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Sample records for profiles cross sections

  1. Reducing cross-sectional data using a genetic algorithm method and effects on cross-section geometry and steady-flow profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbrock, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    Reduction of cross-sectional data using a genetic algorithm method, and the effects of data reduction on channel geometry and steady-flow profiles, were analyzed. Two reduction methods─standard and genetic algorithms─were used to reduce cross-sectional data from the Kootenai River in northern Idaho. Cross sections that are representative of meander, straight, braided, and canyon reaches were used to evalutate the reduction methods. Visual and hydraulic analyses were used to assess the methods. The genetic algorithm-reduced cross sections approximated the shape of the original cross sections better than the standard-reduced cross sections. A greater number of cross-sectional data points were needed for reduced cross sections in the straight reach, and even more in the braided reach, because a greater amount of data points are needed to adequately define cross sections that have greater topographic varability. For the genetic algorithm-reduction method, about 40 data points were needed to adequately define the shape of a reduced cross section in the braided reach compared to 10 to 20 data points in the meander and canyon reaches. The standard-reduction method needed about 70 data points for the braided reach and more than 30 points for the meander and canyon reaches. The genetic algorithm can effectively reduce data while staying within the threshold set by the maximum number of points to be included in the reduced dataset.

  2. Fourier cross-sectional profile for vessel detection on retinal images.

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    Zhu, Tao

    2010-04-01

    Retinal blood vessels are important objects in ophthalmologic images. In spite of many attempts for vessel detection, it appears that existing methodologies are based on edge detection or modeling of vessel cross-sectional profiles in intensity. The application of these methodologies is hampered by the presence of a wide range of retinal vessels. In this paper we define a universal representation for upward and downward vessel cross-sectional profiles with varying boundary sharpness. This expression is used to define a new scheme of vessel detection based on symmetry and asymmetry in the Fourier domain. Phase congruency is utilized for measuring symmetry and asymmetry so that our scheme is invariant to vessel brightness variations. We have performed experiments on fluorescein images and color fundus images to show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm technique. We also have performed a width measurement study, using an optimal medial axis skeletonization scheme as a post-processing step, to compare the technique with the generalized Gaussian profile modeling. The new algorithm technique is promising for automated vessel detection where optimizing profile models is difficult and preserving vessel width information is necessary. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Balanced geological cross-section of the outer ukrainian carpathians along the pancake profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakapelukh, M.; Bubniak, I.; Yegorova, T.; Murovskaya, A.; Gintov, O.; Shlapinskyi, V.; Vikhot, Yu

    2017-07-01

    The Outer Ukrainian Carpathians (OUC) are part of the Eastern Carpathians, which is a segment of the European Alpine belt. The OUC is crossed by recently acquired WARR (wide angle reflection and refraction) PANCAKE profile (Starostenko et al., 2013). To study the basin architecture of the OUC along the profile a balanced geological cross-section was onstructed. Reconstruction of the balanced geological cross-section has shown that the present day fold-and-thrust belt of the Outer (Flysch) Carpathians was formed in the Miocene from the deposits of the sedimentary basin ∼ 460 km in width. Evolution of the sedimentary basin to the present fold-and-thrust belt 70 km in width occurred in two stages, characterized by accelerating the shortening rate of the basin from 11.5 km/Ma between ∼ 32 and 22 Ma to 22.5 km/Ma between ∼ 22 and 12 Ma. The detachment of the flysch complexes of the OUC occurred on the top of the basement located at a depth of 10 - 12 km. The main phase of Miocene thrusting was followed by significant exhumation and erosion during the period of 12 - 2 Ma related to isostatic uplift in the OUC, which reached a maximum (up to 7 km) in the central nappes (Krosno and Dukla-Chornohora). The collision regime, obviously, followed the subduction one; this could happen approximately at 22 Ma which is evident after changing the shortening rate of the basin.

  4. Profiling of the injected charge drift current transients by cross-sectional scanning technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaubas, E.; Ceponis, T.; Pavlov, J.; Baskevicius, A.

    2014-02-01

    The electric field distribution and charge drift currents in Si particle detectors are analyzed. Profiling of the injected charge drift current transients has been implemented by varying charge injection position within a cross-sectional boundary of the particle detector. The obtained profiles of the induction current density and duration of the injected charge drift pulses fit well the simulated current variations. Induction current transients have been interpreted by different stages of the bipolar and monopolar drift of the injected carriers. Profiles of the injected charge current transients registered in the non-irradiated and neutron irradiated Si diodes are compared. It has been shown that the mixed regime of the competing processes of drift, recombination, and diffusion appears in the measured current profiles on the irradiated samples. The impact of the avalanche effects can be ignored based on the investigations presented. It has been shown that even a simplified dynamic model enabled us to reproduce the main features of the profiled transients of induced charge drift current.

  5. Numerical calibration of laser line scanning system with multiple sensors for inspecting cross-section profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jingbo; Li, Yuehua; Huang, Fengshan; Liu, Lijian

    2016-11-01

    Line structured light sensors (LSLSs) have gained more and more applications in industry. An interested profile can be easily obtained through the analysis of laser-object intersection stripe. But one sensor is inadequate to get a closed crosssection profile due to the obstacle of the laser light. Thus, multiple LSLSs were integrated as a whole for profile inspection and a numerical calibration method was also proposed. Firstly, the laser planes from all laser projectors were adjusted to coincide with the target plane by adjusting the fixtures of the laser projector. For each sensor, origin of the world coordinate system (WCS) was fixed at the center of a corner calibration dot with its X and Y axis coincide with the row and column direction of target dots. Each sensor camera captured one image of the same target. The relationship between the pixel coordinate system (PCS) and the WCS was established using an interpolation method via the world coordinates of target dot centers and their corresponding pixel coordinates. Then the measurement points from all the sensors were transformed into the global WCS, and a closed cross-section profile can be achieved. This proposed method neither need to establish the intrinsic, the extrinsic and the distortion models of the camera, nor need to solve the complex optimization equations to determine the model coefficients. Finally, a workpeice with stairs and a rectangular block were inspected. The comparison with the measuring results from the coordinate measuring machine further validates the high accuracy of the proposed method.

  6. Psychosocial profile of bullies, victims, and bully-victims: A cross-sectional study

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    Marie eLeiner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While adverse conditions in a child’s life do not excuse inappropriate behavior, they may cause emotional and behavioral problems that require treatment as a preventive measure to reduce the likelihood of bullying. We aimed to identify differences in the psychosocial profiles of adolescents who classified themselves as bullies, victims, or bully-victims. We performed a cross-sectional study in which data were collected between January 2009 and January 2010 from seven university-based clinics in a large metropolitan area with a predominantly Mexican-American population. We collected data on physical aggression among adolescents who self-categorized into the following groups: uninvolved, bullies, victims, and bully-victims. We determined the psychosocial profiles of the adolescents based on responses to the Youth Self Report (YSR and parent’s responses to the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL. A one-way analysis of variance and multivariate regression analyses were performed to compare the various components of the psychosocial profiles among the groups. Our analysis of the CBCL and the YSR assessments identified differences between the uninvolved group and one or more of the other groups. No significant differences were observed among the bully, victim, and bully-victim groups based on the CBCL. We did find significant differences among those groups based on the YSR, however. Our results suggest that emotional and behavioral problems exist among bullies, victims, and bully-victims. Therefore, treatment should not focus only on the victims of bullying; treatment is equally important for the other groups (bullies and bully-victims. Failure to adequately treat the underlying problems experienced by all three groups of individuals could allow the problems of bullying to continue.

  7. LIPID PROFILE OF CIRRHOTIC PATIENTS AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH PROGNOSTIC SCORES: a cross-sectional study

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    Lílian BASSANI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn cirrhosis the production of cholesterol and lipoproteins is altered.ObjectiveEvaluate the lipid profile by measuring total cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels in patients with cirrhosis caused by alcoholism and/or hepatitis C virus infection and determine its association with Child-Pugh and MELD scores.MethodsCross-sectional retrospective study of patients treated at the outpatient clinic in Porto Alegre, Brazil, from 2006 to 2010.ResultsIn total, 314 records were reviewed, and 153 (48.7% met the inclusion criteria, of which 82 (53.6% had cirrhosis that was due to hepatitis C virus infection, 50 (32.7% were due to alcoholism, and 21 (13.7% were due to alcoholism and hepatitis C virus infection. The total cholesterol levels diminished with a Child-Pugh progression (P20 was associated with lower total cholesterol levels (<100mg/dL; P<0.001, very low-density lipoprotein (<16 mg/dL; P=0.006, and low-density lipoprotein (<70 mg/dL; P=0.003. Inverse and statistically significant correlations were observed between Child-Pugh and all the lipid fractions analyzed (P<0.001. The increase in MELD was inversely correlated with reduced levels intotal cholesterol (P<0.001, high-density lipoprotein (P<0.001, low-density lipoprotein (P<0.001, very low-density lipoprotein (P=0.030 and triglyceride (P=0.003.ConclusionA reduction in the lipid profile in patients with cirrhosis due to hepatitis C virus infection and/or alcoholism was significantly associated with the Child-Pugh and MELD prognostic markers. These results suggest that the lipid profile may be used as a tool to assist in evaluating liver disease.

  8. Human milk fatty acids profile changes during prolonged lactation: a cross-sectional study.

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    Lubetzky, Ronit; Zaidenberg-Israeli, Galit; Mimouni, Francis B; Dollberg, Shaul; Shimoni, Eyal; Ungar, Yael; Mandel, Dror

    2012-01-01

    Human milk produced during prolonged lactation (> 1 year) is extraordinarily rich in fat and has a higher energy content than human milk produced during short lactation. To estimate the fatty acid (FA) profile of human milk and to test the hypothesis that the proportion of C12 and C14 (two dietary saturated FA known to most promote hypercholesterolemia) in human milk during prolonged lactation is similar to that in short lactation. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 30 mothers of term infants lactating for more than 1 year as compared with 25 mothers of full-term infants who lactated for 2-6 months. Milk was collected by manual expression in mid-breastfeeding. The two groups did not differ in maternal height, weight, body mass index, diet, infant birth weight and gestational age, but mothers in the prolonged lactation group were significantly older. There was a significant correlation between lactation duration and C12 or C14. The percentage of all FA combined (except for C12 and C14) decreased significantly overtime. In contrast, C12:0 and C14:0 combined increased significantly during lactation (R2 = 10.0%, P lactated for more than 1 year had higher C12 and C14 FA percentages in their milk than women who lactated for 2-6 months.

  9. [Epidemiological profile of hemoglobinopathies: a cross-sectional and descriptive index case study].

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    Dahmani, Fatima; Benkirane, Souad; Kouzih, Jaafar; Woumki, Aziz; Mamad, Hassan; Masrar, Azlarab

    2017-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are congenital disorders resultimg from hemoglobin abnormalities. Major forms are often severe, their management is difficult and associated with a great psychosocial impact on patients and their families. They are classified as rare diseases and are still insufficiently known by health professionals. This lack of knowledge is at the origin of diagnostic errors, delay in their management and therefore high morbidity and mortality rate for these patients. In 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) has published data on hemoglobinopathies epidemiology: more than 330.000 cases of hemoglobinopathy occur each year (83% of cases of sickle cell anemia, 17 % of cases of thalassemia). Hemoglobin disorders are responsible for approximately 3.4% of deaths among people under the age of 5. At the global level, approximately 7% of pregnant women would be carriers of a form of thalassemia and 1% of couples are at risk. However, they are relatively frequent in some regions of the globe where consanguineous marriages are common. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study based on two surveys, the first in May 2015 and the second in June of the same year. It was performed in the immunization days to deliver pneumococcal vaccine to the index cases and it was aimed to describe the epidemiological features of families at risk of hemoglobinopathies (index case study), whose index cases were treated in the Department of Pediatrics at the Provincial Hospital El Idrisi, Kenitra, Morocco. After having collected the epidemiological data from patients, laboratory tests were performed including: blood count with red blood cells morphological assessment using the MGG assay and automatic numbering of reticulocytes; hemoglobin electrophoresis at alkaline pH (8.8) and then at acid pH (5.4) on agarose gel and densitometric integration. 275 patients had laboratory profiles compatible with hemoglobinopathy. The majority of these patients were born to consanguineous

  10. Cardiovascular risk profile: Cross-sectional analysis of motivational determinants, physical fitness and physical activity

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    Kiers Henri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with physical fitness and, to a lesser extent, physical activity. Lifestyle interventions directed at enhancing physical fitness in order to decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases should be extended. To enable the development of effective lifestyle interventions for people with cardiovascular risk factors, we investigated motivational, social-cognitive determinants derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB and other relevant social psychological theories, next to physical activity and physical fitness. Methods In the cross-sectional Utrecht Police Lifestyle Intervention Fitness and Training (UP-LIFT study, 1298 employees (aged 18 to 62 were asked to complete online questionnaires regarding social-cognitive variables and physical activity. Cardiovascular risk factors and physical fitness (peak VO2 were measured. Results For people with one or more cardiovascular risk factors (78.7% of the total population, social-cognitive variables accounted for 39% (p In addition to the prediction of intention to engage in physical activity and physical active behavior, we explored the impact of the intensity of physical activity. The intentsity of physical activity was only significantly related to physical active behavior (beta = .253, p 2 = .06, p 2 = .23, p For people with one or more cardiovascular risk factors, 39.9% had positive intentions to engage in physical activity and were also physically active, and 10.5% had a low intentions but were physically active. 37.7% had low intentions and were physically inactive, and about 11.9% had high intentions but were physically inactive. Conclusions This study contributes to our ability to optimize cardiovascular risk profiles by demonstrating an important association between physical fitness and social-cognitive variables. Physical fitness can be predicted by physical active behavior as well as by self-efficacy and the intensity of

  11. Sensitivity of Dobson and Brewer Umkehr ozone profile retrievals to ozone cross-sections and stray light effects

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    L. Flynn

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Remote sounding methods are used to derive ozone profile and column information from various ground-based and satellite measurements. Vertical ozone profiles measured in Dobson units (DU are currently retrieved based on laboratory measurements of the ozone absorption cross-section spectrum between 270 and 400 nm published in 1985 by Bass and Paur (BP. Recently, the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA proposed using the set of ozone cross-section measurements made at the Daumont laboratory in 1992 (BDM for revising the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME satellite ozone profiles and total ozone column retrievals. Dobson Umkehr zenith sky data have been collected by NOAA ground-based stations at Boulder, CO (BDR and Mauna Loa Observatory, HI (MLO since the 1980s. The UMK04 algorithm is based on the BP ozone cross-section data. It is currently used for all Dobson Umkehr data processing submitted to the World Ozone and Ultraviolet radiation Data Centre (WOUDC under the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW program of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO. Ozone profiles are also retrieved from measurements by the Mark IV Brewers operated by the NOAA-EPA Brewer Spectrophotometer UV and Ozone Network (NEUBrew using a modified UMK04 algorithm (O3BUmkehr v.2.6, Martin Stanek. This paper describes the sensitivity of the Umkehr retrievals with respect to the proposed ozone cross-section changes. It is found that the ozone cross-section choice only minimally (within the retrieval accuracy affects the Dobson and the Brewer Umkehr retrievals. On the other hand, significantly larger errors were found in the MLO and Boulder Umkehr ozone data (−8 and +5% bias in stratosphere and troposphere respectively when the out-of-band (OOB stray light contribution to the Umkehr measurement is not taken into account (correction is currently not included in the UMK04. The

  12. FEMA DFIRM Cross Sections

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    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA Cross Sections are required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally...

  13. Fluoroscopic and magnetic resonance cross-sectional imaging assessments of radial and ulnar torsion profiles in volunteers.

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    Dumont, Charles E; Nagy, Ladislav; Ziegler, Dirk; Pfirrmann, Christian W A

    2007-04-01

    Planning an osteotomy to correct rotational malunions of the forearm is difficult because the uninvolved side is the only available reference to assess radial and ulnar torsions. This study was designed to compare the reliability of 2 methods for the determination of the torsion profile of both forearm bones and to assess side differences further in volunteers. Fluoroscopy in combination with goniometry and magnetic resonance (MR) cross-sectional imaging were used to determine torsion profiles of the radius and the ulna in 24 asymptomatic volunteers. Interrater and interside reliabilities were assessed. For the radius, interclass correlation coefficients were less than 0.65 with fluoroscopy and greater than 0.80 with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For the ulna, both methods had an interclass correlation coefficient of greater than 0.90. Maximum side-to-side differences assessed with fluoroscopy and MRI were 25 degrees and 34.5 degrees for the radius and 20 degrees and 32 degrees for the ulna, respectively. There were no statistical differences between sides using both methods for both forearm bones. Fluoroscopy coupled with goniometry is a valuable method for assessing the torsion profile of the ulna. MR cross-sectional imaging is better to assess the torsion profile of the radius; however, a side difference in torsion profile of up to 35 degrees for the radius and of up to 20 degrees for the ulna should be considered physiologic. Hence, only side differences greater than these limits may serve as an indication for an axial osteotomy in the clinical setting.

  14. The Profile of Saudi Nursing Workforce: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Mohammad Alboliteeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The Royal Monarchy in Saudi Arabia decreed that all sectors of the workforce would be subject to a policy of “Saudisation” to reduce the reliance on the expatriate workforce and to reduce the unemployment rate of Saudi nationals (Al-Mahmoud et al., 2012. Methodology. A cross-sectional design was chosen to investigate the research questions. The population of this study comprised Saudi Registered Nurses working in MOH hospitals in Riyadh which is the main health care provider in Saudi Arabia (Aboul-Enein, 2002; MOH, 2009. Results and Findings. A total number of 1,198 questionnaires were distributed and 61.2% (n=741 were returned. The findings of the study showed that the questionnaires were collected from an equal portion of the study locale and that a sample of 741 is enough to create a strong conclusion and answer the problem set in this study and all the questions in the study have been provided with answers with enough data and literatures to supports its findings. Conclusion and Recommendations. The results indicate that an increase in the recruitment of Saudi males may simply reflect cultural issues such as gender specific facilities and the Saudisation program’s nondiscriminatory approach to employment of both genders into nursing.

  15. Anthropometric profile and diabetic foot risk: a cross-sectional study using thermography.

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    Neves, Eduardo B; Almeida, Antonio J; Rosa, Claudio; Vilaca-Alves, Jose; Reis, Victor M; Mendes, Romeu

    2015-08-01

    Diabetes is one of the greatest todays public health problems with enormous social and economic implications for society. Diabetic foot disorders represent a substantial economic burden with detrimental effects on quality of life with special impairment in physical domain. Early detection strategies of these complications should be implemented in order to avoid possible wounds, ulcerations and amputations. This work can be characterized as a cross-sectional study with an analytical approach. It involved 44 volunteers of both genders (22 women and 22 men; 66.70 ± 6.26 years of age) with type 2 diabetes (diagnosed at 11.84 ± 8.22 years), selected among the candidates to Diabetes em Movimento® (a community-based exercise program for patients with type 2 diabetes developed in the city of Vila Real, Portugal). Foot plantar thermal images were acquired through a high-resolution infrared camera (FLIR Systems Inc. Model SC2000; 320 × 240 pixels). Three regions of interest (ROI) were defined for evaluation: first finger, fifth finger and the heel. From the three pairs of ROIs evaluated, the higher temperature asymmetry was selected for diabetic foot risk analysis. The results showed the existence of a positive and significant association between BMI and fat mass with asymmetries in feet temperature. Three subjects with diabetes-related foot complications (ROIs higher temperature asymmetry ≥ 2.20 °C) were identified in the sample. All participants with detected diabetes-related foot complications were obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) with high levels of body fat (≥ 45%). It can be concluded that exist a positive association either of BMI (r=0.399, p=0.007) either of body fat percentage (r=0.432, p=0.003), with diabetic foot risk in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  16. Profile and reintegration experience of Ebola survivors in Guinea: a cross-sectional study.

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    Delamou, Alexandre; Camara, Bienvenu Salim; Kolie, Jean Pe; Guemou, Achille Diona; Haba, Nyankoye Yves; Marquez, Shannon; Beavogui, Abdoul Habib; Delvaux, Therese; van Griensven, Johan

    2017-03-01

    To describe the experience of Guinean Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors in Guinea, up to ten months after discharge from the Ebola treatment unit. Cross-sectional study using a standardised semistructured questionnaire among survivors from Conakry and Coyah districts in 2015 in Guinea. We used proportions, mean (standard deviation) and median (interquartile range) to summarise the variables. The McNemar chi-square test was used to compare proportions. The 121 EVD survivors interviewed had a median reintegration time from discharge of 18 weeks (IQR: 14-32 weeks). Most survivors were aged 15-44 years (87.6%) with secondary to higher level of education (68.6%), and 25.6% were healthcare workers. The majority reported a lower socio-economic status (90%), a less favourable work situation (79%) and psychological status (60%). About 31% reported physical health problems. Most survivors reported lower levels of reintegration with friends and at work place (72%) and lower acceptance by others in general (71%) in the period after the EVD as compared to the period before the EVD. Only 55 survivors (45.5%) were involved in one or more activities of the EVD response: participation in clinical studies on the EVD (44 survivors, 36.4%), community sensitisation (28 survivors, 23.1%) or work in Ebola treatment and/or transit centres (23 survivors, 21.7%). There is a need for a long-term follow-up of EVD survivors in Guinea and more efforts to support their social, professional and economic reintegration, especially in rural areas. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Bacterial vaginosis in pregnant adolescents: proinflammatory cytokine and bacterial sialidase profile. Cross-sectional study

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    Carolina Sanitá Tafner Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Bacterial vaginosis occurs frequently in pregnancy and increases susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STI. Considering that adolescents are disproportionally affected by STI, the aim of this study was to evaluate the cervicovaginal levels of interleukin (IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8 and bacterial sialidase in pregnant adolescents with bacterial vaginosis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at mother and child referral units in Belém, Pará, Brazil. METHODS: Vaginal samples from 168 pregnant adolescents enrolled were tested for trichomoniasis and candidiasis. Their vaginal microbiota was classified according to the Nugent criteria (1991 as normal, intermediate or bacterial vaginosis. Cervical infection due to Chlamydia trachomatisand Neisseria gonorrhoeae was also assessed. Cytokine and sialidase levels were measured, respectively, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and MUAN conversion in cervicovaginal lavages. Forty-eight adolescents (28.6% were excluded because they tested positive for some of the infections investigated. The remaining 120 adolescents were grouped according to vaginal flora type: normal (n = 68 or bacterial vaginosis (n = 52. Their cytokine and sialidase levels were compared between the groups using the Mann-Whitney test (P < 0.05. RESULTS: The pregnant adolescents with bacterial vaginosis had higher levels of IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-8 (P < 0.05. Sialidase was solely detected in 35 adolescents (67.2% with bacterial vaginosis. CONCLUSIONS: Not only IL-1 beta and sialidase levels, but also IL-6 and IL-8 levels are higher in pregnant adolescents with bacterial vaginosis, thus indicating that this condition elicits a more pronounced inflammatory response in this population, which potentially increases vulnerability to STI acquisition.

  18. Cardiovascular risk profile of high school students: a cross-sectional study.

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    Rocha, Teresa; Rocha, Evangelista; Alves, Ana Catarina; Medeiros, Ana Margarida; Francisco, Vânia; Silva, Sónia; Mendes Gaspar, Isabel; Rato, Quitéria; Bourbon, Mafalda

    2014-09-01

    Disease prevention should begin in childhood and lifestyles are important risk determinants of cardiovascular disease. Awareness and monitoring of risk is essential in preventive strategies. To characterize cardiovascular risk and the relationships between certain variables in adolescents. In a cross-sectional study, 854 adolescent schoolchildren were surveyed, mean age 16.3 ± 0.9 years. Data collection included questionnaires, physical examination, charts for 10-year relative risk of mortality, and biochemical assays. In the statistical analysis continuous variables were studied by the Student's t test and categorical variables by the chi-square test and Fisher's exact test, and each risk factor was entered as a dependent variable in logistic regression analysis. Physical activity was insufficient in 81% of students. The daily consumption of soup, salad or vegetables, and fruit was, respectively, 37%, 39% and 21%. A minority (6%) took ≤ 3 and 77% took ≥ 5 meals a day. The prevalence of each risk factor was as follows: overweight 16%; smoking 13%; hypertension 11%; impaired glucose metabolism 9%; hypertriglyceridemia 9%; and hypercholesterolemia 5%. Out-of-school physical activity, hypertension and overweight were more prevalent in males (pcardiovascular mortality of ≥ 2. Overweight showed a positive association with blood pressure, changes in glucose metabolism and triglycerides, and a negative association with number of daily meals. The results demonstrate the need for action in providing and encouraging healthy choices for adolescents, with an emphasis on behavioral and lifestyle changes aimed at individuals, families and communities. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. Cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons of metabolic profiles between vegetarian and non-vegetarian subjects: a matched cohort study.

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    Chiu, Yen-Feng; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chiu, Tina H T; Lee, Chun-Yi; Liu, Ting-Ting; Tsao, Chwen Keng; Chuang, Su-Chun; Hsiung, Chao A

    2015-10-28

    Several previous cross-sectional studies have shown that vegetarians have a better metabolic profile than non-vegetarians, suggesting that a vegetarian dietary pattern may help prevent chronic degenerative diseases. However, longitudinal studies on the impact of vegetarian diets on metabolic traits are scarce. We studied how several sub-types of vegetarian diets affect metabolic traits, including waist circumference, BMI, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), HDL, LDL, TAG and TC:HDL ratio, through both cross-sectional and longitudinal study designs. The study used the MJ Health Screening database, with data collected from 1994 to 2008 in Taiwan, which included 4415 lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 1855 lacto-vegetarians and 1913 vegans; each vegetarian was matched with five non-vegetarians based on age, sex and study site. In the longitudinal follow-up, each additional year of vegan diet lowered the risk of obesity by 7 % (95 % CI 0·88, 0·99), whereas each additional year of lacto-vegetarian diet lowered the risk of elevated SBP by 8 % (95 % CI 0·85, 0·99) and elevated glucose by 7 % (95 % CI 0·87, 0·99), and each additional year of ovo-lacto-vegetarian diet increased abnormal HDL by 7 % (95 % CI 1·03, 1·12), compared with non-vegetarians. In the cross-sectional comparisons, all sub-types of vegetarians had lower likelihoods of abnormalities compared with non-vegetarians on all metabolic traits (Pvegetarians is partially attributable to lower BMI. With proper management of TAG and HDL, along with caution about the intake of refined carbohydrates and fructose, a plant-based diet may benefit all aspects of the metabolic profile.

  20. Elastic Modulus Profiles in the Cross Sections of Drying Alkyd Coating Films: Modelling and Experiments

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    Mirone, Giuseppe; Marton, B.; Marton, Beáta; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2004-01-01

    The temporal development of the modulus of elasticity and its profile were studied in water-borne alkyd coatings during the drying process of the coating films. Values of the Young’s moduli of elasticity of free coating films were measured using tensile tests. Since the elastic modulus is related to

  1. Vegan diet and blood lipid profiles: a cross-sectional study of pre and postmenopausal women.

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    Huang, Yee-Wen; Jian, Zhi-Hong; Chang, Hui-Chin; Nfor, Oswald Ndi; Ko, Pei-Chieh; Lung, Chia-Chi; Lin, Long-Yau; Ho, Chien-Chang; Chiang, Yi-Chen; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2014-04-08

    Vegan diet has been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular diseases and mortality, partly due to its effects on serum lipid profiles. Lipid profiles [high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG)] have not been fully elucidated either in pre and postmenopausal vegans or in ovo-lacto vegetarians. This study aimed to compare lipid profiles among vegans, ovo-lacto vegetarians and omnivores. Demographic data and lipid profiles were obtained from the 2002 Taiwanese Survey on Hypertension, Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to examine factors significantly and independently associated with different categories of veganism and to estimate the β value of lipid profiles in the dietary types. A total of 2397 premenopausal and 1154 postmenopausal participants who did not receive lipid lowering drugs were enrolled. Premenopausal vegans had significantly lower HDL-C and higher TG, LDL-C/HDL-C, total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C compared with omnivores. For postmenopausal women, vegans had lower TC while ovo-lacto vegetarians were observed with low HDL-C when compared with omnivores. Multivariate linear regression analyses showed that vegan and ovo-lacto vegetarian diets decreased HDL-C levels in premenopausal women (β = -7.63, p = 0.001 and β = -4.87, p = 0.001, respectively). There were significant associations between lower LDL-C and ovo-lacto vegetarian diets (β = -7.14, p = 0.008) and also between TG and vegan diet (β = 23.37, p = 0.008), compared with omnivorous diet. Post-menopausal women reported to have consumed either a vegan or an ovo-lacto vegetarian diet were at the risk of having low HDL-C unlike those that consumed omnivorous diets (β = -4.88, p = 0.015 and β = -4.48, p = 0.047). There were no significant changes in LDL-C in both pre and postmenopausal vegans. Vegan diet was

  2. Experimental and Numerical Study of the Buckling of Composite Profiles with Open Cross Section under Axial Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozylo, Patryk; Teter, Andrzej; Debski, Hubert; Wysmulski, Pawel; Falkowicz, Katarzyna

    2017-10-01

    The object of the research are short, thin-walled columns with an open top-hat cross section made of multilayer laminate. The walls of the investigated profiles are made of plate elements. The entire columns are subjected to uniform compression. A detailed analysis allowed us to determine critical forces and post-critical equilibrium paths. It is assumed that the columns are articulately supported on the edges forming their ends. The numerical investigation is performed by the finite element method. The study involves solving the problem of eigenvalue and the non-linear problem of stability of the structure. The numerical analysis is performed by the commercial simulation software ABAQUS®. The numerical results are then validated experimentally. In the discussed cases, it is assumed that the material operates within a linearly-elastic range, and the non-linearity of the FEM model is due to large displacements.

  3. Floodplain Cross Section Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This table is required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally any FIRM...

  4. Tinzaparin Provides Lower Lipid Profiles in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsien Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a low-molecular-weight heparin, tinzaparin has effectively been used as an anticoagulant during hemodialysis sessions. However, the impact of different heparin types on dyslipidemia is still controversial. In our study, 434 chronic hemodialysis patients were evaluated. The mean age was 65 ± 13. Forty-eight patients (11% and 386 patients (89% were in the tinzaparin and unfractionated heparin (UFH groups, respectively. Triglyceride had significant difference between the two groups (P=0.001 but total cholesterol, HDL, or LDL did not. In the univariate analysis, the triglyceride level was significantly associated with tinzaparin use [β: −39.9, 95% confidence interval (CI: −76.7 to −3.0], and this association remained following the multivariate analysis (β: −40.8, 95% CI: −75.1 to −6.5. The difference in serum total cholesterol level between tinzaparin and UFH became significant (β: −13, 95% CI: −24.5 to −1.56 after adjustment in the multivariate analysis. Moreover, in a subgroup analysis, male diabetic patients showed lower serum triglyceride levels with the use of tinzaparin, while older, nondiabetic, male patients showed significant advantages in total cholesterol levels with the use of tinzaparin. Based on our findings, tinzaparin shows a significant association with a lower lipid profile in patients with chronic hemodialysis when compared to UFH.

  5. Bacterial profile of aggressive periodontitis in Morocco: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahboun, Hanane; Arnau, Maria Minguez; Herrera, David; Sanz, Mariano; Ennibi, Oum Keltoum

    2015-02-24

    Aggressive periodontitis (AgP) is one of the most severe forms of periodontal diseases. In Morocco, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans has been strongly associated with AgP, however limited knowledge is available about the implication of other periodontal pathogens in this entity. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the composition of the subgingival microbiota in Moroccan patients with AgP. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from 50 aggressive, 13 localized and 37 generalized periodontitis patients. Samples from 20 chronic periodontitis (ChP) patients were taken as controls. Samples collected from the four deepest periodontal pockets in each patient were pooled in pre-reduced transport fluid and examined by culture. A. actinomycetemcomitans was significantly more frequent (p = 0.004) in generalised AgP compared to ChP, and Porphyromonas gingivalis was less prevalent in localized AgP, when compared with generalized AgP (p = 0.040) or ChP (p = 0.016). Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Tannerella forsythia were also frequently detected in all groups. Mean proportions of A. actinomycetemcomitans were significantly higher in AgP groups, when compared to ChP, and generalized AgP patients harbored significantly higher proportions of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia, when compared to localized AgP or ChP. A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, P. intermedia and F. nucleatum were frequently detected in this Moroccan population with AgP. Differences in frequency of detection, counts and proportions of A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis and T. forsythia suggests the presence of distinct microbiological profiles for localized AgP, generalized AgP and ChP patients.

