WorldWideScience

Sample records for profiles learning activities

  1. Active Learning Strategies for Phenotypic Profiling of High-Content Screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin; Horvath, Peter

    2014-06-01

    High-content screening is a powerful method to discover new drugs and carry out basic biological research. Increasingly, high-content screens have come to rely on supervised machine learning (SML) to perform automatic phenotypic classification as an essential step of the analysis. However, this comes at a cost, namely, the labeled examples required to train the predictive model. Classification performance increases with the number of labeled examples, and because labeling examples demands time from an expert, the training process represents a significant time investment. Active learning strategies attempt to overcome this bottleneck by presenting the most relevant examples to the annotator, thereby achieving high accuracy while minimizing the cost of obtaining labeled data. In this article, we investigate the impact of active learning on single-cell-based phenotype recognition, using data from three large-scale RNA interference high-content screens representing diverse phenotypic profiling problems. We consider several combinations of active learning strategies and popular SML methods. Our results show that active learning significantly reduces the time cost and can be used to reveal the same phenotypic targets identified using SML. We also identify combinations of active learning strategies and SML methods which perform better than others on the phenotypic profiling problems we studied. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  2. A ranking method for the concurrent learning of compounds with various activity profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörr, Alexander; Rosenbaum, Lars; Zell, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we present a SVM-based ranking algorithm for the concurrent learning of compounds with different activity profiles and their varying prioritization. To this end, a specific labeling of each compound was elaborated in order to infer virtual screening models against multiple targets. We compared the method with several state-of-the-art SVM classification techniques that are capable of inferring multi-target screening models on three chemical data sets (cytochrome P450s, dehydrogenases, and a trypsin-like protease data set) containing three different biological targets each. The experiments show that ranking-based algorithms show an increased performance for single- and multi-target virtual screening. Moreover, compounds that do not completely fulfill the desired activity profile are still ranked higher than decoys or compounds with an entirely undesired profile, compared to other multi-target SVM methods. SVM-based ranking methods constitute a valuable approach for virtual screening in multi-target drug design. The utilization of such methods is most helpful when dealing with compounds with various activity profiles and the finding of many ligands with an already perfectly matching activity profile is not to be expected.

  3. Enhancing the T-shaped learning profile when teaching hydrology using data, modeling, and visualization activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Christopher A.; Ruddell, Benjamin L.; Schiesser, Roy; Merwade, Venkatesh

    2016-03-01

    Previous research has suggested that the use of more authentic learning activities can produce more robust and durable knowledge gains. This is consistent with calls within civil engineering education, specifically hydrology, that suggest that curricula should more often include professional perspective and data analysis skills to better develop the "T-shaped" knowledge profile of a professional hydrologist (i.e., professional breadth combined with technical depth). It was expected that the inclusion of a data-driven simulation lab exercise that was contextualized within a real-world situation and more consistent with the job duties of a professional in the field, would provide enhanced learning and appreciation of job duties beyond more conventional paper-and-pencil exercises in a lower-division undergraduate course. Results indicate that while students learned in both conditions, learning was enhanced for the data-driven simulation group in nearly every content area. This pattern of results suggests that the use of data-driven modeling and visualization activities can have a significant positive impact on instruction. This increase in learning likely facilitates the development of student perspective and conceptual mastery, enabling students to make better choices about their studies, while also better preparing them for work as a professional in the field.

  4. Profiling & Utilizing Learning Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, James W., Ed.

    The purpose of the National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) Learning Style Profile is to provide educators with a well-validated and easy-to-use instrument for diagnosing the cognitive styles, perceptual response tendencies, and study/instructional preferences of middle level and senior high school students. The Learning Style…

  5. Behaviorally activated mRNA expression profiles produce signatures of learning and enhanced inhibition in aged rats with preserved memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Rebecca P; Colantuoni, Carlo; Koh, Ming Teng; Gallagher, Michela

    2013-01-01

    Aging is often associated with cognitive decline, but many elderly individuals maintain a high level of function throughout life. Here we studied outbred rats, which also exhibit individual differences across a spectrum of outcomes that includes both preserved and impaired spatial memory. Previous work in this model identified the CA3 subfield of the hippocampus as a region critically affected by age and integral to differing cognitive outcomes. Earlier microarray profiling revealed distinct gene expression profiles in the CA3 region, under basal conditions, for aged rats with intact memory and those with impairment. Because prominent age-related deficits within the CA3 occur during neural encoding of new information, here we used microarray analysis to gain a broad perspective of the aged CA3 transcriptome under activated conditions. Behaviorally-induced CA3 expression profiles differentiated aged rats with intact memory from those with impaired memory. In the activated profile, we observed substantial numbers of genes (greater than 1000) exhibiting increased expression in aged unimpaired rats relative to aged impaired, including many involved in synaptic plasticity and memory mechanisms. This unimpaired aged profile also overlapped significantly with a learning induced gene profile previously acquired in young adults. Alongside the increased transcripts common to both young learning and aged rats with preserved memory, many transcripts behaviorally-activated in the current study had previously been identified as repressed in the aged unimpaired phenotype in basal expression. A further distinct feature of the activated profile of aged rats with intact memory is the increased expression of an ensemble of genes involved in inhibitory synapse function, which could control the phenotype of neural hyperexcitability found in the CA3 region of aged impaired rats. These data support the conclusion that aged subjects with preserved memory recruit adaptive mechanisms to

  6. Learning profiles of Master students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprogøe, Jonas; Hemmingsen, Lis

    2005-01-01

    at DPU in 2001 several evaluations and research have been carried out on several topics relating to form, content, and didactics, but one important focus is missing: the research about the psychological profile and learning style of the master student. Knowledge is lacking on how teaching methods......Master education as a part of lifelong learning/education has over the last years increased in Denmark. Danish Universities now offer more than110 different programmes. One of the characteristics of the master education is that the students get credits for their prior learning and practical work...... experiences, and during the study/education theory and practise is combined. At the Master of Adult Learning and Human Resource Development, one of DPU´s master programmes, the students have a very diverse background and have many different experiences and practises. Since the first programme was introduced...

  7. Interpretable Active Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Richard L.; Chang, Kyu Hyun; Friedler, Sorelle A.

    2017-01-01

    Active learning has long been a topic of study in machine learning. However, as increasingly complex and opaque models have become standard practice, the process of active learning, too, has become more opaque. There has been little investigation into interpreting what specific trends and patterns an active learning strategy may be exploring. This work expands on the Local Interpretable Model-agnostic Explanations framework (LIME) to provide explanations for active learning recommendations. W...

  8. Teachers’ goal orientation profiles and participation in professional development activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunst, E.M.; van Woerkom, M.; Poell, R.F.

    2018-01-01

    Participation in professional development activities is important for teachers to continuously improve their knowledge and skills. However, teachers differ in their attitude towards learning activities. This paper examined how different goal orientation profiles are related to participation in

  9. A study on online learner profile for supporting personalized learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Digital learning as a popular learning approach has received increasing attention in modern education. The learner profile in online learning plays a critical role in supporting personalized learning. This article uses an information flow-based approach to build the learner profile for supporting personalized learning. The learner profile includes the individual profile to capture the personal features and the community profile to capture the social features in online learning environment.

  10. Active Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayapragassarazan, Z.; Kumar, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    Present generation students are primarily active learners with varied learning experiences and lecture courses may not suit all their learning needs. Effective learning involves providing students with a sense of progress and control over their own learning. This requires creating a situation where learners have a chance to try out or test their…

  11. Impact of Minnesota's "Profile of Learning"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia G. Avery

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1990, the Minnesota State Board of Education declared its intention to develop a "results-oriented graduation requirement" based on student achievement as opposed to the usual credit/course completion requirement. In addition to a traditional test of basic skills, the state began developing the Profile of Learning, a set of performance-based standards grounded in a constructivist educational philosophy, an approach that differs from the content-based standards found in many states. The Profile was controversial from its inception. Conservatives characterized the Profile as too process- oriented and as lacking subject-matter content; teachers reported that the Profile required a significant amount of additional teacher preparation time; and parents, who were not adequately informed about the Profile, questioned the purpose of the Profile. Teachers were frustrated with the confusing and sometimes contradictory directions they received from the Minnesota Department of Children, Families, and Learning charged with implementing the Profile. In 2000-2001, we surveyed and interviewed selected secondary English and social studies teachers in the state about their perceptions of the Profile’s impact on teaching and learning. Among the positive perceptions was an increase in students’ higher order thinking, students’ understanding of criteria for quality work, and teachers conversations with one another about instructional issues. Increased teacher preparation time and decreased enjoyment of teaching were among the negative perceptions. Teachers also experienced difficulty adopting performance assessment techniques. When teachers believed they received effective preparation and adequate resources for working with the Profile, they were much more likely to report beneficial effects in terms of teaching and learning. The majority of teachers, however, rated their preparation and resources as "fair" or "poor." Results are discussed in terms of

  12. Profiling and Utilizing Learning Style. NASSP Learning Style Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, James W., Ed.

    In 1986, the National Association of Secondary School Principals, with the assistance of a national task force, published the NASSP Learning Style Profile (LSP) for diagnosis of the cognitive styles, perceptual response tendencies, and instructional preferences of middle level and senior high school students. This monograph offers a short course…

  13. From learning objects to learning activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses and questions the current metadata standards for learning objects from a pedagogical point of view. From a social constructivist approach, the paper discusses how learning objects can support problem based, self-governed learning activities. In order to support this approach......, it is argued that it is necessary to focus on learning activities rather than on learning objects. Further, it is argued that descriptions of learning objectives and learning activities should be separated from learning objects. The paper presents a new conception of learning objects which supports problem...... based, self-governed activities. Further, a new way of thinking pedagogy into learning objects is introduced. It is argued that a lack of pedagogical thinking in learning objects is not solved through pedagogical metadata. Instead, the paper suggests the concept of references as an alternative...

  14. Theoretical Foundations of Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    I study the informational complexity of active learning in a statistical learning theory framework. Specifically, I derive bounds on the rates of...convergence achievable by active learning , under various noise models and under general conditions on the hypothesis class. I also study the theoretical...advantages of active learning over passive learning, and develop procedures for transforming passive learning algorithms into active learning algorithms

  15. Minimax bounds for active learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, R.M.; Nowak, R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the potential advantages and theoretical challenges of "active learning" algorithms. Active learning involves sequential sampling procedures that use information gleaned from previous samples in order to focus the sampling and accelerate the learning process relative to "passive

  16. The Genetic Activity Profile database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, M D; Stack, H F; Garrett, N E; Jackson, M A

    1991-12-01

    A graphic approach termed a Genetic Activity Profile (GAP) has been developed to display a matrix of data on the genetic and related effects of selected chemical agents. The profiles provide a visual overview of the quantitative (doses) and qualitative (test results) data for each chemical. Either the lowest effective dose (LED) or highest ineffective dose (HID) is recorded for each agent and bioassay. Up to 200 different test systems are represented across the GAP. Bioassay systems are organized according to the phylogeny of the test organisms and the end points of genetic activity. The methodology for the production and evaluation of GAPs has been developed in collaboration with the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Data on individual chemicals have been compiled by IARC and by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Data are available on 299 compounds selected from volumes 1-50 of the IARC Monographs and on 115 compounds identified as Superfund Priority Substances. Software to display the GAPs on an IBM-compatible personal computer is available from the authors. Structurally similar compounds frequently display qualitatively and quantitatively similar GAPs. By examining the patterns of GAPs of pairs and groups of chemicals, it is possible to make more informed decisions regarding the selection of test batteries to be used in evaluating chemical analogs. GAPs have provided useful data for the development of weight-of-evidence hazard ranking schemes. Also, some knowledge of the potential genetic activity of complex environmental mixtures may be gained from assessing the GAPs of component chemicals. The fundamental techniques and computer programs devised for the GAP database may be used to develop similar databases in other disciplines.

  17. Active Math Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The presentation is concerned with general course planning philosophy and a specific case study (boomerang flight geometro-dynamics) for active learning of mathematics via computer assisted and hands-on unfolding of first principles - in this case the understanding of rotations and Eulers equatio...

  18. Flipped Classroom, active Learning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Dyreborg; Levinsen, Henrik; Philipps, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Action research is conducted in three physics classes over a period of eighteen weeks with the aim of studying the effect of flipped classroom on the pupils agency and learning processes. The hypothesis is that flipped classroom teaching will potentially allocate more time to work actively...

  19. Learning Activity Package, Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Diane

    A set of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in beginning algebra and nine in intermediate algebra, these units cover sets, properties of operations, number systems, open expressions, solution sets of equations and inequalities in one and two variables, exponents, factoring and polynomials, relations and functions, radicals,…

  20. Grooming. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Pamela

    This learning activity package on grooming for health workers is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  1. Emotional Intelligence Profiles and Learning Strategies in Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglés, Cándido J.; Martínez-Monteagudo, María C.; Pérez Fuentes, Maria C.; García-Fernández, José M.; Molero, María del Mar; Suriá-Martinez, Raquel; Gázquez, José J.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship among emotional intelligence (EI) and learning strategies, identifying different emotional intelligence profiles and determining possible statistically significant differences in learning strategies through the identified profiles. Thousand and seventy-one Spaniards secondary school students…

  2. Active Learning Using Hint Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Liang; Ferng, Chun-Sung; Lin, Hsuan-Tien

    2015-08-01

    The abundance of real-world data and limited labeling budget calls for active learning, an important learning paradigm for reducing human labeling efforts. Many recently developed active learning algorithms consider both uncertainty and representativeness when making querying decisions. However, exploiting representativeness with uncertainty concurrently usually requires tackling sophisticated and challenging learning tasks, such as clustering. In this letter, we propose a new active learning framework, called hinted sampling, which takes both uncertainty and representativeness into account in a simpler way. We design a novel active learning algorithm within the hinted sampling framework with an extended support vector machine. Experimental results validate that the novel active learning algorithm can result in a better and more stable performance than that achieved by state-of-the-art algorithms. We also show that the hinted sampling framework allows improving another active learning algorithm designed from the transductive support vector machine.

  3. Active Learning with Statistical Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Active Learning with Statistical Models ASC-9217041, NSF CDA-9309300 6. AUTHOR(S) David A. Cohn, Zoubin Ghahramani, and Michael I. Jordan 7. PERFORMING...TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Al, MIT, Artificial Intelligence, active learning , queries, locally weighted 6 regression, LOESS, mixtures of gaussians...COMPUTATIONAL LEARNING DEPARTMENT OF BRAIN AND COGNITIVE SCIENCES A.I. Memo No. 1522 January 9. 1995 C.B.C.L. Paper No. 110 Active Learning with

  4. Active inference and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friston, Karl; FitzGerald, Thomas; Rigoli, Francesco; Schwartenbeck, Philipp; O Doherty, John; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    This paper offers an active inference account of choice behaviour and learning. It focuses on the distinction between goal-directed and habitual behaviour and how they contextualise each other. We show that habits emerge naturally (and autodidactically) from sequential policy optimisation when agents are equipped with state-action policies. In active inference, behaviour has explorative (epistemic) and exploitative (pragmatic) aspects that are sensitive to ambiguity and risk respectively, where epistemic (ambiguity-resolving) behaviour enables pragmatic (reward-seeking) behaviour and the subsequent emergence of habits. Although goal-directed and habitual policies are usually associated with model-based and model-free schemes, we find the more important distinction is between belief-free and belief-based schemes. The underlying (variational) belief updating provides a comprehensive (if metaphorical) process theory for several phenomena, including the transfer of dopamine responses, reversal learning, habit formation and devaluation. Finally, we show that active inference reduces to a classical (Bellman) scheme, in the absence of ambiguity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Looking at Learning Approaches from the Angle of Student Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip; Struyven, Katrien; Cascallar, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    This study starts with investigating the relation of perceived workload, motivation for learning and working memory capacity (WMC) with students' approaches to learning. Secondly, this study investigates if differences exist between different student profiles concerning their approach to the learning and the influence of workloads thereon. Results…

  6. On active current selection for Lagrangian profilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome; Zhou, Qiuyang; Zielinski, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    simple and computationally-efficient control strategies to actively select and use ocean currents so that a profiler can autonomously reach a desired destination. After briefly presenting a typical profiler and possible mechanical modifications for a coastal environment, we introduce simple mathematical...... models for the profiler and the currents it will use. We then present simple feedback controllers that, using the direction of the currents and taking into account the configuration of the environment (coastal or deep-sea), is able to steer the profiler to any desired horizontal location. To illustrate...

  7. Personal Profiles: Enhancing Social Interaction in Learning Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berlanga, Adriana; Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies; Brouns, Francis; Sloep, Peter; Fetter, Sibren

    2009-01-01

    Berlanga, A. J., Bitter-Rijpkema, M., Brouns, F., Sloep, P. B., & Fetter, S. (2011). Personal Profiles: Enhancing Social Interaction in Learning Networks. International Journal of Web Based Communities, 7(1), 66-82.

  8. Re-imagining Active Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall'Alba, Gloria; Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard

    2018-01-01

    is largely lacking in the literature on active learning. In this article, we explore the possibility of re-imagining, or at least extending, the meaning of active learning by drawing out dimensions that are neither readily visible nor instrumental, as much of this literature implies. Drawing from educational......Ample attention is being paid in the higher education literature to promoting active learning among students. Where studies on active learning report student outcomes, they indicate improved or equivalent outcomes when compared with traditional lectures, which are considered more passive...... philosophy and, in particular, existential philosophies, we argue that active learning may also be partly invisible, unfocused, unsettling, and not at all instrumentalsometimes even leaving the learner more confused and (temporarily) incompetent. However, such forms of undisclosed or ‘dark’ learning, we...

  9. Web Log Pre-processing and Analysis for Generation of Learning Profiles in Adaptive E-learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika M. Pai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive E-learning Systems (AESs enhance the efficiency of online courses in education by providing personalized contents and user interfaces that changes according to learner’s requirements and usage patterns. This paper presents the approach to generate learning profile of each learner which helps to identify the learning styles and provide Adaptive User Interface which includes adaptive learning components and learning material. The proposed method analyzes the captured web usage data to identify the learning profile of the learners. The learning profiles are identified by an algorithmic approach that is based on the frequency of accessing the materials and the time spent on the various learning components on the portal. The captured log data is pre-processed and converted into standard XML format to generate learners sequence data corresponding to the different sessions and time spent. The learning style model adopted in this approach is Felder-Silverman Learning Style Model (FSLSM. This paper also presents the analysis of learner’s activities, preprocessed XML files and generated sequences.

  10. Web Log Pre-processing and Analysis for Generation of Learning Profiles in Adaptive E-learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika M. Pai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive E-learning Systems (AESs enhance the efficiency of online courses in education by providing personalized contents and user interfaces that changes according to learner’s requirements and usage patterns. This paper presents the approach to generate learning profile of each learner which helps to identify the learning styles and provide Adaptive User Interface which includes adaptive learning components and learning material. The proposed method analyzes the captured web usage data to identify the learning profile of the learners. The learning profiles are identified by an algorithmic approach that is based on the frequency of accessing the materials and the time spent on the various learning components on the portal. The captured log data is pre-processed and converted into standard XML format to generate learners sequence data corresponding to the different sessions and time spent. The learning style model adopted in this approach is Felder-Silverman Learning Style Model (FSLSM. This paper also presents the analysis of learner’s activities, preprocessed XML files and generated sequences.

  11. Teachers' Engagement in Professional Learning: Exploring Motivational Profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen in de Wal, Joost; Den Brok, Perry; Hooijer, Janneke; Martens, Rob; Van den Beemt, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated to what extent secondary school teachers are motivated to work on their professional learning. To this end, profiles ofmotivational dimensions fromself-determination theorywere explored in a sample of 2360 teachers by means of latent profile analysis. The motivational

  12. Teachers' engagement in professional learning : exploring motivational profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen in de Wal, J.; Brok, den P.J.; Hooijer, J.G.; Martens, R.L.; Beemt, van den A.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated to what extent secondary school teachers are motivated to work on their professional learning. To this end, profiles of motivational dimensions from self-determination theory were explored in a sample of 2360 teachers by means of latent profile analysis. The motivational

  13. Motivational Profiles and Motivation for Lifelong Learning of Medical Specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Burgt, Stéphanie M E; Kusurkar, Rashmi A; Wilschut, Janneke A; Tjin A Tsoi, Sharon L N M; Croiset, Gerda; Peerdeman, Saskia M

    2018-05-22

    Medical specialists face the challenge of maintaining their knowledge and skills and continuing professional development, that is, lifelong learning. Motivation may play an integral role in many of the challenges facing the physician workforce today including maintenance of a high performance. The aim of this study was to determine whether medical specialists show different motivational profiles and if these profiles predict differences in motivation for lifelong learning. An online questionnaire was sent to every medical specialist working in five hospitals in the Netherlands. The questionnaire included the validated Multidimensional Work Motivation Scale and the Jefferson Scale of Physician Lifelong Learning together with background questions like age, gender, and type of hospital. Respondents were grouped into different motivational profiles by using a two-step clustering approach. Four motivational profiles were identified: (1) HAMC profile (for High Autonomous and Moderate Controlled motivation), (2) MAMC profile (for Moderate Autonomous and Moderate Controlled motivation), (3) MALC profile (for Moderate Autonomous and Low Controlled motivation), and (4) HALC profile (for High Autonomous and Low Controlled motivation). Most of the female specialists that work in an academic hospital and specialists with a surgical specialty were represented in the HALC profile. Four motivational profiles were found among medical specialists, differing in gender, experience and type of specialization. The profiles are based on the combination of autonomous motivation (AM) and controlled motivation (CM) in the specialists. The profiles that have a high score on autonomous motivation have a positive association with lifelong learning.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work

  14. Student Perceptions of Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkin, Angela; Achen, Rebecca M.; Dodd, Regan K.

    2015-01-01

    A paradigm shift from lecture-based courses to interactive classes punctuated with engaging, student-centered learning activities has begun to characterize the work of some teachers in higher education. Convinced through the literature of the values of using active learning strategies, we assessed through an action research project in five college…

  15. Learning and Active Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Buys, Laurie; Lovie-Kitchin, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Learning is an important aspect of aging productively. This paper describes results from 2645 respondents (aged from 50 to 74+ years) to a 165-variable postal survey in Australia. The focus is on learning and its relation to work; social, spiritual, and emotional status; health; vision; home; life events; and demographic details. Clustering…

  16. Agnostic Active Learning Without Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Beygelzimer, Alina; Hsu, Daniel; Langford, John; Zhang, Tong

    2010-01-01

    We present and analyze an agnostic active learning algorithm that works without keeping a version space. This is unlike all previous approaches where a restricted set of candidate hypotheses is maintained throughout learning, and only hypotheses from this set are ever returned. By avoiding this version space approach, our algorithm sheds the computational burden and brittleness associated with maintaining version spaces, yet still allows for substantial improvements over supervised learning f...

  17. Active Learning Using Arbitrary Binary Valued Queries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-01

    active learning in the sense that the learner has complete choice in the information received. Specifically, we allow the learner to ask arbitrary yes...no questions. We consider both active learning under a fixed distribution and distribution-free active learning . In the case of active learning , the...a concept class is actively learnable iff it is finite, so that active learning is in fact less powerful than the usual passive learning model. We

  18. Using Activity Metrics for DEVS Simulation Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzy A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity metrics can be used to profile DEVS models before and during the simulation. It is critical to get good activity metrics of models before and during their simulation. Having a means to compute a-priori activity of components (analytic activity may be worth when simulating a model (or parts of it for the first time. After, during the simulation, analytic activity can be corrected using dynamic one. In this paper, we introduce McCabe cyclomatic complexity metric (MCA to compute analytic activity. Both static and simulation activity metrics have been implemented through a plug-in of the DEVSimPy (DEVS Simulator in Python language environment and applied to DEVS models.

  19. E-Learning and Affective Student’s Profile in Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovannina Albano

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the personalisation of teaching/learning paths in mathematics education. Such personalisation would exploit the research results on the connection between the affective experience of the student learning mathematics and his/her success or failure in mathematics, which produces the learner’s attitude towards mathematics. We present a model for the learner’s affective profile in mathematics, which would extend the current user profile in an e-learning platform taking into account the learner’s attitude, to be used in order to offer and manage a Unit of Learning in mathematics better tailored on the global student’ needs. Tools for the implementation of the model in an e-learning platform have been devised. Activities templates suitable to various attitudes towards mathematics have been designed and their experimentation is in progress.

  20. Student profile with high adversity quotient in math learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastuti, T. D.; Sari S, D. R.; Riyadi

    2018-03-01

    Lately a lot of research conducted to determine the effect of Adversity Quotient students on learning achievement. This is done because many students with excellent IQ and EQ, but often have problems when they are in the workforce. This study will analyze the profile of High School students with high Adversity Quotient (AQ) in learning mathematics. The test is done using a questionnaire to know the AQ level of the students, and the interview is done to get the data about the student profile. Based on the results of tests and interviews obtained data that students with high AQ able to face the learning of mathematics in various materials and with different models of learning.

  1. Active Learning Through Discussion in E-Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Daru Wahyuningsih

    2016-01-01

    Active learning is generally made by a lecturer in learning face to face. In the face to face learning, lecturer can implement a variety of teaching methods to make students actively involved in learning. This is different from learning that is actuating in e-learning. The main characteristic of e-learning is learning that can take place anytime and anywhere. Special strategies are needed so that lecturer can make students play an active role in the course of e-learning. Research in order to ...

  2. The profile of students’ self-regulated learning at vocational high school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciptaningtyas, Asih; Pratiwi, Hasih; Mardiyana

    2018-05-01

    Self-regulated learning is a power in the individual through the individualization process. Self-regulated learning will occur when the student is active to control himself from everything done, plan something, evaluate, and deeply reflect what he has experienced. This study aims to determine the profile of students’ self-regulated learning in SMK Giripuro, Sumpiuh, Banyumas Regency. This study is a qualitative research with questionnaire and interview methods. This study used triangulation method technique to obtain from the questionnaire and interview to get valid data. The subjects in this study are three 10th Grade students who have different self-regulated learning in SMK Giripuro Sumpiuh. The results showed that the high self-regulated learning student has characteristics: 1) independent of others, 2) believe in their abilities, 3) awareness in learning, and 4) be able to reflect on their learning. Medium self-regulated learning student has characteristics: 1) independent of others, 2) believe in their abilities, 3) awareness in learning, and 4) do not reflect on learning. Low self-regulated learning student has characteristics: 1) dependent on others, 2) do not believe in their abilities, 3) lack awareness of learning, and 4) do not reflect on learning.

  3. Concentration profiles near an activated enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soohyung; Agmon, Noam

    2008-09-25

    When a resting enzyme is activated, substrate concentration profile evolves in its vicinity, ultimately tending to steady state. We use modern theories for many-body effects on diffusion-influenced reactions to derive approximate analytical expressions for the steady-state profile and the Laplace transform of the transient concentration profiles. These show excellent agreement with accurate many-particle Brownian-dynamics simulations for the Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The steady-state profile has a hyperbolic dependence on the distance of the substrate from the enzyme, albeit with a prefactor containing the complexity of the many-body effects. These are most conspicuous for the substrate concentration at the surface of the enzyme. It shows an interesting transition as a function of the enzyme turnover rate. When it is high, the contact concentration decays monotonically to steady state. However, for slow turnover it is nonmonotonic, showing a minimum due to reversible substrate binding, then a maximum due to diffusion of new substrate toward the enzyme, and finally decay to steady state. Under certain conditions one can obtain a good estimate for the critical value of the turnover rate constant at the transition.

  4. The International Active Learning Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    -Danish students receive the basic international and intercultural skills and knowledge they need in current society. The English-language masters’ seminars I teach at the Department of Political Science are international in terms of students and teacher, but they are also Active Learning seminars......-Danish students (and sometimes teachers) rarely speak to each other or learn each other’s names. In the international AL spaces I create, students must work together on joint tasks which require interaction to address tasks and integration in order to benefit from the multinational activity groups. Planning AL...... that complete the seminar soon become vocal advocates of international AL. Ultimately, enriching student learning through immersing Danish and international students in an international AL space is, for me, the best way of ensuring an internationalised learning outcome, rather than just international mobility....

  5. Active learning of Pareto fronts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campigotto, Paolo; Passerini, Andrea; Battiti, Roberto

    2014-03-01

    This paper introduces the active learning of Pareto fronts (ALP) algorithm, a novel approach to recover the Pareto front of a multiobjective optimization problem. ALP casts the identification of the Pareto front into a supervised machine learning task. This approach enables an analytical model of the Pareto front to be built. The computational effort in generating the supervised information is reduced by an active learning strategy. In particular, the model is learned from a set of informative training objective vectors. The training objective vectors are approximated Pareto-optimal vectors obtained by solving different scalarized problem instances. The experimental results show that ALP achieves an accurate Pareto front approximation with a lower computational effort than state-of-the-art estimation of distribution algorithms and widely known genetic techniques.

  6. Active Learning for Player Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Shaker, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Learning models of player behavior has been the focus of several studies. This work is motivated by better understanding of player behavior, a knowledge that can ultimately be employed to provide player-adapted or personalized content. In this paper, we propose the use of active learning for player...... experience modeling. We use a dataset from hundreds of players playing Infinite Mario Bros. as a case study and we employ the random forest method to learn mod- els of player experience through the active learning approach. The results obtained suggest that only part of the dataset (up to half the size...... that the method can be used online during the content generation process where the mod- els can improve and better content can be presented as the game is being played....

  7. Airline Passenger Profiling Based on Fuzzy Deep Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu-Jun; Sheng, Wei-Guo; Sun, Xing-Ming; Chen, Sheng-Yong

    2017-12-01

    Passenger profiling plays a vital part of commercial aviation security, but classical methods become very inefficient in handling the rapidly increasing amounts of electronic records. This paper proposes a deep learning approach to passenger profiling. The center of our approach is a Pythagorean fuzzy deep Boltzmann machine (PFDBM), whose parameters are expressed by Pythagorean fuzzy numbers such that each neuron can learn how a feature affects the production of the correct output from both the positive and negative sides. We propose a hybrid algorithm combining a gradient-based method and an evolutionary algorithm for training the PFDBM. Based on the novel learning model, we develop a deep neural network (DNN) for classifying normal passengers and potential attackers, and further develop an integrated DNN for identifying group attackers whose individual features are insufficient to reveal the abnormality. Experiments on data sets from Air China show that our approach provides much higher learning ability and classification accuracy than existing profilers. It is expected that the fuzzy deep learning approach can be adapted for a variety of complex pattern analysis tasks.

  8. Active Learning versus Traditional Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Azzalis

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In traditional teaching most of the class time is spent with the professor lecturing and the students watching and listening. The students work individually, and cooperation is discouraged. On the other hand,  active learning  changes the focus of activity from the teacher to the learners, in which students solve problems, answer questions, formulate questions of their own, discuss, explain, debate during class;  moreover, students work in teams on problems and projects under conditions that assure positive interdependence and individual accountability. Although student-centered methods have repeatedly been shown to be superior to the traditional teacher-centered approach to instruction, the literature regarding the efficacy of various teaching methods is inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to compare the student perceptions of course and instructor effectiveness, course difficulty, and amount learned between the active learning and lecture sections  in Health Sciences´ courses by statistical data from Anhembi Morumbi University. Results indicated significant  difference between active  learning and traditional  teaching. Our conclusions were that strategies promoting  active  learning to  traditional lectures could increase knowledge and understanding.

  9. Teachers' Goal Orientation Profiles and Participation in Professional Development Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, Eva M.; van Woerkom, Marianne; Poell, Rob F.

    2018-01-01

    Participation in professional development activities is important for teachers to continuously improve their knowledge and skills. However, teachers differ in their attitude towards learning activities. This paper examined how different goal orientation profiles are related to participation in professional development activities (acquiring…

  10. Active learning for Corsika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baack, Dominik; Temme, Fabian; Buss, Jens; Noethe, Max; Bruegge, Kai [TU Dortmund, Dortmund (Germany); Collaboration: FACT-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Modern Cosmic-Ray experiments need a huge amount of simulated data. In many cases, only a portion of the data is actually needed for following steps in the analysis chain, for example training of different machine learning algorithms. The other parts are thrown away by the trigger simulation of the experiment or so not increase the quality of following analysis steps. In this talk, I present a new developed package for the air shower simulation software CORSIKA. This extension includes different approaches to reduce the amount of unnecessary computation. One approach is a new internal particle stack implementation that allows to priorize the processing of special intermediate shower particles and the removal of not needed shower particles. The second approach is the possibility to sent various information of the initial particle and parameters of the status of the partial simulated event to an external application to approximate the information gain of the current simulator event. If the information gain is to low, the current event simulation gets terminated and all information get stored into a central database. For the Simulation - Server communication a simple network protocol has been developed.

  11. Active Learning and Self-Regulation Enhance Student Teachers’ Professional Competences

    OpenAIRE

    Virtanen, Päivi; Niemi, Hannele M.; Nevgi, Anne

    2017-01-01

    The study identifies the relationships between active learning, student teachers’ self-regulated learning and professional competences. Further, the aim is to investigate how active learning promotes professional competences of student teachers with different self-regulation profiles. Responses from 422 student teachers to an electronic survey were analysed using statistical methods. It was found that the use of active learning methods, such as goal-oriented and intentional learning as well a...

  12. A New Profile Learning Model for Recommendation System based on Machine Learning Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen H. Ali

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recommender systems (RSs have been used to successfully address the information overload problem by providing personalized and targeted recommendations to the end users. RSs are software tools and techniques providing suggestions for items to be of use to a user, hence, they typically apply techniques and methodologies from Data Mining. The main contribution of this paper is to introduce a new user profile learning model to promote the recommendation accuracy of vertical recommendation systems. The proposed profile learning model employs the vertical classifier that has been used in multi classification module of the Intelligent Adaptive Vertical Recommendation (IAVR system to discover the user’s area of interest, and then build the user’s profile accordingly. Experimental results have proven the effectiveness of the proposed profile learning model, which accordingly will promote the recommendation accuracy.

  13. Lectures Abandoned: Active Learning by Active Seminars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Corry, Aino Vonge

    2012-01-01

    Traditional lecture-based courses are widely criticised for be- ing less eective in teaching. The question is of course what should replace the lectures and various active learning tech- niques have been suggested and studied. In this paper, we report on our experiences of redesigning a software ......- tive seminars as a replacement of traditional lectures, an activity template for the contents of active seminars, an ac- count on how storytelling supported the seminars, as well as reports on our and the students' experiences....

  14. Active Learning in Introductory Climatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Kenneth F.; Meyer, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a software package available for the climatology curriculum that determines possible climatic events according to a long-term climate history. Describes the integration of the software into the curriculum and presents examples of active learning. (Contains 19 references.) (YDS)

  15. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  16. Minimax bounds for active learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, R.M.; Nowak, R.; Bshouty, N.H.; Gentile, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to shed light on achievable limits in active learning. Using minimax analysis techniques, we study the achievable rates of classification error convergence for broad classes of distributions characterized by decision boundary regularity and noise conditions. The results clearly

  17. Machine learning and computer vision approaches for phenotypic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grys, Ben T; Lo, Dara S; Sahin, Nil; Kraus, Oren Z; Morris, Quaid; Boone, Charles; Andrews, Brenda J

    2017-01-02

    With recent advances in high-throughput, automated microscopy, there has been an increased demand for effective computational strategies to analyze large-scale, image-based data. To this end, computer vision approaches have been applied to cell segmentation and feature extraction, whereas machine-learning approaches have been developed to aid in phenotypic classification and clustering of data acquired from biological images. Here, we provide an overview of the commonly used computer vision and machine-learning methods for generating and categorizing phenotypic profiles, highlighting the general biological utility of each approach. © 2017 Grys et al.

  18. Student profiling on university co-curricular activities using cluster analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajenthran, Hemabegai A./P.; Shaharanee, Izwan Nizal Mohd; Jamil, Jastini Mohd.

    2017-11-01

    In higher learning institutions, the co-curricular programs are needed for the graduation besides the standard academic programs. By actively participating in co-curricular, students can attain many of soft skills and proficiencies besides learning and adopting campus environment, community and traditions. Co-curricular activities are implemented by universities mainly for the refinement of the academic achievement along with the social development. This studies aimed to analyse the academic profile of the co-curricular students among uniform units. The main objective of study is to develop a profile of student co-curricular activities in uniform units. Additionally, several variables has been selected to serve as the characteristics for student co-curricular profile. The findings of this study demonstrate the practicality of clustering technique to investigate student's profiles and allow for a better understanding of student's behavior and co-curriculum activities.

  19. Engaging Students' Learning Through Active Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Fitzsimons

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a project carried out with thirty six final year undergraduate students, studying the Bachelor of Science in Business and Management and taking the module Small Business Management during the academic year 2012 and 2013 in Dublin Institute of Technology. The research had two separate objectives, 1 to engage in active learning by having students work on a consulting project in groups for a real life business and 2 to improve student learning. The Small Business Management previously had a group assignment that was to choose an article related to entrepreneurship and critic it and present it to the class. Anecdotally, from student feedback, it was felt that this process did not engage students and also did not contribute to the key competencies necessary in order to be an entrepreneur. The desire was for students on successful completion of this module to have better understood how business is conducted and equip them with core skills such as innovation, critical thinking, problem solving and decision making .Student buy in was achieved by getting the students to select their own groups and also work out between each group from a one page brief provided by the businesses which business they would like to work with. It was important for the businesses to also feel their time spent with students was worthwhile so they were presented with a report from the students at the end of the twelve weeks and invited into the College to hear the presentations from students. Students were asked to provide a reflection on their three key learning points from the assignment and to answer specific questions designed to understand what they learnt and how and their strengths and weaknesses. A survey was sent to the businesses that took part to understand their experiences. The results were positive with student engagement and learning rating very highly and feedback from the businesses demonstrated an appreciation of having a different

  20. Active Learning with Irrelevant Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Kiri; Mazzoni, Dominic

    2009-01-01

    An improved active learning method has been devised for training data classifiers. One example of a data classifier is the algorithm used by the United States Postal Service since the 1960s to recognize scans of handwritten digits for processing zip codes. Active learning algorithms enable rapid training with minimal investment of time on the part of human experts to provide training examples consisting of correctly classified (labeled) input data. They function by identifying which examples would be most profitable for a human expert to label. The goal is to maximize classifier accuracy while minimizing the number of examples the expert must label. Although there are several well-established methods for active learning, they may not operate well when irrelevant examples are present in the data set. That is, they may select an item for labeling that the expert simply cannot assign to any of the valid classes. In the context of classifying handwritten digits, the irrelevant items may include stray marks, smudges, and mis-scans. Querying the expert about these items results in wasted time or erroneous labels, if the expert is forced to assign the item to one of the valid classes. In contrast, the new algorithm provides a specific mechanism for avoiding querying the irrelevant items. This algorithm has two components: an active learner (which could be a conventional active learning algorithm) and a relevance classifier. The combination of these components yields a method, denoted Relevance Bias, that enables the active learner to avoid querying irrelevant data so as to increase its learning rate and efficiency when irrelevant items are present. The algorithm collects irrelevant data in a set of rejected examples, then trains the relevance classifier to distinguish between labeled (relevant) training examples and the rejected ones. The active learner combines its ranking of the items with the probability that they are relevant to yield a final decision about which item

  1. Stimulating Deep Learning Using Active Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Tee Meng; Dawood, Fauziah K. P.; a/p S. Narayansany, Kannaki; a/p Palaniappa Manickam, M. Kamala; Jen, Leong Siok; Hoay, Kuan Chin

    2016-01-01

    When students and teachers behave in ways that reinforce learning as a spectator sport, the result can often be a classroom and overall learning environment that is mostly limited to transmission of information and rote learning rather than deep approaches towards meaningful construction and application of knowledge. A group of college instructors…

  2. Using IMS Learning Design to model collaborative learning activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tattersall, Colin

    2006-01-01

    IMS Learning Design provides a counter to the trend towards designing for lone-learners reading from screens. It guides staff and educational developers to start not with content, but with learning activities and the achievement of learning objectives. It recognises that learning can happen without

  3. Cognitive profile and activities of daily living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Line Gutte; Thuesen, A M; Olsen, K J

    2015-01-01

    on the cognitive function and activities of daily living in patients with AM. METHODS: Thirty five AM patients, age 6-35 years, were included in the study. As a cognitive function test, we used the Leiter international performance scale-revised (Leiter-R), which consists of two batteries: the visual function...... and reasoning battery and the memory and attention battery, the latter including a memory screening. Additional two questionnaires, The Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) and EQ-5D-5 L, were filled out. RESULTS: We found IQ in the range of 30-81 in our cohort. The total equivalent age (mental age......) was significantly reduced, between 3-9 years old for the visual function and reasoning battery, between 2.3-10.2 years for the memory screening. Data suggested a specific developmental profile for AM with a positive intellectual development until the chronological age 10-12 years, followed by a static or slightly...

  4. On Active Current Selection for Lagrangian Profilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jouffroy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous Lagrangian profilers are now widely used as measurement and monitoring platforms, notably in observation programs as Argo. In a typical mode of operation, the profilers drift passively at their parking depthbefore making a vertical profile to go back to the surface. This paperpresents simple and computationally-efficient control strategies to activelyselect and use ocean currents so that a profiler can autonomously reach adesired destination. After briefly presenting a typical profiler andpossible mechanical modifications for a coastal environment, we introducesimple mathematical models for the profiler and the currents it will use. Wethen present simple feedback controllers that, using the direction of thecurrents and taking into account the configuration of the environment(coastal or deep-sea, is able to steer the profiler to any desiredhorizontal location. To illustrate the approach, a few results are presentedusing both simulated currents and real current velocity profiles from theNorth Sea.

  5. Active Learning and Self-Regulation Enhance Student Teachers' Professional Competences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Päivi; Niemi, Hannele M.; Nevgi, Anne

    2017-01-01

    The study identifies the relationships between active learning, student teachers' self-regulated learning and professional competences. Further, the aim is to investigate how active learning promotes professional competences of student teachers with different self-regulation profiles. Responses from 422 student teachers to an electronic survey…

  6. Instructional Utility and Learning Efficacy of Common Active Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConell, David A.; Chapman, LeeAnna; Czaijka, C. Douglas; Jones, Jason P.; Ryker, Katherine D.; Wiggen, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The adoption of active learning instructional practices in college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses has been shown to result in improvements in student learning, contribute to increased retention rates, and reduce the achievement gap among different student populations. Descriptions of active learning strategies…

  7. IMPROVING CAUSE DETECTION SYSTEMS WITH ACTIVE LEARNING

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IMPROVING CAUSE DETECTION SYSTEMS WITH ACTIVE LEARNING ISAAC PERSING AND VINCENT NG Abstract. Active learning has been successfully applied to many natural language...

  8. History and Evolution of Active Learning Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beichner, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter examines active learning spaces as they have developed over the years. Consistently well-designed classrooms can facilitate active learning even though the details of implementing pedagogies may differ.

  9. Active Learning for Text Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Rong

    2011-01-01

    Text classification approaches are used extensively to solve real-world challenges. The success or failure of text classification systems hangs on the datasets used to train them, without a good dataset it is impossible to build a quality system. This thesis examines the applicability of active learning in text classification for the rapid and economical creation of labelled training data. Four main contributions are made in this thesis. First, we present two novel selection strategies to cho...

  10. Create a good learning environment and motivate active learning enthusiasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Weihong; Fu, Guangwei; Fu, Xinghu; Zhang, Baojun; Liu, Qiang; Jin, Wa

    2017-08-01

    In view of the current poor learning initiative of undergraduates, the idea of creating a good learning environment and motivating active learning enthusiasm is proposed. In practice, the professional tutor is allocated and professional introduction course is opened for college freshman. It can promote communication between the professional teachers and students as early as possible, and guide students to know and devote the professional knowledge by the preconceived form. Practice results show that these solutions can improve the students interest in learning initiative, so that the active learning and self-learning has become a habit in the classroom.

  11. Learning activism, acting with phronesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yew-Jin

    2015-12-01

    The article "Socio-political development of private school children mobilising for disadvantaged others" by Darren Hoeg, Natalie Lemelin, and Lawrence Bencze described a language-learning curriculum that drew on elements of Socioscientific issues and Science, Technology, Society and Environment. Results showed that with a number of enabling factors acting in concert, learning about and engagement in practical action for social justice and equity are possible. An alternative but highly compatible framework is now introduced—phronetic social research—as an action-oriented, wisdom-seeking research stance for the social sciences. By so doing, it is hoped that forms of phronetic social research can gain wider currency among those that promote activism as one of many valued outcomes of an education in science.

  12. Developing metacognition: a basis for active learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Henk; de Graaff, E.

    2004-01-01

    The reasons to introduce formats of Active Learning in Engineering (ALE) like project work, problem based learning, use of cases, etc., are mostly based on practical experience and sometimes from applied research on teaching and learning. Such research shows that students learn more and different

  13. Profiling academic research on discourse studies and second language learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Castañeda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is little profiling academic research on discourse studies in relation to second language learning from a regional perspective. Thisstudy aims at unveiling what, when, where and who constitute scholarly work in research about these two interrelated fields. A dataset wasconfigured from registers taken from Dialnet and studied using specialized text-mining software. Findings revealed myriad research interests,few prolific years and the lack of networking. It is recommended to trace out our research as an ELT community locally and globally.

