on poets—viewing them as terminal cases, but assessing their books as open-ended. The work purports to examine what it views as the particular affinity between poets' physical and literary “remains” in the Romantic to late Victorian period. B...

  13. Identification of medieval human soft tissue remains in an advanced state of decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grupe, G; Schmid, E M; Soika, J

    1997-05-01

    Naturally preserved human soft tissue remains from mediaeval burials (11-13th century A. D.) were investigated histologically after azocarmine/aniline alcohol (AZAN) or keratinprekeratin-mucin (KPM) staining. The tissue remnants were in an advanced state of decomposition; they were completely collapsed and had lost their macroscopic characteristics. After rehydration, thin sectioning, and staining, microscopic properties permitted tissue identification, although differential staining of tissue components did not necessarily correspond with the expected results based on fresh tissue. The techniques and results presented in this paper are relevant for both anthropological and forensic purposes.

  14. Neoadjuvant treatment intensification or adjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced carcinoma rectum: The optimum treatment approach remains unresolved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Supriya; Benson, Rony; Haresh, K P; Rath, G K

    2015-12-01

    Rectal carcinoma [RC] is often managed with preoperative radiotherapy or radio-chemotherapy followed by total mesorectal excision (TME). Efforts are being made to improve outcome by intensifying the preoperative treatment. However, the optimum therapy remains unclear. There is ongoing controversy regarding the optimum radiation dose, chemotherapy regimen and schedule. In addition there exists growing disagreement regarding the role of adjuvant chemotherapy after neoadjuvant radiation or chemoradiation. We reviewed the recent land mark trials to find a road map in the management of locally advanced rectal carcinoma. Preoperative short course radiotherapy has long been proven to improve local disease control. The initial trials with long course chemoradiotherapy, comparing short course radiotherapy have shown to increase local control and pathological complete response rates. Since then treatment intensification of this neoadjuvant schedule has been tried by many researchers. But initial results of these treatment intensification trials, show no significant benefit and are associated with increased toxicity. There is an unmet need to stratify patients depending on risk to assign them to long course chemoradiotherapy or short course radiotherapy. Current evidence does not support the use of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients who were treated with preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy. Preoperative radiotherapy appears to improve disease control with favorable toxicity profile and there is very little to choose between long course chemoradiotherapy and short course radiotherapy. However, long course chemoradiotherapy may be beneficial for patients with high risk features like positive circumferential resection margin [CRM] and extramural spread of >5mm. There is no role for adjuvant chemotherapy in patients who were treated preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Massachusetts' health care reform increased access to care for Hispanics, but disparities remain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, James; Cortés, Dharma E; Schneider, Karen L; Graves, Anna; Rosman, Brian

    2011-08-01

    Hispanics are more likely than any other racial or ethnic group in the United States to lack health insurance. This paper draws on quantitative and qualitative research to evaluate the extent to which health reforms in Massachusetts, a model for the Affordable Care Act of 2010, have reduced disparities in insurance coverage and access to health care. We found that rates of coverage and the likelihood of having a usual provider increased dramatically for Massachusetts Hispanics after the state's reforms, but disparities remained. The increase in insurance coverage among Hispanics was more than double that experienced by non-Hispanic whites. Even so, in 2009, 78.9 percent of Hispanics had coverage, versus 96 percent of non-Hispanic whites. Language and other cultural factors remained significant barriers: Only 66.6 percent of Hispanics with limited proficiency in English were insured. One-third of Spanish-speaking Hispanics still did not have a personal provider in 2009, and 26.8 percent reported not seeing a doctor because of cost, up from 18.9 percent in 2005. We suggest ways to reduce such disparities through national health care reform, including simplified enrollment and reenrollment processes and assistance in finding a provider and navigating an unfamiliar care system.

  16. THE LATE EARLY PLEISTOCENE HUMAN REMAINS FROM BUIA, DANAKIL DEPRESSION, ERITREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERTO MACCHIARELLI

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Early Pleistocene sedimentary succession of the Dandiero (Buia Basin (Danakil Depression, Eritrea has preserved a rich paleontological, paleoanthropological, and archeological record. Fieldwork undertaken between 1995 and 2003 on a site at Uadi Aalad (Abbate et al. 1998 led to the discovery of one-million-year-old human remains. They consist of a cranium in excellent preservation condition (UA-31, two permanent teeth (UA-222 and UA-369, and three pelvic portions (UA-173, UA-405 and UA-466, the latter recovered on 2003. The cranium and the postcranial remains represent a single adult individual, likely of female sex. The cranium evidences a blend of "erectus-like" and progressive morpho-architectural features, the latter more commonly found in the Middle Pleistocene. Preparation and restoration of the specimens (notably, of the virtually complete UA-31 face were only completed on September 2003. The revision, refinement, and integration of our previous analytical and interpretative work (cf. Abbate et al. 1998; Macchiarelli et al. 2002 is in progress within the context of the paleoanthropological reord currently available for the African Early to Middle Pleistocene.

  17. The efficacy of high-throughput sequencing and target enrichment on charred archaeobotanical remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nistelberger, H M; Smith, O; Wales, N; Star, B; Boessenkool, S

    2016-11-24

    The majority of archaeological plant material is preserved in a charred state. Obtaining reliable ancient DNA data from these remains has presented challenges due to high rates of nucleotide damage, short DNA fragment lengths, low endogenous DNA content and the potential for modern contamination. It has been suggested that high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies coupled with DNA enrichment techniques may overcome some of these limitations. Here we report the findings of HTS and target enrichment on four important archaeological crops (barley, grape, maize and rice) performed in three different laboratories, presenting the largest HTS assessment of charred archaeobotanical specimens to date. Rigorous analysis of our data - excluding false-positives due to background contamination or incorrect index assignments - indicated a lack of endogenous DNA in nearly all samples, except for one lightly-charred maize cob. Even with target enrichment, this sample failed to yield adequate data required to address fundamental questions in archaeology and biology. We further reanalysed part of an existing dataset on charred plant material, and found all purported endogenous DNA sequences were likely to be spurious. We suggest these technologies are not suitable for use with charred archaeobotanicals and urge great caution when interpreting data obtained by HTS of these remains.

  18. Estimation of the most likely number of individuals from commingled human skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bradley J; Konigsberg, Lyle W

    2004-10-01

    This study examines quantification techniques applicable to human skeletal remains, and in particular the Lincoln index (LI), the minimum number of individuals (MNI), and what we refer to as the most likely number of individuals (MLNI), which is a modification of the LI by Chapman ([1951] Univ. Calif. Publ. Stat. 1:131-159). As part of the study, a test of pair-matching between commingled homologous elements, e.g., right and left femora, was performed based on gross morphology. The results show that pair-matching can be accurately performed, and that the MLNI is a useful technique for dealing with well-preserved commingled remains recovered from archaeological excavations and/or forensic investigations. Our results show that it is potentially misleading to draw population conclusions based on the MNI, except in instances where recovery is near 100%. The MLNI was found to be the best method to compensate for the potential underestimates of the MNI and potential bias in the original LI estimates resulting from small sample sizes. We demonstrate the use of MLNI in estimating the number of individuals from Lodge 21 at the Larson site, a late protohistoric structure at which the inhabitants were massacred and subsequently had their skeletal elements commingled by further taphonomic processes. We also show how to calculate estimates and standard errors for the recovery probabilities of skeletal elements.

  19. Remaining Useful Life Prediction of Rolling Bearings Using PSR, JADE, and Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongbin Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rolling bearings play a pivotal role in rotating machinery. The degradation assessment and remaining useful life (RUL prediction of bearings are critical to condition-based maintenance. However, sensitive feature extraction still remains a formidable challenge. In this paper, a novel feature extraction method is introduced to obtain the sensitive features through phase space reconstitution (PSR and joint with approximate diagonalization of Eigen-matrices (JADE. Firstly, the original features are extracted from bearing vibration signals in time and frequency domain. Secondly, the PSR is applied to embed the original features into high dimensional phase space. The between-class and within-class scatter (SS are calculated to evaluate the feature sensitivity through the phase point distribution of different degradation stages and then different weights are assigned to the corresponding features based on the calculated SS. Thirdly, the JADE is employed to fuse the weighted features to obtain the advanced features which can better reflect the bearing degradation process. Finally, the advanced features are input into the extreme learning machine (ELM to train the RUL prediction model. A set of experimental case studies are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show that the extracted advanced features can better reflect the degradation process compared to traditional features and could effectively predict the RUL of bearing.

  20. Post-traumatic cilia remaining inert in the anterior chamber for 50 years: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalniz-Akkaya Zuleyha

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The present report concerns what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of post-traumatic cilia that has remained inert for approximately 50 years after its inoculation into the eye. Case presentation A 69-year-old Caucasian woman whose right eye had been struck by a dining fork approximately 50 years earlier was examined on presentation two years ago. In her right eye, both uncorrected and best-corrected visual acuities were 0.1 (in decimal notation. Along with a nuclear cataract, a straight linear extension was found extending beneath the iris at the nine o'clock position reaching the center of the pupil, which appeared to be a cilium measuring 7 mm. After the removal of the cilia, an uncomplicated phacoemulsification was performed and a posterior chamber intra-ocular lens was implanted. Her post-operative course was uneventful, and visual acuity remained 1.0 for the 22-month follow-up period. Conclusions Intra-ocular cilia can be tolerated for as long as 50 years without causing any ocular reaction.

  1. Damage of the Remaining Stands Caused by Various Types of Logging Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Allman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest harvesting causes a lot of damage, which results in damage of the remaining stand. These damages have different character. Their origin, range, and type is affected by the type of machinery, harvesting technology and the machine operator. This paper was focused on the negative impact of three types of forest harvesting technologies to the remaining stand. We considered wheeled skidder technology, and CTL technology with wheeled and tracked chassis. The harvest in stands varied between 21 and 52%, with an average concentration of felling 13.7–95.4 m3 per one skid trail. We observed that the damage rate in stands processed by CTL technology was between 7.3 and 8.03%. Skidder technologies caused damage between 17.8% and 44.6%. The average size of wound caused by CTL technologies was between 167 and 322 cm2. Skidder caused damages with area between 395 and 506 cm2. We also observed differences between damages caused by various types of chassis. CTL technology with tracked chassis caused more damages of timber and tree root system. We used multivariate regression and correlation analyses to evaluate the effect of stand density and intensity of harvest on the intensity of damage. The analyses did not confirm significant impact of these two characteristics on intensity of damage, with coefficients of correlation of 0.22 (stand density and 0.53 (intensity of harvest.

  2. Fish Remains from Excavations near the Riverfront at Newcastle upon Tyne, England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Nicholson

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The City of Newcastle, situated some 10 miles inland on the River Tyne in north-east England, is not now an important fishing port. Most of the fresh fish marketed in the city has been landed at the nearby coastal ports of North and South Shields. Excavations at two sites behind the present Quayside in Newcastle, however, have yielded quantities of fish bones, representing a wide variety of species. This is in contrast to excavations in other parts of the city, where few fish remains have been recovered, and suggests that the quayside in Newcastle was an important centre for the fishing industry during the medieval period. It seems likely that most of the fish remains represent waste from landing and processing fish on or near the quayside. Yet, when taphonomic factors are taken into account, the limitations of using even large bone assemblages to interpret processing activities is demonstrated. As always, the need for a programme of on-site sieving to obtain representative samples of fish bone is evident.

  3. The Exposure of the Roma and the Remaining Istrian Population to Victimization by Criminal Acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Radetić-Paić

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether the Roma (N = 200 as a minority group in Istria were more exposed to criminal acts (more victimised than the remaining Istrian population (N = 200 in the observed period. It was assumed that the Roma were more exposed to criminal acts than the remaining Istrian population because of the fact that they were members of a minority group with a specific lifestyle and culture in Istria, who are significantly exposed to prejudices, resistance, marginalization and isolation. In data processing, the χ2 test and the discriminatory analysis were used, along with the calculation of marginal frequencies on all observed variables. The contribution of this paper is that it illuminates the larger problem of the Roma as a specific minority group’s exposure to certain criminal acts compared to the rest of the population. It is therefore necessary to devote more attention to Roma issues, and to encourage those in power systematically to solve the same at the international, national and local level in particular, and also to find the mechanisms for protection of human rights and suppression of discrimination and segregation of any kind.

  4. Molecular Paleoparasitological Hybridization Approach as Effective Tool for Diagnosing Human Intestinal Parasites from Scarce Archaeological Remains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Lauren Hubert; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo

    2014-01-01

    Paleoparasitology is the science that uses parasitological techniques for diagnosing parasitic diseases in the past. Advances in molecular biology brought new insights into this field allowing the study of archaeological material. However, due to technical limitations a proper diagnosis and confirmation of the presence of parasites is not always possible, especially in scarce and degraded archaeological remains. In this study, we developed a Molecular Paleoparasitological Hybridization (MPH) approach using ancient DNA (aDNA) hybridization to confirm and complement paleoparasitological diagnosis. Eight molecular targets from four helminth parasites were included: Ascaris sp., Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, and Strongyloides stercoralis. The MPH analysis using 18th century human remains from Praça XV cemetery (CPXV), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, revealed for the first time the presence E. vermicularis aDNA (50%) in archaeological sites of Brazil. Besides, the results confirmed T. trichiura and Ascaris sp. infections. The prevalence of infection by Ascaris sp. and E. vermicularis increased considerably when MPH was applied. However, a lower aDNA detection of T. trichiura (40%) was observed when compared to the diagnosis by paleoparasitological analysis (70%). Therefore, based on these data, we suggest a combination of Paleoparasitological and MPH approaches to verify the real panorama of intestinal parasite infection in human archeological samples. PMID:25162694

  5. Analysis of Dextromethorphan and Dextrorphan in Skeletal Remains Following Decomposition in Different Microclimate Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, K A; Watterson, J H

    2016-10-01

    The effects of decomposition microclimate on the distribution of dextromethorphan (DXM) and dextrorphan (DXT) in skeletonized remains of rats acutely exposed to DXM were examined. Animals (n = 10) received DXM (75 mg/kg, i.p.), were euthanized 30 min post-dose and immediately allowed to decompose at either Site A (shaded forest microenvironment on a grass-covered soil substrate) or Site B (rocky substrate exposed to direct sunlight, 600 m from Site A). Ambient temperature and relative humidity were automatically recorded 3 cm above rats at each site. Skeletal elements (vertebral columns, ribs, pelvic girdles, femora, tibiae, humeri and scapulae) were harvested, and analyzed using microwave assisted extraction, microplate solid phase extraction, and GC/MS. Drug levels, expressed as mass-normalized response ratios, and the ratios of DXT and DXM levels were compared across bones and between microclimate sites. No significant differences in DXT levels or metabolite/parent ratios were observed between sites or across bones. Only femoral DXM levels differed significantly between microclimate sites. For pooled data, microclimate was not observed to significantly affect analyte levels, nor the ratio of levels of DXT and DXM. These data suggest that microclimate conditions do not influence DXM and metabolite distribution in skeletal remains. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. How do older employees with health problems remain productive at work?: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijten, Fenna; van den Heuvel, Swenneke; Geuskens, Goedele; Ybema, Jan Fekke; de Wind, Astrid; Burdorf, Alex; Robroek, Suzan

    2013-03-01

    The goal of this qualitative study was to gain insight into how older employees remain productive at work in spite of health problems. Twenty-six semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with older employees, 46-63 years of age, who reported a poor health in the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability, and Motivation. Demographic, health, and work information was gathered, followed by information on adjustments made in response to health problems. Inductive and deductive analyses were done independently by two researchers. Four pathways through which poor health could influence productivity were identified: (1) poor health did not influence productivity; (2) poor health created a temporary imbalance in demands and external and internal resources after which adjustments were made and productivity was maintained; (3) adjustments were made in response to an imbalance, but productivity remained reduced; and (4) no adjustments were made and productivity was reduced. Whether and which adjustments occurred was influenced by factors in various domains, such as: visibility of the problem (health), autonomy (work-related), support (relational), and the ability to ask for help (personal). Sustainable productivity was influenced by internal factors that enhanced or hindered the creation of a balance, and by whether appropriate adjustments were made. The influence that health can have on productivity depends on the individuals' unique imbalance and personal disposition. Helpful a priori work place characteristics and personal well-being should be promoted so that a balance between demands and resources can be found in times of poor health.

  7. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty leads to significant biomechanical changes in the remaining rotator cuff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perka Carsten

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective After reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA external and internal rotation will often remain restricted. A postoperative alteration of the biomechanics in the remaining cuff is discussed as a contributing factor to these functional deficits. Methods In this study, muscle moment arms as well as origin-to-insertion distance (OID were calculated using three-dimensional models of the shoulder derived from CT scans of seven cadaveric specimens. Results Moment arms for humeral rotation are significantly smaller for the cranial segments of SSC and all segments of TMIN in abduction angles of 30 degrees and above (p ≤ 0.05. Abduction moment arms were significantly decreased for all segments (p ≤ 0.002. OID was significantly smaller for all muscles at the 15 degree position (p ≤ 0.005, apart from the cranial SSC segment. Conclusions Reduced rotational moment arms in conjunction with the decrease of OID may be a possible explanation for the clinically observed impaired external and internal rotation.