  6. A cross-sectional study of the association between circulating TSH level and lipid profile in a large Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Palacios, Silvia; Brugos-Larumbe, Antonio; Guillén-Grima, Francisco; Galofré, Juan C

    2013-12-01

    Some evidence suggests that high serum TSH levels are associated with an adverse lipid profile, but this association is not clear when plasma TSH is within the reference range. Nevertheless, these studies have never been conducted in Spain, a country with a strong adherence to the Mediterranean diet. The study aim was to analyse the association between blood TSH levels and circulating lipids in a large Spanish population and set up a TSH reference range in different age, gender and Body Mass Index (BMI) subpopulations from our cohort. Cross-sectional study on 20 783 subjects. We analysed circulating levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) and triglycerides (TG) and compared them with TSH serum levels. Discriminant function analysis was used to determine the TSH cut-off level from where hyperlipidaemia developed. In individuals free of thyroid dysfunction, the mean and the 95% TSH (mU/l) reference limits were 2·20 and 0·72-4·43, respectively. We observed a sex-related difference in TSH concentration (men, 2·07 and 0·72-4·29; women, 2·29 and 0·72-4·49; P profile became less favourable, even within the normal range. Additionally, TSH reference ranges varied according to gender, age and BMI. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Influence of difference in cross-sectional dose profile in a CTDI phantom on X-ray CT dose estimation: a Monte Carlo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Tomonobu; Koyama, Shuji; Ida, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    The longitudinal dose profile in a computed tomography dose index (CTDI) phantom had been studied by many researchers. The cross-sectional dose profile in the CTDI phantom, however, has not been studied. It is also important to understand the cross-sectional dose profile in the CTDI phantom for dose estimation in X-ray CT. In this study, the cross-sectional dose profile in the CTDI phantom was calculated by use of a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation method. A helical or a 320-detector-row cone-beam X-ray CT scanner was simulated. The cross-sectional dose profile in the CTDI phantom from surface to surface through the center point was calculated by MC simulation. The shape of the calculation region was a cylinder of 1-mm-diameter. The length of the cylinder was 23, 100, or 300 mm to represent various CT ionization chamber lengths. Detailed analyses of the energy depositions demonstrated that the cross-sectional dose profile was different in measurement methods and phantom sizes. In this study, we also focused on the validation of the weighting factor used in weighted CTDI (CTDI w ). As it stands now, the weighting factor used in CTDI w is (1/3, 2/3) for the (central, peripheral) axes. Our results showed that an equal weighting factor, which is (1/2, 1/2) for the (central, peripheral) axes, is more suitable to estimate the average cross-sectional dose when X-ray CT dose estimation is performed.

  8. A cross- sectional

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... National cholesterol education program; adult treatment panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) definitions in Turkish adults. A cross-sectional study was ... and type 2 diabetes mellitus (Kirkendoll et al., 2010;. WHO Consultation, 1999). ..... and level of physical activity contribute significantly to the frequency of MetS, other ...

  9. Total Cross Sections

    CERN Document Server

    Giacomelli, G

    2000-01-01

    The measurements of the hadron-hadron total cross sections are the first measurements performed when a new hadron accelerator opens up a new energy region; the measurements were made as function of the incoming beam momentum or c.m. energy and have often been repeated with improved accuracy and finer energy spacing.

  10. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE CRITICAL STATE OF THIN-WALLED STRUCTURE WITH Z-PROFILE CROSS SECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patryk Różyło

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The object of the study was the thin-walled profile with Z-shaped cross section made of the carbon-epoxy composite. Material model was prepared based on the implemented orthotropic properties. The purpose of study was to determine the value of the critical load at which buckling occurs, the form of buckling and operating characteristics in critical condition. In order to achieve this numerical analysis were carried out. Additionally, the effects of the modification in arrangement of layers of the laminate to the stability and strength of thin-walled composite structures was presented. Numerical studies were carried out using commercial simulation software - ABAQUS®. Within the FEM research, both forms of buckling and the associated critical load, dependent on the configuration the layers of the composite were achieved. Analysis of the obtained results, allowed the evaluation of the structure's work in relation to the level of energy consumption or rigidity estimation. In the paper only numerical simulations of the critical state were conducted.

  11. Sensory, psychological, and metabolic dysfunction in HIV-associated peripheral neuropathy: A cross-sectional deep profiling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Tudor J.C.; Brown, Matthew; Ramirez, Juan D.; Perkins, James; Woldeamanuel, Yohannes W.; Williams, Amanda C. de C.; Orengo, Christine; Bennett, David L.H.; Bodi, Istvan; Cox, Sarah; Maier, Christoph; Krumova, Elena K.; Rice, Andrew S.C.

    2014-01-01

    HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is a frequent complication of HIV infection and a major source of morbidity. A cross-sectional deep profiling study examining HIV-SN was conducted in people living with HIV in a high resource setting using a battery of measures which included the following: parameters of pain and sensory symptoms (7 day pain diary, Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory [NPSI] and Brief Pain Inventory [BPI]), sensory innervation (structured neurological examination, quantitative sensory testing [QST] and intraepidermal nerve fibre density [IENFD]), psychological state (Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20 [PASS-20], Depression Anxiety and Positive Outlook Scale [DAPOS], and Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS], insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index [ISI]), and quality of life (Short Form (36) Health Survey [SF-36]). The diagnostic utility of the Brief Peripheral Neuropathy Screen (BPNS), Utah Early Neuropathy Scale (UENS), and Toronto Clinical Scoring System (TCSS) were evaluated. Thirty-six healthy volunteers and 66 HIV infected participants were recruited. A novel triumvirate case definition for HIV-SN was used that required 2 out of 3 of the following: 2 or more abnormal QST findings, reduced IENFD, and signs of a peripheral neuropathy on a structured neurological examination. Of those with HIV, 42% fulfilled the case definition for HIV-SN (n = 28), of whom 75% (n = 21) reported pain. The most frequent QST abnormalities in HIV-SN were loss of function in mechanical and vibration detection. Structured clinical examination was superior to QST or IENFD in HIV-SN diagnosis. HIV-SN participants had higher plasma triglyceride, concentrations depression, anxiety and catastrophizing scores, and prevalence of insomnia than HIV participants without HIV-SN. PMID:24973717

  12. Radar cross section

    CERN Document Server

    Knott, Gene; Tuley, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This is the second edition of the first and foremost book on this subject for self-study, training, and course work. Radar cross section (RCS) is a comparison of two radar signal strengths. One is the strength of the radar beam sweeping over a target, the other is the strength of the reflected echo sensed by the receiver. This book shows how the RCS ?gauge? can be predicted for theoretical objects and how it can be measured for real targets. Predicting RCS is not easy, even for simple objects like spheres or cylinders, but this book explains the two ?exact? forms of theory so well that even a

  13. In-depth hardness profiles of stainless steel and Ni-Ti endodontic instrument cross-sections by nano-indentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinelis, S; Akhtar, R; Tsakiridis, P; Watts, D C; Silikas, N

    2008-09-01

    To evaluate the in-depth hardness profiles of Stainless Steel (SS) and nickel titanium (Ni-Ti) endodontic instrument cross-sections using a nano-indentation technique. Three SS (Reamer, K and Hedström) and three Ni-Ti (ProFile, NRT and Liberator) instruments were studied. After embedding and metallographic preparation the in-depth hardness profiles of instrument cross-sections were measured starting from the cutting surface towards the centre to a depth of 2000 nm using an MTS XP nanoindenter with a Berkovich diamond indenter. The results of hardness measurements of outer (near to cutting edge) and inner locations were statistically analyzed by two-way anova followed by SNK test (alpha = 0.05). For all instrument cross-sections the maximum hardness was obtained at the outer surface followed by hardness attenuation towards the centre of the cross section. The statistical analysis of hardness classified the instruments, for both outer and innermost locations, to the following decreasing order: Reamer > K > Hedström > Profile > NRT shank (without thermal treatment) > NRT tip (with thermal treatment) > Liberator. The maximal hardness, at the outer surface of endodontic instruments, can be attributed to the residual stresses developed due to cutting and thermal effects during the manufacturing process. The increased outer layer hardness may have a beneficial effect on the cutting ability and wear resistance of endodontic instruments. All endodontic instruments had a decrease in hardness towards their centre. This implies that the surface hardness of contemporary endodontic instruments is significantly enhanced by the consequences of manufacturing processes.

  14. Are Sport-Specific Profiles of Tendon Stiffness and Cross-Sectional Area Determined by Structural or Functional Integrity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Peter Wiesinger

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine whether distinct sets of tendon properties are seen in athletes engaged in sports with contrasting requirements for tendon function and structural integrity. Patellar and Achilles tendon morphology and force-deformation relation were measured by combining ultrasonography, electromyography and dynamometry in elite ski jumpers, distance runners, water polo players and sedentary individuals. Tendon cross-sectional area normalized to body mass2/3 was smaller in water polo players than in other athletes (patellar and Achilles tendon; -28 to -24% or controls (patellar tendon only; -9%. In contrast, the normalized cross-sectional area was larger in runners (patellar tendon only; +26% and ski jumpers (patellar and Achilles tendon; +21% and +13%, respectively than in controls. Tendon stiffness normalized to body mass2/3 only differed in ski jumpers, compared to controls (patellar and Achilles tendon; +11% and +27%, respectively and to water polo players (Achilles tendon only; +23%. Tendon size appears as an adjusting variable to changes in loading volume and/or intensity, possibly to preserve ultimate strength or fatigue resistance. However, uncoupled morphological and mechanical properties indicate that functional requirements may also influence tendon adaptations.

  15. The effect of fat intake and antihypertensive drug therapy on serum lipid profile: a cross-sectional survey of serum lipids in male and female hypertensives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rakesh; Raghuram, T C; Rao, U Brahmoji; Moffatt, Robert J; Krishnaswamy, Kamla

    2010-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of betablocker with diuretics therapy on serum cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) lipids in cross-sectional data (age, sex, weight, and body mass index (BMI), smoking/alcoholic consumption) and supplemented vegetarian low-fat diet with daily low fat energy intake, salt intake, duration of drug therapy, and serum protein as effective measures of lowering blood pressure among hypertensives in both males and females. Hypertensive patients on betablocker and/or thiazide therapy were compared in cross-section study with their age, blood pressure, fat intake, serum lipid profile, BMI, and serum albumin in males and females. Dietary fat intake and serum lipid profile were income related. Betablocker and diuretics therapy in combination with dietary fat intervention was beneficial for prolonged dyslipidemia control. Serum cholesterol level was main contributing factor dependent on BMI, duration of drug, and socio-economic factors. Fat intake contributed in hypertension and serum cholesterol levels. A cross-sectional data analysis showed beneficial effects of "low fat-salt-smoking-alcohol consumption and combined polyunsaturated fatty acid with antihypertensive therapy approach" to keep normal dyslipidemia and hypertension. Low fat intake, low salt, smoking, alcohol consumption, and combination of dietary oil supplements with lipid betablockers and diuretic modulators were associated with low hypertension and controlled dyslipidemia in Asian sedentary population.

  16. MMPI-2 Profile of French Transsexuals: The Role of Sociodemographic and Clinical Factors. A cross-sectional design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonierbale, Mireille; Baumstarck, Karine; Maquigneau, Aurélie; Gorin-Lazard, Audrey; Boyer, Laurent; Loundou, Anderson; Auquier, Pascal; Lançon, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of co-existing psychological and psychiatric disorders is advocated in the Standards of Care for the health of transsexual people. This study aimed to determine the psychopathological characteristics of transsexuals based on a large sample of French individuals and to identify whether these characteristics differed according to the individual’s sociodemographic or clinical characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the psychopathological characteristics of transsexuals from a large sample of French individuals and whether these differed by sociodemographic or clinical characteristics. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a French public university hospital. The inclusion criteria were 18 years or older, diagnosis of gender dysphoria, and eligibility for a standardized sex reassignment procedure. Personality characteristics were assessed using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2 (MMPI-2). A total of 108 individuals provided a valid MMPI-2 between January 2007 and December 2010. The final sample had a median age of 31 years and included 54 (50%) Female-to-Male individuals. In multivariate models, hormonal therapy status was significantly related to the scales of MMPI-2 (Psychasthenia and Masculinity/Femininity). Personality assessment can help a multidisciplinary gender dysphoria team detect potential psychopathological factors of vulnerability. PMID:27068099

  17. Stages of Change Profiles among Adults Experiencing Hearing Difficulties Who Have Not Taken Any Action: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchaiah, Vinaya; Rönnberg, Jerker; Andersson, Gerhard; Lunner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to test the hypothesis that adults experiencing hearing difficulties who are aware of their difficulties but have not taken any action would fall under contemplation and preparation stages based on the transtheoretical stages-of-change model. The study employed a cross-sectional design. The study was conducted in United Kingdom and 90 participants completed University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA) scale as well as measures of self-reported hearing disability, self-reported anxiety and depression, self-reported hearing disability acceptance, and provided additional demographic details online. As predicted, the results indicate that a high percentage of participants (over 90%) were in the contemplation and preparation stages. No statistically significant differences were observed among groups of stage with highest URICA scores and factors such as: years since hearing disability, self-reported hearing disability, self-reported anxiety and depression, and self-reported hearing disability acceptance. Cluster analysis identified three stages-of-change clusters, which were named as: decision making (53% of sample), participation (28% of sample), and disinterest (19% of sample). Study results support the stages-of-change model. In addition, implications of the current study and areas for future research are discussed.

  18. The total charm cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, R

    2007-09-14

    We assess the theoretical uncertainties on the total charm cross section. We discuss the importance of the quark mass, the scale choice and the parton densities on the estimate of the uncertainty. We conclude that the uncertainty on the total charm cross section is difficult to quantify.

  19. XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access)   A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.

  20. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). NNDC

    2014-10-23

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  1. Profile of tobacco users identified in primary care practice and predictors of readiness to quit: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Sophia; Tulloch, Heather E.; Gharib, Marie; Pipe, Andrew L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to document the prevalence of tobacco use and describe the characteristics of tobacco users identified in primary care practices. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 49 primary care practices in the province of Ontario. Consecutive patients were screened for smoking status at the time of their clinic appointment. Patients reporting current tobacco use completed a survey, which documented sociodemographic and smoking-related characteristics. Multilevel modelling was used to examine predictors of readiness to quit smoking and the presence of anxiety and/or depression. Results: A total of 56 592 patients were screened, and 5245 tobacco users participated in the survey. Prevalence of tobacco use was 18.2% and varied significantly across practices (range 12.4%-36.1%). Of the respondents, 46.3% reported current anxiety and/or depression, and 61.3% reported smoking within the first 30 minutes of waking. A total of 41.1% of respondents reported they were ready to quit smoking in the next 6 months, and 30.1% reported readiness to quit in the next 30 days. Readiness to quit was positively associated with higher self-efficacy, male sex, presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and more years of tobacco use. The presence of anxiety and/or depression was associated with lower cessation self-efficacy and time to first cigarette within 30 minutes of waking, but did not predict readiness to quit. Interpretation: Tobacco users identified in primary care practices reported high rates of nicotine dependence and anxiety and/or depression, but also high rates of readiness to quit. Study findings support the need to tailor interventions to address the needs of tobacco users identified in primary care settings. PMID:27280113

  2. Musculoskeletal profile of middle-aged Ving Tsun Chinese martial art practitioners: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Shirley S M; Chan, Jessie S M; Bae, Young-Hyeon; Yam, Timothy T T; Chung, Louisa M Y; Ma, Ada W W; Kuisma, Raija

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional exploratory study aimed to quantify and compare the axial and appendicular bone mineral density (BMD), muscle mass, and muscle strength of middle-aged practitioners of Ving Tsun (VT; a hard-style Chinese martial art) with those of nonpractitioners.Eighteen VT practitioners (mean age ± standard deviation = 51.8 ± 17.7 years; 12 men and six women) and 36 active controls (mean age ± standard deviation = 58.7 ± 11.0 years; 18 men and 18 women) participated in the study. All participants underwent a 1-day battery of musculoskeletal examinations. The BMD of the total radius, total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, as was the lean mass of the arm, leg, and trunk. Muscle strength of the upper and lower limbs was assessed using a Jamar dynamometer and an isokinetic dynamometer at 60°/second, respectively.VT-trained participants had a 11.5% higher total radius BMD (P = 0.023), a 17.8% higher leg lean mass (P = 0.014), a 56.4% higher isokinetic body weight-adjusted peak torque of the knee extensors (P  0.05).Middle-aged VT practitioners displayed a higher total radius BMD and leg lean mass and better knee extensor and flexor muscular performances than their healthy active counterparts. Healthcare professionals may consider using this alternative method of training to improve the musculoskeletal health of middle-aged adults.

  3. ISOKINETIC KNEE MUSCLE STRENGTH PROFILE IN BRAZILIAN MALE SOCCER, FUTSAL, AND BEACH SOCCER PLAYERS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarin, Naryana C.; Vargas, Valentine Z.; Vancini, Rodrigo L.; Andrade, Marília S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Anterior cruciate ligament injury is higher in soccer athletes as compared to athletes of other sports. Risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament injury include low knee hamstring/quadriceps strength ratio and bilateral strength deficits. Purpose To investigate isokinetic thigh muscles strength, hamstring/quadriceps strength ratio, and bilateral strength comparisons in athletes who participate in professional soccer, futsal, and beach soccer. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Methods Brazilian professional soccer (n=70), futsal (n=30), and beach soccer (n=12) players were isokinetically assessed to examine strength of knee extensors and flexors at 60 degrees/second in concentric mode, to measure peak torque of dominant and non-dominant limbs. Results In the dominant limb, for extensors muscles, futsal players presented significantly lower peak torque values (223.9 ± 33.4 Nm) than soccer (250.9 ± 43.0 Nm; p=0.02) and beach soccer players (253.1 ± 32.4 Nm; p=0.03). Peak torque for extensor muscles in the non-dominant limb was significantly lower in futsal (224.0 ± 35.8 Nm) than in beach soccer players (256.8 ± 39.8 Nm; p=0.03). Hamstring/quadriceps strength ratio for dominant limbs for futsal (57.6 ± 10.1%), soccer (53.5 ± 8.8%), and beach soccer (56.3 ± 8.4%) players presented no significant differences between groups; however, the mean values were lower than recommended values found in the literature. There were no strength deficits for any of the evaluated groups when compared bilaterally. Conclusions Futsal athletes presented lower values for quadriceps strength than soccer and beach soccer athletes. Futsal, soccer, and beach soccer players presented no strength asymmetries, but they presented with strength imbalance in hamstring/quadriceps strength ratio. Level of Evidence 3 PMID:29234562

  4. Comparing LiDAR-Generated to ground- surveyed channel cross-sectional profiles in a forested mountain stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian C. Dietterick; Russell White; Ryan. Hilburn

    2012-01-01

    Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) holds promise to provide an alternative to traditional ground-based survey methods for stream channel characterization and some change detection purposes, even under challenging landscape conditions. This study compared channel characteristics measured at 53 ground-surveyed and LiDAR-derived crosssectional profiles located...

  5. Clinical features and antinuclear antibodies profile among adults with systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nashwa; Shigidi, Mazin; Al Agib, Al Nour; Abdelrahman, Hassan; Taha, Elshafie

    2017-01-01

    Limited data is available regarding the clinical manifestations and pattern of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) in Sudan. This study aimed to determine the clinical manifestations and Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA) profile among Sudanese adults with SLE and lupus nephritis (LN). A descriptive study was conducted in Omdurman Military Hospital, Sudan. It included all adults with SLE and on regular follow-up during the study period (December 2012 to May 2013). These were investigated regarding their demographic details, clinical features, and immunological profile (ANA, anti-double stranded DNA, and ANA profile 3 levels). Patients with LN had their pattern of renal involvement described; furthermore, associations between the various SLE reactive antibodies and the histological diagnosis of lupus were studied. Sixty-two Sudanese adults with SLE were included, their mean age was 31 ± 10.9 year. Females made 93.5% of patients. A clear predominance of those of Arab ancestry was seen, with most patients being from the Ja'alin and Shaigiya ethnic groups accounting for 29% and 12.9%, respectively. Arthritis was the dominant clinical manifestation seen in 85.5%, whereas renal involvement was seen in 66.1% of patients. Lupus nephritis class III was the dominant histological lesion, seen in 39% of patients. On correlating the ANA profile to the histopathological diagnosis of LN, anti-Nucleosomes and anti-AMA-M2 autoantibodies were found to be significantly associated with LN class IV and class VI, respectively (P values < 0.05). Further epidemiological studies regarding SLE and its ANA profile remain essential as they might help predicting the clinical patterns of the disease and its prognosis.

  6. Rates of advertised condomless sex in the online profiles of private sex workers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackledge, Edjoni; Thng, Caroline; McIver, Ruthy; McNulty, Anna

    2017-06-23

    This study aimed to assess the level of condomless sex advertised online by private sex workers (PSW) in Sydney. In 2015, 750 online profiles of PSW, including 339 female, 53 male and 39 transgender PSWs, were reviewed. It was found that PSWs advertise protected anal and vaginal sex. However, 50% of female PSW advertised condomless oral sex. Age less than 25 years was associated with advertised condomless oral sex (odds ratio 1.56; 95% confidence interval 1.03-2.37; P=0.037). Online platforms are widely used for advertising, especially by female PSWs. Levels of condom use advertised reflect that of other studies of sex workers in Sydney.

  7. The effect of dietary and physical activity pattern on metabolic profile in individuals with schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Joseph C; Palmese, Laura B; Reutenauer, Erin L; Liskov, Ellen; Grilo, Carlos M; Tek, Cenk

    2012-10-01

    With the rate of obesity on the rise worldwide, individuals with schizophrenia represent a particularly vulnerable population. The aim of this study was to assess the metabolic profile of individuals with schizophrenia in relation to dietary and physical activity habits compared with healthy controls. Dietary and physical activity habits of 130 individuals with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were compared with 250 body mass index-, age-, and sex-matched and racially matched controls from the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys using a 24-hour diet recall and a self-report physical activity questionnaire. Individuals with schizophrenia had significantly higher levels of glycosylated hemoglobin and insulin compared with matched controls. In addition, these individuals had an increased waist circumference and diastolic blood pressure than did the comparison group. Daily energy intake was not different between groups; however, individuals with schizophrenia consumed significantly greater amounts of sugar and fat. Individuals with schizophrenia reported engaging in moderate physical activity less frequently compared with the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys group, but there was no difference in reported vigorous physical activity. These findings suggest that the dietary and physical activity habits of individuals with schizophrenia contribute to an adverse metabolic profile. Increased opportunities for physical activity and access to healthy foods for individuals with schizophrenia may ease the burden of disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Lipid profile abnormalities seen in T2DM patients in primary healthcare in Turkey: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozder, Aclan

    2014-12-06

    Diabetes is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and disturbances of carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism. We aimed to research association between serum lipid profile and blood glucose, hypothesizing that early detection and treatment of lipid abnormalities can minimize the risk for atherogenic cardiovascular disorder and cerebrovascular accident in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), triglyceride (TG) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were evaluated. A hepatic ultrasound was performed for every diabetic to evaluate hepatosteatosis. The study was done from January 2014 to June 2014 among 132 patients with T2DM who were admitted to outpatient clinic of Family Medicine department in a university hospital. The patients whose taking multi-vitamin supplementation or having hepatic, renal or metabolic bone disorders (including parathyroid related problems) were excluded from the study for the reason that those conditions might affect the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in diabetes. Test of significance was calculated by unpaired student's t test between cases and controls. Correlation studies (Pearson's correlation) were performed between the variables of blood glucose and serum lipid profile. Significance was set at p<0.05. Results of serum lipid profile showed that the mean values for TC, TG, HDL and LDL in female patients were 227.6 ± 57.7 mg/dl, 221.6 ± 101.1 mg/dl, 31.5 ± 6.7 mg/dl and 136.5 ± 43.7 mg/dl, respectively. The mean values for TC, TG, HDL and LDL in male patients were 219.1 ± 34.7 mg/dl, 250.0 ± 100.7 mg/dl, 30.2 ± 7.4 mg/dl and 125.7 ± 21.4 mg/dl, respectively. Significantly higher mean serum levels of TC, TG and LDL and significantly lower mean serum levels of HDL were noted in patients with diabetes (p<0.001). FBG showed significant positive correlation with TC (p<0.05) and TG (p<0.05). Significant

  9. Association of trace metal elements with lipid profiles in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolide, Amare Desalegn; Zawdie, Belay; Alemayehu, Tilahun; Tadesse, Samuel

    2017-10-13

    It is well known that dyslipidemia and chronic hyperglycemia increase the onset of diabetes and diabetic complication. The aim of this study is to see the association of trace metals elements and lipid profile among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. The study was conducted on 214 type 2 diabetic patients at Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Jimma, Ethiopia. All the eligible study participants responded to the structured interviewer administered questionnaire and fasting venous blood was drawn for biochemical analysis. Trace metal elements (zinc(Zn+2), magnesium(Mg+2), chromium(Cr+3), calcium(Ca+2), phosphorus(Po4-3), manganese(Mn+2), copper(Cu+2), and iron(Fe+3)) and lipid profiles (total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG)) were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and enzymatic determination method respectively. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 24 software for windows. Bonferroni correction for multiple statistical comparisons was used and a p-value less than 0.01 were accepted as a level of significance. The mean age of study participants was 42.95(±12.6) with an average of 5.83(±3.1) years being diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. The BMI of female (27.1(±4.9)) was significantly higher than male (25.21(±4.2)). BMI shows positive and significant (p diabetic patients in the liner regression model. In addition, WH-R was positively associated with TG. In Pearson partial correlation adjusted for sex and age, Za+2 shown to have statistically significant and negative correlations with TC, LDL-C and with TG. Mg+2 and Cr+2 negatively and significantly correlated with the lipid profile TC and LDL-C. Ca+2 negatively correlated with TC and TG. Po-34 positively correlated with HDL-C; iron negatively correlated with TC. However, in the liner regression model, only calcium positively and significantly (Beta = -0.21, p diabetes mellitus patients. In addition, Ca+2

  10. Associations between dietary patterns and gene expression profiles of healthy men and women: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Diet regulates gene expression profiles by several mechanisms. The objective of this study was to examine gene expression in relation with dietary patterns. Methods Two hundred and fifty four participants from the greater Quebec City metropolitan area were recruited. Two hundred and ten participants completed the study protocol. Dietary patterns were derived from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) by factor analysis. For 30 participants (in fasting state), RNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and expression levels of 47,231 mRNA transcripts were assessed using the Illumina Human-6 v3 Expression BeadChips®. Microarray data was pre-processed with Flexarray software and analysed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Results Two dietary patterns were identified. The Prudent dietary pattern was characterised by high intakes of vegetables, fruits, whole grain products and low intakes of refined grain products and the Western dietary pattern, by high intakes of refined grain products, desserts, sweets and processed meats. When individuals with high scores for the Prudent dietary pattern where compared to individuals with low scores, 2,083 transcripts were differentially expressed in men, 1,136 transcripts in women and 59 transcripts were overlapping in men and women. For the Western dietary pattern, 1,021 transcripts were differentially expressed in men with high versus low scores, 1,163 transcripts in women and 23 transcripts were overlapping in men and women. IPA reveals that genes differentially expressed for both patterns were present in networks related to the immune and/or inflammatory response, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Conclusion Gene expression profiles were different according to dietary patterns, which probably modulate the risk of chronic diseases. Trial Registration NCT: NCT01343342 PMID:23398686

  11. Associations between dietary patterns and gene expression profiles of healthy men and women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard-Mercier, Annie; Paradis, Ann-Marie; Rudkowska, Iwona; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2013-02-12

    Diet regulates gene expression profiles by several mechanisms. The objective of this study was to examine gene expression in relation with dietary patterns. Two hundred and fifty four participants from the greater Quebec City metropolitan area were recruited. Two hundred and ten participants completed the study protocol. Dietary patterns were derived from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) by factor analysis. For 30 participants (in fasting state), RNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and expression levels of 47,231 mRNA transcripts were assessed using the Illumina Human-6 v3 Expression BeadChips®. Microarray data was pre-processed with Flexarray software and analysed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Two dietary patterns were identified. The Prudent dietary pattern was characterised by high intakes of vegetables, fruits, whole grain products and low intakes of refined grain products and the Western dietary pattern, by high intakes of refined grain products, desserts, sweets and processed meats. When individuals with high scores for the Prudent dietary pattern where compared to individuals with low scores, 2,083 transcripts were differentially expressed in men, 1,136 transcripts in women and 59 transcripts were overlapping in men and women. For the Western dietary pattern, 1,021 transcripts were differentially expressed in men with high versus low scores, 1,163 transcripts in women and 23 transcripts were overlapping in men and women. IPA reveals that genes differentially expressed for both patterns were present in networks related to the immune and/or inflammatory response, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Gene expression profiles were different according to dietary patterns, which probably modulate the risk of chronic diseases. NCT: NCT01343342.

  12. What is the Profile of Individuals Joining the KNEEguru Online Health Community? A Cross-Sectional Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Philip; Hambly, Karen; Tamakloe, Sandra

    2016-04-18

    The use of the Internet for seekers of health-related information provides convenience and accessibility to diverse sources (of variable quality) for many medical conditions. There is a suggestion that patients may find empowerment by engaging with Internet health care strategies and communities. The profile of consumers of online health information on knee pain has not been explored. Our objective was to identify the characteristics and motivations of online health information-seekers accessing the online health community, KNEEguru (KG). The study was designed to obtain the respondents' sociodemographic profile, together with their main reasons and motivations for joining such a community, their health information-seeking behavior, the extent of their knee problems, and their general Internet usage. We undertook an online questionnaire survey, offered to users of the KG website from June to July 2012. A mix of open and closed questions was used to facilitate inductive enquiry. Quantitative responses were analyzed using univariate analysis; qualitative thematic analysis of the open responses was completed and a conceptual model was developed. One-hundred and fifty-two respondents took part (11.56% response rate, 152/1315), with a mean age of 40.1 years. Of this cohort, 61.2% were female, 68.4% were in domestic partnerships, 57.2% were employed, 75.0% had higher education qualifications, and 80.3% were of white/Caucasian ethnicity. Females were associated with joining KG in order to get emotional support from other users (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.04 - 4.27, P=.04). Respondents' self-perception of health was associated with reported quality of life (OR 10.86, 95% CI 3.85 - 30.43, Pinform and support other community members was stated with reciprocation of ideas and experiences. KG was conceptualized as a filter that takes an individual's condition and emotional response to that condition as basis for support; this filter facilitated validation as the outcome of engagement

  13. Clinical Profile and Comorbidity of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder among Children and Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Observation in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Hafizur Rahman Chowdhury

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD is a common disorder characterised by persistent and unwanted intrusive thoughts, images, and urges and repetitive behaviours or mental acts and can cause pervasive impairments. In Bangladesh, the prevalence of OCD among children is 2% which is higher than in previous reporting. This study was aimed at looking into the type, frequency, and severity of symptoms of OCD and comorbidity among children and adolescents. A consecutive 60 OCD cases from a child mental health service with age range of 5–18 years were recruited and divided into below and above 12 years of age group. The assessment was carried out using standardized Bangla version of Development and Wellbeing Assessment and Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale was administered. Of the obsession, contamination was the highest followed by doubt, and of the compulsion, washing/cleaning was the highest followed by checking, repeating, and ordering rituals. More than half of the subjects had severe OCD and comorbidity was present in 58% subjects. Specific phobia, social phobia, major depressive disorder, and tic disorder were more prevalent. These symptoms and comorbidity profile can serve the baseline data for a country like Bangladesh and further large scale study would better generalize the study results.

  14. A Cross-Sectional Survey to Estimate the Cat Population and Ownership Profiles in a Semirural Area of Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvelli, Andrea; Iacoponi, Francesca; Scaramozzino, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Understanding animal population size and its demographic features is essential to address Public Health policies as well as to provide valuable information to pet industries and veterinary practitioners. Nevertheless, official data on feline population are not available worldwide. In the present study, the owned cat population size, its demographic attributes, and the ownership profiles have been investigated through a face-to-face questionnaire in a semirural area of Central Italy. The human : cat ratio was equal to 6.8 (95% CI: 5.7-7.5); 29.3% of households own at least one cat. The majority of cats were living in a rural area (67.8%) and outdoors, were neutered (70.5%), and were fed with commercial food (54.8%) and they visited a veterinarian 1-2 times a year (43.3%). The cat ownership was strongly associated with people living in a rural area and owning another pet. As the cat owned population was mainly kept outdoors in rural areas, the possible relation between the owned and the stray animals is worthy to be monitored in future researches. Our study revealed that the feline owned population was larger than expected and that social and economic human factors do not influence the cat ownership. Health Authorities and veterinary practitioners should promote responsible ownership to increase the veterinary care, to intensify the official identification, and to properly manage the outdoor lifestyle.