  14. Flash Study Analysis and the Music Learning Pro-Files Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremata, Radio; Pignato, Joseph; Powell, Bryan; Smith, Gareth Dylan

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the Music Learning Profiles Project, and its methodological approach, flash study analysis. Flash study analysis is a method that draws heavily on extant qualitative approaches to education research, to develop broad understandings of music learning in diverse contexts. The Music Learning Profiles Project (MLPP) is an…

  15. Journaling; an active learning technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Tim K

    2005-01-01

    Journaling is a method frequently discussed in nursing literature and educational literature as an active learning technique that is meant to enhance reflective practice. Reflective practice is a means of self-examination that involves looking back over what has happened in practice in an effort to improve, or encourage professional growth. Some of the benefits of reflective practice include discovering meaning, making connections between experiences and the classroom, instilling values of the profession, gaining the perspective of others, reflection on professional roles, and development of critical thinking. A review of theory and research is discussed, as well as suggestions for implementation of journaling into coursework.

  16. Reinforcement learning or active inference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friston, Karl J; Daunizeau, Jean; Kiebel, Stefan J

    2009-07-29

    This paper questions the need for reinforcement learning or control theory when optimising behaviour. We show that it is fairly simple to teach an agent complicated and adaptive behaviours using a free-energy formulation of perception. In this formulation, agents adjust their internal states and sampling of the environment to minimize their free-energy. Such agents learn causal structure in the environment and sample it in an adaptive and self-supervised fashion. This results in behavioural policies that reproduce those optimised by reinforcement learning and dynamic programming. Critically, we do not need to invoke the notion of reward, value or utility. We illustrate these points by solving a benchmark problem in dynamic programming; namely the mountain-car problem, using active perception or inference under the free-energy principle. The ensuing proof-of-concept may be important because the free-energy formulation furnishes a unified account of both action and perception and may speak to a reappraisal of the role of dopamine in the brain.

  17. Reinforcement learning or active inference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl J Friston

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper questions the need for reinforcement learning or control theory when optimising behaviour. We show that it is fairly simple to teach an agent complicated and adaptive behaviours using a free-energy formulation of perception. In this formulation, agents adjust their internal states and sampling of the environment to minimize their free-energy. Such agents learn causal structure in the environment and sample it in an adaptive and self-supervised fashion. This results in behavioural policies that reproduce those optimised by reinforcement learning and dynamic programming. Critically, we do not need to invoke the notion of reward, value or utility. We illustrate these points by solving a benchmark problem in dynamic programming; namely the mountain-car problem, using active perception or inference under the free-energy principle. The ensuing proof-of-concept may be important because the free-energy formulation furnishes a unified account of both action and perception and may speak to a reappraisal of the role of dopamine in the brain.

  18. Research on Mobile Learning Activities Applying Tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurilovas, Eugenijus; Juskeviciene, Anita; Bireniene, Virginija

    2015-01-01

    The paper aims to present current research on mobile learning activities in Lithuania while implementing flagship EU-funded CCL project on application of tablet computers in education. In the paper, the quality of modern mobile learning activities based on learning personalisation, problem solving, collaboration, and flipped class methods is…

  19. Active Learning in the Middle Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Susan

    2015-01-01

    What is active learning and what does it look like in the classroom? If students are participating in active learning, they are playing a more engaged role in the learning process and are not overly reliant on the teacher (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2003; Petress, 2008). The purpose of this article is to propose a framework to describe and…

  20. Incorporating active learning in psychiatry education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sonia; McLean, Loyola; Nash, Louise; Trigwell, Keith

    2017-06-01

    We aim to summarise the active learning literature in higher education and consider its relevance for postgraduate psychiatry trainees, to inform the development of a new Formal Education Course (FEC): the Master of Medicine (Psychiatry) at the University of Sydney. We undertook a literature search on 'active learning', 'flipped classroom', 'problem-based learning' and 'psychiatry education'. The effectiveness of active learning pedagogy in higher education is well supported by evidence; however, there have been few psychiatry-specific studies. A new 'flipped classroom' format was developed for the Master of Medicine (Psychiatry). Postgraduate psychiatry training is an active learning environment; the pedagogical approach to FECs requires further evaluation.

  1. Architecture for Collaborative Learning Activities in Hybrid Learning Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Ibáñez, María Blanca; Maroto, David; García Rueda, José Jesús; Leony, Derick; Delgado Kloos, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    3D virtual worlds are recognized as collaborative learning environments. However, the underlying technology is not sufficiently mature and the virtual worlds look cartoonish, unlinked to reality. Thus, it is important to enrich them with elements from the real world to enhance student engagement in learning activities. Our approach is to build learning environments where participants can either be in the real world or in its mirror world while sharing the same hybrid space in a collaborative ...

  2. Hidden Markov models for the activity profile of terrorist groups

    OpenAIRE

    Raghavan, Vasanthan; Galstyan, Aram; Tartakovsky, Alexander G.

    2012-01-01

    The main focus of this work is on developing models for the activity profile of a terrorist group, detecting sudden spurts and downfalls in this profile, and, in general, tracking it over a period of time. Toward this goal, a $d$-state hidden Markov model (HMM) that captures the latent states underlying the dynamics of the group and thus its activity profile is developed. The simplest setting of $d=2$ corresponds to the case where the dynamics are coarsely quantized as Active and Inactive, re...

  3. Doing physical activity – not learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens-Ole

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In recent years there have been a raising critique concerning PE as a subject which is more concerned with keeping pupils physically active than insuring that they learn something (Annerstedt, 2008). In Denmark, this issue has been actualized in a new sense. In 2014, a new school...... reform with 45 minutes of daily physical activity was introduced to enhance the pupils’ health, well-being and learning capabilities. Instead of focusing on learning bodily skills, physical activities has become an instrument to improve learning in the academic subjects. Physical activities.......g. Biesta, 2010; Standal, 2015) I will argue that the focus on learning outcome and effects on physical activity has gone too far in order to reach the objectives. If the notion of ‘keeping pupils physically active’ is understood as a representation of the core quality of physical activity, it seems...

  4. Student Activity and Learning Outcomes in a Virtual Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, Kalle; Nevgi, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between degree of participation and learning outcomes in an e-learning course on medical informatics. Overall activity in using course materials and degree of participation in the discussion forums of an online course were studied among 39 medical students. Students were able to utilise the…

  5. WISC-R Subtest Pattern Stability and Learning Disabilities: A Profile Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealor, David J.; Abrams, Pamela F.

    Profile analysis was performed on Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) scores of 29 learning disabled students (6-10 years old) in a Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD) program, to determine whether subtest patterns for initial and re-evaluation WISC-R administrations would differ significantly. Profile analysis was applied…

  6. Captivate: Building Blocks for Implementing Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchens, Brent; Means, Tawnya; Tan, Yinliang

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the authors propose a set of key elements that impact the success of an active learning implementation: content delivery, active learning methods, physical environment, technology enhancement, incentive alignment, and educator investment. Through a range of metrics the authors present preliminary evidence that students in courses…

  7. Faculty Perceptions about Barriers to Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Faculty may perceive many barriers to active learning in their classrooms. Four groups of participants in a faculty development workshop were asked to list their perceived barriers to active learning. Many of the problems identified were present on more than one list. The barriers fall into three categories: student characteristics, issues…

  8. Active teaching methods, studying responses and learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hans Peter; Vigild, Martin Etchells; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2010-01-01

    Students’ study strategies when exposed to activating teaching methods are measured, analysed and compared to study strategies in more traditional lecture-based teaching. The resulting learning outcome is discussed.......Students’ study strategies when exposed to activating teaching methods are measured, analysed and compared to study strategies in more traditional lecture-based teaching. The resulting learning outcome is discussed....

  9. Active Ageing, Active Learning: Policy and Provision in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between ageing and learning, previous literature having confirmed that participation in continued learning in old age contributes to good health, satisfaction with life, independence and self-esteem. Realizing that learning is vital to active ageing, the Hong Kong government has implemented policies and…

  10. Differential and Combined Effects of Physical Activity Profiles and Prohealth Behaviors on Diabetes Prevalence among Blacks and Whites in the US Population: A Novel Bayesian Belief Network Machine Learning Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizi A. Seixas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study assessed the prevalence of diabetes across four different physical activity lifestyles and infer through machine learning which combinations of physical activity, sleep, stress, and body mass index yield the lowest prevalence of diabetes in Blacks and Whites. Data were extracted from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS dataset from 2004–2013 containing demographics, chronic diseases, and sleep duration (N = 288,888. Of the total sample, 9.34% reported diabetes (where the prevalence of diabetes was 12.92% in Blacks/African Americans and 8.68% in Whites. Over half of the sample reported sedentary lifestyles (Blacks were more sedentary than Whites, approximately 20% reported moderately active lifestyles (Whites more than Blacks, approximately 15% reported active lifestyles (Whites more than Blacks, and approximately 6% reported very active lifestyles (Whites more than Blacks. Across four different physical activity lifestyles, Blacks consistently had a higher diabetes prevalence compared to their White counterparts. Physical activity combined with healthy sleep, low stress, and average body weight reduced the prevalence of diabetes, especially in Blacks. Our study highlights the need to provide alternative and personalized behavioral/lifestyle recommendations to generic national physical activity recommendations, specifically among Blacks, to reduce diabetes and narrow diabetes disparities between Blacks and Whites.

  11. Scene recognition based on integrating active learning with dictionary learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengxi; Yin, Xueyan; Yang, Lin; Gong, Chengrong; Zheng, Caixia; Yi, Yugen

    2018-04-01

    Scene recognition is a significant topic in the field of computer vision. Most of the existing scene recognition models require a large amount of labeled training samples to achieve a good performance. However, labeling image manually is a time consuming task and often unrealistic in practice. In order to gain satisfying recognition results when labeled samples are insufficient, this paper proposed a scene recognition algorithm named Integrating Active Learning and Dictionary Leaning (IALDL). IALDL adopts projective dictionary pair learning (DPL) as classifier and introduces active learning mechanism into DPL for improving its performance. When constructing sampling criterion in active learning, IALDL considers both the uncertainty and representativeness as the sampling criteria to effectively select the useful unlabeled samples from a given sample set for expanding the training dataset. Experiment results on three standard databases demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the proposed IALDL.

  12. A Studi on High Plant Systems Course with Active Learning in Higher Education Through Outdoor Learning to Increase Student Learning Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Rokhimah Hanik, Anwari Adi Nugroho

    2015-01-01

    Biology learning especially high plant system courses needs to be applied to active learning centered on the student (Active Learning In Higher Education) to enhance the students' learning activities so that the quality of learning for the better. Outdoor Learning is one of the active learning invites students to learn outside of the classroom by exploring the surrounding environment. This research aims to improve the students' learning activities in the course of high plant systems through t...

  13. Students’ mathematical learning in modelling activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Tinne Hoff; Blomhøj, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Ten years of experience with analyses of students’ learning in a modelling course for first year university students, led us to see modelling as a didactical activity with the dual goal of developing students’ modelling competency and enhancing their conceptual learning of mathematical concepts i...... create and help overcome hidden cognitive conflicts in students’ understanding; that reflections within modelling can play an important role for the students’ learning of mathematics. These findings are illustrated with a modelling project concerning the world population....

  14. The Activity Theory Approach to Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritva Engeström

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author offers a practical view of the theory-grounded research on education action. She draws on studies carried out at the Center for Research on Activity, Development and Learning (CRADLE at the University of Helsinki in Finland. In its work, the Center draws on cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT and is well-known for the theory of Expansive Learning and its more practical application called Developmental Work Research (DWR. These approaches are widely used to understand professional learning and have served as a theoreticaland methodological foundation for studies examining change and professional development in various human activities.

  15. Active learning methods for interactive image retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Philippe Henri; Cord, Matthieu

    2008-07-01

    Active learning methods have been considered with increased interest in the statistical learning community. Initially developed within a classification framework, a lot of extensions are now being proposed to handle multimedia applications. This paper provides algorithms within a statistical framework to extend active learning for online content-based image retrieval (CBIR). The classification framework is presented with experiments to compare several powerful classification techniques in this information retrieval context. Focusing on interactive methods, active learning strategy is then described. The limitations of this approach for CBIR are emphasized before presenting our new active selection process RETIN. First, as any active method is sensitive to the boundary estimation between classes, the RETIN strategy carries out a boundary correction to make the retrieval process more robust. Second, the criterion of generalization error to optimize the active learning selection is modified to better represent the CBIR objective of database ranking. Third, a batch processing of images is proposed. Our strategy leads to a fast and efficient active learning scheme to retrieve sets of online images (query concept). Experiments on large databases show that the RETIN method performs well in comparison to several other active strategies.

  16. Towards a Quality Assessment Method for Learning Preference Profiles in Negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindriks, Koen V.; Tykhonov, Dmytro

    In automated negotiation, information gained about an opponent's preference profile by means of learning techniques may significantly improve an agent's negotiation performance. It therefore is useful to gain a better understanding of how various negotiation factors influence the quality of learning. The quality of learning techniques in negotiation are typically assessed indirectly by means of comparing the utility levels of agreed outcomes and other more global negotiation parameters. An evaluation of learning based on such general criteria, however, does not provide any insight into the influence of various aspects of negotiation on the quality of the learned model itself. The quality may depend on such aspects as the domain of negotiation, the structure of the preference profiles, the negotiation strategies used by the parties, and others. To gain a better understanding of the performance of proposed learning techniques in the context of negotiation and to be able to assess the potential to improve the performance of such techniques a more systematic assessment method is needed. In this paper we propose such a systematic method to analyse the quality of the information gained about opponent preferences by learning in single-instance negotiations. The method includes measures to assess the quality of a learned preference profile and proposes an experimental setup to analyse the influence of various negotiation aspects on the quality of learning. We apply the method to a Bayesian learning approach for learning an opponent's preference profile and discuss our findings.

  17. Do dental hygiene students fit the learning profile of the millennial student?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Christine M

    2009-12-01

    Differences in learning and the cultural context of our students' life experiences are important variables that faculty members need to understand in order to be effective in the classroom. Faculty members are finding that millennial students' approaches to learning are often vastly different from their own and as a result feel frustrated in their ability to help these students with their learning needs. Cultivating awareness of how today's dental hygiene student learns as well as the millennial learner profile can help faculty members address this educational challenge. The purpose of this study was to identify the learning styles of three groups of dental hygiene students and determine if they fit the learning profile of the millennial student as measured by the Learning Type Measure. Given this new generation of learners, it was hypothesized that dental hygiene students' learning style preferences would fit the learning profile of the millennial student. The Learning Type Measure was administered to 101 dental hygiene students at the University of Minnesota, University of Arizona, and Virginia Commonwealth University. The results from the study revealed that dental hygiene students do exhibit learning style preferences consistent with the millennial learner profile.

  18. Online Behavior Analysis-Based Student Profile for Intelligent E-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Liang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of mobile platform, such as smart cellphone and pad, the E-Learning model has been rapidly developed. However, due to the low completion rate for E-Learning platform, it is very necessary to analyze the behavior characteristics of online learners to intelligently adjust online education strategy and enhance the quality of learning. In this paper, we analyzed the relation indicators of E-Learning to build the student profile and gave countermeasures. Adopting the similarity computation and Jaccard coefficient algorithm, we designed a system model to clean and dig into the educational data and also the students’ learning attitude and the duration of learning behavior to establish student profile. According to the E-Learning resources and learner behaviors, we also present the intelligent guide model to guide both E-Learning platform and learners to improve learning things. The study on student profile can help the E-Learning platform to meet and guide the students’ learning behavior deeply and also to provide personalized learning situation and promote the optimization of the E-Learning.

  19. Child Development: An Active Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Laura E.; Munsch, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    Within each chapter of this innovative topical text, the authors engage students by demonstrating the wide range of real-world applications of psychological research connected to child development. In particular, the distinctive Active Learning features incorporated throughout the book foster a dynamic and personal learning process for students.…

  20. Discussing Active Learning from the Practitioner's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamba, Priscilla

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of how active learning took place in a class containing specific readings,cooperative and collaborative group work, and a writing assignment for college students at a Northern Virginia Community College campus (NVCC). Requisite knowledge, skills, learner characteristics, brain-based learning, and…

  1. Learning models of activities involving interacting objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredotti, Cristina; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Hamilton, Howard J.

    2013-01-01

    We propose the LEMAIO multi-layer framework, which makes use of hierarchical abstraction to learn models for activities involving multiple interacting objects from time sequences of data concerning the individual objects. Experiments in the sea navigation domain yielded learned models that were t...

  2. Learning outcomes between Socioscientific Issues-Based Learning and Conventional Learning Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Piyaluk Wongsri; Prasart Nuangchalerm

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Socioscientific issues-based learning activity is essential for scientific reasoning skills and it could be used for analyzing problems be applied to each situation for more successful and suitable. The purposes of this research aimed to compare learning achievement, analytical thinking and moral reasoning of seventh grade students who were organized between socioscientific issues-based learning and conventional learning activities. Approach: The samples used in research we...

  3. Improving Software Sustainability: Lessons Learned from Profiles in Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Marie E

    2013-01-01

    The Profiles in Science® digital library features digitized surrogates of historical items selected from the archival collections of the U.S. National Library of Medicine as well as collaborating institutions. In addition, it contains a database of descriptive, technical and administrative metadata. It also contains various software components that allow creation of the metadata, management of the digital items, and access to the items and metadata through the Profiles in Science Web site [1]. The choices made building the digital library were designed to maximize the sustainability and long-term survival of all of the components of the digital library [2]. For example, selecting standard and open digital file formats rather than proprietary formats increases the sustainability of the digital files [3]. Correspondingly, using non-proprietary software may improve the sustainability of the software--either through in-house expertise or through the open source community. Limiting our digital library software exclusively to open source software or to software developed in-house has not been feasible. For example, we have used proprietary operating systems, scanning software, a search engine, and office productivity software. We did this when either lack of essential capabilities or the cost-benefit trade-off favored using proprietary software. We also did so knowing that in the future we would need to replace or upgrade some of our proprietary software, analogous to migrating from an obsolete digital file format to a new format as the technological landscape changes. Since our digital library's start in 1998, all of its software has been upgraded or replaced, but the digitized items have not yet required migration to other formats. Technological changes that compelled us to replace proprietary software included the cost of product licensing, product support, incompatibility with other software, prohibited use due to evolving security policies, and product abandonment

  4. Online Behavior Analysis-Based Student Profile for Intelligent E-Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Kun; Zhang, Yiying; He, Yeshen; Zhou, Yilin; Tan, Wei; Li, Xiaoxia

    2017-01-01

    With the development of mobile platform, such as smart cellphone and pad, the E-Learning model has been rapidly developed. However, due to the low completion rate for E-Learning platform, it is very necessary to analyze the behavior characteristics of online learners to intelligently adjust online education strategy and enhance the quality of learning. In this paper, we analyzed the relation indicators of E-Learning to build the student profile and gave countermeasures. Adopting the similarit...

  5. The association between the activity profile and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddison, Ralph; Jiang, Yannan; Foley, Louise; Scragg, Robert; Direito, Artur; Olds, Timothy

    2016-08-01

    This study sought to better understand the interrelationships between physical activity and sedentary behaviour and the relationship to risk of cardiovascular disease (CVDR) in adults aged 30-75 years. Cross-sectional. Data from two-year waves (2003-2004 and 2005-2006) of the National Health and Nutritional Examination survey were analysed in 2014. Accelerometer-derived time and proportion of time spent sedentary and on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were calculated to generate four activity profiles based on cut-points to define low and high levels for the respective behaviours. Using health outcome data, CVDR was calculated for each person. Weighted multiple linear regression models were used to evaluate the predicted effects of sedentary and physical activity behaviours on the CVDR score, adjusting for participants' sex, age group, race, annual household income, and accelerometer wear time. The lowest CVDR was observed among Busy Exercisers (high MVPA and low sedentary; 8.5%), whereas Couch Potatoes (low MVPA and high sedentary) had the highest (18.6%). Compared with the reference group (Busy Exercisers), the activity profile associated with the highest CVDR was Couch Potatoes (adjusted mean difference 3.6, SE 0.38, prisk landscape" was developed to better visualise the conjoint associations of MVPA and sedentary behaviour on CVDR for each activity profile. The association between MVPA was greater than that of sedentary behaviour; however, for people with low MVPA, shifts in sedentary behaviour may have the greatest impact on CVDR. Activity profiles that consider the interrelationships between physical activity and sedentary behaviour differ in terms of CVDR. Future interventions may need to be tailored to specific profiles and be dynamic enough to reflect change in the profile over time. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Point-of-Purchase Advertising. Learning Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Ray

    1998-01-01

    In this technology education activity, students learn the importance of advertising, conduct a day-long survey of advertising strategies, and design and produce a tabletop point-of-purchase advertisement. (JOW)

  7. Activating teaching methods, studying responses and learning

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Hans Peter; Vigild, Martin E.; Thomsen, Erik; Szabo, Peter; Horsewell, Andy

    2009-01-01

    Students’ study strategies when exposed to activating teaching methods are measured, analysed and compared to study strategies in more traditional lecture-based teaching. The resulting learning outcome is discussed. Peer Reviewed

  8. Learning Activities in a Sociable Smart City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Ringas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We present our approach on how smart city technologies may enhance the learning process. We have developed the CLIO urban computing system, which invites people to share personal memories and interact the collective city memory. Various educational scenarios and activities were performed exploiting CLIO; in this paper we present the methodology we followed and the experience we gained. Learning has always been the cognitive process of acquiring skills or knowledge, while teachers are often eager to experiment with novel technological means and methods; our aim was to explore the effect that urban computing could have to the learning process. We applied our methodology in the city of Corfu inviting schools to engage their students in learning through the collective city memory while exploiting urban computing. Results from our experience demonstrate the potential of exploiting urban computing in the learning process and the benefits of learning out of the classroom.

  9. Dopamine, reward learning, and active inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eFitzgerald

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Temporal difference learning models propose phasic dopamine signalling encodes reward prediction errors that drive learning. This is supported by studies where optogenetic stimulation of dopamine neurons can stand in lieu of actual reward. Nevertheless, a large body of data also shows that dopamine is not necessary for learning, and that dopamine depletion primarily affects task performance. We offer a resolution to this paradox based on an hypothesis that dopamine encodes the precision of beliefs about alternative actions, and thus controls the outcome-sensitivity of behaviour. We extend an active inference scheme for solving Markov decision processes to include learning, and show that simulated dopamine dynamics strongly resemble those actually observed during instrumental conditioning. Furthermore, simulated dopamine depletion impairs performance but spares learning, while simulated excitation of dopamine neurons drives reward learning, through aberrant inference about outcome states. Our formal approach provides a novel and parsimonious reconciliation of apparently divergent experimental findings.

  10. Dopamine, reward learning, and active inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, Thomas H B; Dolan, Raymond J; Friston, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Temporal difference learning models propose phasic dopamine signaling encodes reward prediction errors that drive learning. This is supported by studies where optogenetic stimulation of dopamine neurons can stand in lieu of actual reward. Nevertheless, a large body of data also shows that dopamine is not necessary for learning, and that dopamine depletion primarily affects task performance. We offer a resolution to this paradox based on an hypothesis that dopamine encodes the precision of beliefs about alternative actions, and thus controls the outcome-sensitivity of behavior. We extend an active inference scheme for solving Markov decision processes to include learning, and show that simulated dopamine dynamics strongly resemble those actually observed during instrumental conditioning. Furthermore, simulated dopamine depletion impairs performance but spares learning, while simulated excitation of dopamine neurons drives reward learning, through aberrant inference about outcome states. Our formal approach provides a novel and parsimonious reconciliation of apparently divergent experimental findings.

  11. People with Learning Disabilities and "Active Ageing"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Liam; Boxall, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Background: People (with and without learning disabilities) are living longer. Demographic ageing creates challenges and the leading policy response to these challenges is "active ageing". "Active" does not just refer to the ability to be physically and economically active, but also includes ongoing social and civic engagement…

  12. Teaching Engineering with Autonomous Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Eva; Royo, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes several activities that encourage self-learning in engineering courses. For each activity, the context and the pedagogical issues addressed are described emphasizing strengths and weaknesses. Specifically, this work describes and implements five activities, which are: questionnaires, conceptual maps, videos, jigsaw and…

  13. Active Learning through Online Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbahar, Yasemin; Kalelioglu, Filiz

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the use of proper instructional techniques in online discussions that lead to meaningful learning. The research study looks at the effective use of two instructional techniques within online environments, based on qualitative measures. "Brainstorming" and "Six Thinking Hats" were selected and implemented…

  14. Automatic Earthquake Detection by Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, K.; Beroza, G. C.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, advances in machine learning have transformed fields such as image recognition, natural language processing and recommender systems. Many of these performance gains have relied on the availability of large, labeled data sets to train high-accuracy models; labeled data sets are those for which each sample includes a target class label, such as waveforms tagged as either earthquakes or noise. Earthquake seismologists are increasingly leveraging machine learning and data mining techniques to detect and analyze weak earthquake signals in large seismic data sets. One of the challenges in applying machine learning to seismic data sets is the limited labeled data problem; learning algorithms need to be given examples of earthquake waveforms, but the number of known events, taken from earthquake catalogs, may be insufficient to build an accurate detector. Furthermore, earthquake catalogs are known to be incomplete, resulting in training data that may be biased towards larger events and contain inaccurate labels. This challenge is compounded by the class imbalance problem; the events of interest, earthquakes, are infrequent relative to noise in continuous data sets, and many learning algorithms perform poorly on rare classes. In this work, we investigate the use of active learning for automatic earthquake detection. Active learning is a type of semi-supervised machine learning that uses a human-in-the-loop approach to strategically supplement a small initial training set. The learning algorithm incorporates domain expertise through interaction between a human expert and the algorithm, with the algorithm actively posing queries to the user to improve detection performance. We demonstrate the potential of active machine learning to improve earthquake detection performance with limited available training data.

  15. Profiles of Types of Central Auditory Processing Disorders in Children with Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiek, Frank E.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The article profiles five cases of children (8-17 years old) with learning disabilities and auditory processing problems. Possible correlations between the presumed etiology and the unique audiological pattern on the central test battery are analyzed. (Author/CL)

  16. Manifold Regularized Experimental Design for Active Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lining; Shum, Hubert P H; Shao, Ling

    2016-12-02

    Various machine learning and data mining tasks in classification require abundant data samples to be labeled for training. Conventional active learning methods aim at labeling the most informative samples for alleviating the labor of the user. Many previous studies in active learning select one sample after another in a greedy manner. However, this is not very effective because the classification models has to be retrained for each newly labeled sample. Moreover, many popular active learning approaches utilize the most uncertain samples by leveraging the classification hyperplane of the classifier, which is not appropriate since the classification hyperplane is inaccurate when the training data are small-sized. The problem of insufficient training data in real-world systems limits the potential applications of these approaches. This paper presents a novel method of active learning called manifold regularized experimental design (MRED), which can label multiple informative samples at one time for training. In addition, MRED gives an explicit geometric explanation for the selected samples to be labeled by the user. Different from existing active learning methods, our method avoids the intrinsic problems caused by insufficiently labeled samples in real-world applications. Various experiments on synthetic datasets, the Yale face database and the Corel image database have been carried out to show how MRED outperforms existing methods.

  17. Quantum Speedup for Active Learning Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Davide Paparo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Can quantum mechanics help us build intelligent learning agents? A defining signature of intelligent behavior is the capacity to learn from experience. However, a major bottleneck for agents to learn in real-life situations is the size and complexity of the corresponding task environment. Even in a moderately realistic environment, it may simply take too long to rationally respond to a given situation. If the environment is impatient, allowing only a certain time for a response, an agent may then be unable to cope with the situation and to learn at all. Here, we show that quantum physics can help and provide a quadratic speedup for active learning as a genuine problem of artificial intelligence. This result will be particularly relevant for applications involving complex task environments.

  18. Profiles and Pauses: Two Practical Activities for the Writing Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Hall

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : This article describes two classroom activities, "Profiling" and "Pause Analysis", that can be successfully used in ESL writing classes. "Profiling" addresses such problems as poor development of ideas, simplistic ideas, and lack of coherence in written texts. "Pause Analysis" focusses on the thinking processes that students engage in while drafting text, processes such as searching for ideas, evaluat­ing ideas, and postponing ideas. Both activities enable the instructor to assume the role of intervener in the students' writing processes, rather than evaluator of the text produced. In drawing The attention of the student write to both product and process, "Profiling" and "Pause Analysis" help them develop an awareness of the relation-ship between ideas in English expository text and the thinking pro­cesses that writers engage in while drafting such text.

  19. Profiling interest of students in science: Learning in school and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierks, Pay O.; Höffler, Tim N.; Parchmann, Ilka

    2014-05-01

    Background:Interest is assumed to be relevant for students' learning processes. Many studies have investigated students' interest in science; most of them however have not offered differentiated insights into the structure and elements of this interest. Purpose:The aim of this study is to obtain a precise image of secondary school students' interest for school and out-of-school learning opportunities, both formal and informal. The study is part of a larger project on measuring the students' Individual Concept about the Natural Sciences (ICoN), including self-efficacy, beliefs and achievements next to interest variables. Sample:Next to regular school students, a specific cohort will be analyzed as well: participants of science competitions who are regarded as having high interest, and perhaps different interest profiles than regular students. In the study described here, participants of the International Junior Science Olympiad (N = 133) and regular students from secondary schools (N = 305), age cohorts 10 to 17 years, participated. Design and methods:We adapted Holland's well-established RIASEC-framework to analyze if and how it can also be used to assess students' interest within science and in-school and out-of-school (leisure-time and enrichment) activities. The resulting questionnaire was piloted according to quality criteria and applied to analyze profiles of different groups (boys - girls, contest participants - non-participants). Results:The RIASEC-adaption to investigate profiles within science works apparently well for school and leisure-time activities. Concerning the interest in fostering measures, different emphases seem to appear. More research in this field needs to be done to adjust measures better to students' interests and other pre-conditions in the future. Contrasting different groups like gender and participation in a junior science contest uncovered specific interest profiles. Conclusions:The instrument seems to offer a promising approach to

  20. Learning, Learning Analytics, Activity Visualisation and Open learner Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Susan; Kickmeier-Rust, Michael; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    This paper draws on visualisation approaches in learning analytics, considering how classroom visualisations can come together in practice. We suggest an open learner model in situations where many tools and activity visualisations produce more visual information than can be readily interpreted....

  1. A Learning Activity Design Framework for Supporting Mobile Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Nouri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the Learning Activity Design (LEAD framework for the development and implementation of mobile learning activities in primary schools. The LEAD framework draws on methodological perspectives suggested by design-based research and interaction design in the specific field of technology-enhanced learning (TEL. The LEAD framework is grounded in four design projects conducted over a period of six years. It contributes a new understanding of the intricacies and multifaceted aspects of the design-process characterizing the development and implementation of mobile devices (i.e. smart phones and tablets in curricular activities conducted in Swedish primary schools. This framework is intended to provide both designers and researchers with methodological tools that take account of the pedagogical foundations of technologically-based educational interventions, usability issues related to the interaction with the mobile application developed, multiple data streams generated during the design project, multiple stakeholders involved in the design process and sustainability aspects of the mobile learning activities implemented in the school classroom.

  2. Active Learning to Develop Motor Skills and Teamwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Lorena Aristizabal-Almanza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This action-research project was conducted to determine how the use of principles of active learning, specifically collaboration, had an effect on psychomotor performance and achievement in teamwork. The research setting included 20 students of first grade from a private school located in Bogota, Colombia. The students were selected through not randomized sampling based on criteria. The methodological process included observation, interviews, and a scale based on standardized tests to measure skills; the latter was applied before and after the intervention. Data analysis was performed using a triangulation of qualitative data, and through comparative analysis of the initial and final student profile for quantitative inputs. The results showed that, after the intervention with collaborative techniques based on action learning, students achieved a positive variation in their performance. Being part of a team positively affected the achievement of the objectives. Systematical reflection on their practices fostered their capacity to identify strengths and weaknesses to build knowledge in interaction with others. Knowledge construction was nurtured based in their previous experiences. Students showed more accountability and self-directed learning behaviors, according to their age. Overall the experience showed the importance of research and innovation in the classroom in order to provide meaningful data, so teachers and researchers can engage in providing learning experiences based in active learning.

  3. Oral Hygiene. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hime, Kirsten

    This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on oral hygiene. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, suggested activities, additional resources (student handouts), student performance checklists for both…

  4. Building Maintenance. Math Learning Activity Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Shelia I.

    This collection of learning activities is intended for use in reinforcing mathematics instruction as it relates to building maintenance. Fifty activity sheets are provided. These are organized into units on the following topics: numeration, adding whole numbers, subtracting whole numbers, multiplying whole numbers, dividing whole numbers,…

  5. Grooming. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Pamela

    This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on grooming. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, suggested activities, an additional resources list, and student completion cards to issue to students as an…

  6. Activating Teaching for Quality Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2013-01-01

    Activating teaching is an educational concept which is based on active participation of students in the study process. It is becoming an alternative to more typical approach where the teacher will just lecture and the students will take notes. The study described in this paper considers student...... activating teaching methods focusing on those based on knowledge dissemination. The practical aspects of the implemented teaching method are considered, and employed assessment methods and tools are discussed....

  7. Quantitative genetic activity graphical profiles for use in chemical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, M.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Stack, H.F.; Garrett, N.E.; Jackson, M.A. [Environmental Health Research and Testing, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    A graphic approach, terms a Genetic Activity Profile (GAP), was developed to display a matrix of data on the genetic and related effects of selected chemical agents. The profiles provide a visual overview of the quantitative (doses) and qualitative (test results) data for each chemical. Either the lowest effective dose or highest ineffective dose is recorded for each agent and bioassay. Up to 200 different test systems are represented across the GAP. Bioassay systems are organized according to the phylogeny of the test organisms and the end points of genetic activity. The methodology for producing and evaluating genetic activity profile was developed in collaboration with the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Data on individual chemicals were compiles by IARC and by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Data are available on 343 compounds selected from volumes 1-53 of the IARC Monographs and on 115 compounds identified as Superfund Priority Substances. Software to display the GAPs on an IBM-compatible personal computer is available from the authors. Structurally similar compounds frequently display qualitatively and quantitatively similar profiles of genetic activity. Through examination of the patterns of GAPs of pairs and groups of chemicals, it is possible to make more informed decisions regarding the selection of test batteries to be used in evaluation of chemical analogs. GAPs provided useful data for development of weight-of-evidence hazard ranking schemes. Also, some knowledge of the potential genetic activity of complex environmental mixtures may be gained from an assessment of the genetic activity profiles of component chemicals. The fundamental techniques and computer programs devised for the GAP database may be used to develop similar databases in other disciplines. 36 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Active learning in practice: Implementation of the principles of active learning in an engineering course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rützou, C.

    2017-01-01

    The most common form of teaching is still the form where a teacher presents the subject of the lecture to a listening audience. During teaching history this has proved to be an effective way of teaching, however the probability of students being inactive is high and the learning outcome may...... through the same curriculum as usual during a term? • Will Active Learning reduce failure rate? • Will Active Learning give a higher learning outcome than traditional teaching? This paper deals with the results of this experiment, answers the mentioned questions and presents a way to implement Active...

  9. Activity-Based Protein Profiling of Rhomboid Proteases in Liposomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wolf, E. V.; Seybold, M.; Hadravová, Romana; Stříšovský, Kvido; Verhelst, S. H. L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 11 (2015), s. 1616-1621 ISSN 1439-4227 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LK11206; GA MŠk LO1302 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : activity-based protein profiling * chemical probes * inhibitors * intramembrane proteases * liposomes Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.850, year: 2015

  10. Application of metabolite profiling and antioxidant activity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the effect of processing and extraction method on chemical profiles and antioxidant activity of Malaysian stingless bee propolis. High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) analysis in combination with chemometric shows that some of the compounds were degraded or not detected in ...

  11. Responsiveness of the rehabilitation activities profile and the Barthel index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bennekom, C. A.; Jelles, F.; Lankhorst, G. J.; Bouter, L. M.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the responsiveness for clinically meaningful change over time of a newly designed functional status scale, the Rehabilitation Activities Profile (RAP), with more frequently used Barthel Index (BI). Four techniques for the quantification of responsiveness were

  12. Is Peer Interaction Necessary for Optimal Active Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Debra L.; Farmer, Jan Keith; Peterson, Ernie

    2014-01-01

    Meta-analyses of active-learning research consistently show that active-learning techniques result in greater student performance than traditional lecture-based courses. However, some individual studies show no effect of active-learning interventions. This may be due to inexperienced implementation of active learning. To minimize the effect of…

  13. Data on multicultural education and diagnostic information profiling: Culture, learning styles and creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseleno, Andino; Hardaker, Glenn; Sabani, Noraisikin; Suhaili, Nabilah

    2016-12-01

    This article contains data related to multicultural education and diagnostic information profiling preliminary findings. It includes the responses of 253 students. The data consists of six sections, i) culture: race, ethnicity, language and identity; ii) learning preferences: physiological and perceptual; iii) cognitive learning styles: physical, emotional and mental; iv) creativity skills and problem solving skills; v) motivation; and vi) students' background knowledge. The data may be used as part of data analytics for specific personalized e-learning platform.

  14. Data on multicultural education and diagnostic information profiling: Culture, learning styles and creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andino Maseleno

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article contains data related to multicultural education and diagnostic information profiling preliminary findings. It includes the responses of 253 students. The data consists of six sections, i culture: race, ethnicity, language and identity; ii learning preferences: physiological and perceptual; iii cognitive learning styles: physical, emotional and mental; iv creativity skills and problem solving skills; v motivation; and vi students’ background knowledge. The data may be used as part of data analytics for specific personalized e-learning platform.

  15. Surface activity, lipid profiles and their implications in cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The profiles of lipids in normal and cancerous tissues may differ revealing information about cancer development and progression. Lipids being surface active, changes in lipid profiles can manifest as altered surface activity profiles. Langmuir monolayers offer a convenient model for evaluating surface activity of biological membranes. Aims: The aims of this study were to quantify phospholipids and their effects on surface activity of normal and cancerous human cervical tissues as well as to evaluate the role of phosphatidylcholine (PC and sphingomyelin (SM in cervical cancer using Langmuir monolayers. Methods and Materials: Lipid quantification was done using thin layer chromatography and phosphorus assay. Surface activity was evaluated using Langmuir monolayers. Monolayers were formed on the surface of deionized water by spreading tissue organic phase corresponding to 1 mg of tissue and studying their surface pressure-area isotherms at body temperature. The PC and SM contents of cancerous human cervical tissues were higher than those of the normal human cervical tissues. Role of PC and SM were evaluated by adding varying amounts of these lipids to normal cervical pooled organic phase. Statistical analysis: Student′s t-test (p < 0.05 and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used. Results: Our results reveals that the phosphatidylglycerol level in cancerous cervical tissue was nearly five folds higher than that in normal cervical tissue. Also PC and sphingomyelin SM were found to be the major phospholipid components in cancerous and normal cervical tissues respectively. The addition of either 1.5 µg DPPC or 0.5 µg SM /mg of tissue to the normal organic phase changed its surface activity profile to that of the cancerous tissues. Statistically significant surface activity parameters showed that PC and SM have remarkable roles in shifting the normal cervical lipophilic surface activity towards that of cancerous lipophilic

  16. Learning plan applicability through active mental entities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baroni, Pietro; Fogli, Daniela; Guida, Giovanni

    1999-01-01

    This paper aims at laying down the foundations of a new approach to learning in autonomous mobile robots. It is based on the assumption that robots can be provided with built-in action plans and with mechanisms to modify and improve such plans. This requires that robots are equipped with some form of high-level reasoning capabilities. Therefore, the proposed learning technique is embedded in a novel distributed control architecture featuring an explicit model of robot's cognitive activity. In particular, cognitive activity is obtained by the interaction of active mental entities, such as intentions, persuasions and expectations. Learning capabilities are implemented starting from the interaction of such mental entities. The proposal is illustrated through an example concerning a robot in charge of reaching a target in an unknown environment cluttered with obstacles

  17. Exploring student learning profiles in algebra-based studio physics: A person-centered approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, Jarrad W. T.; Chini, Jacquelyn J.

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we explore the strategic self-regulatory and motivational characteristics of students in studio-mode physics courses at three universities with varying student populations and varying levels of success in their studio-mode courses. We survey students using questions compiled from several existing questionnaires designed to measure students' study strategies, attitudes toward and motivations for learning physics, organization of scientific knowledge, experiences outside the classroom, and demographics. Using a person-centered approach, we utilize cluster analysis methods to group students into learning profiles based on their individual responses to better understand the strategies and motives of algebra-based studio physics students. Previous studies have identified five distinct learning profiles across several student populations using similar methods. We present results from first-semester and second-semester studio-mode introductory physics courses across three universities. We identify these five distinct learning profiles found in previous studies to be present within our population of introductory physics students. In addition, we investigate interactions between these learning profiles and student demographics. We find significant interactions between a student's learning profile and their experience with high school physics, major, gender, grade expectation, and institution. Ultimately, we aim to use this method of analysis to take the characteristics of students into account in the investigation of successful strategies for using studio methods of physics instruction within and across institutions.

  18. Exploring Representativeness and Informativeness for Active Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bo; Wang, Zengmao; Zhang, Lefei; Zhang, Liangpei; Liu, Wei; Shen, Jialie; Tao, Dacheng

    2017-01-01

    How can we find a general way to choose the most suitable samples for training a classifier? Even with very limited prior information? Active learning, which can be regarded as an iterative optimization procedure, plays a key role to construct a refined training set to improve the classification performance in a variety of applications, such as text analysis, image recognition, social network modeling, etc. Although combining representativeness and informativeness of samples has been proven promising for active sampling, state-of-the-art methods perform well under certain data structures. Then can we find a way to fuse the two active sampling criteria without any assumption on data? This paper proposes a general active learning framework that effectively fuses the two criteria. Inspired by a two-sample discrepancy problem, triple measures are elaborately designed to guarantee that the query samples not only possess the representativeness of the unlabeled data but also reveal the diversity of the labeled data. Any appropriate similarity measure can be employed to construct the triple measures. Meanwhile, an uncertain measure is leveraged to generate the informativeness criterion, which can be carried out in different ways. Rooted in this framework, a practical active learning algorithm is proposed, which exploits a radial basis function together with the estimated probabilities to construct the triple measures and a modified best-versus-second-best strategy to construct the uncertain measure, respectively. Experimental results on benchmark datasets demonstrate that our algorithm consistently achieves superior performance over the state-of-the-art active learning algorithms.

  19. From Tootsie Rolls to Composites: Assessing a Spectrum of Active Learning Activities in Engineering Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    The introduction of active learning exercises into a traditional lecture has been shown to improve students’ learning. Hands-on learning...opportunities in labs and projects provide are additional tools in the active learning toolbox. This paper presents a series of innovative hands-on active ... learning activities for mechanics of materials topics. These activities are based on a Methodology for Developing Hands-on Active Learning Activities, a

  20. Machine learning of molecular properties: Locality and active learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubaev, Konstantin; Podryabinkin, Evgeny V.; Shapeev, Alexander V.

    2018-06-01

    In recent years, the machine learning techniques have shown great potent1ial in various problems from a multitude of disciplines, including materials design and drug discovery. The high computational speed on the one hand and the accuracy comparable to that of density functional theory on another hand make machine learning algorithms efficient for high-throughput screening through chemical and configurational space. However, the machine learning algorithms available in the literature require large training datasets to reach the chemical accuracy and also show large errors for the so-called outliers—the out-of-sample molecules, not well-represented in the training set. In the present paper, we propose a new machine learning algorithm for predicting molecular properties that addresses these two issues: it is based on a local model of interatomic interactions providing high accuracy when trained on relatively small training sets and an active learning algorithm of optimally choosing the training set that significantly reduces the errors for the outliers. We compare our model to the other state-of-the-art algorithms from the literature on the widely used benchmark tests.

  1. Mind and activity. Psychic mechanism of learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya A. Reshetova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the issue of mechanisms of learning for understanding the nature of the human mind. Learning is regarded as a special activity that is important for developing the human mind in a specific cultural and historical setting and indirect activity. The author’s understanding of the ideas developed by the psychological theory of activity for establishing the principles of developing the human mind is highlighted. Interpretation of dialectical connections of brain processes and mind, and also the objective activity that emerges them is provided. According to the activity theory, the causes of the students’ psychological difficulties and the low efficacy of learning within predominant reproductive method or the use of the trial and error method are revealed. Thus, a new understanding of the renowned didactic principles of scientific rigour, accessibility, objectivity, the connection of learning with life and others is offered. The contribution of the psychological theory in organizing and managing the studies, increasing teaching activity and awareness, and the growth of the internal causes of motivation are shown. Particular attention is paid to the issue of intellectual development and creative abilities. The author believes the creative abilities of the student and the way the latter are taught are interconnected. At the same time, the developers and educators should make efforts to develop in the students a systemic orientation in the subject, primarily mastering the method of system analysis. Once the method of system analysis has been mastered, it becomes a general intellectual and developing tool through which activities are organized to solve any teaching problems with whatever type of content and difficulty level. Summing up, the organization and disclosure to the student of the process of learning as an activity with its social, consciously transformative and sense shaping meaning, the conditions of its development

  2. Signs of learning in kinaesthetic science activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper; Johannsen, Bjørn Friis

    that students use bodily explorations to construct meaning and understanding from kinaesthetic learning that is relevant to school physics? To answer the question, we employ a semiotics perspective to analyse data from a 1-hour lesson for 8-9th graders which introduced students to kinaesthetic activities, where......?”). The analysis is conducted by searching the data to find episodes that illustrate student activity which can serve as a sign of the object that the ‘experiential gestalt of causation’ is employed in the construction of the intended learning outcome. In essence, we study a chaotic but authentic teaching...