  8. Will video caching remain energy efficient in future core optical networks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemah Izzeldin Osman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Optical networks are expected to cater for the future Internet due to the high speed and capacity that they offer. Caching in the core network has proven to reduce power usage for various video services in current optical networks. This paper investigates whether video caching will still remain power efficient in future optical networks. The study compares the power consumption of caching in a current IP over WDM core network to a future network. The study considers a number of features to exemplify future networks. Future optical networks are considered where: (1 network devices consume less power, (2 network devices have sleep-mode capabilities, (3 IP over WDM implements lightpath bypass, and (4 the demand for video content significantly increases and high definition video dominates. Results show that video caching in future optical networks saves up to 42% of power consumption even when the power consumption of transport reduces. These results suggest that video caching is expected to remain a green option in video services in the future Internet.

  9. Used Fuel Cask Identification through Neutron Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, Eric Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-20

    Currently, most spent fuel is stored near reactors. An interim consolidated fuel storage facility would receive fuel from multiple sites and store it in casks on site for decades. For successful operation of such a facility there is need for a way to restore continuity of knowledge if lost as well as a method that will indicate state of fuel inside the cask. Used nuclear fuel is identifiable by its radiation emission, both gamma and neutron. Neutron emission from fission products, multiplication from remaining fissile material, and the unique distribution of both in each cask produce a unique neutron signature. If two signatures taken at different times do not match, either changes within the fuel content or misidentification of a cask occurred. It was found that identification of cask loadings works well through the profile of emitted neutrons in simulated real casks. Even casks with similar overall neutron emission or average counts around the circumference can be distinguished from each other by analyzing the profile. In conclusion, (1) identification of unaltered casks through neutron signature profile is viable; (2) collecting the profile provides insight to the condition and intactness of the fuel stored inside the cask; and (3) the signature profile is stable over time.

  10. Enhanced microbial coalbed methane generation: A review of research, commercial activity, and remaining challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Daniel J.; Vinson, David S.; Barnhart, Elliott P.; Akob, Denise M.; Fields, Matthew W.; Cunningham, Al B.; Orem, William H.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.

    2015-01-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) makes up a significant portion of the world’s natural gas resources. The discovery that approximately 20% of natural gas is microbial in origin has led to interest in microbially enhanced CBM (MECoM), which involves stimulating microorganisms to produce additional CBM from existing production wells. This paper reviews current laboratory and field research on understanding processes and reservoir conditions which are essential for microbial CBM generation, the progress of efforts to stimulate microbial methane generation in coal beds, and key remaining knowledge gaps. Research has been primarily focused on identifying microbial communities present in areas of CBM generation and attempting to determine their function, in-situ reservoir conditions that are most favorable for microbial CBM generation, and geochemical indicators of metabolic pathways of methanogenesis (i.e., acetoclastic or hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis). Meanwhile, researchers at universities, government agencies, and companies have focused on four primary MECoM strategies: 1) microbial stimulation (i.e., addition of nutrients to stimulate native microbes); 2) microbial augmentation (i.e., addition of microbes not native to or abundant in the reservoir of interest); 3) physically increasing microbial access to coal and distribution of amendments; and 4) chemically increasing the bioavailability of coal organics. Most companies interested in MECoM have pursued microbial stimulation: Luca Technologies, Inc., successfully completed a pilot scale field test of their stimulation strategy, while two others, Ciris Energy and Next Fuel, Inc., have undertaken smaller scale field tests. Several key knowledge gaps remain that need to be addressed before MECoM strategies can be implemented commercially. Little is known about the bacterial community responsible for coal biodegradation and how these microorganisms may be stimulated to enhance microbial methanogenesis. In addition, research

  11. Post-mortem computed tomography and 3D imaging: anthropological applications for juvenile remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brough, Alison L; Rutty, Guy N; Black, Sue; Morgan, Bruno

    2012-09-01

    Anthropological examination of defleshed bones is routinely used in medico-legal investigations to establish an individual's biological profile. However, when dealing with the recently deceased, the removal of soft tissue from bone can be an extremely time consuming procedure that requires the presence of a trained anthropologist. In addition, due to its invasive nature, in some disaster victim identification scenarios the maceration of bones is discouraged by religious practices and beliefs, or even prohibited by national laws and regulations. Currently, three different radiological techniques may be used in the investigative process; plain X-ray, dental X-ray and fluoroscopy. However, recent advances in multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) mean that it is now possible to acquire morphological skeletal information from high resolution images, reducing the necessity for invasive procedures. This review paper considers the possible applications of a virtual anthropological examination by reviewing the main juvenile age determination methods used by anthropologists at present and their possible adaption to MDCT.

  12. Remaining Useful Life Prediction of Gas Turbine Engine using Autoregressive Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Shazaib

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas turbine (GT engines are known for their high availability and reliability and are extensively used for power generation, marine and aero-applications. Maintenance of such complex machines should be done proactively to reduce cost and sustain high availability of the GT. The aim of this paper is to explore the use of autoregressive (AR models to predict remaining useful life (RUL of a GT engine. The Turbofan Engine data from NASA benchmark data repository is used as case study. The parametric investigation is performed to check on any effect of changing model parameter on modelling accuracy. Results shows that a single sensory data cannot accurately predict RUL of GT and further research need to be carried out by incorporating multi-sensory data. Furthermore, the predictions made using AR model seems to give highly pessimistic values for RUL of GT.

  13. Lithium-ion Battery Degradation Assessment and Remaining Useful Life Estimation in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Laayouj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract—Prognostic activity deals with prediction of the remaining useful life (RUL of physical systems based on their actual health state and their usage conditions. RUL estimation gives operators a potent tool in decision making by quantifying how much time is left until functionality is lost. In addition, it can be used to improve the characterization of the material proprieties that govern damage propagation for the structure being monitored. RUL can be estimated by using three main approaches, namely model-based, data-driven and hybrid approaches. The prognostics methods used later in this paper are hybrid and data-driven approaches, which employ the Particle Filter in the first one and the autoregressive integrated moving average in the second. The performance of the suggested approaches is evaluated in a comparative study on data collected from lithium-ion battery of hybrid electric vehicle.

  14. Stature and body mass estimation from skeletal remains in the European Holocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Christopher B; Holt, Brigitte M; Niskanen, Markku; Sladék, Vladimir; Berner, Margit; Garofalo, Evan; Garvin, Heather M; Hora, Martin; Maijanen, Heli; Niinimäki, Sirpa; Salo, Kati; Schuplerová, Eliŝka; Tompkins, Dannielle

    2012-08-01

    Techniques that are currently available for estimating stature and body mass from European skeletal remains are all subject to various limitations. Here, we develop new prediction equations based on large skeletal samples representing much of the continent and temporal periods ranging from the Mesolithic to the 20th century. Anatomical reconstruction of stature is carried out for 501 individuals, and body mass is calculated from estimated stature and biiliac breadth in 1,145 individuals. These data are used to derive stature estimation formulae based on long bone lengths and body mass estimation formulae based on femoral head breadth. Prediction accuracy is superior to that of previously available methods. No systematic geographic or temporal variation in prediction errors is apparent, except in tibial estimation of stature, where northern and southern European formulae are necessary because of the presence of relatively longer tibiae in southern samples. Thus, these equations should bebroadly applicable to European Holocene skeletal samples. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Intelligent Prognostic Framework for Degradation Assessment and Remaining Useful Life Estimation of Photovoltaic Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Laayouj

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available All industrial systems and machines are subjected to degradation processes, which can be related to the operating conditions. This degradation can cause unwanted stops at any time and major maintenance work sometimes. The accurate prediction of the remaining useful life (RUL is an important challenge in condition-based maintenance. Prognostic activity allows estimating the RUL before failure occurs and triggering actions to mitigate faults in time when needed. In this study, a new smart prognostic method for photovoltaic module health degradation was developed based on two approaches to achieve more accurate predictions: online diagnosis and data-driven prognosis. This framework of forecasting integrates the strengths of real-time monitoring in the first approach and relevant vector machine in the second. The results show that the proposed method is plausible due to its good prediction of RUL and can be effectively applied to many systems for monitoring and prognostics.

  16. Indoors forensic entomology: colonization of human remains in closed environments by specific species of sarcosaprophagous flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjoismäki, Jaakko L O; Karhunen, Pekka J; Goebeler, Sirkka; Saukko, Pekka; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E

    2010-06-15

    Fly species that are commonly recovered on human corpses concealed in houses or other dwellings are often dependent on human created environments and might have special features in their biology that allow them to colonize indoor cadavers. In this study we describe nine typical cases involving forensically relevant flies on human remains found indoors in southern Finland. Eggs, larvae and puparia were reared to adult stage and determined to species. Of the five species found the most common were Lucilia sericata Meigen, Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and Protophormia terraenovae Robineau-Desvoidy. The flesh fly Sarcophaga caerulescens Zetterstedt is reported for the first time to colonize human cadavers inside houses and a COI gene sequence based DNA barcode is provided for it to help facilitate identification in the future. Fly biology, colonization speed and the significance of indoors forensic entomological evidence are discussed. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Taphonomic aspects of deer (Mammalia, Cetartiodactyla, Cervidae remains from a Quaternary cave deposit in Northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Maldonado

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work identifies and interprets taphonomic features of the deer fossil assemblage recovered from the Gruta do Urso cave, located in Tocantins State, Northern Brazil. Consequently, its results shed light on the origin of the vertebrate assemblages in cave deposits and paleoecological aspects of Quaternary deer of northern Brazil. The cervid fossil accumulation of the Gruta do Urso cave includes individuals of three species that died outside the cave and, then, underwent disarticulation and weathering during a time span between one and five years. During the necrolysis, they experienced scavenging by large-sized felids and small-sized canids. Then, the disarticulated remains and a mummified hindlimb were transported into the cave by multiple events of low-energy hydraulic flows. Inside the cave, some specimens experienced exposure on the water table and incrustation. The biostratinomic data suggest the taphonomic history of deers around Gruta do Urso cave occurred in arid conditions.

  18. Health professionals and the meaning they apply to women‟s remaining in violent conjugal relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadirlene Pereira Gomes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors aim to investigate the meanings attributed by health professionals working in the Family Health Strategy to women‟s remaining in violent conjugal relationships. The research is based in the method of Grounded Theory. Interviews were held between May and August 2012 with 52 professionals who work in Family Health in a city in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina. It is indicated that violence is related to the threats made, to the partner‟s involvement in drug trafficking, to economic and emotional dependence, to the valuing of marriage, to the belief in female submission, and to shame. The professionals indicate the need for strategies in defense of a life free from violence for women: psycho-social support; educational activities regarding the social construction of gender; and articulation of policies based on intersectoriality.

  19. The efficacy of high-throughput sequencing and target enrichment on charred archaeobotanical remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nistelberger, H. M.; Smith, O.; Wales, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    The majority of archaeological plant material is preserved in a charred state. Obtaining reliable ancient DNA data from these remains has presented challenges due to high rates of nucleotide damage, short DNA fragment lengths, low endogenous DNA content and the potential for modern contamination...... different laboratories, presenting the largest HTS assessment of charred archaeobotanical specimens to date. Rigorous analysis of our data - excluding false-positives due to background contamination or incorrect index assignments - indicated a lack of endogenous DNA in nearly all samples, except for one....... It has been suggested that high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies coupled with DNA enrichment techniques may overcome some of these limitations. Here we report the findings of HTS and target enrichment on four important archaeological crops (barley, grape, maize and rice) performed in three...

  20. Remains of War: Walt Whitman, Civil War Soldiers, and the Legacy of Medical Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbian, Lenore; Sledzik, Paul S; Reznick, Jeffrey S

    2012-01-01

    The National Museum of Health and Medicine holds a collection of anatomical specimens from nearly 2,000 soldiers injured during the American Civil War. Originally collected as part of a study of trauma and disease during war, these specimens have been museum artifacts for over 140 years. During this time, they have been displayed and utilized in an array of interpretative strategies. They have functioned as medical specimens documenting the effects of gunshot wounds and infection to the human body, as mementos mori symbolizing the refuse of a nation divided by war, and as objects of osteological and forensic interest. The museum's curators recently discovered four of these specimens from soldiers who the poet and essayist Walt Whitman nursed in the wartime hospitals of Washington, DC. Uniting these remains with Whitman's words yields a new interpretation that bears witness to individual histories during a time of unprecedented conflict in American history.

  1. How Far Along is Euro Adoption in the Czech Republic? Benefits for Businesses Still Remain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojmír Helísek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to assess the reasons for the current negative position of the Czech Government towardeuro adoption and to find out whether the expected benefits of euro adoption for Czech companies still remain. Thepostponement of euro adoption in the Czech Republic has mainly been caused by the current problems of the euroarea. The benefits arising from euro adoption are subject to the reduction of the exchange rate volatility and of thetransaction costs, whereas they also depend on the degree of integration with the euro area. These benefits may stillbe expected – neither the financial crisis nor the economic recession has affected them. The integration of the Czecheconomy with the euro area is high and still growing. Therefore, euro adoption will lead to the stimulation of mutual tradeof the Czech Republic and the euro area.

  2. Temporal genetic change in the last remaining population of woolly mammoth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Veronica; Dalén, Love; Vartanyan, Sergey; Lidén, Kerstin; Ryman, Nils; Angerbjörn, Anders

    2010-01-01

    During the Late Pleistocene, the woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) experienced a series of local extinctions generally attributed to human predation or environmental change. Some small and isolated populations did however survive far into the Holocene. Here, we investigated the genetic consequences of the isolation of the last remaining mammoth population on Wrangel Island. We analysed 741 bp of the mitochondrial DNA and found a loss of genetic variation in relation to the isolation event, probably caused by a demographic bottleneck or a founder event. However, in spite of ca 5000 years of isolation, we did not detect any further loss of genetic variation. Together with the relatively high number of mitochondrial haplotypes on Wrangel Island near the final disappearance, this suggests a sudden extinction of a rather stable population. PMID:20356891

  3. Quantification of Liver Iron with MRI: State of the Art and Remaining Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, Diego; Levin, Yakir S; Sirlin, Claude B; Reeder, Scott B

    2015-01-01

    Liver iron overload is the histological hallmark of hereditary hemochromatosis and transfusional hemosiderosis, and can also occur in chronic hepatopathies. Iron overload can result in liver damage, with the eventual development of cirrhosis, liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma. Assessment of liver iron levels is necessary for detection and quantitative staging of iron overload, and monitoring of iron-reducing treatments. This article discusses the need for non-invasive assessment of liver iron, and reviews qualitative and quantitative methods with a particular emphasis on MRI. Specific MRI methods for liver iron quantification include signal intensity ratio as well as R2 and R2* relaxometry techniques. Methods that are in clinical use, as well as their limitations, are described. Remaining challenges, unsolved problems, and emerging techniques to provide improved characterization of liver iron deposition are discussed. PMID:24585403

  4. International standards to document remaining autonomic function after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, M S; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Bodner, D

    2008-01-01

    Association (ASIA) and the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) commissioned a group of international experts to develop a common strategy to document the remaining autonomic neurologic function. RESULTS: Four subgroups were commissioned: bladder, bowel, sexual function and general autonomic function. On-line...... communication was followed by numerous face to face meetings. The information was then presented in a summary format at a course on Measurement in Spinal Cord Injury, held on June 24, 2006. Subsequent to this it was revised online by the committee members, posted on the websites of both ASIA and ISCo......S for comment and re-revised through webcasts. Topics include an overview of autonomic anatomy, classification of cardiovascular, respiratory, sudomotor and thermoregulatory function, bladder, bowel and sexual function. CONCLUSION:This document describes a new system to document the impact of SCI on autonomic...

  5. On the pterosaur remains from the Río Belgrano Formation (Barremian), Patagonian Andes of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Alexander W A; Aguirre-Urreta, María B; Ramos, Victor A

    2003-12-01

    Pterosaur remains from the Río Belgrano Formation, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina, were found close to the Estancia Río Roble, along with several ammonoids that indicate a Barremian age for those strata. The specimens (MACN-SC 3617) consist of one ulna and one element tentatively identified as a portion of a wing metacarpal. The ulna shows morphological affinities with the Pteranodontoidea (sensu Kellner 1996), particularly with the members of the Anhangueridae by having a well developed ventral crest close to the proximal articulation, and is tentatively referred to this pterosaur clade. The oldest record of the Anhangueridae, previously limited to the Aptian/Albian, is therefore extended to the Barremian. The Argentinean material is preserved in three dimensions, an unusual condition for pterosaur fossils from that country, indicating that the site situated near the Estancia Río Roble has a great potential for new and well preserved specimens.