  15. A Cross-Sectional Survey to Estimate the Cat Population and Ownership Profiles in a Semirural Area of Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Carvelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding animal population size and its demographic features is essential to address Public Health policies as well as to provide valuable information to pet industries and veterinary practitioners. Nevertheless, official data on feline population are not available worldwide. In the present study, the owned cat population size, its demographic attributes, and the ownership profiles have been investigated through a face-to-face questionnaire in a semirural area of Central Italy. The human : cat ratio was equal to 6.8 (95% CI: 5.7–7.5; 29.3% of households own at least one cat. The majority of cats were living in a rural area (67.8% and outdoors, were neutered (70.5%, and were fed with commercial food (54.8% and they visited a veterinarian 1-2 times a year (43.3%. The cat ownership was strongly associated with people living in a rural area and owning another pet. As the cat owned population was mainly kept outdoors in rural areas, the possible relation between the owned and the stray animals is worthy to be monitored in future researches. Our study revealed that the feline owned population was larger than expected and that social and economic human factors do not influence the cat ownership. Health Authorities and veterinary practitioners should promote responsible ownership to increase the veterinary care, to intensify the official identification, and to properly manage the outdoor lifestyle.

  16. Terahertz radar cross section measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    We perform angle- and frequency-resolved radar cross section (RCS) measurements on objects at terahertz frequencies. Our RCS measurements are performed on a scale model aircraft of size 5-10 cm in polar and azimuthal configurations, and correspond closely to RCS measurements with conventional radar...

  17. Correlation of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans detection with clinical/immunoinflammatory profile of localized aggressive periodontitis using a 16S rRNA microarray method: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia F Gonçalves

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether the detection of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa correlates with the clinical and immunoinflammatory profile of Localized Aggressive Periodontitis (LAP, as determined by by 16S rRNA gene-based microarray.Subgingival plaque samples from the deepest diseased site of 30 LAP patients [PD ≥ 5 mm, BoP and bone loss] were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene-based microarrays. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF samples were analyzed for 14 cyto/chemokines. Peripheral blood was obtained and stimulated in vitro with P.gingivalis and E.coli to evaluate inflammatory response profiles. Plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS levels were also measured.Aa was detected in 56% of LAP patients and was shown to be an indicator for different bacterial community structures (p0.05. Clinical parameters and serum LPS levels were similar between groups. However, Aa-non-detected GCF contained higher concentration of IL-8 than Aa-detected sites (p<0.05. TNFα and IL1β were elevated upon E.coli LPS stimulation of peripheral blood cells derived from patients with Aa-detected sites.Our findings demonstrate that the detection of Aa in LAP affected sites, did not correlate with clinical severity of the disease at the time of sampling in this cross-sectional study, although it did associate with lower local levels of IL-8, a different subgingival bacterial profile and elevated LPS-induced levels of TNFα and IL1β.

  18. Plasma fatty acid ratios affect blood gene expression profiles--a cross-sectional study of the Norwegian Women and Cancer Post-Genome Cohort.

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    Karina Standahl Olsen

    Full Text Available High blood concentrations of n-6 fatty acids (FAs relative to n-3 FAs may lead to a "physiological switch" towards permanent low-grade inflammation, potentially influencing the onset of cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, as well as cancer. To explore the potential effects of FA ratios prior to disease onset, we measured blood gene expression profiles and plasma FA ratios (linoleic acid/alpha-linolenic acid, LA/ALA; arachidonic acid/eicosapentaenoic acid, AA/EPA; and total n-6/n-3 in a cross-section of middle-aged Norwegian women (n = 227. After arranging samples from the highest values to the lowest for all three FA ratios (LA/ALA, AA/EPA and total n-6/n-3, the highest and lowest deciles of samples were compared. Differences in gene expression profiles were assessed by single-gene and pathway-level analyses. The LA/ALA ratio had the largest impact on gene expression profiles, with 135 differentially expressed genes, followed by the total n-6/n-3 ratio (125 genes and the AA/EPA ratio (72 genes. All FA ratios were associated with genes related to immune processes, with a tendency for increased pro-inflammatory signaling in the highest FA ratio deciles. Lipid metabolism related to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ signaling was modified, with possible implications for foam cell formation and development of cardiovascular diseases. We identified higher expression levels of several autophagy marker genes, mainly in the lowest LA/ALA decile. This finding may point to the regulation of autophagy as a novel aspect of FA biology which warrants further study. Lastly, all FA ratios were associated with gene sets that included targets of specific microRNAs, and gene sets containing common promoter motifs that did not match any known transcription factors. We conclude that plasma FA ratios are associated with differences in blood gene expression profiles in this free-living population, and that affected genes and pathways may

  19. Microscopic cross sections: An utopia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilaire, S. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, DIF 91 (France); Koning, A.J. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, PO Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Goriely, S. [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus de la Plaine, CP 226, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    The increasing need for cross sections far from the valley of stability poses a challenge for nuclear reaction models. So far, predictions of cross sections have relied on more or less phenomenological approaches, depending on parameters adjusted to available experimental data or deduced from systematical relations. While such predictions are expected to be reliable for nuclei not too far from the experimentally known regions, it is clearly preferable to use more fundamental approaches, based on sound physical bases, when dealing with very exotic nuclei. Thanks to the high computer power available today, all major ingredients required to model a nuclear reaction can now be (and have been) microscopically (or semi-microscopically) determined starting from the information provided by a nucleon-nucleon effective interaction. We have implemented all these microscopic ingredients in the TALYS nuclear reaction code, and we are now almost able to perform fully microscopic cross section calculations. The quality of these ingredients and the impact of using them instead of the usually adopted phenomenological parameters will be discussed. (authors)

  20. Profile of elderly attending a general practice clinic in a poor urban area: A cross-sectional study from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimple Madhukar Jamkhandi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In India, the number of elderly is steadily increasing and is likely to reach 301 million by 2051. The increasing number and proportion of elderly will have a direct impact on the demand for health and pension services. As per the Demography of Indian Aging (Rajan et al., information on morbidity profile of this population is essential to plan health-care facilities. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was designed to study the morbidity profile of 100 elderly persons reporting to the outpatient clinic of a family practice unit of a tertiary care center in South India between June 2008 and May 2010. This was done with a view to plan better services for the elderly in that area. Results: In this study, 88% of the participants were on a follow-up while new ailment(s were diagnosed in 11 participants. A majority of participants were illiterate (62%, unemployed (83%, and financially dependent (54%. Forty-four participants screened had depression that required intervention such as counseling and follow-up; in ten participants, the screening score was sufficient to warrant therapy. In nearly half of the participants, the musculoskeletal system was involved, and a significant number had the involvement of cardiorespiratory system and urinary incontinence. Conclusion: A large number of elderly are affected by a constellation of conditions including mental as well social issues. A family practice unit may be a good setup to provide the first-contact care for the diagnosis and management of common problems in the elderly and help to improve their quality of life.

  1. A simple method to obtain very accurate whole atom Compton profiles from photon scattering doubly differential cross sections in relativistic regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajohn, Larry

    2017-04-01

    Compton profiles (CP) are used in many ways such as for assessing the bonding properties of molecules and solids including semiconductors. The simplest approach to obtain a CP from doubly differential cross sections (DDCS) is to use the nonrelativistic (nr) impulse approximation (IA) expression DDCS =KJ where K is the kinematic factor and J is the CP. A relativistic version of this expression to be referred to as RKJ, an approximation to the full relativistic IA expression is used for relativistic regimes, but it does not give accurate results for the inner and middle shells of moderate to heavy atoms. For example the RKJ error ranges from 3% (Z =30) to about 28% (Z =92) for the K-shell and about 3% (Z =50) to 17% (Z =92) for the 2p shell and is at 6% for 3d (Z =92). In the present work, expressions from nonrelativistic hydrogenlike wavefunctions (with a relativistic QED K) to correct RKJ beyond the K-shell to L and M shells were derived such that relativistic contributions as well as screening effects largely cancel for any regime of energy angle and Z. As a result the RKJ error is reduced to less than 2% over 99% of the momentum distribution range of any subshell CP.

  2. Socio-clinical profile of married women with history of induced abortion: A community-based cross-sectional study in a rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitra Pattanaik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Induced abortion contributes significantly to maternal mortality in developing countries yet women still seek repeat induced abortion in spite of the availability of contraceptive services. Objectives: (1 To study the sociodemographic profile of abortion seekers. (2 To study the reasons for procuring abortions by married women of reproductive age group. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional community-based study. All the married women of reproductive age group (15–49 years with a history of induced abortion were selected as the subjects. Results: The most common reason for seeking an abortion was poverty (39.4%, followed by girl child and husband's insistence, which accounted for 17.2% each. More complications were noted in women undergoing an abortion in places other than government hospitals and also who did it in the second trimester. Conclusions: To reduce maternal deaths from unsafe abortion, several broad activities require strengthening such as decreasing unwanted pregnancies, increasing geographic accessibility and affordability, upgrading facilities that offers medical termination of pregnancy (MTP services, increasing awareness among the reproductive age about the legal and safe abortion facilities, the consequences of unsafe abortion, ensuring appropriate referral facilities, increasing access to safe abortion services and increasing the quality of abortion care, including postabortion care.

  3. Socio-clinical profile of married women with history of induced abortion: A community-based cross-sectional study in a rural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanaik, Sumitra; Patnaik, Lipilekha; Subhadarshini, Arpita; Sahu, Trilochan

    2017-01-01

    Induced abortion contributes significantly to maternal mortality in developing countries yet women still seek repeat induced abortion in spite of the availability of contraceptive services. (1) To study the sociodemographic profile of abortion seekers. (2) To study the reasons for procuring abortions by married women of reproductive age group. It was a cross-sectional community-based study. All the married women of reproductive age group (15-49 years) with a history of induced abortion were selected as the subjects. The most common reason for seeking an abortion was poverty (39.4%), followed by girl child and husband's insistence, which accounted for 17.2% each. More complications were noted in women undergoing an abortion in places other than government hospitals and also who did it in the second trimester. To reduce maternal deaths from unsafe abortion, several broad activities require strengthening such as decreasing unwanted pregnancies, increasing geographic accessibility and affordability, upgrading facilities that offers medical termination of pregnancy (MTP) services, increasing awareness among the reproductive age about the legal and safe abortion facilities, the consequences of unsafe abortion, ensuring appropriate referral facilities, increasing access to safe abortion services and increasing the quality of abortion care, including postabortion care.

  4. [Sensitisation profile to airborne allergens of patients followed for asthma in Cotonou, Benin. A cross-sectional study using prick-tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agodokpessi, G; Ade, G; Dovoedo, N; Ade, S; Wachinou, A P; Fayomi, B; Gninafon, M

    2015-11-01

    The sensitisation profile to airborne allergens of asthma patients followed in Benin is not known. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2013 at the hospital reference centre. A prick-test was performed in all adults with asthma consulting during this period. The standardized allergenic extracts tested were: mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus [DP], Dermatophagoides farinae [DF] and Blomia tropicalis [BT]), cockroaches, 5 different grasses, Alternaria, dogs and cats. The test was positive when the diameter of the wheal was more than half that of the positive control and/or when the diameter of the wheal was ≥3mm than the negative control. Of the 253 asthmatics tested, 247 (97.6%) had at least one positive skin reaction. The average age was 44 years, the sex ratio was 0.81. Sensitization to mites was the most frequent (99.6%), followed by cockroaches (71.3%), 5 grasses (71.3%), Alternaria (71%), dog (68%) and cat (63.6%). The average number of sensitivities was 5±2. Asthmatics monitored in Cotonou have multiple sensitisations dominated by mites. Copyright © 2014 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Wind Turbine Radar Cross Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jenn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The radar cross section (RCS of a wind turbine is a figure of merit for assessing its effect on the performance of electronic systems. In this paper, the fundamental equations for estimating the wind turbine clutter signal in radar and communication systems are presented. Methods of RCS prediction are summarized, citing their advantages and disadvantages. Bistatic and monostatic RCS patterns for two wind turbine configurations, a horizontal axis three-blade design and a vertical axis helical design, are shown. The unique electromagnetic scattering features, the effect of materials, and methods of mitigating wind turbine clutter are also discussed.

  6. A cross-sectional examination of the profile of chiropractors recruited to the Australian Chiropractic Research Network (ACORN): a sustainable resource for future chiropractic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jon; Peng, Wenbo; Steel, Amie; Lauche, Romy; Moore, Craig; Amorin-Woods, Lyndon; Sibbritt, David

    2017-09-29

    The Australian Chiropractic Research Network (ACORN) practice-based research network (PBRN) cohort was established to provide sustainable infrastructure necessary to address lack of rigorous investigation and to bridge the research-practice gap focused on chiropractic care for future years. This paper presents the profile of chiropractors recruited to the ACORN PBRN, a nationally representative sample of chiropractors working in Australia. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a cohort study of chiropractors in Australia. All registered chiropractors in Australia were invited to participate in the ACORN study and those who completed a practitioner questionnaire and consent form were included in the PBRN cohort. A total of 1680 chiropractors (36%) were recruited to the cohort database. The average age of the PBRN participants is 41.9 years and 63% are male. The vast majority of the PBRN participants hold a university degree. General practitioners were identified as the most popular referral source for chiropractic care and low back pain and neck pain were the most common conditions 'often' treated by the PBRN chiropractors. The chiropractors in this PBRN cohort rated high velocity, low amplitude adjustment/manipulation/mobilisation as the most commonly used technique/method and soft tissue therapy as the most frequently employed musculoskeletal intervention in their patient management. The ACORN PBRN cohort constitutes the largest coverage of any single healthcare profession via a national voluntary PBRN providing a sustainable resource for future follow-up. The ACORN cohort provides opportunities for further nested substudies related to chiropractic care, chiropractors, their patients and a vast range of broader healthcare issues with a view to helping build a diverse but coordinated research programme and further research capacity building around Australian chiropractic. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  7. Oral health-related quality of life of children seeking orthodontic treatment based on child oral health impact profile: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Thiruvenkadam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to assess oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL using short form (SF of child oral health impact profile (COHIP in children aged 11-15 years who sought orthodontic treatment. A comparison was done between these children and age-matched peers who never had or sought orthodontic treatment. Methodology: This cross-sectional study included 227 children aged 11-15 years. A total of 110 participants had sought orthodontic treatment at KSR Institute of Dental Science and Research (orthodontic group and 117 participants from a nearby school who had never undergone or sought orthodontic treatment (comparison group. OHRQoL was assessed with the SF of the COHIP, and malocclusion severity was assessed with the index of orthodontic treatment needs. Data presentation and statistical analysis were performed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Software (Version 19, SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA. The Chi-square test and Fischer exact tests were used to analyze the qualitative data. Results: Children with little to borderline treatment needs have a better quality of life when compared to children with definitive treatment needs (P = 0.049. No statistically significant difference in COHIP-SF scores was found between boys and girls (P > 1.000. In the orthodontic group, children with little to borderline treatment needs were 4.8 times (P = 0.037 more likely to report better OHRQoL when compared to children with definitive treatment needs. Conclusion: Children who sought orthodontic treatment had lower quality of life scores than those who never had or never sought treatment.

  8. Metabolic risk factor profile associated with use of second generation antipsychotics: a cross sectional study in a community mental health centre

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    Ujkaj Manjola

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Second generation antipsychotics (SGA have demonstrated several advantages over first generation antipsychotics (FGA in terms of positive, negative, cognitive, and affective symptoms and a lower propensity for extrapyramidal side effects. Despite these undeniable advantages, SGA have been associated with causing and exacerbating metabolic disorders, such as obesity, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. This cross sectional study aimed to evaluate the metabolic risk factor profile associated with use of SGAs in comparison with non -treated control patients. Methods The study was carried out at a Community Mental Health Centre (CMHC in Bologna. The study subjects were outpatients with serious mental disorders treated with SGA (clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine. A sample of adult men and women suffering from idiopathic hyperhydrosis, without psychiatric history or antipsychotic treatment, were randomly selected from outpatients of the Department of Neurology in Bologna as a reference group. We investigated differences among the treatment and reference groups for glycaemia, cholesterolaemia and triglyceridaemia levels. Results The study sample was composed of 76 patients, 38 males and 38 females. The reference group was composed of 36 subjects, 19 females and 17 males. All patients treated with SGAs had higher mean glycaemia and triglyceridaemia and a significantly higher risk of receiving a diagnosis of hyperglycaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia than the reference group. We did not find any differences in mean glycaemia or mean triglyceridaemia levels among treatment groups. Patients with clozapine had a significantly higher mean BMI value and rate of obesity than patients treated with other SGAs. Conclusion The rate of obesity and metabolic disorders observed in this study were higher than the prevalence in the control group and similar to that previously reported in psychiatric samples; these findings imply per se that

  9. CLINICAL AND LABORATORY PROFILE OF SPUTUM POSITIVE PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS AMONG HIV SEROPOSITIVE AND HIV SERONEGATIVE PATIENTS- A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Govind Kamat

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The global impact of the converging dual epidemics of TB and HIV is one of the major public health challenges. The increasing rate of HIV infection in many countries has had an impact on TB epidemiology. As the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis is increasing among HIV seropositive patients with a wide range of immune status and clinical presentations, the present study was undertaken to assess the clinical and laboratory profile of sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis among HIV seropositive and HIV seronegative patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present one year cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Medicine, KLES Dr. Prabhakar Kore Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Belgaum on 104 patients with sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients during the period of January 2009 to December 2009. Routine investigations such as blood group, haemogram that is haemoglobin, total count, differential count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, sputum smears for AFB and chest x-ray were done. RESULTS Seroprevalence of HIV among pulmonary tuberculosis patients was 23.08%. On examination anaemia, undernourishment, lymphadenopathy and the presence of opportunistic infections like oral candidiasis, herpes zoster stain and genital lesions were more predominant among HIV seropositives compared to HIV seronegatives. Mean Hb and TLC were significantly low among HIV seropositives compared to HIV seronegatives. Chest x-ray showed varied presentation. Upper zone infiltration, cavitation and fibrosis were more commonly involved among HIV seronegatives compared to HIV seropositives. CONCLUSION HIV seropositive PTB patients commonly present with fever, weight loss and loss of appetite, while cough with expectoration, haemoptysis, breathlessness were more common with HIV seronegative patients. Cavitation, fibrosis and fibrocavitary lesions were predominantly seen among HIV seronegatives, while infiltration and miliary mottling was

  10. Patterns of Growth, Body Composition, and Lipid Profiles in a South African Cohort of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected and Uninfected Children: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramteke, Sarah M; Shiau, Stephanie; Foca, Marc; Strehlau, Renate; Pinillos, Francoise; Patel, Faeezah; Violari, Avy; Liberty, Afaaf; Coovadia, Ashraf; Kuhn, Louise; Arpadi, Stephen M

    2017-05-06

    Prior research in sub-Saharan Africa reports dyslipidemia in perinatally human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children receiving ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) compared with efavirenz; however, interpretation of findings is limited by lack of comparison data from HIV-uninfected children. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of lipid profiles and growth within a larger longitudinal cohort study of perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children aged 4-9 years in Johannesburg, South Africa. At enrollment, anthropometrics, viral load, CD4, total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglycerides were measured. Weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ), height-for-age Z-score (HAZ), and body mass index-for-age Z-score (BAZ) were calculated. United States pediatric thresholds for dyslipidemia were used. Five hundred fifty-three HIV-infected and 300 HIV-uninfected children (median age 6.9 years) of similar demographic characteristics were enrolled. Of the HIV-infected children, 94.8% were on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) (65.4% on LPV/r- and 28.6% on efavirenz-based regimens). Among the treated, 94.3% had a viral load 1) compared with HIV-uninfected children (14.4% vs 21.7%, P = .04). Whether on LPV/r or efavirenz, a higher proportion of HIV-infected children had borderline/elevated TC or abnormal triglycerides than HIV-uninfected children, although a higher proportion of those on LPV/r had borderline/elevated TC, borderline/elevated LDL, or abnormal triglycerides than those on efavirenz. In a South African cohort of HIV-infected children and population-appropriate HIV-uninfected children, unfavorable alterations in lipid profiles were detected in HIV-infected children regardless of treatment regimen compared with HIV-uninfected children. The HIV-infected children were of smaller size than HIV-uninfected children, but there was a high prevalence of overweight in both groups. Strategies for optimizing growth and

  11. Nuclear Forensics and Radiochemistry: Cross Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundberg, Robert S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-08

    The neutron activation of components in a nuclear device can provide useful signatures of weapon design or sophistication. This lecture will cover some of the basics of neutron reaction cross sections. Nuclear reactor cross sections will also be presented to illustrate the complexity of convolving neutron energy spectra with nuclear excitation functions to calculate useful effective reactor cross sections. Deficiencies in the nuclear database will be discussed along with tools available at Los Alamos to provide new neutron cross section data.

  12. ASCAP. Resonance Region Cross Section Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.R.; Young, R.C. [EG and G Idaho Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1972-09-01

    ACSAP may be used to compute neutron cross section data from neutron resonance input. Total, fission, capture, or scattering cross section data may be computed. Experimental data may be compared by means of a wide selection of representations. ACSAP can also determine cross section resonance parameters from input experimental data.

  13. Association between the biochemical profiles in blood and bone mineral density in Chinese Han population: findings from a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen HX

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hong-Xia Chen,1,2,* Li-Bing Wu,3,* Zhong-Ji Meng1 1Institute of Biomedicine, Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, Hubei Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Environmental, Agricultural, & Occupational Health, College of Public Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA; 3Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, Hubei Province, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work. Abstract: This study investigated the possible correlation between blood biochemical profiles and bone mineral density (BMD in the Chinese Han population. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using participants randomly selected from the Health Screening Center of Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, which included a total of 285 individuals, varied in ages from 31 years to 63 years. The height, weight, and body mass index (BMI of each subject were measured, as well as fasting blood glucose (FBG, triglycerides, total cholesterol, blood uric acid (UA, blood urea nitrogen, and blood creatinine. We evaluated BMD at the wrist (grams per centimeter square using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. The mean ages of female and male groups were 45.32±8.24 years and 46.76±9.01 years, respectively. The mean age of the study population was 46.14±8.79 years, which is similar to the general population. The mean BMI values were 22.08±2.38 kg/m2 and 24.50±2.67 kg/m2 in the female and male population, respectively, representing a statistically significant difference (P<0.05. No significant differences in levels of FBG total cholesterol, or triglycerides were seen among the male and female population. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed using BMD as outcome variables and BMI, blood UA, FBG, total cholesterol, triglycerides, urea nitrogen, and blood creatinine as covariates, and the regression equation was established as Y=0

  14. Profile of glycated-hemoglobin, antioxidant vitamin and cytokine levels in pulmonary tuberculosis patients: A cross sectional study at Pulmonary Diseases Center Semarang City, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praba Ginandjar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uncontrolled blood glucose, which marked by high level of HbA1c, increases risk of pulmonary TB because of cellular immunity dysfunction. This study aimed to analyze profile of glycated hemoglobin, antioxidant vitamins status and cytokines levels in active pulmonary TB patients. Methods: This was a cross sectional study, conducted at Pulmonary Diseases Center Semarang City, Indonesia. Study subject consisted of 62 pulmonary TB patients, diagnosed with positive acid fast bacilli and chest X-ray. ELISA was used to measure IFN-γ and IL-12. Status of antioxidant vitamins was determined by concentration of vitamin A and E using HPLC. Blood glucose control was determined by HbA1c concentration (HbA1c ≥7% is considered as uncontrolled. Results: A significant difference of age between pulmonary tuberculosis patients with normal and uncontrolled blood glucose (p = 0.000 was showed, while all other characteristics (sex, education, occupation did not differ with p = 0.050, 0.280, 0.380 respectively. Mean HbA1c was 7.25 ± 2.70%. Prevalence of uncontrolled glucose among pulmonary TB patients was 29%. Levels of IFN-γ and IL-12 did not differ according to HbA1c concentration (p = 0.159 and p = 0.965 respectively. Pulmonary tuberculosis patients with uncontrolled blood glucose has higher vitamin E (p = 0.006, while vitamin A did not differ significantly (p = 0.478. Conclusions: This study supports the importance of performing diabetes screening among pulmonary TB patients. Further study needs to be done to determine the feasibility of TB-DM co-management. Keywords: HbA1c, Pulmonary tuberculosis, Vitamin A, Vitamin E

  15. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are clean'' and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its data production'' phase.

  16. SNL RML recommended dosimetry cross section compendium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.; Luera, T.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); VanDenburg, J. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    A compendium of dosimetry cross sections is presented for use in the characterization of fission reactor spectrum and fluence. The contents of this cross section library are based upon the ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90 cross section libraries and are recommended as a replacement for the DOSCROS84 multigroup library that is widely used by the dosimetry community. Documentation is provided on the rationale for the choice of the cross sections selected for inclusion in this library and on the uncertainty and variation in cross sections presented by state-of-the-art evaluations.

  17. Cohort profiles of the cross-sectional and prospective participant groups in the second Diabetes MILES-Australia (MILES-2) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browne, Jessica L; Holmes-Truscott, Elizabeth; Ventura, Adriana D

    2017-01-01

    and social aspects of diabetes. The aim of the MILES-2 study was to provide a (1) longitudinal follow-up of the original MILES 2011 study cohort; (2) cross-sectional assessment of a new cohort. PARTICIPANTS: Eligible participants were English-speaking Australians with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, aged 18....... The final sample included N=2342 eligible respondents (longitudinal cohort: n=504; 2015 new cohort: n=1838); 54% had type 2 diabetes. FINDINGS TO DATE: Survey respondents were from an advantaged socioeconomic background compared to the general population. Respondents with type 1 diabetes were over...

  18. Scattering cross section for various potential systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myagmarjav Odsuren

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the problems of scattering in this framework, and show that the applied method is very useful in the investigation of the effect of the resonance in the observed scattering cross sections. In this study, not only the scattering cross sections but also the decomposition of the scattering cross sections was computed for the α–α system. To obtain the decomposition of scattering cross sections into resonance and residual continuum terms, the complex scaled orthogonality condition model and the extended completeness relation are used. Applying the present method to the α–α and α–n systems, we obtained good reproduction of the observed phase shifts and cross sections. The decomposition into resonance and continuum terms makes clear that resonance contributions are dominant but continuum terms and their interference are not negligible. To understand the behavior of observed phase shifts and the shape of the cross sections, both resonance and continuum terms are calculated.

  19. Scattering cross section for various potential systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odsuren, Myagmarjav; Khuukhenkhuu, Gonchigdorj; Davaa, Suren [Nuclear Research Center, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Kato, Kiyoshi [Nuclear Reaction Data Centre, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    2017-08-15

    We discuss the problems of scattering in this framework, and show that the applied method is very useful in the investigation of the effect of the resonance in the observed scattering cross sections. In this study, not only the scattering cross sections but also the decomposition of the scattering cross sections was computed for the α–α system. To obtain the decomposition of scattering cross sections into resonance and residual continuum terms, the complex scaled orthogonality condition model and the extended completeness relation are used. Applying the present method to the α–α and α–n systems, we obtained good reproduction of the observed phase shifts and cross sections. The decomposition into resonance and continuum terms makes clear that resonance contributions are dominant but continuum terms and their interference are not negligible. To understand the behavior of observed phase shifts and the shape of the cross sections, both resonance and continuum terms are calculated.

  20. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Acetylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mi-Young; Yoon, Jung-Sik; Cho, Hyuck; Karwasz, Grzegorz P.; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2017-03-01

    Cross section data are compiled from the literature for electron collisions with the acetylene (HCCH) molecule. Cross sections are collected and reviewed for total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational and vibrational states, dissociation, ionization, and dissociative attachment. The data derived from swarm experiments are also considered. For each of these processes, the recommended values of the cross sections are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2016.

  1. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mi-Young, E-mail: mysong@nfri.re.kr; Yoon, Jung-Sik [Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, 814-2 Osikdo-dong, Gunsan, Jeollabuk-do 573-540 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyuck [Department of Physics, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Itikawa, Yukikazu [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Karwasz, Grzegorz P. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Informatics, University Nicolaus Copernicus, Grudziadzka 5, 87100 Toruń (Poland); Kokoouline, Viatcheslav [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Nakamura, Yoshiharu [6-1-5-201 Miyazaki, Miyamae, Kawasaki 216-0033 (Japan); Tennyson, Jonathan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    Cross section data are compiled from the literature for electron collisions with methane (CH{sub 4}) molecules. Cross sections are collected and reviewed for total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational and vibrational states, dissociation, ionization, and dissociative attachment. The data derived from swarm experiments are also considered. For each of these processes, the recommended values of the cross sections are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2014.

  2. Regional tertiary cross sections: Texas Gulf Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debout, D.G.; Luttrell, P.E.; Seo, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    Regional studies of the Frio Formation along the Texas Gulf Coast were conducted to evaluate potential geothermal energy from deep, geopressured sandstone reservoirs. Published regional cross sections, unpublished cross sections provided by several major oil companies, and extensive micropaleontological and electrical-log files at the Bureau of Economic Geology served as basic data. These sections are meant to show gross regional distribution of sand and shale facies both laterally and vertically throughout the entire Tertiary section along the Texas Gulf Coast.

  3. Cohort profiles of the cross-sectional and prospective participant groups in the second Diabetes MILES-Australia (MILES-2) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browne, Jessica L; Holmes-Truscott, Elizabeth; Ventura, Adriana D

    2017-01-01

    and social aspects of diabetes. The aim of the MILES-2 study was to provide a (1) longitudinal follow-up of the original MILES 2011 study cohort; (2) cross-sectional assessment of a new cohort. PARTICIPANTS: Eligible participants were English-speaking Australians with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, aged 18....... The final sample included N=2342 eligible respondents (longitudinal cohort: n=504; 2015 new cohort: n=1838); 54% had type 2 diabetes. FINDINGS TO DATE: Survey respondents were from an advantaged socioeconomic background compared to the general population. Respondents with type 1 diabetes were over......-represented in the new cohort (45%) relative to the planned stratification (40% type 1 diabetes, 60% type 2 diabetes). Respondents with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes were under-represented in the new cohort relative to the stratified sampling (42% invited vs 50% response). Participants who completed both the 2011...

  4. increases in cross-sectional samples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-03-27

    Mar 27, 1971 ... mathematical equations---can be observed most success- fully by means of a longitudinal study. Tanner' has demon- strated why a cross-sectional study fails to show, for example, when the adolescent growth spurt occurs. Although one may not expect to find in cross-sectional data conclusive indications of ...

  5. Recommended evaluation procedure for photonuclear cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young-Ouk; Chang, Jonghwa; Fukahori, Tokio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In order to generate photonuclear cross section library for the necessary applications, data evaluation is combined with theoretical evaluation, since photonuclear cross sections measured cannot provide all necessary data. This report recommends a procedure consisting of four steps: (1) analysis of experimental data, (2) data evaluation, (3) theoretical evaluation and, if necessary, (4) modification of results. In the stage of analysis, data obtained by different measurements are reprocessed through the analysis of their discrepancies to a representative data set. In the data evaluation, photonuclear absorption cross sections are evaluated via giant dipole resonance and quasi-deutron mechanism. With photoabsorption cross sections from the data evaluation, theoretical evaluation is applied to determine various decay channel cross sections and emission spectra using equilibrium and preequilibrium mechanism. After this, the calculated results are compared with measured data, and in some cases the results are modified to better describe measurements. (author)

  6. Differential Top Cross-section Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Fenton, Michael James; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. The measurement of the differential top-quark pair production cross-section provides a stringent test of advanced perturbative QCD calculations. The ATLAS collaboration has performed detailed measurements of those differential cross sections at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. This talk focuses on differential cross-section measurements in the lepton+jets final state, including using boosted top quarks to probe our understanding of top quark production in the TeV regime.

  7. Sexual risk typologies and their relationship with early parenthood and STI outcomes among urban African-American emerging adults: a cross-sectional latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Susan L; Cheong, JeeWon; Lewis, Terri H; Simpson, Cathy A; Chandler, Susan D; Tucker, Jalie A

    2014-09-01

    Identifying sexual risk patterns associated with HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STI) and early parenthood within population subgroups is critical for targeting risk reduction interventions. Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to identify sexual behaviour typologies to predict sexual risk outcomes among 274 (63% female) unmarried, sexually active African-American emerging adults (M age=19.31 years) living in disadvantaged urban neighbourhoods. Participants were enrolled in a larger cross-sectional observational study of risk and protective behaviours. LCA defined membership into discrete risk classes based on reported sex risk behaviours. Three groups were identified: The 'low contraception use' risk class (32%) had low rates of condom or other birth control use, moderate rates of sexual initiation before age 16 years, and the highest pregnancy/early parenthood and STI rates. The predominately male 'early sex' risk class (32%) had higher rates of early initiation and multiple partners, risks that were countered by higher contraception and condom use. Both these risk groups showed higher probability to use substances before sex relative to the 'low sex risk' class (36%), which showed low rates on all risk behaviours. LCA identified distinct risk clusters that predicted sexual health outcomes and can inform targeted interventions for a minority youth population disproportionately affected by HIV, other STIs, and early parenthood. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. A nuclear cross section data handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, H.O.M.