  3. Active learning techniques for librarians practical examples

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    A practical work outlining the theory and practice of using active learning techniques in library settings. It explains the theory of active learning and argues for its importance in our teaching and is illustrated using a large number of examples of techniques that can be easily transferred and used in teaching library and information skills to a range of learners within all library sectors. These practical examples recognise that for most of us involved in teaching library and information skills the one off session is the norm, so we need techniques that allow us to quickly grab and hold our

  4. Astronomy Learning Activities for Tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Morris, Frank

    2015-08-01

    Four web-based tools allow students to manipulate astronomical data to learn concepts in astronomy. The tools are HTML5, CSS3, Javascript-based applications that provide access to the content on iPad and Android tablets. The first tool “Three Color” allows students to combine monochrome astronomical images taken through different color filters or in different wavelength regions into a single color image. The second tool “Star Clusters” allows students to compare images of stars in clusters with a pre-defined template of colors and sizes in order to produce color-magnitude diagrams to determine cluster ages. The third tool adapts Travis Rector’s “NovaSearch” to allow students to examine images of the central regions of the Andromeda Galaxy to find novae. After students find a nova, they are able to measure the time over which the nova fades away. A fourth tool, Proper Pair, allows students to interact with Hipparcos data to evaluate close double stars are physical binaries or chance superpositions. Further information and access to these web-based tools are available at www.astro.indiana.edu/ala/.

  5. "Digitize Me": Generating E-Learning Profiles for Media and Communication Students in a Jamaican Tertiary-Level Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-McKoy, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop an e-learning profile for a group of media and communication students enrolled in a Jamaican tertiary-level institution in order to make informed decisions most the appropriate [online] learning complement for these students. The objectives sought to determine the e-learning profile of media and…

  6. Using Oceanography to Support Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byfield, V.

    2012-04-01

    Teachers are always on the lookout for material to give their brightest students, in order to keep them occupied, stimulated and challenged, while the teacher gets on with helping the rest. They are also looking for material that can inspire and enthuse those who think that school is 'just boring!' Oceanography, well presented, has the capacity to do both. As a relatively young science, oceanography is not a core curriculum subject (possibly an advantage), but it draws on the traditional sciences of biology, chemistry, physic and geology, and can provide wonderful examples for teaching concepts in school sciences. It can also give good reasons for learning science, maths and technology. Exciting expeditions (research cruises) to far-flung places; opportunities to explore new worlds, a different angle on topical debates such as climate change, pollution, or conservation can bring a new life to old subjects. Access to 'real' data from satellites or Argo floats can be used to develop analytical and problem solving skills. The challenge is to make all this available in a form that can easily be used by teachers and students to enhance the learning experience. We learn by doing. Active teaching methods require students to develop their own concepts of what they are learning. This stimulates new neural connections in the brain - the physical manifestation of learning. There is a large body of evidence to show that active learning is much better remembered and understood. Active learning develops thinking skills through analysis, problem solving, and evaluation. It helps learners to use their knowledge in realistic and useful ways, and see its importance and relevance. Most importantly, properly used, active learning is fun. This paper presents experiences from a number of education outreach projects that have involved the National Oceanography Centre in Southampton, UK. All contain some element of active learning - from quizzes and puzzles to analysis of real data from

  7. Active Learning in Engineering Education: A (Re)Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Rui M.; Andersson, Pernille Hammar; Saalman, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    The informal network "Active Learning in Engineering Education" (ALE) has been promoting Active Learning since 2001. ALE creates opportunity for practitioners and researchers of engineering education to collaboratively learn how to foster learning of engineering students. The activities in ALE are centred on the vision that learners…

  8. Tracking Active Learning in the Medical School Curriculum: A Learning-Centered Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Lise; Pettit, Robin K; Kellar, Charlyn; Morgan, Christine

    2018-01-01

    Background: Medical education is moving toward active learning during large group lecture sessions. This study investigated the saturation and breadth of active learning techniques implemented in first year medical school large group sessions. Methods: Data collection involved retrospective curriculum review and semistructured interviews with 20 faculty. The authors piloted a taxonomy of active learning techniques and mapped learning techniques to attributes of learning-centered instruction. Results: Faculty implemented 25 different active learning techniques over the course of 9 first year courses. Of 646 hours of large group instruction, 476 (74%) involved at least 1 active learning component. Conclusions: The frequency and variety of active learning components integrated throughout the year 1 curriculum reflect faculty familiarity with active learning methods and their support of an active learning culture. This project has sparked reflection on teaching practices and facilitated an evolution from teacher-centered to learning-centered instruction. PMID:29707649

  9. Tracking Active Learning in the Medical School Curriculum: A Learning-Centered Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Lise; Pettit, Robin K; Kellar, Charlyn; Morgan, Christine

    2018-01-01

    Medical education is moving toward active learning during large group lecture sessions. This study investigated the saturation and breadth of active learning techniques implemented in first year medical school large group sessions. Data collection involved retrospective curriculum review and semistructured interviews with 20 faculty. The authors piloted a taxonomy of active learning techniques and mapped learning techniques to attributes of learning-centered instruction. Faculty implemented 25 different active learning techniques over the course of 9 first year courses. Of 646 hours of large group instruction, 476 (74%) involved at least 1 active learning component. The frequency and variety of active learning components integrated throughout the year 1 curriculum reflect faculty familiarity with active learning methods and their support of an active learning culture. This project has sparked reflection on teaching practices and facilitated an evolution from teacher-centered to learning-centered instruction.

  10. Sequence learning in differentially activated dendrites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bjørn Gilbert

    2003-01-01

    . It is proposed that the neural machinery required in such a learning/retrieval mechanism could involve the NMDA receptor, in conjunction with the ability of dendrites to maintain differentially activated regions. In particular, it is suggested that such a parcellation of the dendrite allows the neuron......Differentially activated areas of a dendrite permit the existence of zones with distinct rates of synaptic modification, and such areas can be individually accessed using a reference signal which localizes synaptic plasticity and memory trace retrieval to certain subregions of the dendrite...... to participate in multiple sequences, which can be learned without suffering from the 'wash-out' of synaptic efficacy associated with superimposition of training patterns. This is a biologically plausible solution to the stability-plasticity dilemma of learning in neural networks....

  11. Elite futsal refereeing: Activity profile and physiological demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebelo, António N.; Ascensão, António A.; Magalhães, José F.

    2011-01-01

    Rebelo, AN, Ascensão, AA, Magalhães, JF, Bischoff, R, Bendiksen, M, and Krustrup, P. Elite futsal refereeing: activity profile and physiological demands. J Strength Cond Res 24(X): 000-000, 2010-The purpose of this study was to determine the physiological demands and to establish the relationship...... between activity profile and endurance capacity of futsal referees. Eighteen elite futsal referees (33.0 ± 5.1 years, 173 ± 5 cm, and 73.2 ± 8.4 kg) were studied. Video filming (n = 18) and heart rate (HR) recordings were performed throughout games. Blood lactate (n = 14) was determined at rest and after....... Considering the data obtained in the present study, the use of match-specific intermittent fitness tests to evaluate futsal referees seems to be required....

  12. Active Collaborative Learning through Remote Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehret, Austin U.; Elliot, Lisa B.; MacDonald, Jonathan H. C.

    2017-01-01

    An exploratory case study approach was used to describe remote tutoring in biochemistry and general chemistry with students who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH). Data collected for analysis were based on the observations of the participant tutor. The research questions guiding this study included (1) How is active learning accomplished in…

  13. Active Learning Strategies in Physics Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamustafaoglu, Orhan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine physics teachers' opinions about student-centered activities applicable in physics teaching and learning in context. A case study approach was used in this research. First, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 6 physics teachers. Then, a questionnaire was developed based on the data obtained…

  14. World War II Memorial Learning Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessee State Dept. of Education, Nashville.

    These learning activities can help students get the most out of a visit to the Tennessee World War II Memorial, a group of ten pylons located in Nashville (Tennessee). Each pylon contains informational text about the events of World War II. The ten pylons are listed as: (1) "Pylon E-1--Terror: America Enters the War against Fascism, June…

  15. Active Learning Strategies for the Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, John

    2018-01-01

    Active learning involves students engaging with course content beyond lecture: through writing, applets, simulations, games, and more (Prince, 2004). As mathematics is often viewed as a subject area that is taught using more traditional methods (Goldsmith & Mark, 1999), there are actually many simple ways to make undergraduate mathematics…

  16. Windowed active sampling for reliable neural learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barakova, E.I; Spaanenburg, L

    The composition of the example set has a major impact on the quality of neural learning. The popular approach is focused on extensive pre-processing to bridge the representation gap between process measurement and neural presentation. In contrast, windowed active sampling attempts to solve these

  17. Accounting for Sustainability: An Active Learning Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusc, Joanna; van Veen-Dirks, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Sustainability is one of the newer topics in the accounting courses taught in university teaching programs. The active learning assignment as described in this paper was developed for use in an accounting course in an undergraduate program. The aim was to enhance teaching about sustainability within such a course. The purpose of this…

  18. Heart rate and activity profile for young female soccer players

    OpenAIRE

    Barbero Álvarez, José Carlos; Gómez López, Maite; Barbero Álvarez, Verónica; Granda Vera, Juan; Castagna, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    The physical and physiological demands of high-level male soccer have been studied extensively, while few studies have investigated the demands placed on females during match-play, however, there is no information available about the heart rate and activity profile of young female soccer players during match play. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine cardiovascular (heart-rates HR) and physical demands of young female soccer players during a match. Players were observed during a fr...

  19. Profiles in Leadership: Enhancing Learning through Model and Theory Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Jeffrey A.

    2003-01-01

    A class assignment was designed to present factors affecting leadership dynamics, allow practice in model and theory building, and examine leadership from multicultural perspectives. Students developed a profile of a fictional or real leader and analyzed qualities, motivations, context, and effectiveness in written and oral presentations.…

  20. Physical activity and sleep profiles in Finnish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennman, Heini; Kronholm, Erkki; Partonen, Timo; Tolvanen, Asko; Peltonen, Markku; Vasankari, Tommi; Borodulin, Katja

    2014-01-27

    Physical activity (PA) and sleep are related to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and their risk factors. The interrelationship between these behaviors has been studied, but there remain questions regarding the association of different types of PA, such as occupational, commuting, and leisure time to sleep, including quality, duration and sufficiency. It is also unclear to what extent sleep affects peoples' PA levels and patterns. Our aim is to investigate the interrelationship between PA and sleep behaviors in the Finnish population, including employment status and gender. The study comprised population based data from the FINRISK 2012 Study. A stratified, random sample of 10,000 Finns, 25 to 74 years-old, were sent a questionnaire and an invitation to a health examination. The participation rate was 64% (n = 6,414). Latent class analysis was used to search for different underlying profiles of PA and sleep behavior in men and women, respectively. Models with one through five latent profiles were fitted to the data. Based on fit indicators, a four-class model for men and women, respectively, was decided to be the best fitted model. Four different profiles of PA and sleep were found in both men and women. The most common profile of men comprised 45% of the total participants, and in women, 47%. These profiles were distinguished by probabilities for high leisure time PA and sleep, subjectively rated as sufficient, as well as sleep duration of 7-7.9 hours. The least common profiles represented 5% (men) and 11% (women) of the population, and were characterized by probabilities for physical inactivity, short sleep, and evening type for women and morning type for men. There was also one profile in both genders characterized by likelihood for both high occupational PA and subjectively experienced insufficient sleep. The use of latent class analysis in investigating the interrelationship between PA and sleep is a novel perspective. The method provides information on the

  1. Enzyme activity measurement via spectral evolution profiling and PARAFAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, Andreas; Meyer, Anne S.; Garcia, Javier Lopez

    2013-01-01

    The recent advances in multi-way analysis provide new solutions to traditional enzyme activity assessment. In the present study enzyme activity has been determined by monitoring spectral changes of substrates and products in real time. The method relies on measurement of distinct spectral...... fingerprints of the reaction mixture at specific time points during the course of the whole enzyme catalyzed reaction and employs multi-way analysis to detect the spectral changes. The methodology is demonstrated by spectral evolution profiling of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectral fingerprints using...

  2. The double-loop feedback for active learning with understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hans Peter

    2004-01-01

    Learning is an active process, and in engineering education authentic projects is often used to activate the students and promote learning. However, it is not all activity that leads to deep learning; and in a rapid changing society deep understanding is necessary for life-long learning. Empirical...... findings at DTU question the direct link between high activity and a deep approach to learning. Active learning is important to obtain engineering competencies, but active learning requires more than activity. Feedback and reflection is crucial to the learning process, since new knowledge is built...... on the student’s existing understanding. A model for an active learning process with a double-loop feedback is suggested - the first loop gives the student experience through experimentation, the second conceptual understanding through reflection. Students often miss the second loop, so it is important...

  3. Modeling of Students' Profile and Learning Chronicle with Data Cubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ola, Ade G.; Bai, Xue; Omojokun, Emmanuel E.

    2014-01-01

    Over the years, companies have relied on On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) to answer complex questions relating to issues in business environments such as identifying profitability, trends, correlations, and patterns. This paper addresses the application of OLAP in education and learning. The objective of the research presented in the paper is…

  4. Learner Profile Management for Collaborative Adaptive eLearning Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrifai, Mohammad; Dolog, Peter; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    Adaptive Learning Systems would perform better if they would be able to exchange as many relevant fragments of information about the learner as possible. The use of Web Services standards is recently gaining the attention of many researches as a promising solution for the problem of interfacing a...

  5. Active learning in optics for girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, R.; Ashraf, I.

    2017-08-01

    Active learning in Optics (ALO) is a self-funded program under the umbrella of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) and Quaid-i-Azam University (QAU) to bring physical sciences to traditionally underserved Girls high schools and colleges in Pakistan. There is a significant gender disparity in physical Sciences in Pakistan. In Department of Physics at QAU, approximately 10 to 20% of total students were used to be females from past many decades, but now this percentage is increasing. To keep it up at same pace, we started ALO in January 2016 as a way to provide girls an enriching science experiences, in a very friendly atmosphere. We have organized many one-day activities, to support and encourage girls' students of government high schools and colleges to pursue careers in sciences. In this presentation we will describe our experience and lesson learned in these activities.

  6. Reconstructing Dynamic Promoter Activity Profiles from Reporter Gene Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Soumya; Sams, Thomas; Maury, Jérôme; Workman, Christopher T

    2018-03-16

    Accurate characterization of promoter activity is important when designing expression systems for systems biology and metabolic engineering applications. Promoters that respond to changes in the environment enable the dynamic control of gene expression without the necessity of inducer compounds, for example. However, the dynamic nature of these processes poses challenges for estimating promoter activity. Most experimental approaches utilize reporter gene expression to estimate promoter activity. Typically the reporter gene encodes a fluorescent protein that is used to infer a constant promoter activity despite the fact that the observed output may be dynamic and is a number of steps away from the transcription process. In fact, some promoters that are often thought of as constitutive can show changes in activity when growth conditions change. For these reasons, we have developed a system of ordinary differential equations for estimating dynamic promoter activity for promoters that change their activity in response to the environment that is robust to noise and changes in growth rate. Our approach, inference of dynamic promoter activity (PromAct), improves on existing methods by more accurately inferring known promoter activity profiles. This method is also capable of estimating the correct scale of promoter activity and can be applied to quantitative data sets to estimate quantitative rates.

  7. Incorporation of Socio-scientific Content into Active Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, D. B.; Lewis, J. E.; Anderson, K.; Latch, D.; Sutheimer, S.; Webster, G.; Moog, R.

    2014-12-01

    Active learning has gained increasing support as an effective pedagogical technique to improve student learning. One way to promote active learning in the classroom is the use of in-class activities in place of lecturing. As part of an NSF-funded project, a set of in-class activities have been created that use climate change topics to teach chemistry content. These activities use the Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) methodology. In this pedagogical approach a set of models and a series of critical thinking questions are used to guide students through the introduction to or application of course content. Students complete the activities in their groups, with the faculty member as a facilitator of learning. Through assigned group roles and intentionally designed activity structure, process skills, such as teamwork, communication, and information processing, are developed during completion of the activity. Each of these climate change activities contains a socio-scientific component, e.g., social, ethical and economic data. In one activity, greenhouse gases are used to explain the concept of dipole moment. Data about natural and anthropogenic production rates, global warming potential and atmospheric lifetimes for a list of greenhouse gases are presented. The students are asked to identify which greenhouse gas they would regulate, with a corresponding explanation for their choice. They are also asked to identify the disadvantages of regulating the gas they chose in the previous question. In another activity, where carbon sequestration is used to demonstrate the utility of a phase diagram, students use economic and environmental data to choose the best location for sequestration. Too often discussions about climate change (both in and outside the classroom) consist of purely emotional responses. These activities force students to use data to support their arguments and hypothesize about what other data could be used in the corresponding discussion to

  8. Assessing Student Behaviors and Motivation for Actively Learning Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael Edward

    2017-01-01

    Vision and Change states that one of the major changes in the way we design biology courses should be a switch in approach from teacher-centered learning to student-centered learning and identifies active learning as a recommended methods. Studies show performance benefits for students taking courses that use active learning. What is unknown is…

  9. The Validation of the Active Learning in Health Professions Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammer, Rebecca; Schreiner, Laurie; Kim, Young K.; Denial, Aurora

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for an assessment tool for evaluating the effectiveness of active learning strategies such as problem-based learning in promoting deep learning and clinical reasoning skills within the dual environments of didactic and clinical settings in health professions education. The Active Learning in Health Professions Scale (ALPHS)…

  10. Active Learning Environment with Lenses in Geometric Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tural, Güner

    2015-01-01

    Geometric optics is one of the difficult topics for students within physics discipline. Students learn better via student-centered active learning environments than the teacher-centered learning environments. So this study aimed to present a guide for middle school teachers to teach lenses in geometric optics via active learning environment…

  11. Language, reading, and math learning profiles in an epidemiological sample of school age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Lisa M D; Oram Cardy, Janis; Joanisse, Marc F; Ansari, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Dyscalculia, dyslexia, and specific language impairment (SLI) are relatively specific developmental learning disabilities in math, reading, and oral language, respectively, that occur in the context of average intellectual capacity and adequate environmental opportunities. Past research has been dominated by studies focused on single impairments despite the widespread recognition that overlapping and comorbid deficits are common. The present study took an epidemiological approach to study the learning profiles of a large school age sample in language, reading, and math. Both general learning profiles reflecting good or poor performance across measures and specific learning profiles involving either weak language, weak reading, weak math, or weak math and reading were observed. These latter four profiles characterized 70% of children with some evidence of a learning disability. Low scores in phonological short-term memory characterized clusters with a language-based weakness whereas low or variable phonological awareness was associated with the reading (but not language-based) weaknesses. The low math only group did not show these phonological deficits. These findings may suggest different etiologies for language-based deficits in language, reading, and math, reading-related impairments in reading and math, and isolated math disabilities.

  12. Language, reading, and math learning profiles in an epidemiological sample of school age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M D Archibald

    Full Text Available Dyscalculia, dyslexia, and specific language impairment (SLI are relatively specific developmental learning disabilities in math, reading, and oral language, respectively, that occur in the context of average intellectual capacity and adequate environmental opportunities. Past research has been dominated by studies focused on single impairments despite the widespread recognition that overlapping and comorbid deficits are common. The present study took an epidemiological approach to study the learning profiles of a large school age sample in language, reading, and math. Both general learning profiles reflecting good or poor performance across measures and specific learning profiles involving either weak language, weak reading, weak math, or weak math and reading were observed. These latter four profiles characterized 70% of children with some evidence of a learning disability. Low scores in phonological short-term memory characterized clusters with a language-based weakness whereas low or variable phonological awareness was associated with the reading (but not language-based weaknesses. The low math only group did not show these phonological deficits. These findings may suggest different etiologies for language-based deficits in language, reading, and math, reading-related impairments in reading and math, and isolated math disabilities.

  13. Universal Temporal Profile of Replication Origin Activation in Eukaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldar, Arach

    2011-03-01

    The complete and faithful transmission of eukaryotic genome to daughter cells involves the timely duplication of mother cell's DNA. DNA replication starts at multiple chromosomal positions called replication origin. From each activated replication origin two replication forks progress in opposite direction and duplicate the mother cell's DNA. While it is widely accepted that in eukaryotic organisms replication origins are activated in a stochastic manner, little is known on the sources of the observed stochasticity. It is often associated to the population variability to enter S phase. We extract from a growing Saccharomyces cerevisiae population the average rate of origin activation in a single cell by combining single molecule measurements and a numerical deconvolution technique. We show that the temporal profile of the rate of origin activation in a single cell is similar to the one extracted from a replicating cell population. Taking into account this observation we exclude the population variability as the origin of observed stochasticity in origin activation. We confirm that the rate of origin activation increases in the early stage of S phase and decreases at the latter stage. The population average activation rate extracted from single molecule analysis is in prefect accordance with the activation rate extracted from published micro-array data, confirming therefore the homogeneity and genome scale invariance of dynamic of replication process. All these observations point toward a possible role of replication fork to control the rate of origin activation.

  14. Neurocognitive profiles of learning disabled children with neurofibromatosis type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladys eOrraca-Castillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1 is a genetic condition generally associated with intellectual deficiency and learning disabilities. Although there have been groundbreaking advances in the understanding of the molecular, cellular, and neural systems underlying learning deficits associated to NF1 in animal models, much remains to be learned about the spectrum of neurocognitive phenotype associated with the NF1 clinical syndrome. In the present study, 32 children with NF1 ranging from 7 to 14 years were evaluated with neurocognitive tests dedicated to assess basic capacities which are involved in reading and mathematical achievement. Deficits in lexical and phonological strategies and poor number facts retrieval were found underlying reading and arithmetic disorders, respectively. Additionally, efficiencies in lexical/phonological strategies and mental arithmetic were significant predictors of individual differences in reading attainment and math. However, deficits in core numeric capacities were not found in the sample, suggesting that it is not responsible for calculation dysfluency. The estimated prevalence of Developmental Dyscalculia was 18.8%, and the male:female ratio was 5:1. On the other hand, the prevalence of Developmental Dyslexia was almost 3 times as high (50%, and no gender differences were found (male:female ratio=1:1. This study offers new evidence to the neurocognitive phenotype of NF1 contributing to an in depth understanding of this condition, but also to possible treatments for the cognitive deficits associated with NF1.

  15. Active Learning in Engineering Education: a (re)introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, Rui M.; Andersson, Pernille Hammar; Saalman, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    The informal network ‘Active Learning in Engineering Education’ (ALE) has been promoting Active Learning since 2001. ALE creates opportunity for practitioners and researchers of engineering education to collaboratively learn how to foster learning of engineering students. The activities in ALE...... were reviewed by the European Journal of Engineering Education community and this theme issue ended up with eight contributions, which are different both in their research and Active Learning approaches. These different Active Learning approaches are aligned with the different approaches that can...

  16. Profiling medical school learning environments in Malaysia: a validation study of the Johns Hopkins Learning Environment Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Tackett

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: While a strong learning environment is critical to medical student education, the assessment of medical school learning environments has confounded researchers. Our goal was to assess the validity and utility of the Johns Hopkins Learning Environment Scale (JHLES for preclinical students at three Malaysian medical schools with distinct educational and institutional models. Two schools were new international partnerships, and the third was school leaver program established without international partnership. Methods: First- and second-year students responded anonymously to surveys at the end of the academic year. The surveys included the JHLES, a 28-item survey using five-point Likert scale response options, the Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM, the most widely used method to assess learning environments internationally, a personal growth scale, and single-item global learning environment assessment variables. Results: The overall response rate was 369/429 (86%. After adjusting for the medical school year, gender, and ethnicity of the respondents, the JHLES detected differences across institutions in four out of seven domains (57%, with each school having a unique domain profile. The DREEM detected differences in one out of five categories (20%. The JHLES was more strongly correlated than the DREEM to two thirds of the single-item variables and the personal growth scale. The JHLES showed high internal reliability for the total score (α=0.92 and the seven domains (α, 0.56-0.85. Conclusion: The JHLES detected variation between learning environment domains across three educational settings, thereby creating unique learning environment profiles. Interpretation of these profiles may allow schools to understand how they are currently supporting trainees and identify areas needing attention.

  17. Deep learning for galaxy surface brightness profile fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuccillo, D.; Huertas-Company, M.; Decencière, E.; Velasco-Forero, S.; Domínguez Sánchez, H.; Dimauro, P.

    2018-03-01

    Numerous ongoing and future large area surveys (e.g. Dark Energy Survey, EUCLID, Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope) will increase by several orders of magnitude the volume of data that can be exploited for galaxy morphology studies. The full potential of these surveys can be unlocked only with the development of automated, fast, and reliable analysis methods. In this paper, we present DeepLeGATo, a new method for 2-D photometric galaxy profile modelling, based on convolutional neural networks. Our code is trained and validated on analytic profiles (HST/CANDELS F160W filter) and it is able to retrieve the full set of parameters of one-component Sérsic models: total magnitude, effective radius, Sérsic index, and axis ratio. We show detailed comparisons between our code and GALFIT. On simulated data, our method is more accurate than GALFIT and ˜3000 time faster on GPU (˜50 times when running on the same CPU). On real data, DeepLeGATo trained on simulations behaves similarly to GALFIT on isolated galaxies. With a fast domain adaptation step made with the 0.1-0.8 per cent the size of the training set, our code is easily capable to reproduce the results obtained with GALFIT even on crowded regions. DeepLeGATo does not require any human intervention beyond the training step, rendering it much automated than traditional profiling methods. The development of this method for more complex models (two-component galaxies, variable point spread function, dense sky regions) could constitute a fundamental tool in the era of big data in astronomy.

  18. HPLC based activity profiling for 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity in Isatis tinctoria leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberthür, C; Jäggi, R; Hamburger, M

    2005-06-01

    In the pursuit of the anti-inflammatory constituents in lipophilic woad extracts, the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibitory activity was investigated by HPLC-based activity profiling. In a low-resolution profiling, two time windows with peaks of activity were found. The first coincided with tryptanthrin, a known dual inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-LOX, whereas the major inhibitory fraction was towards the end of the HPLC run. The active fractions were profiled in a peak-resolved manner, and the compounds analyzed by LC-MS, GC and TLC. The activity in the lipophilic fractions of the Isatis extract could be linked to an unsaturated fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid.

  19. Chemical profiling and antioxidant activity of Bolivian propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nina, Nélida; Quispe, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Theoduloz, Cristina; Giménez, Alberto; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    Propolis is a relevant research subject worldwide. However, there is no information so far on Bolivian propolis. Ten propolis samples were collected from regions with high biodiversity in the main honey production places in Bolivia and were analyzed for their total phenolics (TP), flavonoids (TF) and antioxidant activity. The chemical profiles of the samples were assessed by TLC, HPLC-DAD, HPLC-DAD-MS/MS(n) and NMR analysis. TP, TF, TLC and NMR analysis showed significant chemical differences between the samples. Isolation of the main constituents by chromatography and identification by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS(n) achieved more than 35 constituents. According to their profiles, the Bolivian propolis can be classified into phenolic-rich and triterpene-rich samples. Propolis from the valleys (Cochabamba, Chuquisaca and Tarija) contained mainly prenylated phenylpropanoids, while samples from La Paz and Santa Cruz contained cycloartane and pentacyclic triterpenes. Phenolic-rich samples presented moderate to strong antioxidant activity while the triterpene-rich propolis were weakly active. High chemical diversity and differential antioxidant effects were found in Bolivian propolis. Our results provide additional evidence on the chemical composition and bioactivity of South American propolis. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Towards an intelligent learning management system under blended learning trends, profiles and modeling perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Dias, Sofia B; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios J

    2013-01-01

    This book offers useful information that evokes initiatives towards rethinking of the value, efficiency, inclusiveness, effectiveness and personalization of the intelligent learning management systems-based blended-learning environment.

  1. Changing University Students' Alternative Conceptions of Optics by Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadžibegovic, Zalkida; Sliško, Josip

    2013-01-01

    Active learning is individual and group participation in effective activities such as in-class observing, writing, experimenting, discussion, solving problems, and talking about to-be-learned topics. Some instructors believe that active learning is impossible, or at least extremely difficult to achieve in large lecture sessions. Nevertheless, the…

  2. Faculty motivations to use active learning among pharmacy educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockich-Winston, Nicole; Train, Brian C; Rudolph, Michael J; Gillette, Chris

    2018-03-01

    Faculty motivations to use active learning have been limited to surveys evaluating faculty perceptions within active learning studies. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the relationship between faculty intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and demographic variables and the extent of active learning use in the classroom. An online survey was administered to individual faculty members at 137 colleges and schools of pharmacy across the United States. The survey assessed intrinsic and extrinsic motivations, active learning strategies, classroom time dedicated to active learning, and faculty development resources. Bivariate associations and multivariable stepwise linear regression were used to analyze the results. In total, 979 faculty members completed the questionnaire (23.6% response rate). All motivation variables were significantly correlated with percent active learning use (p active learning methods used in the last year (r = 0.259, p active learning use. Our results suggest that faculty members who are intrinsically motivated to use active learning are more likely to dedicate additional class time to active learning. Furthermore, intrinsic motivation may be positively associated with encouraging faculty members to attend active learning workshops and supporting faculty to use various active learning strategies in the classroom. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Active Learning: The Importance of Developing a Comprehensive Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Rodney; Palmer, Stuart; Hagel, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation into the validity of a widely used scale for measuring the extent to which higher education students employ active learning strategies. The scale is the active learning scale in the Australasian Survey of Student Engagement. This scale is based on the Active and Collaborative Learning scale of the National…

  4. Active Learning in ASTR 101 Lectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Grace L.

    1998-12-01

    The lecture is the most common teaching method used at colleges and universities, but does this format facilitate student learning? Lectures can be brilliantly delivered, but they are received by a passive audience. As time passes during a lecture, student attention and effective notetaking diminish. Many students become more interested in a subject and retain information longer in courses that rely on active rather than passive teaching methods. Interactive teaching strategies such as the think-pair-share-(write), the 3-minute paper, and the misconception confrontation can be used to actively engage students during lecture. As a cooperative learning strategy, the think-pair-share-(write) technique requires active discussion by everyone in the class. The "write" component structures individual accountability into the activity. The 3-minute paper is an expansion of the standard 1-minute paper feedback technique, but is required of all students rather than voluntary or anonymous. The misconception confrontation technique allows students to focus on how their pre- conceived notions differ from the scientific explanation. These techniques can be easily adopted by anyone currently using a standard lecture format for introductory astronomy. The necessary components are a commitment by the instructor to require active participation by all students and a willingness to try new teaching methods.

  5. Profiles of Opportunities to Learn for TEDS-M Future Secondary Mathematics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting-Ying; Tang, Shu-Jyh

    2013-01-01

    This study used the data set from the Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics to identify the profiles of opportunities to learn (OTL) regarding topics studied in teacher preparation programs by future secondary mathematics teachers from 15 participating countries. The topics of inquiry covered tertiary-level mathematics,…

  6. Towards a Competence Profile for Inter-Organizational Learning in Open Innovation Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Chatenier, Elise; Verstegen, Jos; Biemans, Harm; Mulder, Martin

    2008-01-01

    While inter-organizational learning in open innovation teams has received much attention lately, research into its human dimension is lacking. This paper, therefore, explores the competencies professionals need for this process. Three studies were executed: a theoretical study, explorative interviews and focus groups. A competence profile was…

  7. Searching for a WISC-R Profile for Learning Disabled Children: An Inappropriate Task?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryckman, David B.

    1981-01-01

    Although indexes of scatter on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised computed for 100 learning disabled (LD) elementary children were significantly greater than values previously reported for the normal standardized sample, the substantial overlap suggests the inadvisability of continuing the search for a characteristic LD profile.…

  8. The psychological coping, learning potential and career preferences profiles of operational force military candidates

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, M

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to profile the psychological coping, learning potential and career-related interests of 251 candidates for operational force military selection for the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) – 26 of whom were...

  9. On the Importance of Personal Profiles to Enhance Social Interaction in Learning Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berlanga, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Berlanga, A. J., Bitter-Rijpkema, M. E., Brouns F., & Sloep, P. B. (2008). On the Importance of Personal Profiles to Enhance Social Interaction in Learning Networks. Presented at the IADIS International Conference on Web Based Communities 2008. July, 24-26, 2008, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

  10. On the importance of personal profiles to enhance social interaction in Learning Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berlanga, Adriana; Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies; Brouns, Francis; Sloep, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Berlanga, A. J., Bitter-Rijpkema, M., Brouns F., & Sloep, P.B. (2008). On the importance of personal profiles to enhance social interaction in Learning Networks. In P. Kommers (Ed.), Proceedings of Web Based Communities Conference (WEBC 2008) (pp. 55-62). July, 24-26, 2008, Amsterdam, The

  11. Profiling Student Use of Calculators in the Learning of High School Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Cheryll E.; Ma, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the 2005 National Assessment of Educational Progress, students' use of calculators in the learning of high school mathematics was profiled based on their family background, curriculum background, and advanced mathematics coursework. A statistical method new to educational research--classification and regression trees--was applied…

  12. Plasma renin activity profile in normal and hypertensive Filipinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guevara, R.; Torres, J. Jr.; Abundo, H.P.; Perez, A.P.

    To establish a base line profile of plasma renin activity in normotensive and hypertensive Filipinos, 1.019 cases, 479 males and 540 females with an age range 14 - 89 years (mean - 46 + -20) were studied at the Santo Tomas University Hospital of various life styles from the Metro-Manila area, 248 comprised the normotensive group (male - 122 or 49.2 %, female 126 or 50.8 %) and 771 were hypertensive. Of these, 711 (92.6 %) has essential hypertension and are presented in this report. Plasma Renin Activity was determined by radioimmunoassay using Dainabot Renin-Ricket. Concurrent 24 hr. urine sodium and potassium were determined. Nomograms of plasma renin activity as related to urine sodium excretion were drawn after computerized statistical analysis of data. The normal mean value of plasma renin activity was found to be 1.64 + - 0.81 ng./ml./hr. in the upright position and 1.15 + - .68 ng./ml./hr. in the supine position. Based on the nomogram derived, the values obtained in the 711 cases of essential hypertension were classified into High Renin - 14.3 % Normal Renin - 56.1 % and Low Renin - 29.6 %. This study establishes normal levels of plasma renin activity as well as define and classify same renin activity among hypertensive Filipinos, a useful and practicable guide for treatment and can be of prognostic significance. (author)

  13. An Analysis of the Relationship between the Learning Process and Learning Motivation Profiles of Japanese Pharmacy Students Using Structural Equation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeo Yamamura

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacy students in Japan have to maintain strong motivation to learn for six years during their education. The authors explored the students’ learning structure. All pharmacy students in their 4th through to 6th year at Josai International University participated in the survey. The revised two factor study process questionnaire and science motivation questionnaire II were used to assess their learning process and learning motivation profiles, respectively. Structural equation modeling (SEM was used to examine a causal relationship between the latent variables in the learning process and those in the learning motivation profile. The learning structure was modeled on the idea that the learning process affects the learning motivation profile of respondents. In the multi-group SEM, the estimated mean of the deep learning to learning motivation profile increased just after their clinical clerkship for 6th year students. This indicated that the clinical experience benefited students’ deep learning, which is probably because the experience of meeting with real patients encourages meaningful learning in pharmacy studies.

  14. An Analysis of the Relationship between the Learning Process and Learning Motivation Profiles of Japanese Pharmacy Students Using Structural Equation Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Shigeo; Takehira, Rieko

    2018-04-23

    Pharmacy students in Japan have to maintain strong motivation to learn for six years during their education. The authors explored the students’ learning structure. All pharmacy students in their 4th through to 6th year at Josai International University participated in the survey. The revised two factor study process questionnaire and science motivation questionnaire II were used to assess their learning process and learning motivation profiles, respectively. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine a causal relationship between the latent variables in the learning process and those in the learning motivation profile. The learning structure was modeled on the idea that the learning process affects the learning motivation profile of respondents. In the multi-group SEM, the estimated mean of the deep learning to learning motivation profile increased just after their clinical clerkship for 6th year students. This indicated that the clinical experience benefited students’ deep learning, which is probably because the experience of meeting with real patients encourages meaningful learning in pharmacy studies.

  15. Active Learning in the Era of Big Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Davis, IV, Warren L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Active learning methods automatically adapt data collection by selecting the most informative samples in order to accelerate machine learning. Because of this, real-world testing and comparing active learning algorithms requires collecting new datasets (adaptively), rather than simply applying algorithms to benchmark datasets, as is the norm in (passive) machine learning research. To facilitate the development, testing and deployment of active learning for real applications, we have built an open-source software system for large-scale active learning research and experimentation. The system, called NEXT, provides a unique platform for realworld, reproducible active learning research. This paper details the challenges of building the system and demonstrates its capabilities with several experiments. The results show how experimentation can help expose strengths and weaknesses of active learning algorithms, in sometimes unexpected and enlightening ways.

  16. Understanding Fatty Acid Metabolism through an Active Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardilha, M.; Schrader, M.; da Cruz e Silva, O. A. B.; da Cruz e Silva, E. F.

    2010-01-01

    A multi-method active learning approach (MALA) was implemented in the Medical Biochemistry teaching unit of the Biomedical Sciences degree at the University of Aveiro, using problem-based learning as the main learning approach. In this type of learning strategy, students are involved beyond the mere exercise of being taught by listening. Less…

  17. Specific learning disabilities in children: deficits and neuropsychological profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Adarsh; Malhotra, Savita; Mohanty, Manju; Khehra, Nitasha; Kaur, Manreet

    2005-06-01

    The public is gradually becoming aware of specific learning disabilities (SLDs), which are very often the cause of academic difficulties. The aim of the study was to assess the SLDs in the clinic population at the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh using the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences SLD index and subsequently to assess the children's neuropsychological functions using a battery of tests. Thirty-five children in the age range of 7-14 years (both boys and girls) were recruited as the cohort, diagnosed clinically and assessed using the battery of tests for SLDs and neuropsychological tests consisting of the PGIMER memory scale for children, the Wisconsin card sorting test, the Bender visuo-motor gestalt test and Malin's intelligence scale for Indian children. The study revealed deficits in language and writing skills and impairments in specific areas of memory, executive functions and perceptuo-motor tasks. Identification of SLDs is useful in drawing up a treatment plan specific for a particular child.

  18. Active Learning Increases Children's Physical Activity across Demographic Subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, John B; Jowers, Esbelle M; Roberts, Gregory; Fall, Anna-Mária; Errisuriz, Vanessa L; Vaughn, Sharon

    2018-01-01

    Given the need to find more opportunities for physical activity within the elementary school day, this study was designed to asses the impact of I-CAN!, active lessons on: 1) student physical activity (PA) outcomes via accelerometry; and 2) socioeconomic status (SES), race, sex, body mass index (BMI), or fitness as moderators of this impact. Participants were 2,493 fourth grade students (45.9% male, 45.8% white, 21.7% low SES) from 28 central Texas elementary schools randomly assigned to intervention (n=19) or control (n=9). Multilevel regression models evaluated the effect of I-CAN! on PA and effect sizes were calculated. The moderating effects of SES, race, sex, BMI, and fitness were examined in separate models. Students in treatment schools took significantly more steps than those in control schools (β = 125.267, SE = 41.327, p = .002, d = .44). I-CAN! had a significant effect on MVPA with treatment schools realizing 80% (β = 0.796, SE =0.251, p = .001; d = .38) more MVPA than the control schools. There were no significant school-level differences on sedentary behavior (β = -0.177, SE = 0.824, p = .83). SES, race, sex, BMI, and fitness level did not moderate the impact of active learning on step count and MVPA. Active learning increases PA within elementary students, and does so consistently across demographic sub-groups. This is important as these sub-groups represent harder to reach populations for PA interventions. While these lessons may not be enough to help children reach daily recommendations of PA, they can supplement other opportunities for PA. This speaks to the potential of schools to adopt policy change to require active learning.

  19. The ICAP Active Learning Framework Predicts the Learning Gains Observed in Intensely Active Classroom Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L. Wiggins

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available STEM classrooms (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics in postsecondary education are rapidly improved by the proper use of active learning techniques. These techniques occupy a descriptive spectrum that transcends passive teaching toward active, constructive, and, finally, interactive methods. While aspects of this framework have been examined, no large-scale or actual classroom-based data exist to inform postsecondary education STEM instructors about possible learning gains. We describe the results of a quasi-experimental study to test the apex of the ICAP framework (interactive, constructive, active, and passive in this ecological classroom environment. Students in interactive classrooms demonstrate significantly improved learning outcomes relative to students in constructive classrooms. This improvement in learning is relatively subtle; similar experimental designs without repeated measures would be unlikely to have the power to observe this significance. We discuss the importance of seemingly small learning gains that might propagate throughout a course or departmental curriculum, as well as improvements with the necessity for faculty to develop and implement similar activities.

  20. Aligning professional skills and active learning methods: an application for information and communications technology engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Ariadna; Berbegal-Mirabent, Jasmina; Llinàs-Audet, Xavier

    2017-07-01

    Engineering education is facing new challenges to effectively provide the appropriate skills to future engineering professionals according to market demands. This study proposes a model based on active learning methods, which is expected to facilitate the acquisition of the professional skills most highly valued in the information and communications technology (ICT) market. The theoretical foundations of the study are based on the specific literature on active learning methodologies. The Delphi method is used to establish the fit between learning methods and generic skills required by the ICT sector. An innovative proposition is therefore presented that groups the required skills in relation to the teaching method that best develops them. The qualitative research suggests that a combination of project-based learning and the learning contract is sufficient to ensure a satisfactory skills level for this profile of engineers.

  1. THE GAME TECHNIQUE NTCHNIQUE STIMULATING LEARNING ACTIVITY OF JUNIOR STUDENTS SPECIALIZING IN ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juri. S. Ezrokh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is aimed at specifying and developing the modern control system of current academic achievements of junior university students; and the main task is to find the adequate ways for stimulating the junior students’ learning activities, and estimating their individual achievements.Methods: The author applies his own assessment method for estimating and stimulating students’ learning outcomes, based on the rating-point system of gradually obtained points building up a student’s integrated learning outcomes.Results: The research findings prove that implementation of the given method can increase the motivational, multiplicative and controlling components of the learning process.Scientific novelty: The method in question is based on the new original game approach to controlling procedures and stimulation of learning motivation of the economic profile students.Practical significance: The recommended technique can intensify the incentivebased training activities both in and outside a classroom, developing thereby students’ professional and personal qualities.

  2. Face-to-Face Activities in Blended Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Annemette

    While blended learning combines online and face-to-face teaching, research on blended learning has primarily focused on the role of technology and the opportunities it creates for engaging students. Less focus has been put on face-to-face activities in blended learning. This paper argues...... that it is not only the online activities in blended learning that provide new opportunities for rethinking pedagogy in higher education, it is also imperative to reconsider the face-to-face activities when part of the learning is provided online. Based on a review of blended learning in business and management...... education, we identify what forms of teaching and learning are suggested to take place face-to-face when other activities are moved online. We draw from the Community of Inquiry framework to analyze how face-to-face activities contribute to a blended learning pedagogy and discuss the implications...

  3. Active Tectonics Revealed by River Profiles along the Puqu Fault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Lu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Puqu Fault is situated in Southern Tibet. It is influenced by the eastward extrusion of Northern Tibet and carries the clockwise rotation followed by the southward extrusion. Thus, the Puqu Fault is bounded by the principal dynamic zones and the tectonic evolution remains active alongside. This study intends to understand the tectonic activity in the Puqu Fault Region from the river profiles obtained from the remotely sensed satellite imagery. A medium resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM, 20 m was generated from an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER stereo pair of images and the stream network in this region was extracted from this DEM. The indices of slope and drainage area were subsequently calculated from this ASTER DEM. Based on the stream power law, the area-slope plots of the streams were delineated to derive the indices of channel concavity and steepness, which are closely related to tectonic activity. The results show the active tectonics varying significantly along the Puqu Fault, although the potential influence of glaciations may exist. These results are expected to be useful for a better understanding of tectonic evolution in Southeastern Tibet.

  4. Active Metric Learning from Relative Comparisons

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Sicheng; Rosales, Rómer; Pei, Yuanli; Fern, Xiaoli Z.

    2014-01-01

    This work focuses on active learning of distance metrics from relative comparison information. A relative comparison specifies, for a data point triplet $(x_i,x_j,x_k)$, that instance $x_i$ is more similar to $x_j$ than to $x_k$. Such constraints, when available, have been shown to be useful toward defining appropriate distance metrics. In real-world applications, acquiring constraints often require considerable human effort. This motivates us to study how to select and query the most useful ...

  5. Active Discriminative Dictionary Learning for Weather Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Weather recognition based on outdoor images is a brand-new and challenging subject, which is widely required in many fields. This paper presents a novel framework for recognizing different weather conditions. Compared with other algorithms, the proposed method possesses the following advantages. Firstly, our method extracts both visual appearance features of the sky region and physical characteristics features of the nonsky region in images. Thus, the extracted features are more comprehensive than some of the existing methods in which only the features of sky region are considered. Secondly, unlike other methods which used the traditional classifiers (e.g., SVM and K-NN, we use discriminative dictionary learning as the classification model for weather, which could address the limitations of previous works. Moreover, the active learning procedure is introduced into dictionary learning to avoid requiring a large number of labeled samples to train the classification model for achieving good performance of weather recognition. Experiments and comparisons are performed on two datasets to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Strategies for active learning in online continuing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Janet M

    2005-01-01

    Online continuing education and staff development is on the rise as the benefits of access, convenience, and quality learning are continuing to take shape. Strategies to enhance learning call for learner participation that is self-directed and independent, thus changing the educator's role from expert to coach and facilitator. Good planning of active learning strategies promotes optimal learning whether the learning content is presented in a course or a just-in-time short module. Active learning strategies can be used to enhance online learning during all phases of the teaching-learning process and can accommodate a variety of learning styles. Feedback from peers, educators, and technology greatly influences learner satisfaction and must be harnessed to provide effective learning experiences. Outcomes of active learning can be assessed online and implemented conveniently and successfully from the initiation of the course or module planning to the end of the evaluation process. Online learning has become accessible and convenient and allows the educator to track learner participation. The future of online education will continue to grow, and using active learning strategies will ensure that quality learning will occur, appealing to a wide variety of learning needs.