  6. Farmer's lung in Ireland (1983-1996) remains at a constant level.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, D S

    2012-02-03

    A prospective study was undertaken by the Departments of Respiratory Medicine and Medical Microbiology at the Cork University Hospital, a. to investigate the epidemiology of Farmer\\'s Lung (F.L.) in the Republic of Ireland (pop. 3.5 million), with special reference to the South Western Region of this country (pop. 536,000) and b. to assess any relationship between the prevalence\\/incidence of F.L. with climatic factors in South West Ireland, between 1983 and 1996. F.L. incidence remained constant throughout the 13 yrs studied both on a national and a regional basis. A significant relationship was also found between total rainfall each summer and F.L. incidence and prevalence over the following yr (p < 0.005) in South-West Ireland. The persistence of F.L. in Ireland at a constant level suggests that farmers\\' working environment and farm practices need to be improved.

  7. Cytomegalovirus reactivation in critically ill immunocompetent hosts: A decade of progress and remaining challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Charles H.; Trgovcich, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an undisputed pathogen in humans with severe immunocompromise that has historically been thought to carry little consequence in immunecompetent hosts. During the past decade, however, accumulating data suggest that significant numbers of immunocompetent humans reactivate HCMV during critical illness, and that these reactivation episodes are associated with worsened outcomes. Because most people are infected with this ubiquitous virus by adulthood, confirming pathogenicity has now become a clinical priority. In this article, we will review the incidence and implications of reactivation, the relevant immune responses and reactivation triggers relevant to the immunocompetent host. We will summarize the progress made during the past ten years, outline work ongoing in this field, and identify the major gaps remaining in our emerging understanding of this phenomenon. PMID:21439328

  8. Exploring Hominin and Non-hominin Primate Dental Fossil Remains with Neutron Microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanolli, Clément; Schillinger, Burkhard; Beaudet, Amélie; Kullmer, Ottmar; Macchiarelli, Roberto; Mancini, Lucia; Schrenk, Friedemann; Tuniz, Claudio; Vodopivec, Vladimira

    Fossil dental remains are an archive of unique information for paleobiological studies. Computed microtomography based on X-ray microfocus sources (X-μCT) and Synchrotron Radiation (SR-μCT) allow subtle quantification at the micron and sub-micron scale of the meso- and microstructural signature imprinted in the mineralized tissues, such as enamel and dentine, through high-resolution ;virtual histology;. Nonetheless, depending on the degree of alterations undergone during fossilization, X-ray analyses of tooth tissues do not always provide distinct imaging contrasts, thus preventing the extraction of essential morphological and anatomical details. We illustrate here by three examples the successful application of neutron microtomography (n-μCT) in cases where X-rays have previously failed to deliver contrasts between dental tissues of fossilized specimen.

  9. An Update on the Hazards and Risks of Forensic Anthropology, Part I: Human Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lindsey G; Dabbs, Gretchen R; Spencer, Jessica R

    2016-01-01

    This work reviews the hazards and risks of practicing forensic anthropology in North America, with a focus on pathogens encountered through contact with unpreserved human remains. Since the publication of Galloway and Snodgrass' seminal paper concerning the hazards of forensic anthropology, research has provided new information about known pathogen hazards, and regulating authorities have updated recommendations for the recognition and treatment of several infections. Additionally, forensic anthropology has gained popularity, exposing an increased number of students and practitioners to these hazards. Current data suggest many occupational exposures to blood or body fluids go unreported, especially among students, highlighting the need for this discussion. For each pathogen and associated disease, this work addresses important history, reviews routes of exposure, provides an overview of symptoms and treatments, lists decontamination procedures, and presents data on postmortem viability. Personal protection and laboratory guidelines should be established and enforced in conjunction with the consideration of these data. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Assessment of Steel Bearing Structures - Estimation of the Remaining Fatigue Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omishore, Abayomi

    2017-10-01

    A significant number of steel bridges exist in operation worldwide. The budget for new infrastructure projects is tight, so the importance of inspection, maintenance and assessment of the existing bridges increases. A new fatigue assessment guideline for the estimation of the remaining fatigue life of steel bridges should be developed soon. This paper presents (i) a discussion based on the state-of-the-art review and (ii) new possibilities of applications of probabilistic methods for the time dependent reliability assessment of the lifetime of steel bridges. The probabilistic fatigue assessment procedure can be applied to existing steel bridges under cyclic loading. The guideline concentrates on the existing traffic infrastructure made from old steel due to its public importance. The essential general methods for these calculations are provided using structural and fracture mechanics and the reliability theory used in a probabilistic framework.

  11. A review on prognostics approaches for remaining useful life of lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, C.; Chen, H. J.

    2017-11-01

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery is a core component for various industrial systems, including satellite, spacecraft and electric vehicle, etc. The mechanism of performance degradation and remaining useful life (RUL) estimation correlate closely to the operating state and reliability of the aforementioned systems. Furthermore, RUL prediction of Li-ion battery is crucial for the operation scheduling, spare parts management and maintenance decision for such kinds of systems. In recent years, performance degradation prognostics and RUL estimation approaches have become a focus of the research concerning with Li-ion battery. This paper summarizes the approaches used in Li-ion battery RUL estimation. Three categories are classified accordingly, i.e. model-based approach, data-based approach and hybrid approach. The key issues and future trends for battery RUL estimation are also discussed.

  12. The experience of rural families who remain in halfway houses during cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardon-Perlini, Nara Marilene Oliveira; Sand, Isabel Cristina Pacheco Van der; Beuter, Margrid; Rosa, Bruna Vanessa Costa da

    2017-04-20

    to understand the experience of rural families who remain in halfway houses during the cancer treatment of an adult family member. qualitative research based on Symbolic Interaction and narrative research. Seven rural families participated in the study, 14 people staying in halfway houses in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The data obtained through interviews from November 2010 to May 2011 were analyzed with emphasis on content. the three themes were: halfway houses as a reference for permanence during treatment, everyday life and living together in the halfway house. the experience was marked by the need to adapt to a context other than the rural one, with specific rules and routines, with discomforts and confrontations with urban culture characteristics and with what is experienced by other families who are also facing disease, which contributed to reframe the experience itself.

  13. Cerebral water and ion balance remains stable when humans are exposed to acute hypoxic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avnstorp, Magnus B; Rasmussen, Peter; Brassard, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    both circumstances. No cerebral net exchange of Na(+) or K(+) was evident. Likewise, no significant net-exchange of water over the brain was demonstrated and the arterial and jugular venous hemoglobin concentrations were similar. CONCLUSION: Challenging exercise in hypoxia for 30 min affected muscle......Avnstorp, Magnus B., Peter Rasmussen, Patrice Brassard, Thomas Seifert, Morten Overgaard, Peter Krustrup, Niels H. Secher, and Nikolai B. Nordsborg. Cerebral water and ion balance remains stable when humans are exposed to acute hypoxic exercise. High Alt Med Biol 16:000-000, 2015.-Background......: Intense physical activity increases the prevalence of acute mountain sickness (AMS) that can occur within 10 h after ascent to altitudes above 1500 m and is likely related to development of cerebral edema. This study evaluated whether disturbed cerebral water and ion homeostasis can be detected when...

  14. On the pterosaur remains from the Río Belgrano formation (Barremian, Patagonian Andes of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellner Alexander W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Pterosaur remains from the Río Belgrano Formation, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina, were found close to the Estancia Río Roble, along with several ammonoids that indicate a Barremian age for those strata. The specimens (MACN-SC 3617 consist of one ulna and one element tentatively identified as a portion of a wing metacarpal. The ulna shows morphological affinities with the Pteranodontoidea (sensu Kellner 1996, particularly with the members of the Anhangueridae by having a well developed ventral crest close to the proximal articulation, and is tentatively referred to this pterosaur clade. The oldest record of the Anhangueridae, previously limited to the Aptian/Albian, is therefore extended to the Barremian. The Argentinean material is preserved in three dimensions, an unusual condition for pterosaur fossils from that country, indicating that the site situated near the Estancia Río Roble has a great potential for new and well preserved specimens.

  15. Habent sua fata libelli. Remains of Simonič-Šlebinger Family Library in Gornja Radgona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breda Ilich Klančnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the fate of a personal library held by two librarians and bibliographers, dr. Franc Simonič (1847-1919 and his son in law dr. Janko Šlebinger (1876-1951 at the family estate in Gornja Radgona. Today we can witness only the remains of what was once an extensive library curtailed by the owners’ migrations and their financial hardships. Besides domestic and foreign literature, the library contained plenty of journals, for example the complete bind editions of Novice, Zgodnje danice, Čas, Kres, Veda, Ljubljanski zvon; it also included valuable manuscripts, old ephemera, 17th and 18th century books and plenty of rare editions such as books from the Prekmurje region and prints written in dajnčica. It was not only the professional selection that made the library exceptional but also its appearance – bookshelves full of prime bindings.

  16. Heteroplasmy of the human mtDNA control region remains constant during life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerström-Fermér, M; Olsson, C; Forsgren, L; Syvänen, A C

    2001-05-01

    In a longitudinal, retrospective study, we monitored the level of heteroplasmy at nucleotide position (nt) 309 and nt 16189 of the control region of human mtDNA. As a unique source of DNA, we analyzed multiple cervical-cell samples collected, during 1 or 2 decades, from four women with heteroplasmy at either nt 309 or nt 16189. According to accurate, quantitative analysis by solid-phase minisequencing, the level of heteroplasmy remained stable in the cervical-cell samples from all four women during the time studied. We also analyzed autopsy samples from several different tissues, all containing nt 309 in heteroplasmic form, of one of the women, who was deceased. On the basis of our results, heteroplasmy in the control region of mtDNA seems to be inherited and is not the result of somatic age-related accumulation.

  17. Least destructive sampling of human remains using laser drilling for Sr isotope analysis by TIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmes, Malte; Moffat, Ian; Grün, Rainer; Armstrong, Richard; Kinsley, Les; McMorrow, Linda

    2013-04-01

    Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) measured in ancient human remains can be used to reconstruct migration patterns of ancient human populations. This application is based on the fact that different geologic regions have distinct Sr isotope signatures that are cycled through the soils, plants and rivers, and eventually enter the food cycle. Sr isotope ratios measured in skeletal remains (bones and teeth) reflect the average of dietary Sr that was consumed when the tissue was formed, allowing the investigation of human migration between geologically distinct terrains. The analysis of human remains is always a sensitive topic requiring minimal damage to the sample, while at the same time providing highly precise and accurate results. Samples can be analysed either by solution methods like thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS), or by in-situ laser ablation MC-ICP-MS. For TIMS a drill is used to extract a small amount of sample, which is then digested in acid and Sr is separated out using ion exchange chromatography. This technique provides highly precise and accurate results, because any isobaric interferences are removed during chemical separation. The drawback is that drilling may cause visible damage to the sample, restricting access to precious human remains. LA-MC-ICP-MS analysis is very fast and nearly destruction free. However, the accuracy and precision of LA-MC-ICP-MS is limited by a number of factors including large instrumental mass discrimination, laser-induced isotopic and elemental fractionations and molecular interferences on 87Sr. Its application thus requires rigorous data reduction, which can introduce significant uncertainties into the analysis. This is especially true for samples with relatively low Sr concentrations such as human teeth (e.g., Woodhead et al., 2005; Horstwood et al., 2008; Vroon et al., 2008). In addition, LA-MC-ICP-MS has traditionally required a flat sample surface, thus an unbroken tooth needs to be cut, which is rather

  18. Taphonomic Effects of Mechanical Plowing on Buried Juvenile-Sized Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Alyssa M; Pokines, James T; Moore, Tara L

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural activity is a worldwide taphonomic process and can present unique challenges in the recovery of buried remains. Previous research has been mostly within the realm of site formation processes of archeological sites utilizing only surface material. This research expands upon the previous research by incorporating the distribution of subsurface material by the use of archeological excavation techniques. An experiment was conducted utilizing juvenile pig (Sus scrofa) skeletons buried in relative anatomical position at two different depths (15 cm below the surface [cmbs] and 22 cmbs). The burials were then subjected to different intervals of mechanical plowing: one, three, five, seven, or 10 plow passes. The skeletal material was recovered using pedestrian survey followed by hand excavation and screening of all sediments. This research shows that there is a significant relationship between the degree of plowing and the distance skeletal material is distributed and the percentage of material recovered undamaged. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Evolutionary anthropology and genes: investigating the genetics of human evolution from excavated skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Evilena; Mitchell, Piers D

    2013-10-01

    The development of molecular tools for the extraction, analysis and interpretation of DNA from the remains of ancient organisms (paleogenetics) has revolutionised a range of disciplines as diverse as the fields of human evolution, bioarchaeology, epidemiology, microbiology, taxonomy and population genetics. The paper draws attention to some of the challenges associated with the extraction and interpretation of ancient DNA from archaeological material, and then reviews the influence of paleogenetics on the field of human evolution. It discusses the main contributions of molecular studies to reconstructing the evolutionary and phylogenetic relationships between extinct hominins (human ancestors) and anatomically modern humans. It also explores the evidence for evolutionary changes in the genetic structure of anatomically modern humans in recent millennia. This breadth of research has led to discoveries that would never have been possible using traditional approaches to human evolution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Genomic Variation of Inbreeding and Ancestry in the Remaining Two Isle Royale Wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Philip W; Kardos, Marty; Peterson, Rolf O; Vucetich, John A

    2017-03-01

    Inbreeding, relatedness, and ancestry have traditionally been estimated with pedigree information, however, molecular genomic data can provide more detailed examination of these properties. For example, pedigree information provides estimation of the expected value of these measures but molecular genomic data can estimate the realized values of these measures in individuals. Here, we generate the theoretical distribution of inbreeding, relatedness, and ancestry for the individuals in the pedigree of the Isle Royale wolves, the first examination of such variation in a wild population with a known pedigree. We use the 38 autosomes of the dog genome and their estimated map lengths in our genomic analysis. Although it is known that the remaining wolves are highly inbred, closely related, and descend from only 3 ancestors, our analyses suggest that there is significant variation in the realized inbreeding and relatedness around pedigree expectations. For example, the expected inbreeding in a hypothetical offspring from the 2 remaining wolves is 0.438 but the realized 95% genomic confidence interval is from 0.311 to 0.565. For individual chromosomes, a substantial proportion of the whole chromosomes are completely identical by descent. This examination provides a background to use when analyzing molecular genomic data for individual levels of inbreeding, relatedness, and ancestry. The level of variation in these measures is a function of the time to the common ancestor(s), the number of chromosomes, and the rate of recombination. In the Isle Royale wolf population, the few generations to a common ancestor results in the high variance in genomic inbreeding. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. DNA decay rate in papyri and human remains from Egyptian archaeological sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marota, Isolina; Basile, Corrado; Ubaldi, Massimo; Rollo, Franco

    2002-04-01

    The writing sheets made with strips from the stem (caulis) of papyri (Cyperus papyrus) are one of the most ingenious products of ancient technology. We extracted DNA from samples of modern papyri varying in age from 0-100 years BP and from ancient specimens from Egypt, with an age-span from 1,300-3,200 years BP. The copy number of the plant chloroplast DNA in the sheets was determined using a competitive PCR system designed on the basis of a short (90 bp) tract of the chloroplast's ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase large subunit (rbcL) gene sequence. The results allowed us to establish that the DNA half-life in papyri is about 19-24 years. This means that the last DNA fragments will vanish within no more than 532-672 years from the sheets being manufactured. In a parallel investigation, we checked the archaeological specimens for the presence of residual DNA and determined the extent of racemization of aspartic (Asp) acid in both modern and ancient specimens, as a previous report (Poinar et al. [1996], Science 272:864-866) showed that racemization of aspartic acid and DNA decay are linked. The results confirmed the complete loss of authentic DNA, even in the less ancient (8th century AD) papyri. On the other hand, when the regression for Asp racemization rates in papyri was compared with that for human and animal remains from Egyptian archaeological sites, it proved, quite surprisingly, that the regressions are virtually identical. Our study provides an indirect argument against the reliability of claims about the recovery of authentic DNA from Egyptian mummies and bone remains. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Relationship between defect shape resolution accuracy and calculated remaining strength of corroded pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, R.; Chauhan, V. [Advantica Ltd., Loughborough (United Kingdom); Sloterdijk, W. [Gastransport Services, Gronigen (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    This paper provided details of research investigating the interactions of corrosion metal loss features detected using in-line inspection (ILI) tool. The study examined the potential benefits of using more detailed information concerning the shape of metal loss features in conjunction with defect assessment methods. The effects of varying assumptions made in the criteria used to determine the interaction of closely spaced defect clusters were also investigated. High resolution magnetic flux leakage (MFL) data containing a large proportion of metal loss features was used in a series of sensitivity studies. Automated assessments were undertaken using the RSTRENG method by varying defect dimensions and the interaction criterion. The sensitivity studies to predict failure pressures were undertaken by increasing the reported defect depths by increments of 5, 10, and 20 per cent of the wall thickness. Length and width measurements remained at their reported values. A further set of sensitivity studies was then conducted to predict failure pressures by varying the defect length by an additional 5 mm and 10 mm. Results of the study showed that an accurate knowledge of the defect depth, followed by defect length was of the most benefit in determining the remaining strength of corroded pipelines. It was concluded that by increasing the defect depth measurement accuracy of MFL tools will result in a linear increase in predicted failure pressures. The sensitivity studies showed that the assumptions made in relation to interaction criterion used to decide if defects are clustered together may play a significant role in defect assessments. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  3. An Application of USLE and SEDD Models to Estimate the Remaining Service Life of Kartalkaya Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanyas, H.