    1989-12-01

    Isotopic information, reaction data, data availability, heating numbers, and evaluation information are given for 129 neutron cross-section evaluations, which are the source of the default cross sections for the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Additionally, pie diagrams for each nuclide displaying the percent contribution of a given reaction to the total cross section are given at 14 MeV, 1 MeV, and thermal energy. Other information about the evaluations and their availability in continuous-energy, discrete-reaction, and multigroup forms is provided. The evaluations come from ENDF/B-V, ENDL85, and the Los Alamos Applied Nuclear Science Group T-2. Graphs of all neutron and photon production cross-section reactions for these nuclides have been categorized and plotted. 21 refs., 5 tabs.

  9. Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. L.; Rohatgi, N. K.; Demore, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    Absorption cross-sections of hydrogen peroxide vapor and of neutral aqueous solutions of hydrogen peroxide were measured in the wavelength range from 195 to 350 nm at 296 K. The spectrophotometric procedure is described, and the reported cross-sections are compared with values obtained by other researchers. Photodissociation coefficients of atmospheric H2O2 were calculated for direct absorption of unscattered solar radiation, and the vertical distributions of these coefficients are shown for various solar zenith angles.

  10. A cross-sectional study comparing strength profile of dorsal and palmar flexor muscles of the wrist in epicondylitis and healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unyó, C; Chaler, J; Rojas-Martínez, M; Pujol, E; Müller, B; Garreta, R; Mañanas, M A

    2013-08-01

    Strength training has been proposed by several authors to treat Lateral Epicondylitis. However, there is still a lack of information concerning muscle weakness and its relationship to imbalances and fatigability of forearm muscles during dynamic conditions in subjects after epicondylitis recovery. To analyze the relationship between lateral humeral epicondylitis, and forearm muscle strength and fatigue. Rehabilitation specialized center Cross-sectional study in eight former epicondylitis men free of symptoms and actively working at the moment of the evaluation and eight healthy men volunteers. Isokinetic tests were performed at different velocities in order to assess strength in concentric and eccentric contractions. Additionally, a long-term concentric test was carried out in order to analyze strength during endurance. The following variables were analyzed: Average torque of dorsal and palmar flexors of the wrist and ratio of agonist/antagonist for non-endurance contractions; length of initial and final plateaus and the slope of average torque decay during the endurance test. In both groups, average torque produced by palmar flexor muscles was higher than that produced by dorsal flexor muscles. Patients showed higher strength in palmar flexor muscles, whereas dorsal flexor strength was similar for both populations. Palmar flexor vs. dorsal flexor ratio was significantly higher in patients for eccentric contractions. Regarding fatigue, results showed that torque decreased earlier in patients. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT: Both palmar flexor force and palmar/dorsal ratio in eccentric exercise were significantly higher in patients. This finding indicates a muscular imbalance in patients underlying the epicondylitis condition. Additionally, former patients fatigued earlier. Findings indicate that muscle imbalances and fatigability might be related to lateral epicondylitis. This information may be useful in the design and monitoring of programs

  11. Fission cross section measurements at LANSCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovesson, Fredrik; Hill, Tony

    2009-10-01

    Neutron induced fission cross sections of actinides are measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). Nuclear technologies are increasingly dependent on advanced simulations for design and licensing requirements, and nuclear cross section data are important input parameters for the simulation tools. Fast nuclear reactor and stockpile stewardship applications often share nuclear data needs and requirements, and the LANSCE neutron source is ideal for measuring many of these data. The fission cross section measurements are guided by sensitivity studies performed in support of the AFCI program, as well as requests from NNSA. Recent results for the Pu-239 and Pu-241 fission cross sections from 0.01 eV to 200 MeV will be presented, and the discrepancy with current evaluations of the Pu-241 fission cross section discussed. Ongoing activities to extend the fission program will be presented, such as the development of a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) to significantly improve the experimental accuracies in fission cross section measurements.

  12. A Pebble Bed Reactor cross section methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, Nathanael H. [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering/Medical Physics Programs, George W. Woodruff School, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405 (United States); Ougouag, Abderrafi M. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3885 (United States); Rahnema, Farzad [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering/Medical Physics Programs, George W. Woodruff School, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405 (United States)], E-mail: farzad@gatech.edu; Gougar, Hans [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3885 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    A method is presented for the evaluation of microscopic cross sections for the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) neutron diffusion computational models during convergence to an equilibrium (asymptotic) fuel cycle. This method considers the isotopics within a core spectral zone and the leakages from such a zone as they arise during reactor operation. The randomness of the spatial distribution of fuel grains within the fuel pebbles and that of the fuel and moderator pebbles within the core, the double heterogeneity of the fuel, and the indeterminate burnup of the spectral zones all pose a unique challenge for the computation of the local microscopic cross sections. As prior knowledge of the equilibrium composition and leakage is not available, it is necessary to repeatedly re-compute the group constants with updated zone information. A method is presented to account for local spectral zone composition and leakage effects without resorting to frequent spectrum code calls. Fine group data are pre-computed for a range of isotopic states. Microscopic cross sections and zone nuclide number densities are used to construct fine group macroscopic cross sections, which, together with fission spectra, flux modulation factors, and zone buckling, are used in the solution of the slowing down balance to generate a new or updated spectrum. The microscopic cross-sections are then re-collapsed with the new spectrum for the local spectral zone. This technique is named the Spectral History Correction (SHC) method. It is found that this method accurately recalculates local broad group microscopic cross sections. Significant improvement in the core eigenvalue, flux, and power peaking factor is observed when the local cross sections are corrected for the effects of the spectral zone composition and leakage in two-dimensional PBR test problems.

  13. Top quark production cross-section measurements

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00058643; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the inclusive and differential cross-sections for top-quark pair and single top production cross sections in proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider are presented at center-of-mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The inclusive measurements reach high precision and are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. These measurements, including results using boosted tops, probe our understanding of top-pair production in the TeV regime. The results are compared to Monte Carlo generators implementing LO and NLO matrix elements matched with parton showers and NLO QCD calculations. For the t-channel single top measurement, the single top-quark and anti-top-quark total production cross-sections, their ratio, as well as differential cross sections are also presented. A measurement of the production cross-section of a single top quark in association with a W boson, the second largest single-top production mode, is also presented. Finally, measurements of ...

  14. Potentially inappropriate prescribing in two populations with differing socio-economic profiles: a cross-sectional database study using the PROMPT criteria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooper, Janine A

    2016-01-28

    The purpose of this study is to establish the prevalence of potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) in middle-aged adults (45-64 years) in two populations with differing socio-economic profiles, and to investigate factors associated with PIP, using the PROMPT (PRescribing Optimally in Middle-aged People\\'s Treatments) criteria.

  15. Occupational Outcome in Adult ADHD: Impact of Symptom Profile, Comorbid Psychiatric Problems, and Treatment--A Cross-Sectional Study of 414 Clinically Diagnosed Adult ADHD Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmoy, Anne; Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Gillberg, Christopher; Haavik, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of symptom profile, comorbid psychiatric problems, and treatment on occupational outcome in adult ADHD patients. Method: Adult ADHD patients (N = 414) responded to questionnaires rating past and present symptoms of ADHD, comorbid conditions, treatment history, and work status. Results: Of the patients, 24%…

  16. Improving activation cross section data with TALYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzysiuk, Nataliia; Koning, Arjan

    2017-09-01

    Needs for accurate (n,x) activation cross sections for fusion technology have been considered with reference to the current status of the TENDL library. The current work is focused on improving activation cross section data for nuclear reactions relevant mainly for fusion and astrophysical needs. The fits have been performed with the TALYS-1.8 code by means of nuclear model parameter variation, mostly for the optical model and level densities, followed by comparison to recent experimental data taken from EXFOR and other evaluated nuclear databases. The updated cross section data are going to be adopted into the new version of TENDL. The improvements have been performed both for differential as well as integral data sets.

  17. Neutron Capture Cross Sections of Tellurium Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Micah; Krane, Kenneth

    2006-05-01

    Neutron capture by the stable even-mass Te isotopes (A = 120 to 130) produces in the neighboring odd-neutron isotopes a low-spin ground state (1/2 or 3/2) and a high-spin (11/2) isomeric state. By irradiating samples of natural isotopic Te in our reactor, we have measured the neutron capture cross sections for all of the odd-mass radioactive ground states and isomers produced in the capture process. By using Cd-shielded and unshielded irradiations, we have been able to obtain both the effective thermal cross sections and the resonance integrals. Comparison with similar neutron capture processes in Sn isotopes leads to interesting systematic effects, especially among the thermal cross sections of the low-spin and high-spin states.

  18. Prospects for Precision Neutrino Cross Section Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Deborah A. [Fermilab

    2016-01-28

    The need for precision cross section measurements is more urgent now than ever before, given the central role neutrino oscillation measurements play in the field of particle physics. The definition of precision is something worth considering, however. In order to build the best model for an oscillation experiment, cross section measurements should span a broad range of energies, neutrino interaction channels, and target nuclei. Precision might better be defined not in the final uncertainty associated with any one measurement but rather with the breadth of measurements that are available to constrain models. Current experience shows that models are better constrained by 10 measurements across different processes and energies with 10% uncertainties than by one measurement of one process on one nucleus with a 1% uncertainty. This article describes the current status of and future prospects for the field of precision cross section measurements considering the metric of how many processes, energies, and nuclei have been studied.

  19. Survival Mediated Heavy Element Capture Cross Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, Walter; Yao, Larry

    2017-11-01

    Formally, the cross section for producing a heavy evaporation residue, σEVR, in a fusion reaction can be written as where E is the center of mass energy, and T is the probability of the colliding nuclei to overcome the potential barrier in the entrance channel and reach the contact point. PCN is the probability that the projectile-target system will evolve from the contact point to the compound nucleus. Wsur is the probability that the compound nucleus will decay to produce an evaporation residue rather than fissioning. However, one must remember that the Wsur term effectively sets the allowed values of the spin, which in turn, restricts the values of the capture and fusion cross sections. We point out the implications of this fact for capture cross sections for heavy element formation reactions.

  20. Top Quark Production Cross Section Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Massa, Lorenzo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the inclusive and differential cross-sections for top-quark pair and single top production cross sectionsinproton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider are presented at centre of mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The inclusive measurements reach high precision and are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. These measurements, including results using boosted tops, probe our understanding of top-pair production in the TeV regime. The results are compared to Monte Carlo generators implementing LO and NLO matrix elements matched with parton showers and NLO QCD calculations. For the t-channel single top measurement, the single top-quark and anti-top-quark total production cross-sections, their ratio, as well as differential cross sections are also presented. A measurement of the production cross section of a single top quark in association witha W boson, the second largest single-top production mode, is also presented. Finally, measurements of t...

  1. Covariance Evaluation Methodology for Neutron Cross Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman,M.; Arcilla, R.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pigni, M.; Pritychenko, b.; Songzoni, A.A.

    2008-09-01

    We present the NNDC-BNL methodology for estimating neutron cross section covariances in thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The three key elements of the methodology are Atlas of Neutron Resonances, nuclear reaction code EMPIRE, and the Bayesian code implementing Kalman filter concept. The covariance data processing, visualization and distribution capabilities are integral components of the NNDC methodology. We illustrate its application on examples including relatively detailed evaluation of covariances for two individual nuclei and massive production of simple covariance estimates for 307 materials. Certain peculiarities regarding evaluation of covariances for resolved resonances and the consistency between resonance parameter uncertainties and thermal cross section uncertainties are also discussed.

  2. Neutron Capture Cross Section of 239Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, S.; Arnold, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Ullmann, J. L.; Chyzh, A.; Henderson, R.; Kwan, E.; Wu, C. Y.

    2014-09-01

    The 239Pu(n,γ) cross section has been measured over the energy range 10 eV - 10 keV using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) as part of a campaign to produce precision (n,γ) measurements on 239Pu in the keV region. Fission coincidences were measured with a PPAC and used to characterize the prompt fission γ-ray spectrum in this region. The resulting spectra will be used to better characterize the fission component of another experiment with a thicker target to extend the (n,γ) cross section measurement well into the keV region.

  3. The hadronic cross section measurement at KLOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloisio, A.; Ambrosino, F.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Bacci, C.; Barva, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Bulychjov, S.A.; Caloi, R.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Capussela, T.; Carboni, G.; Ceradini, F.; Cervelli, F.; Cevenini, F.; Chiefari, G.; Ciambrone, P.; Conetti, S.; De Lucia, E.; De Santis, A.; De Simone, P.; De Zorzi, G.; Dell' Agnello, S.; Denig, A.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Falco, S.; Di Micco, B.; Doria, A.; Dreucci, M.; Erriquez, O.; Farilla, A.; Felici, G.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Finocchiaro, G.; Forti, C.; Franzini, P.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Gorini, E.; Graziani, E.; Incagli, M.; Kluge, W.; Kulikov, V.; Lacava, F.; Lanfranchi, G.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Leone, D. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Lu, F.; Martemianov, M.; Martini, M.; Matsyuk, M.; Mei, W.; Merola, L.; Messi, R.; Miscetti, S.; Moulson, M.; Mueller, S.; Murtas, F.; Napolitano, M.; Nguyen, F.; Palutan, M.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passalacqua, L.; Passeri, A.; Patera, V.; Perfetto, F.; Petrolo, E.; Pontecorvo, L.; Primavera, M.; Santangelo, P.; Santovetti, E.; Saracino, G.; Schamberger, R.D.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Scuri, F.; Sfiligoi, I.; Sibidanov, A.; Spadaro, T.; Spiriti, E.; Tabidze, M.; Testa, M.; Tortora, L.; Valente, P.; Valeriani, B.; Venanzoni, G.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Versaci, R.; Villella, I.; Xu, G

    2005-07-15

    KLOE uses the radiative return to measure cross section {sigma}(e{sup +}e{sup -}->{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{gamma}) at the electron-positron collider DA{phi}NE. Divinding by a theoretical radiator function, we obtain the cross section {sigma}(e{sup +}e{sup -}->{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{gamma}) for the mass range 0.35

  4. High-risk type-2 diabetes mellitus patients, without prior ischemic events, have normal blood platelet functionality profiles: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlomai, Gadi; Haran-Appel, Tal; Sella, Tal; Grossman, Yoni; Hauschner, Hagit; Rosenberg, Nurit; Grossman, Ehud

    2015-06-12

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) display a predisposition for vascular disease. Platelets taken from vasculopathic diabetic patients, show enhanced stimuli-induced activation and aggregation responses. Aspirin remains the cornerstone antiplatelet agent for secondary prevention of vascular complications among diabetic patients, yet evidence of its efficacy and safety in primary prevention are conflicting. Our aim was to assess whether high risk diabetic patients, without previous ischemic events, have abnormal platelet functionality profiles. The study included 82 diabetic patients and 86 matched non-diabetic patients without prior ischemic events nor treatment with anti-platelet medications. Blood samples were analyzed for platelet markers of activation, turnover and leukocyte-platelet interactions. Our final analysis included 122 males (74 %), with a mean age of 61 years. Mean platelet volume (MPV) was similar between the diabetic patients and controls (9.2 fL for both). Following activation, PAC-1 binding and P-selectin expression were found comparable between the diabetic patients and controls (83 % versus 81 % and 76 % versus 74 %, respectively). Leukocyte-platelet aggregates (LPAs) were similar between the diabetic patients and controls (18 % versus 17 %, respectively). Neutrophil-platelet aggregates (NPAs) and monocyte-platelet aggregates (MPAs) were also found similar in the diabetic patients and controls. Elevated fasting plasma glucose was associated with increased LPAs rates. High risk type-2 diabetes mellitus patients, without prior ischemic events, have normal blood platelet functionality profiles.

  5. Top quark production cross-section measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Massa, Lorenzo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the inclusive and differential cross-sections for top-quark pair and single top production cross sections in proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider are presented at centre-of-mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The inclusive measurements reach high precision and are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. These measurements, including results using boosted tops, probe our understanding of top-pair production in the TeV regime. The results are compared to Monte Carlo generators implementing LO and NLO matrix elements matched with parton showers and NLO QCD calculations. For the t-channel single top measurement, the single top-quark and anti-top-quark total production cross-sections, their ratio, as well as differential cross sections are also presented. A measurement of the production crosssection of a single top quark in association with a W boson, the second largest single-top production mode, is also presented. Finally, measurements of t...

  6. Cotton fibre cross-section properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    From a structural perspective the cotton fibre is a singularly discrete, elongated plant cell with no junctions or inter-cellular boundaries. Its form in nature is essentially unadulterated from the field to the spinning mill where its cross-section properties, as for any textile fibre, are central ...

  7. Single top quark cross sections at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Finelli, Kevin Daniel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    This presentation covers single top production in the t-channel, s-channel, tW, and tZq production modes. Differential cross-sections for t-channel and tW are covered, as well as the latest inclusive measurements in s-channel and tZq.

  8. Adding anthropometric measures of regional adiposity to BMI improves prediction of cardiometabolic, inflammatory and adipokines profiles in youths: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samouda, Hanen; de Beaufort, Carine; Stranges, Saverio; Guinhouya, Benjamin C; Gilson, Georges; Hirsch, Marco; Jacobs, Julien; Leite, Sonia; Vaillant, Michel; Dadoun, Frédéric

    2015-10-24

    Paediatric research analysing the relationship between the easy-to-use anthropometric measures for adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors remains highly controversial in youth. Several studies suggest that only body mass index (BMI), a measure of relative weight, constitutes an accurate predictor, whereas others highlight the potential role of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist circumference (Waist C), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). In this study, we examined the effectiveness of adding anthropometric measures of body fat distribution (Waist C Z Score, WHR Z Score and/or WHtR) to BMI Z Score to predict cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight and obese youth. We also examined the consistency of these associations with the "total fat mass + trunk/legs fat mass" and/or the "total fat mass + trunk fat mass" combinations, as assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), the gold standard measurement of body composition. Anthropometric and DXA measurements of total and regional adiposity, as well as a comprehensive assessment of cardiometabolic, inflammatory and adipokines profiles were performed in 203 overweight and obese 7-17 year-old youths from the Paediatrics Clinic, Centre Hospitalier de Luxembourg. Adding only one anthropometric surrogate of regional fat to BMI Z Score improved the prediction of insulin resistance (WHR Z Score, R(2): 45.9%. Waist C Z Score, R(2): 45.5%), HDL-cholesterol (WHR Z Score, R(2): 9.6%. Waist C Z Score, R(2): 10.8%. WHtR, R(2): 6.5%), triglycerides (WHR Z Score, R(2): 11.7%. Waist C Z Score, R(2): 12.2%), adiponectin (WHR Z Score, R(2): 14.3%. Waist C Z Score, R(2): 17.7%), CRP (WHR Z Score, R(2): 18.2%. WHtR, R(2): 23.3%), systolic (WHtR, R(2): 22.4%), diastolic blood pressure (WHtR, R(2): 20%) and fibrinogen (WHtR, R(2): 21.8%). Moreover, WHR Z Score, Waist C Z Score and/or WHtR showed an independent significant contribution according to these models. These results were in line with the DXA findings. Adding

  9. Delineating the practice profile of advanced practice nursing: a cross-sectional survey using the modified strong model of advanced practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Glenn; Chang, Anne M; Duffield, Christine; Doubrovsky, Anna

    2013-09-01

    To test a model that delineates advanced practice nursing from the practice profile of other nursing roles and titles. There is extensive literature on advanced practice reporting the importance of this level of nursing to contemporary health service and patient outcomes. Literature also reports confusion and ambiguity associated with advanced practice nursing. Several countries have regulation and delineation for the nurse practitioner, but there is less clarity in definition and service focus of other advanced practice nursing roles. A statewide survey. Using the modified Strong Model of Advanced Practice Role Delineation tool, a survey was conducted in 2009 with a random sample of registered nurses/midwives from government facilities in Queensland, Australia. Analysis of variance compared total and subscale scores across groups according to grade. Linear, stepwise multiple regression analysis examined factors influencing advanced practice nursing activities across all domains. There were important differences according to grade in mean scores for total activities in all domains of advanced practice nursing. Nurses working in advanced practice roles (excluding nurse practitioners) performed more activities across most advanced practice domains. Regression analysis indicated that working in clinical advanced practice nursing roles with higher levels of education were strong predictors of advanced practice activities overall. Essential and appropriate use of advanced practice nurses requires clarity in defining roles and practice levels. This research delineated nursing work according to grade and level of practice, further validating the tool for the Queensland context and providing operational information for assigning innovative nursing service. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Relationship between Branched-Chain Amino Acids, Metabolic Syndrome, and Cardiovascular Risk Profile in a Chinese Population: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs, metabolic syndrome (MS, and other cardiovascular (CV risk factors in middle-aged and elderly Chinese population at high risk for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Methods. 1302 subjects were enrolled from the Huai’an Diabetes Prevention Program. Results. BCAAs levels were positively correlated with MS, its components, and CV risk profile. The odds ratio (OR for MS among subjects in the fourth quartile of BCAAs levels showed a 2.17-fold increase compared with those in the first quartile. BCAAs were independently associated with high Framingham risk score even after adjusting for MS and its components (P<0.0001. Additionally, the OR for high CV risk was 3.20-fold (P<0.0001 in participants in the fourth BCAAs quartile with MS compared with participants in the first BCAAs quartile without MS. Conclusions. Increased BCAAs levels are independent risk factors of MS and CVD in addition to the traditional factors in middle-aged and elderly Chinese population. The development of CVD in MS patients with high level BCAAs is accelerated. Intervention studies are needed to investigate whether the strategy of BCAAs reduction has impacts on endpoints in patients with higher CV risk. This study is registered with ChiCTR-TRC-14005029.

  11. A comprehensive study on the serum lipid profile and risk factor analysis for cardiovascular diseases in a cross-sectional Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M Vijay; Sambaia, K; Ramesh, B N; Manohar, B; Lokesh, B R

    2010-03-01

    Several epidemiological studies have established that Indians have a higher incidence of coronary heart disease. Because of vast differences in ethnicity, food habits and sociocultural background of Indians, it is essential that survey be conducted for profiling risk factor indicators in subjects from different parts of the country with adequate sample size. This study was carried out on CFTRI employees whose population is originally drawn from different parts of the country with diverse food habits. The population consisting of 624 subjects (514 men and 110 women) were subjected to general health check-up, blood and urine analysis under the supervision of a medical officer. Sixty-one individuals (9.77%) were found to be diabetic and 73 individuals (11.69%) were hypertensive of which 11.7% were also found to have diabetes. The mean serum cholesterol concentration in men was found to be 158 mg % and that in women was 165 mg %. Ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol was found to be greater than 6.5 in all the cases. Blood group analysis indicated that 41.5% of the subjects belonged to O(+) group (n = 259) followed by B(+) 25.6% (n = 160), A(+) 24.6% (n = 154) and AB(+) 4.48% (n = 28). Twenty-three individuals were Rh-negative. It was observed that serum cholesterol and triglycerides were lower in O(+) groups, compared to individuals in other groups. The incidence of diabetes and hypertension in O(+) was 5.79% and 10.4%, B(+)12.5% and 15.6%, A(+) 11.0% and 12.3% and AB(+) 21.4% and 7.1% respectively. Eight individuals were found to have myocardial infarction. Among them four belonged to A(+), two to B(+) and one each to AB(+)and O(+).

  12. Epidemiological and clinical profile of paediatric malaria: a cross sectional study performed on febrile children in five epidemiological strata of malaria in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwenti, Tebit Emmanuel; Kwenti, Tayong Dizzle Bita; Latz, Andreas; Njunda, Longdoh Anna; Nkuo-Akenji, Theresa

    2017-07-17

    In the wake of a decline in global malaria, it is imperative to describe the epidemiology of malaria in a country to inform control policies. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiological and clinical profile of paediatric malaria in five epidemiological strata of malaria in Cameroon including: the Sudano-sahelian (SS) strata, the High inland plateau (HIP) strata, the South Cameroonian Equatorial forest (SCEF) strata, the High western plateau (HWP) strata, and the Coastal (C) strata. This study involved 1609 febrile children (≤15 years) recruited using reference hospitals in the five epidemiological strata. Baseline characteristics were determined; blood glucose level was measured by a glucometer, malaria parasitaemia was assessed by Giemsa microscopy, and complete blood count was performed using an automated hematology analyser. Severe malaria was assessed and categorized based on WHO criteria. An overall prevalence of 15.0% (95% CI: 13.3-16.9) for malaria was observed in this study. Malaria prevalence was significantly higher in children between 60 and 119 months (p malaria (SM) attack in this study was 29.3%; SM was significantly higher in children below 60 months (p malaria anaemia and impaired consciousness. The majority (73.2%) of SM cases were in group 1 of the WHO classification of severe malaria (i.e. the most severe form). The malaria case-fatality rate was 5.8%; this was higher in Ngaoundere (HIP strata) (p = 0.034). In this study, malaria prevalence decreased steadily northward, from the C strata in the South to the SS strata in the North of Cameroon, meanwhile the mortality rate associated with malaria increased in the same direction. On the contrary, the rate of severe malaria attack was similar across the different epidemiological strata. Immunoepidemiological studies will be required to shed more light on the observed trends.

  13. Profile of patients and physiotherapy patterns in intensive care units in public hospitals in Zimbabwe: a descriptive cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadyanemhandu, Cathrine; Manie, Shamila

    2015-10-07

    Physiotherapy is integral to patient management in the Intensive Care Unit. The precise role that physiotherapists play in the critical care differs significantly worldwide. The aim of the study was to describe the profile of patients and the current patterns of physiotherapy services delivered for patients admitted in the five public hospital intensive care units in Zimbabwe. A prospective record review was performed and records of all consecutive patients admitted into the five units during a two months period were included in the analysis. The data was collected using a checklist and the following were recorded for each patient: 1) demographic information, 2) admission diagnoses, 3) surgery classification, 4) method and time of mechanical ventilation 5) physiotherapy techniques and frequency and 6) the length of stay. A total of 137 patients were admitted to five units during the study. The mean age of patients in the study was 36.0 years (SD = 16.6). A mortality rate of 17.5 % was observed with most of the patients being below the age of 45 years. The majority of the patients, 61(45 %) had undergone emergency surgery and were in the ICU for postoperative treatment, whilst only 19(14 %) were in the units for clinical treatment (non-surgical). On admission, 72(52.6 %) of the patients were on mechanical ventilation. The mean duration on mechanical ventilation for patients was 4.0 days (SD =2.7) and a length of stay in the unit of 4.5 days (SD = 3.0). Of the patients who were admitted into the ICU 120 (87.6 %) had at least one session of physiotherapy treatment during their stay. The mean number of days physiotherapy treatment was received was 3.71 (SD = 3.14) days. The most commonly used physiotherapy techniques were active assisted limb movements (66.4 %), deep breathing exercises (65.0 %) and forced expiratory techniques (65.0 %). A young population admitted in the ICU for post-surgical treatment was observed across all hospital ICUs. The techniques which were

  14. (n,{alpha}) cross section measurement of gaseous sample using gridded ionization chamber. Cross section determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanami, Toshiya; Baba, Mamoru; Saito, Keiichiro; Ibara, Yasutaka; Hirakawa, Naohiro [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    We are developing a method of (n,{alpha}) cross section measurement using gaseous samples in a gridded ionization chamber (GIC). This method enables cross section measurements in large solid angle without the distortion by the energy loss in a sample, but requires a method to estimate the detection efficiency. We solve this problem by using GIC signals and a tight neutron collimation. The validity of this method was confirmed through the {sup 12}C(n,{alpha}{sub 0}){sup 9}Be measurement. We applied this method to the {sup 16}O(n,{alpha}){sup 13}C cross section around 14.1 MeV. (author)

  15. Cross sections required for FMIT dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gold, R.; McElroy, W.N.; Lippincott, E.P.; Mann, F.M.; Oberg, D.L.; Roberts, J.H.; Ruddy, F.H.

    1980-05-02

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) facility, currently under construction, is designed to produce a high flux of high energy neutrons for irradiation effects experiments on fusion reactor materials. Characterization of the flux-fluence-spectrum in this rapidly varying neutron field requires adaptation and extension of currently available dosimetry techniques. This characterization will be carried out by a combination of active, passive, and calculational dosimetry. The goal is to provide the experimenter with accurate neutron flux-fluence-spectra at all positions in the test cell. Plans have been completed for a number of experimental dosimetry stations and provision for these facilities has been incorporated into the FMIT design. Overall needs of the FMIT irradiation damage program delineate goal accuracies for dosimetry that, in turn, create new requirements for high energy neutron cross section data. Recommendations based on these needs have been derived for required cross section data and accuracies.

  16. Measurements of neutron spallation cross section. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E.; Nakamura, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center; Imamura, M.; Nakao, N.; Shibata, S.; Uwamino, Y.; Nakanishi, N.; Tanaka, Su.

    1997-03-01

    Neutron spallation cross section of {sup 59}Co(n,xn){sup 60-x}Co, {sup nat}Cu(n,sp){sup 56}Mn, {sup nat}Cu(n,sp){sup 58}Co, {sup nat}Cu(n,xn){sup 60}Cu, {sup nat}Cu(n,xn){sup 61}Cu and {sup nat}Cu(n,sp){sup 65}Ni was measured in the quasi-monoenergetic p-Li neutron fields in the energy range above 40 MeV which have been established at three AVF cyclotron facilities of (1) INS of Univ. of Tokyo, (2) TIARA of JAERI and (3) RIKEN. Our experimental data were compared with the ENDF/B-VI high energy file data by Fukahori and the calculated cross section data by Odano. (author)

  17. Electron Capture Cross Sections for Stellar Nucleosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Giannaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first stage of this work, we perform detailed calculations for the cross sections of the electron capture on nuclei under laboratory conditions. Towards this aim we exploit the advantages of a refined version of the proton-neutron quasiparticle random-phase approximation (pn-QRPA and carry out state-by-state evaluations of the rates of exclusive processes that lead to any of the accessible transitions within the chosen model space. In the second stage of our present study, we translate the abovementioned e--capture cross sections to the stellar environment ones by inserting the temperature dependence through a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution describing the stellar electron gas. As a concrete nuclear target we use the 66Zn isotope, which belongs to the iron group nuclei and plays prominent role in stellar nucleosynthesis at core collapse supernovae environment.

  18. Neutron cross sections for fusion. [Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haight, R.C.

    1979-10-01

    First generation fusion reactors will most likely be based on the /sup 3/H(d,n)/sup 4/He reaction, which produces 14-MeV neutrons. In these reactors, both the number of neutrons and the average neutron energy will be significantly higher than for fission reactors of the same power. Accurate neutron cross section data are therefore of great importance. They are needed in present conceptual designs to calculate neutron transport, energy deposition, nuclear transmutation including tritium breeding and activation, and radiation damage. They are also needed for the interpretation of radiation damage experiments, some of which use neutrons up to 40 MeV. In addition, certain diagnostic measurements of plasma experiments require nuclear cross sections. The quality of currently available data for these applications will be reviewed and current experimental programs will be outlined. The utility of nuclear models to provide these data also will be discussed. 65 references.

  19. Photonuclear Reaction Cross Sections for Gallium Isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Akkoyun, Serkan

    2014-01-01

    The photon induced reactions which are named as photonuclear reactions have a great importance in many field of nuclear, radiation physics and related fields. Since we have planned to perform photonuclear reaction on gallium target with bremmstrahlung photons from clinical linear accelerator in the future, the cross-sections of neutron (photo-neutron ({\\gamma},xn)) and proton (photo-proton ({\\gamma},xn)) productions after photon activation have been calculated by using TALYS 1.2 computer code in this study. The target nucleus has been considered gallium which has two stable isotopes, 69Ga and 71Ga. According to the results, we have seen that the calculations are in harmony in the limited literature values. Furthermore, the pre-equilibrium and compound process contributions to the total cross-section have been investigated.

  20. Survival Mediated Heavy Element Capture Cross Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loveland Walter

    2017-01-01

    where E is the center of mass energy, and T is the probability of the colliding nuclei to overcome the potential barrier in the entrance channel and reach the contact point. PCN is the probability that the projectile-target system will evolve from the contact point to the compound nucleus. Wsur is the probability that the compound nucleus will decay to produce an evaporation residue rather than fissioning. However, one must remember that the Wsur term effectively sets the allowed values of the spin, which in turn, restricts the values of the capture and fusion cross sections. We point out the implications of this fact for capture cross sections for heavy element formation reactions.