  7. Active Learning Not Associated with Student Learning in a Random Sample of College Biology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, T. M.; Leonard, M. J.; Colgrove, C. A.; Kalinowski, S. T.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that adding active learning to traditional college science lectures substantially improves student learning. However, this research predominantly studied courses taught by science education researchers, who are likely to have exceptional teaching expertise. The present study investigated introductory biology courses randomly selected from a list of prominent colleges and universities to include instructors representing a broader population. We examined the relationship between active learning and student learning in the subject area of natural selection. We found no association between student learning gains and the use of active-learning instruction. Although active learning has the potential to substantially improve student learning, this research suggests that active learning, as used by typical college biology instructors, is not associated with greater learning gains. We contend that most instructors lack the rich and nuanced understanding of teaching and learning that science education researchers have developed. Therefore, active learning as designed and implemented by typical college biology instructors may superficially resemble active learning used by education researchers, but lacks the constructivist elements necessary for improving learning. PMID:22135373

  8. STEM learning activity among home-educating families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Jennifer

    2011-12-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning was studied among families in a group of home-educators in the Pacific Northwest. Ethnographic methods recorded learning activity (video, audio, fieldnotes, and artifacts) which was analyzed using a unique combination of Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) and Mediated Action (MA), enabling analysis of activity at multiple levels. Findings indicate that STEM learning activity is family-led, guided by parents' values and goals for learning, and negotiated with children to account for learner interests and differences, and available resources. Families' STEM education practice is dynamic, evolves, and influenced by larger societal STEM learning activity. Parents actively seek support and resources for STEM learning within their home-school community, working individually and collectively to share their funds of knowledge. Home-schoolers also access a wide variety of free-choice learning resources: web-based materials, museums, libraries, and community education opportunities (e.g. afterschool, weekend and summer programs, science clubs and classes, etc.). A lesson-heuristic, grounded in Mediated Action, represents and analyzes home STEM learning activity in terms of tensions between parental goals, roles, and lesson structure. One tension observed was between 'academic' goals or school-like activity and 'lifelong' goals or everyday learning activity. Theoretical and experiential learning was found in both activity, though parents with academic goals tended to focus more on theoretical learning and those with lifelong learning goals tended to be more experiential. Examples of the National Research Council's science learning strands (NRC, 2009) were observed in the STEM practices of all these families. Findings contribute to the small but growing body of empirical CHAT research in science education, specifically to the empirical base of family STEM learning practices at home. It also fills a

  9. Enhancing Learning Outcomes through Application Driven Activities in Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemann, Nicole; Sutton-Brady, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces an activity used in class to allow students to apply previously acquired information to a hands-on task. As the authors have previously shown active learning is a way to effectively facilitate and improve students' learning outcomes. As a result to improve learning outcomes we have overtime developed a series of learning…

  10. Improving active Mealy machine learning for protocol conformance testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, F.; Kuppens, H.; Tretmans, J.; Vaandrager, F.; Verwer, S.

    2014-01-01

    Using a well-known industrial case study from the verification literature, the bounded retransmission protocol, we show how active learning can be used to establish the correctness of protocol implementation I relative to a given reference implementation R. Using active learning, we learn a model M

  11. Opportunities to Create Active Learning Techniques in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Danielle J.; Legare, Jill M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to contribute to the growing body of research that focuses on active learning techniques. Active learning techniques require students to consider a given set of information, analyze, process, and prepare to restate what has been learned--all strategies are confirmed to improve higher order thinking skills. Active…

  12. Telling Active Learning Pedagogies Apart: From Theory to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Kelsey Hood

    2017-01-01

    Designing learning environments to incorporate active learning pedagogies is difficult as definitions are often contested and intertwined. This article seeks to determine whether classification of active learning pedagogies (i.e., project-based, problem-based, inquiry-based, case-based, and discovery-based), through theoretical and practical…

  13. Effects of Sharing Clickers in an Active Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Todd; Tivener, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Scientific research into learning enhancement gained by the use of clickers in active classrooms has largely focused on the use of individual clickers. In this study, we compared the learning experiences of participants in active learning groups in which an entire small group shared a single clicker to groups in which each member of the group had…

  14. Are students' impressions of improved learning through active learning methods reflected by improved test scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everly, Marcee C

    2013-02-01

    To report the transformation from lecture to more active learning methods in a maternity nursing course and to evaluate whether student perception of improved learning through active-learning methods is supported by improved test scores. The process of transforming a course into an active-learning model of teaching is described. A voluntary mid-semester survey for student acceptance of the new teaching method was conducted. Course examination results, from both a standardized exam and a cumulative final exam, among students who received lecture in the classroom and students who had active learning activities in the classroom were compared. Active learning activities were very acceptable to students. The majority of students reported learning more from having active-learning activities in the classroom rather than lecture-only and this belief was supported by improved test scores. Students who had active learning activities in the classroom scored significantly higher on a standardized assessment test than students who received lecture only. The findings support the use of student reflection to evaluate the effectiveness of active-learning methods and help validate the use of student reflection of improved learning in other research projects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. When Learning Disturbs Memory – Temporal Profile of Retroactive Interference of Learning on Memory Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosic-Vasic, Zrinka; Hille, Katrin; Kröner, Julia; Spitzer, Manfred; Kornmeier, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Consolidation is defined as the time necessary for memory stabilization after learning. In the present study we focused on effects of interference during the first 12 consolidation minutes after learning. Participants had to learn a set of German – Japanese word pairs in an initial learning task and a different set of German – Japanese word pairs in a subsequent interference task. The interference task started in different experimental conditions at different time points (0, 3, 6, and 9 min) after the learning task and was followed by subsequent cued recall tests. In a control experiment the interference periods were replaced by rest periods without any interference. Results: The interference task decreased memory performance by up to 20%, with negative effects at all interference time points and large variability between participants concerning both the time point and the size of maximal interference. Further, fast learners seem to be more affected by interference than slow learners. Discussion: Our results indicate that the first 12 min after learning are highly important for memory consolidation, without a general pattern concerning the precise time point of maximal interference across individuals. This finding raises doubts about the generalized learning recipes and calls for individuality of learning schedules. PMID:29503621

  16. When Learning Disturbs Memory – Temporal Profile of Retroactive Interference of Learning on Memory Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrinka Sosic-Vasic

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Consolidation is defined as the time necessary for memory stabilization after learning. In the present study we focused on effects of interference during the first 12 consolidation minutes after learning. Participants had to learn a set of German – Japanese word pairs in an initial learning task and a different set of German – Japanese word pairs in a subsequent interference task. The interference task started in different experimental conditions at different time points (0, 3, 6, and 9 min after the learning task and was followed by subsequent cued recall tests. In a control experiment the interference periods were replaced by rest periods without any interference.Results: The interference task decreased memory performance by up to 20%, with negative effects at all interference time points and large variability between participants concerning both the time point and the size of maximal interference. Further, fast learners seem to be more affected by interference than slow learners.Discussion: Our results indicate that the first 12 min after learning are highly important for memory consolidation, without a general pattern concerning the precise time point of maximal interference across individuals. This finding raises doubts about the generalized learning recipes and calls for individuality of learning schedules.

  17. "Heart Shots": a classroom activity to instigate active learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Reem Rachel; Vashe, Asha; Torke, Sharmila

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to provide undergraduate medical students at Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal Campus), Manipal University, in Karnataka, India, an opportunity to apply their knowledge in cardiovascular concepts to real-life situations. A group activity named "Heart Shots" was implemented for a batch of first-year undergraduate students (n = 105) at the end of a block (teaching unit). Students were divided into 10 groups each having 10-11 students. They were requested to make a video/PowerPoint presentation about the application of cardiovascular principles to real-life situations. The presentation was required to be of only pictures/photos and no text material, with a maximum duration of 7 min. More than 95% of students considered that the activity helped them to apply their knowledge in cardiovascular concepts to real-life situations and understand the relevance of physiology in medicine and to revise the topic. More than 90% of students agreed that the activity helped them to apply their creativity in improving their knowledge and to establish a link between concepts rather than learning them as isolated facts. Based on the feedback, we conclude that the activity was student centered and that it facilitated learning. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  18. Tea and herbal infusions: Their antioxidant activity and phenolic profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atoui, A.; Mansouri, A.; Panagiotis Kefalas; Boskou, G.

    2005-01-01

    Tea and herbal infusions have been studied for their polyphenolic content, antioxidant activity and phenolic profile. The total phenolics recovered by ethyl acetate from the water extract, were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and ranged from 88.1 ± 0.42 (Greek mountain tea) to 1216 ± 32.0 mg (Chinese green tea) GAE (Gallic acid equivalents)/cup. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by two methods, DPPH and chemiluminescence assays, using Trolox and quercetin as standards. The EC50 of herbal extracts ranged from 0.151 ± 0.002 mg extract/mg DPPH (0.38 quercetin equivalents and 0.57 Trolox equivalents), for Chinese green tea, to 0.77 ± 0.012 mg extract/mg DPPH (0.08 quercetin equivalents and 0.13 Trolox equivalents), for Greek mountain tea. Chemiluminescence assay results showed that the IC50 ranged from 0.17 ± 3.4 x 103 lg extract/ml of the final solution in the measuring cell (1.89 quercetin and 5.89 Trolox equivalents) for Chinese green tea, to 1.10 ± 1.86 x 102 g extract/ml of the final solution in the measuring cell (0.29 quercetin and 0.90 Trolox equivalents) for Greek mountain tea. The phenolic profile in the herbal infusions was investigated by LC-DAD-MS in the positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode. About 60 different flavo- noids, phenolic acids and their derivatives have been identified. (author)

  19. Lexical learning in mild aphasia: gesture benefit depends on patholinguistic profile and lesion pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroenke, Klaus-Martin; Kraft, Indra; Regenbrecht, Frank; Obrig, Hellmuth

    2013-01-01

    Gestures accompany speech and enrich human communication. When aphasia interferes with verbal abilities, gestures become even more relevant, compensating for and/or facilitating verbal communication. However, small-scale clinical studies yielded diverging results with regard to a therapeutic gesture benefit for lexical retrieval. Based on recent functional neuroimaging results, delineating a speech-gesture integration network for lexical learning in healthy adults, we hypothesized that the commonly observed variability may stem from differential patholinguistic profiles in turn depending on lesion pattern. Therefore we used a controlled novel word learning paradigm to probe the impact of gestures on lexical learning, in the lesioned language network. Fourteen patients with chronic left hemispheric lesions and mild residual aphasia learned 30 novel words for manipulable objects over four days. Half of the words were trained with gestures while the other half were trained purely verbally. For the gesture condition, rootwords were visually presented (e.g., Klavier, [piano]), followed by videos of the corresponding gestures and the auditory presentation of the novel words (e.g., /krulo/). Participants had to repeat pseudowords and simultaneously reproduce gestures. In the verbal condition no gesture-video was shown and participants only repeated pseudowords orally. Correlational analyses confirmed that gesture benefit depends on the patholinguistic profile: lesser lexico-semantic impairment correlated with better gesture-enhanced learning. Conversely largely preserved segmental-phonological capabilities correlated with better purely verbal learning. Moreover, structural MRI-analysis disclosed differential lesion patterns, most interestingly suggesting that integrity of the left anterior temporal pole predicted gesture benefit. Thus largely preserved semantic capabilities and relative integrity of a semantic integration network are prerequisites for successful use of

  20. Active Affordance Learning in Continuous State and Action Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C.; Hindriks, K.V.; Babuska, R.

    2014-01-01

    Learning object affordances and manipulation skills is essential for developing cognitive service robots. We propose an active affordance learning approach in continuous state and action spaces without manual discretization of states or exploratory motor primitives. During exploration in the action

  1. Synthesis and Antidepressant Activity Profile of Some Novel Benzothiazole Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümide Demir Özkay

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the scope of our new antidepressant drug development efforts, in this study, we synthesized eight novel benzothiazole derivatives 3a–3h. The chemical structures of the synthesized compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Test compounds were administered orally at a dose of 40 mg/kg to mice 24, 5 and 1 h before performing tail suspension, modified forced swimming, and activity cage tests. The obtained results showed that compounds 3c, 3d, 3f–3h reduced the immobility time of mice as assessed in the tail suspension test. Moreover, in the modified forced swimming tests, the same compounds significantly decreased the immobility, but increased the swimming frequencies of mice, without any alteration in the climbing frequencies. These results, similar to the results induced by the reference drug fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, po, indicated the antidepressant-like activities of the compounds 3c, 3d, 3f–3h. Owing to the fact that test compounds did not induce any significant alteration in the total number of spontaneous locomotor activities, the antidepressant-like effects of these derivatives seemed to be specific. In order to predict ADME parameters of the synthesized compounds 3a–3h, some physicochemical parameters were calculated. The ADME prediction study revealed that all synthesized compounds may possess good pharmacokinetic profiles.

  2. Phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity of 27 cultivars of tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Liang; Luo, Liyong; Li, Hongjun; Liu, Ruihai

    2017-08-01

    Tea, rich in phytochemicals, has been suggested to have human health benefits. The phenolic profiles, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of 27 tea cultivars were determined. Wide ranges of variation were found in analyzed cultivars for the contents of water-soluble phenolics (121.6-223.7 mg/g dry weight (DW)), total catechins (TC) (90.5-177.2 mg/g DW), antioxidant activities (PSC values 627.3-2332.3 μmol of vitamin C equiv/g DW, ORAC values (1865.1-3489.3 μmol of vitamin C equiv/g DW), CAA values (37.7-134.3 μmol of QE/g DW without PBS wash and 25.3-75.4 μmol of QE/g DW with PBS wash) and antiproliferative activity (53.0-90.8% at the concentration of 400 μg/mL extracts). The PSC, ORAC and CAA values were significantly correlated with phenolics, epicatechin gallate (ECG), CC and TC. Knowledge of specific differences among tea cultivars is important for breeding tea cultivars and gives sights to its potential application to promote health.

  3. An Analysis of Learning Activities in a Technology Education Textbook for Teachers : Learning Process Based on Contents Framework and Learning Scene to Develop Technological Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Yata, Chikahiko; Hamamoto, Kengo; Oguri, Takenori

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed the learning activities in a textbook on technology education for teachers, in order to examine the learning processes and learning scenes detailed therein. Results of analyzing learning process, primary learning activity found each contents framework. Other learning activities designated to be related to complementary in learning process. Results of analyzing learning scene, 14 learning scenes, among them "Scene to recognize the impact on social life and progress of techn...

  4. Lifeguard Final Exam—Encouraging the Use of Active Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Griswold, Elise N.; Klionsky, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    To anyone familiar with the extensive literature on teaching and learning, there is little question that active learning is more effective than passive learning. Thus, we are not directing this letter to that particular audience. Instead, we are attempting to address the question of the best way to convince instructors who have not tried to incorporate elements of active learning into their courses to make such an attempt. There are numerous examples where it becomes immediately clear that ac...

  5. Is Active Learning Like Broccoli? Student Perceptions of Active Learning in Large Lecture Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. Veronica; Cardaciotto, LeeAnn

    2011-01-01

    Although research suggests that active learning is associated with positive outcomes (e.g., memory, test performance), use of such techniques can be difficult to implement in large lecture-based classes. In the current study, 1,091 students completed out-of-class group exercises to complement course material in an Introductory Psychology class.…

  6. Adolescent Physical Activity and Motivational Profiles While Keeping a Physical Activity Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullmer, Matthew O.; Wilkinson, Carol; Prusak, Keven A.; Eggett, Dennis; Pennington, Todd

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relationship between adolescents (N = 124) from physical education classes keeping a daily online leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) record and feelings of competence toward LTPA, motivational profiles toward LTPA, and LTPA behaviors. Method: A repeated measures ANCOVA was used to examine the relationships…

  7. Cooperative activity and its potential for learning in tertiary education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirila Peklaj

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A learning situation can be structured in different ways, as an individual, competitive, or cooperative activity. Each of these structures can be used for different purposes and can lead to different learning outcomes. This paper focuses on cooperative activity and its potential for learning in tertiary education. After defining cooperative activity (or, in a broader sense, learning in interaction and introducing the CAMS theoretical framework to analyse cooperative activity, the main discussion focuses on the theoretical reasons for the usefulness of group learning and on the research of effects of cooperative learning on cognitive (metacognitive, affective-motivational and social processes in university students. The key elements that should be established for successful cooperation are also discussed. At the end, a new direction in using cooperative activity in learning—computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL, which emerged with rapid technology development in the last two decades—is presented and discussed.

  8. Students' Satisfaction on Their Learning Process in Active Learning and Traditional Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Jung; Ediger, Ruth; Lee, Donghun

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown Active Learning Classrooms [ALCs] help increase student engagement and improve student performance. However, remodeling all traditional classrooms to ALCs entails substantial financial burdens. Thus, an imperative question for institutions of higher education is whether active learning pedagogies can improve learning outcomes…

  9. Active-Learning versus Teacher-Centered Instruction for Learning Acids and Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesen, Burcin Acar; Tarhan, Leman

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: Active-learning as a student-centered learning process has begun to take more interest in constructing scientific knowledge. For this reason, this study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of active-learning implementation on high-school students' understanding of "acids and bases". Sample: The sample of this…

  10. Machine learning methods can replace 3D profile method in classification of amyloidogenic hexapeptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislawski Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyloids are proteins capable of forming fibrils. Many of them underlie serious diseases, like Alzheimer disease. The number of amyloid-associated diseases is constantly increasing. Recent studies indicate that amyloidogenic properties can be associated with short segments of aminoacids, which transform the structure when exposed. A few hundreds of such peptides have been experimentally found. Experimental testing of all possible aminoacid combinations is currently not feasible. Instead, they can be predicted by computational methods. 3D profile is a physicochemical-based method that has generated the most numerous dataset - ZipperDB. However, it is computationally very demanding. Here, we show that dataset generation can be accelerated. Two methods to increase the classification efficiency of amyloidogenic candidates are presented and tested: simplified 3D profile generation and machine learning methods. Results We generated a new dataset of hexapeptides, using more economical 3D profile algorithm, which showed very good classification overlap with ZipperDB (93.5%. The new part of our dataset contains 1779 segments, with 204 classified as amyloidogenic. The dataset of 6-residue sequences with their binary classification, based on the energy of the segment, was applied for training machine learning methods. A separate set of sequences from ZipperDB was used as a test set. The most effective methods were Alternating Decision Tree and Multilayer Perceptron. Both methods obtained area under ROC curve of 0.96, accuracy 91%, true positive rate ca. 78%, and true negative rate 95%. A few other machine learning methods also achieved a good performance. The computational time was reduced from 18-20 CPU-hours (full 3D profile to 0.5 CPU-hours (simplified 3D profile to seconds (machine learning. Conclusions We showed that the simplified profile generation method does not introduce an error with regard to the original method, while

  11. Machine learning methods can replace 3D profile method in classification of amyloidogenic hexapeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislawski, Jerzy; Kotulska, Malgorzata; Unold, Olgierd

    2013-01-17

    Amyloids are proteins capable of forming fibrils. Many of them underlie serious diseases, like Alzheimer disease. The number of amyloid-associated diseases is constantly increasing. Recent studies indicate that amyloidogenic properties can be associated with short segments of aminoacids, which transform the structure when exposed. A few hundreds of such peptides have been experimentally found. Experimental testing of all possible aminoacid combinations is currently not feasible. Instead, they can be predicted by computational methods. 3D profile is a physicochemical-based method that has generated the most numerous dataset - ZipperDB. However, it is computationally very demanding. Here, we show that dataset generation can be accelerated. Two methods to increase the classification efficiency of amyloidogenic candidates are presented and tested: simplified 3D profile generation and machine learning methods. We generated a new dataset of hexapeptides, using more economical 3D profile algorithm, which showed very good classification overlap with ZipperDB (93.5%). The new part of our dataset contains 1779 segments, with 204 classified as amyloidogenic. The dataset of 6-residue sequences with their binary classification, based on the energy of the segment, was applied for training machine learning methods. A separate set of sequences from ZipperDB was used as a test set. The most effective methods were Alternating Decision Tree and Multilayer Perceptron. Both methods obtained area under ROC curve of 0.96, accuracy 91%, true positive rate ca. 78%, and true negative rate 95%. A few other machine learning methods also achieved a good performance. The computational time was reduced from 18-20 CPU-hours (full 3D profile) to 0.5 CPU-hours (simplified 3D profile) to seconds (machine learning). We showed that the simplified profile generation method does not introduce an error with regard to the original method, while increasing the computational efficiency. Our new dataset

  12. Lifeguard Final Exam—Encouraging the Use of Active Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise N. Griswold

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To anyone familiar with the extensive literature on teaching and learning, there is little question that active learning is more effective than passive learning. Thus, we are not directing this letter to that particular audience. Instead, we are attempting to address the question of the best way to convince instructors who have not tried to incorporate elements of active learning into their courses to make such an attempt. There are numerous examples where it becomes immediately clear that active learning is preferable to a lecture/note-taking approach. Here, we provide a question for group discussion that can be used as one such illustration.

  13. Learning profiles of Master students:support or barrier for lifelong learning?

    OpenAIRE

    Sprogøe, Jonas; Hemmingsen, Lis

    2005-01-01

    Master education as a part of lifelong learning/education has over the last years increased inDenmark. Danish Universities now offer more than110 different programmes.One of the characteristics of the master education is that the students get credits for their priorlearning and practical work experiences, and during the study/education theory and practise iscombined.At the Master of Adult Learning and Human Resource Development, one of DPU´s masterprogrammes, the students have a very diverse ...

  14. Profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Profiles is a synthetic overview of more than 100 national energy markets in the world, providing insightful facts and key energy statistics. A Profile is structured around 6 main items and completed by key statistics: Ministries, public agencies, energy policy are concerned; main companies in the oil, gas, electricity and coal sectors, status, shareholders; reserve, production, imports and exports, electricity and refining capacities; deregulation of prices, subsidies, taxes; consumption trends by sector, energy market shares; main energy projects, production and consumption prospects. Statistical Profiles are present in about 3 pages the main data and indicators on oil, gas, coal and electricity. (A.L.B.)

  15. The activity profile of elite male amateur boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip; Benson, Peter R; Pitty, James D; Connorton, Andrew J; Waldock, Robert

    2015-01-01

    An activity profile of competitive 3 × 3-min elite-level amateur boxing was created from video footage of 29 Olympic final and semifinal bouts in 39 male boxers (mean ± SD) age 25.1 ± 3.6 y, height 178.3 ± 10.4 cm, and body mass 69.7 ± 16.5 kg. Boxing at this level requires the ability to maintain an activity rate of ~1.4 actions/s, consisting of ~20 punches, ~2.5 defensive movements, and ~47 vertical hip movements, all per minute, over 3 subsequent rounds lasting ~200 s each. Winners had higher total punches landed (P = .041) and a lower ratio of punches thrown to landed (P = .027) than losers in round 3. The hook rear-hand landed was also higher for winners than losers in round 2 (P = .038) and round 3 (P = .016), and defensive movements were used less by winners (P = .036). However, the results suggest that technical discrimination between winners and losers is difficult; bout outcome may be more dependent on which punch is "lucky" enough to be scored by the judges or who appears to be dominant on the day. This study gives both boxers and coaches a good idea of where subelite boxers need to aim if they want to become among the best amateur boxers in the world.

  16. Amateur boxing: activity profile of winners and losers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip; Wittekind, Anna; Beneke, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    An activity profile of competitive 3 × 2-min novice-level amateur boxing was created based on video footage and postbout blood [La] in 32 male boxers (mean ± SD) age 19.3 ± 1.4 y, body mass 62.6 ± 4.1 kg. Winners landed 18 ± 11 more punches than losers by applying more lead-hand punches in round 1 (34.2 ± 10.9 vs 26.5 ± 9.4), total punches to the head (121.3 ± 10.2 vs 96.0 ± 9.8), and block and counterpunch combinations (2.8 ± 1.1 vs. 0.1 ± 0.2) over all 3 rounds and punching combinations (44.3 ± 6.4 vs 28.8 ± 6.7) in rounds 1 and 3 (all P < .05). In 16 boxers, peak postbout blood [La] was 11.8 ± 1.6 mmol/L irrespective of winning or losing. The results suggest that landing punches requires the ability to maintain a high frequency of attacking movements, in particular the lead-hand straight punch to the head together with punching combinations. Defensive movements must initiate a counterattack. Postbout blood [La] suggests that boxers must be able to tolerate a lactate production rate of 1.8 mmol · L-1 · min-1 and maintain skillful techniques at a sufficient activity rate.

  17. STEM-based science learning implementation to identify student’s personal intelligences profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiguna, B. J. P. K.; Suwarma, I. R.; Liliawati, W.

    2018-05-01

    Science and technology are rapidly developing needs to be balanced with the human resources that have the qualified ability. Not only cognitive ability, but also have the soft skills that support 21st century skills. Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education is a solution to improve the quality of learning and prepare students may be able to trained 21st century skills. This study aims to analyse the implementation of STEM-based science learning on Newton’s law of motion by identifying the personal intelligences profile junior high school students. The method used in this research is pre experiment with the design of the study one group pre-test post-test. Samples in this study were 26 junior high school students taken using Convenience Sampling. Students personal intelligences profile after learning STEM-based science uses two instruments, self-assessment and peer assessment. Intrapersonal intelligence profile based self-assessment and peer assessment are respectively 69.38; and 64.08. As for interpersonal intelligence for self-assessment instrument is 73 and the peer assessment is 60.23.

  18. Empathy and feedback processing in active and observational learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak, Natalia; Bellebaum, Christian; Thoma, Patrizia

    2013-12-01

    The feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the P300 have been related to the processing of one's own and other individuals' feedback during both active and observational learning. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the role of trait-empathic responding with regard to the modulation of the neural correlates of observational learning in particular. Thirty-four healthy participants completed an active and an observational learning task. On both tasks, the participants' aim was to maximize their monetary gain by choosing from two stimuli the one that showed the higher probability of reward. Participants gained insight into the stimulus-reward contingencies according to monetary feedback presented after they had made an active choice or by observing the choices of a virtual partner. Participants showed a general improvement in learning performance on both learning tasks. P200, FRN, and P300 amplitudes were larger during active, as compared with observational, learning. Furthermore, nonreward elicited a significantly more negative FRN than did reward in the active learning task, while only a trend was observed for observational learning. Distinct subcomponents of trait cognitive empathy were related to poorer performance and smaller P300 amplitudes for observational learning only. Taken together, both the learning performance and event-related potentials during observational learning are affected by different aspects of trait cognitive empathy, and certain types of observational learning may actually be disrupted by a higher tendency to understand and adopt other people's perspectives.

  19. The cognitive and academic profiles of reading and mathematics learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Donald L; Fuchs, Lynn S; Fuchs, Douglas; Lambert, Warren; Hamlett, Carol

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cognitive and academic profiles associated with learning disability (LD) in reading comprehension, word reading, applied problems, and calculations. The goal was to assess the specificity hypothesis, in which unexpected underachievement associated with LD is represented in terms of distinctive patterns of cognitive and academic strengths and weaknesses. At the start of 3rd grade, the authors assessed 684 students on five cognitive dimensions (nonverbal problem solving, processing speed, concept formation, language, and working memory), and across Grades 3 through 5, the authors assessed performance in each academic area three to four times. Based on final intercept, the authors classified students as LD or not LD in each of the four academic areas. For each of these four LD variables, they conducted multivariate cognitive profile analysis and academic profile analysis. Results, which generally supported the specificity hypothesis, are discussed in terms of the potential connections between reading and mathematics LD.

  20. The colloquial approach: An active learning technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, Pedro

    1994-09-01

    This paper addresses the very important problem of the effectiveness of teaching methodologies in fundamental engineering courses such as transport phenomena. An active learning strategy, termed the colloquial approach, is proposed in order to increase student involvement in the learning process. This methodology is a considerable departure from traditional methods that use solo lecturing. It is based on guided discussions, and it promotes student understanding of new concepts by directing the student to construct new ideas by building upon the current knowledge and by focusing on key cases that capture the essential aspects of new concepts. The colloquial approach motivates the student to participate in discussions, to develop detailed notes, and to design (or construct) his or her own explanation for a given problem. This paper discusses the main features of the colloquial approach within the framework of other current and previous techniques. Problem-solving strategies and the need for new textbooks and for future investigations based on the colloquial approach are also outlined.

  1. Do International Students Appreciate Active Learning in Lectures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Marrone

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Active learning has been linked with increased student motivation, engagement and understanding of course material. It promotes deep learning, helping to develop critical thinking and writing skills in students. Less well understood, however, are the responses of international students to active learning. Using social constructivist theory, the purpose of this study is to examine domestic and international student perceptions of active learning introduced into large undergraduate Accounting Information Systems lectures. Several active learning strategies were implemented over one semester and examined through the use of semi-structured interviews as well as pre- and post- implementation surveys. Our results suggest broad improvements for international students in student engagement and understanding of unit material when implementing active learning strategies. Other key implications include international student preference for active learning compared with passive learning styles, and that international students may receive greater benefits from active learning strategies than domestic students due to social factors. Based on these findings this paper proposes that educators should seek to implement active learning to better assist and integrate students of diverse backgrounds.

  2. Bioorthogonal chemistry: applications in activity-based protein profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Lianne I; van der Linden, Wouter A; Li, Nan; Li, Kah-Yee; Liu, Nora; Hoogendoorn, Sascha; van der Marel, Gijs A; Florea, Bogdan I; Overkleeft, Herman S

    2011-09-20

    of chemical biology research include contributions from many areas of the multifaceted discipline of chemistry, and particularly from organic chemistry. Researchers apply knowledge inherent to organic chemistry, such as reactivity and selectivity, to the manipulation of specific biomolecules in biological samples (cell extracts, living cells, and sometimes even animal models) to gain insight into the biological phenomena in which these molecules participate. In this Account, we highlight some of the recent developments in chemical biology research driven by organic chemistry, with a focus on bioorthogonal chemistry in relation to activity-based protein profiling. The rigorous demands of bioorthogonality have not yet been realized in a truly bioorthogonal reagent pair, but remarkable progress has afforded a range of tangible contributions to chemical biology research. Activity-based protein profiling, which aims to obtain information on the workings of a protein (or protein family) within the larger context of the full biological system, has in particular benefited from these advances. Both activity-based protein profiling and bioorthogonal chemistry have been around for approximately 15 years, and about 8 years ago the two fields very profitably intersected. We expect that each discipline, both separately and in concert, will continue to make important contributions to chemical biology research. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  3. Lifestyle profile assessment in active and non-active hypertensive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Cavichia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the lifestyle´s profile of 30 hypertensive women practitioners and nonpractitioners of physical activity in the city of Sinop/MT. We used the questionnaire Profile of Single Lifestyle (PSL consists of three issues of the components of Nutrition (N, Physical Activity (PA, Preventive Behavior (PB, Social Networking (SN and Stress Management (SM with scores ranging from 0 to 3 points and score calculated by the sum of questions divided by the number of questions. The data were analyzed statistically with a significance of 5%. The average of the active components of PSL (N = 2,07, PA = 2,04, PB = 2,18, SN = 2,38 and SM = 2,42 and average overall score of 2,16 inactive (N = 1,73, AF = 1,33, PB = 2,40, RS = 2,02 and SN = 2,09 and average score 1,86. In the comparison between groups all components were significant different. It was concluded that the profile of the active lifestyle of hypertensive women have significantly higher values than non-active women

  4. The Use of "Socrative" in ESL Classrooms: Towards Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shaban, Abir

    2017-01-01

    The online student response system (SRS) is a technological tool that can be effectively implemented in English language classroom contexts and be used to promote students' active learning. In this qualitative study, "Socrative", a Web 2.0 software, was integrated with active learning activities and used as an SRS to explore English…

  5. Active Learning and Teaching: Improving Postsecondary Library Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Eileen E.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses ways to improve postsecondary library instruction based on theories of active learning. Topics include a historical background of active learning; student achievement and attitudes; cognitive development; risks; active teaching; and instructional techniques, including modified lectures, brainstorming, small group work, cooperative…

  6. Is engagement with a purpose the essence of active learning?

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Mesa, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    In the 2009 edition of the conference on “Active Learning in Engineering Education”, there were several and fruitful discussions within a small workgroup about the essence of active learning. At the end we came with an attempt to sum up our whole discussion with one question. Our question is the same as the title of this essay. Taking this question as a starting point this article propose a specific purpose from which active learning can be based. Peer Reviewed

  7. Generation of Tutorial Dialogues: Discourse Strategies for Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-29

    AND SUBTITLE Generation of Tutorial Dialogues: Discourse Strategies for active Learning AUTHORS Dr. Martha Evens 7. PERFORMING ORGANI2ATION NAME...time the student starts in on a new topic. Michael and Rovick constantly attempt to promote active learning . They regularly use hints and only resort...Controlling active learning : How tutors decide when to generate hints. Proceedings of FLAIRS 󈨣. Melbourne Beach, FL. 157-161. Hume, G., Michael

  8. Ontology-Based User Profiling for Personalized Acces to Information within Collaborative Learning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Amine Alimam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of modern educational technology methods has become an important area of research in order to support learning as well as collaboration. This is especially evident with the rise of internet and web 2.0 platforms that have transformed users’ role from mere content consumers to fully content consumers-producers. Furthermore, people engaged in collaborative learning capitalize on one another’s resources and skills, unlike individual learning. This paper proceeds with a categorization of the main tools and functions that characterize the personalization learning aspect, in order to discuss their trade-offs with collaborative learning systems. It proposes a framework of a personalized information research (IR within a collaborative learning system, incorporating the characterization of the research type carried by the query, as well as modeling and constructing semantic users’ profiles. We use the context of the user query into a prediction mechanism of the search type, based on a previous identification of users’ levels and interests. The paper is concluded by presenting experiment results, revealing that the use of the subject ontology extension approach satisfyingly contributes to improvement in the accuracy of system recommendations.

  9. Socio-cognitive profiles for visual learning in young and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie eChristian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is common wisdom that practice makes perfect; but why do some adults learn better than others? Here, we investigate individuals’ cognitive and social profiles to test which variables account for variability in learning ability across the lifespan. In particular, we focused on visual learning using tasks that test the ability to inhibit distractors and select task-relevant features. We tested the ability of young and older adults to improve through training in the discrimination of visual global forms embedded in a cluttered background. Further, we used a battery of cognitive tasks and psycho-social measures to examine which of these variables predict training-induced improvement in perceptual tasks and may account for individual variability in learning ability. Using partial least squares regression modelling, we show that visual learning is influenced by cognitive (i.e. cognitive inhibition, attention and social (strategic and deep learning factors rather than an individual’s age alone. Further, our results show that independent of age, strong learners rely on cognitive factors such as attention, while weaker learners use more general cognitive strategies. Our findings suggest an important role for higher-cognitive circuits involving executive functions that contribute to our ability to improve in perceptual tasks after training across the lifespan.

  10. Learning by Doing: Twenty Successful Active Learning Exercises for Information Systems Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alanah Mitchell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: This paper provides a review of previously published work related to active learning in information systems (IS courses. Background: There are a rising number of strategies in higher education that offer promise in regards to getting students’ attention and helping them learn, such as flipped classrooms and offering courses online. These learning strategies are part of the pedagogical technique known as active learning. Active learning is a strategy that became popular in the early 1990s and has proven itself as a valid tool for helping students to be engaged with learning. Methodology: This work follows a systematic method for identifying and coding previous research based on an aspect of interest. The authors identified and assessed research through a search of ABI/Inform scholarly journal abstracts and keywords, as well as additional research databases, using the search terms “active learning” and “information systems” from 2000 through June 2016. Contribution: This synthesis of active learning exercises provides guidance for information technology faculty looking to implement active learning strategies in their classroom by demonstrating how IS faculty might begin to introduce more active learning techniques in their teaching as well as by presenting a sample teaching agenda for a class that uses a mix of active and passive learning techniques to engage student learning. Findings: Twenty successful types of active learning exercises in IS courses are presented. Recommendations for Practitioners\t: This paper offers a “how to” resource of successful active learning strategies for IS faculty interested in implementing active learning in the classroom. Recommendation for Researchers: This work provides an example of a systematic literature review as a means to assess successful implementations of active learning in IS. Impact on Society: An updated definition of active learning is presented as well as a meaningful

  11. Performance in Physiology Evaluation: Possible Improvement by Active Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrezor, Luís H.

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation process is complex and extremely important in the teaching/learning process. Evaluations are constantly employed in the classroom to assist students in the learning process and to help teachers improve the teaching process. The use of active methodologies encourages students to participate in the learning process, encourages…

  12. Teacher Feedback during Active Learning: Current Practices in Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bergh, Linda; Ros, Anje; Beijaard, Douwe

    2013-01-01

    Background: Feedback is one of the most powerful tools, which teachers can use to enhance student learning. It appears dif?cult for teachers to give qualitatively good feedback, especially during active learning. In this context, teachers should provide facilitative feedback that is focused on the development of meta-cognition and social learning.…

  13. Assessing Student Behaviors and Motivation for Actively Learning Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael Edward

    Vision and Change states that one of the major changes in the way we design biology courses should be a switch in approach from teacher-centered learning to student-centered learning and identifies active learning as a recommended methods. Studies show performance benefits for students taking courses that use active learning. What is unknown is why active learning is such an effective instructional tool and the limits of this instructional method’s ability to influence performance. This dissertation builds a case in three steps for why active learning is an effective instructional tool. In step one, I assessed the influence of different types of active learning (clickers, group activities, and whole class discussions) on student engagement behavior in one semester of two different introductory biology courses and found that active learning positively influenced student engagement behavior significantly more than lecture. For step two, I examined over four semesters whether student engagement behavior was a predictor of performance and found participation (engagement behavior) in the online (video watching) and in-class course activities (clicker participation) that I measure were significant predictors of performance. In the third, I assessed whether certain active learning satisfied the psychological needs that lead to students’ intrinsic motivation to participate in those activities when compared over two semesters and across two different institutions of higher learning. Findings from this last step show us that student’s perceptions of autonomy, competency, and relatedness in doing various types of active learning are significantly higher than lecture and consistent across two institutions of higher learning. Lastly, I tie everything together, discuss implications of the research, and address future directions for research on biology student motivation and behavior.

  14. Pedagogical Distance: Explaining Misalignment in Student-Driven Online Learning Activities Using Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberry, Nicola; Franken, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an Activity Theory analysis of two online student-driven interactive learning activities to interrogate assumptions that such groups can effectively learn in the absence of the teacher. Such an analysis conceptualises learning tasks as constructed objects that drive pedagogical activity. The analysis shows a disconnect between…

  15. An Innovative Teaching Method To Promote Active Learning: Team-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, R.

    2007-12-01

    Traditional teaching practice based on the textbook-whiteboard- lecture-homework-test paradigm is not very effective in helping students with diverse academic backgrounds achieve higher-order critical thinking skills such as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Consequently, there is a critical need for developing a new pedagogical approach to create a collaborative and interactive learning environment in which students with complementary academic backgrounds and learning skills can work together to enhance their learning outcomes. In this presentation, I will discuss an innovative teaching method ('Team-Based Learning (TBL)") which I recently developed at National University of Singapore to promote active learning among students in the environmental engineering program with learning abilities. I implemented this new educational activity in a graduate course. Student feedback indicates that this pedagogical approach is appealing to most students, and promotes active & interactive learning in class. Data will be presented to show that the innovative teaching method has contributed to improved student learning and achievement.

  16. Substrate-Competitive Activity-Based Profiling of Ester Prodrug Activating Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao; Majmudar, Jaimeen D; Davda, Dahvid; Ghanakota, Phani; Kim, Ki H; Carlson, Heather A; Showalter, Hollis D; Martin, Brent R; Amidon, Gordon L

    2015-09-08

    Understanding the mechanistic basis of prodrug delivery and activation is critical for establishing species-specific prodrug sensitivities necessary for evaluating preclinical animal models and potential drug-drug interactions. Despite significant adoption of prodrug methodologies for enhanced pharmacokinetics, functional annotation of prodrug activating enzymes is laborious and often unaddressed. Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) describes an emerging chemoproteomic approach to assay active site occupancy within a mechanistically similar enzyme class in native proteomes. The serine hydrolase enzyme family is broadly reactive with reporter-linked fluorophosphonates, which have shown to provide a mechanism-based covalent labeling strategy to assay the activation state and active site occupancy of cellular serine amidases, esterases, and thioesterases. Here we describe a modified ABPP approach using direct substrate competition to identify activating enzymes for an ethyl ester prodrug, the influenza neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir. Substrate-competitive ABPP analysis identified carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) as an oseltamivir-activating enzyme in intestinal cell homogenates. Saturating concentrations of oseltamivir lead to a four-fold reduction in the observed rate constant for CES1 inactivation by fluorophosphonates. WWL50, a reported carbamate inhibitor of mouse CES1, blocked oseltamivir hydrolysis activity in human cell homogenates, confirming CES1 is the primary prodrug activating enzyme for oseltamivir in human liver and intestinal cell lines. The related carbamate inhibitor WWL79 inhibited mouse but not human CES1, providing a series of probes for analyzing prodrug activation mechanisms in different preclinical models. Overall, we present a substrate-competitive activity-based profiling approach for broadly surveying candidate prodrug hydrolyzing enzymes and outline the kinetic parameters for activating enzyme discovery, ester prodrug design, and

  17. Sharing the learning activity using intelligent CAD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, S. M.; Duffy, Alex

    1996-01-01

    In this paper the need for Intelligent Computer Aided Design (Int.CAD) to jointly support design and learning assistance is introduced. The paper focuses on presenting and exploring the possibility of realizing ''learning'' assistance in Int.CAD by introducing a new concept called Shared Learning...

  18. Kickboxing review: anthropometric, psychophysiological and activity profiles and injury epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Slimani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Kickboxing is one of the modern combat sports. The psychophysiological demands of a kickboxing competition require athletes to achieve high thresholds of several aspects of physical fitness. The aim of the current review is to critically analyse and appraise the kickboxer’s anthropometric, physiological, physical and psychological attributes with the activity profile and injury epidemiology in order to provide practical recommendations for training as well as new areas of scientific research. The available information shows that both amateur and elite-level male kickboxers are characterized by a higher proportion of mesomorphy with a well-developed muscle mass and low body fat percentage. While there is some variation in the maximum oxygen uptake of kickboxers, moderate to high cardio-respiratory levels are reported for these athletes. Regardless of kickboxers’ level, a high peak and mean anaerobic power output were reported. High-level kickboxing performance also requires well-developed muscle power in both the upper and lower limbs. Psychological factors contribute to success that requires high levels of self-confidence, motivation, dispositional hope and optimism, mental toughness/resiliency, and adaptive perfectionism. Psychological attributes also distinguished successful from less successful kickboxers. The activity-to-rest ratio was higher in elite (1:1 than both amateur and national-level (from 1:2 to 1:5 kickboxers, with no significant differences between rounds (round 1=1:4, and rounds 2 and 3=1:5 as well as between winners and losers in amateur and national-level simulated combats. These particular psychophysiological characteristics and performance aspects of kickboxers influence performance and could serve as guidance for training. Finally, kickboxing is characterized by chronic repetitive head trauma, which causes hypopituitarism due to traumatic brain injury (TBI. Future investigations into the physical, physiological and

  19. Kickboxing review: anthropometric, psychophysiological and activity profiles and injury epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabene, H; Miarka, B; Franchini, E; Chamari, K; Cheour, F

    2017-01-01

    Kickboxing is one of the modern combat sports. The psychophysiological demands of a kickboxing competition require athletes to achieve high thresholds of several aspects of physical fitness. The aim of the current review is to critically analyse and appraise the kickboxer’s anthropometric, physiological, physical and psychological attributes with the activity profile and injury epidemiology in order to provide practical recommendations for training as well as new areas of scientific research. The available information shows that both amateur and elite-level male kickboxers are characterized by a higher proportion of mesomorphy with a well-developed muscle mass and low body fat percentage. While there is some variation in the maximum oxygen uptake of kickboxers, moderate to high cardio-respiratory levels are reported for these athletes. Regardless of kickboxers’ level, a high peak and mean anaerobic power output were reported. High-level kickboxing performance also requires well-developed muscle power in both the upper and lower limbs. Psychological factors contribute to success that requires high levels of self-confidence, motivation, dispositional hope and optimism, mental toughness/resiliency, and adaptive perfectionism. Psychological attributes also distinguished successful from less successful kickboxers. The activity-to-rest ratio was higher in elite (1:1) than both amateur and national-level (from 1:2 to 1:5) kickboxers, with no significant differences between rounds (round 1=1:4, and rounds 2 and 3=1:5) as well as between winners and losers in amateur and national-level simulated combats. These particular psychophysiological characteristics and performance aspects of kickboxers influence performance and could serve as guidance for training. Finally, kickboxing is characterized by chronic repetitive head trauma, which causes hypopituitarism due to traumatic brain injury (TBI). Future investigations into the physical, physiological and psychological

  20. The control of tonic pain by active relief learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suyi; Mano, Hiroaki; Lee, Michael; Yoshida, Wako; Kawato, Mitsuo; Robbins, Trevor W; Seymour, Ben

    2018-02-27

    Tonic pain after injury characterises a behavioural state that prioritises recovery. Although generally suppressing cognition and attention, tonic pain needs to allow effective relief learning to reduce the cause of the pain. Here, we describe a central learning circuit that supports learning of relief and concurrently suppresses the level of ongoing pain. We used computational modelling of behavioural, physiological and neuroimaging data in two experiments in which subjects learned to terminate tonic pain in static and dynamic escape-learning paradigms. In both studies, we show that active relief-seeking involves a reinforcement learning process manifest by error signals observed in the dorsal putamen. Critically, this system uses an uncertainty ('associability') signal detected in pregenual anterior cingulate cortex that both controls the relief learning rate, and endogenously and parametrically modulates the level of tonic pain. The results define a self-organising learning circuit that reduces ongoing pain when learning about potential relief. © 2018, Zhang et al.