    2013-12-01

    The water requirement of today's world is such a hot topic that countries all over the world are severely searching for different alternatives to keep pace with increasing water demand. However, when the increasing population and water demand are considered, management of existing water resources is arguably more important than searching for additional resources. The construction and utilization of engineering structures (e.g., dams) is often used in water resource management, however their service life are often not considered or properly planned in advance. As a consequence, because of these unplanned applications, the maximum potential water supply cannot be reached in watersheds, in other words, water sources are wasted. This research demonstrates that it is possible to forecast the service life of a dam more properly and also identifies some precautions regarding the potential sources that might cause the shortened service life. Kartalkaya Dam located in Turkey has been operating since 1972, was constructed with the aims of irrigation and flood prevention and is near the end of its service life. At this point, the first objective of this study was conducted, which determines the remaining service life of the dam with reference to the amount of material transported through the corresponding catchment area and the amount accumulated in the reservoir. This was accomplished using the Universal Soil Loss Equation simulated in ArcGIS. The amount of eroded material per year for each 25x25 m cell of study area was determined and as a consequence, the areas which are more prone to be eroded were defined. The ongoing second stage of the study, applies the sediment delivery distributed (SEDD) model and calculates the amount of material deposited during the operation period of the dam and is used to forecast the remaining service life of the Kartalkaya Dam.

  4. Soil stratigraphy of charcoal kiln remains (CKR) in the Litchfield Hills, CT, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Thomas; Hirsch, Florian; Ouimet, Will; Dethier, David

    2016-04-01

    Charcoal kiln relicts (CKRs) are small anthropogenic landforms that are often found in historic mining areas. CKRs have not been a big research topic yet but mainly were studied as by-products of archaeological excavations. In the last years newly available and very accurate Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) based on high-resolution Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) data have been used to identify these archaeological remains. In addition, findings of several thousands CKRs in the North German Lowland have increased the awareness that historical charcoal production may significantly contribute to Late Holocene landscape change. Besides the archaeological aspect of CKRs, potential impacts of charcoal burning on the ecology of modern soil landscapes and ecosystem processes must be considered. A relatively high density of CKRs is found in the Litchfield Hills nearby the town of West Cornwall, Litchfield County, CT, USA. The CKRs are especially well preserved on slopes of the tributary valleys of the Housatonic River and form little, circular ramparts with diameters normally less than ten meters. First, rough field surveys in Litchfield County in spring 2015 have suggested differences between soils inside and outside the CKR. Soils on the CKR seem to have relatively deep humus-rich and charcoal containing topsoils whereas the topsoils outside the CKR appear typically thinner and less rich in humus. More thorough investigations have been started in autumn 2015 to prove the hypothesis that properties, distribution and development of soils are controlled by archaeological remains of historical charcoal burning. We present preliminary results from our field studies conducted in October 2015. The stratigraphy and the extent of the 26 CKRs were studied using a sedimentological-pedological approach by coring and trenching. Our results indicate that in Litchfield County the CKRs were used twice and in quick succession. Before the second reuse, the rim of the platform was stabilized

  5. Brownian motion with adaptive drift for remaining useful life prediction: Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Tsui, Kwok-Leung

    2018-01-01

    Linear Brownian motion with constant drift is widely used in remaining useful life predictions because its first hitting time follows the inverse Gaussian distribution. State space modelling of linear Brownian motion was proposed to make the drift coefficient adaptive and incorporate on-line measurements into the first hitting time distribution. Here, the drift coefficient followed the Gaussian distribution, and it was iteratively estimated by using Kalman filtering once a new measurement was available. Then, to model nonlinear degradation, linear Brownian motion with adaptive drift was extended to nonlinear Brownian motion with adaptive drift. However, in previous studies, an underlying assumption used in the state space modelling was that in the update phase of Kalman filtering, the predicted drift coefficient at the current time exactly equalled the posterior drift coefficient estimated at the previous time, which caused a contradiction with the predicted drift coefficient evolution driven by an additive Gaussian process noise. In this paper, to alleviate such an underlying assumption, a new state space model is constructed. As a result, in the update phase of Kalman filtering, the predicted drift coefficient at the current time evolves from the posterior drift coefficient at the previous time. Moreover, the optimal Kalman filtering gain for iteratively estimating the posterior drift coefficient at any time is mathematically derived. A discussion that theoretically explains the main reasons why the constructed state space model can result in high remaining useful life prediction accuracies is provided. Finally, the proposed state space model and its associated Kalman filtering gain are applied to battery prognostics.

  6. Evolution of drug resistance in HIV infected patients remaining on a virologically failing cART regimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cozzi-Lepri, A; Phillips, AN; Ruiz, L

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the extent of drug resistance accumulation in patients kept on a virologically failing regimen and its determinants in the clinical setting. DESIGN: The study focused on 110 patients of EuroSIDA on an unchanged regimen who had two genotypic tests performed at two time points.......08 [95% confidence interval (CI), -2.13 to -0.03; P = 0.04] in those with GSS_f-t0 of 0.5-1.5 and -1.24 (95% CI, -2.44 to -0.04; P = 0.04) in those with GSS_f-t0 >or= 2. CONCLUSIONS: In patients kept on the same virologically failing cART regimen for a median of 6 months, there was considerable...

  7. Imaging of Archaeological Remains at Barcombe Roman Villa using Microwave Tomographic Depictions of Ground Penetrating Radar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldovieri, F.; Utsi, E.; Alani, A.; Persico, R.

    2012-04-01

    to 600MHz (the frequency range of the antennas used). The 2-dimensional plots were formed into a 3-dimensional cube and time slices extracted, on the basis of maximum signal return, at 16ns, 25ns and 29ns. In this work, we show the reprocessing of the GPR data via a microwave tomographic approach based on a linear approximation of the inverse scattering problem [4]. In particular, the effectiveness of this approach ensures a reliable and high resolution representation/visualization of the scene very large in terms of probing wavelength. This has been made possible thanks to the adoption of the approach presented in [5] where the 3D representation was achieved by performing 2D reconstruction and after obtaining the 3D Cube from these 2D reconstructed profiles. In particular, the re-examination of GPR data using microwave tomography has allowed to improve definition of the villa outline and to detect earlier prehistoric remains. [1] Rudling, D., & Butler, C. "Roundhouse to Villa" in Sussex Past & Present 95, pp 6 - 7, 2001. [2] Utsi, E., Wortley Villa paper currently in preparation of EAGE special issue. [3] Utsi, E., & Alani, A. "Barcombe Roman Villa: An Exercise in GPR Time Slicingand Comparative Geophysics", in Koppenjan, S., & Hua, L. (eds) Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar, 2002. [4] F. Soldovieri, R. Persico, E. Utsi, V. Utsi, "The application of inverse scattering techniques with ground penetrating radar to the problem of rebar location in concrete", NDT & E International, Vol. 39, Issue 7, October 2006, Pages 602-607. [5] R. Persico, F. Soldovieri, E. Utsi, "Microwave tomography for processing of GPR data at Ballachulish", Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, vol.7, no. 2, pp. 164-173, June 2010

  8. Monitoring DNA contamination in handled vs. directly excavated ancient human skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilli, Elena; Modi, Alessandra; Serpico, Ciro; Achilli, Alessandro; Lancioni, Hovirag; Lippi, Barbara; Bertoldi, Francesca; Gelichi, Sauro; Lari, Martina; Caramelli, David

    2013-01-01

    Bones, teeth and hair are often the only physical evidence of human or animal presence at an archaeological site; they are also the most widely used sources of samples for ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis. Unfortunately, the DNA extracted from ancient samples, already scarce and highly degraded, is widely susceptible to exogenous contaminations that can affect the reliability of aDNA studies. We evaluated the molecular effects of sample handling on five human skeletons freshly excavated from a cemetery dated between the 11 to the 14(th) century. We collected specimens from several skeletal areas (teeth, ribs, femurs and ulnas) from each individual burial. We then divided the samples into two different sets: one labeled as "virgin samples" (i.e. samples that were taken by archaeologists under contamination-controlled conditions and then immediately sent to the laboratory for genetic analyses), and the second called "lab samples"(i.e. samples that were handled without any particular precautions and subject to normal washing, handling and measuring procedures in the osteological lab). Our results show that genetic profiles from "lab samples" are incomplete or ambiguous in the different skeletal areas while a different outcome is observed in the "virgin samples" set. Generally, all specimens from different skeletal areas in the exception of teeth present incongruent results between "lab" and "virgin" samples. Therefore teeth are less prone to contamination than the other skeletal areas we analyzed and may be considered a material of choice for classical aDNA studies. In addition, we showed that bones can also be a good candidate for human aDNA analysis if they come directly from the excavation site and are accompanied by a clear taphonomic history.

  9. Temperamental Profiles of Dysregulated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Robert R.; Ayer, Lynsay A.; Crehan, Eileen T.; Rettew, David C.; Baer, Julie R.; Hudziak, James J.

    2012-01-01

    It is crucial to characterize self-regulation in children. We compared the temperamental profiles of children with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP) to profiles associated with other CBCL-derived syndromes. 382 children (204 boys; aged 5-18) from a large family study were examined. Temperamental profiles were…

  10. Country profile: Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary's energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  11. Country profile: Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary`s energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  12. Detonation Wave Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-12-14

    The Zel’dovich-von Neumann-Doering (ZND) profile of a detonation wave is derived. Two basic assumptions are required: i. An equation of state (EOS) for a partly burned explosive; P(V, e, λ). ii. A burn rate for the reaction progress variable; d/dt λ = R(V, e, λ). For a steady planar detonation wave the reactive flow PDEs can be reduced to ODEs. The detonation wave profile can be determined from an ODE plus algebraic equations for points on the partly burned detonation loci with a specified wave speed. Furthermore, for the CJ detonation speed the end of the reaction zone is sonic. A solution to the reactive flow equations can be constructed with a rarefaction wave following the detonation wave profile. This corresponds to an underdriven detonation wave, and the rarefaction is know as a Taylor wave.

  13. Ribosome Profiling in Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotewutmontri, Prakitchai; Stiffler, Nicholas; Watkins, Kenneth P; Barkan, Alice

    2018-01-01

    Ribosome profiling (also known as Ribo-seq) provides a genome-wide, high-resolution, and quantitative accounting of mRNA segments that are occupied by ribosomes in vivo. The method has been used to address numerous questions in bacteria, yeast, and metazoa, but its application to questions in plant biology is just beginning. This chapter provides a detailed protocol for profiling ribosomes in plant leaf tissue. The method was developed and optimized with maize, but it has been used successfully with Arabidopsis and tobacco as well. The method captures ribosome footprints from the chloroplast and cytosol in the same preparation, but it is not optimal for detecting the footprints of mitochondrial ribosomes. The protocol is robust and simpler than many of the methods reported previously for ribosome profiling in plants.

  14. Histone profiles in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Simone S; Neff, Tobias; Bernt, Kathrin M

    2015-10-01

    While DNA abnormalities have long been recognized as the cause of cancer, the contribution of chromatin is a relatively recent discovery. Excitement in the field of cancer epigenetics is driven by 3 key elements: 1. Chromatin may play an active and often critical role in controlling gene expression, DNA stability and cell identity. 2. Chromatin modifiers are frequent targets of DNA aberrations, in some cancers reaching near 100%. Particularly in cancers with low rates of DNA mutations, the key "driver" of malignancy is often a chromatin modifier. 3. Cancer-associated aberrant chromatin is amenable to pharmacologic modulation. This has sparked the rapidly expanding development of small molecules targeting chromatin modifiers or reader domains, several of which have shown promise in clinical trials. In parallel, technical advances have greatly enhanced our ability to perform comprehensive chromatin/histone profiling. Despite the discovery that distinct histone profiles are associated with prognostic subgroups, and in some instances may point towards an underlying aberration that can be targeted, histone profiling has not entered clinical diagnostics. Even eligibility for clinical trials targeting chromatin hinges on traditional histologic or DNA-based molecular criteria rather than chromatin profiles. This review will give an overview of the philosophical debate around the role of histones in controlling or modulating gene expression and discuss the most common techniques for histone profiling. In addition, we will provide prominent examples of aberrantly expressed or mutated chromatin modifiers that result in either globally or locally aberrant histone profiles, and that may be promising therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The experiences of remaining nurse tutors during the transformation of nursing colleges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela H. van Rensburg

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of public services and education in South Africa is part of the political and socio-economic transition to democracy. Changes are occurring in every field, including that of the health services. A qualitative study was undertaken to investigate the experiences of the remaining nurse tutors at a school of nursing during the transformation of nursing colleges and the downsizing of staff. The study on which this article is based was aimed at describing the experiences of those individuals undergoing changes in their work environment, with the purpose of contributing to recommendations regarding the ‘survival’ of transformation and the downsizing of the workplace. Three themes emerged by way of the narrative descriptions and unstructured in-depth interviews conducted during the study. The first theme, revolving around affective responses, relates to the emotions, low morale, depressive moods and anxiety caused by the transformation and downsizing. The second theme, relating to the cognitive and perceptual view of transformation, revealed the thoughts, beliefs, and opinions of the remaining nurse tutors regarding the change. The perceptions of, and opinions about how, nursing education and human dignity have been affected by this transformation were also expressed. The third theme consists of the coping responses made by the nurse tutors in the form of work-related personal and social adjustments to the transformation of the nursing colleges. The maintenance of ongoing communication and participation by the nurse tutors, as part of their counselling process, is advised.

    Opsomming

    Die transformasie van die openbare dienste en onderwys in Suid-Afrika vorm deel van die politieke en sosio-ekonomiese oorgang tot demokrasie. Veranderinge vind plaas op elke terrein, wat ook gesondheidsdienste insluit. 'n Kwalitatiewe studie is onderneem om die belewing van die oorblywende verpleegdosente verbonde aan

  16. The 2007 Analysis of Information Remaining on Disks Offered for Sale on the Second Hand Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Jones

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available All organisations, whether in the public or private sector, increasingly use computers and other devices that contain computer hard disks for the storage and processing of information relating to their business, their employees or their customers. Individual home users also increasingly use computers and other devices containing computer hard disks for the storage and processing of information relating to their private, personal affairs. It continues to be clear that the majority of organisations and individual home users still remain ignorant or misinformed of the volume and type of information that is stored on the hard disks that these devices contain and have not considered, or are unaware of, the potential impact of this information becoming available to their competitors or to people with criminal intent.This is the third study in an ongoing research effort that is being conducted into the volume and type of information that remains on computer hard disks offered for sale on the second hand market.  The purpose of the research has been to gain an understanding of the information that remains on the disk and to determine the level of damage that could, potentially be caused, if the information fell into the wrong hands.  The study examines disks that have been obtained in a number of countries to determine whether there is any detectable national or regional variance in the way that the disposal of computer disks is addressed and to compare the results for any other detectable regional or temporal trends.The first study was carried out in 2005 and was repeated in 2006 with the scope extended to include additional countries. The studies were carried out by British Telecommunications, the University of Glamorgan in the UK and Edith Cowan University in Australia. The basis of the research was to acquire a number of second hand computer disks from various sources and then determine whether they still contained information relating to a

  17. Probing The Buried Remains of The Todos los Santos, City of San Salvador in Hoping Island with Shallow Subsurface Geophysics Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-fan; Chang, Pin-yu; Eugenio Borao Mateo, José

    2013-04-01

    The study in ancient sites with GPR is widely documented over several decades. This non-invasive geophysical method provides a rapid measure for anthropogenic objects and therefore serves as a guide for possible excavation for the next stage of archaeological surveys. City of San Salvador, which is a Dutch colonial city consisted of fortress, hospitals and churches in 17 century, is located in the Hoping Island in Keelung, Taiwan. The fortress and its affiliated structures were abandoned and left collapsing since the mid-17th century. Some relics of the fortress wall were still remained until the early 20th century but the fast development projects in the island has caused the relics demolished or buried under building or road pavements. Many wells and bones have been found around the area belong to over three hundred years ago. As a consequence, the government initiated a new excavation project at the parking lot where the ancient convent of Todos los Santos is believed since 2011 in order to find the remains of the convent in city of San Salvador. Meanwhile we have surveyed with GPR to help guiding the excavation location. In this case, we surveyed with wide-angle-refraction/reflection (WARR) of GPR as well as common-offset array, to compensate the defect of traditional common-offset of lack of longitudinal resolution with velocity profile, and the combination of velocity profile and common-offset data helped distinguish the signals from other noises and further located the position of subsurface structures. After data analysis and numerical modeling of the buried materials, we have located the possible remains of walls of the convent or other structures around 0.9 to 1.3 meters in depth that can offer useful information to better plan the archaeological excavations.