  1. Dijet cross sections in photoproduction at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarenko, Inna [DESY, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    At high collision energies accessible at ep collider HERA hard hadronic jets can be produced. At leading order, at low virtualities of the exchanged photon, two processes contribute to the jet production. In the direct photon process an almost real photon interacts as a point-like particle with a parton of the proton. In contrast in resolved processes the photon fluctuates to an hadronic state. The measurements of the jet production give an important information about the structure of the photon and the proton. Dijet cross sections have been measured in the reaction ep{yields} e+jet+jet+X with the ZEUS detector using an integrated luminosity of 189 pb{sup -1}. Differential cross sections are presented as functions of average jet transverse energy and presudorapidity for dijet events with E{sub T}{sup jet1} > 21 GeV, E{sub T}{sup jet2} > 17 GeV, -1 < {eta}{sup jet1(2)} < 3 for {gamma}p centre-of-mass energies in range 142 < W{sub {gamma}p} < 293 GeV and photon virtuality Q{sup 2} < 1 GeV{sup 2}. In addition, the dijet cross section was measured as a function of the fraction of the incoming photon momentum taken by the dijet system. The dijet cross sections were also measured as functions of the dijet invariant mass, M{sub jj} and scattering angle in the dijet centre-of-mass system for E{sub T}{sup jet1(2)} > 17 GeV, -1 < {eta}{sup jet1(2)} < 3 and M{sub jj} > 60 GeV. Next-to-leading order calculations give a good description of the measurements. These measurements can be used to further constraint the gluon component of the proton parton density function at medium to high x.

  2. Cross section of the CMS solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    Tejinder S. Virdee, CERN

    2005-01-01

    The pictures show a cross section of the CMS solenoid. One can see four layers of the superconducting coil, each of which contains the superconductor (central part, copper coloured - niobium-titanium strands in a copper coating, made into a "Rutherford cable"), surrounded by an ultra-pure aluminium as a magnetic stabilizer, then an aluminium alloy as a mechanical stabilizer. Besides the four layers there is an aluminium mechanical piece that includes pipes that transport the liquid helium.

  3. Measurements of Fission Cross Sections of Actinides

    CERN Multimedia

    Wiescher, M; Cox, J; Dahlfors, M

    2002-01-01

    A measurement of the neutron induced fission cross sections of $^{237}$Np, $^{241},{243}$Am and of $^{245}$Cm is proposed for the n_TOF neutron beam. Two sets of fission detectors will be used: one based on PPAC counters and another based on a fast ionization chamber (FIC). A total of 5x10$^{18}$ protons are requested for the entire fission measurement campaign.

  4. ENDF Cross Sections are not Uniquely Defined

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, D. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-06-11

    Most evaluated data that is coded into the ENDF format [1] does not uniquely define cross sections, because the evaluator defined total is not equal to the sum of evaluator defined partial cross sections, i.e., the total is not equal to elastic plus capture, etc. So we have always had the question: What is the correct total cross section? This is not a new problem; it has existed since the very beginning of ENDF over forty years ago. It is a problem that is periodically discussed and apparently handled, only to have it pop up again every ten years or so, as we have the next generation of ENDF format users who are not aware of the problem. See the Appendices for a summary of the differences that exist today for the ENDF/B-VII.0 (Appendix C), JEFF- 3.1(Appendix D), JENDL-3.3 (Appendix E), and CENDL-3.1 (Appendix F) data libraries. For use in our application we need consistent, unique data. To accomplish this for decades we [2, 3] have been ignoring the evaluator defined total, and re-defining it as equal to the sum of its evaluator defined parts. This has never been completely satisfactory to us, because we have been doing this without consulting evaluators, or obtaining their approval, so that the data we actually use in our applications may or may not be what the evaluators intended.

  5. Radar cross section measurements using terahertz waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    Radar cross sections at terahertz frequencies are measured on scale models of aircrafts. A time domain broadband THz system generates freely propagating THz pulses measured with sub-picosecond time resolution. The THz radiation is generated using fs laser pulses by optical rectification in a lith......Radar cross sections at terahertz frequencies are measured on scale models of aircrafts. A time domain broadband THz system generates freely propagating THz pulses measured with sub-picosecond time resolution. The THz radiation is generated using fs laser pulses by optical rectification...... in a lithium niobate crystal with application of the tilted wave front method, resulting in high electric field THz pulses with a broad band spectrum from 100 GHz up to 4 THz. The corresponding wave lengths are two orders of magnitude smaller than normal radars and we therefore use scale models of size 5-10 cm...... in order to measure realistic radar cross sections. RCS polar and azimuthal angle plots of F-16 and F-35 are presented....

  6. Neutron capture cross sections of Kr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiebiger Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron capture and β− -decay are competing branches of the s-process nucleosynthesis path at 85Kr [1], which makes it an important branching point. The knowledge of its neutron capture cross section is therefore essential to constrain stellar models of nucleosynthesis. Despite its importance for different fields, no direct measurement of the cross section of 85Kr in the keV-regime has been performed. The currently reported uncertainties are still in the order of 50% [2, 3]. Neutron capture cross section measurements on a 4% enriched 85Kr gas enclosed in a stainless steel cylinder were performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE. 85Kr is radioactive isotope with a half life of 10.8 years. As this was a low-enrichment sample, the main contaminants, the stable krypton isotopes 83Kr and 86Kr, were also investigated. The material was highly enriched and contained in pressurized stainless steel spheres.

  7. Neutron capture cross sections of Kr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebiger, Stefan; Baramsai, Bayarbadrakh; Couture, Aaron; Krtička, Milan; Mosby, Shea; Reifarth, René; O'Donnell, John; Rusev, Gencho; Ullmann, John; Weigand, Mario; Wolf, Clemens

    2018-01-01

    Neutron capture and β- -decay are competing branches of the s-process nucleosynthesis path at 85Kr [1], which makes it an important branching point. The knowledge of its neutron capture cross section is therefore essential to constrain stellar models of nucleosynthesis. Despite its importance for different fields, no direct measurement of the cross section of 85Kr in the keV-regime has been performed. The currently reported uncertainties are still in the order of 50% [2, 3]. Neutron capture cross section measurements on a 4% enriched 85Kr gas enclosed in a stainless steel cylinder were performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE). 85Kr is radioactive isotope with a half life of 10.8 years. As this was a low-enrichment sample, the main contaminants, the stable krypton isotopes 83Kr and 86Kr, were also investigated. The material was highly enriched and contained in pressurized stainless steel spheres.

  8. Krypton Production Cross Sections and Production Rates in Simulation Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilabert, E.; Lavielle, B.; Schiekel, Th.; Herpers, U.; Neumann, S.; Michel, R.

    1995-09-01

    The stacked-foil technique was used to measured proton induced excitation functions from Sr targets (SrF2). The irradiations were performed at the Laboratoire National Saturne in Saclay (F), the Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala (S) and the Paul Scherrer Institute in Villigen (CH) with primary energies from 45 to 400 MeV. After gamma-spectrometric measurement of short and medium-lived radionuclides and after sufficient cooling, stable and long lived Kr isotopes were measured at Centre Etude Nucleaire in Bordeaux (F). Deduced cross sections were corrected for the production of secondary protons and neutrons by a method developed by Lupke[1]. There are no literature data which can be compared with the cross sections from this work. Theoretical calculations of cross sections were performed using two approaches. The first one was using the hybrid model of preequilibrium reactions with the code AREL[2]. The second was using the Intra-Nuclear-Cascade/Evaporation model in the form of the High Energy Transport Code (HETC)[3]. This study shows that for energies above 200 MeV, the spallation model is better suited to explain the nuclear reactions whereas the preequilibrium model leads to underestimation of the experimental data. For energies above 200 MeV, HETC should be preferred to AREL calculations. In physical models describing galactic cosmic ray (GCR) interactions with matter [4], cross sections of both, proton and neutron-induced reactions, are important parameters. Using the measured cross sections for proton-induced reactions from this work and the experimental Kr depth profiles obtained from Sr targets in the LNS172 simulation experiment [5], we established a set of excitation functions for neutron-induced reactions, which now excellently describes the production rate depth profiles from the simulation experiment. Before measuring experimental cross sections for Kr from Sr, the theoretical depth profiles calculated with pure theoretical excitation functions showed

  9. A New Measurement of Neutron Induced Fission Cross Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Joshua; Niffte Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Neutron induced fission cross sections of actinides are of great interest in nuclear energy and stockpile stewardship. Traditionally, measurements of these cross sections have been made with fission chambers, which provide limited information on the actual fragments, and ultimately result in uncertainties on the order of several percent. The Neutron Induced Fission ragment Tracking Experiment (NIFFTE) collaboration designed and built a fission Time Projection Chamber (fissionTPC), which provides additional information on these processes, through 3-dimensional tracking, improved particle identification, and in-situ profiles of target and beam non-uniformities. Ultimately, this should provide sub-percent measurements of (n,f) cross-sections. During the 2016 run cycle, measurements of the 238U(n,f)/235U(n,f) cross section shape was performed at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility. An overview of the fission TPC will be given, as well as these recently reported results. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  10. 30 CFR 779.25 - Cross sections, maps, and plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cross sections, maps, and plans. 779.25 Section... RESOURCES § 779.25 Cross sections, maps, and plans. (a) The application shall include cross sections, maps..., maps and plans included in a permit application as required by this section shall be prepared by, or...

  11. Neutron capture cross section of $^{93}$Zr

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to measure the neutron capture cross section of the radioactive isotope $^{93}$Zr. This project aims at the substantial improvement of existing results for applications in nuclear astrophysics and emerging nuclear technologies. In particular, the superior quality of the data that can be obtained at n_TOF will allow on one side a better characterization of s-process nucleosynthesis and on the other side a more accurate material balance in systems for transmutation of nuclear waste, given that this radioactive isotope is widely present in fission products.

  12. LEP vacuum chamber, cross-section

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    Cross-section of the final prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber. The elliptic main-opening is for the beam. The small channel to the left is for the cooling water, to carry away the heat deposited by the synchrotron radiation. The square channel to the right houses the Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) pump. The chamber is made from extruded aluminium. Its outside is clad with lead, to stop the synchrotron radiation emitted by the beam. For good adherence between Pb and Al, the Al chamber was coated with a thin layer of Ni. Ni being slightly magnetic, some resulting problems had to be overcome. See also 8301153.

  13. Multicollinearity in cross-sectional regressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauridsen, Jørgen; Mur, Jesùs

    2006-10-01

    The paper examines robustness of results from cross-sectional regression paying attention to the impact of multicollinearity. It is well known that the reliability of estimators (least-squares or maximum-likelihood) gets worse as the linear relationships between the regressors become more acute. We resolve the discussion in a spatial context, looking closely into the behaviour shown, under several unfavourable conditions, by the most outstanding misspecification tests when collinear variables are added to the regression. A Monte Carlo simulation is performed. The conclusions point to the fact that these statistics react in different ways to the problems posed.

  14. Nuclear interaction cross sections for proton radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Chadwick, M B; Arendse, G J; Cowley, A A; Richter, W A; Lawrie, J J; Newman, R T; Pilcher, J V; Smit, F D; Steyn, G F; Koen, J W; Stander, J A

    1999-01-01

    Model calculations of proton-induced nuclear reaction cross sections are described for biologically-important targets. Measurements made at the National Accelerator Centre are presented for double-differential proton, deuteron, triton, helium-3 and alpha particle spectra, for 150 and 200 MeV protons incident on C, N, and O. These data are needed for Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport and absorbed dose in proton therapy. Data relevant to the use of positron emission tomography to locate the Bragg peak are also described.

  15. Fission cross section measurements for minor actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fursov, B. [IPPE, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The main task of this work is the measurement of fast neutron induced fission cross section for minor actinides of {sup 238}Pu, {sup 242m}Am, {sup 243,244,245,246,247,248}Cm. The task of the work is to increase the accuracy of data in MeV energy region. Basic experimental method, fissile samples, fission detectors and electronics, track detectors, alpha counting, neutron generation, fission rate measurement, corrections to the data and error analysis are presented in this paper. (author)

  16. 30 CFR 783.25 - Cross sections, maps, and plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cross sections, maps, and plans. 783.25 Section... ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES § 783.25 Cross sections, maps, and plans. (a) The application shall include cross sections, maps, and plans showing— (1) Elevations and locations of test borings and core samplings; (2...

  17. Plasma-based radar cross section reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive review of plasma-based stealth, covering the basics, methods, parametric analysis, and challenges towards the realization of the idea. The concealment of aircraft from radar sources, or stealth, is achieved through shaping, radar absorbing coatings, engineered materials, or plasma, etc. Plasma-based stealth is a radar cross section (RCS) reduction technique associated with the reflection and absorption of incident electromagnetic (EM) waves by the plasma layer surrounding the structure. A plasma cloud covering the aircraft may give rise to other signatures such as thermal, acoustic, infrared, or visual. Thus it is a matter of concern that the RCS reduction by plasma enhances its detectability due to other signatures. This needs a careful approach towards the plasma generation and its EM wave interaction. The book starts with the basics of EM wave interactions with plasma, briefly discuss the methods used to analyze the propagation characteristics of plasma, and its generatio...

  18. Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) Cross Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This drawing shows a cross-section view of the test cell at the heart of the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) that flew on two Spacelab missions. The middle and lower drawings depict the volume of the silicone oil layer that served as the atmosphere as the steel ball rotated and an electrostatic field pulled the oil inward to mimic gravity's effects during the experiments. The GFFC thus produced flow patterns that simulated conditions inside the atmospheres of Jupiter and the Sun and other stars. The principal investigator was John Hart of the University of Colorado at Boulder. It was managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). An Acrobat PDF copy of this drawing is available at http://microgravity.nasa.gov/gallery. (Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  19. Chronic malnutrition: a cross-section analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emely Beatriz García González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The objective of the study was to determine the main causes of chronic malnutrition worldwide. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was employed to analyze the main determinants of chronic malnutrition in a sample of 86 countries. The variables used are based on the UNICEF conceptual framework of malnutrition. This framework classifies the determinants of malnutrition in three main causes: basic, immediate, and underlying. Findings: Droughts, floods, and extreme temperatures, and GDP per capita are the main basic determinants of malnutrition in the sample of countries. In addition one underlying determinant had a major impact in the prevalence of malnutrition: improved sanitation facilities. Conclusions: The findings of this study demonstrated that the variables within the basic and underlying cause classification are the ones with a greater impact on chronic malnutrition.

  20. Neutrino Cross Sections at Supernova Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholberg, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Neutrinos with energies between a few and a few tens of MeV are relevant for a number of physics topics. Notably, this is the energy range corresponding to emission of neutrinos from supernovae. In addition, it is relevant for studies of solar, reactor and atmospheric neutrinos, as well as for physics using accelerator-produced neutrinos from pions or radioactive nuclei decaying at rest. Surprisingly, with the exception of interactions on electrons and protons, the interactions of neutrinos with matter in this energy range are quite poorly understood, both theoretically and experimentally. This talk will describe neutrino physics and astrophysics in the supernova-neutrino energy range, the state of knowledge of cross sections on relevant nuclei, and initiatives for experimental measurements.

  1. An Epidemiological Profile of CrossFit Athletes in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprey, Jan W C; Ferreira, Thiago; de Lima, Marcos V; Duarte, Aires; Jorge, Pedro B; Santili, Claudio

    2016-08-01

    CrossFit is a conditioning and training program that has been gaining recognition and interest among the physically active population. Approximately 440 certified and registered CrossFit fitness centers and gyms exist in Brazil, with approximately 40,000 athletes. To date, there have been no epidemiological studies about the CrossFit athlete in Brazil. To evaluate the profile, sports history, training routine, and presence of injuries among athletes of CrossFit. Descriptive epidemiological study. This cross-sectional study was based on a questionnaire administered to CrossFit athletes from various specialized fitness centers in Brazil. Data were collected from May 2015 to July 2015 through an electronic questionnaire that included demographic data, level of sedentary lifestyle at work, sports training history prior to starting CrossFit, current sports activities, professional monitoring, and whether the participants experienced any injuries while practicing CrossFit. A total of 622 questionnaires were received, including 566 (243 women [42.9%] and 323 men [57.1%]) that were completely filled out and met the inclusion criteria and 9% that were incompletely filled out. Overall, 176 individuals (31.0%) mentioned having experienced some type of injury while practicing CrossFit. We found no significant difference in injury incidence rates regarding demographic data. There was no significant difference regarding previous sports activities because individuals who did not practice prior physical activity showed very similar injury rates to those who practiced at any level. CrossFit injury rates are comparable to those of other recreational or competitive sports, and the injuries show a profile similar to weight lifting, power lifting, weight training, Olympic gymnastics, and running, which have an injury incidence rate nearly half that of soccer.

  2. Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 64 NIST Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of differential elastic-scattering cross sections, corresponding total elastic-scattering cross sections, phase shifts, and transport cross sections for elements with atomic numbers from 1 to 96 and for electron energies between 50 eV and 20,000 eV (in steps of 1 eV).

  3. The use of NO2 absorption cross section temperature sensitivity to derive NO2 profile temperature and stratospheric–tropospheric column partitioning from visible direct-sun DOAS measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Spinei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a temperature sensitivity method (TESEM to accurately calculate total vertical NO2 column, atmospheric slant NO2 profile-weighted temperature (T, and to separate stratospheric and tropospheric columns from direct-sun (DS, ground-based measurements using the retrieved T. TESEM is based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS fitting of the linear temperature-dependent NO2 absorption cross section, σ (T, regression model (Vandaele et al., 2003. Separation between stratospheric and tropospheric columns is based on the primarily bimodal vertical distribution of NO2 and an assumption that stratospheric effective temperature can be represented by temperature at 27 km ± 3 K, and tropospheric effective temperature is equal to surface temperature within 3–5 K. These assumptions were derived from the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI chemistry-transport model (CTM simulations over two northern midlatitude sites in 2011. TESEM was applied to the Washington State University Multi-Function DOAS instrument (MFDOAS measurements at four midlatitude locations with low and moderate NO2 anthropogenic emissions: (1 the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Table Mountain Facility (JPL-TMF, CA, USA (34.38° N/117.68° W; (2 Pullman, WA, USA (46.73° N/117.17° W; (3 Greenbelt, MD, USA (38.99° N/76.84° W; and (4 Cabauw, the Netherlands (51.97° N/4.93° E during July 2007, June–July 2009, July–August and October 2011, November 2012–May 2013, respectively. NO2 T and total, stratospheric, and tropospheric NO2 vertical columns were determined over each site.

  4. Visual memory profile in 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome: are there differences in performance and neurobiological substrates between tasks linked to ventral and dorsal visual brain structures? A cross-sectional and longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostelmann, Mathilde; Schneider, Maude; Padula, Maria Carmela; Maeder, Johanna; Schaer, Marie; Scariati, Elisa; Debbané, Martin; Glaser, Bronwyn; Menghetti, Sarah; Eliez, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Children affected by the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have a specific neuropsychological profile with strengths and weaknesses in several cognitive domains. Specifically, previous evidence has shown that patients with 22q11.2DS have more difficulties memorizing faces and visual-object characteristics of stimuli. In contrast, they have better performance in visuo-spatial memory tasks. The first focus of this study was to replicate these results in a larger sample of patients affected with 22q11.2DS and using a range of memory tasks. Moreover, we analyzed if the deficits were related to brain morphology in the structures typically underlying these abilities (ventral and dorsal visual streams). Finally, since the longitudinal development of visual memory is not clearly characterized in 22q11.2DS, we investigated its evolution from childhood to adolescence. Seventy-one patients with 22q11.2DS and 49 control individuals aged between 9 and 16 years completed the Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT) and specific subtests assessing visual memory from the Children's Memory Scale (CMS). The BVRT was used to compute spatial and object memory errors. For the CMS, specific subtests were classified into ventral, dorsal, and mixed subtests. Longitudinal data were obtained from a subset of 26 patients and 22 control individuals. Cross-sectional results showed that patients with 22q11.2DS were impaired in all visual memory measures, with stronger deficits in visual-object memory and memory of faces, compared to visuo-spatial memory. No correlations between morphological brain impairments and visual memory were found in patients with 22q11.2DS. Longitudinal findings revealed that participants with 22q11.2DS made more object memory errors than spatial memory errors at baseline. This difference was no longer significant at follow-up. Individuals with 22q11.2DS have impairments in visual memory abilities, with more pronounced difficulties in memorizing faces and visual

  5. [Fast neutron cross section measurements]. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are ``clean`` and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its ``data production`` phase.

  6. Resonance capture cross section of 207Pb

    CERN Document Server

    Domingo-Pardo, C.; Aerts, G.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Audouin, L.; Badurek, G.; Baumann, P.; Becvar, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Bisterzo, S.; Calvino, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrapico, C.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dillman, I.; Dolfini, R.; Dridi, W.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fitzpatrick, L.; Frais-Koelbl, H.; Fujii, K.; Furman, W.; Gallino, R.; Goncalves, I.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Gramegna, F.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Isaev, S.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Kappeler, F.; Karamanis, D.; Karadimos, D.; Kerveno, M.; Ketlerov, V.; Koehler, P.; Konovalov, V.; Kossionides, E.; Krticka, M.; Lamboudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marrone, S.; Mastinu, P.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P.M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; Oshima, M.; O'Brien, S.; Pancin, J.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rosetti, M.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Sarchiapone, L.; Savvidis, I.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J.L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M.C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wendler, H.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K.

    2006-01-01

    The radiative neutron capture cross section of 207Pb has been measured at the CERN neutron time of flight installation n_TOF using the pulse height weighting technique in the resolved energy region. The measurement has been performed with an optimized setup of two C6D6 scintillation detectors, which allowed us to reduce scattered neutron backgrounds down to a negligible level. Resonance parameters and radiative kernels have been determined for 16 resonances by means of an R-matrix analysis in the neutron energy range from 3 keV to 320 keV. Good agreement with previous measurements was found at low neutron energies, whereas substantial discrepancies appear beyond 45 keV. With the present results, we obtain an s-process contribution of 77(8)% to the solar abundance of 207Pb. This corresponds to an r-process component of 23(8)%, which is important for deriving the U/Th ages of metal poor halo stars.

  7. KAERI charged particle cross section library for radioisotope production

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, J H; Kim, D H; Lee, Y O; Zhuang, Y X

    2001-01-01

    This report summarized information and figures describing the 'KAERI Charged Particle Cross Section Library for Radioisotope production' The library contains proton-, deutron-, He-3-, and alpha-induced monitor cross sections, and gamma- and positron-emitter production cross sections. Experimental data and evaluation methods are described, and the evaluated cross sections are compared with those of the IAEA, MENDL, and LA150. The library has cross sections and emission spectra suitable for the transport analysis in the design of radioisotope production system, and are available at http://atom.kaeri.re.kr/ in ENDF-6 format.

  8. First measurement of unpolarized SIDIS cross section and cross section ratios from a $^3$He target

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, X; Aniol, K; Annand, J R M; Averett, T; Benmokhtar, F; Bertozzi, W; Bradshaw, P C; Bosted, P; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Cates, G D; Chen, C; Chen, J -P; Chen, W; Chirapatpimol, K; Chudakov, E; Cisbani, E; Cornejo, J C; Cusanno, F; Dalton, M M; Deconinck, W; de Jager, C W; De Leo, R; Deng, X; Deur, A; Ding, H; Dolph, P A M; Dutta, C; Dutta, D; Fassi, L El; Frullani, S; Gao, H; Garibaldi, F; Gaskell, D; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Golge, S; Guo, L; Hamilton, D; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Huang, J; Huang, M; Ibrahim, H F; Iodice, M; Jiang, X; Jin, G; Jones, M K; Katich, J; Kelleher, A; Kim, W; Kolarkar, A; Korsch, W; LeRose, J J; Li, X; Li, Y; Lindgren, R; Liu, T; Liyanage, N; Long, E; Lu, H -J; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; McNulty, D; Meziani, Z -E; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Camacho, C Munoz; Nanda, S; Narayan, A; Nelyubin, V; Norum, B; Oh, Y; Osipenko, M; Parno, D; Peng, J -C; Phillips, S K; Posik, M; Puckett, A J R; Qian, X; Qiang, Y; Rakhman, A; Ransome, R; Riordan, S; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Schulte, E; Shahinyan, A; Shabestari, M H; Sirca, S; Stepanyan, S; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Tang, L -G; Tobias, W A; Urciuoli, G M; Vilardi, I; Wang, K; Wojtsekhowski, B; Wang, Y; Yan, X; Yao, H; Ye, Y; Ye, Z; Yuan, L; Zhan, X; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y -W; Zhao, B; Zhao, Y X; Zheng, X; Zhu, L; Zhu, X; Zong, X

    2016-01-01

    The unpolarized semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering (SIDIS) differential cross sections in $^3$He($e,e^{\\prime}\\pi^{\\pm}$)$X$ have been measured for the first time in Jefferson Lab experiment E06-010 performed with a $5.9\\,$GeV $e^-$ beam on a $^3$He target. The experiment focuses on the valence quark region, covering a kinematic range $0.12 < x_{bj} < 0.45$, $1 < Q^2 < 4 \\, \\textrm{(GeV/c)}^2$, $0.45 < z_{h} < 0.65$, and $0.05 < P_t < 0.55 \\, \\textrm{GeV/c}$. The extracted SIDIS differential cross sections of $\\pi^{\\pm}$ production are compared with existing phenomenological models while the $^3$He nucleus approximated as two protons and one neutron in a plane wave picture, in multi-dimensional bins. Within the experimental uncertainties, the azimuthal modulations of the cross sections are found to be consistent with zero.

  9. Allergic conjunctivitis: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, A; Piliego, F; Castegnaro, A; Lazzarini, D; La Gloria Valerio, A; Mattana, P; Fregona, I

    2015-06-01

    Ocular allergy is a common disease in daily practice. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate clinical aspects of and therapeutic approaches to ocular allergy in Italy. Of the 3685 patients affected by ocular allergy and enrolled by 304 ophthalmologists nationally, 3545 were eligible to be included in the statistical analysis. A questionnaire was administered in office to record demographic data, comorbidities, trigger factors, number of conjunctivitis episodes, and past treatments. Signs and symptoms were graded according to their severity, frequency, and duration. Mean age of enrolled patients was 38 ± 19 years. Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (55% of patients) was equally distributed among the different age groups, while perennial allergic conjunctivitis (18%) increased with age and vernal keratoconjunctivitis (9%) was more frequent under the age of 18. Itching and redness were reported in 90% and 85%, respectively; lid skin involvement was observed in 22% of cases and keratitis in 11%. Pollen sensitivities were indicated as the most frequent triggers; however, exposure to non-specific environmental conditions, pollutants, and cigarette smoke was frequently reported. Only 35% of patients underwent a diagnostic evaluation of specific allergic sensitization, with positive allergy tests found in 82% of this subset. With regard to treatment, topical decongestants were used in 43% of patients, corticosteroids in 41%, antihistamines in 29%, systemic antihistamines in 27%, and mast cell stabilizers in 15%. This survey provided useful epidemiological information regarding the clinical characteristics and treatment options of a large cohort of patients affected by different forms of ocular allergy. An understanding of ocular allergic disease, its incidence, demographics, and treatment paradigms provides important information towards understanding its pharmacoeconomics and burden on the national health system. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Metabolic characterization of menopause: cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Ferreira, Diana L Santos; Nelson, Scott M; Sattar, Naveed; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2018-02-06

    Women who experience menopause are at higher cardiometabolic risk and often display adverse changes in metabolic biomarkers compared with pre-menopausal women. It remains elusive whether the changes in cardiometabolic biomarkers during the menopausal transition are due to ovarian aging or chronological aging. Well-conducted longitudinal studies are required to determine this. The aim of this study was to explore the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of reproductive status, defined according to the 2012 Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop criteria, with 74 metabolic biomarkers, and establish whether any associations are independent of age-related changes. We determined cross-sectional associations of reproductive status with metabolic profiling in 3,312 UK midlife women. In a subgroup of 1,492 women who had repeat assessments after 2.5 years, we assessed how the change in reproductive status was associated with the changes in metabolic biomarkers. Metabolic profiles were measured by high-throughput quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics. In longitudinal analyses, we compared the change in metabolic biomarkers for each reproductive-status category change to that of the reference of being pre-menopausal at both time points. As all women aged by a similar amount during follow-up, these analyses contribute to distinguishing age-related changes from those related to change in reproductive status. Consistent cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of menopause with a wide range of metabolic biomarkers were observed, suggesting the transition to menopause induces multiple metabolic changes independent of chronological aging. The metabolic changes included increased concentrations of very small very low-density lipoproteins, intermediate-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), remnant, and LDL cholesterol, and reduced LDL particle size, all toward an atherogenic lipoprotein profile. Increased inflammation was suggested via

  11. Socio-demographic characteristics, clinical profile and prevalence of existing mental illness among suicide attempters attending emergency services at two hospitals in Hawassa city, South Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayehu, Moges; Solomon, Tarekegn; Lemma, Kinfe

    2017-01-01

    Suicide is a major public health problem worldwide. It contributes for more than one million deaths each year. Since previous suicidal attempt was considered as the best predictor of future suicide, identifying factors behind suicidal attempt are helpful to design suicide prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to assess socio-demographic characteristics, clinical profile and prevalence of existing mental illness among patients presenting with suicidal attempt to emergency services of general hospitals in South Ethiopia. We conducted a cross-sectional study on patients presenting with complications of suicidal attempt to emergency departments of two general hospitals in Hawassa city from November, 2014 to August, 2015. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaire which contained socio-demographic and clinical variables. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview version 5 (MINI PLUs) was used to assess the prevalence of existing mental illness among study participants. Data was entered and analyzed using IBM SPSS statistics 21 software package. A total of 96 individuals were assessed, of whom 56 (58.3%) were females. The mean age of study participants was 21.5 (8.0) years. The majority, 75 (78.1%), of the study participants were aged below 25 years. Ingesting pesticide poisons and corrosive agent were used by the majority to attempt suicide. Mental illness was found in only three (3.1%) of the study participants. Impulsivity (the time between decision to attempt suicide and the actual attempt of less than 5 min) was reported by 30 (31.2%) of the study participants, of whom 18 (60%) were males. Males were found three times more likely to attempt suicide impulsively than women (COR = 3.0, 95% CI 1.2-7.3). Quarreling with family members, facing financial crisis, and having unplanned and unwanted pregnancy were reported by the majority of study participants as immediate reasons to attempt suicide. The presence of stressful life events and

  12. Combined crustal-geological cross-section of Ellesmere Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephenson, Randell Alexander; Schiffer, Christian; Oakey, Gordon

    Ellesmere Island, in Canada’s Arctic, consists of a series of ~SW-NE trending tectonic provinces, the crustal structure and geological expression of which represent a combination of interplate, accretionary orogenesis in the Palaeozoic and, most recently, intraplate deformation in the Cenozoic...... (Eurekan “Orogeny”). An almost complete absence of information about the crustal or lithosphere structure of Ellesmere Island has been addressed by the acquisition of teleseismic data between 2010 and 2012 on a passive seismological array called ELLITE (“Ellesmere Island Teleseismic Experiment......”). The ELLITE array consisted of seven broadband stations, deployed for two years on a 520 km long, N-S orientated profile and was logistically supported by the GSC (Canada) and SEIS-UK. Extracted Receiver Functions (RFs) and a resulting composite two-dimensional crustal scale cross-section of Ellesmere Island...

  13. Nutritional status and coronary artery disease: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Behrooz; Khaleghparast, Shiva; Ghadrdoost, Behshid; Bakhshandeh, Hooman

    2014-03-01

    Nutrition is among the most important factors influencing coronary artery disease. Here we aimed to study the nutritional status of patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD). We performed a cross-sectional study on 600 patients referred to a cardiology clinic with the signs of ACS. The patients were then classified in to two groups (CAD group and the normal group) based on angiographic findings. The amount of nutritional profile was questioned from all participants. Men were more often diagnosed with CAD compared to women (198/362 vs. 102/238; P nutritional factors predicting CAD. White mean and type of tea were the most important predictors of CAD. Dietary prevention strategies from childhood could prevent early CAD.

  14. Measurements of Cesium Cold-Collision Cross-Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, J. L.; Boyd, R. A.; Libbrecht, K. G.

    1997-04-01

    We have made a direct measurement of the cesium (F=4, M=4) elastic cross-section at temperatures T magneto-static trap. The cross-section we measure is significantly lower than that inferred by Verhaar et al (PRA 48, R3429, 1993) using the observed collisional shifts of the clock transition in a cesium atomic fountain. We will also report on our current experiments measuring the (F=3, M=-3) elastic cross-section as a function of magnetic field.

  15. Neutron-capture cross sections from indirect measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scielzo N.D.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  16. Systematics of fission cross sections at the intermediate energy region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukahori, Tokio; Chiba, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    The systematics was obtained with fitting experimental data for proton induced fission cross sections of Ag, {sup 181}Ta, {sup 197}Au, {sup 206,207,208}Pb, {sup 209}Bi, {sup 232}Th, {sup 233,235,238}U, {sup 237}Np and {sup 239}Pu above 20 MeV. The low energy cross section of actinoid nuclei is omitted from systematics study, since the cross section has a complicated shape and strongly depends on characteristic of nucleus. The fission cross sections calculated by the systematics are in good agreement with experimental data. (author)

  17. Neutron-capture Cross Sections from Indirect Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Ressler, J J; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J

    2011-10-18

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  18. Single boson production and differential cross section measurements in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Debenedetti, Chiara; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    High-precision measurements of the Drell-Yan production allow to extract information on different aspects contributing to the process, such as parton distribution functions (PDFs), and to compare with the current precision reached theoretically on the calculations of the cross sections of such process. This document describes ATLAS measurements, performed at different centre of mass energies of vector boson (W and Z) cross sections and cross-section ratios, and ratios of Z-boson and top-quark pair production cross sections, obtaining important information on the proton PDFs.