  1. The control of tonic pain by active relief learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Hiroaki; Lee, Michael; Yoshida, Wako; Kawato, Mitsuo; Robbins, Trevor W

    2018-01-01

    Tonic pain after injury characterises a behavioural state that prioritises recovery. Although generally suppressing cognition and attention, tonic pain needs to allow effective relief learning to reduce the cause of the pain. Here, we describe a central learning circuit that supports learning of relief and concurrently suppresses the level of ongoing pain. We used computational modelling of behavioural, physiological and neuroimaging data in two experiments in which subjects learned to terminate tonic pain in static and dynamic escape-learning paradigms. In both studies, we show that active relief-seeking involves a reinforcement learning process manifest by error signals observed in the dorsal putamen. Critically, this system uses an uncertainty (‘associability’) signal detected in pregenual anterior cingulate cortex that both controls the relief learning rate, and endogenously and parametrically modulates the level of tonic pain. The results define a self-organising learning circuit that reduces ongoing pain when learning about potential relief. PMID:29482716

  2. Active Learning for Autonomous Intelligent Agents: Exploration, Curiosity, and Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Manuel; Montesano, Luis

    2014-01-01

    In this survey we present different approaches that allow an intelligent agent to explore autonomous its environment to gather information and learn multiple tasks. Different communities proposed different solutions, that are in many cases, similar and/or complementary. These solutions include active learning, exploration/exploitation, online-learning and social learning. The common aspect of all these approaches is that it is the agent to selects and decides what information to gather next. ...

  3. Active learning: a step towards automating medical concept extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholghi, Mahnoosh; Sitbon, Laurianne; Zuccon, Guido; Nguyen, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents an automatic, active learning-based system for the extraction of medical concepts from clinical free-text reports. Specifically, (1) the contribution of active learning in reducing the annotation effort and (2) the robustness of incremental active learning framework across different selection criteria and data sets are determined. The comparative performance of an active learning framework and a fully supervised approach were investigated to study how active learning reduces the annotation effort while achieving the same effectiveness as a supervised approach. Conditional random fields as the supervised method, and least confidence and information density as 2 selection criteria for active learning framework were used. The effect of incremental learning vs standard learning on the robustness of the models within the active learning framework with different selection criteria was also investigated. The following 2 clinical data sets were used for evaluation: the Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside/Veteran Affairs (i2b2/VA) 2010 natural language processing challenge and the Shared Annotated Resources/Conference and Labs of the Evaluation Forum (ShARe/CLEF) 2013 eHealth Evaluation Lab. The annotation effort saved by active learning to achieve the same effectiveness as supervised learning is up to 77%, 57%, and 46% of the total number of sequences, tokens, and concepts, respectively. Compared with the random sampling baseline, the saving is at least doubled. Incremental active learning is a promising approach for building effective and robust medical concept extraction models while significantly reducing the burden of manual annotation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Enhancing students' learning in problem based learning: validation of a self-assessment scale for active learning and critical thinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoiriyah, U.; Roberts, C.; Jorm, C.; Vleuten, C.P. van der

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Problem based learning (PBL) is a powerful learning activity but fidelity to intended models may slip and student engagement wane, negatively impacting learning processes, and outcomes. One potential solution to solve this degradation is by encouraging self-assessment in the PBL

  5. Group-Based Active Learning of Classification Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhipeng; Hauskrecht, Milos

    2017-05-01

    Learning of classification models from real-world data often requires additional human expert effort to annotate the data. However, this process can be rather costly and finding ways of reducing the human annotation effort is critical for this task. The objective of this paper is to develop and study new ways of providing human feedback for efficient learning of classification models by labeling groups of examples. Briefly, unlike traditional active learning methods that seek feedback on individual examples, we develop a new group-based active learning framework that solicits label information on groups of multiple examples. In order to describe groups in a user-friendly way, conjunctive patterns are used to compactly represent groups. Our empirical study on 12 UCI data sets demonstrates the advantages and superiority of our approach over both classic instance-based active learning work, as well as existing group-based active-learning methods.

  6. Experiential Learning and Learning Environments: The Case of Active Listening Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Wong, Juan Enrique; Schoech, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Social work education research frequently has suggested an interaction between teaching techniques and learning environments. However, this interaction has never been tested. This study compared virtual and face-to-face learning environments and included active listening concepts to test whether the effectiveness of learning environments depends…

  7. Collegewide Promotion of E-Learning/Active Learning and Faculty Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Nobuyuki; Shimizu, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Japanese National Institutes of Technology have revealed a plan to strongly promote e-Learning and active learning under the common schematization of education in over 50 campuses nationwide. Our e-Learning and ICT-driven education practiced for more than fifteen years were highly evaluated, and is playing a leading role in promoting e-Learning…

  8. Integrative relational machine-learning for understanding drug side-effect profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresso, Emmanuel; Grisoni, Renaud; Marchetti, Gino; Karaboga, Arnaud Sinan; Souchet, Michel; Devignes, Marie-Dominique; Smaïl-Tabbone, Malika

    2013-06-26

    Drug side effects represent a common reason for stopping drug development during clinical trials. Improving our ability to understand drug side effects is necessary to reduce attrition rates during drug development as well as the risk of discovering novel side effects in available drugs. Today, most investigations deal with isolated side effects and overlook possible redundancy and their frequent co-occurrence. In this work, drug annotations are collected from SIDER and DrugBank databases. Terms describing individual side effects reported in SIDER are clustered with a semantic similarity measure into term clusters (TCs). Maximal frequent itemsets are extracted from the resulting drug x TC binary table, leading to the identification of what we call side-effect profiles (SEPs). A SEP is defined as the longest combination of TCs which are shared by a significant number of drugs. Frequent SEPs are explored on the basis of integrated drug and target descriptors using two machine learning methods: decision-trees and inductive-logic programming. Although both methods yield explicit models, inductive-logic programming method performs relational learning and is able to exploit not only drug properties but also background knowledge. Learning efficiency is evaluated by cross-validation and direct testing with new molecules. Comparison of the two machine-learning methods shows that the inductive-logic-programming method displays a greater sensitivity than decision trees and successfully exploit background knowledge such as functional annotations and pathways of drug targets, thereby producing rich and expressive rules. All models and theories are available on a dedicated web site. Side effect profiles covering significant number of drugs have been extracted from a drug ×side-effect association table. Integration of background knowledge concerning both chemical and biological spaces has been combined with a relational learning method for discovering rules which explicitly

  9. Examining factors affecting beginning teachers' transfer of learning of ICT-enhanced learning activities in their teaching practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyei, D.D.; Voogt, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined 100 beginning teachers’ transfer of learning when utilising Information Communication Technology-enhanced activity-based learning activities. The beginning teachers had participated in a professional development program that was characterised by ‘learning technology by

  10. Orchestration Framework for Learning Activities in Augmented Reality Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Ibáñez, María Blanca; Delgado Kloos, Carlos; Di Serio, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Proceedings of: Across Spaces11 Workshop in conjunction with the EC-TEL2011, Palermo, Italy, September 21, 2011 In this paper we show how Augmented Reality (AR) technology restricted to the use of mobiles or PCs, can be used to develop learning activities with the minimun level of orchestation required by meaningful learning sequences. We use Popcode as programming language to deploy orchestrated learning activities specified with an AR framework. Publicado

  11. Profiling Occupant Behaviour in Danish Dwellings using Time Use Survey Data - Part I: Data Description and Activity Profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmes, V.M.; Li, R.; Andersen, R.K.

    2018-01-01

    Occupant behaviour has been shown to be one of the key driving factors of uncertainty in prediction of energy consumption in buildings. Building occupants affect building energy use directly and indirectly by interacting with building energy systems such as adjusting temperature set...... occupant profiles for prediction of energy use to reduce the gap between predicted and real building energy consumptions. To generate accurate occupant profiles for the residential sector in Denmark, the Danish time use surveys are considered an essential data source. The latest Danish diarybased time use......-points, switching lights on/off, using electrical devices and opening/closing windows. Furthermore, building inhabitants’ daily activity profiles clearly shape the timing of energy demand in households. Modelling energy-related human activities throughout the day, therefore, is crucial to defining more realistic...

  12. Teaching for Engagement: Part 3: Designing for Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, William J.

    2015-01-01

    In the first two parts of this series, ("Teaching for Engagement: Part 1: Constructivist Principles, Case-Based Teaching, and Active Learning") and ("Teaching for Engagement: Part 2: Technology in the Service of Active Learning"), William J. Hunter sought to outline the theoretical rationale and research basis for such active…

  13. Engaging Students in Large Health Classes with Active Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Steven; Combs, Sue; Huelskamp, Amelia; Hritz, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Creative K-12 health teachers can engage students in large classes by utilizing active learning strategies. Active learning involves engaging students in higher-order tasks, such as analysis and synthesis, which is a crucial element of the movement toward what is commonly called "learner-centered" teaching. Health education teachers who…

  14. Challenges Encountered in Creating Personalised Learning Activities to Suit Students Learning Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donnell, Eileen; Wade, Vincent; Sharp, Mary; O'Donnell, Liam

    2013-01-01

    This book chapter reviews some of the challenges encountered by educators in creating personalised e-learning activities to suit students learning preferences. Technology-enhanced learning (TEL) alternatively known as e-learning has not yet reached its full potential in higher education. There are still many potential uses as yet undiscovered and other discovered uses which are not yet realisable by many educators. TEL is still predominantly used for e-dissemination and e-administration. This...

  15. Active learning for noisy oracle via density power divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogawa, Yasuhiro; Ueno, Tsuyoshi; Kawahara, Yoshinobu; Washio, Takashi

    2013-10-01

    The accuracy of active learning is critically influenced by the existence of noisy labels given by a noisy oracle. In this paper, we propose a novel pool-based active learning framework through robust measures based on density power divergence. By minimizing density power divergence, such as β-divergence and γ-divergence, one can estimate the model accurately even under the existence of noisy labels within data. Accordingly, we develop query selecting measures for pool-based active learning using these divergences. In addition, we propose an evaluation scheme for these measures based on asymptotic statistical analyses, which enables us to perform active learning by evaluating an estimation error directly. Experiments with benchmark datasets and real-world image datasets show that our active learning scheme performs better than several baseline methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Active Inference and Learning in the Cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friston, Karl; Herreros, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    This letter offers a computational account of Pavlovian conditioning in the cerebellum based on active inference and predictive coding. Using eyeblink conditioning as a canonical paradigm, we formulate a minimal generative model that can account for spontaneous blinking, startle responses, and (delay or trace) conditioning. We then establish the face validity of the model using simulated responses to unconditioned and conditioned stimuli to reproduce the sorts of behavior that are observed empirically. The scheme's anatomical validity is then addressed by associating variables in the predictive coding scheme with nuclei and neuronal populations to match the (extrinsic and intrinsic) connectivity of the cerebellar (eyeblink conditioning) system. Finally, we try to establish predictive validity by reproducing selective failures of delay conditioning, trace conditioning, and extinction using (simulated and reversible) focal lesions. Although rather metaphorical, the ensuing scheme can account for a remarkable range of anatomical and neurophysiological aspects of cerebellar circuitry-and the specificity of lesion-deficit mappings that have been established experimentally. From a computational perspective, this work shows how conditioning or learning can be formulated in terms of minimizing variational free energy (or maximizing Bayesian model evidence) using exactly the same principles that underlie predictive coding in perception.

  17. Reconstructing Causal Biological Networks through Active Learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunghoon Cho

    Full Text Available Reverse-engineering of biological networks is a central problem in systems biology. The use of intervention data, such as gene knockouts or knockdowns, is typically used for teasing apart causal relationships among genes. Under time or resource constraints, one needs to carefully choose which intervention experiments to carry out. Previous approaches for selecting most informative interventions have largely been focused on discrete Bayesian networks. However, continuous Bayesian networks are of great practical interest, especially in the study of complex biological systems and their quantitative properties. In this work, we present an efficient, information-theoretic active learning algorithm for Gaussian Bayesian networks (GBNs, which serve as important models for gene regulatory networks. In addition to providing linear-algebraic insights unique to GBNs, leading to significant runtime improvements, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on data simulated with GBNs and the DREAM4 network inference challenge data sets. Our method generally leads to faster recovery of underlying network structure and faster convergence to final distribution of confidence scores over candidate graph structures using the full data, in comparison to random selection of intervention experiments.

  18. Resting alpha activity predicts learning ability in alpha neurofeedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenya eNan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals differ in their ability to learn how to regulate the alpha activity by neurofeedback. This study aimed to investigate whether the resting alpha activity is related to the learning ability of alpha enhancement in neurofeedback and could be used as a predictor. A total of 25 subjects performed 20 sessions of individualized alpha neurofeedback in order to learn how to enhance activity in the alpha frequency band. The learning ability was assessed by three indices respectively: the training parameter changes between two periods, within a short period and across the whole training time. It was found that the resting alpha amplitude measured before training had significant positive correlations with all learning indices and could be used as a predictor for the learning ability prediction. This finding would help the researchers in not only predicting the training efficacy in individuals but also gaining further insight into the mechanisms of alpha neurofeedback.

  19. Mapping Learning Outcomes and Assignment Tasks for SPIDER Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyn Brodie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern engineering programs have to address rapidly changing technical content and have to enable students to develop transferable skills such as critical evaluation, communication skills and lifelong learning. This paper introduces a combined learning and assessment activity that provides students with opportunities to develop and practice their soft skills, but also extends their theoretical knowledge base. Key tasks included self directed inquiry, oral and written communication as well as peer assessment. To facilitate the SPIDER activities (Select, Prepare and Investigate, Discuss, Evaluate, Reflect, a software tool has been implemented in the learning management system Moodle. Evidence shows increased student engagement and better learning outcomes for both transferable as well as technical skills. The study focuses on generalising the relationship between learning outcomes and assignment tasks as well as activities that drive these tasks. Trail results inform the approach. Staff evaluations and their views of assignments and intended learning outcomes also supported this analysis.

  20. Postnatal TLR2 activation impairs learning and memory in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madar, Ravit; Rotter, Aviva; Waldman Ben-Asher, Hiba; Mughal, Mohamed R; Arumugam, Thiruma V; Wood, W H; Becker, K G; Mattson, Mark P; Okun, Eitan

    2015-08-01

    Neuroinflammation in the central nervous system is detrimental for learning and memory, as evident form epidemiological studies linking developmental defects and maternal exposure to harmful pathogens. Postnatal infections can also induce neuroinflammatory responses with long-term consequences. These inflammatory responses can lead to motor deficits and/or behavioral disabilities. Toll like receptors (TLRs) are a family of innate immune receptors best known as sensors of microbial-associated molecular patterns, and are the first responders to infection. TLR2 forms heterodimers with either TLR1 or TLR6, is activated in response to gram-positive bacterial infections, and is expressed in the brain during embryonic development. We hypothesized that early postnatal TLR2-mediated neuroinflammation would adversely affect cognitive behavior in the adult. Our data indicate that postnatal TLR2 activation affects learning and memory in adult mice in a heterodimer-dependent manner. TLR2/6 activation improved motor function and fear learning, while TLR2/1 activation impaired spatial learning and enhanced fear learning. Moreover, developmental TLR2 deficiency significantly impairs spatial learning and enhances fear learning, stressing the involvement of the TLR2 pathway in learning and memory. Analysis of the transcriptional effects of TLR2 activation reveals both common and unique transcriptional programs following heterodimer-specific TLR2 activation. These results imply that adult cognitive behavior could be influenced in part, by activation or alterations in the TLR2 pathway at birth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of Physical Activity on Obesity and Lipid Profile of Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlik, Krystyna; Zwierzchowska, Anna; Celebanska, Diana

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: This study assessed overweight, obesity and lipid profiles in adults with intellectual disability and compared these metrics with their physical activity. Materials and Method: Basic somatic parameters, lipid profile and weekly physical activity were examined in 27 adults with moderate intellectual disability. Chi-square independence…

  2. Learning Organization Profile of Educational Hospitals in Iran: Practice of Organizational Interlocking Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbifar, Rafat; Hashemi, Hassan Jahani; Rajaee, Roya; Najafi, Marziye; Etedal, Mahbobeh G H

    2015-02-24

    Organizational learning has been identified as necessary for different organizations to improve their performance in the changing and competitive environment. The main purpose of this research was to specify the learning organization profile of educational and health centers of Tehran and Qazvin Universities of Medical Sciences in Iran. The present research was conducted using a cross-sectional method in the academic year of 2013-2014. A staff of 530 from educational hospitals subordinated to Tehran and Qazvin universities of medical sciences participated in the research. The participants were selected using stratified random sampling. That is to say, a random sample of a proportionate size was selected from each hospital. The instrument for data collection was a Likert-scale questionnaire involving 50 items. The statistical techniques of ANOVA, t-test, Chi-square, correlation coefficients (Pearson and Spearman), and regression were utilized to analyze the data. All of them were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 16.0 for windows. the results indicated that 449 of participants (84.7%) had a B.S. degree and 78 of them (14.7%) had an M.S. or a Ph.D. degree. Among the fivefold dimensions of "Learning Organization" model (Learning, Organization, People, Knowledge, and Technology) in comparison of the two universities, the "people" dimension was the highest-rated dimension with the mean rating of 25.71±8.36 and the "learning" dimension was the lowest-rated dimension with the mean of 25.35±8.04. Comparison between the two universities yielded the result that educational hospitals in Tehran University of medical sciences with the rating of 126.56 had a more complete profile than that of educational hospitals in Qazvin university of medical sciences with the rating of 122.23. The hospitals of the two above-mentioned universities were, to a great extent, far from the characteristics of Learning Organization. In light of the massive mission

  3. Teacher feedback during active learning: current practices in primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bergh, Linda; Ros, Anje; Beijaard, Douwe

    2013-06-01

    Feedback is one of the most powerful tools, which teachers can use to enhance student learning. It appears difficult for teachers to give qualitatively good feedback, especially during active learning. In this context, teachers should provide facilitative feedback that is focused on the development of meta-cognition and social learning. The purpose of the present study is to contribute to the existing knowledge about feedback and to give directions to improve teacher feedback in the context of active learning. The participants comprised 32 teachers who practiced active learning in the domain of environmental studies in the sixth, seventh, or eighth grade of 13 Dutch primary schools. A total of 1,465 teacher-student interactions were examined. Video observations were made of active learning lessons in the domain of environmental studies. A category system was developed based on the literature and empirical data. Teacher-student interactions were assessed using this system. Results. About half of the teacher-student interactions contained feedback. This feedback was usually focused on the tasks that were being performed by the students and on the ways in which these tasks were processed. Only 5% of the feedback was explicitly related to a learning goal. In their feedback, the teachers were directing (rather than facilitating) the learning processes. During active learning, feedback on meta-cognition and social learning is important. Feedback should be explicitly related to learning goals. In practice, these kinds of feedback appear to be scarce. Therefore, giving feedback during active learning seems to be an important topic for teachers' professional development. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Learning To Learn: 15 Vocabulary Acquisition Activities. Tips and Hints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, William R.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes a variety of ways learners can help themselves remember new words, choosing the ones that best suit their learning styles. It is asserted that repeated exposure to new lexical items using a variety of means is the most consistent predictor of retention. The use of verbal, visual, tactile, textual, kinesthetic, and sonic…

  5. Learning Choices, Older Australians and Active Ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Buys, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of qualitative, semistructured interviews conducted with 40 older Australian participants who either did or did not engage in organized learning. Phenomenology was used to guide the interviews and analysis to explore the lived learning experiences and perspectives of these older people. Their experiences of…

  6. Pyrethroid Activity-Based Probes for Profiling Cytochrome P450 Activities Associated with Insecticide Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, Hanafy M.; O' Neill, Paul M.; Hong, David; Finn, Robert; Henderson, Colin; Wright, Aaron T.; Cravatt, Benjamin; Hemingway, Janet; Paine, Mark J.

    2014-01-18

    Pyrethroid insecticides are used to control a diverse spectrum of diseases spread by arthropods. We have developed a suite of pyrethroid mimetic activity based probes (PyABPs) to selectively label and identify P450s associated with pyrethroid metabolism. The probes were screened against pyrethroid metabolizing and non-metabolizing mosquito P450s, as well as rodent microsomes to measure labeling specificity, plus CPR and b5 knockout mouse livers to validate P450 activation and establish the role for b5 in probe activation. Using a deltamethrin mimetic PyABP we were able to profile active enzymes in rat liver microsomes and identify pyrethroid metabolizing enzymes in the target tissue. The most reactive enzyme was a P450, CYP2C11, which is known to metabolize deltamethrin. Furthermore, several other pyrethroid metabolizers were identified (CYPs 2C6, 3A4, 2C13 and 2D1) along with related detoxification enzymes, notably UDP-g’s 2B1 - 5, suggesting a network of associated pyrethroid metabolizing enzymes, or ‘pyrethrome’. Considering the central role that P450s play in metabolizing insecticides, we anticipate that PyABPs will aid the identification and profiling of P450s associated with insecticide pharmacology in a wide range of species, improving understanding of P450-insecticide interactions and aiding the development of new tools for disease control.

  7. Pyrethroid activity-based probes for profiling cytochrome P450 activities associated with insecticide interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Hanafy M; O'Neill, Paul M; Hong, David W; Finn, Robert D; Henderson, Colin J; Wright, Aaron T; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Hemingway, Janet; Paine, Mark J I

    2013-12-03

    Pyrethroid insecticides are used to control diseases spread by arthropods. We have developed a suite of pyrethroid mimetic activity-based probes (PyABPs) to selectively label and identify P450s associated with pyrethroid metabolism. The probes were screened against pyrethroid-metabolizing and nonmetabolizing mosquito P450s, as well as rodent microsomes, to measure labeling specificity, plus cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase and b5 knockout mouse livers to validate P450 activation and establish the role for b5 in probe activation. Using PyABPs, we were able to profile active enzymes in rat liver microsomes and identify pyrethroid-metabolizing enzymes in the target tissue. These included P450s as well as related detoxification enzymes, notably UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, suggesting a network of associated pyrethroid-metabolizing enzymes, or "pyrethrome." Considering the central role P450s play in metabolizing insecticides, we anticipate that PyABPs will aid in the identification and profiling of P450s associated with insecticide pharmacology in a wide range of species, improving understanding of P450-insecticide interactions and aiding the development of unique tools for disease control.

  8. Active learning reduces annotation time for clinical concept extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholghi, Mahnoosh; Sitbon, Laurianne; Zuccon, Guido; Nguyen, Anthony

    2017-10-01

    To investigate: (1) the annotation time savings by various active learning query strategies compared to supervised learning and a random sampling baseline, and (2) the benefits of active learning-assisted pre-annotations in accelerating the manual annotation process compared to de novo annotation. There are 73 and 120 discharge summary reports provided by Beth Israel institute in the train and test sets of the concept extraction task in the i2b2/VA 2010 challenge, respectively. The 73 reports were used in user study experiments for manual annotation. First, all sequences within the 73 reports were manually annotated from scratch. Next, active learning models were built to generate pre-annotations for the sequences selected by a query strategy. The annotation/reviewing time per sequence was recorded. The 120 test reports were used to measure the effectiveness of the active learning models. When annotating from scratch, active learning reduced the annotation time up to 35% and 28% compared to a fully supervised approach and a random sampling baseline, respectively. Reviewing active learning-assisted pre-annotations resulted in 20% further reduction of the annotation time when compared to de novo annotation. The number of concepts that require manual annotation is a good indicator of the annotation time for various active learning approaches as demonstrated by high correlation between time rate and concept annotation rate. Active learning has a key role in reducing the time required to manually annotate domain concepts from clinical free text, either when annotating from scratch or reviewing active learning-assisted pre-annotations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. INTEGRATION OF GAMIFICATION AND ACTIVE LEARNING IN THE CLASSROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Zepeda-Hernández

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Teachers who currently use the traditional method teacher-centered learning, are having various difficulties with the new generations of students. New learning methods are required to allow students to focus more positive attitudes towards their learning. In this paper, we show how the evaluation and activities based on Active Learning and Gamification, can be an alternative to generate a more positive attitude of students and create a more friendly environment in the classroom. This research was conducted using the qualitative research and ethnographic method as technique.

  10. Active Learning of Classification Models with Likert-Scale Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yanbing; Hauskrecht, Milos

    2017-01-01

    Annotation of classification data by humans can be a time-consuming and tedious process. Finding ways of reducing the annotation effort is critical for building the classification models in practice and for applying them to a variety of classification tasks. In this paper, we develop a new active learning framework that combines two strategies to reduce the annotation effort. First, it relies on label uncertainty information obtained from the human in terms of the Likert-scale feedback. Second, it uses active learning to annotate examples with the greatest expected change. We propose a Bayesian approach to calculate the expectation and an incremental SVM solver to reduce the time complexity of the solvers. We show the combination of our active learning strategy and the Likert-scale feedback can learn classification models more rapidly and with a smaller number of labeled instances than methods that rely on either Likert-scale labels or active learning alone.

  11. MLS student active learning within a "cloud" technology program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tille, Patricia M; Hall, Heather

    2011-01-01

    In November 2009, the MLS program in a large public university serving a geographically large, sparsely populated state instituted an initiative for the integration of technology enhanced teaching and learning within the curriculum. This paper is intended to provide an introduction to the system requirements and sample instructional exercises used to create an active learning technology-based classroom. Discussion includes the following: 1.) define active learning and the essential components, 2.) summarize teaching methods, technology and exercises utilized within a "cloud" technology program, 3.) describe a "cloud" enhanced classroom and programming 4.) identify active learning tools and exercises that can be implemented into laboratory science programs, and 5.) describe the evaluation and assessment of curriculum changes and student outcomes. The integration of technology in the MLS program is a continual process and is intended to provide student-driven active learning experiences.

  12. Telling Active Learning Pedagogies Apart: from theory to practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Hood Cattaneo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Designing learning environments to incorporate active learning pedagogies is difficult as definitions are often contested and intertwined. This article seeks to determine whether classification of active learning pedagogies (i.e., project-based, problem-based, inquiry-based, case-based, and discovery-based, through theoretical and practical lenses, could function as a useful tool for researchers and practitioners in comparing pedagogies. This article classified five active learning pedagogies based on six constructivist elements. The comparison was completed through a comparative analysis and a content analysis informed by a systematic literature review. The findings were that learner-centeredness is a primary goal of all pedagogies; however, there is a strong dissonance between each pedagogy’s theoretical underpinnings and implementation realities. This dissonance complicates differentiating active learning pedagogies and classification as a comparative tool has proved to have limited usefulness.

  13. Atmospheric profiles from active space-based radio measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Kenneth R.; Hinson, David P.; Tyler, G. L.; Kursinski, E. R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes determinations of atmospheric profiles from space-based radio measurements and the retrieval methodology used, with special attention given to the measurement procedure and the characteristics of the soundings. It is speculated that reliable profiles of the terrestrial atmosphere can be obtained by the occultation technique from the surface to a height of about 60 km. With the full complement of 21 the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites and one GPS receiver in sun synchronous polar orbit, a maximum of 42 soundings could be obtained for each complete orbit or about 670 per day, providing almost uniform global coverage.

  14. The search for active learning: Lessons from a happy accident

    OpenAIRE

    Bashforth, Hedley; Parmar, Nitin R

    2010-01-01

    This article suggests that the concept of ‘active learning’ has different meanings. These meanings are created in the dynamic and variable relationships between the uses of learning technologies and approaches to pedagogy. Institutions play a key role in mediating these relationships, privileging some meanings of ‘active learning’ over others. More dialogical forms of active learning call for changes in the mediating role of the institution. This article draws on a case study of the use of El...

  15. Active learning machine learns to create new quantum experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Alexey A; Poulsen Nautrup, Hendrik; Krenn, Mario; Dunjko, Vedran; Tiersch, Markus; Zeilinger, Anton; Briegel, Hans J

    2018-02-06

    How useful can machine learning be in a quantum laboratory? Here we raise the question of the potential of intelligent machines in the context of scientific research. A major motivation for the present work is the unknown reachability of various entanglement classes in quantum experiments. We investigate this question by using the projective simulation model, a physics-oriented approach to artificial intelligence. In our approach, the projective simulation system is challenged to design complex photonic quantum experiments that produce high-dimensional entangled multiphoton states, which are of high interest in modern quantum experiments. The artificial intelligence system learns to create a variety of entangled states and improves the efficiency of their realization. In the process, the system autonomously (re)discovers experimental techniques which are only now becoming standard in modern quantum optical experiments-a trait which was not explicitly demanded from the system but emerged through the process of learning. Such features highlight the possibility that machines could have a significantly more creative role in future research.

  16. Technology transfer and technological learning through CERN's procurement activity

    CERN Document Server

    Autio, Erkko; Hameri, Ari-Pekka; CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    This report analyses the technological learning and innovation benefits derived from CERN's procurement activity during the period 1997-2001. The base population of our study, the technology-intensive suppliers to CERN, consisted of 629 companies out of 6806 companies during the same period, representing 1197 MCHF in procurement. The main findings from the study can be summarized as follows: the various learning and innovation benefits (e.g., technological learning, organizational capability development, market learning) tend to occur together. Learning and innovation benefits appear to be regulated by the quality of the supplier's relationship with CERN: the greater the amount of social capital built into the relationship, the greater the learning and innovation benefits. Regardless of relationship quality, virtually all suppliers derived significant marketing reference benefits from CERN. Many corollary benefits are associated with procurement activity. As an example, as many as 38% of the respondents devel...

  17. Profiling the biological activity of oxide nanomaterials with mechanistic models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burello, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we present three mechanistic models for profiling the potential biological and toxicological effects of oxide nanomaterials. The models attempt to describe the reactivity, protein adsorption and membrane adhesion processes of a large range of oxide materials and are based on properties

  18. Metabolite profiling, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Brazilian propolis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bittencourt, M.L.F.; Ribeiro, Paulo R.; Franco, R.L.P.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.; Castro, de R.D.; Fernandez, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    The production of propolis by honeybees results from a selective collection of exudates from various plant species and present many potentialities in the pharmaceutical industry. The objective of this study was to investigate the chemical profile of Brazilian propolis, as well as their in vitro

  19. Applying active learning to supervised word sense disambiguation in MEDLINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yukun; Cao, Hongxin; Mei, Qiaozhu; Zheng, Kai; Xu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study was to assess whether active learning strategies can be integrated with supervised word sense disambiguation (WSD) methods, thus reducing the number of annotated samples, while keeping or improving the quality of disambiguation models. Methods We developed support vector machine (SVM) classifiers to disambiguate 197 ambiguous terms and abbreviations in the MSH WSD collection. Three different uncertainty sampling-based active learning algorithms were implemented with the SVM classifiers and were compared with a passive learner (PL) based on random sampling. For each ambiguous term and each learning algorithm, a learning curve that plots the accuracy computed from the test set as a function of the number of annotated samples used in the model was generated. The area under the learning curve (ALC) was used as the primary metric for evaluation. Results Our experiments demonstrated that active learners (ALs) significantly outperformed the PL, showing better performance for 177 out of 197 (89.8%) WSD tasks. Further analysis showed that to achieve an average accuracy of 90%, the PL needed 38 annotated samples, while the ALs needed only 24, a 37% reduction in annotation effort. Moreover, we analyzed cases where active learning algorithms did not achieve superior performance and identified three causes: (1) poor models in the early learning stage; (2) easy WSD cases; and (3) difficult WSD cases, which provide useful insight for future improvements. Conclusions This study demonstrated that integrating active learning strategies with supervised WSD methods could effectively reduce annotation cost and improve the disambiguation models. PMID:23364851

  20. Applying active learning to supervised word sense disambiguation in MEDLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yukun; Cao, Hongxin; Mei, Qiaozhu; Zheng, Kai; Xu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    This study was to assess whether active learning strategies can be integrated with supervised word sense disambiguation (WSD) methods, thus reducing the number of annotated samples, while keeping or improving the quality of disambiguation models. We developed support vector machine (SVM) classifiers to disambiguate 197 ambiguous terms and abbreviations in the MSH WSD collection. Three different uncertainty sampling-based active learning algorithms were implemented with the SVM classifiers and were compared with a passive learner (PL) based on random sampling. For each ambiguous term and each learning algorithm, a learning curve that plots the accuracy computed from the test set as a function of the number of annotated samples used in the model was generated. The area under the learning curve (ALC) was used as the primary metric for evaluation. Our experiments demonstrated that active learners (ALs) significantly outperformed the PL, showing better performance for 177 out of 197 (89.8%) WSD tasks. Further analysis showed that to achieve an average accuracy of 90%, the PL needed 38 annotated samples, while the ALs needed only 24, a 37% reduction in annotation effort. Moreover, we analyzed cases where active learning algorithms did not achieve superior performance and identified three causes: (1) poor models in the early learning stage; (2) easy WSD cases; and (3) difficult WSD cases, which provide useful insight for future improvements. This study demonstrated that integrating active learning strategies with supervised WSD methods could effectively reduce annotation cost and improve the disambiguation models.

  1. Moments of movement: active learning and practice development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewing, Jan

    2010-01-01

    As our understanding of practice development becomes more sophisticated, we enhance our understanding of how the facilitation of learning in and from practice, can be more effectively achieved. This paper outlines an approach for enabling and maximizing learning within practice development known as 'Active Learning'. It considers how, given establishing a learning culture is a prerequisite for the sustainability of PD within organisations, practice developers can do more to maximize learning for practitioners and other stakeholders. Active Learning requires that more attention be given by organisations committed to PD, at a corporate and strategic level for how learning strategies are developed in the workplace. Specifically, a move away from a heavy reliance on training may be required. Practice development facilitators also need to review: how they organise and offer learning, so that learning strategies are consistent with the vision, aims and processes of PD; have skills in the planning, delivery and evaluation of learning as part of their role and influence others who provide more traditional methods of training and education.

  2. Active controllers and the time duration to learn a task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repperger, D. W.; Goodyear, C.

    1986-01-01

    An active controller was used to help train naive subjects involved in a compensatory tracking task. The controller is called active in this context because it moves the subject's hand in a direction to improve tracking. It is of interest here to question whether the active controller helps the subject to learn a task more rapidly than the passive controller. Six subjects, inexperienced to compensatory tracking, were run to asymptote root mean square error tracking levels with an active controller or a passive controller. The time required to learn the task was defined several different ways. The results of the different measures of learning were examined across pools of subjects and across controllers using statistical tests. The comparison between the active controller and the passive controller as to their ability to accelerate the learning process as well as reduce levels of asymptotic tracking error is reported here.

  3. Active Learning by Querying Informative and Representative Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sheng-Jun; Jin, Rong; Zhou, Zhi-Hua

    2014-10-01

    Active learning reduces the labeling cost by iteratively selecting the most valuable data to query their labels. It has attracted a lot of interests given the abundance of unlabeled data and the high cost of labeling. Most active learning approaches select either informative or representative unlabeled instances to query their labels, which could significantly limit their performance. Although several active learning algorithms were proposed to combine the two query selection criteria, they are usually ad hoc in finding unlabeled instances that are both informative and representative. We address this limitation by developing a principled approach, termed QUIRE, based on the min-max view of active learning. The proposed approach provides a systematic way for measuring and combining the informativeness and representativeness of an unlabeled instance. Further, by incorporating the correlation among labels, we extend the QUIRE approach to multi-label learning by actively querying instance-label pairs. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed QUIRE approach outperforms several state-of-the-art active learning approaches in both single-label and multi-label learning.

  4. Medical Student Perspectives of Active Learning: A Focus Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walling, Anne; Istas, Kathryn; Bonaminio, Giulia A; Paolo, Anthony M; Fontes, Joseph D; Davis, Nancy; Berardo, Benito A

    2017-01-01

    Phenomenon: Medical student perspectives were sought about active learning, including concerns, challenges, perceived advantages and disadvantages, and appropriate role in the educational process. Focus groups were conducted with students from all years and campuses of a large U.S. state medical school. Students had considerable experience with active learning prior to medical school and conveyed accurate understanding of the concept and its major strategies. They appreciated the potential of active learning to deepen and broaden learning and its value for long-term professional development but had significant concerns about the efficiency of the process, the clarity of expectations provided, and the importance of receiving preparatory materials. Most significantly, active learning experiences were perceived as disconnected from grading and even as impeding preparation for school and national examinations. Insights: Medical students understand the concepts of active learning and have considerable experience in several formats prior to medical school. They are generally supportive of active learning concepts but frustrated by perceived inefficiencies and lack of contribution to the urgencies of achieving optimal grades and passing United States Medical Licensing Examinations, especially Step 1.

  5. StreamAR: incremental and active learning with evolving sensory data for activity recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Abdallah, Z.; Gaber, M.; Srinivasan, B.; Krishnaswamy, S.

    2012-01-01

    Activity recognition focuses on inferring current user activities by leveraging sensory data available on today’s sensor rich environment. Supervised learning has been applied pervasively for activity recognition. Typical activity recognition techniques process sensory data based on point-by-point approaches. In this paper, we propose a novel cluster-based classification for activity recognition Systems, termed StreamAR. The system incorporates incremental and active learning for mining user ...

  6. Enhancing learning in geosciences and water engineering via lab activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Cheng, Ming

    2016-04-01

    This study focuses on the utilisation of lab based activities to enhance the learning experience of engineering students studying Water Engineering and Geosciences. In particular, the use of modern highly visual and tangible presentation techniques within an appropriate laboratory based space are used to introduce undergraduate students to advanced engineering concepts. A specific lab activity, namely "Flood-City", is presented as a case study to enhance the active engagement rate, improve the learning experience of the students and better achieve the intended learning objectives of the course within a broad context of the engineering and geosciences curriculum. Such activities, have been used over the last few years from the Water Engineering group @ Glasgow, with success for outreach purposes (e.g. Glasgow Science Festival and demos at the Glasgow Science Centre and Kelvingrove museum). The activity involves a specific setup of the demonstration flume in a sand-box configuration, with elements and activities designed so as to gamely the overall learning activity. Social media platforms can also be used effectively to the same goals, particularly in cases were the students already engage in these online media. To assess the effectiveness of this activity a purpose designed questionnaire is offered to the students. Specifically, the questionnaire covers several aspects that may affect student learning, performance and satisfaction, such as students' motivation, factors to effective learning (also assessed by follow-up quizzes), and methods of communication and assessment. The results, analysed to assess the effectiveness of the learning activity as the students perceive it, offer a promising potential for the use of such activities in outreach and learning.

  7. Cytotoxic activity of abietane diterpenoids from roots of Salvia sahendica by HPLC-based activity profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Moradi-Afrapoli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Screening of medicinal plants from Iranian flora against human cancer cell-lines have shown that an hexane extract from roots of Salvia sahendica Boiss. & Buhse, Lamiaceae, is active against human cervical cancer (HeLa and colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2 cell-lines at the test concentration of 100 µg/ml (100% inhibition. Cytotoxicity of the extract was localized with the aid of HPLC-time-based activity profiling adapted to the tetrazolium colorimetric bioassay. Four abietane-type diterpenoids in active time-windows were identified as cytotoxic compounds namely: sahandone (1, sahandol (2, 12-deoxy-salvipisone (3 and sahandinone (4. Compound 1 showed the highest toxicity against HeLa cells (IC50 = 5.6 ± 0.1 µg/ml, which was comparable with betulinic acid (IC50 = 4.3 ± 1.2 µg/ml, the positive control. Compound 2 was active against the HeLa cells (IC50 = 8.9 ± 0.7 µg/ml but not the Caco-2 cell-line. Compounds 1, 3 and 4 exhibited moderate activity (IC50 = 22.9–41.4 µg/ml against the Caco-2 cells. This study reveals that the HeLa cells are more sensitive to all tested compounds than the Caco-2 cells. In silico molecular docking study showed a rigid binding of the compounds to tyrosine kinase pp60src, and proved their cytotoxic activity.

  8. Employability and work-related learning activities in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnell, Marie; Kolmos, Anette

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on how academic staff perceive their roles and responsibilities regarding work-related learning, and how they approach and implement work-related learning activities in curricula across academic environments in higher education. The study is based on case studies...

  9. Resource Letter ALIP-1: Active-Learning Instruction in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, David E.; Thornton, Ronald K.

    2012-06-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on research-based active-learning instruction in physics. These are instructional methods that are based on, assessed by, and validated through research on the teaching and learning of physics. They involve students in their own learning more deeply and more intensely than does traditional instruction, particularly during class time. The instructional methods and supporting body of research reviewed here offer potential for significantly improved learning in comparison to traditional lecture-based methods of college and university physics instruction. We begin with an introduction to the history of active learning in physics in the United States, and then discuss some methods for and outcomes of assessing pedagogical effectiveness. We enumerate and describe common characteristics of successful active-learning instructional strategies in physics. We then discuss a range of methods for introducing active-learning instruction in physics and provide references to those methods for which there is published documentation of student learning gains.

  10. Presence in a Collaborative Science Learning Activity in Second Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrellis, Ioannis; Papachristos, Nikiforos; Natsis, Antonios

    2012-01-01

    interacting with and via virtual environments and seems to play an important role in learning. This chapter presents empirical data gathered from an exploratory study regarding a problem-based physics learning activity in Second Life (SL). Our aim is to gain knowledge and experience about the sense...

  11. An active role for machine learning in drug development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the complexity of biological systems, cutting-edge machine-learning methods will be critical for future drug development. In particular, machine-vision methods to extract detailed information from imaging assays and active-learning methods to guide experimentation will be required to overcome the dimensionality problem in drug development. PMID:21587249

  12. Creating Activating Events for Transformative Learning in a Prison Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Cheryl H.; Woods, Robert

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we interpreted, in light of Mezirow's theory of transformative learning, interviews with 13 educators regarding their work with marginalized adult learners in prisons in the northeastern United States. Transformative learning may have been aided by the educators' response to unplanned activating events, humor, and respect, and…

  13. Cognitive and Social Aspects of Engagement in Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koretsky, Milo

    2017-01-01

    This article reports analysis of students' written reflections as to what helps them learn in an active learning environment. Eight hundred and twenty seven responses from 403 students in four different studio courses over two years were analyzed. An emergent coding scheme identified 55% of the responses as associated with cognitive processes…

  14. An active learning organisation: teaching projects in electrical engineering education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, H.-P.; Vos, Henk; de Graaff, E.; Lemoult, B.

    2004-01-01

    The introduction of active learning in engineering education is often started by enthusiastic teachers or change agents. They usually encounter resistance from stakeholders such as colleagues, department boards or students. For a successful introduction these stakeholders all have to learn what

  15. How an Active Learning Classroom Transformed IT Executive Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Amy; Lampe, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This article describes how our university built a unique classroom environment specifically for active learning. This classroom changed students' experience in the undergraduate executive information technology (IT) management class. Every college graduate should learn to think critically, solve problems, and communicate solutions, but 90% of…

  16. Enhanced Memory as a Common Effect of Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markant, Douglas B.; Ruggeri, Azzurra; Gureckis, Todd M.; Xu, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Despite widespread consensus among educators that "active learning" leads to better outcomes than comparatively passive forms of instruction, it is often unclear why these benefits arise. In this article, we review research showing that the opportunity to control the information experienced while learning leads to improved memory…

  17. Using assistive technology adaptations to include students with learning disabilities in cooperative learning activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, D P; Bryant, B R

    1998-01-01

    Cooperative learning (CL) is a common instructional arrangement that is used by classroom teachers to foster academic achievement and social acceptance of students with and without learning disabilities. Cooperative learning is appealing to classroom teachers because it can provide an opportunity for more instruction and feedback by peers than can be provided by teachers to individual students who require extra assistance. Recent studies suggest that students with LD may need adaptations during cooperative learning activities. The use of assistive technology adaptations may be necessary to help some students with LD compensate for their specific learning difficulties so that they can engage more readily in cooperative learning activities. A process for integrating technology adaptations into cooperative learning activities is discussed in terms of three components: selecting adaptations, monitoring the use of the adaptations during cooperative learning activities, and evaluating the adaptations' effectiveness. The article concludes with comments regarding barriers to and support systems for technology integration, technology and effective instructional practices, and the need to consider technology adaptations for students who have learning disabilities.

  18. Relationships between physical education students' motivational profiles, enjoyment, state anxiety, and self-reported physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze motivational profiles based on the self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 2000) and how these profiles are related to physical education students' enjoyment, state anxiety, and physical activity. The participants, 429 sixth grade students (girls = 216; boys = 213) completed SMS, Sport Enjoyment Scale, PESAS, and Physical Activity Scale. Cluster analyses identified two motivational profiles: 1) the "High motivation profile", in which the students had high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation, and 2) the "Low motivation profile", in which the students had low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation. The students in the first cluster enjoyed physical education more and were physically more active. The results revealed that students may be motivated towards physical education lessons both intrinsically and extrinsically, and still experience enjoyment in physical education. Key pointsTWO MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES WERE REVEALED: 1) the "High motivation profile", in which the students had high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation, and 2) the "Low motivation profile", in which the students had low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation.The students in the first profile enjoyed physical education more and were physically more active than the students in the second profile.Moreover, the representatives of the "High motivation profile "experienced greater anxiety toward physical education than the representatives of the "Low motivation profile"These findings raised an interesting question whether students engaging in physical education benefit more from the presence of both self-determined and non-self-determined forms of motivation, or are the benefits higher if students are primarily self-determined?