  18. The Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Remains High in African American and Hispanic Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Theresa; Ramsey, David; Graham, David; Shaib, Yasser; Shiota, Seiji; Velez, Maria; Cole, Rhonda; Anand, Bhupinderjit; Vela, Marcelo; El-Serag, Hashem B

    2015-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori in the United States has been declining in the 1990s albeit less so among blacks and Hispanics. As the socioeconomic status of racial groups has evolved, it remains unclear whether the prevalence or the racial and ethnic disparities in the prevalence of H. pylori have changed. This is a cross-sectional study from a Veteran Affairs center among patients aged 40-80 years old who underwent a study esophagogastroduodenoscopy with gastric biopsies, which were cultured for H. pylori irrespective of findings on histopathology. Positive H. pylori was defined as positive culture or histopathology (stained organism combined with active gastritis). We calculated age-, race-, and birth cohort-specific H. pylori prevalence rates and examined predictors of H. pylori infection in logistic regression models. We analyzed data on 1200 patients; most (92.8%) were men and non-Hispanic white (59.9%) or black (28.9%). H. pylori was positive in 347 (28.9%) and was highest among black males aged 50-59 (53.3%; 44.0-62.4%), followed by Hispanic males aged 60-69 (48.1%; 34.2-62.2%), and lowest in non-Hispanic white males aged 40-49 (8.2%; 2.7-20.5%). In multivariate analysis, age group 50-59 was significantly associated with H. pylori (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 2.32; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.21-4.45) compared with those aged 40-49, and with black race (adjusted OR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.83-3.60) and Hispanic ethnicity (adjusted OR, 3.01; 95% CI, 1.70-5.34) compared with non-Hispanic white. Irrespective of age group, patients born during 1960-1969 had a lower risk of H. pylori (adjusted OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.22-0.96) compared to those born in 1930-1939. Those with some college education were less likely to have H. pylori compared to those with no college education (adjusted OR 0.51; 95% CI, 0.37-0.69). Among veterans, the prevalence of active H. pylori remains high (28.9%) with even higher rates in blacks and Hispanics with lower education levels. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons

  19. Sr Isotopes and human skeletal remains, improving a methodological approach in migration studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis Pichardo, G.; Schaaf, P. E.; Hernandez, T.; Horn, P.; Manzanilla, L. R.

    2013-12-01

    Asserting mobility of ancient humans is a major issue for anthropologists. Sr isotopes are widely used in anthropological sciences to trace human migration histories from ancient burials. Sr in bone approximately reflects the isotopic composition of the geological region where the person lived before death; whereas the Sr isotopic system in tooth enamel is thought to remain as a closed system and thus conserves the isotope ratio acquired during childhood. A comparison of the 87Sr/86Sr ratios found in tooth enamel and in bone is performed to determine if the human skeletal remains belonged to a local or a migrant. Until now, tooth enamel was considered to be less sensitive to secondary Sr contamination due to its higher crystallinity and larger sizes of the biogenic apatites in comparison to that in bone and dentine. In the past, enamel as well as bone material was powdered, dissolved and analyzed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). In this contribution we show, however, that simple dissolution of enamel frequently yields erroneous results. Tooth enamel is often affected by secondary strontium contamination processes such as caries or diagenetic and environmental input, which can change the original isotopic composition. To avoid these problems we introduced a pre-treatment and three-step leaching procedure in enamel samples. Leaching is carried out with acetic acid of different concentrations, yielding two leachates and one residue of each sample. Frequently the 87Sr/86Sr results of the three leachates display different values confirming that secondary contamination did occur. Several examples from Teotihuacan, central Mexico demonstrate that enamel 87Sr/86Sr without leaching can show correct biogenic values, but there is also a considerable probability for these values to represent a mixture of original and secondary Sr without significance for migration reconstructions. Only the residue value is interpreted by us as the representative ratio for

  20. The Neandertals of northeastern Iberia: new remains from the Cova del Gegant (Sitges, Barcelona).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quam, Rolf; Sanz, Montserrat; Daura, Joan; Robson Brown, Kate; García-González, Rebeca; Rodríguez, Laura; Dawson, Heidi; Rodríguez, Rosa Flor; Gómez, Sandra; Villaescusa, Lucía; Rubio, Ángel; Yagüe, Almudena; Ortega Martínez, María Cruz; Fullola, Josep Maria; Zilhão, João; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-04-01

    The present study describes a new juvenile hominin mandible and teeth and a new juvenile humerus from level V of the GP2 gallery of Cova del Gegant (Spain). The mandible (Gegant-5) preserves a portion of the right mandibular corpus from the M1 distally to the socket for the dc mesially, and the age at death is estimated as 4.5-5.0 years. Gegant-5 shows a single mental foramen located under the dm1/dm2 interdental septum, a relatively posterior placement compared with recent hominins of a similar developmental age. The mental foramen in Gegant-5 is also placed within the lower half of the mandibular corpus, as in the previously described late adolescent/adult mandible (Gegant-1) from this same Middle Paleolithic site. The Gegant-5 canine shows pronounced marginal ridges, a distal accessory ridge, and a pronounced distolingual tubercle. The P3 shows a lingually-displaced protoconid cusp tip and a distal accessory ridge. The P4 shows a slightly asymmetrical crown outline, a continuous transverse crest, a mesially placed metaconid cusp tip, a slight distal accessory ridge, and an accessory lingual cusp. The M1 shows a Y5 pattern of cusp contact and a well-developed and deep anterior fovea bounded posteriorly by a continuous midtrigonid crest. Gegant-4 is the distal portion of a left humerus from a juvenile estimated to be between 5 and 7 years old at death. The specimen shows thick cortical bone. Although fragmentary, the constellation of morphological and metric features indicates Neandertal affinities for these specimens. Their spatial proximity at the site and similar ages at death suggest these remains may represent a single individual. The addition of these new specimens brings the total number of Neandertal remains from the Cova del Gegant to five, and this site documents the clearest evidence for Neandertal fossils associated with Middle Paleolithic stone tools in this region of the Iberian Peninsula. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of conformational distributions on sigma profiles in COSMO theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu; Stubbs, John M; Siepmann, J Ilja; Sandler, Stanley I

    2005-12-15

    The charge density or sigma profile of a solute molecule is an essential component in COSMO (conductor-like screen model) based solvation theories, and its generation depends on the molecular conformation used. The usual procedure is to determine the conformation of an isolated molecule, and assume that this is unchanged when the molecule is placed in solution. In this paper, the conformations of 1-hexanol and 2-methoxy-ethanol in both the liquid and vapor phases obtained from Gibbs ensemble simulation and from an isolated-molecule quantum DFT optimization are used to determine the effect of realistic conformation differences on COSMO-based properties predictions. In particular, the vapor pressure at the normal boiling temperature and the binary mixture VLE (vapor-liquid equilibrium) predictions obtained using different conformations are investigated. The results show that the sigma profile for 1-hexanol varies only slightly using the different conformations, while the sigma profile of 2-methoxy-ethanol shows a significant difference between the liquid and vapor phases. Consequently, the vapor pressure predictions for 1-hexanol are similar regardless of the manner in which the conformation population was obtained, while there is a larger difference for 2-methoxy-ethanol depending on whether the liquid or vapor conformations from simulation or the DFT-optimized structure is used. These differences in predictions are seen to be largely due to differences in the ideal solvation energy term. In mixture VLE calculations involving 1-hexanol, we again see that there is little difference in the phase equilibrium predictions among the different conformations, while for the mixture with 2-methoxy-ethanol, the differences in the sigma profiles lead to a more noticeable, though not significant, difference in the phase equilibrium predictions.

  2. Effect of long-term aluminum feeding on lipid/phospholipid profiles of rat brain myelin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Kunjan R

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Effect of long-term (90–100 days exposure of rats to soluble salt of aluminum (AlCl3 on myelin lipid profile was examined. The long-term exposure to AlCl3 resulted in a 60 % decrease in the total phospholipid (TPL content while the cholesterol (CHL content increased by 55 %. Consequently the TPL / CHL molar ratio decreased significantly by 62 %. The phospholipid composition of the myelin membrane changed drastically; the proportion of practically all the phospholipid classes decreased by 32 to 60 % except for phosphatidylcholine (PC and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE. Of the latter two, proportion of PC was unchanged while PE increased in proportion by 47 %. Quantitatively, all phospholipid classes decreased by from 42 to 76% with no change in the PE content. However the membrane fluidity was not altered in Al-treated rats. Many of the changes we observe here show striking similarities with the reported phospholipid profiles of Alzheimer brains.

  3. Forecasting the remaining reservoir capacity in the Laurentian Great Lakes watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alighalehbabakhani, Fatemeh; Miller, Carol J.; Baskaran, Mark; Selegean, James P.; Barkach, John H.; Dahl, Travis; Abkenar, Seyed Mohsen Sadatiyan

    2017-12-01

    Sediment accumulation behind a dam is a significant factor in reservoir operation and watershed management. There are many dams located within the Laurentian Great Lakes watershed whose operations have been adversely affected by excessive reservoir sedimentation. Reservoir sedimentation effects include reduction of flood control capability and limitations to both water supply withdrawals and power generation due to reduced reservoir storage. In this research, the sediment accumulation rates of twelve reservoirs within the Great Lakes watershed were evaluated using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The estimated sediment accumulation rates by SWAT were compared to estimates relying on radionuclide dating of sediment cores and bathymetric survey methods. Based on the sediment accumulation rate, the remaining reservoir capacity for each study site was estimated. Evaluation of the anthropogenic impacts including land use change and dam construction on the sediment yield were assessed in this research. The regression analysis was done on the current and pre-European settlement sediment yield for the modeled watersheds to predict the current and natural sediment yield in un-modeled watersheds. These eleven watersheds are in the state of Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, New York, and Wisconsin.

  4. Rekindling the spark. Five strategies to help healthcare administrators remain motivated when facing change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veninga, R L

    1992-11-01

    Many healthcare administrators find it difficult to stay renewed in their careers as pressure mounts on an already stressful work environment. Five strategies can rekindle the spark that once made a healthcare career so attractive. Sharply focused goals are the infrastructure of a harmonious work environment. When people progress toward achieving goals, dissatisfaction with their work environment decreases. Healthcare administrators must also find solutions to problems that chip away at happiness, such as chronic understaffing or a personality conflict with a colleague. If supervisors develop positive problem-solving attitudes, employees tend to emulate them. Administrators need to personalize their leadership style. If subordinates sense their administrator is involved in their occupational struggles, their loyalty will increase and their stress will decrease. A manager needs to be surrounded by creative, energized people because upbeat people have a way of renewing one's spirits. Meaningful friendships can provide support and a fresh perspective on problems. Finally, healthcare administrators must remain steadfastly hopeful even when budgets cast red ink and the future direction of healthcare is uncharted.

  5. From toe to head: use of robust regression methods in stature estimation based on foot remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablos, Adrián; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; García-Pérez, Alfonso; Martínez, Ignacio; Lorenzo, Carlos; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2013-03-10

    Stature estimation is a standard procedure in the fields of forensic and biological anthropology, bio-archaeology and paleoanthropology, in order to gain biological insights into the individuals/populations studied. The most accurate stature estimation method is based on anatomical reconstruction (i.e., the Fully method), followed by type I regression equations (e.g., ordinary least squares - OLS) based on long bones, preferably from the lower limb. In some cases, due to the fragmentary nature of the osseous material recovered, stature estimates have to rely on other elements, such as foot remains. In this study, we explore stature estimation based on different foot bones: the talus, calcaneus, and metatarsals 1-4 in Afro- and Euroamericans of both sexes. The approach undertaken in this study is novel for two reasons. First, individual estimates for each bone are provided, and tarsals and metatarsals are combined in order to obtain more accurate estimates. Second, robust statistical methods based on type I regression equations are used, namely least trimmed squares (LTS). Our results show that the best individual bones for estimating stature are the first and second metatarsal and both the talus and the calcaneus. The combination of a tarsal and a metatarsal bone slightly improves the accuracy of the stature estimate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A novel health indicator for on-line lithium-ion batteries remaining useful life prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yapeng; Huang, Miaohua; Chen, Yupu; Tao, Ye

    2016-07-01

    Prediction of lithium-ion batteries remaining useful life (RUL) plays an important role in an intelligent battery management system. The capacity and internal resistance are often used as the batteries health indicator (HI) for quantifying degradation and predicting RUL. However, on-line measurement of capacity and internal resistance are hardly realizable due to the not fully charged and discharged condition and the extremely expensive cost, respectively. Therefore, there is a great need to find an optional way to deal with this plight. In this work, a novel HI is extracted from the operating parameters of lithium-ion batteries for degradation modeling and RUL prediction. Moreover, Box-Cox transformation is employed to improve HI performance. Then Pearson and Spearman correlation analyses are utilized to evaluate the similarity between real capacity and the estimated capacity derived from the HI. Next, both simple statistical regression technique and optimized relevance vector machine are employed to predict the RUL based on the presented HI. The correlation analyses and prediction results show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed HI for battery degradation modeling and RUL prediction.

  7. Bioarchaeological Analysis of the Human Skeletal Remains from the Late Mediaeval Cemetery of Koprivno, Southern Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Novak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of bioarchaeological analysis of the late mediaeval (13th-14th century skeletal sample from Koprivno, southern Croatia. Skeletal remains of 21 individuals (eight males, nine females, and four subadults were examined for the possible presence of dental pathologies (caries and alveolar bone diseases, subadult stress indicators (cribra orbitalia and dental enamel hypoplasia, degenerative osteoarthritis of the vertebrae and major joints, Schmorl’s nodes on vertebrae, periostitis, and bone trauma. The analysed sample is characterised by high frequency of alveolar bone disease, most probably as a result of somewhat longer average life span (around 41 years and very poor oral hygiene, while the data concerning dental caries indicate mixed diet evenly based on meat and cereals. High frequencies of cribra orbitalia, dental enamel hypoplasia and periostitis suggest frequent episodes of physiological stress (hunger, epidemics of infectious diseases which is in accordance with historical data. Distribution and prevalence of cranial traumas strongly suggest a relatively high degree of interpersonal violence in the analysed community.

  8. Impacts of global warming on phenology of spring leaf unfolding remain stable in the long run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanjiong; Rutishauser, This; Tao, Zexing; Zhong, Shuying; Ge, Quansheng; Dai, Junhu

    2017-02-01

    The impact of spring temperature forcing on the timing of leaf unfolding of plants (temperature sensitivity, S T ) is one important indicator of how and to what degree plant species track climate change. Fu et al. (Nature 526:104-107, 2015) found that S T has significantly decreased from the 1980-1994 to the 1999-2013 period for seven mid-latitude tree species in Europe. However, long-term changes in S T over the past 60 years are still not clear. Here, using in situ observations of leaf unfolding for seven dominant European tree species, we analyze the temporal change in S T over decadal time scales extending the data series back to 1951. Our results demonstrate that S T shows no statistically significant change within shifting 30-year windows from 1951 to 2013 and remains stable between 1951-1980 and 1984-2013 (3.6 versus 3.7 days °C -1 ). This result suggests that the significant decrease in S T over the past 33 years could not be sustained when examining the trends of phenological responses in the long run. Therefore, we could not conclude that tree spring phenology advances will slow down in the future, and the S T changes in warming scenarios are still uncertain.