  19. Nuclear characteristics of Pu fueled LWR and cross section sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Toshikazu [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-03-01

    The present status of Pu utilization to thermal reactors in Japan, nuclear characteristics and topics and cross section sensitivities for analysis of Pu fueled thermal reactors are described. As topics we will discuss the spatial self-shielding effect on the Doppler reactivity effect and the cross section sensitivities with the JENDL-3.1 and 3.2 libraries. (author)

  20. Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

  1. Temperature dependence of the HNO3 UV absorption cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder, James B.; Talukdar, Ranajit K.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Solomon, Susan

    1993-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the HNO3 absorption cross sections between 240 and 360 K over the wavelength range 195 to 350 nm has been measured using a diode array spectrometer. Absorption cross sections were determined using both (1) absolute pressure measurements at 298 K and (2) a dual absorption cell arrangement in which the absorption spectrum at various temperatures is measured relative to the room temperature absorption spectrum. The HNO3 absorption spectrum showed a temperature dependence which is weak at short wavelengths but stronger at longer wavelengths which are important for photolysis in the lower stratosphere. The 298 K absorption cross sections were found to be larger than the values currently recommended for atmospheric modeling (DeMore et al., 1992). Our absorption cross section data are critically compared with the previous measurements of both room temperature and temperature-dependent absorption cross sections. Temperature-dependent absorption cross sections of HNO3 are recommended for use in atmospheric modeling. These temperature dependent HNO3 absorption cross sections were used in a two-dimensional dynamical-photochemical model to demonstrate the effects of the revised absorption cross sections on loss rate of HNO3 and the abundance of NO2 in the stratosphere.

  2. Carbonyl Sulfide Isotopologues: Ultraviolet Absorption Cross Sections and Stratospheric Photolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielache, Sebastian Oscar; Nanbu, Shinkoh; Eskebjerg, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of the main and substituted carbonyl sulfide isotopologues were calculated using wavepacket dynamics. The calculated absorption cross section of 16O12C32S is in very good agreement with the accepted experimental spectrum between 190 and 250 nm. Relative to 16O...

  3. Cross sections for electron collisions with nitric oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itikawa, Yukikazu, E-mail: yukitikawa@nifty.com [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    Cross section data are reviewed for electron collisions with nitric oxide. Collision processes considered are total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational, vibrational, and electronic states, ionization, and dissociative electron attachment. After a survey of the literature (up to the end of 2015), recommended values of the cross section are determined, as far as possible.

  4. An empirical fit to estimated neutron emission cross sections from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neutron emission cross section for various elements from 9Be to 209Bi have been calculated using the hybrid model code ALICE-91 for proton induced reactions in the energy range 25 MeV to 105 MeV. An empirical expression relating neutron emission cross section to target mass number and incident proton energy has ...

  5. Elastic and inelastic cross section measurements with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Stark, Simon Holm; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The total pp cross section is a fundamental property of the strong interaction which can not be calculated in perturbative QCD but only described based on phenomenological models. The ATLAS collaboration has measured the total inelastic proton-proton cross section and the diffractive part of the inelastic cross section at 13 TeV in special data sets taken with low beam currents and using forward scintillators. More precise measurements of the total pp cross section and the elastic and inelastic contributions have been extracted from measurements of the differential elastic cross section using the optical theorem. The ATLAS Collaboration has performed this measurement in elastic data collected with high beta* optics at 8 TeV centre-of-mass energy with the ALFA Roman Pot detector.

  6. Relations between photoionization cross sections and photon radius

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Shan-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The relations between photoionization cross sections and photon radius are obtained on basis of quantum mechanics and the particle-like properties of a photon. The photoionization cross sections of H atom and H-like ions, He atom and He like ions, alkali metal atoms, and Rydberg atoms are calculated using the relations. The calculation results are found to be good agreement with the known experimental data. The results show that the photoionization cross section is always smaller than the cross section of the photon to ionize the atom or ion and can be expressed as the product of the cross section of the photon and the probability that electron meets with the photon. These provide the intuitive understanding for the photoionization phenomena and open a new avenue of research on interaction between a photon and an atom or ion.

  7. Applications of the BEam Cross section Analysis Software (BECAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasques, José Pedro Albergaria Amaral; Bitsche, Robert; Fedorov, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    A newly developed framework is presented for structural design and analysis of long slender beam-like structures, e.g., wind turbine blades. The framework is based on the BEam Cross section Analysis Software – BECAS – a finite element based cross section analysis tool. BECAS is used for the gener......A newly developed framework is presented for structural design and analysis of long slender beam-like structures, e.g., wind turbine blades. The framework is based on the BEam Cross section Analysis Software – BECAS – a finite element based cross section analysis tool. BECAS is used...... for the generation of beam finite element models which correctly account for effects stemming from material anisotropy and inhomogeneity in cross sections of arbitrary geometry. These type of modelling approach allows for an accurate yet computationally inexpensive representation of a general class of three...

  8. Cross-section adjustment techniques for BWR adaptive simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessee, Matthew Anderson

    Computational capability has been developed to adjust multi-group neutron cross-sections to improve the fidelity of boiling water reactor (BWR) modeling and simulation. The method involves propagating multi-group neutron cross-section uncertainties through BWR computational models to evaluate uncertainties in key core attributes such as core k-effective, nodal power distributions, thermal margins, and in-core detector readings. Uncertainty-based inverse theory methods are then employed to adjust multi-group cross-sections to minimize the disagreement between BWR modeling predictions and measured plant data. For this work, measured plant data were virtually simulated in the form of perturbed 3-D nodal power distributions with discrepancies with predictions of the same order of magnitude as expected from plant data. Using the simulated plant data, multi-group cross-section adjustment reduces the error in core k-effective to less than 0.2% and the RMS error in nodal power to 4% (i.e. the noise level of the in-core instrumentation). To ensure that the adapted BWR model predictions are robust, Tikhonov regularization is utilized to control the magnitude of the cross-section adjustment. In contrast to few-group cross-section adjustment, which was the focus of previous research on BWR adaptive simulation, multigroup cross-section adjustment allows for future fuel cycle design optimization to include the determination of optimal fresh fuel assembly designs using the adjusted multi-group cross-sections. The major focus of this work is to efficiently propagate multi-group neutron cross-section uncertainty through BWR lattice physics calculations. Basic neutron cross-section uncertainties are provided in the form of multi-group cross-section covariance matrices. For energy groups in the resolved resonance energy range, the cross-section uncertainties are computed using an infinitely-dilute approximation of the neutron flux. In order to accurately account for spatial and

  9. Cross-Sectional Drawing Techniques And The Artist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, William A.

    1980-07-01

    Although Democritus, a Greek pholosopher of the fifth century B.C. described the use of cross-sections in analyzing a solid form, this method was not extensively developed in art until the Renaissance. The earliest treatise documenting the integration of the cross-section and linear perspective is Piero della Francesca's De prospective pingendi (c. 1480), in which a drawing of the human head is mathematically conceived and plotted by means of cross-section contours. Piero's method anticipates contemporary biostereometric techniques and current theories of visual perception. Outside of theoretical treatises the complete cross-section rarely occurs in art, though certain pictorial elements such as the religious halo can be interpreted as cross-sections. The chan-ging representation of the halo in art of the Medieval, Renaissance and Baroque periods parallels the development of the artist's concepts and techniques for representing form and space. During the Renaissance and Baroque periods the widespread use of contour hatching, a drawing technique based on the cross-section, indicates that the cross-section concept has played a greater role in pictorial representation than has generally been recognized.

  10. Electron impact ionization cross sections of beryllium-tungsten clusters*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukuba, Ivan; Kaiser, Alexander; Huber, Stefan E.; Urban, Jan; Probst, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We report calculated electron impact ionization cross sections (EICSs) of beryllium-tungsten clusters, BenW with n = 1,...,12, from the ionization threshold to 10 keV using the Deutsch-Märk (DM) and the binary-encounter-Bethe (BEB) formalisms. The positions of the maxima of DM and BEB cross sections are mostly close to each other. The DM cross sections are more sensitive with respect to the cluster size. For the clusters smaller than Be4W they yield smaller cross sections than BEB and vice versa larger cross sections than BEB for clusters larger than Be6W. The maximum cross section values for the singlet-spin groundstate clusters range from 7.0 × 10-16 cm2 at 28 eV (BeW) to 54.2 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (Be12W) for the DM cross sections and from 13.5 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (BeW) to 38.9 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (Be12W) for the BEB cross sections. Differences of the EICSs in different isomers and between singlet and triplet states are also explored. Both the DM and BEB cross sections could be fitted perfectly to a simple expression used in modeling and simulation codes in the framework of nuclear fusion research. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic Cluster Collisions (7th International Symposium)", edited by Gerardo Delgado Barrio, Andrey Solov'Yov, Pablo Villarreal, Rita Prosmiti.Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2015-60583-7

  11. LHCb cross-section measurements with heavy flavour jets

    CERN Document Server

    Michielin, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    Cross-section measurements of jets originating from the hadronization of beauty ($b$) and charm ($c$) quarks at LHCb give the unique opportunity to probe Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) at low and large momentum fraction and to test the Standard Model in the forward region. In this poster the production of $t\\bar{t}$ pairs in the forward region, the measurement of the $W+b\\bar{b}$ and $W+c\\bar{c}$ cross-section and the measurement of the $Z\\rightarrow b\\bar{b}$ cross-section are presented.

  12. Ionization cross section of partially ionized hydrogen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baimbetov, F B; Kudyshev, Z A [Department of Physics, al - Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan)], E-mail: Bfb77@kazsu.kz, E-mail: Z.Kudyshev@mail.ru

    2008-05-01

    In present work the electron impact ionization cross section is considered. The electron impact ionization cross section is calculated, based on pseudopotential model of interaction between plasma particles which accounts correlation effects. It is calculated with help of two methods: classical and quantum - mechanical (Born approximation). The ionization cross section is compared with corresponding results of other authors and experimental data. It has been shown that it is very important to take into account an influence of the surrounding during consideration of ionization processes.

  13. Comparison of fission and capture cross sections of minor actinides

    CERN Document Server

    Nakagawa, T

    2003-01-01

    The fission and capture cross sections of minor actinides given in JENDL-3.3 are compared with other evaluated data and experimental data. The comparison was made for 32 nuclides of Th-227, 228, 229, 230, 233, 234, Pa-231, 232, 233, U-232, 234, 236, 237, Np-236, 237, 238, Pu-236, 237, 238, 242, 244, Am-241, 242, 242m, 243, Cm-242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247 and 248. Given in the present report are figures of these cross sections and tables of cross sections at 0.0253 eV and resonance integrals.

  14. A genetic algorithm to reduce stream channel cross section data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbrock, C.

    2006-01-01

    A genetic algorithm (GA) was used to reduce cross section data for a hypothetical example consisting of 41 data points and for 10 cross sections on the Kootenai River. The number of data points for the Kootenai River cross sections ranged from about 500 to more than 2,500. The GA was applied to reduce the number of data points to a manageable dataset because most models and other software require fewer than 100 data points for management, manipulation, and analysis. Results indicated that the program successfully reduced the data. Fitness values from the genetic algorithm were lower (better) than those in a previous study that used standard procedures of reducing the cross section data. On average, fitnesses were 29 percent lower, and several were about 50 percent lower. Results also showed that cross sections produced by the genetic algorithm were representative of the original section and that near-optimal results could be obtained in a single run, even for large problems. Other data also can be reduced in a method similar to that for cross section data.

  15. An Epidemiological Profile of CrossFit Athletes in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sprey, Jan W.C.; Ferreira, Thiago; de Lima, Marcos V.; Duarte, Aires; Jorge, Pedro B.; SANTILI, CLAUDIO

    2016-01-01

    Background: CrossFit is a conditioning and training program that has been gaining recognition and interest among the physically active population. Approximately 440 certified and registered CrossFit fitness centers and gyms exist in Brazil, with approximately 40,000 athletes. To date, there have been no epidemiological studies about the CrossFit athlete in Brazil. Purpose: To evaluate the profile, sports history, training routine, and presence of injuries among athletes of CrossFit. Study Des...

  16. Total cross-section measurements progress in nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Giacomelli, G; Mulvey, J H

    2013-01-01

    Total Cross-Section Measurements discusses the cross-sectional dimensions of elementary hadron collisions. The main coverage of the book is the resonance and high energy area of the given collision. A section of the book explains in detail the characteristic of a resonance region. Another section is focused on the location of the high energy region of collision. Parts of the book define the meaning of resonance in nuclear physics. Also explained are the measurement of resonance and the identification of the area where the resonance originates. Different experimental methods to measure the tota

  17. Bed shear stress distribution in straight channels with arbitrary cross section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bo; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The bed shear stress distribution in straight open channels is affected by mechanisms as bed curvature of the cross section profile, shear diffusion, and secondary currents. This paper compares some analytical and numerical methods to estimate the bed shear stress distribution. The methods...

  18. Receptive Vocabulary in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Cross-Sectional Developmental Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kover, Sara T.; McDuffie, Andrea S.; Hagerman, Randi J.; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    In light of evidence that receptive language may be a relative weakness for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), this study characterized receptive vocabulary profiles in boys with ASD using cross-sectional developmental trajectories relative to age, nonverbal cognition, and expressive vocabulary. Participants were 49 boys with ASD…

  19. Models for Photon-photon Total Cross-sections

    OpenAIRE

    Godbole, RM; Grau, A.; Pancheri, G.

    1999-01-01

    We present here a brief overview of recent models describing the photon-photon cross-section into hadrons. We shall show in detail results from the eikonal minijet model, with and without soft gluon summation.

  20. Fully differential cross sections for heavy particle impact ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGovern, M; Walters, H R J [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Queen' s University, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Assafrao, D; Mohallem, J R [Laboratorio de Atomos e Moleculas Especiais, Departamento de Fisica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, P.O Box 702, 30123-970 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Whelan, Colm T, E-mail: mmcgovern06@qub.ac.u [Department of Physics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529-0116 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    We describe a procedure for extracting fully differential ionization cross sections from an impact parameter coupled pseudostate treatment of the collision. Some examples from antiproton impact ionization of atomic Hydrogen are given.

  1. Scattering chamber facility for double-differential cross-section ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-02-03

    induced charged-particle productions is very important for estimating the nuclear heating and radiation dam- age of a fusion reactor. Only a few experimental data are available even though the nuclear reaction cross-section ...

  2. Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 2. Differential Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Dittmaier, S; Passarino, G; Tanaka, R; Alekhin, S; Alwall, J; Bagnaschi, E A; Banfi, A; Blumlein, J; Bolognesi, S; Chanon, N; Cheng, T; Cieri, L; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Cutajar, M; Dawson, S; Davies, G; De Filippis, N; Degrassi, G; Denner, A; D'Enterria, D; Diglio, S; Di Micco, B; Di Nardo, R; Ellis, R K; Farilla, A; Farrington, S; Felcini, M; Ferrera, G; Flechl, M; de Florian, D; Forte, S; Ganjour, S; Garzelli, M V; Gascon-Shotkin, S; Glazov, S; Goria, S; Grazzini, M; Guillet, J -Ph; Hackstein, C; Hamilton, K; Harlander, R; Hauru, M; Heinemeyer, S; Hoche, S; Huston, J; Jackson, C; Jimenez-Delgado, P; Jorgensen, M D; Kado, M; Kallweit, S; Kardos, A; Kauer, N; Kim, H; Kovac, M; Kramer, M; Krauss, F; Kuo, C -M; Lehti, S; Li, Q; Lorenzo, N; Maltoni, F; Mellado, B; Moch, S O; Muck, A; Muhlleitner, M; Nadolsky, P; Nason, P; Neu, C; Nikitenko, A; Oleari, C; Olsen, J; Palmer, S; Paganis, S; Papadopoulos, C G; Petersen, T C; Petriello, F; Petrucci, F; Piacquadio, G; Pilon, E; Potter, C T; Price, J; Puljak, I; Quayle, W; Radescu, V; Rebuzzi, D; Reina, L; Rojo, J; Rosco, D; Salam, G P; Sapronov, A; Schaarschmidt, J; Schonherr, M; Schumacher, M; Siegert, F; Slavich, P; Spira, M; Stewart, I W; Stirling, W J; Stockli, F; Sturm, C; Tackmann, F J; Thorne, R S; Tommasini, D; Torrielli, P; Tramontano, F; Trocsanyi, Z; Ubiali, M; Uccirati, S; Acosta, M Vazquez; Vickey, T; Vicini, A; Waalewijn, W J; Wackeroth, D; Warsinsky, M; Weber, M; Wiesemann, M; Weiglein, G; Yu, J; Zanderighi, G

    2012-01-01

    This Report summarises the results of the second year's activities of the LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group. The main goal of the working group was to present the state of the art of Higgs Physics at the LHC, integrating all new results that have appeared in the last few years. The first working group report Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 1. Inclusive Observables (CERN-2011-002) focuses on predictions (central values and errors) for total Higgs production cross sections and Higgs branching ratios in the Standard Model and its minimal supersymmetric extension, covering also related issues such as Monte Carlo generators, parton distribution functions, and pseudo-observables. This second Report represents the next natural step towards realistic predictions upon providing results on cross sections with benchmark cuts, differential distributions, details of specific decay channels, and further recent developments.

  3. Highlights of top quark cross-section measurements at ATLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Peter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The highlights of the measurements of top quark production in proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider with the ATLAS detector are presented. The inclusive measurements of the top-pair production cross section have reached high precision and are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. The differential cross section measurements, including results using boosted top quarks, probe our understanding of top-pair production in the TeV regime. The results are compared to Monte Carlo generators implementing LO and NLO matrix elements matched with parton showers. Measurements of the single top quark production cross section are presented in the t-channel and s-channel, and with associated production with a W boson. For the t-channel production, results on the ratio between top quark and antitop quark production cross sections and differential measurements are also included.

  4. Resummation of Hadroproduction Cross-sections at High Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Richard D

    2008-01-01

    We reconsider the high energy resummation of photoproduction, electroproduction and hadroproduction cross-sections, in the light of recent progress in the resummation of perturbative parton evolution to NLO in logarithms of Q and x. We show in particular that the when the coupling runs the dramatic enhancements found at fixed coupling, due to soft singularities in the partonic cross-sections, are substantially reduced, and are in fact largely accounted for by the usual NLO and NNLO perturbative corrections. This leads to a novel explanation of the large K-factors commonly found in perturbative calculations of hadroproduction cross-sections. We give numerical estimates of high energy resummation effects in inclusive B-production, Drell-Yan and vector boson production, along with their rapidity distributions. We find that resummation modifies the B-production cross-section at the LHC by at most 15%, while the uncertainty due to high energy resummation in W-production is around 5%.

  5. Highlights of top quark cross-section measurements at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Berta, Peter; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The highlights of the measurements of top quark production in proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider with the ATLAS detector are presented. The inclusive measurements of the top-pair production cross section have reached high precision and are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. The differential cross section measurements, including results using boosted top quarks, probe our understanding of top-pair production in the TeV regime. The results are compared to Monte Carlo generators implementing LO and NLO matrix elements matched with parton showers. Measurements of the single top quark production cross section are presented in the t-channel and s-channel, and with associated production with a W boson. For the t-channel production, results on the ratio between top quark and antitop quark production cross sections and differential measurements are also included.

  6. Total cross sections for positron and electron scattering from pyrimidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zecca, A; Chiari, L; Trainotti, E [Department of Physics, University of Trento, Povo, I-38123, Trento (Italy); GarcIa, G [Instituto de Matematicas y FIsica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Blanco, F [Departamento de FIsica Atomica Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias FIsicas, Universidad Complutense, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Brunger, M J, E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.a [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia)

    2010-11-14

    In this paper we report original measurements of total cross sections for positron scattering from the important biomolecule pyrimidine. The energy range of these measurements was 0.3-45 eV, while the energy resolution was {approx}260 meV. In addition, we report theoretical results, calculated within the independent atom-screened additivity rule (IAM-SCAR) formalism, for the corresponding electron impact total cross sections. In that case the energy range is 1-10 000 eV. Total cross sections are very important input data for codes that seek to simulate charged-particle tracks in matter, as they define the mean-free path between collisions. As the present data and computations are to the best of our knowledge the first total cross sections to be reported for either positron or electron scattering from pyrimidine, they fill an important void in our available knowledge in the literature.

  7. UV absorption cross-sections of a series of dimethylbenzaldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Dib, G; Chakir, A; Mellouki, A

    2008-09-18

    The ultraviolet absorption cross-sections of 2,4-, 2,5-, 2,6-, 3,4- and 3,5- dimethylbenzaldehydes are reported in the wavelength range 240-320 nm. The measurements were carried out in the temperature range 318-363 K using two different experimental systems (D 2 lamp-monochromator and D 2 lamp-diode array). The absorption spectra of the five aldehydes have been found to exhibit relatively high absorption cross-sections in the region of the tropospheric interest with maxima around 290 nm. This work provides the first UV cross-section measurements for these aromatic aldehydes. The obtained cross-section values enable us to estimate the tropospheric photolysis lifetimes of these compounds. The results suggest that photolysis could be an important removal process for these species in the troposphere.

  8. An Exploratory Cross-Sectional Study of Interlanguage Pragmatic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Kenneth R.

    2000-01-01

    Reports results of an exploratory cross-sectional study of pragmatic development among three groups of primary school students in Hong Kong who complete a cartoon oral production task designed to elicit requests, apologies, and compliment responses. (Author/VWL)

  9. Indoor Radar Cross Section Measurements of Simple Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Alexandre Souza Miacci; Evandro Luiz Nohara; Inácio Malmonge Martin; Guilherme Gomes Peixoto; Mirabel Cerqueira Rezende

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper has described the radar absorbing materials characterization and radar cross section measurements, in the frequencyrange of 8 to 12 GHz, using a very simple setup. Simple targets like sphere, cylinder, flatplate, and dihedral comer were characterized by measuring the backscattered radiation patterns when these targets were illuminated by monostatic microwave radiation. Measurements were carried out inside an anechoic chamber (9x5x4m3). Typical radar cross section patterns...

  10. Heavy flavour hadro-production cross-sections

    OpenAIRE

    Wöhri, H K; Lourenço, C

    2003-01-01

    Hadro-production data on charm and beauty absolute cross-sections, collected by experiments at CERN, DESY and Fermilab, are reviewed. The measurements, corrected for the 'time evolution' of the branching ratios, are compared to calculations done with Pythia, as a function of the collision energy, using the latest parametrizations of the parton densities. We then estimate some charm and beauty production cross-sections relevant for future measurements, including nuclear effectes in the PDFs. W...

  11. MINERvA - neutrino nucleus cross section experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Recent results from MINERvA, a neutrino cross section experiment at Fermilab, are presented. MINERVA has the goal of providing precision results which will have important impact on oscillation experiments.  Initial data runs for muon neutrino and antineutrino beams of ~3.5 GeV have produced a large number of new results. This seminar will introduce the experiment and describe results for quasielastic, pion production, and inclusive cross sections.

  12. The thermal neutron scattering cross section of {sup 86}Kr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terburg, B.P.

    1992-05-01

    The availability of 27 1 STP krypton-86 gas, an isotope with unknown thermal neutron scattering cross section, was an excellent occasion to determine the (bound atom) scattering cross section and its coherent part by application of the neutron transmission method and neutron interferometry. The transmission method was applied in a diffractometer, a Larmor spectrometer and a TOF-spectrometer. In addition to {sup 86}Kr also natural krypton ({sup n}Kr) was used for sample in the diffractometer. The diffractometer measurements result in bound atom scattering cross sections {sigma}{sub s}=8.92(46) b for {sup 86}Kr and {sigma}{sub s}=7.08(95) b for {sup n}Kr. The Larmor transmission measurements lead to a final result {sigma}{sub s}=8.44(9) b for {sup 86}Kr. In the TOF-spectrometer the wavelength-dependent total cross section of water was determined. Coherent neutron scattering lengths were determined using the neutron interferometry method with a skew symmetric neutron interferometer. Scans with {sup 86}Kr and {sup n}Kr led to b{sub c}=8.07(26) fm for {sup 86}Kr and 7.72(33) fm for {sup n}Kr, corresponding to coherent scattering cross sections {sigma}{sub c}=8.18(53) b and 7.49(64) b respectively. Due to the large errors in the bound atom scattering cross section and coherent scattering cross section of {sup 86}Kr and {sup n}Kr, the incoherent cross section of both gases, {sigma}{sub i} = 0 within its inaccuracy, {sigma}{sub i}=0.26(54) b for {sup 86}Kr and {sigma}{sub i}=0.41(1.15) b for {sup n}Kr. (orig.).

  13. On the scattering cross section of passive linear arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solymar, L.

    1973-01-01

    A general formula is derived for the scattering cross section of a passiven-element linear array consisting of isotropic radiators. When all the reactances are tuned out and scattering in the mirror direction is investigated, it is found thatA_{sr}, the relative scattering cross section is equal...... to the square of the maximum gain the array can produce. As a consequence, for forward scattering in the limiting case of zero spacing between the elements,A_{sr} = n^{4}....

  14. Calculation of the intermediate energy activation cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furihata, Shiori; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki [Mitsubishi Research Inst., Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    We discussed the activation cross section in order to predict accurately the activation of soil around an accelerator with high energy and strong intensity beam. For the assessment of the accuracy of activation cross sections estimated by a numerical model, we compared the calculated cross section with various experimental data, for Si(p,x){sup 22}Na, Al(p,x){sup 22}Na, Fe(p,x){sup 22}Na, Si(p,x){sup 7}Be, O(p,x){sup 3}H, Al(p,x){sup 3}H and Si(p,x){sup 3}H reactions. We used three computational codes, i.e., quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) plus statistical decay model (SDM), HETC-3STEP and the semiempirical method developed by Silberberg et.al. It is observed that the codes are accurate above 1GeV, except for {sup 7}Be production. We also discussed the difference between the activation cross sections of proton- and neutron-induced reaction. For the incident energy at 40MeV, it is found that {sup 3}H production cross sections of neutron-induced reaction are ten times as large as those of proton-induced reaction. It is also observed that the choice of the activation cross sections seriously affects to the estimate of saturated radioactivity, if the maximum energy of neutron flux is below 100MeV. (author)

  15. Updated ozone absorption cross section will reduce air quality compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofen, E. D.; Evans, M. J.; Lewis, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Photometric ozone measurements rely upon an accurate value of the ozone absorption cross section at 253.65 nm. This has recently been re-evaluated by Viallon et al. (2015) as 1.8 % smaller than the accepted value (Hearn, 1961) used for the preceding 50 years. Thus, ozone measurements that applied the older cross section systematically underestimate the amount of ozone in air. We correct the reported historical surface data from North America and Europe and find that this modest change in cross section has a significant impact on the number of locations that are out of compliance with air quality regulations if the air quality standards remain the same. We find 18, 23, and 20 % increases in the number of sites that are out of compliance with current US, Canadian, and European ozone air quality health standards for the year 2012. Should the new cross-section value be applied, it would impact attainment of air quality standards and compliance with relevant clean air acts, unless the air quality target values themselves were also changed proportionately. We draw attention to how a small change in gas metrology has a global impact on attainment and compliance with legal air quality standards. We suggest that further laboratory work to evaluate the new cross section is needed and suggest three possible technical and policy responses should the new cross section be adopted.

  16. Activation cross section and isomeric cross section ratios for the (n ,2 n ) reaction on 153Eu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Junhua; Jiang, Li; Li, Suyuan

    2017-10-01

    The 153Eu(n ,2 n ) m1,m2,g152Eu cross section was measured by means of the activation technique at three neutron energies in the range 13-15 MeV. The quasimonoenergetic neutron beam was formed via the 3H(d ,n ) 4He reaction, in the Pd-300 Neutron Generator at the Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP). The activities induced in the reaction products were measured using high-resolution γ-ray spectroscopy. The cross section of the population of the second high-spin (8-) isomeric state was measured along with the reaction cross section populating both the ground (3-) and the first isomeric state (0-). Cross sections were also evaluated theoretically using the numerical code TALYS-1.8, with different level density options at neutron energies varying from the reaction threshold to 20 MeV. Results are discussed and compared with the corresponding literature.

  17. Models for Pooled Time-Series Cross-Section Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence E Raffalovich

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Several models are available for the analysis of pooled time-series cross-section (TSCS data, defined as “repeated observations on fixed units” (Beck and Katz 1995. In this paper, we run the following models: (1 a completely pooled model, (2 fixed effects models, and (3 multi-level/hierarchical linear models. To illustrate these models, we use a Generalized Least Squares (GLS estimator with cross-section weights and panel-corrected standard errors (with EViews 8 on the cross-national homicide trends data of forty countries from 1950 to 2005, which we source from published research (Messner et al. 2011. We describe and discuss the similarities and differences between the models, and what information each can contribute to help answer substantive research questions. We conclude with a discussion of how the models we present may help to mitigate validity threats inherent in pooled time-series cross-section data analysis.

  18. Blood lipid profiles and factors associated with dyslipidemia assessed by a point-of-care testing device in an outpatient setting: A large-scale cross-sectional study in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pei-dong; He, Lin-yun; Guo, Yang; Liu, Peng; Li, Gong-xin; Wang, Li-zi; Liu, Ying-feng

    2015-06-01

    To promote the concept of POCT and to investigate dyslipidemia in Guangzhou, China, we performed a study examining blood lipids assessed by POCT and reported factors associated with dyslipidemia. This multicenter, cross-sectional study enrolled outpatients from 9 Guangzhou hospitals from May through September 2013. After informed consent was obtained, the following information was collected: age; gender; the presence of diabetes mellitus, obesity, and hypertension as well as current use of cigarettes or alcohol. Patients were asked to fast for 8h before the blood examination performed on a POCT device, the CardioChek PA. Of 4012 patients enrolled (1544 males, 2468 females; mean age 60.35±9.41 years), 1993 (49.7%) patients had dyslipidemia, but only 101 (5.1%) took statins. The multivariate tests of associations between demographic variables, comorbidities, and the risk of having dyslipidemia found that the significant predictors of dyslipidemia were male gender, age ≥60 years, being a current smoker or alcohol drinker, and hypertension. Most dyslipidemia patients in Guangzhou remain untreated. POCT in China is feasible, and its widespread use might improve dyslipidemia awareness, treatment and control. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Measurements of neutron cross sections of radioactive waste nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Toshio [Gifu College of Medical Technology, Seki, Gifu (Japan); Harada, Hideo; Nakamura, Shoji; Tanase, Masakazu; Hatsukawa, Yuichi

    1998-01-01

    Accurate nuclear reaction cross sections of radioactive fission products and transuranic elements are required for research on nuclear transmutation methods in nuclear waste management. Important fission products in the nuclear waste management are {sup 137}Cs, {sup 135}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I because of their large fission yields and long half-lives. The present authors have measured the neutron capture cross sections and resonance integrals of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 99}Tc. The purpose of this study is to measure the neutron capture cross sections and resonance integrals of nuclides, {sup 129}I and {sup 135}Cs accurately. Preliminary experiments were performed by using Rikkyo University Reactor and JRR-3 reactor at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Then, it was decided to measure the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs by using the JRR-3 Reactor because this measurement required a high flux reactor. On the other hand, those of {sup 129}I were measured at the Rikkyo Reactor because the product nuclides, {sup 130}I and {sup 130m}I, have short half-lives and this reactor is suitable for the study of short lived nuclide. In this report, the measurements of the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs are described. To obtain reliable values of the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs(n, {gamma}){sup 136}Cs reaction, a quadrupole mass spectrometer was used for the mass analysis of nuclide in the sample. A progress report on the cross section of {sup 134}Cs, a neighbour of {sup 135}Cs, is included in this report. A report on {sup 129}I will be presented in the Report on the Joint-Use of Rikkyo University Reactor. (author)

  20. Measurement of the 242Pu neutron capture cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, M. Q.; Wu, C. Y.; Henderson, R. A.; Bucher, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Baramsai, B.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.; Chyzh, A.; Dance Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Precision (n,f) and (n, γ) cross sections are important for the network calculations of the radiochemical diagnostic chain for the U.S. DOE's Stockpile Stewardship Program. 242Pu(n, γ) cross section is relevant to the network calculations of Pu and Am. Additionally, new reactor concepts have catalyzed considerable interest in the measurement of improved cross sections for neutron-induced reactions on key actinides. To date, little or no experimental data has been reported on 242Pu(n, γ) for incident neutron energy below 50 keV. A new measurement of the 242Pu(n, γ) reaction was performed with the DANCE together with an improved PPAC for fission-fragment detection at LANSCE during FY14. The relative scale of the 242Pu(n, γ) cross section spans four orders of magnitude for incident neutron energies from thermal to ~ 30 keV. The absolute scale of the 242Pu(n, γ) cross section is set according to the measured 239Pu(n,f) resonance at 7.8 eV; the target was spiked with 239Pu for this measurement. The absolute 242Pu(n, γ) neutron capture cross section is ~ 30% higher than the cross section reported in ENDF for the 2.7 eV resonance. Latest results to be reported. Funded by U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL) and DE-AC52-06NA25396 (LANL). U.S. DOE/NNSA Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development. Isotopes (ORNL).