  19. List-learning and verbal memory profiles in childhood epilepsy syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraegle, William A; Nussbaum, Nancy L; Stefanatos, Arianna K

    2016-09-01

    Findings of material-specific influences on memory performance in pediatric epilepsy are inconsistent and merit further investigation. This study compared 90 children (aged 6years to 16years) with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) to determine whether they displayed distinct list-learning and verbal memory profiles on the California Verbal Learning Test - Children's Version (CVLT-C). Group comparison identified greater risk of memory impairment in children with TLE and FLE syndromes but not for those with CAE. While children with TLE performed worst overall on Short Delay Free Recall, groups with TLE and FLE performed similarly on Long Delay Free Recall. Contrast indices were then employed to explore these differences. Children with TLE demonstrated a significantly greater retroactive interference (RI) effect compared with groups with FLE and CAE. Conversely, children with FLE demonstrated a significantly worse learning efficiency index (LEI), which compares verbal memory following repetition with initial recall of the same list, than both children with TLE and CAE. These findings indicated shallow encoding related to attentional control for children with FLE and retrieval deficits in children with TLE. Finally, our combined sample showed significantly higher rates of extreme contrast indices (i.e., 1.5 SD difference) compared with the CVLT-C standardization sample. These results underscore the high prevalence of memory dysfunction in pediatric epilepsy and offer support for distinct patterns of verbal memory performance based on childhood epilepsy syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Changing University Students’ Alternative Conceptions of Optics by Active Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalkida Hadžibegović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Active learning is individual and group participation in effective activities such as in-class observing, writing, experimenting, discussion, solving problems, and talking about to-be-learned topics. Some instructors believe that active learning is impossible, or at least extremely difficult to achieve in large lecture sessions. Nevertheless, the truly impressive implementation results of theSCALE-UP learning environment suggest that such beliefs are false (Beichner et al., 2000. In this study, we present a design of an active learning environment with positive effect on students. The design is based on the following elements: (1 helping students to learn from interactive lecture experiment; (2 guiding students to use justified explanation and prediction after observing and exploring a phenomenon; (3 developing a conceptual question sequencedesigned for use in an interactive lecture with students answering questions in worksheets by writing and drawing; (4 evaluating students’ conceptual change and gains by questions related to light reflection, refraction, and image formation in an exam held a week after the active learning session. Data were collected from 95 science freshmen with different secondary school backgrounds. They participated in geometrical optics classes organized for collecting research results during and after only one active learning session.The results have showed that around 60% of the students changed their initial alternative conceptions of vision and of image formation. It was also found that a large group of university students is likely to be engaged in active learning, shifting from a passive role they usually play during teacher’s lectures.

  1. Classifying cognitive profiles using machine learning with privileged information in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanin Hamdan Alahmadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of dementia is critical for assessing disease progression and potential treatment. State-or-the-art machine learning techniques have been increasingly employed to take on this diagnostic task. In this study, we employed Generalised Matrix Learning Vector Quantization (GMLVQ classifiers to discriminate patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI from healthy controls based on their cognitive skills. Further, we adopted a ``Learning with privileged information'' approach to combine cognitive and fMRI data for the classification task. The resulting classifier operates solely on the cognitive data while it incorporates the fMRI data as privileged information (PI during training. This novel classifier is of practical use as the collection of brain imaging data is not always possible with patients and older participants.MCI patients and healthy age-matched controls were trained to extract structure from temporal sequences. We ask whether machine learning classifiers can be used to discriminate patients from controls based on the learning performance and whether differences between these groups relate to individual cognitive profiles. To this end, we tested participants in four cognitive tasks: working memory, cognitive inhibition, divided attention, and selective attention. We also collected fMRI data before and after training on the learning task and extracted fMRI responses and connectivity as features for machine learning classifiers. Our results show that the PI guided GMLVQ classifiers outperform the baseline classifier that only used the cognitive data. In addition, we found that for the baseline classifier, divided attention is the only relevant cognitive feature. When PI was incorporated, divided attention remained the most relevant feature while cognitive inhibition became also relevant for the task. Interestingly, this analysis for the fMRI GMLVQ classifier suggests that (1 when overall fMRI signal for structured stimuli is

  2. Active Learning to Improve Fifth Grade Mathematics Achievement in Banten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Suherman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching for active learning is a pedagogical technique that has been actively promoted in Indonesian education through government reform efforts and international development assistance projects for decades. Recently, elementary schools in Banten province received training in active learning instructional strategies from the USAID-funded project, Decentralized Basic Education 2. Post-training evaluations conducted by lecturers from the University of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa (UNTIRTA: Universitas Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa suggested that teachers were successfully employing active learning strategies in some subjects, but not mathematics. In order to understand the difficulties teachers were having in teaching for active learning in mathematics, and to assist them in using active learning strategies, a team of lecturers from UNTIRTA designed and carried out an action research project to train teachers in an elementary school in the city of Cilegon to use a technique called Magic Fingers in teaching Grade 5 multiplication. During the course of the project the research team discovered that teachers were having problems transferring knowledge gained from training in one context and subject to other school subjects and contexts. Key Words: Mathematics, Teaching for Active Learning, Indonesia, Banten

  3. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PHYSICAL EDUCATION STUDENTS' MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES, ENJOYMENT, STATE ANXIETY, AND SELF-REPORTED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Yli-Piipari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze motivational profiles based on the self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 2000 and how these profiles are related to physical education students' enjoyment, state anxiety, and physical activity. The participants, 429 sixth grade students (girls = 216; boys = 213 completed SMS, Sport Enjoyment Scale, PESAS, and Physical Activity Scale. Cluster analyses identified two motivational profiles: 1 the "High motivation profile", in which the students had high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation, and 2 the "Low motivation profile", in which the students had low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation. The students in the first cluster enjoyed physical education more and were physically more active. The results revealed that students may be motivated towards physical education lessons both intrinsically and extrinsically, and still experience enjoyment in physical education.

  4. Effect of practical training on the learning motivation profile of Japanese pharmacy students using structural equation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeo Yamamura

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To establish a model of Japanese pharmacy students’ learning motivation profile and investigate the effects of pharmaceutical practical training programs on their learning motivation. Methods The Science Motivation Questionnaire II was administered to pharmacy students in their 4th (before practical training, 5th (before practical training at clinical sites, and 6th (after all practical training years of study at Josai International University in April, 2016. Factor analysis and multiple-group structural equation modeling were conducted for data analysis. Results A total of 165 students participated. The learning motivation profile was modeled with 4 factors (intrinsic, career, self-determination, and grade motivation, and the most effective learning motivation was grade motivation. In the multiple-group analysis, the fit of the model with the data was acceptable, and the estimated mean value of the factor of ‘self-determination’ in the learning motivation profile increased after the practical training programs (P= 0.048, Cohen’s d= 0.43. Conclusion Practical training programs in a 6-year course were effective for increasing learning motivation, based on ‘self-determination’ among Japanese pharmacy students. The results suggest that practical training programs are meaningful not only for providing clinical experience but also for raising learning motivation.

  5. Effect of practical training on the learning motivation profile of Japanese pharmacy students using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Shigeo; Takehira, Rieko

    2017-01-01

    To establish a model of Japanese pharmacy students' learning motivation profile and investigate the effects of pharmaceutical practical training programs on their learning motivation. The Science Motivation Questionnaire II was administered to pharmacy students in their 4th (before practical training), 5th (before practical training at clinical sites), and 6th (after all practical training) years of study at Josai International University in April, 2016. Factor analysis and multiple-group structural equation modeling were conducted for data analysis. A total of 165 students participated. The learning motivation profile was modeled with 4 factors (intrinsic, career, self-determination, and grade motivation), and the most effective learning motivation was grade motivation. In the multiple-group analysis, the fit of the model with the data was acceptable, and the estimated mean value of the factor of 'self-determination' in the learning motivation profile increased after the practical training programs (P= 0.048, Cohen's d = 0.43). Practical training programs in a 6-year course were effective for increasing learning motivation, based on 'self-determination' among Japanese pharmacy students. The results suggest that practical training programs are meaningful not only for providing clinical experience but also for raising learning motivation.

  6. Investigation of fitting capability of active mirror for controlling ICF's focal profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Zhige; Ling Ning; Jiang Wenhan

    1998-01-01

    Laser beam's profile at focal plane can be controlled using active mirror in ICF system because the beam's profile has strong relationship with the surface of active mirror, the surface of active mirror can be changed at any time and maintained for a long time. The capabilities of fitting given wave-front (computed by Geometric Transformation Method) at conditions of different actuator numbers and different arrangement have been investigated by computer simulation. The computing results present that the needed laser profile can obtained by adaptive optical technology

  7. Developing capability through peer-assisted learning activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L-CAS) is an activity by means of which each student is exposed to primary healthcare learning and practice in communities. Capability has been described as 'an integration of knowledge, skills, personal qualities and understanding used ...

  8. Physical Activity and Wellness: Applied Learning through Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Lynn Hunt; Franzidis, Alexia

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how two university professors teamed up to initiate a university-sponsored physical activity and wellness expo in an effort to promote an authentic and transformative learning experience for preservice students.

  9. Teachers' Perceptions and Practices of Active Learning in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teachers' Perceptions and Practices of Active Learning in Haramaya ... Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal ... traditional/lecture method, lack of students' interest, shortage of time, lack of instructional material and large class size.

  10. Prototype-based active learning for lemmatization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Daelemans, W

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available ] and Word Length [Long to Short] with the prototypical curves (e.g. Word Frequency [High to Low] and [Word Length Short to Long]). (With regard to the learning curves representing word frequency, refer to 4.1 for an explanation of why [High to Low... of language usage [15]. Secondly, in memory-based language processing [16] it has been argued, on the basis of com- parative machine learning experiments on natural lan- guage processing data, that exceptions are crucial for obtaining high generalization...

  11. Localization-Aware Active Learning for Object Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Kao, Chieh-Chi; Lee, Teng-Yok; Sen, Pradeep; Liu, Ming-Yu

    2018-01-01

    Active learning - a class of algorithms that iteratively searches for the most informative samples to include in a training dataset - has been shown to be effective at annotating data for image classification. However, the use of active learning for object detection is still largely unexplored as determining informativeness of an object-location hypothesis is more difficult. In this paper, we address this issue and present two metrics for measuring the informativeness of an object hypothesis,...

  12. Learning Microbiology Through Cooperation: Designing Cooperative Learning Activities that Promote Interdependence, Interaction, and Accountability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine E. Trempy

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A microbiology course and its corresponding learning activities have been structured according to the Cooperative Learning Model. This course, The World According to Microbes, integrates science, math, engineering, and technology (SMET majors and non-SMET majors into teams of students charged with problem solving activities that are microbial in origin. In this study we describe development of learning activities that utilize key components of Cooperative Learning—positive interdependence, promotive interaction, individual accountability, teamwork skills, and group processing. Assessments and evaluations over an 8-year period demonstrate high retention of key concepts in microbiology and high student satisfaction with the course.

  13. Active Reading Behaviors in Tablet-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palilonis, Jennifer; Bolchini, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Active reading is fundamental to learning. However, there is little understanding about whether traditional active reading frameworks sufficiently characterize how learners study multimedia tablet textbooks. This paper explores the nature of active reading in the tablet environment through a qualitative study that engaged 30 students in an active…

  14. Active Learning: 101 Strategies To Teach Any Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Mel

    This book contains specific, practical strategies that can be used for almost any subject matters to promote active learning. It brings together in one source a comprehensive collection of instructional strategies, with ways to get students to be active from the beginning through activities that build teamwork and get students thinking about the…

  15. Active Learning of Markov Decision Processes for System Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yingke; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    2012-01-01

    deterministic Markov decision processes from data by actively guiding the selection of input actions. The algorithm is empirically analyzed by learning system models of slot machines, and it is demonstrated that the proposed active learning procedure can significantly reduce the amount of data required...... demanding process, and this shortcoming has motivated the development of algorithms for automatically learning system models from observed system behaviors. Recently, algorithms have been proposed for learning Markov decision process representations of reactive systems based on alternating sequences...... of input/output observations. While alleviating the problem of manually constructing a system model, the collection/generation of observed system behaviors can also prove demanding. Consequently we seek to minimize the amount of data required. In this paper we propose an algorithm for learning...

  16. Metabolic Profiling and Classification of Propolis Samples from Southern Brazil: An NMR-Based Platform Coupled with Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraschin, Marcelo; Somensi-Zeggio, Amélia; Oliveira, Simone K; Kuhnen, Shirley; Tomazzoli, Maíra M; Raguzzoni, Josiane C; Zeri, Ana C M; Carreira, Rafael; Correia, Sara; Costa, Christopher; Rocha, Miguel

    2016-01-22

    The chemical composition of propolis is affected by environmental factors and harvest season, making it difficult to standardize its extracts for medicinal usage. By detecting a typical chemical profile associated with propolis from a specific production region or season, certain types of propolis may be used to obtain a specific pharmacological activity. In this study, propolis from three agroecological regions (plain, plateau, and highlands) from southern Brazil, collected over the four seasons of 2010, were investigated through a novel NMR-based metabolomics data analysis workflow. Chemometrics and machine learning algorithms (PLS-DA and RF), including methods to estimate variable importance in classification, were used in this study. The machine learning and feature selection methods permitted construction of models for propolis sample classification with high accuracy (>75%, reaching ∼90% in the best case), better discriminating samples regarding their collection seasons comparatively to the harvest regions. PLS-DA and RF allowed the identification of biomarkers for sample discrimination, expanding the set of discriminating features and adding relevant information for the identification of the class-determining metabolites. The NMR-based metabolomics analytical platform, coupled to bioinformatic tools, allowed characterization and classification of Brazilian propolis samples regarding the metabolite signature of important compounds, i.e., chemical fingerprint, harvest seasons, and production regions.

  17. [Supporting an Academic Society with the Active Learning Tool Clica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Kensuke; Mitsubori, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

     Within school classrooms, Active Learning has been receiving unprecedented attention. Indeed, Active Learning's popularity does not stop in the classroom. As more and more people argue that the Japanese government needs to renew guidelines for education, Active Learning has surfaced as a method capable of providing the necessary knowledge and training for people in all areas of society, helping them reach their full potential. It has become accepted that Active Learning is more effective over the passive listening of lectures, where there is little to no interaction. Active Learning emphasizes that learners explain their thoughts, ask questions, and express their opinions, resulting in a better retention rate of the subject at hand. In this review, I introduce an Active Learning support tool developed at Digital Knowledge, "Clica". This tool is currently being used at many educational institutions. I will also introduce an online questionnaire that Digital Knowledge provided at the 10th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society for Pharmaceutical Palliative Care and Sciences.

  18. Integrative Student Learning: An Effective Team Learning Activity in a Learner-Centered Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Karimi, RPh, PhD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: An Integrative Student Learning (ISL activity was developed with the intent to enhance the dynamic of student teamwork and enhance student learning by fostering critical-thinking skills, self-directed learning skills, and active learning. Case Study: The ISL activity consists of three portions: teambuilding, teamwork, and a facilitator driven “closing the loop” feedback discussion. For teambuilding, a set of clue sheets or manufacturer‘s drug containers were distributed among student pairs who applied their pharmaceutical knowledge to identify two more student pairs with similar clues or drugs, thus building a team of six. For teamwork, each team completed online exams, composed of integrated pharmaceutical science questions with clinical correlates, using only selected online library resources. For the feedback discussion, facilitators evaluated student impressions, opened a discussion about the ISL activity, and provided feedback to teams’ impressions and questions. This study describes three different ISL activities developed and implemented over three days with first year pharmacy students. Facilitators’ interactions with students and three surveys indicated a majority of students preferred ISL over traditional team activities and over 90% agreed ISL activities promoted active learning, critical-thinking, self-directed learning, teamwork, and student confidence in online library searches. Conclusions: The ISL activity has proven to be an effective learning activity that promotes teamwork and integration of didactic pharmaceutical sciences to enhance student learning of didactic materials and confidence in searching online library resources. It was found that all of this can be accomplished in a short amount of class time with a very reasonable amount of preparation.

  19. Integrative Student Learning: An Effective Team Learning Activity in a Learner-Centered Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Karimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: An Integrative Student Learning (ISL activity was developed with the intent to enhance the dynamic of student teamwork and enhance student learning by fostering critical-thinking skills, self-directed learning skills, and active learning. Case Study: The ISL activity consists of three portions: teambuilding, teamwork, and a facilitator driven "closing the loop" feedback discussion. For teambuilding, a set of clue sheets or manufacturer's drug containers were distributed among student pairs who applied their pharmaceutical knowledge to identify two more student pairs with similar clues or drugs, thus building a team of six. For teamwork, each team completed online exams, composed of integrated pharmaceutical science questions with clinical correlates, using only selected online library resources. For the feedback discussion, facilitators evaluated student impressions, opened a discussion about the ISL activity, and provided feedback to teams' impressions and questions. This study describes three different ISL activities developed and implemented over three days with first year pharmacy students. Facilitators' interactions with students and three surveys indicated a majority of students preferred ISL over traditional team activities and over 90% agreed ISL activities promoted active learning, critical-thinking, self-directed learning, teamwork, and student confidence in online library searches. Conclusions: The ISL activity has proven to be an effective learning activity that promotes teamwork and integration of didactic pharmaceutical sciences to enhance student learning of didactic materials and confidence in searching online library resources. It was found that all of this can be accomplished in a short amount of class time with a very reasonable amount of preparation.   Type: Case Study

  20. Active Multi-Field Learning for Spam Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Wuying Liu; Lin Wang; Mianzhu Yi; Nan Xie

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquitous spam messages cause a serious waste of time and resources. This paper addresses the practical spam filtering problem, and proposes a universal approach to fight with various spam messages. The proposed active multi-field learning approach is based on: 1) It is cost-sensitive to obtain a label for a real-world spam filter, which suggests an active learning idea; and 2) Different messages often have a similar multi-field text structure, which suggests a multi-field learning idea. The...

  1. Implementation of Active Learning Method in Unit Operations II Subject

    OpenAIRE

    Ma'mun, Sholeh

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Active Learning Method which requires students to take an active role in the process of learning in the classroom has been applied in Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Islamic University of Indonesia for Unit Operations II subject in the Even Semester of Academic Year 2015/2016. The purpose of implementation of the learning method is to assist students in achieving competencies associated with the Unit Operations II subject and to help in creating...

  2. Collaborative learning in higher education : design, implementation and evaluation of group learning activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hei, de M.S.A.

    2016-01-01

    In higher education, group learning activities (GLAs) are frequently implemented in online, blended or face-to-face educational contexts. A major problem for the design and implementation of good quality GLAs that lead to the desired learning outcomes is that many approaches to GLAs have been

  3. Learning Active Citizenship: Conflicts between Students' Conceptualisations of Citizenship and Classroom Learning Experiences in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Bassel

    2016-01-01

    Education for active citizenship continues to be a critical response for social cohesion and reconstruction in conflict-affected areas. Oftentimes, approaches to learning and teaching in such contexts can do as much harm as good. This study qualitatively examines 435 students' reflections of their civics classroom learning experiences and their…

  4. Student's Reflections on Their Learning and Note-Taking Activities in a Blended Learning Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Minoru; Mutsuura, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Hiroh

    2016-01-01

    Student's emotional aspects are often discussed in order to promote better learning activity in blended learning courses. To observe these factors, course participant's self-efficacy and reflections upon their studies were surveyed, in addition to the surveying of the metrics of student's characteristics during a Bachelor level credit course.…

  5. Learning by Doing: Twenty Successful Active Learning Exercises for Information Systems Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Alanah; Petter, Stacie; Harris, Albert L.

    2017-01-01

    Aim/Purpose: This paper provides a review of previously published work related to active learning in information systems (IS) courses. Background: There are a rising number of strategies in higher education that offer promise in regards to getting students' attention and helping them learn, such as flipped classrooms and offering courses online.…

  6. Short report The DeDiMa battery: a tool for identifying students’ mathematical learning profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannis Karagiannakis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The DeDiMa battery is designed for assessing students’ mathematical learning profiles, and it has been used to validate a 4-dimensional model for classifying mathematical learning difficulties. The model arises from existing hypotheses in the cognitive psychology and neuroscience literature, while the DeDiMa battery provides a reliable set of mathematical tasks that help to match characteristics of students’ mathematical performances to their more basic learning difficulties. Participants and procedure In this report we address the question of how these tools can help sketch out a student’s mathematical learning profile. The participants are 5th and 6th grade students. Results We compare the emerging profiles of two students with mathematical learning difficulties (MLD matched for age, performance on a standardized test, non-verbal IQ, and educational experiences. The profiles are very different. Conclusions We believe that this approach can inform the design of individualized remedial interventions for MLD students.

  7. Active-constructive-interactive: a conceptual framework for differentiating learning activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Michelene T H

    2009-01-01

    Active, constructive, and interactive are terms that are commonly used in the cognitive and learning sciences. They describe activities that can be undertaken by learners. However, the literature is actually not explicit about how these terms can be defined; whether they are distinct; and whether they refer to overt manifestations, learning processes, or learning outcomes. Thus, a framework is provided here that offers a way to differentiate active, constructive, and interactive in terms of observable overt activities and underlying learning processes. The framework generates a testable hypothesis for learning: that interactive activities are most likely to be better than constructive activities, which in turn might be better than active activities, which are better than being passive. Studies from the literature are cited to provide evidence in support of this hypothesis. Moreover, postulating underlying learning processes allows us to interpret evidence in the literature more accurately. Specifying distinct overt activities for active, constructive, and interactive also offers suggestions for how learning activities can be coded and how each kind of activity might be elicited. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  8. Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Scott; Eddy, Sarah L; McDonough, Miles; Smith, Michelle K; Okoroafor, Nnadozie; Jordt, Hannah; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2014-06-10

    To test the hypothesis that lecturing maximizes learning and course performance, we metaanalyzed 225 studies that reported data on examination scores or failure rates when comparing student performance in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses under traditional lecturing versus active learning. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies). These results indicate that average examination scores improved by about 6% in active learning sections, and that students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail than were students in classes with active learning. Heterogeneity analyses indicated that both results hold across the STEM disciplines, that active learning increases scores on concept inventories more than on course examinations, and that active learning appears effective across all class sizes--although the greatest effects are in small (n ≤ 50) classes. Trim and fill analyses and fail-safe n calculations suggest that the results are not due to publication bias. The results also appear robust to variation in the methodological rigor of the included studies, based on the quality of controls over student quality and instructor identity. This is the largest and most comprehensive metaanalysis of undergraduate STEM education published to date. The results raise questions about the continued use of traditional lecturing as a control in research studies, and support active learning as the preferred, empirically validated teaching practice in regular classrooms.

  9. Profiles of Nature Exposure and Outdoor Activities Associated With Occupational Well-Being Among Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyvönen, Katriina; Törnroos, Kaisa; Salonen, Kirsi; Korpela, Kalevi; Feldt, Taru; Kinnunen, Ulla

    2018-01-01

    This research addresses the profiles of nature exposure and outdoor activities in nature among Finnish employees (N = 783). The profiles were formed on the bases of nature exposure at work and the frequency and type of outdoor activities in nature engaged in during leisure time. The profiles were investigated in relation to work engagement and burnout. The latent profile analysis identified a five-class solution as the best model: High exposure (8%), Versatile exposure (22%), Unilateral exposure (38%), Average exposure (13%), and Low exposure (19%). An Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted for each well-being outcome in order to evaluate how the identified profiles related to occupational well-being. Participants with a High, Versatile, or Unilateral exposure profile reported significantly higher work engagement in the dimensions of vigor and dedication than did the participants with a Low exposure profile. The participants with the High exposure profile also reported lower burnout in the dimensions of cynicism and professional inadequacy than the participants with the Low exposure profile. Nature exposure during the workday and leisure time is an under researched but important aspect in promoting occupational well-being. PMID:29867699

  10. Competency and an active learning program in undergraduate nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyunsook; Sok, Sohyune; Hyun, Kyung Sun; Kim, Mi Ja

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of an active learning program on competency of senior students. Active learning strategies have been used to help students achieve desired nursing competency, but their effectiveness has not been systematically examined. A descriptive, cross-sectional comparative design was used. Two cohort group comparisons using t-test were made: one in an active learning group and the other in a traditional learning group. A total of 147 senior nursing students near graduation participated in this study: 73 in 2010 and 74 in 2013. The active learning program incorporated high-fidelity simulation, situation-based case studies, standardized patients, audio-video playback, reflective activities and technology such as a SmartPad-based program. The overall scores of the nursing competency in the active group were significantly higher than those in the traditional group. Of five overall subdomains, the scores of the special and general clinical performance competency, critical thinking and human understanding were significantly higher in the active group than in the traditional group. Importance-performance analysis showed that all five subdomains of the active group clustered in the high importance and high performance quadrant, indicating significantly better achievements. In contrast, the students in the traditional group showed scattered patterns in three quadrants, excluding the low importance and low performance quadrants. This pattern indicates that the traditional learning method did not yield the high performance in most important areas. The findings of this study suggest that an active learning strategy is useful for helping undergraduate students to gain competency. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Effectiveness of Student's Note-Taking Activities and Characteristics of Their Learning Performance in Two Types of Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Minoru; Mutsuura, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Hiroh

    2017-01-01

    Aspects of learning behavior during two types of university courses, a blended learning course and a fully online course, were examined using note-taking activity. The contribution of students' characteristics and styles of learning to note-taking activity and learning performance were analyzed, and the relationships between the two types of…

  12. The planning illusion: Does active planning of a learning route support learning as well as learners think it does?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonestroo, W.J.; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Is actively planning one’s learning route through a learning domain beneficial for learning? Moreover, can learners accurately judge the extent to which planning has been beneficial for them? This study examined the effects of active planning on learning. Participants received a tool in which they

  13. Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System Activation and Metabolic Profile in Young Children : The ABCD Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; van den Born, Bert-Jan H; Hoekstra, Christine M C A; Gademan, Maaike G J; van Eijsden, Manon; de Rooij, Susanne R; Twickler, Marcel T B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In adults, increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic nervous system activity are associated with a less favorable metabolic profile. Whether this is already determined at early age is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to assess the association between autonomic nervous system

  14. Cognitive Profiles of Mathematical Problem Solving Learning Disability for Different Definitions of Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolar, Tammy D.; Fuchs, Lynn; Fletcher, Jack M.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.

    2014-01-01

    Three cohorts of third-grade students (N = 813) were evaluated on achievement, cognitive abilities, and behavioral attention according to contrasting research traditions in defining math learning disability (LD) status: low achievement versus extremely low achievement and IQ-achievement discrepant versus strictly low-achieving LD. We use methods from these two traditions to form math problem solving LD groups. To evaluate group differences, we used MANOVA-based profile and canonical analyses to control for relations among the outcomes and regression to control for group definition variables. Results suggest that basic arithmetic is the key distinguishing characteristic that separates low-achieving problem solvers (including LD, regardless of definition) from typically achieving students. Word problem solving is the key distinguishing characteristic that separates IQ-achievement-discrepant from strictly low-achieving LD students, favoring the IQ-achievement-discrepant students. PMID:24939971

  15. Active Learning Classrooms and Educational Alliances: Changing Relationships to Improve Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baepler, Paul; Walker, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the "educational alliance" among students and between students and instructors. We contend that this is a framework that can help us understand how active learning classrooms facilitate positive educational outcomes.

  16. Use of focused ultrasonication in activity-based profiling of deubiquitinating enzymes in tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Nanduri, Bindu; Shack, Leslie A.; Rai, Aswathy N.; Epperson, William B.; Baumgartner, Wes; Schmidt, Ty B.; Edelmann, Mariola J.

    2016-01-01

    To develop a reproducible tissue-lysis method that retains enzyme function for activity-based protein profiling, we compared four different tissue lysis methods of bovine lung tissue: focused ultrasonication, standard sonication, mortar & pestle method, and homogenization combined with standard sonication. Focused ultrasonication and mortar & pestle methods were sufficiently effective for activity-based profiling of deubiquitinases in tissue and focused ultrasonication had also the fastest pr...

  17. Research and Teaching: Instructor Use of Group Active Learning in an Introductory Biology Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Anna Jo; Schussler, Elisabeth E.

    2016-01-01

    Active learning (or learner-centered) pedagogies have been shown to enhance student learning in introductory biology courses. Student collaboration has also been shown to enhance student learning and may be a critical part of effective active learning practices. This study focused on documenting the use of individual active learning and group…

  18. Active Learning: Qualitative Inquiries into Vocabulary Instruction in Chinese L2 Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Helen H.; Xu, Wenjing

    2015-01-01

    Active learning emerged as a new approach to learning in the 1980s. The core concept of active learning involves engaging students not only in actively exploring knowledge but also in reflecting on their own learning process in order to become more effective learners. Because the nonalphabetic nature of the Chinese writing system makes learning to…

  19. "Digitize Me": Generating E-Learning Profiles for Media and Communication Students in a Jamaican Tertiary-Level Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A. Stewart-McKoy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this project was to develop an e-learning profile for a group of media and communication students enrolled in a Jamaican tertiary-level institution in order to make informed decisions most the appropriate [online] learning complement for these students. The objectives sought to determine the e-learning profile of media and communication students but more specifically, the profile examined students’ demographic data, their technology access, usage, proficiency and comfort levels as well as their learning styles, preferences, behaviours, strategies and their preferences for specific teaching styles. The research utilised a survey research design and the participants involved in the research were ninety-eight students from all year groups in the programme. Findings reveal that the “typical” media and communication student is a young Jamaican adult with limited technology access, usage and proficiency, who stays connected with others largely by phone texts, phone calls, emails, instant messages and posts via the Facebook social network, who has a visual-learning orientation, is a sequential learner who is extrinsically motivated and who readily employs surface learning strategies.

  20. Classification of breast cancer patients using somatic mutation profiles and machine learning approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vural, Suleyman; Wang, Xiaosheng; Guda, Chittibabu

    2016-08-26

    The high degree of heterogeneity observed in breast cancers makes it very difficult to classify the cancer patients into distinct clinical subgroups and consequently limits the ability to devise effective therapeutic strategies. Several classification strategies based on ER/PR/HER2 expression or the expression profiles of a panel of genes have helped, but such methods often produce misleading results due to their dynamic nature. In contrast, somatic DNA mutations are relatively stable and lead to initiation and progression of many sporadic cancers. Hence in this study, we explore the use of gene mutation profiles to classify, characterize and predict the subgroups of breast cancers. We analyzed the whole exome sequencing data from 358 ethnically similar breast cancer patients in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. Somatic and non-synonymous single nucleotide variants identified from each patient were assigned a quantitative score (C-score) that represents the extent of negative impact on the gene function. Using these scores with non-negative matrix factorization method, we clustered the patients into three subgroups. By comparing the clinical stage of patients, we identified an early-stage-enriched and a late-stage-enriched subgroup. Comparison of the mutation scores of early and late-stage-enriched subgroups identified 358 genes that carry significantly higher mutations rates in the late stage subgroup. Functional characterization of these genes revealed important functional gene families that carry a heavy mutational load in the late state rich subgroup of patients. Finally, using the identified subgroups, we also developed a supervised classification model to predict the stage of the patients. This study demonstrates that gene mutation profiles can be effectively used with unsupervised machine-learning methods to identify clinically distinguishable breast cancer subgroups. The classification model developed in this method could provide a reasonable

  1. Reconstructing Dynamic Promoter Activity Profiles from Reporter Gene Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannan, Soumya; Sams, Thomas; Maury, Jérôme

    2018-01-01

    activity despite the fact that the observed output may be dynamic and is a number of steps away from the transcription process. In fact, some promoters that are often thought of as constitutive can show changes in activity when growth conditions change. For these reasons, we have developed a system......Accurate characterization of promoter activity is important when designing expression systems for systems biology and metabolic engineering applications. Promoters that respond to changes in the environment enable the dynamic control of gene expression without the necessity of inducer compounds......, for example. However, the dynamic nature of these processes poses challenges for estimating promoter activity. Most experimental approaches utilize reporter gene expression to estimate promoter activity. Typically the reporter gene encodes a fluorescent protein that is used to infer a constant promoter...

  2. A Bridge to Active Learning: A Summer Bridge Program Helps Students Maximize Their Active-Learning Experiences and the Active-Learning Experiences of Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Katelyn M.; Ashley, Michael; Brownell, Sara E.

    2017-01-01

    National calls to improve student academic success in college have sparked the development of bridge programs designed to help students transition from high school to college. We designed a 2-week Summer Bridge program that taught introductory biology content in an active-learning way. Through a set of exploratory interviews, we unexpectedly…

  3. A Nap But Not Rest or Activity Consolidates Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Heim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that a period of sleep after a motor learning task is a relevant factor for memory consolidation. However, it is yet open whether this also holds true for language-related learning. Therefore, the present study compared the short- and long-term effects of a daytime nap, rest, or an activity task after vocabulary learning on learning outcome. Thirty healthy subjects were divided into three treatment groups. Each group received a pseudo-word learning task in which pictures of monsters were associated with unique pseudo-word names. At the end of the learning block a first test was administered. Then, one group went for a 90-min nap, one for a waking rest period, and one for a resting session with interfering activity at the end during which a new set of monster names was to be learned. After this block, all groups performed a first re-test of the names that they initially learned. On the morning of the following day, a second re-test was administered to all groups. The nap group showed significant improvement from test to re-test and a stable performance onto the second re-test. In contrast, the rest and the interference groups showed decline in performance from test to re-test, with persistently low performance at re-test 2. The 3 (GROUP × 3 (TIME ANOVA revealed a significant interaction, indicating that the type of activity (nap/rest/interfering action after initial learning actually had an influence on the memory outcome. These data are discussed with respect to translation to clinical settings with suggestions for improvement of intervention outcome after speech-language therapy if it is followed by a nap rather than interfering activity.

  4. Activity-Based Profiling of Retaining β-Glucosidases: A Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, Martin D.; Walvoort, Marthe T. C.; Li, Kah-Yee; Kallemeijn, Wouter W.; Donker-Koopman, Wilma E.; Boot, Rolf G.; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.; Codée, Jeroen D. C.; van der Marel, Gijsbert A.; Overkleeft, Herman S.

    2011-01-01

    Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) is a versatile strategy to report on enzyme activity in vitro, in situ, and in vivo. The development and use of ABPP tools and techniques has met with considerable success in monitoring physiological processes involving esterases and proteases. Activity-based

  5. Activity-Based Profiling of Retaining beta-Glucosidases : A Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, Martin D.; Walvoort, Marthe T. C.; Li, Kah-Yee; Kallemeijn, Wouter W.; Donker-Koopman, Wilma E.; Boot, Rolf G.; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.; Codee, Jeroen D. C.; van der Marel, Gijsbert A.; Overkleeft, Herman S.

    2011-01-01

    Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) is a versatile strategy to report on enzyme activity in vitro, in situ, and in vivo. The development and use of ABPP tools and techniques has met with considerable success in monitoring physiological processes involving esterases and proteases. Activity-based

  6. Activity-Based Profiling of Retaining β-Glucosidases : A Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, Martin D.; Walvoort, Marthe T.C.; Li, Kah-Yee; Kallemeijn, Wouter W.; Donker-Koopman, Wilma E.; Boot, Rolf G.; Aerts, Johannes M.F.G.; Codée, Jeroen D.C.; Marel, Gijsbert A. van der; Overkleeft, Herman S.

    2011-01-01

    Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) is a versatile strategy to report on enzyme activity in vitro, in situ, and in vivo. The development and use of ABPP tools and techniques has met with considerable success in monitoring physiological processes involving esterases and proteases. Activity-based

  7. The Managers’ Experiential Learning of Program Planning in Active Ageing Learning Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ting Yeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Planning older adult learning programs is really a complex work. Program planners go through different learning stages and accumulate experiences to be able to undertake the task alone. This study aimed to explore the experiential learning process of older adult learning program planners who work in the Active Ageing Learning Centers (AALCs. Semi-structure interviews were conducted with seven program planners. The findings of this study were identified as follows. 1 Before being a program planner, the participants’ knowledge results from grasping and transforming experience gained from their family, their daily lives and past learning experiences; 2 after being a program planner, the participants’ experiential learning focused on leadership, training in the institute, professional development, as well as involvement in organizations for elderly people; and 3 the participants’ experiential learning outcomes in the older adult learning program planning include: their ability to reflect on the appropriateness and fulfillment of program planning, to apply theoretical knowledge and professional background in the field, and to make plans for future learning and business strategies.

  8. Active Learning Innovations in Knowledge Management Education Generate Higher Quality Learning Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovations in how a postgraduate course in knowledge management is delivered have generated better learning outcomes and made the course more engaging for learners. Course participant feedback has shown that collaborative active learning is preferred and provides them with richer insights into how knowledge is created and applied to generate innovation and value. The course applies an andragogy approach in which students collaborate in weekly dialogue of their experiences of the content, rather than learn the content itself. The approach combines systems thinking, learning praxis, and active learning to explore the interdependencies between topics and how they impact outcomes in real world situations. This has stimulated students to apply these ideas in their own workplaces.

  9. Combining traditional anatomy lectures with e-learning activities: how do students perceive their learning experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochner, Lukas; Wieser, Heike; Waldboth, Simone; Mischo-Kelling, Maria

    2016-02-21

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how students perceived their learning experience when combining traditional anatomy lectures with preparatory e-learning activities that consisted of fill-in-the-blank assignments, videos, and multiple-choice quizzes. A qualitative study was conducted to explore changes in study behaviour and perception of learning. Three group interviews with students were conducted and thematically analysed. Data was categorized into four themes: 1. Approaching the course material, 2. Understanding the material, 3. Consolidating the material, and 4. Perceived learning outcome. Students appreciated the clear structure of the course, and reported that online activities encouraged them towards a first engagement with the material. They felt that they were more active during in-class sessions, described self-study before the end-of-term exam as easier, and believed that contents would remain in their memories for a longer time. By adjusting already existing resources, lectures can be combined fairly easily and cost-effectively with preparatory e-learning activities. The creation of online components promote well-structured courses, can help minimize 'student passivity' as a characteristic element of lectures, and can support students in distributing their studies throughout the term, thus suggesting enhanced learning. Further research work should be designed to confirm the afore-mentioned findings through objective measurements of student learning outcomes.

  10. Combining traditional anatomy lectures with e-learning activities: how do students perceive their learning experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Heike; Waldboth, Simone; Mischo-Kelling, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate how students perceived their learning experience when combining traditional anatomy lectures with preparatory e-learning activities that consisted of fill-in-the-blank assignments, videos, and multiple-choice quizzes. Methods A qualitative study was conducted to explore changes in study behaviour and perception of learning. Three group interviews with students were conducted and thematically analysed. Results Data was categorized into four themes: 1. Approaching the course material, 2. Understanding the material, 3. Consolidating the material, and 4. Perceived learning outcome.  Students appreciated the clear structure of the course, and reported that online activities encouraged them towards a first engagement with the material. They felt that they were more active during in-class sessions, described self-study before the end-of-term exam as easier, and believed that contents would remain in their memories for a longer time. Conclusions By adjusting already existing resources, lectures can be combined fairly easily and cost-effectively with preparatory e-learning activities. The creation of online components promote well-structured courses, can help minimize ‘student passivity’ as a characteristic element of lectures, and can support students in distributing their studies throughout the term, thus suggesting enhanced learning. Further research work should be designed to confirm the afore-mentioned findings through objective measurements of student learning outcomes. PMID:26897012

  11. Reinforcement active learning in the vibrissae system: optimal object localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Goren; Dorfman, Nimrod; Ahissar, Ehud

    2013-01-01

    Rats move their whiskers to acquire information about their environment. It has been observed that they palpate novel objects and objects they are required to localize in space. We analyze whisker-based object localization using two complementary paradigms, namely, active learning and intrinsic-reward reinforcement learning. Active learning algorithms select the next training samples according to the hypothesized solution in order to better discriminate between correct and incorrect labels. Intrinsic-reward reinforcement learning uses prediction errors as the reward to an actor-critic design, such that behavior converges to the one that optimizes the learning process. We show that in the context of object localization, the two paradigms result in palpation whisking as their respective optimal solution. These results suggest that rats may employ principles of active learning and/or intrinsic reward in tactile exploration and can guide future research to seek the underlying neuronal mechanisms that implement them. Furthermore, these paradigms are easily transferable to biomimetic whisker-based artificial sensors and can improve the active exploration of their environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND PHENOLIC PROFILE OF SIX MOROCCAN SELECTED HERBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madiha Bichra

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated the antioxidant capacity of six plants commonly used in traditional Moroccan medicine. The antioxidant capacity was estimated by DPPH test, ferrous ion chelating activity and ABTS test. As results, the highest antioxidant activities were found in Mentha suaveolens, Salvia officinalis and Mentha viridis. Different species showed significant differences in their total phenolic content (TPC. The highest level of phenolics was found in Salvia officinalis and the lowest in Pelargonium roseum. Linear correlation was found between TPC, especially the non-flavonoid content (NFC and the antioxidant activity. Qualitative and quantitative analyzes of major phenolics by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC were also performed. On the basis of the obtained results, these studied medicinal herbs were found to serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants due to their richness in phenolic compounds and marked antioxidant activity.

  13. Determination of the neutron activation profile of core drill samples by gamma-ray spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurau, D; Boden, S; Sima, O; Stanga, D

    2018-04-01

    This paper provides guidance for determining the neutron activation profile of core drill samples taken from the biological shield of nuclear reactors using gamma spectrometry measurements. Thus, it provides guidance for selecting a model of the right form to fit data and using least squares methods for model fitting. The activity profiles of two core samples taken from the biological shield of a nuclear reactor were determined. The effective activation depth and the total activity of core samples along with their uncertainties were computed by Monte Carlo simulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of focused ultrasonication in activity-based profiling of deubiquitinating enzymes in tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanduri, Bindu; Shack, Leslie A; Rai, Aswathy N; Epperson, William B; Baumgartner, Wes; Schmidt, Ty B; Edelmann, Mariola J

    2016-12-15

    To develop a reproducible tissue lysis method that retains enzyme function for activity-based protein profiling, we compared four different methods to obtain protein extracts from bovine lung tissue: focused ultrasonication, standard sonication, mortar & pestle method, and homogenization combined with standard sonication. Focused ultrasonication and mortar & pestle methods were sufficiently effective for activity-based profiling of deubiquitinases in tissue, and focused ultrasonication also had the fastest processing time. We used focused-ultrasonicator for subsequent activity-based proteomic analysis of deubiquitinases to test the compatibility of this method in sample preparation for activity-based chemical proteomics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cluster analysis of activity-time series in motor learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Daniela; Nielsen, Finn Årup; Frutiger, Sally A.

    2002-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of learning focus on brain areas where the activity changes as a function of time. To circumvent the difficult problem of model selection, we used a data-driven analytic tool, cluster analysis, which extracts representative temporal and spatial patterns from the voxel...... practice-related activity in a fronto-parieto-cerebellar network, in agreement with previous studies of motor learning. These voxels were separated from a group of voxels showing an unspecific time-effect and another group of voxels, whose activation was an artifact from smoothing. Hum. Brain Mapping 15...

  16. A Novel Teaching Tool Combined With Active-Learning to Teach Antimicrobial Spectrum Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Conan

    2017-03-25

    Objective. To design instructional methods that would promote long-term retention of knowledge of antimicrobial pharmacology, particularly the spectrum of activity for antimicrobial agents, in pharmacy students. Design. An active-learning approach was used to teach selected sessions in a required antimicrobial pharmacology course. Students were expected to review key concepts from the course reader prior to the in-class sessions. During class, brief concept reviews were followed by active-learning exercises, including a novel schematic method for learning antimicrobial spectrum of activity ("flower diagrams"). Assessment. At the beginning of the next quarter (approximately 10 weeks after the in-class sessions), 360 students (three yearly cohorts) completed a low-stakes multiple-choice examination on the concepts in antimicrobial spectrum of activity. When data for students was pooled across years, the mean number of correct items was 75.3% for the items that tested content delivered with the active-learning method vs 70.4% for items that tested content delivered via traditional lecture (mean difference 4.9%). Instructor ratings on student evaluations of the active-learning approach were high (mean scores 4.5-4.8 on a 5-point scale) and student comments were positive about the active-learning approach and flower diagrams. Conclusion. An active-learning approach led to modestly higher scores in a test of long-term retention of pharmacology knowledge and was well-received by students.

  17. Assessing High School Student Learning on Science Outreach Lab Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Courtney L.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of hands-on laboratory activities on secondary student learning was examined. Assessment was conducted over a two-year period, with 262 students participating the first year and 264 students the second year. Students took a prequiz, performed a laboratory activity (gas chromatography of alcohols, or photosynthesis and respiration), and…

  18. Teaching Sociology of Sport: An Active Learning Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinde, Elaine M.

    1995-01-01

    Asserts that sport is a pervasive aspect of society. Presents and describes four learning activities designed to help students understand the significance of sport as a social institution. Maintains that, while the activities focus on the institution of sport, they can be used in a variety of sociology courses. (CFR)

  19. Active learning in physiology practical work | Allers | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A statistical analysis of the results indicates that when students are actively involved in the teaching-learning process, they enhance their ability to use cognitive skills such as interpretation, judgement and problem-solving skills. The results also underline the importance of an active approach towards practical work and ...

  20. Constructivist Learning Environment During Virtual and Real Laboratory Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Widodo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory activities and constructivism are two notions that have been playing significant roles in science education. Despite common beliefs about the importance of laboratory activities, reviews reported inconsistent results about the effectiveness of laboratory activities. Since laboratory activities can be expensive and take more time, there is an effort to introduce virtual laboratory activities. This study aims at exploring the learning environment created by a virtual laboratory and a real laboratory. A quasi experimental study was conducted at two grade ten classes at a state high school in Bandung, Indonesia. Data were collected using a questionnaire called Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES before and after the laboratory activities. The results show that both types of laboratories can create constructivist learning environments. Each type of laboratory activity, however, may be stronger in improving certain aspects compared to the other. While a virtual laboratory is stronger in improving critical voice and personal relevance, real laboratory activities promote aspects of personal relevance, uncertainty and student negotiation. This study suggests that instead of setting one type of laboratory against the other, lessons and follow up studies should focus on how to combine both types of laboratories to support better learning.