  9. Could MRI Be Used To Image Kidney Fibrosis? A Review of Recent Advances and Remaining Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, General; Kirpalani, Anish; Szeto, Stephen G; Deeb, Maya; Foltz, Warren; Simmons, Craig A; Yuen, Darren A

    2017-06-07

    A key contributor to the progression of nearly all forms of CKD is fibrosis, a largely irreversible process that drives further kidney injury. Despite its importance, clinicians currently have no means of noninvasively assessing renal scar, and thus have historically relied on percutaneous renal biopsy to assess fibrotic burden. Although helpful in the initial diagnostic assessment, renal biopsy remains an imperfect test for fibrosis measurement, limited not only by its invasiveness, but also, because of the small amounts of tissue analyzed, its susceptibility to sampling bias. These concerns have limited not only the prognostic utility of biopsy analysis and its ability to guide therapeutic decisions, but also the clinical translation of experimental antifibrotic agents. Recent advances in imaging technology have raised the exciting possibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based renal scar analysis, by capitalizing on the differing physical features of fibrotic and nonfibrotic tissue. In this review, we describe two key fibrosis-induced pathologic changes (capillary loss and kidney stiffening) that can be imaged by MRI techniques, and the potential for these new MRI-based technologies to noninvasively image renal scar. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  10. Expert review remains important in the histopathological diagnosis of cutaneous melanocytic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, M C R F; Aben, K K H; van Hees, F; Klaasen, A; Blokx, W A M; Kiemeney, L A L M; Ruiter, D J

    2008-01-01

    To assess the type of problems encountered in diagnosing melanocytic lesions and to evaluate the contribution of expert review. Data from 1887 lesions submitted for consultation to one of the expert pathologists of the Dutch Melanoma Working Group Pathology Panel between 1991 and 2004 were analysed. Referring pathologists can voluntarily submit lesions which are difficult to classify to the panel. Most cutaneous melanocytic lesions (n = 1217) were submitted with a presumed diagnosis by the referring pathologists. Relevant underdiagnoses of melanoma (in situ) and overdiagnoses of naevi were prevented in 12% (144/1217) and 15% (178/1217) of cases, respectively. Problematic melanocytic lesions were (i) spitzoid and dysplastic lesions, (ii) lesions with histological features that hampered the diagnosis such as regression, lymphocytic infiltrate, or a combination with other melanocytic lesions, and (iii) lesions with unusual clinical features, e.g. childhood melanoma. Remarkably, the features of the lesions that were submitted and the types of over- and under-diagnosis remained consistent from 1991 to 2004. A second opinion from an expert pathologist on problem-prone melanocytic lesions improves patient care, in our series in 27% of cases.

  11. How the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola kills plant cells remains an enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yangrae

    2015-04-01

    Alternaria species are mainly saprophytic fungi, but some are plant pathogens. Seven pathotypes of Alternaria alternata use secondary metabolites of host-specific toxins as pathogenicity factors. These toxins kill host cells prior to colonization. Genes associated with toxin synthesis reside on conditionally dispensable chromosomes, supporting the notion that pathogenicity might have been acquired several times by A. alternata. Alternaria brassicicola, however, seems to employ a different mechanism. Evidence on the use of host-specific toxins as pathogenicity factors remains tenuous, even after a diligent search aided by full-genome sequencing and efficient reverse-genetics approaches. Similarly, no individual genes encoding lipases or cell wall-degrading enzymes have been identified as strong virulence factors, although these enzymes have been considered important for fungal pathogenesis. This review describes our current understanding of toxins, lipases, and cell wall-degrading enzymes and their roles in the pathogenesis of A. brassicicola compared to those of other pathogenic fungi. It also describes a set of genes that affect pathogenesis in A. brassicicola. They are involved in various cellular functions that are likely important in most organisms and probably indirectly associated with pathogenesis. Deletion or disruption of these genes results in weakly virulent strains that appear to be sensitive to the defense mechanisms of host plants. Finally, this review discusses the implications of a recent discovery of three important transcription factors associated with pathogenesis and the putative downstream genes that they regulate. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. A multi-time scale approach to remaining useful life prediction in rolling bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yuning; Yan, Ruqiang; Gao, Robert X.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel multi-time scale approach to bearing defect tracking and remaining useful life (RUL) prediction, which integrates enhanced phase space warping (PSW) with a modified Paris crack growth model. As a data-driven method, PSW describes the dynamical behavior of the bearing being tested on a fast-time scale, whereas the Paris crack growth model, as a physics-based model, characterizes the bearing's defect propagation on a slow-time scale. Theoretically, PSW constructs a tracking metric by evaluating the phase space trajectory warping of the bearing vibration data, and establishes a correlation between measurement on a fast-time scale and defect growth variables on a slow-time scale. Furthermore, PSW is enhanced by a multi-dimensional auto-regression (AR) model for improved accuracy in defect tracking. Also, the Paris crack growth model is modified by a time-piecewise algorithm for real-time RUL prediction. Case studies performed on two run-to-failure experiments indicate that the developed technique is effective in tracking the evolution of bearing defects and accurately predict the bearing RUL, thus contributing to the literature of bearing prognosis .

  13. Neonate human remains: a window of opportunity to the molecular study of ancient syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, Rafael; Solórzano, Eduvigis; Díaz, Nancy; Álvarez-Sandoval, Brenda A; González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Cañadas, Mari Pau; Simões, Nelson; Isidro, Albert; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2012-01-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis can be a useful tool in bacterial disease diagnosis in human remains. However, while the recovery of Mycobacterium spp. has been widely successful, several authors report unsuccessful results regarding ancient treponemal DNA, casting doubts on the usefulness of this technique for the diagnosis of ancient syphilis. Here, we present results from an analysis of four newborn specimens recovered from the crypt of "La Ermita de la Soledad" (XVI-XVII centuries), located in the province of Huelva in the southwest of Spain. We extracted and analyzed aDNA in three independent laboratories, following specific procedures generally practiced in the aDNA field, including cloning of the amplified DNA fragments and sequencing of several clones. This is the most ancient case, reported to date, from which detection of DNA from T. pallidum subspecies pallidum has been successful in more than one individual, and we put forward a hypothesis to explain this result, taking into account the course of the disease in neonate individuals.

  14. Pigeons and the Ambiguous-Cue Problem: A Riddle that Remains Unsolved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar García-Leal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ambiguous-cue task is composed of two-choice simultaneous discriminations involving three stimuli: positive (P, ambiguous (A, and negative (N. Two different trial types are presented: PA and NA. The ambiguous cue (A served as an S- in PA trials, but as an S+ in NA trials. When using this procedure, it is typical to observe a less accurate performance in PA trials than in NA trials. This is called the ambiguous-cue effect. Recently, it was reported in starlings that the ambiguous-cue effect decreases when the stimuli are presented on an angled (120° panel. The hypothesis is that the angled panel facilitates that the two cues from each discrimination are perceived as a compound, precluding value transfer via a second-order conditioning mechanism. In this experiment, we used pigeons and a flat panel. Nevertheless, our data were quite similar to the previous data in starlings. We conclude that the form of the panel cannot explain the ambiguous-cue effect. Several alternatives to be explored in future experiments are suggested. The riddle of the ambiguous-cue problem still remains unsolved.

  15. Postinfarction Ventricular Septal Rupture – A Rare Complication Remains Challenge for Cardiac Surgical Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilém Rohn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of post infarction ventricular septal rupture (PIVSR is decreasing in the last years due to aggressive treatment of myocardial infarction with early percutaneous coronary interventions. As a consequence patients with PIVSR are referred to surgery more often with significant heart failure. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the influence of these on the operative results and to identify the risk factors of operative mortality. A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of patients with the PIVSR admitted to our center from November 2004 to February 2012 was performed. Variables were analyzed using two-dimensional correspondence analysis. There were 25 patients (12 males and 13 females with mean age 70.2 years (47–82 operated on; 17 (68% presented with anterior and 8 (32% with posterior PIVSR. Eighteen patients (72% had acute heart failure, 13 (52% presented with cardiogenic shock. Before surgery, intraaortic balloon pump (IABP had 20 (80% patients; in 4 (16% a ventricular assist device was used, either Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO or centrifugal pumps as biventricular assist. Operative mortality was 40% (10 pts.. Four patients (12% had small non-significant recurrent shunt on postoperative echocardiography. Although majority of patients with PIVSR have significant heart failure prior to surgery the operative mortality remains comparable to older studies. Predictors of perioperative death were concomitant surgical reconstruction of the left ventricle, renal impairment before operation, male gender, history of coronary artery disease, PIVSR location posterior, and shock at surgery.

  16. Organisational downsizing and increased use of psychotropic drugs among employees who remain in employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Honkonen, Teija; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Elovainio, Marko; Pentti, Jaana; Klaukka, Timo; Virtanen, Marianna; Vahtera, Jussi

    2007-02-01

    Organisational downsizing is common in modern work life, but its effect on employees' mental health is not known. The authors examined whether working in downsizing organisations predicts use of psychotropic drugs among employees who remain in employment. Prospective cohort study of municipal employees in Finland. 4783 employees worked in downsized units but kept their jobs after downsizing in 1993, 4271 employees lost their jobs during the downsizing, and 17 599 employees did not experience downsizing. The outcome was psychotropic drug prescriptions (antidepressants, anxiolytics and hypnotics) during 1994-2000 extracted from nationwide registers and linked to the data by means of each participant's personal identification number. After adjustment for predownsizing characteristics, employees who were exposed to downsizing but kept their jobs were at a higher risk of being prescribed psychotropic drugs (rate ratio 1.49, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.02 in men and 1.12, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.27 in women) than those not exposed to downsizing. The association of downsizing was strongest with hypnotics among the men and with anxiolytics among the women. An increased rate of psychotropic prescriptions after downsizing was also seen in male workers who lost their job (rate ratio 1.64, 95% CI 1.19 to 2.25). The association between organisational downsizing and increased use of psychotropic drugs suggests that this managerial strategy may pose mental health risks among employees.

  17. Heat remains unaccounted for in thermal physiology and climate change research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouris, Andreas D; Kenny, Glen P

    2017-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Paris Agreement, there is a crucial need for scientists in both thermal physiology and climate change research to develop the integrated approaches necessary to evaluate the health, economic, technological, social, and cultural impacts of 1.5°C warming. Our aim was to explore the fidelity of remote temperature measurements for quantitatively identifying the continuous redistribution of heat within both the Earth and the human body. Not accounting for the regional distribution of warming and heat storage patterns can undermine the results of thermal physiology and climate change research. These concepts are discussed herein using two parallel examples: the so-called slowdown of the Earth's surface temperature warming in the period 1998-2013; and the controversial results in thermal physiology, arising from relying heavily on core temperature measurements. In total, the concept of heat is of major importance for the integrity of systems, such as the Earth and human body. At present, our understanding about the interplay of key factors modulating the heat distribution on the surface of the Earth and in the human body remains incomplete. Identifying and accounting for the interconnections among these factors will be instrumental in improving the accuracy of both climate models and health guidelines.

  18. Estimating the remaining potential of the Reconcavo basin, Brazil: a basin modeling and material balance approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Thamy C.S.D.; Goncalves, Felix T.T.; Bedregal, Ricardo P.; Cuinas Filho, Elio P. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Modelagem de Bacias (LAB2M); Landau, Luiz [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Metodos Computacionais em Engenharia (LAMCE)

    2004-07-01

    The existence of a petroleum system requires a number of essential elements (traps and source, reservoir and seal rocks) and processes (HC generation and migration and trap formation) besides an adequate timing among the elements and processes and a positive balance between the HC generation and losses due to (re)migration. Due to the complexity of petroleum systems dynamics, the basin modeling technique is the only one that allows the integration of all geological, geophysical and geochemical data as well as the simulation of the involved phenomena in a physically consistent way, providing an integrated view of the geologic history of the processes and elements of the petroleum system. The main objectives of this work are to show a reconstruction of the thermal and maturity evolution of the sedimentary section of the Reconcavo Basin using a multi-1D (pseudo 3D) approach, to model petroleum generation and expulsion, and the evolution of the pod(s) of source rock through time and space using the pseudo 3D approach, simulate petroleum migration along the main carrier-beds, accumulation and remigration from the potential traps. The advanced exploratory stage (mature), the geologic context (an intracratonic rift that resembles a close system) and the availability of large amounts of public data, make the Reconcavo Basin an excellent place to perform a study that can provide basis to an estimate of the remaining petroleum potential in analogous petroleum systems. (author)

  19. Reliability of BOD POD Measurements Remains High After a Short-Duration Low-Carbohydrate Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Beau Kjerulf; Edsall, Kathleen M; Greer, Anna E

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether expected changes in body weight via a 3-day low-carbohydrate (LC) diet will disrupt the reliability of air displacement plethysmography measurements via BOD POD. Twenty-four subjects recorded their typical diets for 3 days before BOD POD and 7-site skinfold analyses. Subjects were matched for lean body mass and divided into low-CHO (LC) and control (CON) groups. The LC group was given instruction intended to prevent more than 50 grams/day of carbohydrate consumption for 3 consecutive days, and the CON group replicated their previously recorded diet. Body composition measurements were repeated after dietary intervention. Test-retest reliability measures were significant (p BOD POD measurements for body mass (72.9 ± 13.3 vs. 72.1 ± 13.0 kg [M ± SD]) and body volume (69.0 ± 12.7-68.1 ± 12.2 L) in the LC group (p .05) in BOD POD-determined body fat percentage, lean body mass, or fat mass between the 1st and 2nd trial in either group. Body composition measures via BOD POD and 7-site skinfolds remain reliable after 3 days of an LC diet despite significant decreases in body mass.

  20. Remaining dischargeable time prediction for lithium-ion batteries using unscented Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guangzhong; Wei, Jingwen; Chen, Zonghai; Sun, Han; Yu, Xiaowei

    2017-10-01

    To overcome the range anxiety, one of the important strategies is to accurately predict the range or dischargeable time of the battery system. To accurately predict the remaining dischargeable time (RDT) of a battery, a RDT prediction framework based on accurate battery modeling and state estimation is presented in this paper. Firstly, a simplified linearized equivalent-circuit-model is developed to simulate the dynamic characteristics of a battery. Then, an online recursive least-square-algorithm method and unscented-Kalman-filter are employed to estimate the system matrices and SOC at every prediction point. Besides, a discrete wavelet transform technique is employed to capture the statistical information of past dynamics of input currents, which are utilized to predict the future battery currents. Finally, the RDT can be predicted based on the battery model, SOC estimation results and predicted future battery currents. The performance of the proposed methodology has been verified by a lithium-ion battery cell. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method can provide an accurate SOC and parameter estimation and the predicted RDT can solve the range anxiety issues.

  1. The Associations between Yelp Online Reviews and Vape Shops Closing or Remaining Open One Year Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Grace; Unger, Jennifer; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Sussman, Steve

    2017-01-01

    Vape shops are popular brick-and-mortar stores that sell e-cigarette products but are not understood well. Previous analysis of Yelp reviews of vape shops located in various ethnic neighborhoods in Los Angeles, California in 2014 identified characteristics of vape shop as delineated by consumers. In this study, we assessed the associations between these characteristics and vape shops going out of business in 2015. Content analysis of Yelp reviews of 72 vape shops in 2014 identified 1) general characteristics of the reviews/reviewers, 2) vape shop, staff, and marketing attributes, 3) physical environment, and 4) health claims. In 2015, in-person visits confirmed that 22% of these vape shops closed permanently. We analyzed whether characteristics/attributes identified in 2014 associated with stores remaining open (n = 56) or permanently closing (n = 16) in 2015. Univariate findings showed that open vape shops relative to closed shops had greater 1) number of reviews, 2) rebuilds/fixings, 3) ratings of staff attributes as "helpful/patient/respectful," and 4) report of the physical environment as "bar type." Bar type vape shops and those with rebuilding/fixing capabilities were associated with staying open, suggesting the popularity of these attributes. Yelp consumer reviews is a useful research tool to identify consumer-determined important sustaining attributes of vape shops and may be used to identify aspects of enduring shops that need regulations.

  2. Early archosauromorph remains from the Permo-Triassic Buena Vista Formation of north-eastern Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezcurra, Martín D; Velozo, Pablo; Meneghel, Melitta; Piñeiro, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    The Permo-Triassic archosauromorph record is crucial to understand the impact of the Permo-Triassic mass extinction on the early evolution of the group and its subsequent dominance in Mesozoic terrestrial ecosystems. However, the Permo-Triassic archosauromorph record is still very poor in most continents and hampers the identification of global macroevolutionary patterns. Here we describe cranial and postcranial bones from the Permo-Triassic Buena Vista Formation of northeastern Uruguay that contribute to increase the meagre early archosauromorph record from South America. A basioccipital fused to both partial exoccipitals and three cervical vertebrae are assigned to Archosauromorpha based on apomorphies or a unique combination of characters. The archosauromorph remains of the Buena Vista Formation probably represent a multi-taxonomic assemblage composed of non-archosauriform archosauromorphs and a 'proterosuchid-grade' animal. This assemblage does not contribute in the discussion of a Late Permian or Early Triassic age for the Buena Vista Formation, but reinforces the broad palaeobiogeographic distribution of 'proterosuchid grade' diapsids in Permo-Triassic beds worldwide.