  1. Electromagnetic Dissociation Cross Sections using Weisskopf-Ewing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Anne M.; Norbury, John W.

    2011-01-01

    It is important that accurate estimates of crew exposure to radiation are obtained for future long-term space missions. Presently, several space radiation transport codes exist to predict the radiation environment, all of which take as input particle interaction cross sections that describe the nuclear interactions between the particles and the shielding material. The space radiation transport code HZETRN uses the nuclear fragmentation model NUCFRG2 to calculate Electromagnetic Dissociation (EMD) cross sections. Currently, NUCFRG2 employs energy independent branching ratios to calculate these cross sections. Using Weisskopf-Ewing (WE) theory to calculate branching ratios, however, is more advantageous than the method currently employed in NUCFRG2. The WE theory can calculate not only neutron and proton emission, as in the energy independent branching ratio formalism used in NUCFRG2, but also deuteron, triton, helion, and alpha particle emission. These particles can contribute significantly to total exposure estimates. In this work, photonuclear cross sections are calculated using WE theory and the energy independent branching ratios used in NUCFRG2 and then compared to experimental data. It is found that the WE theory gives comparable, but mainly better agreement with data than the energy independent branching ratio. Furthermore, EMD cross sections for single neutron, proton, and alpha particle removal are calculated using WE theory and an energy independent branching ratio used in NUCFRG2 and compared to experimental data.

  2. 242Pu absolute neutron-capture cross section measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, M. Q.; Wu, C. Y.; Henderson, R. A.; Bucher, B.; Chyzh, A.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Baramsai, B.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.

    2017-09-01

    The absolute neutron-capture cross section of 242Pu was measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center using the Detector for Advanced Neutron-Capture Experiments array along with a compact parallel-plate avalanche counter for fission-fragment detection. During target fabrication, a small amount of 239Pu was added to the active target so that the absolute scale of the 242Pu(n,γ) cross section could be set according to the known 239Pu(n,f) resonance at En,R = 7.83 eV. The relative scale of the 242Pu(n,γ) cross section covers four orders of magnitude for incident neutron energies from thermal to ≈ 40 keV. The cross section reported in ENDF/B-VII.1 for the 242Pu(n,γ) En,R = 2.68 eV resonance was found to be 2.4% lower than the new absolute 242Pu(n,γ) cross section.

  3. 242Pu absolute neutron-capture cross section measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buckner M.Q.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The absolute neutron-capture cross section of 242Pu was measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center using the Detector for Advanced Neutron-Capture Experiments array along with a compact parallel-plate avalanche counter for fission-fragment detection. During target fabrication, a small amount of 239Pu was added to the active target so that the absolute scale of the 242Pu(n,γ cross section could be set according to the known 239Pu(n,f resonance at En,R = 7.83 eV. The relative scale of the 242Pu(n,γ cross section covers four orders of magnitude for incident neutron energies from thermal to ≈ 40 keV. The cross section reported in ENDF/B-VII.1 for the 242Pu(n,γ En,R = 2.68 eV resonance was found to be 2.4% lower than the new absolute 242Pu(n,γ cross section.

  4. Progress on FP13 Total Cross Section Measurements Capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullmann, John Leonard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Couture, Aaron Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Koehler, Paul E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mosby, Shea Morgan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wender, Stephen Arthur [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-26

    An accurate knowledge of the neutron capture cross section is important for many applications. Experimental measurements are important since theoretical calculations of capture have been notoriously difficult, with the ratio of measured to calculated cross sections often a factor of 2 or more in the 10 keV to 1 MeV region. However, a direct measurement of capture cannot be made on many interesting radioactive nuclides because of their short half-life or backgrounds caused by their nuclear decay. On the other hand, neutron transmission measurements of the total cross section are feasible for a wide range of radioactive nuclides since the detectors are far from the sample, and often are less sensitive to decay radiation. The parameters extracted from a total cross section measurement, which include the average resonance spacing, the neutron strength function, and the average total radiation width, (Γγ), provide tight constraints on the calculation of the capture cross section, and when applied produce much more accurate results. These measurements can be made using the intense epithermal neutron flux at the Lujan Center on relatively small quantities of target material. It was the purpose of this project to investigate and develop the capability to make these measurements. A great deal of progress was made towards establishing this capability during 2016, including setting up the flight path and obtaining preliminary results, but more work remains to be done.

  5. Single-top Cross Section Measurements at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Ryan, P

    2008-01-01

    The single-top production cross section is one third that of the top-pair production cross section at the LHC. During a year of data-taking, assuming an average luminosity of 10^33 cm-2 s-1 and a CMS energy of 14 TeV, the determination of the major contributions to the total single-top cross section should be achievable. Comparisons between the measured cross sections and the theoretical predictions will provide a crucial test of the standard model. These measurements should also lead to the first direct measurement of |V_tb|, with a precision at the level of a few percent. In addition, they will probe for new physics via the search for evidence of anomalous couplings to the top quark and the measurements of additional bosonic contributions to single-top production. Methods developed to optimize the selection of single-top events in the three production channels are presented and the potential for the cross section measurements with 1 fb-1 and 30 fb-1 of integrated luminosity is established.

  6. Improvement of cross section generation methodology for MASTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jae Seung; Cho, Byung Oh; Zee, Sung Quum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    The methodology of cross section generation for three-dimensional core analysis code MASTER is improved for the nuclear design and analysis with non-conventional concepts such as boron free operation or ultra longer cycle operation. The improvement was focused on the full microscopic treatment of cross section variations due to moderator temperature variation, the microscopic treatment of dual burnable poison materials in a fuel assembly, and the augmentation of control rod description. For this purpose, a new cross section editing program PROLOG (PROcessor for Library Of Group constant) was developed for MASTER 2.1 or later version and its user's manual was also documented in this report. 10 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  7. 63Ni (n ,γ ) cross sections measured with DANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Göbel, K.; Heftrich, T.; Jandel, M.; Käppeler, F.; Lederer, C.; Kivel, N.; Korschinek, G.; Krtička, M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ostermöller, J.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Schumann, D.; Ullmann, J. L.; Wallner, A.

    2015-10-01

    The neutron capture cross section of the s -process branch nucleus 63Ni affects the abundances of other nuclei in its region, especially 63Cu and 64Zn. In order to determine the energy-dependent neutron capture cross section in the astrophysical energy region, an experiment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory has been performed using the calorimetric 4 π BaF2 array DANCE. The (n ,γ ) cross section of 63Ni has been determined relative to the well-known 197Au standard with uncertainties below 15%. Various 63Ni resonances have been identified based on the Q value. Furthermore, the s -process sensitivity of the new values was analyzed with the new network calculation tool NETZ.

  8. Experimental and evaluated photoneutron cross sections for 197Au

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlamov, V.; Ishkhanov, B.; Orlin, V.

    2017-10-01

    There is a serious well-known problem of noticeable disagreements between the partial photoneutron cross sections obtained in various experiments. Such data were mainly determined using quasimonoenergetic annihilation photon beams and the method of neutron multiplicity sorting at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (USA) and Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires of Saclay (France). The analysis of experimental cross sections employing new objective physical data reliability criteria has shown that many of those are not reliable. The IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on photonuclear data evaluation was approved. The experimental and previously evaluated cross sections of the partial photoneutron reactions (γ ,1 n ) and (γ ,2 n ) on 197Au were analyzed using the new data reliability criteria. The data evaluated using the new experimental-theoretical method noticeably differ from both experimental data and data previously evaluated using nuclear modeling codes gnash, gunf, alice-f, and others. These discrepancies needed to be resolved.

  9. Pion photoproduction cross section at large momentum transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoegren, Johan [Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom

    2015-02-27

    The Real Compton Scattering experiment was performed in Hall A at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. It was designed to measure, for Compton scattering and π0-photoproduction, the differential cross section over a range of kinematic points and the polarisation transfer to the proton at a single kinematic point. The full range of the experiment in Mandelstam variables t and s was 1.6-6.46 GeV2 and 4.82-10.92 GeV2 respectively with beam energies of 2-6 GeV. The motivation for the experiment is to test the cross section and polarisation transfer predictions of perturbative QCD versus that of predictions from Generalised Parton Distribution models. This thesis will give an overview of the pertinent theory, experimental setup in Hall A and the extracting of the π0-photoproduction cross section.

  10. Precise measurement of neutrino and antineutrino differential cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanov, M.; Naples, D.; Boyd, S.; McDonald, J.; Radescu, V.; Johnson, R. A.; Suwonjandee, N.; Vakili, M.; Conrad, J.; Fleming, B. T.; Formaggio, J.; Kim, J. H.; Koutsoliotas, S.; McNulty, C.; Romosan, A.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Spentzouris, P.; Stern, E. G.; Vaitaitis, A.; Zimmerman, E. D.; Bernstein, R. H.; Bugel, L.; Lamm, M. J.; Marsh, W.; Nienaber, P.; Tobien, N.; Yu, J.; Adams, T.; Alton, A.; Bolton, T.; Goldman, J.; Goncharov, M.; de Barbaro, L.; Buchholz, D.; Schellman, H.; Zeller, G. P.; Brau, J.; Drucker, R. B.; Frey, R.; Mason, D.; Avvakumov, S.; de Barbaro, P.; Bodek, A.; Budd, H.; Harris, D. A.; McFarland, K. S.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Yang, U. K.

    2006-07-01

    The NuTeV experiment at Fermilab has obtained a unique high-statistics sample of neutrino and antineutrino interactions using its high-energy sign-selected beam. We present a measurement of the differential cross section for charged-current neutrino and antineutrino scattering from iron. We determine the relative ν¯ to ν cross section, r=σν¯/σν, at high energy with errors a factor of 2 smaller than the previous world average. Structure functions, F2(x,Q2) and xF3(x,Q2), are determined by fitting the inelasticity, y, dependence of the cross sections. This measurement has significantly improved systematic precision as a consequence of more precise understanding of hadron and muon energy scales.

  11. Development of Cross Section Library and Application Programming Interface (API)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C. H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Marin-Lafleche, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Smith, M. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-04-09

    The goal of NEAMS neutronics is to develop a high-fidelity deterministic neutron transport code termed PROTEUS for use on all reactor types of interest, but focused primarily on sodium-cooled fast reactors. While PROTEUS-SN has demonstrated good accuracy for homogeneous fast reactor problems and partially heterogeneous fast reactor problems, the simulation results were not satisfactory when applied on fully heterogeneous thermal problems like the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This is mainly attributed to the quality of cross section data for heterogeneous geometries since the conventional cross section generation approach does not work accurately for such irregular and complex geometries. Therefore, one of the NEAMS neutronics tasks since FY12 has been the development of a procedure to generate appropriate cross sections for a heterogeneous geometry core.

  12. High Energy Measurement of the Deuteron Photodisintegration Differential Cross Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, Elaine [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2002-05-01

    New measurements of the high energy deuteron photodisintegration differential cross section were made at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Virginia. Two experiments were performed. Experiment E96-003 was performed in experimental Hall C. The measurements were designed to extend the highest energy differential cross section values to 5.5 GeV incident photon energy at forward angles. This builds upon previous high energy measurements in which scaling consistent with the pQCD constituent counting rules was observed at 90 degrees and 70 degrees in the center of mass. From the new measurements, a threshold for the onset of constituent counting rule scaling seems present at transverse momentum approximately 1.3 GeV/c. The second experiment, E99-008, was performed in experimental Hall A. The measurements were designed to explore the angular distribution of the differential cross section at constant energy. The measurements were made symmetric about 90 degrees

  13. Light stops emerging in WW cross section measurements?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolbiecki, Krzysztof [IFT-UAM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Teorica; Sakurai, Kazuki [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    Recent ATLAS and CMS measurements show a slight excess in the WW cross section measurement. While still consistent with the Standard Model within 1-2{sigma}, the excess could be also a first hint of physics beyond the Standard Model. We argue that this effect could be attributed to the production of scalar top quarks within supersymmetric models. The stops of m{sub t{sub 1}}{proportional_to}200 GeV has the right cross section and under some assumptions can significantly contribute to the final state of two leptons and missing energy. We scan this region of parameter space to find particle masses preferred by the WW cross section measurements. Taking one sample benchmark point we show that it can be consistent with low energy observables and Higgs sector measurements and propose a method to distinguish supersymmetric signal from the Standard Model contribution.

  14. Estimating Single-Event Logic Cross Sections in Advanced Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, R. C.; Kauppila, J. S.; Warren, K. M.; Chen, Y. P.; Maharrey, J. A.; Haeffner, T. D.; Loveless, T. D.; Bhuva, B. L.; Bounasser, M.; Lilja, K.; Massengill, L. W.

    2017-08-01

    Reliable estimation of logic single-event upset (SEU) cross section is becoming increasingly important for predicting the overall soft error rate. As technology scales and single-event transient (SET) pulse widths shrink to widths on the order of the setup-and-hold time of flip-flops, the probability of latching an SET as an SEU must be reevaluated. In this paper, previous assumptions about the relationship of SET pulsewidth to the probability of latching an SET are reconsidered and a model for transient latching probability has been developed for advanced technologies. A method using the improved transient latching probability and SET data is used to predict logic SEU cross section. The presented model has been used to estimate combinational logic SEU cross sections in 32-nm partially depleted silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology given experimental heavy-ion SET data. Experimental SEU data show good agreement with the model presented in this paper.

  15. Radiative neutron capture cross section from 236U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baramsai, B.; Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Roman, A. R.; Rusev, G.; Walker, C. L.; Couture, A.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.; Kawano, T.

    2017-08-01

    The 236U(n ,γ ) reaction cross section has been measured for the incident neutron energy range from 10 eV to 800 keV by using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) γ -ray calorimeter at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The cross section was determined with the ratio method, which is a technique that uses the 235U(n ,f ) reaction as a reference. The results of the experiment are reported in the resolved and unresolved resonance energy regions. Individual neutron resonance parameters were obtained below 1 keV incident energy by using the R -matrix code sammy. The cross section in the unresolved resonance region is determined with improved experimental uncertainty. It agrees with both ENDF/B-VII.1 and JEFF-3.2 nuclear data libraries. The results above 10 keV agree better with the JEFF-3.2 library.

  16. Proton-air and proton-proton cross sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Ralf

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Different attempts to measure hadronic cross sections with cosmic ray data are reviewed. The major results are compared to each other and the differences in the corresponding analyses are discussed. Besides some important differences, it is crucial to see that all analyses are based on the same fundamental relation of longitudinal air shower development to the observed fluctuation of experimental observables. Furthermore, the relation of the measured proton-air to the more fundamental proton-proton cross section is discussed. The current global picture combines hadronic proton-proton cross section data from accelerator and cosmic ray measurements and indicates a good consistency with predictions of models up to the highest energies.

  17. Reaction cross section calculation of some alkaline earth elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tel, Eyyup; Kavun, Yusuf; Sarpün, Ismail Hakki

    2017-09-01

    Reaction cross section knowledge is crucial to application nuclear physics such as medical imaging, radiation shielding and material evaluations. Nuclear reaction codes can be used if the experimental data are unavailable or are improbably to be produced because of the experimental trouble. In this study, there action cross sections of some target alkaline earth elements have been calculated by using pre-equilibrium and equilibrium nuclear reaction models for nucleon induced reactions. While these calculations, the Hybrid Model, the Geometry Dependent Hybrid Model, the Full Exciton Model, the Cascade Exciton Model for pre-equilibrium reactions and the Weisskopf-Ewing Model for equilibrium reactions have been used. The calculated cross sections have been discussed and compared with the experimental data taken from Experimental Nuclear Reaction Data library.

  18. Low energy cross sections for electron scattering from tetrafluoroallene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Dhanoj; Choi, Heechol; Song, Mi-Young; Chakrabarti, Kalyan; Yoon, Jung-Sik

    2017-08-01

    We report elastic, total, excitation, differential and momentum-transfer cross sections for scattering of low-energy electrons by tetrafluoroallene (C3F4) using the close-coupling (CC) approximation in the R-matrix method with Quantemol-N. We have tested various target models initially to check for the convergence of the result and the final results are provided with the best target model. We have detected shape resonances of symmetry 2 E(2B1,2B2) at 3.08 eV and 3.71 eV with a close-coupling and static exchange models which is seen as a sharp feature in the elastic and momentum transfer cross sections. We also detected other resonances of symmetry 2 E at 11.26 eV and of symmetry 2A2 at 11.12 eV below the ionization threshold of the target respectively. The present elastic and total cross sections are compared with the elastic and total cross sections of allene (C3H4), propene (C3H6) and hexafluoropropene (C3F6) as there were no results available for C3F4. The effect of fluorination is clearly seen with the shape resonance for C3F4 getting slightly shifted to higher energies compared to allene. Finally, we also report the ionization cross section calculated using the Binary-Encounter Bethe (BEB) method. The present calculation is a maiden attempt to find cross sections for C3F4 molecule which could be useful for fluorocarbon plasma modeling.

  19. Neutrino–nucleus cross sections for oscillation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katori, Teppei; Martini, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations physics is entering an era of high precision. In this context, accelerator-based neutrino experiments need a reduction in systematic errors to the level of a few percent. Today, one of the most important sources of systematic errors are neutrino–nucleus cross sections which, in the energy region of hundreds of MeV to a few GeV, are known to a precision not exceeding 20%. In this article we review the present experimental and theoretical knowledge of neutrino–nucleus interaction physics. After introducing neutrino-oscillation physics and accelerator-based neutrino experiments, we give an overview of general aspects of neutrino–nucleus cross sections, from both the theoretical and experimental point of view. Then, we focus on these cross sections in different reaction channels. We start with the quasi-elastic and quasi-elastic-like cross section, placing a special emphasis on the multinucleon emission channel, which has attracted a lot of attention in the last few years. We review the main aspects of the different microscopic models for this channel by discussing analogies and the differences among them. The discussion is always driven by a comparison with the experimental data. We then consider the one-pion production channel where agreement between data and theory remains highly unsatisfactory. We describe how to interpret pion data, and then analyze, in particular, the puzzle related to the difficulty of theoretical models and Monte Carlo to simultaneously describe MiniBooNE and MINERvA experimental results. Inclusive cross sections are also discussed, as well as the comparison between the {ν }μ and {ν }e cross sections, relevant for the charge-conjugation-parity violation experiments. The impact of nuclear effects on the reconstruction of neutrino energy and on the determination of the neutrino-oscillation parameters is also reviewed. Finally, we look to the future by discussing projects and efforts in relation to future detectors

  20. Drell-Yan differential cross section measurement at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Kyeongpil

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of the differential Drell-Yan cross sections in the dimuon channel is presented. It is based on proton-proton collision data at 13 TeV recorded with the CMS detector at the LHC, and the integrated luminosity of the data is 2.8fb − 1 . The differential cross section in the dilepton mass range from 15 to 3000 GeV is measured and corrected to the full phase space and the detector acceptance. These measurements are compared to higher order perturbative QCD predictions and show good agreement with the predictions.

  1. Review of multigroup nuclear cross-section processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trubey, D.K.; Hendrickson, H.R. (comps.)

    1978-10-01

    These proceedings consist of 18 papers given at a seminar--workshop on ''Multigroup Nuclear Cross-Section Processing'' held at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, March 14--16, 1978. The papers describe various computer code systems and computing algorithms for producing multigroup neutron and gamma-ray cross sections from evaluated data, and experience with several reference data libraries. Separate abstracts were prepared for 13 of the papers. The remaining five have already been cited in ERA, and may be located by referring to the entry CONF-780334-- in the Report Number Index. (RWR)

  2. Monostatic radar cross section of flying wing delta planforms

    OpenAIRE

    Vaitheeswaran, Sevoor Meenakshisundaram; Gowthami, Talapaneni Shantakumar; Prasad, Sunil; Yathirajam, Bharadwaja

    2017-01-01

    The design of the flying wing and its variants shapes continues to have a profound influence in the design of the current and future use of military aircraft. There is very little in the open literature available to the understanding and by way of comparison of the radar cross section of the different wing planforms, for obvious reasons of security and sensitivity. This paper aims to provide an insight about the radar cross section of the various flying wing planforms that would aid the need ...

  3. Annual Cross-Sectional Study of Nurse-Sensitive Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færch, Jane; Tewes, Marianne; Overgaard, Dorthe

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional evaluation of nurse-sensitive problems in hospitalized patients is conducted once per year to monitor patient problems identified by nurses, whether nurses implement interventions to overcome the problems, and if the problems are solved. This article describes a systematic method...... of data collection and illustrates how the data can be used to improve the quality and documentation of the nursing care. The annual cross-sectional evaluation allows us to identify relevant target areas of future nursing interventions and research....

  4. Geodesic acoustic modes in noncircular cross section tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorokina, E. A., E-mail: sorokina.ekaterina@gmail.com; Lakhin, V. P. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute,” (Russian Federation); Konovaltseva, L. V. [People’s Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation); Ilgisonis, V. I. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute,” (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The influence of the shape of the plasma cross section on the continuous spectrum of geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) in a tokamak is analyzed in the framework of the MHD model. An expression for the frequency of a local GAM for a model noncircular cross section plasma equilibrium is derived. Amendments to the oscillation frequency due to the plasma elongation and triangularity and finite tokamak aspect ratio are calculated. It is shown that the main factor affecting the GAM spectrum is the plasma elongation, resulting in a significant decrease in the mode frequency.

  5. Heavy flavour hadro-production cross-sections

    CERN Document Server

    Wöhri, H K

    2003-01-01

    Hadro-production data on charm and beauty absolute cross-sections, collected by experiments at CERN, DESY and Fermilab, are reviewed. The measurements, corrected for the 'time evolution' of the branching ratios, are compared to calculations done with Pythia, as a function of the collision energy, using the latest parametrizations of the parton densities. We then estimate some charm and beauty production cross-sections relevant for future measurements, including nuclear effectes in the PDFs. We finish by briefly addressing the relevance, in heavy-ion collisions, of beauty production as feed-down for J/psi production.

  6. Determination of Ultimate Torque for Multiply Connected Cross Section Rod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Danilov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to determine load-carrying capability of the multiply cross-section rod. This calculation is based on the model of the ideal plasticity of the material, so that the desired ultimate torque is a torque at which the entire cross section goes into a plastic state.The article discusses the cylindrical multiply cross-section rod. To satisfy the equilibrium equation and the condition of plasticity simultaneously, two stress function Ф and φ are introduced. By mathematical transformations it has been proved that Ф is constant along the path, and a formula to find its values on the contours has been obtained. The paper also presents the rationale of the line of stress discontinuity and obtained relationships, which allow us to derive the equations break lines for simple interaction of neighboring circuits, such as two lines, straight lines and circles, circles and a different sign of the curvature.After substitution into the boundary condition at the end of the stress function Ф and mathematical transformations a formula is obtained to determine the ultimate torque for the multiply cross-section rod.Using the doubly connected cross-section and three-connected cross-section rods as an example the application of the formula of ultimate torque is studied.For doubly connected cross-section rod, the paper offers a formula of the torque versus the radius of the rod, the aperture radius and the distance between their centers. It also clearly demonstrates the torque dependence both on the ratio of the radii and on the displacement of hole. It is shown that the value of the torque is more influenced by the displacement of hole, rather than by the ratio of the radii.For the three-connected cross-section rod the paper shows the integration feature that consists in selection of a coordinate system. As an example, the ultimate torque is found by two methods: analytical one and 3D modeling. The method of 3D modeling is based on the Nadai

  7. Electron transport in silicon nanowires having different cross-sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muscato Orazio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Transport phenomena in silicon nanowires with different cross-section are investigated using an Extended Hydrodynamic model, coupled to the Schrödinger-Poisson system. The model has been formulated by closing the moment system derived from the Boltzmann equation on the basis of the maximum entropy principle of Extended Thermodynamics, obtaining explicit closure relations for the high-order fluxes and the production terms. Scattering of electrons with acoustic and non polar optical phonons have been taken into account. The bulk mobility is evaluated for square and equilateral triangle cross-sections of the wire.

  8. Partial photoneutron cross section measurements on 209Bi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Ioana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available New data of total and partial (γ,xn cross sections with x = 1–3 are proposed to be measured by direct neutron multiplicity sorting using Laser Compton scattering (LCS gamma ray beams at the ELI-NP to solve long standing discrepancies between existing Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (USA and France Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay photonuclear data. Pioneering experiments are currently performed at the NewSUBARU facility. We present here preliminary results on 209Bi(g,xn cross section measurements.

  9. Top quark pair cross section measurements in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres

    2016-01-01

    This document presents the latest results in the measurement of the top-quark pair production cross section obtained with data collected by the CMS detector at LHC accelerator. The analyses are performed in the dilepton, single lepton and full hadronic decay modes. Additionally to the inclusive measurements of $\\mathrm{\\sigma_{\\mathrm{t\\bar{t}}}}$ at 7, 8 and 13$\\mathrm{\\;TeV}$, the CMS collaboration provides for the first time the cross section at 5.02$\\mathrm{\\;TeV}$. Results are confronted with the latest and most precise theoretical calculations.

  10. Differential Cross Sections for Proton-Proton Elastic Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Ryan B.; Dick, Frank; Norbury, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2009-01-01

    Proton-proton elastic scattering is investigated within the framework of the one pion exchange model in an attempt to model nucleon-nucleon interactions spanning the large range of energies important to cosmic ray shielding. A quantum field theoretic calculation is used to compute both differential and total cross sections. A scalar theory is then presented and compared to the one pion exchange model. The theoretical cross sections are compared to proton-proton scattering data to determine the validity of the models.

  11. Heat Transfer in a Concrete Composite Cross-Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klabník Maroš

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The work is concerned with the spread of heat in 2D coupled cross section with respect to the material characteristics and boundary conditions of calculation. Heat transfer was simulated in the program ANSYS in time interval up to 180 minutes. Nine various models were created to investigate the rate of influence of the changes in thermal material characteristics such as the specific heat capacity coefficient and thermal conductivity, upon the course and difference of temperature in the concrete cross-section. The comparison of results obtained using non-linear and constant values of the variables in simulation was made, too.

  12. Electromagnetic Cylindrical Transparent Devices with Irregular Cross Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic transparent device is very important for antenna protection. In this paper, the material parameters for the cylindrical transparent devices with arbitrary cross section are developed based on the coordinate transformation. The equivalent two-dimensional (2D transparent devices under TE plane and cylindrical wave irradiation is designed and studied by full-wave simulation, respectively. It shows that although the incident waves are distorted in the transformation region apparently, they return to the original wavefronts when passing through the device. All theoretical and numerical results validate the material parameters for the cylindrical transparent devices with arbitrary cross section we developed.

  13. Iterative cross section sequence graph for handwritten character segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawoud, Amer

    2007-08-01

    The iterative cross section sequence graph (ICSSG) is an algorithm for handwritten character segmentation. It expands the cross section sequence graph concept by applying it iteratively at equally spaced thresholds. The iterative thresholding reduces the effect of information loss associated with image binarization. ICSSG preserves the characters' skeletal structure by preventing the interference of pixels that causes flooding of adjacent characters' segments. Improving the structural quality of the characters' skeleton facilitates better feature extraction and classification, which improves the overall performance of optical character recognition (OCR). Experimental results showed significant improvements in OCR recognition rates compared to other well-established segmentation algorithms.

  14. Flight test diagnostics using radar cross-section measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, P. S. S.; Anderson, W. F.

    1981-11-01

    An automated radar cross-section (RCS) measurement system is described, which features windband coverage, coherent step-frequency measurement, polarization diversity, waveform flexibility, and on-site digital processing. A computer-aided diagnostic technique to facilitate preflight planning and post-mission analyses is also discussed, and applications of the combined capabilities of both systems are considered. It is demonstrated that interactive RCS tailoring of a vehicle's backscatter cross-section improves the collection of radar data, allows post-flight motion extraction on small instrument vehicles, and makes possible the diagnosis of a vehicles endo-atmospheric dynamics to check the aerodynamic coefficient.

  15. MINING INTEGRAL ACTINIDES CROSS SECTIONS FROM REACTOR DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PUIGH RJ

    2009-09-11

    The conclusions of this paper are: (1) mining of actinide cross-sections from reactor data is a viable and inexpensive approach to confirm burn-up codes; (2) extensive data for actinides in Hanford test data ({approx} 200 radiochemical analyses); (3) not only cross-section values and reaction rates can be established but also possible benchmark like data can be constructed to test and validate reactor and criticality safety codes such as SCALE/KENO or MCNPX; and (4) analysis along multiple transmutation paths can be evaluated to show consistency.

  16. Propagation of sound waves in tubes of noncircular cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, W. B.

    1986-01-01

    Plane-acoustic-wave propagation in small tubes with a cross section in the shape of a flattened oval is described. Theoretical descriptions of a plane wave propagating in a tube with circular cross section and between a pair of infinite parallel plates, including viscous and thermal damping, are expressed in similar form. For a wide range of useful duct sizes, the propagation constant (whose real and imaginary parts are the amplitude attenuation rate and the wave number, respectively) is very nearly the same function of frequency for both cases if the radius of the circular tube is the same as the distance between the parallel plates. This suggests that either a circular-cross-section model or a flat-plate model can be used to calculate wave propagation in flat-oval tubing, or any other shape tubing, if its size is expressed in terms of an equivalent radius, given by g = 2 x (cross-sectional area)/(length of perimeter). Measurements of the frequency response of two sections of flat-oval tubing agree with calculations based on this idea. Flat-plate formulas are derived, the use of transmission-line matrices for calculations of plane waves in compound systems of ducts is described, and examples of computer programs written to carry out the calculations are shown.

  17. Thermal Neutron Capture Cross Sections of the PalladiumIsotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firestone, R.B.; Krticka, M.; McNabb, D.P.; Sleaford, B.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Belgya, T.; Revay, Zs.

    2006-07-17

    Precise gamma-ray thermal neutron capture cross sectionshave been measured at the Budapest Reactor for all elements withZ=1-83,92 except for He and Pm. These measurements and additional datafrom the literature been compiled to generate the Evaluated Gamma-rayActivation File (EGAF), which is disseminated by LBNL and the IAEA. Thesedata are nearly complete for most isotopes with Z<20 so the totalradiative thermal neutron capture cross sections can be determineddirectly from the decay scheme. For light isotopes agreement with therecommended values is generally satisfactory although large discrepanciesexist for 11B, 12,13C, 15N, 28,30Si, 34S, 37Cl, and 40,41K. Neutroncapture decay data for heavier isotopes are typically incomplete due tothe contribution of unresolved continuum transitions so only partialradiative thermal neutron capture cross sections can be determined. Thecontribution of the continuum to theneutron capture decay scheme arisesfrom a large number of unresolved levels and transitions and can becalculated by assuming that the fluctuations in level densities andtransition probabilities are statistical. We have calculated thecontinuum contribution to neutron capture decay for the palladiumisotopes with the Monte Carlo code DICEBOX. These calculations werenormalized to the experimental cross sections deexciting low excitationlevels to determine the total radiative thermal neutron capture crosssection. The resulting palladium cross sections values were determinedwith a precision comparable to the recommended values even when only onegamma-ray cross section was measured. The calculated and experimentallevel feedings could also be compared to determine spin and parityassignments for low-lying levels.

  18. Electron impact ionisation cross sections of iron oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Stefan E.; Mauracher, Andreas; Sukuba, Ivan; Urban, Jan; Maihom, Thana; Probst, Michael

    2017-12-01

    We report electron impact ionisation cross sections (EICSs) of iron oxide molecules, FexOx and FexOx+1 with x = 1, 2, 3, from the ionisation threshold to 10 keV, obtained with the Deutsch-Märk (DM) and binary-encounter-Bethe (BEB) methods. The maxima of the EICSs range from 3.10 to 9 . 96 × 10-16 cm2 located at 59-72 eV and 5.06 to 14.32 × 10-16 cm2 located at 85-108 eV for the DM and BEB approaches, respectively. The orbital and kinetic energies required for the BEB method are obtained by employing effective core potentials for the inner core electrons in the quantum chemical calculations. The BEB cross sections are 1.4-1.7 times larger than the DM cross sections which can be related to the decreasing population of the Fe 4s orbitals upon addition of oxygen atoms, together with the different methodological foundations of the two methods. Both the DM and BEB cross sections can be fitted excellently to a simple analytical expression used in modelling and simulation codes employed in the framework of nuclear fusion research. Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://https://doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2017-80308-2.