  1. Plastics in Our Environment: A Jigsaw Learning Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Elaine; Wallace, Mary Ann; Lee, Wen-Yee

    2009-01-01

    In this lesson, a ready-to-teach cooperative reading activity, students learn about the effects of plastics in our environment, specifically that certain petrochemicals act as artificial estrogens and impact hormonal activities. Much of the content in this lesson was synthesized from recent medical research about the impact of xenoestrogens and…

  2. Active Learning Strategies for Introductory Light and Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokoloff, David R.

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that traditional approaches are ineffective in teaching physics concepts, including light and optics concepts. A major focus of the work of the Activity Based Physics Group has been on the development of active learning curricula like RealTime Physics (RTP) labs and Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs). Among…

  3. Marketing Feud: An Active Learning Game of (Mis)Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schee, Brian A. Vander

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of implementing an active learning activity in the principles of marketing course adapted from the television show "Family Feud". The objectives of the Marketing Feud game include increasing awareness of marketing misperceptions, clarifying marketing misunderstandings, encouraging class participation, and building…

  4. Disk Operating System--DOS. Teacher Packet. Learning Activity Packets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    The Learning Activity Packets (LAPs) contained in this manual are designed to assist the beginning user in understanding DOS (Disk Operating System). LAPs will not work with any version below DOS Version 3.0 and do not address the enhanced features of versions 4.0 or higher. These elementary activities cover only the DOS commands necessary to…

  5. Lasers. Technology Learning Activity. Teacher Edition. Technology Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the materials required for presenting an 8-day competency-based technology learning activity (TLA) designed to introduce students in grades 6-10 to advances and career opportunities in the field of laser technology. The guide uses a series of hands-on exploratory experiences into which activities to help students develop…

  6. Face-to-Face vs On-Line: An Analysis of Profile, Learning, Performance and Satisfaction among Post Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Maldonado, Alberto; Llorens, Susana; Acosta, Hedy; Coo, Cristián

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the differences between face-to-face and on-line students in a post graduate education program. The variables considered are Post Graduate Student's profile, competences and learning outcomes, academic performance and satisfaction. The sample was composed by 47 students (64% face-to-face). Analysis of variance…

  7. Discriminating Children with Autism from Children with Learning Difficulties with an Adaptation of the Short Sensory Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Justin; Tsermentseli, Stella; Cummins, Omar; Happe, Francesca; Heaton, Pamela; Spencer, Janine

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we examine the extent to which children with autism and children with learning difficulties can be discriminated from their responses to different patterns of sensory stimuli. Using an adapted version of the Short Sensory Profile (SSP), sensory processing was compared in 34 children with autism to 33 children with typical…

  8. Learning through debate during problem-based learning: an active learning strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Sadaf; Latif, Rabia

    2017-09-01

    We explored medical student's views and perceptions of a series of debates conducted during problem-based learning (PBL) practiced as a part of the Spiral curriculum at the Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. A series of debates were employed during PBL sessions for second-year female medical students, over the period 2014-2016. Each cohort of students was randomly split into 10 small PBL groups and exposed to weekly PBL activity. Within each group, the students were divided into a proposition half and an opposition half. Students were given 1 wk for debate preparation. The students' responses were recorded on a formulated questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze quantitative data, and results are presented as percentages. The usefulness of debate in alleviating potential difficulties in communicating with patients was agreed to by 69% ( n = 126) of participants. That these sessions evoked critical thinking among students was reported by 78% ( n = 142). This series of debates helped 61% ( n = 111) of students to learn effectively about controversial issues. Seventy-one percent ( n = 130) considered that debate promoted argument generation and interpretation skills. Enhanced ability to analyze and research evidence was reported by 59% ( n = 108) of students. One hundred and thirteen students (62%) agreed that debate helped them to improve clinical decision-making, and 75% of students agreed that debates encouraged tolerance toward diverse viewpoints/convincing strategies. The majority of our medical students found debating enhanced analytic decision-making, communication, and critical thinking skills. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Invention activities as preparation for learning laboratory data handling skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, James

    2012-10-01

    Undergraduate physics laboratories are often driven by a mix of goals, and usually enough of them to cause cognitive overload for the student. Our recent findings align well with studies indicating that students often exit a physics lab without having properly learned how to handle real data. The value of having students explore the underlying structure of a problem before being able to solve it has been shown as an effective way to ready students for learning. Borrowing on findings from the fields of education and cognitive psychology, we use ``invention activities'' to precede direct instruction and bolster learning. In this talk I will show some of what we have learned about students' data handling skills, explain how an invention activity works, and share some observations of successful transfer.

  10. ONLINE EDUCATION, ACTIVE LEARNING, AND ANDRAGOGY: An approach for Student Engagement

    OpenAIRE

    CARUTH, Gail D.

    2015-01-01

    Online learning opportunities have become essential for today’s colleges and universities. Online technology can support active learning approaches to learning. The purpose of the paper was to investigate why active learning in online classes has a positive effect on student engagement. A review of the literature revealed that research studies have been conducted to investigate the benefits of active learning. There exists extensive evidence to support the notion that active learning enhances...

  11. Learning shapes spontaneous activity itinerating over memorized states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Kurikawa

    Full Text Available Learning is a process that helps create neural dynamical systems so that an appropriate output pattern is generated for a given input. Often, such a memory is considered to be included in one of the attractors in neural dynamical systems, depending on the initial neural state specified by an input. Neither neural activities observed in the absence of inputs nor changes caused in the neural activity when an input is provided were studied extensively in the past. However, recent experimental studies have reported existence of structured spontaneous neural activity and its changes when an input is provided. With this background, we propose that memory recall occurs when the spontaneous neural activity changes to an appropriate output activity upon the application of an input, and this phenomenon is known as bifurcation in the dynamical systems theory. We introduce a reinforcement-learning-based layered neural network model with two synaptic time scales; in this network, I/O relations are successively memorized when the difference between the time scales is appropriate. After the learning process is complete, the neural dynamics are shaped so that it changes appropriately with each input. As the number of memorized patterns is increased, the generated spontaneous neural activity after learning shows itineration over the previously learned output patterns. This theoretical finding also shows remarkable agreement with recent experimental reports, where spontaneous neural activity in the visual cortex without stimuli itinerate over evoked patterns by previously applied signals. Our results suggest that itinerant spontaneous activity can be a natural outcome of successive learning of several patterns, and it facilitates bifurcation of the network when an input is provided.

  12. Profiling bacterial kinase activity using a genetic circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Helm, Eric; Bech, Rasmus; Lehning, Christina Eva

    Phosphorylation is a post-translational modification that regulates the activity of several key proteins in bacteria and eukaryotes. Accordingly, a variety of tools has been developed to measure kinase activity. To couple phosphorylation to an in vivo fluorescent readout we used the Bacillus...... subtilis kinase PtkA, transmembrane activator TkmA and the repressor FatR to construct a genetic circuit in E. coli. By tuning the repressor and kinase expression level at the same time, we were able to show a 4.2-fold increase in signal upon kinase induction. We furthermore validated that the previously...... reported FatR Y45E mutation1 attenuates operator repression. This genetic circuit provides a starting point for computational protein design and a metagenomic library-screening tool....

  13. [Flipped classroom as a strategy to enhance active learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Noriyuki

    2015-03-01

    This paper reviews the introduction of a flipped class for fourth grade dentistry students, and analyzes the characteristics of the learning method. In fiscal 2013 and 2014, a series of ten three-hour units for removable partial prosthodontics were completed with the flipped class method; a lecture video of approximately 60 minutes was made by the teacher (author) and uploaded to the university's e-learning website one week before each class. Students were instructed to prepare for the class by watching the streaming video on their PC, tablet, or smartphone. In the flipped class, students were not given a lecture, but were asked to solve short questions displayed on screen, to make a short presentation about a part of the video lecture, and to discuss a critical question related to the main subject of the day. An additional team-based learning (TBL) session with individual and group answers was implemented. The average individual scores were considerably higher in the last two years, when the flipped method was implemented, than in the three previous years when conventional lectures were used. The following learning concepts were discussed: the role of the flipped method as an active learning strategy, the efficacy of lecture videos and short questions, students' participation in the class discussion, present-day value of the method, cooperation with TBL, the significance of active learning in relation with the students' learning ability, and the potential increase in the preparation time and workload for students.

  14. Trends in Research on Writing as a Learning Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry D. Klein

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses five trends in research on writing as a learning activity. Firstly, earlier decades were marked by conflicting views about the effects of writing on learning; in the past decade, the use of meta-analysis has shown that the effects of writing on learning are reliable, and that several variables mediate and moderate these effects. Secondly, in earlier decades, it was thought that text as a medium inherently elicited thinking and learning. Research during the past decade has indicated that writing to learn is a self-regulated activity, dependent on the goals and strategies of the writer. Thirdly, the Writing Across the Curriculum (WAC movement emphasized domain-general approaches to WTL. Much recent research is consistent with the Writing in the Disciplines (WID movement, incorporating genres that embody forms of reasoning specific to a given discipline. Fourthly, WTL as a classroom practice was always partially social, but the theoretical conceptualization of it was largely individual. During the past two decades, WTL has broadened to include theories and research that integrate social and psychological processes. Fifthly, WTL research has traditionally focused on epistemic learning in schools; more recently, it has been extended to include reflective learning in the professions and additional kinds of outcomes.

  15. Spontaneous brain activity predicts learning ability of foreign sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Sanjuán, Ana; González, Julio; Palomar-García, María-Ángeles; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Deco, Gustavo; Ávila, César

    2013-05-29

    Can learning capacity of the human brain be predicted from initial spontaneous functional connectivity (FC) between brain areas involved in a task? We combined task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) before and after training with a Hindi dental-retroflex nonnative contrast. Previous fMRI results were replicated, demonstrating that this learning recruited the left insula/frontal operculum and the left superior parietal lobe, among other areas of the brain. Crucially, resting-state FC (rs-FC) between these two areas at pretraining predicted individual differences in learning outcomes after distributed (Experiment 1) and intensive training (Experiment 2). Furthermore, this rs-FC was reduced at posttraining, a change that may also account for learning. Finally, resting-state network analyses showed that the mechanism underlying this reduction of rs-FC was mainly a transfer in intrinsic activity of the left frontal operculum/anterior insula from the left frontoparietal network to the salience network. Thus, rs-FC may contribute to predict learning ability and to understand how learning modifies the functioning of the brain. The discovery of this correspondence between initial spontaneous brain activity in task-related areas and posttraining performance opens new avenues to find predictors of learning capacities in the brain using task-related fMRI and rs-fMRI combined.

  16. ANALYTiC: An Active Learning System for Trajectory Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares Junior, Amilcar; Renso, Chiara; Matwin, Stan

    2017-01-01

    The increasing availability and use of positioning devices has resulted in large volumes of trajectory data. However, semantic annotations for such data are typically added by domain experts, which is a time-consuming task. Machine-learning algorithms can help infer semantic annotations from trajectory data by learning from sets of labeled data. Specifically, active learning approaches can minimize the set of trajectories to be annotated while preserving good performance measures. The ANALYTiC web-based interactive tool visually guides users through this annotation process.

  17. Application of active learning modalities to achieve medical genetics competencies and their learning outcome assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagiwara N

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nobuko Hagiwara Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USA Abstract: The steadily falling costs of genome sequencing, coupled with the growing number of genetic tests with proven clinical validity, have made the use of genetic testing more common in clinical practice. This development has necessitated nongeneticist physicians, especially primary care physicians, to become more responsible for assessing genetic risks for their patients. Providing undergraduate medical students a solid foundation in genomic medicine, therefore, has become all the more important to ensure the readiness of future physicians in applying genomic medicine to their patient care. In order to further enhance the effectiveness of instructing practical skills in medical genetics, the emphasis of active learning modules in genetics curriculum at medical schools has increased in recent years. This is because of the general acceptance of a better efficacy of active learner-centered pedagogy over passive lecturer-centered pedagogy. However, an objective standard to evaluate students’ skill levels in genomic medicine achieved by active learning is currently missing. Recently, entrustable professional activities (EPAs in genomic medicine have been proposed as a framework for developing physician competencies in genomic medicine. EPAs in genomic medicine provide a convenient guideline for not only developing genomic medicine curriculum but also assessing students’ competency levels in practicing genomic medicine. In this review, the efficacy of different types of active learning modules reported for medical genetics curricula is discussed using EPAs in genomic medicine as a common evaluation standard for modules’ learning outcomes. The utility of the EPAs in genomic medicine for designing active learning modules in undergraduate medical genetics curricula is also discussed. Keywords

  18. Active Learning for Automatic Audio Processing of Unwritten Languages (ALAPUL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2016-0074 ACTIVE LEARNING FOR AUTOMATIC AUDIO PROCESSING OF UNWRITTEN LANGUAGES (ALAPUL) Dimitra Vergyri Andreas Kathol Wen Wang...FA8650-15-C-9101 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) *Dimitra Vergyri; Andreas Kathol; Wen Wang; Chris Bartels; Julian VanHout...feature transform through deep auto-encoders for better phone recognition performance. We target iterative learning to improve the system through

  19. Using human brain activity to guide machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Ruth C; Scheirer, Walter J; Cox, David D

    2018-03-29

    Machine learning is a field of computer science that builds algorithms that learn. In many cases, machine learning algorithms are used to recreate a human ability like adding a caption to a photo, driving a car, or playing a game. While the human brain has long served as a source of inspiration for machine learning, little effort has been made to directly use data collected from working brains as a guide for machine learning algorithms. Here we demonstrate a new paradigm of "neurally-weighted" machine learning, which takes fMRI measurements of human brain activity from subjects viewing images, and infuses these data into the training process of an object recognition learning algorithm to make it more consistent with the human brain. After training, these neurally-weighted classifiers are able to classify images without requiring any additional neural data. We show that our neural-weighting approach can lead to large performance gains when used with traditional machine vision features, as well as to significant improvements with already high-performing convolutional neural network features. The effectiveness of this approach points to a path forward for a new class of hybrid machine learning algorithms which take both inspiration and direct constraints from neuronal data.

  20. Diverse Expected Gradient Active Learning for Relative Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xinge; Wang, Ruxin; Tao, Dacheng

    2014-06-02

    The use of relative attributes for semantic understanding of images and videos is a promising way to improve communication between humans and machines. However, it is extremely labor- and time-consuming to define multiple attributes for each instance in large amount of data. One option is to incorporate active learning, so that the informative samples can be actively discovered and then labeled. However, most existing active-learning methods select samples one at a time (serial mode), and may therefore lose efficiency when learning multiple attributes. In this paper, we propose a batch-mode active-learning method, called Diverse Expected Gradient Active Learning (DEGAL). This method integrates an informativeness analysis and a diversity analysis to form a diverse batch of queries. Specifically, the informativeness analysis employs the expected pairwise gradient length as a measure of informativeness, while the diversity analysis forces a constraint on the proposed diverse gradient angle. Since simultaneous optimization of these two parts is intractable, we utilize a two-step procedure to obtain the diverse batch of queries. A heuristic method is also introduced to suppress imbalanced multi-class distributions. Empirical evaluations of three different databases demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach.

  1. Unsupervised active learning based on hierarchical graph-theoretic clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Hu, Wei; Xie, Nianhua; Maybank, Steve

    2009-10-01

    Most existing active learning approaches are supervised. Supervised active learning has the following problems: inefficiency in dealing with the semantic gap between the distribution of samples in the feature space and their labels, lack of ability in selecting new samples that belong to new categories that have not yet appeared in the training samples, and lack of adaptability to changes in the semantic interpretation of sample categories. To tackle these problems, we propose an unsupervised active learning framework based on hierarchical graph-theoretic clustering. In the framework, two promising graph-theoretic clustering algorithms, namely, dominant-set clustering and spectral clustering, are combined in a hierarchical fashion. Our framework has some advantages, such as ease of implementation, flexibility in architecture, and adaptability to changes in the labeling. Evaluations on data sets for network intrusion detection, image classification, and video classification have demonstrated that our active learning framework can effectively reduce the workload of manual classification while maintaining a high accuracy of automatic classification. It is shown that, overall, our framework outperforms the support-vector-machine-based supervised active learning, particularly in terms of dealing much more efficiently with new samples whose categories have not yet appeared in the training samples.

  2. Exergaming: Syncing Physical Activity and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Lisa; Higgins, John

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses exergaming, a groundbreaking type of video game which is creating a revolution in physical education. Exergaming combines physical activity and video gaming to create an enjoyable and appealing way for students to be physically active. An extremely popular choice in this genre is the music video/dance rhythm game (MVDG). One…

  3. Activities To Help in Learning about Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Stephen S.

    1997-01-01

    Describes several activities and games that provide an introduction to the concept of function. Suggests that experiences should depend more on students' experiences and understanding and less on the memorization of unmotivated conventions with abstract symbols. Includes activities for a calculator as a function machine, composite functions, and…

  4. Active Learning? Not with My Syllabus!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    We describe an approach to teaching probability that minimizes the amount of class time spent on the topic while also providing a meaningful (dice-rolling) activity to get students engaged. The activity, which has a surprising outcome, illustrates the basic ideas of informal probability and how probability is used in statistical inference.…

  5. An Activity for Learning to Find Percentiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    This classroom activity is designed to help students practice calculating percentiles. The approach of the activity involves physical sorting and full classroom participation in each calculation. The design encourages a more engaged approach than simply having students make a calculation with numbers on a paper.

  6. Five Experiential Learning Activities in Addictions Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jane A.; Hof, Kiphany R.; McGriff, Deborah; Morris, Lay-nah Blue

    2012-01-01

    This article describes five creative experiential classroom activities used in teaching addictions. The activities were integrated into the classroom curriculum and were processed weekly in focused dialogue. Student reflections throughout the article add depth to the meaning gained from the experience of the change process. The students' feedback…

  7. Active teaching methods, studying responses and learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hans Peter; Vigild, Martin Etchells; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    Students’ study strategies when exposed to activating teaching methods are measured, analysed and compared to study strategies in more traditional lecture-based teaching.......Students’ study strategies when exposed to activating teaching methods are measured, analysed and compared to study strategies in more traditional lecture-based teaching....

  8. ASPECT: A Survey to Assess Student Perspective of Engagement in an Active-Learning Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Benjamin L.; Eddy, Sarah L.; Wener-Fligner, Leah; Freisem, Karen; Grunspan, Daniel Z.; Theobald, Elli J.; Timbrook, Jerry; Crowe, Alison J.

    2017-01-01

    The primary measure used to determine relative effectiveness of in-class activities has been student performance on pre/posttests. However, in today's active-learning classrooms, learning is a social activity, requiring students to interact and learn from their peers. To develop effective active-learning exercises that engage students, it is…

  9. Health profile for Danish adults with activity limitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Nina Føns; Davidsen, Michael; Michelsen, Susan Ishøy

    2017-01-01

    with no AL. There was no association between alcohol and AL and no association between fast food and some AL. CONCLUSION: Danish adults with AL experience a poorer health and well-being, and have an unhealthier lifestyle and poorer social relations than adults without AL. People with activity limitation...

  10. Physical activity, alcohol use, smoking and dietary profiles of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overweight and obesity among students as a specific sub-group, is an area of concern. Lifestyle factors such as cigarette smoking, drinking of alcoholic beverages and poor dietary habits are inextricably linked to overweight and obesity. Little is known about trends in smoking, drinking, dietary habits and physical activity ...

  11. Physical activity profile of urbanized Rwandan women | Kagwiza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is estimated that by 2020 chronic diseases of lifestyle will be almost 50% of the burden of disease in Sub-Saharan Africa. Rapid urbanization with changes in lifestyle, such as physical activity patterns could explain at least partially the ongoing epidemiological transition. The purpose of this study was to assess levels of ...

  12. Comparison of parameters of bone profile and homocysteine in physically active and non-active postmenopausal females

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq, Sundus; Lone, Khalid Parvez; Tariq, Saba

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Optimal physical activity is important in attaining a peak bone mass. Physically active women have better bone mineral density and reduce fracture risk as compared to females living a sedentary life. The objective of this study was to compare parameters of bone profile and serum homocysteine levels in physically active and non-active postmenopausal females. Methods: In this cross sectional study postmenopausal females between 50-70 years of age were recruited and di...

  13. Dysregulation of Macrophage Activation Profiles by Engineered Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodali, Vamsi; Littke, Matthew H.; Tilton, Susan C.; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Shi, Liang; Frevert, Charles W.; Wang, Wei; Pounds, Joel G.; Thrall, Brian D.

    2013-08-27

    Although the potential human health impacts from exposure to engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are uncertain, past epidemiological studies have established correlations between exposure to ambient air pollution particulates and the incidence of pneumonia and lung infections. Using amorphous silica and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) as model high production volume ENPs, we examined how macrophage activation by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or the lung pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is altered by ENP pretreatment. Neither silica nor SPIO treatment elicited direct cytotoxic or pro-inflammatory effects in bone marrow-derived macrophages. However, pretreatment of macrophages with SPIO caused extensive reprogramming of nearly 500 genes regulated in response to LPS challenge, hallmarked by exaggerated activation of oxidative stress response pathways and suppressed activation of both pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. Silica pretreatment altered regulation of only 67 genes, but there was strong correlation with gene sets affected by SPIO. Macrophages exposed to SPIO displayed a phenotype suggesting an impaired ability to transition from an M1 to M2-like activation state, characterized by suppressed IL-10 induction, enhanced TNFα production, and diminished phagocytic activity toward S. pneumoniae. Studies in macrophages deficient in scavenger receptor A (SR-A) showed SR-A participates in cell uptake of both the ENPs and S. pneumonia and co-regulates the anti-inflammatory IL-10 pathway. Thus, mechanisms for dysregulation of innate immunity exist by virtue that common receptor recognition pathways are used by some ENPs and pathogenic bacteria, although the extent of transcriptional reprogramming of macrophage function depends on the physicochemical properties of the ENP after internalization. Our results also illustrate that biological effects of ENPs may be indirectly manifested only after challenging normal cell function. Finally, nanotoxicology screening

  14. Performance in physiology evaluation: possible improvement by active learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrezor, Luís H

    2016-12-01

    The evaluation process is complex and extremely important in the teaching/learning process. Evaluations are constantly employed in the classroom to assist students in the learning process and to help teachers improve the teaching process. The use of active methodologies encourages students to participate in the learning process, encourages interaction with their peers, and stimulates thinking about physiological mechanisms. This study examined the performance of medical students on physiology over four semesters with and without active engagement methodologies. Four activities were used: a puzzle, a board game, a debate, and a video. The results show that engaging in activities with active methodologies before a physiology cognitive monitoring test significantly improved student performance compared with not performing the activities. We integrate the use of these methodologies with classic lectures, and this integration appears to improve the teaching/learning process in the discipline of physiology and improves the integration of physiology with cardiology and neurology. In addition, students enjoy the activities and perform better on their evaluations when they use them. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  15. Active learning approach in Moodle for the organization of student’s self-study practice-based learning activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays e-learning tools and delivery methods have been constantly expanding. Employs use e-learning to train their employees more often and often. New and experienced employees have the opportunity to improve upon their knowledge base and expand their skill sets. At home, individuals are granted the access to the programs that provided them with the ability to earn online degrees and enrich their lives through the expanded knowledge. The paper focuses on the analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of e- learning. The ways of applying on-line training used by employers are demonstrated. The experience of implementing active methods of e-learning is described as well as the conclusion about the possibility of their application is made. The paper also presents the results of the survey conducted among TPU teacher and students concerning the advisability of e-learning usage.

  16. Embedding responses in spontaneous neural activity shaped through sequential learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Kurikawa

    Full Text Available Recent experimental measurements have demonstrated that spontaneous neural activity in the absence of explicit external stimuli has remarkable spatiotemporal structure. This spontaneous activity has also been shown to play a key role in the response to external stimuli. To better understand this role, we proposed a viewpoint, "memories-as-bifurcations," that differs from the traditional "memories-as-attractors" viewpoint. Memory recall from the memories-as-bifurcations viewpoint occurs when the spontaneous neural activity is changed to an appropriate output activity upon application of an input, known as a bifurcation in dynamical systems theory, wherein the input modifies the flow structure of the neural dynamics. Learning, then, is a process that helps create neural dynamical systems such that a target output pattern is generated as an attractor upon a given input. Based on this novel viewpoint, we introduce in this paper an associative memory model with a sequential learning process. Using a simple hebbian-type learning, the model is able to memorize a large number of input/output mappings. The neural dynamics shaped through the learning exhibit different bifurcations to make the requested targets stable upon an increase in the input, and the neural activity in the absence of input shows chaotic dynamics with occasional approaches to the memorized target patterns. These results suggest that these dynamics facilitate the bifurcations to each target attractor upon application of the corresponding input, which thus increases the capacity for learning. This theoretical finding about the behavior of the spontaneous neural activity is consistent with recent experimental observations in which the neural activity without stimuli wanders among patterns evoked by previously applied signals. In addition, the neural networks shaped by learning properly reflect the correlations of input and target-output patterns in a similar manner to those designed in

  17. Using evaluation strategically to promote active learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie

    as to grade them. For this purpose it was decided to change one report into a poster including a 15 minute group oral presentation. The oral examination allows for individual assessment of the students, for assessment of conceptual understanding and for learning during the examination. This type of evaluation...... is however very time consuming and a written examination will facilitate a better evaluation of whether the core elements of the course (including the tools used for the two projects) are achieved at an individual level, so it was decided to have a 4 hour written examination instead. Evaluation of conceptual...... understanding was undertaken through more open ended questions. Results: Using a poster instead of a report for one of the projects was found to be very successful. The students used most of their time on discussing and using the tool, and less on reporting, which was the purpose. When asked, they claimed...

  18. Writing Assignments that Promote Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Encourage students to write a detailed, analytical report correlating classroom discussions to an important historical event or a current event. Motivate students interview an expert from industry on a topic that was discussed in class. Ask the students to submit a report with supporting sketches, drawings, circuit diagrams and graphs. Propose that the students generate a complete a set of reading responses pertaining to an assigned topic. Require each student to bring in one comment or one question about an assigned reading. The assignment should be a recent publication in an appropriate journal. Have the students conduct a web search on an assigned topic. Ask them to generate a set of ideas that can relate to classroom discussions. Provide the students with a study guide. The study guide should provide about 10 or 15 short topics. Quiz the students on one or two of the topics. Encourage the students to design or develop some creative real-world examples based on a chapter discussed or a topic of interest. Require that students originate, develop, support and defend a viewpoint using a specifically assigned material. Make the students practice using or utilizing a set of new technical terms they have encountered in an assigned chapter. Have students develop original examples explaining the different terms. Ask the students to select one important terminology from the previous classroom discussions. Encourage the students to explain why they selected that particular word. Ask them to talk about the importance of the terminology from the point of view of their educational objectives and future career. Angelo, T. A. (1991). Ten easy pieces: Assessing higher learning in four dimensions. In T. A. Angelo (Ed.), Classroom research: Early lessons from success (pp. 17-31). New Directions for Teaching and Learning, No. 46. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

  19. Chilean prosopis mesocarp flour: phenolic profiling and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria Del Pilar C; Theoduloz, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspée, Felipe; Pérez, Maria Jorgelina; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Isla, Maria Inés

    2015-04-17

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82-2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.

  20. Chilean Prosopis Mesocarp Flour: Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82–2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.

  1. Variations in Tectonic Activities of the Central and Southwestern Foothills, Taiwan, Inferred from River Hack Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chieh Chen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A longitudinal profile of a river under static equilibrium shows no degradation or aggradation and can be ideally described as a straight line on a semi-logarithmic graph. This type of profile is called a “Hack profile”. If a river runs across uprising active structure systems, its Hack profile becomes convex. Accumulated tectonic strain varies positively with the intensity of the upwarping in Hack-profile convexity. In this paper, we compare curvature changes in Hack profiles of a series of rivers running through faults in the central and southwestern Foothills of Taiwan. Longitudinal profiles of these rivers were derived from two versions of topographic maps (1904 and 1985 and recent DTM data (2000. Prior to comparisons, we calibrated the 1904 topographic map, named “Taiwan Bautu”, by “offsetting” horizontal coordinates north and westward approximately 440 m and then “linear transforming” the elevation values. The Tungtzchiau fault of the central Foothills has remained inactive since 1935. Here relatively high uplift activity near the Wu River is indicated by significantly convex Hack profiles. This strain accumulation can be attributed to a lack of small magnitude earthquakes along the fault over the past 70 years. In the southwestern Foothills, relatively high uplift activity of similar intensity to the central Foothills is indicted near the Neocho River. Significant profiles with concave segments below the ideal graded profiles, at the lower reaches of rivers where continuous small magnitude strain release events have occurred, can only be found along the Sandieh, Neocho and Bazhang rivers in the southwestern Foothills. All these findings indicate that fault systems in the central Foothills tend to be locked and these faults could yield large earthquakes similar to the Chi-Chi event.

  2. Learning in later life: participation in formal, non-formal and informal activities in a nationally representative Spanish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Feliciano; Celdrán, Montserrat

    2013-06-01

    This article examines the participation of Spanish older people in formal, non-formal and informal learning activities and presents a profile of participants in each kind of learning activity. We used data from a nationally representative sample of Spanish people between 60 and 75 years old ( n  = 4,703). The data were extracted from the 2007 Encuesta sobre la Participación de la Población Adulta en Actividades de Aprendizaje (EADA, Survey on Adult Population Involvement in Learning Activities). Overall, only 22.8 % of the sample participated in a learning activity. However, there was wide variation in the participation rates for the different types of activity. Informal activities were far more common than formal ones. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that education level and involvement in social and cultural activities were associated with likelihood of participating, regardless of the type of learning activity. When these variables were taken into account, age did not predict decreasing participation, at least in non-formal and informal activities. Implications for further research, future trends and policies to promote older adult education are discussed.

  3. Using Active Learning for Speeding up Calibration in Simulation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, Mucahit; Ergun, Mehmet Ali; Stout, Natasha K; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Craven, Mark; Alagoz, Oguzhan

    2016-07-01

    Most cancer simulation models include unobservable parameters that determine disease onset and tumor growth. These parameters play an important role in matching key outcomes such as cancer incidence and mortality, and their values are typically estimated via a lengthy calibration procedure, which involves evaluating a large number of combinations of parameter values via simulation. The objective of this study is to demonstrate how machine learning approaches can be used to accelerate the calibration process by reducing the number of parameter combinations that are actually evaluated. Active learning is a popular machine learning method that enables a learning algorithm such as artificial neural networks to interactively choose which parameter combinations to evaluate. We developed an active learning algorithm to expedite the calibration process. Our algorithm determines the parameter combinations that are more likely to produce desired outputs and therefore reduces the number of simulation runs performed during calibration. We demonstrate our method using the previously developed University of Wisconsin breast cancer simulation model (UWBCS). In a recent study, calibration of the UWBCS required the evaluation of 378 000 input parameter combinations to build a race-specific model, and only 69 of these combinations produced results that closely matched observed data. By using the active learning algorithm in conjunction with standard calibration methods, we identify all 69 parameter combinations by evaluating only 5620 of the 378 000 combinations. Machine learning methods hold potential in guiding model developers in the selection of more promising parameter combinations and hence speeding up the calibration process. Applying our machine learning algorithm to one model shows that evaluating only 1.49% of all parameter combinations would be sufficient for the calibration. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Active Learning by Design: An Undergraduate Introductory Public Health Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin eYeatts

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Principles of active learning were used to design and implement an introductory public health course. Students were introduced to the breadth and practice of public health through team and individual-based activities. Team assignments covered topics in epidemiology, biostatistics, health behavior, nutrition, maternal and child health, environment, and health policy. Students developed an appreciation of the population perspective through an experience trip and related intervention project in a public health area of their choice. Students experienced several key critical component elements of a public health undergraduate major; they cover key public health domains, experience public health practice, and integrated concepts with their assignments. In this paper, course assignments, lessons learned, and student successes are described. Given the increased growth in the undergraduate public health major, these active learning assignments may be of interest to undergraduate public health programs at both liberal arts colleges and research universities.

  5. Active learning in the presence of unlabelable examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Dominic; Wagstaff, Kiri

    2004-01-01

    We propose a new active learning framework where the expert labeler is allowed to decline to label any example. This may be necessary because the true label is unknown or because the example belongs to a class that is not part of the real training problem. We show that within this framework, popular active learning algorithms (such as Simple) may perform worse than random selection because they make so many queries to the unlabelable class. We present a method by which any active learning algorithm can be modified to avoid unlabelable examples by training a second classifier to distinguish between the labelable and unlabelable classes. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of the method on two benchmark data sets and a real-world problem.

  6. Active explorers show low learning performance in a social insect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eve UDINO; Margot PEREZ; Claudio CARERE; Patrizia d'ETTORRE

    2017-01-01

    An intriguing question in behavioral biology is whether consistent individual differences (called animal personalities) relate to variation in cognitive performance because commonly measured personality traits may be associated with risk-reward trade-offs.Social insects,whose learning abilities have been extensively characterized,show consistent behavioral variability,both at colony and at individual level.We investigated the possible link between personality traits and learning performance in the carpenter ant Camponotus aethiops.Exploratory activity,sociability,and aggression were assessed twice in ant foragers.Behaviors differed among individuals,they were partly repeatable across time and exploratory activity correlated positively with aggression.Learning abilities were quantified by differential conditioning of the maxilla-labium extension response,a task that requires cue perception and information storage.We found that exploratory activity of individual ants significantly predicted learning performance:"active-explorers" were slower in learning the task than "inactive-explorers".The results suggest for the first time a link between a personality trait and cognitive performance in eusocial insects,and that the underlying individual variability could affect colony performance and success.

  7. Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activity of Lotus Root Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lotus root attracts increasing attention mainly because of its phenolic compounds known as natural antioxidants. Its thirteen varieties were systematically analyzed on the content, distribution, composition and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds for a better understanding of this aquatic vegetable. The respective mean contents of total phenolics in their flesh, peel and nodes were 1.81, 4.30 and 7.35 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g fresh weight (FW, and those of total flavonoids were 3.35, 7.69 and 15.58 mg rutin equivalents/g FW. The phenolic composition determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography method varied significantly among varieties and parts. The phenolics of flesh were mainly composed of gallocatechin and catechin; those of peel and node were mainly composed of gallocatechin, gallic acid, catechin and epicatechin. The antioxidant activities of phenolic extracts in increasing order were flesh, peel and node; their mean concentrations for 50% inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical were 46.00, 26.43 and 21.72 µg GAE/mL, and their mean values representing ferric reducing antioxidant power were 75.91, 87.66 and 100.43 µg Trolox equivalents/100 µg GAE, respectively. “Zoumayang”, “Baheou”, “No. 5 elian” and “Guixi Fuou” were the hierarchically clustered varieties with relatively higher phenolic content and stronger antioxidant activity as compared with the others. Especially, their nodes and peels are promising sources of antioxidants for human nutrition.

  8. Active Learning and Cooperative Learning in the Organic Chemistry Lecture Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Donald R.

    1999-08-01

    Faculty in the physical sciences are one of the academic groups least receptive to the use of active learning strategies and cooperative learning in their classrooms. This is particularly so in traditional lecture classes. It is the objective of this paper to show how effective these techniques can be in improving student performance in classes. The use of active learning strategies and cooperative learning groups in my organic chemistry lecture classes has increased the overall pass rate in my classes by an astounding 20-30% over the traditional lecture mode. This has been accomplished without any reduction in "standards". The actual methods employed are presented as well as a discussion of how I came to radically change the way I teach my classes.

  9. Problems of determination of principle of psychological profile of unknown criminal person in investigational activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Getman

    2017-03-01

    By the author of the article of analysis different determinations of «psychological profile of unknown criminal person» were subjected. They are set positive lines and separate positions that in opinion of author are not expedient and important are subjected to criticism. That is why, the author points in conclusions the argued positions in relation to the necessity of the use of psychological profile of  unknown criminal person during investigation of criminal realizations in activity of investigator.

  10. Developing a Mobile Learning Management System for Outdoors Nature Science Activities Based on 5E Learning Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ah-Fur; Lai, Horng-Yih; Chuang, Wei-Hsiang; Wu, Zih-Heng

    2015-01-01

    Traditional outdoor learning activities such as inquiry-based learning in nature science encounter many dilemmas. Due to prompt development of mobile computing and widespread of mobile devices, mobile learning becomes a big trend on education. The main purpose of this study is to develop a mobile-learning management system for overcoming the…

  11. A Preliminary Investigation of Self-Directed Learning Activities in a Non-Formal Blended Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwier, Richard A.; Morrison, Dirk; Daniel, Ben K.

    2009-01-01

    This research considers how professional participants in a non-formal self-directed learning environment (NFSDL) made use of self-directed learning activities in a blended face-to-face and on line learning professional development course. The learning environment for the study was a professional development seminar on teaching in higher education…

  12. Variability of activity profile during medium-sided games in professional soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rago, Vincenzo; Silva, João R; Mohr, Magni

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Southern European countries it is very frequent to perform medium-sized games (MSG) as last training drill. We analyzed the individual variability and changes in activity patterns during MSG throughout the preseason. METHODS: Activity profile during MSGs (10v10+goalkeepers, duratio...

  13. Urban Adolescents' Out-of-School Activity Profiles: Associations with Youth, Family, and School Transition Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Sara

    2005-01-01

    This study applied individual growth trajectory analyses and person-oriented analysis to identify common profiles of out-of-school activity engagement trajectories among racially and ethnically diverse inner city teens (N = 1,430). On average, teens exhibited declining trajectories of participation in school-based and team sports activities and…

  14. Organosulphide profile and hydrogen sulphide-releasing activity of garlic fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tocmo, Restituto; Lai, Abigail Nianci; Wu, Yuchen; Liang, Dong; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Huang, Dejian

    2017-01-01

    Blanched and unblanched garlic were fermented using L. plantarum for investigation of organosulphide profiles, hydrogen sulphide-releasing activity, pH, titratable activity and microbial growth. Both raw and blanched garlic preparations allowed growth of L. plantarum with corresponding lowering of

  15. Lipidic profile and the level of physical activity of adolescent scholars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Canevari Dutra da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the relationship between lipid profile and physical activity level of adolescent students in Rio Verde-GO, Brazil. Methods: A descriptive and cross-sectionalstudy, conducted in 2006, with a population comprised by 1,229 adolescent students of both genders, aged 15 to 17 years (X = 15.9 years, SD + 0.81, from public and private schools. The level of physical activity was assessed through the International PhysicalActivity Questionnaire (IPAQ. Later, 48 teenagers underwent a lipidogram (lipid profile. Lipid concentrations of total cholesterol (TC, HDL-c (high density lipoprotein and LDL (low density lipoprotein and triglycerides (TGL were determined and assessed according to cutoff points proposed by the III Brazilian Guidelines on dyslipidemias and Guideline of Atherosclerosis, Department of Atherosclerosis of Brazilian Society of Cardiology. Statisticalanalysis was performed by binomial test for proportions and Pearson’s correlation test, adopting p <0.05. Results: Applying IPAQ we found a percentage of 77.7% active adolescents and 22.3% of insufficiently active adolescents, with the highest percentage of active teens inmales (p = 0.0000. Adolescents of both sexes from public network were considered more active than teens from private schools. The lipid profile of the studied adolescents was within normal range. Conclusion: There was no relationship between physical activity level and lipid profile of the adolescents assessed.

  16. Lipid, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein profiles in active and sedentary men with tetraplegia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallmeijer, A J; Hopman, M T; van der Woude, L H

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the risk profile of coronary heart disease (CHD) is more favorable in physically active men with tetraplegia compared with sedentary men with tetraplegia. DESIGN: Using a cross-sectional design, the lipid and (apo)lipoprotein concentrations of 11 active and 13

  17. Profiling Student Behaviour in a Blended Course: Closing the Gap Between Blended Teaching and Blended Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Nynke; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia

    2018-01-01

    Blended learning is often associated with student-oriented learning in which students have varying degrees of control over their learning process. However, the current notion of blended learning is often a teacher- oriented approach in which the teacher identifies the used learning technologies and

  18. High-frequency TRNS reduces BOLD activity during visuomotor learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Saiote

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS consist in the application of electrical current of small intensity through the scalp, able to modulate perceptual and motor learning, probably by changing brain excitability. We investigated the effects of these transcranial electrical stimulation techniques in the early and later stages of visuomotor learning, as well as associated brain activity changes using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We applied anodal and cathodal tDCS, low-frequency and high-frequency tRNS (lf-tRNS, 0.1-100 Hz; hf-tRNS 101-640 Hz, respectively and sham stimulation over the primary motor cortex (M1 during the first 10 minutes of a visuomotor learning paradigm and measured performance changes for 20 minutes after stimulation ceased. Functional imaging scans were acquired throughout the whole experiment. Cathodal tDCS and hf-tRNS showed a tendency to improve and lf-tRNS to hinder early learning during stimulation, an effect that remained for 20 minutes after cessation of stimulation in the late learning phase. Motor learning-related activity decreased in several regions as reported previously, however, there was no significant modulation of brain activity by tDCS. In opposition to this, hf-tRNS was associated with reduced motor task-related-activity bilaterally in the frontal cortex and precuneous, probably due to interaction with ongoing neuronal oscillations. This result highlights the potential of lf-tRNS and hf-tRNS to differentially modulate visuomotor learning and advances our knowledge on neuroplasticity induction approaches combined with functional imaging methods.

  19. Clinical and academic profile of children with specific learning disorder-mixed type: An Indian study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamika Sahu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Specific learning disorder (SLD in the past decade has gained recognition as a disabling condition among children by parents and teachers in India. However, there are still gaps in knowledge about its clinical presentation and understanding. Therefore, the present study was planned to evaluate the clinical and academic profile of children with SLD. Methods: The sample comprised 30 children with their age range between 7 and 12 years with a diagnosis of SLD-mixed type. All children were assessed through specifically designed structured pro forma for clinical details (i.e., nature of birth, developmental milestones, and comorbidities and academic history (i.e., history of failure, promoted in next class, repetition in the class, school change, etc. and SLD-comprehensive battery. Results: The mean age of the participants was 9.6 years (standard deviation [SD] = 1.5. 76.7% of participants were male and their mean years of education was 4.7 (SD = 1.5. Thirty percent of children had a history of delayed developmental milestones in terms of speech (16.7%, walking (6.7% and in speech and walking (6.7%, 23% of children had comorbid conditions of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder/attention-deficit disorder. Thirty percent of children repeated classes in their academic career. Conclusions: A significant number of children had delayed milestones and other problems. Moreover, it is important to understand the clinical and academic profile in the cultural context so that early identification and intervention can be planned.

  20. Activity Pattern Profiles: Relationship With Affect, Daily Functioning, Impairment, and Variables Related to Life Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, Rosa; López-Martínez, Alicia E; Peters, Madelon L; Serrano-Ibáñez, Elena R; Ruíz-Párraga, Gema T; González-Gómez, Henar; Ramírez-Maestre, Carmen

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify subgroups of patients on the basis of their activity patterns and to investigate their relationship with life goals, optimism, affect, and functioning. The sample was comprised of 276 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on the activity pattern variables and the resulting clusters were compared using 1-way analysis of variance. The 4-cluster was the optimal solution. The 4 clusters comprised: 1) avoiders: patients with high levels of avoidance and low levels of persistence, who use pacing to reduce pain, 2) doers: patients with high levels of persistence and low levels of pacing and avoidance, 3) extreme cyclers: patients with high levels of avoidance and persistence and low levels of pacing, and 4) medium cyclers: patients with moderately high levels of avoidance and persistence and high levels of pacing. Comparison of the clusters showed that doers had the most adaptive profile, whereas avoiders, followed by extreme cyclers, had unhealthy profiles. Doers showed a high level of optimism and a good balance between goal value, expectancy, and conflict. It is useful to distinguish profiles on the basis of various activity patterns. In contrast to profiles characterized by avoidance, profiles characterized by high persistence and low avoidance were associated with adaptive results. Patients with this profile also showed a high level of optimism and a good balance between goal value, expectancy, and conflict. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Collaborative activities for improving the quality of science teaching and learning and learning to teach science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Kenneth

    2012-03-01

    I have been involved in research on collaborative activities for improving the quality of teaching and learning high school science. Initially the collaborative activities we researched involved the uses of coteaching and cogenerative dialogue in urban middle and high schools in Philadelphia and New York (currently I have active research sites in New York and Brisbane, Australia). The research not only transformed practices but also produced theories that informed the development of additional collaborative activities and served as interventions for research and creation of heuristics for professional development programs and teacher certification courses. The presentation describes a collage of collaborative approaches to teaching and learning science, including coteaching, cogenerative dialogue, radical listening, critical reflection, and mindful action. For each activity in the collage I provide theoretical frameworks and empirical support, ongoing research, and priorities for the road ahead. I also address methodologies used in the research, illustrating how teachers and students collaborated as researchers in multilevel investigations of teaching and learning and learning to teach that included ethnography, video analysis, and sophisticated analyses of the voice, facial expression of emotion, eye gaze, and movement of the body during classroom interactions. I trace the evolution of studies of face-to-face interactions in science classes to the current focus on emotions and physiological aspects of teaching and learning (e.g., pulse rate, pulse strength, breathing patterns) that relate to science participation and achievement.