  3. Commentary: Recommendations and remaining questions for health care leadership training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, James K

    2013-01-01

    Effective leadership is critical for optimizing cost, access, and quality in health care. Creating a pipeline of effective health care leaders requires developing leadership competencies that differ from the usual criteria of clinical and scientific excellence by which physicians have traditionally been promoted to leadership positions. Specific competencies that differentiate effective leaders from average leaders, especially emotional intelligence and its component abilities, are essential for effective leadership.Adopting a long-standing practice from successful corporations, some health care institutions, medical societies, and business schools now offer leadership programs that address these differentiating leadership competencies. The author draws on experience with such programs through the Cleveland Clinic Academy to provide recommendations for health care leadership training and to identify unanswered questions about such programs.The author recommends that such training should be broadly available to all health care leadership communities (i.e., nurses, administrators, and physicians). A progressive curriculum, starting with foundational concepts and extending to coaching and feedback opportunities through experiential learning, recognizes the challenge of becoming an effective leader and the long time line needed to do so. Linking leadership courses to continuing medical education and to graduate credit opportunities is appealing to participants. Other recommendations focus on the importance of current leaders' involvement in nominating emerging leaders for participation, embedding leadership development discussions in faculty's professional reviews, and blending discussion of frameworks and theory with practical, experiential lessons. The author identifies questions about the benefits of formal health care leadership training that remain to be answered.

  4. Biomarkers reveal sea turtles remained in oiled areas following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Zanden, Hannah B.; Bolten, Alan B.; Tucker, Anton D.; Hart, Kristen M.; Lamont, Margaret M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Reich, Kimberly J.; Addison, David S.; Mansfield, Katherine L.; Phillips, Katrina F.; Pajuelo, Mariela; Bjorndal, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of large-scale disasters, such as the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, are problematic because while measurements of post-disturbance conditions are common, measurements of pre-disturbance baselines are only rarely available. Without adequate observations of pre-disaster organismal and environmental conditions, it is impossible to assess the impact of such catastrophes on animal populations and ecological communities. Here, we use long-term biological tissue records to provide pre-disaster data for a vulnerable marine organism. Keratin samples from the carapace of loggerhead sea turtles record the foraging history for up to 18 years, allowing us to evaluate the effect of the oil spill on sea turtle foraging patterns. Samples were collected from 76 satellite-tracked adult loggerheads in 2011 and 2012, approximately one to two years after the spill. Of the 10 individuals that foraged in areas exposed to surface oil, none demonstrated significant changes in foraging patterns post spill. The observed long-term fidelity to foraging sites indicates that loggerheads in the northern Gulf of Mexico likely remained in established foraging sites, regardless of the introduction of oil and chemical dispersants. More research is needed to address potential long-term health consequences to turtles in this region. Mobile marine organisms present challenges for researchers to monitor effects of environmental disasters, both spatially and temporally. We demonstrate that biological tissues can reveal long-term histories of animal behavior and provide critical pre-disaster baselines following an anthropogenic disturbance or natural disaster.

  5. Heat remains unaccounted for in thermal physiology and climate change research [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas D. Flouris

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the Paris Agreement, there is a crucial need for scientists in both thermal physiology and climate change research to develop the integrated approaches necessary to evaluate the health, economic, technological, social, and cultural impacts of 1.5°C warming. Our aim was to explore the fidelity of remote temperature measurements for quantitatively identifying the continuous redistribution of heat within both the Earth and the human body. Not accounting for the regional distribution of warming and heat storage patterns can undermine the results of thermal physiology and climate change research. These concepts are discussed herein using two parallel examples: the so-called slowdown of the Earth’s surface temperature warming in the period 1998-2013; and the controversial results in thermal physiology, arising from relying heavily on core temperature measurements. In total, the concept of heat is of major importance for the integrity of systems, such as the Earth and human body. At present, our understanding about the interplay of key factors modulating the heat distribution on the surface of the Earth and in the human body remains incomplete. Identifying and accounting for the interconnections among these factors will be instrumental in improving the accuracy of both climate models and health guidelines.

  6. Optimization of Aeroengine Shop Visit Decisions Based on Remaining Useful Life and Stochastic Repair Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Cai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the wide application of condition-based maintenance in aeroengine maintenance practice, it becomes possible for aeroengines to carry out their preventive maintenance in just-in-time (JIT manner by reasonably planning their shop visits (SVs. In this study, an approach is proposed to make aeroengine SV decisions following the concept of JIT. Firstly, a state space model (SSM for aeroengine based on exhaust gas temperature margin is developed to predict the remaining useful life (RUL of aeroengine. Secondly, the effect of SV decisions on risk and service level (SL is analyzed, and an optimization of the aeroengine SV decisions based on RUL and stochastic repair time is performed to carry out JIT manner with the requirement of safety and SL. Finally, a case study considering two CFM-56 aeroengines is presented to demonstrate the proposed approach. The results show that predictive accuracy of RUL with SSM is higher than with linear regression, and the process of SV decisions is simple and feasible for airlines to improve the inventory management level of their aeroengines.

  7. Cardiac Function Remains Impaired Despite Reversible Cardiac Remodeling after Acute Experimental Viral Myocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Moritz Becher

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Infection with Coxsackievirus B3 induces myocarditis. We aimed to compare the acute and chronic phases of viral myocarditis to identify the immediate effects of cardiac inflammation as well as the long-term effects after resolved inflammation on cardiac fibrosis and consequently on cardiac function. Material and Methods. We infected C57BL/6J mice with Coxsackievirus B3 and determined the hemodynamic function 7 as well as 28 days after infection. Subsequently, we analyzed viral burden and viral replication in the cardiac tissue as well as the expression of cytokines and matrix proteins. Furthermore, cardiac fibroblasts were infected with virus to investigate if viral infection alone induces profibrotic signaling. Results. Severe cardiac inflammation was determined and cardiac fibrosis was consistently colocalized with inflammation during the acute phase of myocarditis. Declined cardiac inflammation but no significantly improved hemodynamic function was observed 28 days after infection. Interestingly, cardiac fibrosis declined to basal levels as well. Both cardiac inflammation and fibrosis were reversible, whereas the hemodynamic function remains impaired after healed viral myocarditis in C57BL/6J mice.

  8. New Geophysical Data On The Remains of Ancient Buildings In The Vicinity of Kazan Kremlin (russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepak, Z.

    Beside the Kremlin of Kazan, a monument of culture and architecture of the 16th-18th centuries, there were many other buildings near the historical territory of the Kremlin which are now partly or wholly destroyed, such as the Bogoroditsky nunnery. New geophysical and archaeological studies have been conducted here in 2000-01 to locate the position of the buildings more precisely. The main geophysical method employed was electromagnetic sounding by the stabilisation of EM-field using the device SIm- & cedil;pulseAuto M-1/0-20T for studying the upper geological layers including the daylight surface. EM-sounding with sampling intervals of 0.5-2.0 m resulted in vertical sec- tions of total electrical conductivity S(H). At some points, high-precision gravimeter survey was also conducted. Subsequent archaeological excavations completely con- firmed the acquired geophysical information and its interpretation. Among the studied objects within the KremlinSs boundary were the bell tower of the Blagoveschensky Cathedral, fortress wall of the 12th century and remains of the KhanSs Palace. The re- mains of the destroyed Our Lady Summer Cathedral, tower and the nunnerySs fence were found in the Bogoroditsky nunnery.

  9. Metazoan Remaining Genes for Essential Amino Acid Biosynthesis: Sequence Conservation and Evolutionary Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor R. Costa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Essential amino acids (EAA consist of a group of nine amino acids that animals are unable to synthesize via de novo pathways. Recently, it has been found that most metazoans lack the same set of enzymes responsible for the de novo EAA biosynthesis. Here we investigate the sequence conservation and evolution of all the metazoan remaining genes for EAA pathways. Initially, the set of all 49 enzymes responsible for the EAA de novo biosynthesis in yeast was retrieved. These enzymes were used as BLAST queries to search for similar sequences in a database containing 10 complete metazoan genomes. Eight enzymes typically attributed to EAA pathways were found to be ubiquitous in metazoan genomes, suggesting a conserved functional role. In this study, we address the question of how these genes evolved after losing their pathway partners. To do this, we compared metazoan genes with their fungal and plant orthologs. Using phylogenetic analysis with maximum likelihood, we found that acetolactate synthase (ALS and betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT diverged from the expected Tree of Life (ToL relationships. High sequence conservation in the paraphyletic group Plant-Fungi was identified for these two genes using a newly developed Python algorithm. Selective pressure analysis of ALS and BHMT protein sequences showed higher non-synonymous mutation ratios in comparisons between metazoans/fungi and metazoans/plants, supporting the hypothesis that these two genes have undergone non-ToL evolution in animals.

  10. Analysis of composite structure and primordial wood remains in petrified wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, J; Nowak, D; Chevallier, P; Lekki, J; Van Grieken, R; Kuczumow, A

    2007-08-01

    Among all the fossils, petrified wood belongs to the most impressive and most common of materials. Still, its study has not exceeded the purely phenomenological level. The recognition of the conserved structure of petrified wood seems to be of meaning for understanding the geological past, the complete carbon cycle inside the Earth, and the structure of potential new materials. The first ever published spatial distributions of the remains of the primordial organic material (lignin, cellulose, pectins) in the cells of permineralized wood, from Dunarobba (Central Italy), are presented here. They were collected using micro-Raman spectrometry. The composite nature of the petrified material (calcite located in the lumena of cells and goethite located in the cell walls) was confirmed by electron, proton, and X-ray microprobes. The structure of the cell walls was well preserved. The mineralization process was induced by the tracheidal water flow and was stopped after formation of pipe-like goethite shielding of the cell walls on the cellulose scaffolds. The chemical (Eh and pH ranges) and probable microbial conditions for such a pattern of mineralization were determined. We estimate that substantial amounts of the primordial organic matter were preserved in bodies of petrified wood on a global scale. The wood petrifaction process, if well understood, can be a basis for the production of "everlasting" organic-inorganic composite compounds.

  11. Neutron measurements of the fuel remaining in the TMI II once-through steam generators (OTSG'S)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geelhood, B.D.; Abel, K.H.

    1989-02-01

    Polypropylene tubes containing a string of 18 copper rods were inserted into the lower head region and each J-leg of the two once-through steam generators (OTSG) of the unit two reactor at Three Mile Island. The object was to measure the neutron flux present in those regions and estimate the amount of residual fuel remaining in each OTSG. The neutron flux from any residual fuel induces a radioisotope, /sup 64/Cu, in the copper coupons. The /sup 64/Cu activity is detected by coincidence counting the two 511-keV gamma rays produced by the annihilation of the positron emitted in the decay of /sup 64/Cu. The copper coupons were placed between two 6-inch diameter, 6-inch long NaI(Tl) crystals and the electronics produced a coincidence count whenever the two gamma rays were uniquely detected. The net coincidence count is proportional to the amount of /sup 64/Cu activity in the coupon. This document discusses calculation methods, statistical methods, and results of this research. 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  12. The remaining core: a fresh look at religiosity trends in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins-Laflamme, Sarah

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing argument that the end product of secularization may not be a disappearance of all things religious, but rather a polarization between a larger secular group in society and smaller religiously fervent and active communities. Yet, there has been little empirical testing of this theory in contexts of advanced secularization. The aim of this paper is to fill this gap by studying individual belief and religiosity trends over the past four decades in Great Britain, searching specifically for evidence of the population splitting more and more between religious 'nones' removed from all forms of religion, and actively religious individuals characterized by strong beliefs and favourable to the public involvement of religion. Analysing descriptive statistics from the 1983-2012 BSAs as well as more detailed models from the 1991, 1998 and 2008 BSAs, we find growing differences in levels of beliefs and attitudes towards public religion between the increasing proportions of unaffiliated and, in recent years and among younger cohorts, more stable proportions of religiously committed individuals. The remaining religiously committed generally have stronger beliefs and more favourable views towards religious leaders influencing politics in 2008 compared with 1991, and the unaffiliated, less favourable views towards public religion. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  13. Biomechanical behavior of teeth without remaining coronal structure restored with different post designs and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroli, Angélica; Hoelcher, Kaue Andreas Lotice; Reginato, Vagner Flavio; Spazzin, Aloisio Oro; Caldas, Ricardo Armini; Bacchi, Atais

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to access the biomechanical behavior of teeth without remaining coronal structure when restored with posts of different materials and configurations. Fifty bovine teeth (n=10 per group) with standard dimensions were restored as follows: cast post and core (CPC), prefabricated metallic post (PFM), parallel glass-fiber post (P-FP), conical glass-fiber post (C-FP) or composite core (no post, CC). The survival rate during thermomechanical challenging (TC), the fracture strength (FS), and failure pattern (FP) were evaluated. Finite element models were realized to evaluate the stress distribution with a 100N load. All post-containing teeth survived TC, while CC had 30% of failures. CPC and C-FP had the higher fracture strength, but a high number of irreparable fractures (60%), such as PFM (70%). Von Mises analysis has shown the maximum stresses into the canal in groups restored with metallic posts, while glass-fiber posts and CC presented the maximum stresses at load contact point in the crown. CPC led to higher modified von Mises (mvM) stress in the cervical third of dentin. However, mvM values did not reach the dentin fracture limit for any group. Analysis of maximal contact pressure has shown better stress distribution along with the dentin interface in post-containing groups, especially for CPC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Early archosauromorph remains from the Permo-Triassic Buena Vista Formation of north-eastern Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín D. Ezcurra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Permo-Triassic archosauromorph record is crucial to understand the impact of the Permo-Triassic mass extinction on the early evolution of the group and its subsequent dominance in Mesozoic terrestrial ecosystems. However, the Permo-Triassic archosauromorph record is still very poor in most continents and hampers the identification of global macroevolutionary patterns. Here we describe cranial and postcranial bones from the Permo-Triassic Buena Vista Formation of northeastern Uruguay that contribute to increase the meagre early archosauromorph record from South America. A basioccipital fused to both partial exoccipitals and three cervical vertebrae are assigned to Archosauromorpha based on apomorphies or a unique combination of characters. The archosauromorph remains of the Buena Vista Formation probably represent a multi-taxonomic assemblage composed of non-archosauriform archosauromorphs and a ‘proterosuchid-grade’ animal. This assemblage does not contribute in the discussion of a Late Permian or Early Triassic age for the Buena Vista Formation, but reinforces the broad palaeobiogeographic distribution of ‘proterosuchid grade’ diapsids in Permo-Triassic beds worldwide.

  15. Point-of-Sale Tobacco Advertising Remains Prominent in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khariwala, Samir S; Garg, Apurva; Stepanov, Irina; Gupta, Prakash C; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Gota, Vikram; Chaturvedi, Pankaj

    2016-07-01

    In India, a 2003 law ("COPTA") banned tobacco advertising with the exception of "point of sale" and "on-pack" advertising. Given substantial evidence regarding the impact of point of sale advertising (PoS), we analyzed the prevalence of encountering such advertising in Mumbai, India. A survey was conducted of 199 current and recent former tobacco users recruited at the Tata Memorial Hospital (Mumbai). Enrollees were queried regarding their exposure to tobacco advertising in the last 30 days through multiple media sources. Descriptive epidemiologic techniques were used to characterize the data. Overall, 95% of participants were men and 5% were women (mean age=49 years). All were current tobacco users or quit using all forms of tobacco in the last 60 days. Participants' responses revealed that PoS tobacco advertising had been encountered in the last 30 days for cigarettes (61%), bidis (54%), and smokeless tobacco (59%). Other forms of tobacco advertising were virtually non-existent. PoS tobacco advertising remains prominent and highly visible to consumers in Mumbai, India, indicating corporate exploitation of a loophole in the COPTA legislation. Given the observed compliance with the currently imposed bans, revisions of COPTA to include all forms of tobacco promotion and advertising would be impactful.

  16. Accurate bearing remaining useful life prediction based on Weibull distribution and artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ali, Jaouher; Chebel-Morello, Brigitte; Saidi, Lotfi; Malinowski, Simon; Fnaiech, Farhat

    2015-05-01

    Accurate remaining useful life (RUL) prediction of critical assets is an important challenge in condition based maintenance to improve reliability and decrease machine's breakdown and maintenance's cost. Bearing is one of the most important components in industries which need to be monitored and the user should predict its RUL. The challenge of this study is to propose an original feature able to evaluate the health state of bearings and to estimate their RUL by Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) techniques. In this paper, the proposed method is based on the data-driven prognostic approach. The combination of Simplified Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory Map (SFAM) neural network and Weibull distribution (WD) is explored. WD is used just in the training phase to fit measurement and to avoid areas of fluctuation in the time domain. SFAM training process is based on fitted measurements at present and previous inspection time points as input. However, the SFAM testing process is based on real measurements at present and previous inspections. Thanks to the fuzzy learning process, SFAM has an important ability and a good performance to learn nonlinear time series. As output, seven classes are defined; healthy bearing and six states for bearing degradation. In order to find the optimal RUL prediction, a smoothing phase is proposed in this paper. Experimental results show that the proposed method can reliably predict the RUL of rolling element bearings (REBs) based on vibration signals. The proposed prediction approach can be applied to prognostic other various mechanical assets.

  17. Remaining useful life prognostics for aeroengine based on superstatistics and information fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Junqiang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Remaining useful life (RUL prognostics is a fundamental premise to perform condition-based maintenance (CBM for a system subject to performance degradation. Over the past decades, research has been conducted in RUL prognostics for aeroengine. However, most of the prognostics technologies and methods simply base on single parameter, making it hard to demonstrate the specific characteristics of its degradation. To solve such problems, this paper proposes a novel approach to predict RUL by means of superstatistics and information fusion. The performance degradation evolution of the engine is modeled by fusing multiple monitoring parameters, which manifest non-stationary characteristics while degrading. With the obtained degradation curve, prognostics model can be established by state-space method, and then RUL can be estimated when the time-varying parameters of the model are predicted and updated through Kalman filtering algorithm. By this method, the non-stationary degradation of each parameter is represented, and multiple monitoring parameters are incorporated, both contributing to the final prognostics. A case study shows that this approach enables satisfactory prediction evolution and achieves a markedly better prognosis of RUL.

  18. SEMI-AUTOMATED TECHNIQUE FOR CREATING GEOLOGICAL PROFILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristijan Posavec

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents semi-automated technique for creating geological profiles. Technique is based on manual geological correlation, and on computer tools which ensure automation of the remaining part of procedure, namely from lithological data storage to creation of graphical presentation of geological profiles. Microsoft (MS Access program was used for lithologic data storage while Visual Basic (VB macros for Excel were used for automated transfer of lithologic data from MS Access data base to Rockworks program. Rockworks was used for creation of work version of geologic profiles, and AutoCAD program for final graphical presentation of geological profiles. Presented concept facilitates automation of technical part of procedure for creating geological profiles and makes it easier and faster (the paper is published in Croatian.

  19. Personality Profiles of Effective Leadership Performance in Assessment Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Alissa D.; Lanza, Stephanie T.; Bernthal, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Most research examining the relationship between effective leadership and personality has focused on individual personality traits. However, profiles of personality traits more fully describe individuals, and these profiles may be important as they relate to leadership. This study used latent class analysis to examine how personality traits combine and interact to form subpopulations of leaders, and how these subpopulations relate to performance criteria. Using a sample of 2,461 executive-level leaders, six personality profiles were identified: Unpredictable Leaders with Low Diligence (7.3%); Conscientious, Backend Leaders (3.6%); Unpredictable Leaders (8.6%); Creative Communicators (20.8%); Power Players (32.4%); and Protocol Followers (27.1%). One profile performed well on all criteria in an assessment center; remaining profiles exhibited strengths and weaknesses across criteria. Implications and future directions for research are highlighted. PMID:27746587

  20. Personality Profiles of Effective Leadership Performance in Assessment Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Alissa D; Lanza, Stephanie T; Bernthal, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Most research examining the relationship between effective leadership and personality has focused on individual personality traits. However, profiles of personality traits more fully describe individuals, and these profiles may be important as they relate to leadership. This study used latent class analysis to examine how personality traits combine and interact to form subpopulations of leaders, and how these subpopulations relate to performance criteria. Using a sample of 2,461 executive-level leaders, six personality profiles were identified: Unpredictable Leaders with Low Diligence (7.3%); Conscientious, Backend Leaders (3.6%); Unpredictable Leaders (8.6%); Creative Communicators (20.8%); Power Players (32.4%); and Protocol Followers (27.1%). One profile performed well on all criteria in an assessment center; remaining profiles exhibited strengths and weaknesses across criteria. Implications and future directions for research are highlighted.

  1. Equilibrium shoreface profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels; Hughes, Michael G

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale coastal behaviour models use the shoreface profile of equilibrium as a fundamental morphological unit that is translated in space to simulate coastal response to, for example, sea level oscillations and variability in sediment supply. Despite a longstanding focus on the shoreface prof...

  2. Culinary Arts Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This chart is intended for use in documenting the fact that a student participating in a culinary arts program has achieved the performance standards specified in the Missouri Competency Profile for culinary arts. The chart includes space for recording basic student and instructor information and the student's on-the-job training and work…

  3. Profiling Bad Apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFee, Scott

    2000-01-01

    Many school administrators want to develop profiling procedures to identify violence-prone students before bullets start flying. Warning signs (chronic depression, anger, abusive home conditions, violent history) are a staring point. Two FBI agents recommend visiting classrooms, identifying troubled kids, and ensuring that they get help. (MLH)

  4. A Danish Profiling System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Staghøj, Jonas; Svarer, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the statistical model used for profiling new unemployed workers in Denmark. When a worker – during his or her first six months in unemployment – enters the employment office for the first time, this model predicts whether or not he or she will be unemployed for more than six ...

  5. Economy Profile of Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Guatemala. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Guat...

  6. Economy Profile of Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Hungary. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Hungary ...

  7. Education Management Profile: Uzbekistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This education management profile of Uzbekistan contains the following: basic information about the country, key educational indicators, brief comments about the country and its history, a description of the education system, the management of education, access to education and school enrollment, problems and challenges, educational reform in…

  8. Economy Profile of Bhutan

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Bhutan. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Bhutan ...

  9. Eloise Greenfield (Profile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Rudine Sims

    1997-01-01

    Profiles Eloise Greenfield. Reveals that Greenfield's early love of music echoes in both the form and content of her poetry and prose. Notes that her poems are marked by strong rhythms, expressions of emotion, and a strong sense of children, their voices, and the waystations on their journey through life. (SR)

  10. PSI Member Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Professional Secretaries International, Kansas City, MO.

    A survey of 2,700 of the 27,000 members of Professional Secretaries International received 755 responses yielding the following profile of secretarial workers: (1) the average member is female, about 45 years old, married with no dependents living at home, and owns a single-family home in the suburbs; (2) most respondents have worked in office or…

  11. Country Profiles, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Daniel; Thapa, Rita

    A profile of Nepal is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population--size, growth patterns, age/sex structure, geographical distribution, topographical obstacles, ethnic and religious…

  12. Country Education Profiles: Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Bureau of Education, Geneva (Switzerland).

    One of a series of profiles prepared by the Cooperative Educational Abstracting Service, this brief outline provides basic background information on educational principles, system of administration, structure and organization, curricula, and teacher training in Algeria. Statistics provided by the Unesco Office of Statistics show enrollment at all…

  13. Country Profiles, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lewis S.

    A profile of Turkey is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  14. Genetic genealogy reveals true Y haplogroup of House of Bourbon contradicting recent identification of the presumed remains of two French Kings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmuseau, Maarten H D; Delorme, Philippe; Germain, Patrick; Vanderheyden, Nancy; Gilissen, Anja; Van Geystelen, Anneleen; Cassiman, Jean-Jacques; Decorte, Ronny

    2014-05-01

    Genetic analysis strongly increases the opportunity to identify skeletal remains or other biological samples from historical figures. However, validation of this identification is essential and should be done by DNA typing of living relatives. Based on the similarity of a limited set of Y-STRs, a blood sample and a head were recently identified as those belonging respectively to King Louis XVI and his paternal ancestor King Henry IV. Here, we collected DNA samples from three living males of the House of Bourbon to validate the since then controversial identification of these remains. The three living relatives revealed the Bourbon's Y-chromosomal variant on a high phylogenetic resolution for several members of the lineage between Henry IV and Louis XVI. This 'true' Bourbon's variant is different from the published Y-STR profiles of the blood as well as of the head. The earlier identifications of these samples can therefore not be validated. Moreover, matrilineal genealogical data revealed that the published mtDNA sequence of the head was also different from the one of a series of relatives. This therefore leads to the conclusion that the analyzed samples were not from the French kings. Our study once again demonstrated that in order to realize an accurate genetic identification of historical remains DNA typing of living persons, who are paternally or maternally related with the presumed donor of the samples, is required.

  15. Migration Dilemmas of Islanders: Commuting Leading to Migration or Remaining at Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Lajić

    2001-09-01

    shopping, visiting doctors, as well as visiting relatives and friends. Depopulation of the islands in the Šibenik costal area has had an effect on reducing the size of the category of commuters, commuting pupils and commuting employees. The islands are more and more becoming a peripheral area, and the islanders see the absence of the young population as a particular problem. Commuting pupils are facing dilemmas regarding the decision to leave the islands or remain on them, with both alternatives at present having equal weight. The desire to remain on the islands is somewhat stronger among secondary school pupils, in comparison to elementary school pupils, and somewhat stronger among female pupils than among male pupils. Commuting of (especially young island populations has a tendency to develop into out-migration, which could have a further negative effect on the socio-demographic situation and, if the trend is not changed, could threaten the perspectives of local island communities. Factors influencing continued residence on the islands pertain to the sphere of economics, as well as to ecological valorisation of the islands. Tourism is the most attractive economic activity, although agriculture is also becoming more and more attractive, especially olive-growing as a traditional island activity. Transportation links do not constitute a major push factor leading to the decision to leave. However, in the given context this concerns the islands nearest the mainland, which are often better linked to the mainland centre (Šibenik than are suburban areas on the mainland itself.

  16. Attitudes of Obstetrician-Gynecologists towards the Evidence from the WHI HT Trials Remain Generally Skeptical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Michael L; Anderson, Britta L; Schulkin, Jay

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the opinions of obstetrician-gynecologists regarding hormone therapy (HT) and the results from the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI). Design Separate surveys were sent to two groups of practicing obstetrician-gynecologists: 1) respondents to a 2004–2005 survey (Follow-up #1), 2) members of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists’ Collaborative Ambulatory Research Network (Follow-up #2 CARN). These studies complete a longitudinal study investigating obstetrician-gynecologists’ opinions of the evidence from WHI. Results Response rates were 64.5% and 58.8%, respectively. Responses from both surveys were generally consistent with the results from the 2004–2005 survey. A majority of physicians from both survey populations were skeptical of the combined HT results. Respondents were more likely to find the results of the unopposed estrogen trial convincing. Similar to the results from the 2004–2005 study CARN physicians generally disagreed with the decision to end the WHI trials. Unlike the 2004–2005 study there was no consistent effect of either age or year residency was completed on physician opinions. Similar to the 2004–2005 study physicians that considered alternative therapies viable treatment options were more likely to report they found the trial results convincing. The results from Follow-up #2 CARN indicate that physicians in the south were most likely to prescribe and physicians in the east were least likely, suggesting that unmeasured socio-cultural parameters might influence HT prescribing practice. Conclusions Obstetrician-gynecologists remain generally skeptical of the WHI results, though less so of the estrogen only trial. The early end to the trials may have contributed to their skepticism. PMID:19169162

  17. Analysis of Subfossil Molecular Remains of Purple Sulfur Bacteria in a Lake Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolen, Marco J. L.; Overmann, Jörg

    1998-01-01

    Molecular remains of purple sulfur bacteria (Chromatiaceae) were detected in Holocene sediment layers of a meromictic salt lake (Mahoney Lake, British Columbia, Canada). The carotenoid okenone and bacteriophaeophytin a were present in sediments up to 11,000 years old. Okenone is specific for only a few species of Chromatiaceae, including Amoebobacter purpureus, which presently predominates in the chemocline bacterial community of the lake. With a primer set specific for Chromatiaceae in combination with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, 16S rRNA gene sequences of four different Chromatiaceae species were retrieved from different depths of the sediment. One of the sequences, which originated from a 9,100-year-old sample, was 99.2% identical to the 16S rRNA gene sequence of A. purpureus ML1 isolated from the chemocline. Employing primers specific for A. purpureus ML1 and dot blot hybridization of the PCR products, the detection limit for A. purpureus ML1 DNA could be lowered to 0.004% of the total community DNA. With this approach the DNA of the isolate was detected in 7 of 10 sediment layers, indicating that A. purpureus ML1 constituted at least a part of the ancient purple sulfur bacterial community. The concentrations of A. purpureus DNA and okenone in the sediment were not correlated, and the ratio of DNA to okenone was much lower in the subfossil sediment layers (2.7 · 10−6) than in intact cells (1.4). This indicates that degradation rates are significantly higher for genomic DNA than for hydrocarbon cell constituents, even under anoxic conditions and at the very high sulfide concentrations present in Mahoney Lake. PMID:9797316

  18. Biomarkers reveal sea turtles remained in oiled areas following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Zanden, Hannah B; Bolten, Alan B; Tucker, Anton D; Hart, Kristen M; Lamont, Margaret M; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Reich, Kimberly J; Addison, David S; Mansfield, Katherine L; Phillips, Katrina F; Pajuelo, Mariela; Bjorndal, Karen A

    2016-10-01

    Assessments of large-scale disasters, such as the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, are problematic because while measurements of post-disturbance conditions are common, measurements of pre-disturbance baselines are only rarely available. Without adequate observations of pre-disaster organismal and environmental conditions, it is impossible to assess the impact of such catastrophes on animal populations and ecological communities. Here, we use long-term biological tissue records to provide pre-disaster data for a vulnerable marine organism. Keratin samples from the carapace of loggerhead sea turtles record the foraging history for up to 18 years, allowing us to evaluate the effect of the oil spill on sea turtle foraging patterns. Samples were collected from 76 satellite-tracked adult loggerheads in 2011 and 2012, approximately one to two years after the spill. Of the 10 individuals that foraged in areas exposed to surface oil, none demonstrated significant changes in foraging patterns post spill. The observed long-term fidelity to foraging sites indicates that loggerheads in the northern Gulf of Mexico likely remained in established foraging sites, regardless of the introduction of oil and chemical dispersants. More research is needed to address potential long-term health consequences to turtles in this region. Mobile marine organisms present challenges for researchers to monitor effects of environmental disasters, both spatially and temporally. We demonstrate that biological tissues can reveal long-term histories of animal behavior and provide critical pre-disaster baselines following an anthropogenic disturbance or natural disaster. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  19. Violent video game effects remain a societal concern: Reply to Hilgard, Engelhardt, and Rouder (2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepes, Sven; Bushman, Brad J; Anderson, Craig A

    2017-07-01

    A large meta-analysis by Anderson et al. (2010) found that violent video games increased aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, physiological arousal, and aggressive behavior and decreased empathic feelings and helping behavior. Hilgard, Engelhardt, and Rouder (2017) reanalyzed the data of Anderson et al. (2010) using newer publication bias methods (i.e., precision-effect test, precision-effect estimate with standard error, p-uniform, p-curve). Based on their reanalysis, Hilgard, Engelhardt, and Rouder concluded that experimental studies examining the effect of violent video games on aggressive affect and aggressive behavior may be contaminated by publication bias, and these effects are very small when corrected for publication bias. However, the newer methods Hilgard, Engelhardt, and Rouder used may not be the most appropriate. Because publication bias is a potential a problem in any scientific domain, we used a comprehensive sensitivity analysis battery to examine the influence of publication bias and outliers on the experimental effects reported by Anderson et al. We used best meta-analytic practices and the triangulation approach to locate the likely position of the true mean effect size estimates. Using this methodological approach, we found that the combined adverse effects of outliers and publication bias was less severe than what Hilgard, Engelhardt, and Rouder found for publication bias alone. Moreover, the obtained mean effects using recommended methods and practices were not very small in size. The results of the methods used by Hilgard, Engelhardt, and Rouder tended to not converge well with the results of the methods we used, indicating potentially poor performance. We therefore conclude that violent video game effects should remain a societal concern. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Run-of-River Impoundments Can Remain Unfilled While Transporting Gravel Bedload: Numerical Modeling Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, A.; Pizzuto, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Previous work at run-of-river (ROR) dams in northern Delaware has shown that bedload supplied to ROR impoundments can be transported over the dam when impoundments remain unfilled. Transport is facilitated by high levels of sand in the impoundment that lowers the critical shear stresses for particle entrainment, and an inversely sloping sediment ramp connecting the impoundment bed (where the water depth is typically equal to the dam height) with the top of the dam (Pearson and Pizzuto, in press). We demonstrate with one-dimensional bed material transport modeling that bed material can move through impoundments and that equilibrium transport (i.e., a balance between supply to and export from the impoundment, with a constant bed elevation) is possible even when the bed elevation is below the top of the dam. Based on our field work and previous HEC-RAS modeling, we assess bed material transport capacity at the base of the sediment ramp (and ignore detailed processes carrying sediment up and ramp and over the dam). The hydraulics at the base of the ramp are computed using a weir equation, providing estimates of water depth, velocity, and friction, based on the discharge and sediment grain size distribution of the impoundment. Bedload transport rates are computed using the Wilcock-Crowe equation, and changes in the impoundment's bed elevation are determined by sediment continuity. Our results indicate that impoundments pass the gravel supplied from upstream with deep pools when gravel supply rate is low, gravel grain sizes are relatively small, sand supply is high, and discharge is high. Conversely, impoundments will tend to fill their pools when gravel supply rate is high, gravel grain sizes are relatively large, sand supply is low, and discharge is low. The rate of bedload supplied to an impoundment is the primary control on how fast equilibrium transport is reached, with discharge having almost no influence on the timing of equilibrium.