  2. Learning Disabilities in Extremely Low Birth Weight Children and Neurodevelopmental Profiles at Preschool Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squarza, Chiara; Picciolini, Odoardo; Gardon, Laura; Giannì, Maria L; Murru, Alessandra; Gangi, Silvana; Cortinovis, Ivan; Milani, Silvano; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    At school age extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and extremely low gestational age (ELGAN) children are more likely to show Learning Disabilities (LDs) and difficulties in emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of LDs at school age and to detect neurodevelopmental indicators of risk for LDs at preschool ages in a cohort of ELBW/ELGAN children with broadly average intelligence. All consecutively newborns 2001-2006 admitted to the same Institution entered the study. Inclusion criteria were BW disabilities, genetic abnormalities, and/or a Developmental Quotient below normal limits (learning disabilities at school age was investigated through a parent-report questionnaire at children's age range 9-10 years. Neurodevelopmental profiles were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales at 1 and 2 years of corrected age and at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of chronological age and were analyzed comparing two groups of children: those with LDs and those without. At school age 24 on 102 (23.5%) of our ELBW/ELGAN children met criteria for LDs in one or more areas, with 70.8% comorbidity with emotional/attention difficulties. Children with LDs scored significantly lower in the Griffiths Locomotor and Language subscales at 2 years of corrected age and in the Personal-social, Performance and Practical Reasoning subscales at 5 years of chronological age. Our findings suggest that, among the early developmental indicators of adverse school outcome, there is a poor motor experimentation, language delay, and personal-social immaturity. Cognitive rigidity and poor ability to manage practical situations also affect academic attainment. Timely detection of these early indicators of risk is crucial to assist the transition to school.

  3. Human medial frontal cortex activity predicts learning from errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Robert; Barre, Natalie; Murphy, Kevin; Silk, Tim J; Mattingley, Jason B

    2008-08-01

    Learning from errors is a critical feature of human cognition. It underlies our ability to adapt to changing environmental demands and to tune behavior for optimal performance. The posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) has been implicated in the evaluation of errors to control behavior, although it has not previously been shown that activity in this region predicts learning from errors. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined activity in the pMFC during an associative learning task in which participants had to recall the spatial locations of 2-digit targets and were provided with immediate feedback regarding accuracy. Activity within the pMFC was significantly greater for errors that were subsequently corrected than for errors that were repeated. Moreover, pMFC activity during recall errors predicted future responses (correct vs. incorrect), despite a sizeable interval (on average 70 s) between an error and the next presentation of the same recall probe. Activity within the hippocampus also predicted future performance and correlated with error-feedback-related pMFC activity. A relationship between performance expectations and pMFC activity, in the absence of differing reinforcement value for errors, is consistent with the idea that error-related pMFC activity reflects the extent to which an outcome is "worse than expected."

  4. Public health genetic counselors: activities, skills, and sources of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWalter, Kirsty M; Sdano, Mallory R; Dave, Gaurav; Powell, Karen P; Callanan, Nancy

    2015-06-01

    Specialization within genetic counseling is apparent, with 29 primary specialties listed in the National Society of Genetic Counselors' 2012 Professional Status Survey (PSS). PSS results show a steady proportion of genetic counselors primarily involved in public health, yet do not identify all those performing public health activities. Little is known about the skills needed to perform activities outside of "traditional" genetic counselor roles and the expertise needed to execute those skills. This study aimed to identify genetic counselors engaging in public health activities, the skills used, and the most influential sources of learning for those skills. Participants (N = 155) reported involvement in several public health categories: (a) Education of Public and/or Health Care Providers (n = 80, 52 %), (b) Population-Based Screening Programs (n = 70, 45 %), (c) Lobbying/Public Policy (n = 62, 40 %), (d) Public Health Related Research (n = 47, 30 %), and (e) State Chronic Disease Programs (n = 12, 8 %). Regardless of category, "on the job" was the most common primary source of learning. Genetic counseling training program was the most common secondary source of learning. Results indicate that the number of genetic counselors performing public health activities is likely higher than PSS reports, and that those who may not consider themselves "public health genetic counselors" do participate in public health activities. Genetic counselors learn a diverse skill set in their training programs; some skills are directly applicable to public health genetics, while other public health skills require additional training and/or knowledge.

  5. Google classroom as a tool for active learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaharanee, Izwan Nizal Mohd; Jamil, Jastini Mohd; Rodzi, Sarah Syamimi Mohamad

    2016-08-01

    As the world is being developed with the new technologies, discovering and manipulating new ideas and concepts of online education are changing rapidly. In response to these changes, many states, institutions, and organizations have been working on strategic plans to implement online education. At the same time, misconceptions and myths related to the difficulty of teaching and learning online, technologies available to support online instruction, the support and compensation needed for high-quality instructors, and the needs of online students create challenges for such vision statements and planning documents. This paper provides analysis and evaluation of the effectiveness of Google Classroom's active learning activities for data mining subject under the Decision Sciences program. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) has been employed to measure the effectiveness of the learning activities. A total of 100 valid unduplicated responses from students who enrolled data mining subject were used in this study. The results indicated that majority of the students satisfy with the Google Classroom's tool that were introduced in the class. Results of data analyzed showed that all ratios are above averages. In particular, comparative performance is good in the areas of ease of access, perceived usefulness, communication and interaction, instruction delivery and students' satisfaction towards the Google Classroom's active learning activities.

  6. Enhancing students' learning in problem based learning: validation of a self-assessment scale for active learning and critical thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoiriyah, Umatul; Roberts, Chris; Jorm, Christine; Van der Vleuten, C P M

    2015-08-26

    Problem based learning (PBL) is a powerful learning activity but fidelity to intended models may slip and student engagement wane, negatively impacting learning processes, and outcomes. One potential solution to solve this degradation is by encouraging self-assessment in the PBL tutorial. Self-assessment is a central component of the self-regulation of student learning behaviours. There are few measures to investigate self-assessment relevant to PBL processes. We developed a Self-assessment Scale on Active Learning and Critical Thinking (SSACT) to address this gap. We wished to demonstrated evidence of its validity in the context of PBL by exploring its internal structure. We used a mixed methods approach to scale development. We developed scale items from a qualitative investigation, literature review, and consideration of previous existing tools used for study of the PBL process. Expert review panels evaluated its content; a process of validation subsequently reduced the pool of items. We used structural equation modelling to undertake a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the SSACT and coefficient alpha. The 14 item SSACT consisted of two domains "active learning" and "critical thinking." The factorial validity of SSACT was evidenced by all items loading significantly on their expected factors, a good model fit for the data, and good stability across two independent samples. Each subscale had good internal reliability (>0.8) and strongly correlated with each other. The SSACT has sufficient evidence of its validity to support its use in the PBL process to encourage students to self-assess. The implementation of the SSACT may assist students to improve the quality of their learning in achieving PBL goals such as critical thinking and self-directed learning.

  7. Functional and neurochemical profile of place learning after L-nitro-arginine in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper; Wörtwein, Gitta; Hasman, Andreas

    1995-01-01

    Neurobiology, nitrogenoxid (NO), place learning, rotte, L-Nitro-Arginin, funktionel genopretning......Neurobiology, nitrogenoxid (NO), place learning, rotte, L-Nitro-Arginin, funktionel genopretning...

  8. Understanding Insurance. A Guide for Industrial Cooperative Training Programs. Learning Activity Package No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duenk, Lester G.; Tuel, Charles

    This learning activity package (LAP) on the insurance industry and the methods used to give protection to the insured is designed for student self-study. Following a list of learning objectives, the LAP contains a pretest (answer key provided at the back). Six learning activities follow. The learning activities cover the following material: terms…

  9. Musical Peddy-Paper: A Collaborative Learning Activity Suported by Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, José Duarte Cardoso; Figueiredo, Mauro Jorge Guerreiro; Amante, Lúcia da Graça Cruz Domingues; Gomes, Cristina Maria Cardoso

    2014-01-01

    Gaming activities are an integral part of the human learning process, in particular for children. Game-based learning focuses on motivation and children's engagement towards learning. Educational game-based activities are becoming effective strategies to enhance the learning process. This paper presents an educational activity focusing to merge…

  10. An active-learning strategies primer for achieving ability-based educational outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Brenda L; Peeters, Michael J; Resman-Targoff, Beth H; Karr, Samantha; McBane, Sarah; Kelley, Kristi; Thomas, Tyan; Denetclaw, Tina H

    2011-11-10

    Active learning is an important component of pharmacy education. By engaging students in the learning process, they are better able to apply the knowledge they gain. This paper describes evidence supporting the use of active-learning strategies in pharmacy education and also offers strategies for implementing active learning in pharmacy curricula in the classroom and during pharmacy practice experiences.

  11. Active Learning Strategies in Face-to-Face Courses. IDEA Paper #53

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    As numerous research studies suggest, teachers who desire increased student learning should adopt active learning. This article explores the research, defines active learning, discusses its value, offers suggestions for implementing it, and provides six concrete examples of active learning approaches: Thinking-Aloud Pair Problem-Solving;…

  12. Gamma-ray scanning of neutron activated geological sediments for studying elemental profile distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellinger, M.; Janghorbani, M.; Starke, K.

    1976-01-01

    Gamma-ray scanning for application to elemental profile studies of geological samples was studied with a neutron activated Baltic Shield sediment. Profile distribution of seven elements were measured. The capabilities and limitations of gamma-ray scanning are discussed by comparing the results with profiles obtained after the mechanical subdivision of the sample and the activation of the appropriately sized separates. With respect to the merits and limitations of scanning gamma-ray spectrometry applied to activated complex matrices the following conclusions were drawn. Qualitatively, the scanning method yields the same information as the much more laborious method of mechanical sudbisubdivision. Quantitatively, it is significantly less accurate. The scanning method has the significant advantage of allowing preservation of the sample. This could be important for such speciments as lunar and archeological materials. The method reduces sample preparation time and the possibility of sample contamination. (T.G.)

  13. Exploring Characteristics of Fine-Grained Behaviors of Learning Mathematics in Tablet-Based E-Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Cheuk Yu; Shum, Kam Hong; Hui, Lucas Chi Kwong; Chu, Samuel Kai Wah; Chan, Tsing Yun; Kuo, Yung Nin; Ng, Yee Ling

    2017-01-01

    Attributes of teaching and learning contexts provide rich information about how students participate in learning activities. By tracking and analyzing snapshots of these attributes captured continuously throughout the duration of the learning activities, teachers can identify individual students who need special attention and apply different…

  14. The Impact of Peer Review on Creative Self-Efficacy and Learning Performance in Web 2.0 Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen-Chung; Lu, Kuan-Hsien; Wu, Leon Yufeng; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have pointed out the significant contrast between the creative nature of Web 2.0 learning activities and the structured learning in school. This study proposes an approach to leveraging Web 2.0 learning activities and classroom teaching to help students develop both specific knowledge and creativity based on Csikzentmihalyi's system…

  15. Neuropsychological Profiles of Written Expression Learning Disabilities Determined by Concordance-Discordance Model Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Melanie E; Kubas, Hanna A; Witzke, Justin W; Fitzer, Kim R; Miller, Daniel C; Maricle, Denise E; Harrison, Gina L; Macoun, Sarah J; Hale, James B

    2016-01-01

    Children with specific learning disabilities (SLD) have disparate neuropsychological processing deficits that interfere with academic achievement in spelling, writing fluency, and/or written expression (WE). Although there are multiple potential causes of WE SLD, there is a paucity of research exploring this critical academic skill from a neuropsychological perspective. This study examined the neuropsychological profiles of WE SLD subtypes defined using the concordance-discordance model (C-DM) of SLD identification. Participants were drawn from a sample of 283 children (194 boys, 89 girls) aged 6 years to 16 years old (M(age) = 9.58 years, SD = 2.29 years) referred for comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations in school settings and subsequently selected based on C-DM determined spelling, writing fluency, and WE SLD. WE SLD subtypes differed on several psychomotor, memory, and executive function measures (F range = 2.48-5.07, p range = .049 to <.001), suggesting that these children exhibit distinct patterns of neuropsychological processing strengths and weaknesses. Findings have relevance for differential diagnosis of WE subtypes, discriminating WE SLD subtypes from low WE achievement, and developing differentiated evidence-based instruction and intervention for children with WE SLD. Limitations and future research will be addressed.

  16. Using machine learning to identify air pollution exposure profiles associated with early cognitive skills among U.S. children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stingone, Jeanette A.; Pandey, Om P.; Claudio, Luz; Pandey, Gaurav

    2017-01-01

    Data-driven machine learning methods present an opportunity to simultaneously assess the impact of multiple air pollutants on health outcomes. The goal of this study was to apply a two-stage, data-driven approach to identify associations between air pollutant exposure profiles and children's cognitive skills. Data from 6900 children enrolled in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, a national study of children born in 2001 and followed through kindergarten, were linked to estimated concentrations of 104 ambient air toxics in the 2002 National Air Toxics Assessment using ZIP code of residence at age 9 months. In the first-stage, 100 regression trees were learned to identify ambient air pollutant exposure profiles most closely associated with scores on a standardized mathematics test administered to children in kindergarten. In the second-stage, the exposure profiles frequently predicting lower math scores were included within linear regression models and adjusted for confounders in order to estimate the magnitude of their effect on math scores. This approach was applied to the full population, and then to the populations living in urban and highly-populated urban areas. Our first-stage results in the full population suggested children with low trichloroethylene exposure had significantly lower math scores. This association was not observed for children living in urban communities, suggesting that confounding related to urbanicity needs to be considered within the first-stage. When restricting our analysis to populations living in urban and highly-populated urban areas, high isophorone levels were found to predict lower math scores. Within adjusted regression models of children in highly-populated urban areas, the estimated effect of higher isophorone exposure on math scores was −1.19 points (95% CI −1.94, −0.44). Similar results were observed for the overall population of urban children. This data-driven, two-stage approach can be

  17. Learning Activity Predictors from Sensor Data: Algorithms, Evaluation, and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Bryan; Doppa, Janardhan Rao; Cook, Diane J

    2017-12-01

    Recent progress in Internet of Things (IoT) platforms has allowed us to collect large amounts of sensing data. However, there are significant challenges in converting this large-scale sensing data into decisions for real-world applications. Motivated by applications like health monitoring and intervention and home automation we consider a novel problem called Activity Prediction , where the goal is to predict future activity occurrence times from sensor data. In this paper, we make three main contributions. First, we formulate and solve the activity prediction problem in the framework of imitation learning and reduce it to a simple regression learning problem. This approach allows us to leverage powerful regression learners that can reason about the relational structure of the problem with negligible computational overhead. Second, we present several metrics to evaluate activity predictors in the context of real-world applications. Third, we evaluate our approach using real sensor data collected from 24 smart home testbeds. We also embed the learned predictor into a mobile-device-based activity prompter and evaluate the app for 9 participants living in smart homes. Our results indicate that our activity predictor performs better than the baseline methods, and offers a simple approach for predicting activities from sensor data.

  18. Introduction of active learning method in learning physiology by MBBS students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkar, Suhail Ahmad; Lone, Shabiruddin; Lone, Riyaz Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Active learning has received considerable attention over the past several years, often presented or perceived as a radical change from traditional instruction methods. Current research on learning indicates that using a variety of teaching strategies in the classroom increases student participation and learning. To introduce active learning methodology, i.e., "jigsaw technique" in undergraduate medical education and assess the student and faculty response to it. This study was carried out in the Department of Physiology in a Medical College of North India. A topic was chosen and taught using one of the active learning methods (ALMs), i.e., jigsaw technique. An instrument (questionnaire) was developed in English through an extensive review of literature and was properly validated. The students were asked to give their response on a five-point Likert scale. The feedback was kept anonymous. Faculty also provided their feedback in a separately provided feedback proforma. The data were collected, compiled, and analyzed. Of 150 students of MBBS-first year batch 2014, 142 participated in this study along with 14 faculty members of the Physiology Department. The majority of the students (>90%) did welcome the introduction of ALM and strongly recommended the use of such methods in teaching many more topics in future. 100% faculty members were of the opinion that many more topics shall be taken up using ALMs. This study establishes the fact that both the medical students and faculty want a change from the traditional way of passive, teacher-centric learning, to the more active teaching-learning techniques.

  19. GeoMapApp Learning Activities: Enabling the democratisation of geoscience learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwillie, A. M.; Kluge, S.

    2011-12-01

    GeoMapApp Learning Activities (http://serc.carleton.edu/geomapapp) are step-by-step guided inquiry geoscience education activities that enable students to dictate the pace of learning. They can be used in the classroom or out of class, and their guided nature means that the requirement for teacher intervention is minimised which allows students to spend increased time analysing and understanding a broad range of geoscience data, content and concepts. Based upon GeoMapApp (http://www.geomapapp.org), a free, easy-to-use map-based data exploration and visualisation tool, each activity furnishes the educator with an efficient package of downloadable documents. This includes step-by-step student instructions and answer sheet; a teacher's edition annotated worksheet containing teaching tips, additional content and suggestions for further work; quizzes for use before and after the activity to assess learning; and a multimedia tutorial. The activities can be used by anyone at any time in any place with an internet connection. In essence, GeoMapApp Learning Activities provide students with cutting-edge technology, research-quality geoscience data sets, and inquiry-based learning in a virtual lab-like environment. Examples of activities so far created are student calculation and analysis of the rate of seafloor spreading, and present-day evidence on the seafloor for huge ancient landslides around the Hawaiian islands. The activities are designed primarily for students at the community college, high school and introductory undergraduate levels, exposing students to content and concepts typically found in those settings.

  20. A Problem Solving Active-Learning Course in Pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delafuente, Jeffrey C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A third-year pharmacology course in a doctoral pharmacy program that is case based and intended for a large class is described. Aspects discussed include learning objectives, course organization, classroom activities, case selection and design, faculty involvement, grading, and areas identified for improvement. (MSE)

  1. Implementing Active Learning Reform in the Maldives: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Biase, Rhonda

    2009-01-01

    Many countries are adopting child-centered active learning reforms as they strive to improve the quality of primary education. Consistent challenges can be found in the implementation of similar, global reforms. These issues are discussed here within the following framework: the cultural appropriateness of such reforms; the extent to which active…

  2. Effect of active learning techniques on students' choice of approach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article is to report on empirical work, related to a techniques module, undertaken with the dental students of the University of the Western Cape, South Africa. I will relate how a range of different active learning techniques (tutorials; question papers and mock tests) assisted students to adopt a deep ...

  3. Physical activity during learning inside and outside the classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Does learning outside the classroom (LOtC) in urban nature or cultural contexts one day per week contribute to raising children’s physical activity (PA) in lower secondary school? Methods: PA was measured on 7 consecutive days using GT3x+ accelerometers. Overall, 44 girls and 40 boys...

  4. Research and Practice of Active Learning in Engineering Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de Erik; Saunders-Smits, Gillian; Nieweg, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Since 2001, the international network Active Learning in Engineering education (ALE) organized a series of international workshops on innovation of engineering education. The papers in this book are selected to reflect the state of the art, based on contributions to the 2005 ALE workshop in Holland.

  5. Teacher educators' design and implementation of group learning activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Hei, Miranda S.A.; Sjoer, Ellen; Admiraal, Wilfried; Strijbos, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Group Learning Activities (GLAs) are a key ingredient of course designs in higher education. Various approaches for designing GLAs have been developed, featuring different design components. However, this has not yet resulted in clear guidelines for teachers on how to design GLAs. The purpose of

  6. A Judicious Lesson: A Whole-Learning Reading Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    Describes a unique language learning activity using the whole language approach in a tertiary level lower advanced reading and speaking course. Following a semester long theme on crime and punishment, students were introduced to an authentic, idiomatic text dealing with a famous murder case in U.S. history. (Author/VWL)

  7. An Active Learning Exercise for Introducing Agent-Based Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinder, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in agent-based modeling as a method of systems analysis and optimization indicate that students in business analytics need an introduction to the terminology, concepts, and framework of agent-based modeling. This article presents an active learning exercise for MBA students in business analytics that demonstrates agent-based…

  8. Origami: An Active Learning Exercise for Scrum Project Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibona, Christopher; Pourreza, Saba; Hill, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    Scrum is a popular project management model for iterative delivery of software that subscribes to Agile principles. This paper describes an origami active learning exercise to teach the principles of Scrum in management information systems courses. The exercise shows students how Agile methods respond to changes in requirements during project…

  9. The effect of outdoor learning activities on the development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These activities, which provide primary experiences, help children to change theoretical knowledge into practice, record it in the long-term memory, and create solutions to problems they encounter in daily life, based on what they have learned. Children, especially preschoolers, can record things into their long-term memory ...

  10. The Intercollegiate Ethics Bowl: An Active Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the Intercollegiate Ethics Bowl (IEB) as a means of promoting active learning in the realm of marketing ethics. The cases discussed in the competition are based on current ethical issues and require students to provide a coherent analysis of what are generally complex, ambiguous, and highly viewpoint dependent issues. The…

  11. Blog Construction as an Effective Tool in Biochemistry Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubas Rolim, Estêvão; Martins de Oliveira, Julia; Dalvi, Luana T.; Moreira, Daniel C.; Garcia Caldas, Natasha; Fernandes Lobo, Felipe; André Polli, Démerson; Campos, Élida G.; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo

    2017-01-01

    To boost active learning in undergraduate students, they were given the task of preparing blogs on topics of clinical biochemistry. This "experiment" lasted for 12 teaching-semesters (from 2008 to 2013), and included a survey on the blogs' usefulness at the end of each semester. The survey (applied in the 2008-2010 period) used a…

  12. Students’ learning activities while studying biological process diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kragten, M.; Admiraal, W.; Rijlaarsdam, G.

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams describe how a system functions (e.g. photosynthesis) and are an important type of representation in Biology education. In the present study, we examined students’ learning activities while studying process diagrams, related to their resulting comprehension of these diagrams. Each

  13. Using an Active-Learning Approach to Teach Epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon-Berlingeri, Migdalisel

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetics involves heritable changes in gene expression that do not involve alterations in the DNA sequence. I developed an active-learning approach to convey this topic to students in a college genetics course. I posted a brief summary of the topic before class to stimulate exchange in cooperative groups. During class, we discussed the…

  14. Development of Active Learning with Simulations and Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapalska, Alina; Brozik, Dallas; Rudd, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Educational games and simulations are excellent active learning tools that offer students hands-on experience. Little research is available on developing games and simulations and how teachers can be assisted in making their own games and simulations. In this context, the paper presents a multi-step process of how to develop games and simulations…

  15. Minority Politics Courses: Moving beyond Controversy and toward Active Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex-Assensoh, Yvette

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on an undergraduate course, "Outside Politics: How Minorities Play the Political Game". Describes how to create a foundation for active and collaborative learning and to promote critical thinking, discussion, and writing through reading assignments. Discusses the use of debates and role playing, autobiographies and videos, and…

  16. Active learning and adaptive sampling for non-parametric inference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents a general discussion of active learning and adaptive sampling. In many practical scenarios it is possible to use information gleaned from previous observations to focus the sampling process, in the spirit of the "twenty-questions" game. As more samples are collected one can

  17. An example of active learning in Aerospace Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugemann, V.P.; Brummelen, van E.H.; Melkert, J.A.; Kamp, A.; Saunders-Smits, G.N.; Reith, B.A.; Zandbergen, B.T.C.; Graaf, de E.; Saunders-Smits, G.N.; Nieweg, M.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is a showcase for an on-going active learning capstone design project in the BSe. programme at the Faculty of Aerospace Engineering at Delft University of Technology. In multi-disciplinary teams supervised by tutors from different backgrounds students work towards an Aerospace (related)

  18. Effort and trust: the underpinnings of active learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Seana; Bilimoria, Krish; Malhotra, Neha; Rangachari, P K

    2017-09-01

    Three undergraduate students and their teacher discuss two crucial issues that form the implicit basis of active learning: effort and trust. They use a single course in a Health Sciences Program to anchor their comments. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Creating Student Engagement: The Kickstarter Active Learning Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzon, Elliott

    2017-01-01

    Students can become disengaged from marketing material if they cannot see the direct application. Marketing material needs to be applied to a meaningful business task to engage and motivate students. This article introduces the Kickstarter Active Learning Project--an innovative semester-long project in which students create a Kickstarter…

  20. Active Learning Improves Student Performance in a Respiratory Physiology Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Alex M.; Liachovitzky, Carlos; Abdullahi, Abass S.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of the introduction of active learning exercises into the anatomy and physiology curriculum in a community college setting. Specifically, the incorporation of a spirometry-based respiratory physiology lab resulted in improved student performance in two concepts (respiratory volumes and the hallmarks of…

  1. The euryhaline yeast Debaryomyces hansenii has two catalase genes encoding enzymes with differential activity profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal-Kischinevzky, Claudia; Rodarte-Murguía, Beatriz; Valdés-López, Victor; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; González, Alicia; Alba-Lois, Luisa

    2011-03-01

    Debaryomyces hansenii is a spoilage yeast able to grow in a variety of ecological niches, from seawater to dairy products. Results presented in this article show that (i) D. hansenii has an inherent resistance to H2O2 which could be attributed to the fact that this yeast has a basal catalase activity which is several-fold higher than that observed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under the same culture conditions, (ii) D. hansenii has two genes (DhCTA1 and DhCTT1) encoding two catalase isozymes with a differential enzymatic activity profile which is not strictly correlated with a differential expression profile of the encoding genes.

  2. Topside electron density: comparison of experimental and IRI model profiles during low solar activity period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alazo, K.; Coisson, P.; Radicella, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    The pattern of the topside electron density profiles is not yet very well represented by the IRI model. In this work the topside profiles obtained by the ISIS-2 satellite during low solar activity conditions are compared to those modeled by IRI. We take the quantitative parameter ε to measure the deviation of the model from the observed profiles. The results showed that the IRI overestimation of the topside profile is higher for low dip latitudes. The dispersion of the epsilon values is from 40 to 140%, more in equinoctial months and some lower for Winter. The best modeling is about 20% to 40% in middle and high latitudes of the North Hemisphere. (author)

  3. UML Profile for Mining Process: Supporting Modeling and Simulation Based on Metamodels of Activity Diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Giubergia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An UML profile describes lightweight extension mechanism to the UML by defining custom stereotypes, tagged values, and constraints. They are used to adapt UML metamodel to different platforms and domains. In this paper we present an UML profile for models supporting event driving simulation. In particular, we use the Arena simulation tool and we focus on the mining process domain. Profiles provide an easy way to obtain well-defined specifications, regulated by the Object Management Group (OMG. They can be used as a presimulation technique to obtain solid models for the mining industry. In this work we present a new profile to extend the UML metamodel; in particular we focus on the activity diagram. This extended model is applied to an industry problem involving loading and transportation of minerals in the field of mining process.

  4. Active-learning strategies: the use of a game to reinforce learning in nursing education. A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boctor, Lisa

    2013-03-01

    The majority of nursing students are kinesthetic learners, preferring a hands-on, active approach to education. Research shows that active-learning strategies can increase student learning and satisfaction. This study looks at the use of one active-learning strategy, a Jeopardy-style game, 'Nursopardy', to reinforce Fundamentals of Nursing material, aiding in students' preparation for a standardized final exam. The game was created keeping students varied learning styles and the NCLEX blueprint in mind. The blueprint was used to create 5 categories, with 26 total questions. Student survey results, using a five-point Likert scale showed that they did find this learning method enjoyable and beneficial to learning. More research is recommended regarding learning outcomes, when using active-learning strategies, such as games. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effective, Active Learning Strategies for the Oceanography Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmochowski, J. E.; Marinov, I.

    2014-12-01

    A decline in enrollment in STEM fields at the university level has prompted extensive research on alternative ways of teaching and learning science. Inquiry-based learning as well as the related "flipped" or "active" lectures, and similar teaching methods and philosophies have been proposed as more effective ways to disseminate knowledge in science classes than the traditional lecture. We will provide a synopsis of our experiences in implementing some of these practices into our Introductory Oceanography, Global Climate Change, and Ocean Atmosphere Dynamics undergraduate courses at the University of Pennsylvania, with both smaller and larger enrollments. By implementing tools such as at-home modules; computer labs; incorporation of current research; pre- and post-lecture quizzes; reflective, qualitative writing assignments; peer review; and a variety of in-class learning strategies, we aim to increase the science literacy of the student population and help students gain a more comprehensive knowledge of the topic, enhance their critical thinking skills, and correct misconceptions. While implementing these teaching techniques with college students is not without complications, we argue that a blended class that flexibly and creatively accounts for class size and science level improves the learning experience and the acquired knowledge. We will present examples of student assignments and activities as well as describe the lessons we have learned, and propose ideas for moving forward to best utilize innovative teaching tools in order to increase science literacy in oceanography and other climate-related courses.

  6. Cognitive Neurostimulation: Learning to Volitionally Sustain Ventral Tegmental Area Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacInnes, Jeff J; Dickerson, Kathryn C; Chen, Nan-Kuei; Adcock, R Alison

    2016-03-16

    Activation of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and mesolimbic networks is essential to motivation, performance, and learning. Humans routinely attempt to motivate themselves, with unclear efficacy or impact on VTA networks. Using fMRI, we found untrained participants' motivational strategies failed to consistently activate VTA. After real-time VTA neurofeedback training, however, participants volitionally induced VTA activation without external aids, relative to baseline, Pre-test, and control groups. VTA self-activation was accompanied by increased mesolimbic network connectivity. Among two comparison groups (no neurofeedback, false neurofeedback) and an alternate neurofeedback group (nucleus accumbens), none sustained activation in target regions of interest nor increased VTA functional connectivity. The results comprise two novel demonstrations: learning and generalization after VTA neurofeedback training and the ability to sustain VTA activation without external reward or reward cues. These findings suggest theoretical alignment of ideas about motivation and midbrain physiology and the potential for generalizable interventions to improve performance and learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Whole-body profile scanner for in vivo quantitative activity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, H.

    1978-01-01

    A whole-body profile scanner has been developed by fitting parallel slit collimators to a shadow shield whole-body counter. Sensitivity, uniformity and resolution measurements were performed using a number of different counting conditions. It is shown that improved accuracy of activity measurements is obtained by using a wide window counting technique for low and medium energy gamma emitters (99m Tc, 131 I), whereas a photopeak window should be used for high energy gamma emitters (47 Ca). Due to the finite spatial resolution of the system a systematic error in evaluating regional activities from the counting rate profile occurs which is characterized by a spatial spillover factor. The spatial spillover factor is measured and is subsequently used to calculate the error on basis of a simple model. It is shown that only small errors are caused by spatial spillover when the length of a region is at least three times the full width half maximum of the point spread function. Applying the above mentioned simple rules it is concluded that profile scanning is a sensitive and accurate technique for activity measurements in vivo. Two examples of clinical applications (measurement of bone accretion rates of calcium and Tc-pyrophosphate, regional radioiodine retention in patients with thyroid carcinoma) and a review of the papers on profile scanning demonstrate the types of investigations in which profile scanning is superior to alternative techniques. (author)

  8. Less is more: Sampling chemical space with active learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin S.; Nebgen, Ben; Lubbers, Nicholas; Isayev, Olexandr; Roitberg, Adrian E.

    2018-06-01

    The development of accurate and transferable machine learning (ML) potentials for predicting molecular energetics is a challenging task. The process of data generation to train such ML potentials is a task neither well understood nor researched in detail. In this work, we present a fully automated approach for the generation of datasets with the intent of training universal ML potentials. It is based on the concept of active learning (AL) via Query by Committee (QBC), which uses the disagreement between an ensemble of ML potentials to infer the reliability of the ensemble's prediction. QBC allows the presented AL algorithm to automatically sample regions of chemical space where the ML potential fails to accurately predict the potential energy. AL improves the overall fitness of ANAKIN-ME (ANI) deep learning potentials in rigorous test cases by mitigating human biases in deciding what new training data to use. AL also reduces the training set size to a fraction of the data required when using naive random sampling techniques. To provide validation of our AL approach, we develop the COmprehensive Machine-learning Potential (COMP6) benchmark (publicly available on GitHub) which contains a diverse set of organic molecules. Active learning-based ANI potentials outperform the original random sampled ANI-1 potential with only 10% of the data, while the final active learning-based model vastly outperforms ANI-1 on the COMP6 benchmark after training to only 25% of the data. Finally, we show that our proposed AL technique develops a universal ANI potential (ANI-1x) that provides accurate energy and force predictions on the entire COMP6 benchmark. This universal ML potential achieves a level of accuracy on par with the best ML potentials for single molecules or materials, while remaining applicable to the general class of organic molecules composed of the elements CHNO.

  9. Hilar GABAergic Interneuron Activity Controls Spatial Learning and Memory Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews-Zwilling, Yaisa; Gillespie, Anna K.; Kravitz, Alexxai V.; Nelson, Alexandra B.; Devidze, Nino; Lo, Iris; Yoon, Seo Yeon; Bien-Ly, Nga; Ring, Karen; Zwilling, Daniel; Potter, Gregory B.; Rubenstein, John L. R.; Kreitzer, Anatol C.; Huang, Yadong

    2012-01-01

    Background Although extensive research has demonstrated the importance of excitatory granule neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in normal learning and memory and in the pathogenesis of amnesia in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the role of hilar GABAergic inhibitory interneurons, which control the granule neuron activity, remains unclear. Methodology and Principal Findings We explored the function of hilar GABAergic interneurons in spatial learning and memory by inhibiting their activity through Cre-dependent viral expression of enhanced halorhodopsin (eNpHR3.0)—a light-driven chloride pump. Hilar GABAergic interneuron-specific expression of eNpHR3.0 was achieved by bilaterally injecting adeno-associated virus containing a double-floxed inverted open-reading frame encoding eNpHR3.0 into the hilus of the dentate gyrus of mice expressing Cre recombinase under the control of an enhancer specific for GABAergic interneurons. In vitro and in vivo illumination with a yellow laser elicited inhibition of hilar GABAergic interneurons and consequent activation of dentate granule neurons, without affecting pyramidal neurons in the CA3 and CA1 regions of the hippocampus. We found that optogenetic inhibition of hilar GABAergic interneuron activity impaired spatial learning and memory retrieval, without affecting memory retention, as determined in the Morris water maze test. Importantly, optogenetic inhibition of hilar GABAergic interneuron activity did not alter short-term working memory, motor coordination, or exploratory activity. Conclusions and Significance Our findings establish a critical role for hilar GABAergic interneuron activity in controlling spatial learning and memory retrieval and provide evidence for the potential contribution of GABAergic interneuron impairment to the pathogenesis of amnesia in AD. PMID:22792368

  10. Hilar GABAergic interneuron activity controls spatial learning and memory retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaisa Andrews-Zwilling

    Full Text Available Although extensive research has demonstrated the importance of excitatory granule neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in normal learning and memory and in the pathogenesis of amnesia in Alzheimer's disease (AD, the role of hilar GABAergic inhibitory interneurons, which control the granule neuron activity, remains unclear.We explored the function of hilar GABAergic interneurons in spatial learning and memory by inhibiting their activity through Cre-dependent viral expression of enhanced halorhodopsin (eNpHR3.0--a light-driven chloride pump. Hilar GABAergic interneuron-specific expression of eNpHR3.0 was achieved by bilaterally injecting adeno-associated virus containing a double-floxed inverted open-reading frame encoding eNpHR3.0 into the hilus of the dentate gyrus of mice expressing Cre recombinase under the control of an enhancer specific for GABAergic interneurons. In vitro and in vivo illumination with a yellow laser elicited inhibition of hilar GABAergic interneurons and consequent activation of dentate granule neurons, without affecting pyramidal neurons in the CA3 and CA1 regions of the hippocampus. We found that optogenetic inhibition of hilar GABAergic interneuron activity impaired spatial learning and memory retrieval, without affecting memory retention, as determined in the Morris water maze test. Importantly, optogenetic inhibition of hilar GABAergic interneuron activity did not alter short-term working memory, motor coordination, or exploratory activity.Our findings establish a critical role for hilar GABAergic interneuron activity in controlling spatial learning and memory retrieval and provide evidence for the potential contribution of GABAergic interneuron impairment to the pathogenesis of amnesia in AD.

  11. Problem-based Learning (PBL in Sociolinguistics as a Way of Encouraging Active Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engku Ibrahim Engku Haliza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The major concern of this paper is to advocate the integration of PBL strategies in classroom instruction as a way of promoting active learning. It is undoubted that the benefits of problem-based learning (PBL are numerous. In the sciences, PBL has been well integrated in the curriculum. This research reports of an experience of integrating problem-based learning in an introductory Sociolinguistics course for 60 undergraduates of a Bachelors of English programme through a semester that ran for 14 weeks. A focused group interview and questionnaire were used to find out the perceptions of the students undergoing the hybrid PBL course. The findings of this study reveal that students generally enjoyed the PBL approach and found that they had little choice but to become active learners. Some challenges faced by the learners were also highlighted. These findings have implications for the integration of PBL in the field of social sciences.

  12. Predicting Solar Activity Using Machine-Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobra, M.

    2017-12-01

    Of all the activity observed on the Sun, two of the most energetic events are flares and coronal mass ejections. However, we do not, as of yet, fully understand the physical mechanism that triggers solar eruptions. A machine-learning algorithm, which is favorable in cases where the amount of data is large, is one way to [1] empirically determine the signatures of this mechanism in solar image data and [2] use them to predict solar activity. In this talk, we discuss the application of various machine learning algorithms - specifically, a Support Vector Machine, a sparse linear regression (Lasso), and Convolutional Neural Network - to image data from the photosphere, chromosphere, transition region, and corona taken by instruments aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory in order to predict solar activity on a variety of time scales. Such an approach may be useful since, at the present time, there are no physical models of flares available for real-time prediction. We discuss our results (Bobra and Couvidat, 2015; Bobra and Ilonidis, 2016; Jonas et al., 2017) as well as other attempts to predict flares using machine-learning (e.g. Ahmed et al., 2013; Nishizuka et al. 2017) and compare these results with the more traditional techniques used by the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (Crown, 2012). We also discuss some of the challenges in using machine-learning algorithms for space science applications.

  13. DASL-Data and Activities for Solar Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harrison P.; Henney, Carl; Hill, Frank; Gearen, Michael; Pompca, Stephen; Stagg, Travis; Stefaniak, Linda; Walker, Connie

    2004-01-01

    DASL-Data and Activities for Solar Learning Data and Activities for Solar Learning (DASL) provides a classroom learning environment based on a twenty-five year record of solar magnetograms from the National Solar Observatory (NSO) at Kitt Peak, AZ. The data, together with image processing software for Macs or PCs, can be used to learn basic facts about the Sun and astronomy at the middle school level. At the high school level, students can study properties of the Sun's magnetic cycle with classroom exercises emphasizing data and error analysis and can participate in a new scientific study, Research in Active Solar Longitudes (RASL), in collaboration with classrooms throughout the country and scientists at NSO and NASA. We present a half-day course to train teachers in the scientific content of the project and its classroom use. We will provide a compact disc with the data and software and will demonstrate software installation and use, classroom exercises, and participation in RASL with computer projection.

  14. Comparison of parameters of bone profile and homocysteine in physically active and non-active postmenopausal females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Sundus; Lone, Khalid Parvez; Tariq, Saba

    2016-01-01

    Optimal physical activity is important in attaining a peak bone mass. Physically active women have better bone mineral density and reduce fracture risk as compared to females living a sedentary life. The objective of this study was to compare parameters of bone profile and serum homocysteine levels in physically active and non-active postmenopausal females. In this cross sectional study postmenopausal females between 50-70 years of age were recruited and divided into two groups: Physically inactive (n=133) performing light physical activity and Physically active (n=34) performing moderate physical activity. Physical activity (in metabolic equivalents), bone mineral density and serum homocysteine levels were assessed. Spearman's rho correlation was applied to observe correlations. Two independent sample t test and Mann Whitney U test were applied to compare groups. P-value ≤ 0.05 was taken statistically significant. Parameters of bone profile were significantly higher and serum homocysteine levels were significantly lower in postmenopausal females performing moderate physical activity as compared to females performing light physical activity. Homocysteine was not significantly related to T-score and Z-score in both groups. Improving physical activity could be beneficial for improving the quality of bone, decreasing fracture risk and decreasing serum homocysteine levels.

  15. Application of active learning modalities to achieve medical genetics competencies and their learning outcome assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Nobuko

    2017-01-01

    The steadily falling costs of genome sequencing, coupled with the growing number of genetic tests with proven clinical validity, have made the use of genetic testing more common in clinical practice. This development has necessitated nongeneticist physicians, especially primary care physicians, to become more responsible for assessing genetic risks for their patients. Providing undergraduate medical students a solid foundation in genomic medicine, therefore, has become all the more important to ensure the readiness of future physicians in applying genomic medicine to their patient care. In order to further enhance the effectiveness of instructing practical skills in medical genetics, the emphasis of active learning modules in genetics curriculum at medical schools has increased in recent years. This is because of the general acceptance of a better efficacy of active learner-centered pedagogy over passive lecturer-centered pedagogy. However, an objective standard to evaluate students' skill levels in genomic medicine achieved by active learning is currently missing. Recently, entrustable professional activities (EPAs) in genomic medicine have been proposed as a framework for developing physician competencies in genomic medicine. EPAs in genomic medicine provide a convenient guideline for not only developing genomic medicine curriculum but also assessing students' competency levels in practicing genomic medicine. In this review, the efficacy of different types of active learning modules reported for medical genetics curricula is discussed using EPAs in genomic medicine as a common evaluation standard for modules' learning outcomes. The utility of the EPAs in genomic medicine for designing active learning modules in undergraduate medical genetics curricula is also discussed.

  16. Profiling physical activity motivation based on self-determination theory: a cluster analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friederichs, Stijn Ah; Bolman, Catherine; Oenema, Anke; Lechner, Lilian

    2015-01-01

    In order to promote physical activity uptake and maintenance in individuals who do not comply with physical activity guidelines, it is important to increase our understanding of physical activity motivation among this group. The present study aimed to examine motivational profiles in a large sample of adults who do not comply with physical activity guidelines. The sample for this study consisted of 2473 individuals (31.4% male; age 44.6 ± 12.9). In order to generate motivational profiles based on motivational regulation, a cluster analysis was conducted. One-way analyses of variance were then used to compare the clusters in terms of demographics, physical activity level, motivation to be active and subjective experience while being active. Three motivational clusters were derived based on motivational regulation scores: a low motivation cluster, a controlled motivation cluster and an autonomous motivation cluster. These clusters differed significantly from each other with respect to physical activity behavior, motivation to be active and subjective experience while being active. Overall, the autonomous motivation cluster displayed more favorable characteristics compared to the other two clusters. The results of this study provide additional support for the importance of autonomous motivation in the context of physical activity behavior. The three derived clusters may be relevant in the context of physical activity interventions as individuals within the different clusters might benefit most from different intervention approaches. In addition, this study shows that cluster analysis is a useful method for differentiating between motivational profiles in large groups of individuals who do not comply with physical activity guidelines.

  17. Continuous Water Vapor Profiles from Operational Ground-Based Active and Passive Remote Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D. D.; Feltz, W. F.; Ferrare, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program's Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed site central facility near Lamont, Oklahoma, offers unique operational water vapor profiling capabilities, including active and passive remote sensors as well as traditional in situ radiosonde measurements. Remote sensing technologies include an automated Raman lidar and an automated Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI), which are able to retrieve water vapor profiles operationally through the lower troposphere throughout the diurnal cycle. Comparisons of these two water vapor remote sensing methods to each other and to radiosondes over an 8-month period are presented and discussed, highlighting the accuracy and limitations of each method. Additionally, the AERI is able to retrieve profiles of temperature while the Raman lidar is able to retrieve aerosol extinction profiles operationally. These data, coupled with hourly wind profiles from a 915-MHz wind profiler, provide complete specification of the state of the atmosphere in noncloudy skies. Several case studies illustrate the utility of these high temporal resolution measurements in the characterization of mesoscale features within a 3-day time period in which passage of a dryline, warm air advection, and cold front occurred.

  18. It takes biking to learn: Physical activity improves learning a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengqin; Sulpizio, Simone; Kornpetpanee, Suchada; Job, Remo

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that concurrent physical activity enhances learning a completely unfamiliar L2 vocabulary as compared to learning it in a static condition. In this paper we report a study whose aim is twofold: to test for possible positive effects of physical activity when L2 learning has already reached some level of proficiency, and to test whether the assumed better performance when engaged in physical activity is limited to the linguistic level probed at training (i.e. L2 vocabulary tested by means of a Word-Picture Verification task), or whether it extends also to the sentence level (which was tested by means of a Sentence Semantic Judgment Task). The results show that Chinese speakers with basic knowledge of English benefited from physical activity while learning a set of new words. Furthermore, their better performance emerged also at the sentential level, as shown by their performance in a Semantic Judgment task. Finally, an interesting temporal asymmetry between the lexical and the sentential level emerges, with the difference between the experimental and control group emerging from the 1st testing session at the lexical level but after several weeks at the sentential level.

  19. Active Learning through Online Quizzes: Better Learning and Less (Busy) Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Brian Robert; Babon, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Active learning is increasingly promoted within institutions of higher education to assist students develop higher order thinking and link knowledge to meaning. In this paper, the authors evaluate the use of weekly online quizzes based on prescribed preparatory material as a tool to incentivize preparatory reading in order to enable and encourage…

  20. Profile of NASA software engineering: Lessons learned from building the baseline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dana; Mcgarry, Frank

    1993-01-01

    It is critically important in any improvement activity to first understand the organization's current status, strengths, and weaknesses and, only after that understanding is achieved, examine and implement promising improvements. This fundamental rule is certainly true for an organization seeking to further its software viability and effectiveness. This paper addresses the role of the organizational process baseline in a software improvement effort and the lessons we learned assembling such an understanding for NASA overall and for the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in particular. We discuss important, core data that must be captured and contrast that with our experience in actually finding such information. Our baselining efforts have evolved into a set of data gathering, analysis, and crosschecking techniques and information presentation formats that may prove useful to others seeking to establish similar baselines for their organization.