  19. Top quark pair production cross section at LHC in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Finelli, K; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Talk for LHCP 2013 in Barcelona, Spain. Presenting top pair production results from: 8 TeV: lepton+jets, 7 TeV: tau+jets, tau+lepton, ttbar+HF, gap fraction, relative differential cross sections, ttbar+jets.

  20. Measurement of MA fission cross sections at YAYOI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkawachi, Yasushi; Ohki, Shigeo; Wakabayashi, Toshio [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1998-03-01

    Fission cross section ratios of minor actinide nuclides (Am-241, Am-243) relative to U-235 in the fast neutron energy region have been measured using a back-to-back (BTB) fission chamber at YAYOI fast neutron source reactor. A small BTB fission chamber was developed to measure the fission cross section ratios in the center of the core at YAYOI reactor. Dependence of the fission cross section ratios on neutron spectra was investigated by changing the position of the detector in the reactor core. The measurement results were compared with the fission cross sections in the JENDL-3.2, ENDF/B-VI and JEF-2.2 libraries. It was found that calculated values of Am-241 using the JENDL-3.2, ENDF/B-VI and JEF-2.2 data are lower by about 15% than the measured value in the center of the core (the neutron average energy is 1.44E+6(eV)). And, good agreement can be seen the measured value and calculated value of Am-243 using the JENDL-3.2 data in the center of the core (the neutron average energy is 1.44E+6)(eV), but calculated values of Am-243 using the ENDF/B-VI and JEF-2.2 data are lower by 11% and 13% than the measured value. (author)

  1. Neutrino cross-section in ultrahigh energy regime using double ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... Studies on neutrino–nucleon ( ν N ) cross-sections have regained interest due to increasing importance of precision measurements, as they are needed as an ingredient in all neutrino experiments. In this work, we use the QCD-inspired double asymptotic limit fit of electron–proton structure function F 2 e p ...

  2. Cross-sectional investigation of HEMS activities in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Bartolomeo, Stefano; Gava, Paolo; Truhlář, Anatolij

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To gather information on helicopter emergency medical services (HEMSs) activities across Europe. METHODS: Cross-sectional data-collection on daily (15 November 2013) activities of a sample of European HEMSs. A web-based questionnaire with both open and closed questions was used, devel...

  3. Proton-Helium Elastic Electromagnetic Cross-Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Burn [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Lanzhou (China); Ng, Kingyuen B. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-11-01

    In the test facility of the C-ADS project, A 25-MeV proton beam is directed to hit a target consisting of 1-mm tungsten balls lubricated by 100-Pa helium gas. To estimate the power loss to the helium gas, an accurate collision cross section is computed.

  4. Calculation of vibrational excitation cross-sections in resonant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 119; Issue 5. Calculation of vibrational excitation cross-sections in resonant electron-molecule scattering using the time-dependent wave packet (TDWP) approach with application to the 2 CO- shape resonance. Raman Kumar Singh Manabendra Sarma Ankit Jain ...

  5. On the treatment of resonance cross sections in thermal reactor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the mathematical models and methods used for calculating resonance cross sections in the resonance region of the neutron energy spectrum. Particular attention has been paid to the treatment outlined in the WIMSD/4 version of the WIMS lattice transport code. The significance of the resonance ...

  6. Unpolarized SIDIS Cross Section from a 3He Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xuefei

    The unpolarized semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering (SIDIS) differential cross sections in 3He(e, e'pi+/- )X have been measured for the first time in Jefferson Lab experiment E06-010 performed with a 5.9 GeV e - beam on a 3He target. The experiment focuses on the valence quark region, covering a kinematic range 0.12 plane wave picture, in multi-dimensional bins. Within the experimental uncertainties, the azimuthal modulations of the cross sections are found to be consistent with zero. In this dissertation, the studies for the unpolarized SIDIS differential cross sections are presented. The dissertation will start with the introduction on the physics related to SIDIS, then the experiment E06-010 will be described, followed by the data analysis. The results of the unpolarized SIDIS differential cross sections will be shown afterwards with discussions. In addition to the work on the unpolarized SIDIS, the author also updated the approximated formalism for radiative effects (REs) for inclusive scattering channels (lifted the energy peaking approximation of the formalism). This updated formalism and a detailed discussion of the approximations in different formalisms of REs are presented in the appendix.

  7. Comparative neutron cross sections evaluation for N+ 56 Fe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative neutron cross sections evaluation for N+ 56Fe reaction around incident energies of 13.5-14.5 MeV using the Optical Model (OM) code scat 2. EF Oyidi, MY Onimisi. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Physics Vol. 20 (1) 2008: pp.38-43. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  8. A Cross-Sectional Study on Knowledge and Perceptions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the perceptions and knowledge of pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reporting among Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm) and Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students of selected tertiary institutions in Jordan. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 434 pharmacy students from three ...

  9. Radar cross sections for mesospheric echoes at Jicamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Lehmacher

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Radar cross sections (RCS of mesospheric layers at 50 MHz observed at Jicamarca, Peru, range from 10−18 to 10−16 m−1, three orders of magnitudes smaller than cross sections reported for polar mesospheric winter echoes during solar proton events and six orders of magnitude smaller than polar mesospheric summer echoes. Large RCS are found in thick layers around 70 km that also show wide radar spectra, which is interpreted as turbulent broadening. For typical atmospheric and ionospheric conditions, volume scattering RCS for stationary, homogeneous, isotropic turbulence at 3 m are also in the range 10−18 to 10−16 m−1, in reasonable agreement with measurements. Moreover, theory predicts maximum cross sections around 70 km, also in agreement with observations. Theoretical values are still a matter of order-of-magnitude estimation, since the Bragg scale of 3 m is near or inside the viscous subrange, where the form of the turbulence spectrum is not well known. In addition, steep electron density gradients can increase cross-sections significantly. For thin layers with large RCS and narrow spectra, isotropic turbulence theory fails and scattering or reflection from anisotropic irregularities may gain relevance.

  10. Acute Pelvic Inflammatory Disease in Cameroon: A Cross Sectional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Abstract. This cross-sectional descriptive study, aimed at identifying the sociodemographic characteristics of women diagnosed with acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), as well as the microorganisms isolated, was carried out between October 1st, 2013 and March ... responsible can be sexually transmitted (Chlamydia.

  11. Differential cross sections of electron silver scattering at varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The differential scattering cross sections of electron - silver atom are calculated using the Eikonal approximation at incident energies of 50 eV, 60 eV and 70 eV, with the Lenz-Jensen potential. Results obtained are in good agreement with the NIST SRD 64 at scattering angles of about 80 to 180 degrees; and are in very ...

  12. Photofission and electrofission. [Review, cross sections, fission yield, angular distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, B.L.

    1978-08-17

    Recent experimental progress in the fields of photofission and electrofission of actinide nuclei is summarized. In particular, experimental results which throw light on the delineation of the characteristics of the giant resonances are highlighted. Measurements of especial interest in this regard include photofission cross-section studies with monoenergetic photons and electrofission yield and angular-distribution studies. 36 references.

  13. Accurate transport cross sections for the Lennard-Jones potential

    OpenAIRE

    Khrapak, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Physically motivated expressions for the transport cross sections describing classical scattering in the Lennard-Jones potential are proposed. These expressions, which agree with the numerical results better than to within $\\pm 1%$, can be easy implemented in practical situations. Some relevant examples are provided.

  14. Measurement of photoexcitation cross-sections of uranium by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report the measurement of photoexcitation cross-sections of three first-step uranium transitions (0 → 16900.38 cm-1 , 0 → 17361.89 cm-1 and 620 → 17361.89 cm-1) using saturation method. These measurements were performed on a resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) set-up consisting of ...

  15. A cross-sectional analysis of medicine claims data

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Creative Commons licence CC-BY-NC 4.0. Inappropriate medicine prescribing in older South Africans: A cross-sectional analysis of medicine claims data. J A van Heerden, BPharm; J R Burger, BPharm, MPharm, PhD (Pharm Pract); J J Gerber, BSc (Pharm) Hons, BSc (Ind Pharm),. MSc (Ind Pharm) Hons, BSc (Pharmacol), ...

  16. Market skewness risk and the cross section of stock returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, B.; Christoffersen, P.; Jacobs, K.

    2013-01-01

    The cross section of stock returns has substantial exposure to risk captured by higher moments of market returns. We estimate these moments from daily Standard & Poor's 500 index option data. The resulting time series of factors are genuinely conditional and forward-looking. Stocks with high

  17. Quasiclassical trajectory study on the integral cross-section and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quasiclassical trajectory study on the integral cross-section and stereodynamics information of the reaction O(1D) + H2(v = 0, j = 0) → OH + H ... School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China; Department of Chemistry, Hebei Normal University of Science and ...

  18. Measurements of the fission cross section of {sup 237}Np

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, A.D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Parker, W.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Lisowski, P.W.; Morgan, G.L.; Seestrom, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hill, N.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Meggers, K. [Univ. of Kiel, Geesthacht (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Measurements have been made of the fission cross section of {sup 237}Np below 2 MeV neutron energy in order to improve the data base of this important cross section. The data were obtained with a white neutron source at the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The measurements were made with ionization chambers containing {sup 237}Np deposits located at the end of a 60-m flight path. The fission cross section data are relative to the {sup 235}U(n,f) standard at the higher energies. At the lower energies, the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}) standard was used to determine the energy dependence of the neutron fluence and the normalization was based on the very accurate 7.8 to 11.0 eV resonance integral for {sup 235}U(n,f). The results of this work indicate that the ENDF/B-VI evaluation of the {sup 237}Np(n,f) cross section is about a factor of three low in the 5 eV to 5 keV energy region but only about 3% lower than this work near 1 MeV neutron energy.

  19. Evaluation of nuclear reaction cross section of some isotopes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coupled-channels optical model code OPTMAN is used as an alternative to experimental approach to evaluate the total reaction cross section for four different isotopes of Plutonium as an example of heavy rotational nuclei of the transuranium elements over an energy range of 10 to 20 MeV. The selected isotopes are the ...

  20. Cross sections for inelastic meson-meson scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Weber, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    We study two kinds of inelastic meson-meson scattering. The first kind is inelastic 2-to-2 meson-meson scattering that is governed by quark interchange as well as quark-antiquark annihilation and creation. Cross-section formulas are provided to get unpolarized cross sections for π K →ρ K* for I =1 /2 , π K*→ρ K for I =1 /2 , π K*→ρ K* for I =1 /2 , and ρ K →ρ K* for I =1 /2 . Near threshold, quark interchange dominates the reactions near the critical temperature. The second kind is 2-to-1 meson-meson scattering with the process that a quark in an initial meson and an antiquark in another initial meson annihilate into a gluon and subsequently the gluon is absorbed by the other antiquark or quark. The transition potential for the process is derived. Four Feynman diagrams at tree level contribute to the 2-to-1 meson-meson scattering. Starting from the S -matrix element, the isospin-averaged unpolarized cross section with transition amplitudes is derived. The cross sections for π π →ρ and π K →K* decrease with increasing temperature.

  1. Event history analysis and the cross-section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Niels

    2006-01-01

    Examples are given of problems in event history analysis, where several time origins (generating calendar time, age, disease duration, time on study, etc.) are considered simultaneously. The focus is on complex sampling patterns generated around a cross-section. A basic tool is the Lexis diagram....

  2. Neutron elastic and inelastic cross section measurements for 28Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derdeyn, E. C.; Lyons, E. M.; Morin, T.; Hicks, S. F.; Vanhoy, J. R.; Peters, E. E.; Ramirez, A. P. D.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Yates, S. W.

    2017-09-01

    Neutron elastic and inelastic cross sections are critical for design and implementation of nuclear reactors and reactor equipment. Silicon, an element used abundantly in fuel pellets as well as building materials, has little to no experimental cross sections in the fast neutron region to support current theoretical evaluations, and thus would benefit from any contribution. Measurements of neutron elastic and inelastic differential scattering cross sections for 28Si were performed at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory for incident neutron energies of 6.1 MeV and 7.0 MeV. Neutrons were produced by accelerated deuterons incident on a deuterium gas cell. These nearly mono-energetic neutrons then scattered off a natural Si sample and were detected using liquid deuterated benzene scintillation detectors. Scattered neutron energy was deduced using time-of-flight techniques in tandem with kinematic calculations for an angular distribution. The relative detector efficiency was experimentally determined over a neutron energy range from approximately 0.5 to 7.75 MeV prior to the experiment. Yields were corrected for multiple scattering and neutron attenuation in the sample using the forced-collision Monte Carlo correction code MULCAT. Resulting cross sections will be presented along with comparisons to various data evaluations. Research is supported by USDOE-NNSA-SSAP: NA0002931, NSF: PHY-1606890, and the Donald A. Cowan Physics Institute at the University of Dallas.

  3. Cross-sectional study of health effects of cryolite production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Clausen, J; Gyntelberg, F

    1989-01-01

    A cross-sectional health study of 101 cryolite workers was performed, using spirometry and a questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between the index of smoking and a decrease in FEV1 (per cent). There was no significant correlation between work-related exp...

  4. Scattering and absorption differential cross sections for double ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The scattering and absorption differential cross sections for nonlinear QED process such as double photon Compton scattering have been measured as a function of independent final photon energy. The incident gamma photons are of 0.662 MeV in energy as produced by an 8 Ci137Cs radioactive source and thin ...

  5. Extinction and backscatter cross sections of biological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, M. E.; Hahn, D. V.; Carr, A. K.; Limsui, D.; Carter, C. C.; Boggs, N. T.; Jackman, J.

    2008-04-01

    Aerosol backscatter and extinction cross-sections are required to model and evaluate the performance of both active and passive detection systems. A method has been developed that begins with laboratory measurements of thin films and suspensions of biological material to obtain the complex index refraction of the biological material from the UV to the LWIR. Using that result with particle size distribution and shape information as inputs to T-matrix or discrete dipole approximation (DDA) calculations yields the extinction cross-section and backscatter cross section as a function of wavelength. These are important inputs to the lidar equation. In a continuing effort to provide validated optical cross-sections, measurements have been made on a number of high purity biological species in the laboratory as well as measurements of material released at recent field tests. The resulting observed differences between laboratory and field measurements aid in distinguishing between intrinsic and extrinsic effects, which can affect the characteristic signatures of important biological aerosols. A variety of biological and test aerosols are examined, including Bacillus atrophaeus (BG), and Erwina, ovalbumin, silica and polystyrene.

  6. Measurement of proton inelastic scattering cross sections on fluorine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiari, M., E-mail: chiari@fi.infn.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence and INFN Florence, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Caciolli, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padua and INFN Padua, Padova (Italy); Calzolai, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence and INFN Florence, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Climent-Font, A. [CMAM, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence and INFN Florence, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2016-10-01

    Differential cross-sections for proton inelastic scattering on fluorine, {sup 19}F(p,p’){sup 19}F, from the first five excited levels of {sup 19}F at 110, 197, 1346, 1459 and 1554 keV were measured for beam energies from 3 to 7 MeV at a scattering angle of 150° using a LiF thin target (50 μg/cm{sup 2}) evaporated on a self-supporting C thin film (30 μg/cm{sup 2}). Absolute differential cross-sections were calculated with a method not dependent on the absolute values of collected beam charge and detector solid angle. The validity of the measured inelastic scattering cross sections was then tested by successfully reproducing EBS spectra collected from a thick Teflon (CF{sub 2}) target. As a practical application of these measured inelastic scattering cross sections in elastic backscattering spectroscopy (EBS), the feasibility of quantitative light element (C, N and O) analysis in aerosol particulate matter samples collected on Teflon by EBS measurements and spectra simulation is demonstrated.

  7. Comparing Ranque tubes of circular and square cross section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabardin Ivan K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of temperature end energy separation is compared for Ranque tubes of circular and square cross section, with the square side equal to the circle diameter. The “square” tube demonstrates approximately two times less efficiency, yet the separation effect still being evidently presented.

  8. Measurement of inclusive jet cross sections in photoproduction at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Andrieu, B.; Anthonis, T.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, C.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Bohme, J.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Chekelian, V.; Clarke, D.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flucke, G.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Franke, G.; Frising, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Grab, C.; Grabski, V.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Henshaw, O.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C .; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, C.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Katzy, J.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Kjellberg, P.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, K.; Kuhr, T.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebailly, E.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loginov, A.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michine, S.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, T.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauvan, E.; Schatzel, S.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Tchetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Uraev, A.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vassiliev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vest, A.; Vichnevski, A.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Wallny, R.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; Wiesand, S.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Woehrling, E.E.; Wunsch, E.; Wyatt, A.C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; zur Nedden, M.

    2003-01-01

    Inclusive jet cross sections are measured in photoproduction at HERA using the H1 detector. The data sample of e+ p -> e+ + jet + X events in the kinematic range of photon virtualities Q^2 < 1 GeV^2 and photon-proton centre-of-mass energies 95 < W_gammap < 285 GeV represents an integrated luminosity of 24.1 pb^-1. Jets are defined using the inclusive k_T algorithm. Single- and multi-differential cross sections are measured as functions of jet transverse energy E_T^jet and pseudorapidity \\eta^jet in the domain 5 < E_T^jet < 75 GeV and -1 < \\eta^jet < 2.5. The cross sections are found to be in good agreement with next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations corrected for fragmentation and underlying event effects. The cross section differential in E_T^jet, which varies by six orders of magnitude over the measured range, is compared with similar distributions from p pbar colliders at equal and higher energies.

  9. Motorcycle-Related Trauma in South Sudan: a cross sectional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Motorcycle-Related Trauma in South Sudan: a cross sectional observational study. Andrew Allan. Abstract. Motorcycle related trauma is a major cause of morbidity in those of working age in the developing world. One hundred and sixteen patients involved in motorcycle related accidents were identified over four weeks at ...

  10. Evaluated activation cross-sections and intercomparison of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Evaluated activation cross-sections and intercomparison of the production parameters for the medically relevant radioisotopes 64Cu and 86Y ... Physics Department, Cyclotron Facility, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo 13759, Egypt; Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Zagzig University, Ash ...

  11. Index map of cross sections through parts of the Appalachian basin (Kentucky, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia): Chapter E.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Trippi, Michael H.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Ten cross sections and three seismic profiles of regional extent through the subsurface of the Appalachian basin are presented in chapter E of this volume (fig. 1). These cross sections and seismic profiles are subdivided into four groups: (1) five restored cross sections through Cambrian and Ordovician rocks, (2) three restored cross sections through Lower and Upper (part) Silurian rocks, (3) two geologic (structural) cross sections through the entire preserved section of Paleozoic rocks, and (4) three seismic profiles through the entire preserved section of Paleozoic rocks.

  12. Shear strength of reinforced concrete circular cross-section beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. W. G. N. Teixeira

    Full Text Available A proposed adequation of NBR 6118, Item 7.4, related to shear strength of reinforced concrete beams is presented with aims to application on circular cross-section. The actual expressions are most suitable to rectangular cross-section and some misleading occurs when applied to circular sections at determination of VRd2, Vc and Vsw, as consequence of bw (beam width and d (effective depth definitions as well as the real effectiveness of circular stirrups. The proposed adequation is based on extensive bibliographic review and practical experience with a great number of infrastructure elements, such as anchored retaining pile walls, where the use of circular reinforced concrete members is frequent.

  13. Study of scattering cross section of a plasma column using Green's function volume integral equation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanmoradi, Elmira; Shokri, Babak

    2017-05-01

    In this article, the electromagnetic wave scattering from plasma columns with inhomogeneous electron density distribution is studied by the Green's function volume integral equation method. Due to the ready production of such plasmas in the laboratories and their practical application in various technological fields, this study tries to find the effects of plasma parameters such as the electron density, radius, and pressure on the scattering cross-section of a plasma column. Moreover, the incident wave frequency influence of the scattering pattern is demonstrated. Furthermore, the scattering cross-section of a plasma column with an inhomogeneous collision frequency profile is calculated and the effect of this inhomogeneity is discussed first in this article. These results are especially used to determine the appropriate conditions for radar cross-section reduction purposes. It is shown that the radar cross-section of a plasma column reduces more for a larger collision frequency, for a relatively lower plasma frequency, and also for a smaller radius. Furthermore, it is found that the effect of the electron density on the scattering cross-section is more obvious in comparison with the effect of other plasma parameters. Also, the plasma column with homogenous collision frequency can be used as a better shielding in contrast to its inhomogeneous counterpart.

  14. Photoionization cross section in a spherical quantum dot: Effects of some parabolic confining electric potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tshipa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical investigation of the effects of spatial variation of confining electric potential on photoionization cross section (PCS in a spherical quantum dot is presented. The potential profiles considered here are the shifted parabolic potential and the inverse lateral shifted parabolic potential compared with the well-studied parabolic potential. The primary findings are that parabolic potential and the inverse lateral shifted parabolic potential blue shift the peaks of the PCS while the shifted parabolic potential causes a red shift.

  15. Receptive Vocabulary in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Cross-Sectional Developmental Trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Kover, Sara T.; McDuffie, Andrea S.; Hagerman, Randi J.; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    In light of evidence that receptive language may be a relative weakness for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), this study characterized receptive vocabulary profiles in boys with ASD using cross-sectional developmental trajectories relative to age, nonverbal cognition, and expressive vocabulary. Participants were 49 boys with ASD (4–11 years) and 80 typically developing boys (2–11 years). Receptive vocabulary, assessed with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, was a weakness for...

  16. Cross section of pseudoscalar meson photoproduction within the ELA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirós, J. J.; Tamayo, D. F.; Jaramillo, D. E.; Barbero, C.

    2015-10-01

    We study the contributions of background and resonance terms to the total cross section of photoproduction of mesons off the free nucleon. The model we use is consistent and based on an effective Lagrangian approach (ELA) which includes nucleon Born terms, vector meson exchange terms, and nucleon resonances. The interaction Lagrangians are chiral symmetric, gauge invariant and crossing symmetric. The results we obtain are compared to available experimental data and agreement is found in the energy region from threshold up to 0.55 GeV in the case of π photoproduction. We outline the possibility to extend this calculation to the case of η meson photoproduction.

  17. Novel Method for Vessel Cross-Sectional Shear Wave Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiong; Li, Guo-Yang; Lee, Fu-Feng; Zhang, Qihao; Cao, Yanping; Luo, Jianwen

    2017-07-01

    Many studies have investigated the applications of shear wave imaging (SWI) to vascular elastography, mainly on the longitudinal section of vessels. It is important to investigate SWI in the arterial cross section when evaluating anisotropy of the vessel wall or complete plaque composition. Here, we proposed a novel method based on the coordinate transformation and directional filter in the polar coordinate system to achieve vessel cross-sectional shear wave imaging. In particular, ultrasound radiofrequency data were transformed from the Cartesian to the polar coordinate system; the radial displacements were then estimated directly. Directional filtering was performed along the circumferential direction to filter out the reflected waves. The feasibility of the proposed vessel cross-sectional shear wave imaging method was investigated through phantom experiments and ex vivo and in vivo studies. Our results indicated that the dispersion relation of the shear wave (i.e., the guided circumferential wave) within the vessel can be measured via the present method, and the elastic modulus of the vessel can be determined. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mid-IR Absorption Cross-Section Measurements of Hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Alrefae, Majed Abdullah

    2013-05-01

    Laser diagnostics are fast-response, non-intrusive and species-specific tools perfectly applicable for studying combustion processes. Quantitative measurements of species concentration and temperature require spectroscopic data to be well-known at combustion-relevant conditions. Absorption cross-section is an important spectroscopic quantity and has direct relation to the species concentration. In this work, the absorption cross-sections of basic hydrocarbons are measured using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, tunable Difference Frequency Generation laser and fixed wavelength helium-neon laser. The studied species are methane, methanol, acetylene, ethylene, ethane, ethanol, propylene, propane, 1-butene, n-butane, n-pentane, n-hexane, and n-heptane. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer is used for the measurements of the absorption cross-sections and the integrated band intensities of the 13 hydrocarbons. The spectral region of the spectra is 2800 – 3400 cm-1 (2.9 – 3.6 μm) and the temperature range is 673 – 1100 K. These valuable data provide huge opportunities to select interference-free wavelengths for measuring time-histories of a specific species in a shock tube or other combustion systems. Such measurements can allow developing/improving chemical kinetics mechanisms by experimentally determining reaction rates. The Difference Frequency Generation (DFG) laser is a narrow line-width, tunable laser in the 3.35 – 3.53 μm wavelength region which contains strong absorption features for most hydrocarbons due to the fundamental C-H vibrating stretch. The absorption cross-sections of propylene are measured at seven different wavelengths using the DFG laser. The temperature range is 296 – 460 K which is reached using a Reflex Cell. The DFG laser is very attractive for kinetic studies in the shock tube because of its fast time response and the potential possibility of making species-specific measurements. The Fixed wavelength

  19. Microscopic description of production cross sections including deexcitation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekizawa, Kazuyuki

    2017-07-01

    Background: At the forefront of the nuclear science, production of new neutron-rich isotopes is continuously pursued at accelerator laboratories all over the world. To explore the currently unknown territories in the nuclear chart far away from the stability, reliable theoretical predictions are inevitable. Purpose: To provide a reliable prediction of production cross sections taking into account secondary deexcitation processes, both particle evaporation and fission, a new method called TDHF+GEMINI is proposed, which combines the microscopic time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory with a sophisticated statistical compound-nucleus deexcitation model, GEMINI++. Methods: Low-energy heavy ion reactions are described based on three-dimensional Skyrme-TDHF calculations. Using the particle-number projection method, production probabilities, total angular momenta, and excitation energies of primary reaction products are extracted from the TDHF wave function after collision. Production cross sections for secondary reaction products are evaluated employing GEMINI++. Results are compared with available experimental data and widely used grazing calculations. Results: The method is applied to describe cross sections for multinucleon transfer processes in 40Ca+124Sn (Ec .m .≃128.54 MeV ), 48Ca+124Sn (Ec .m .≃125.44 MeV ), 40Ca+208Pb (Ec .m .≃208.84 MeV ), 58Ni+208Pb (Ec .m .≃256.79 MeV ), 64Ni+238U (Ec .m .≃307.35 MeV ), and 136Xe+198Pt (Ec .m .≃644.98 MeV ) reactions at energies close to the Coulomb barrier. It is shown that the inclusion of secondary deexcitation processes, which are dominated by neutron evaporation in the present systems, substantially improves agreement with the experimental data. The magnitude of the evaporation effects is very similar to the one observed in grazing calculations. TDHF+GEMINI provides better description of the absolute value of the cross sections for channels involving transfer of more than one proton, compared to the grazing

  20. Design Space Exploration of Object Caches with Cross-Profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Binder, Walter; Villazon, Alex

    2011-01-01

    . However, before implementing such an object cache, an empirical analysis of different organization forms is needed. We use a cross-profiling technique based on aspect-oriented programming in order to evaluate different object cache organizations with standard Java benchmarks. From the evaluation we...

  1. Developing Scientific Reasoning Through Drawing Cross-Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Cross-sections and 3D models of subsurface geology are typically based on incomplete information (whether surface geologic mapping, well logs, or geophysical data). Creating and evaluating those models requires spatial and quantitative thinking skills (including penetrative thinking, understanding of horizontality, mental rotation and animation, and scaling). However, evaluating the reasonableness of a cross-section or 3D structural model also requires consideration of multiple possible geometries and geologic histories. Teaching students to create good models requires application of the scientific methods of the geosciences (such as evaluation of multiple hypotheses and combining evidence from multiple techniques). Teaching these critical thinking skills, especially combined with teaching spatial thinking skills, is challenging. My Structural Geology and Advanced Structural Geology courses have taken two different approaches to developing both the abilities to visualize and to test multiple models. In the final project in Structural Geology (a 3rd year course with a pre-requisite sophomore mapping course), students create a viable cross-section across part of the Wyoming thrust belt by hand, based on a published 1:62,500 geologic map. The cross-section must meet a number of geometric criteria (such as the template constraint), but is not required to balance. Each student tries many potential geometries while trying to find a viable solution. In most cases, the students don't visualize the implications of the geometries that they try, but have to draw them and then erase their work if it does not meet the criteria for validity. The Advanced Structural Geology course used Midland Valley's Move suite to test the cross-sections that they made in Structural Geology, mostly using the flexural slip unfolding algorithm and testing whether the resulting line lengths balanced. In both exercises, students seemed more confident in the quality of their cross-sections when the

  2. Timoshenko beam element with anisotropic cross-sectional properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stäblein, Alexander; Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2016-01-01

    Beam models are used for the aeroelastic time and frequency domain analysis of wind turbines due to their computational efficiency. Many current aeroelastic tools for the analysis of wind turbines rely on Timoshenko beam elements with classical crosssectional properties (EA, EI, etc.). Those cross......-sectional properties do not reflect the various couplings arising from the anisotropic behaviour of the blade material. A twonoded, three-dimensional Timoshenko beam element was therefore extended to allow for anisotropic cross-sectional properties. For an uncoupled beam, the resulting shape functions are identical...... to the original formulation. The new element was implemented into a co-rotational formulation and validated against natural frequencies and several static load cases of previous works....

  3. Highlights of top quark cross-section measurements at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Wilk, Fabian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Measurements of inclusive and differential top-quark production cross sections in proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider are presented at a center of mass energy of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. An inclusive measurements of top quark pair production as well as measurement of the cross section for single top production in association with a Z boson is is presented and both are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. Two differential measurement of the kinematic properties of top quark events are presented: one involving a single top produced in association with a W boson and one with top-antitop pair events which decay to an allhadronic final state.

  4. Prediction of reaction cross section for p-Cr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemalatha M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear matter densities and charge radii for even 46−62Cr isotopes have been calculated using relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov model based on density-dependent meson-exchange relativistic energy density functional. The calculated root-mean-square charge radii agree well with corresponding data and the kink at N=28 is reproduced by the calculation. The calculated target matter densities are folded with the Jeukenne, Lejeune, and Mahaux-Bruyéres inter-nucleon interaction to obtain semi-microscopic optical model potentials for incident protons of 65 MeV on even 46−62Cr isotopes. The elastic scattering differential cross sections calculated using the proton optical potentials reproduce corresponding data for stable isotopes. The optical model potential parameters required for prediction of differential and total reaction cross sections for unstable even isotopes have been obtained.

  5. Performance of Traffic Noise Barriers with Varying Cross-Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Grubeša

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of noise barriers largely depends on their geometry. In this paper, the performance of noise barriers was simulated using the numerical Boundary Element Method (BEM. Traffic noise was particularly considered with its standardized noise spectrum adapted to human hearing. The cross-section of the barriers was varied with the goal of finding the optimum shape in comparison to classical rectangular barriers. The barrier performance was calculated at different receiver points for a fixed barrier height and source position. The magnitude of the insertion loss parameter was used to evaluate the performance change, both in one-third octave bands and as the broadband mean insertion loss value. The proposed barriers of varying cross-section were also compared with a typical T-shape barrier of the same height.

  6. PIA and REWIND: Two New Methodologies for Cross Section Adjustment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmiotti, G.; Salvatores, M.

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents two new cross section adjustment methodologies intended for coping with the problem of compensations. The first one PIA, Progressive Incremental Adjustment, gives priority to the utilization of experiments of elemental type (those sensitive to a specific cross section), following a definite hierarchy on which type of experiment to use. Once the adjustment is performed, both the new adjusted data and the new covariance matrix are kept. The second methodology is called REWIND (Ranking Experiments by Weighting for Improved Nuclear Data). This new proposed approach tries to establish a methodology for ranking experiments by looking at the potential gain they can produce in an adjustment. Practical applications for different adjustments illustrate the results of the two methodologies against the current one and show the potential improvement for reducing uncertainties in target reactors.

  7. NIFFTE Time Projection Chamber for Fission Cross Section Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Ryan; Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking Experiment Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    In order to design safer and more efficient Generation IV nuclear reactors, more accurate knowledge of fission cross sections is needed. The goal of the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) used by the Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking Experiment (NIFFTE) collaboration is to measure the cross sections of several fissile materials to within 1% uncertainty. The ability of the TPC to produce 3D ``pictures'' of charged particle trajectories will eliminate unwanted alpha particles in the data. Another important source of error is the normalization of data the U-235 standard. NIFFTE will use the H(n,n)H reaction instead, which is known to better than 0.2%. The run control and monitoring system will eventually allow for nearly complete automation and off-site monitoring of the experiment. This presentation will cover the need for precision measurements and an overview of the experiment. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Division of Energy Research.

  8. Biconical antennas and conical horns with elliptic cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Siegfried; Grafmueller, Bernhard

    1988-08-01

    The mode-matching technique is applied to the problem of radiation from a conical antenna with elliptic cross section including the degeneration to a sector antenna. In the `guiding region' of the antenna the transverse electromagnetic wave is considered as well as higher-order waves which are described by products of Lamefunctions which satisfy the boundary conditions. In the exterior region, the field is expanded into products of Lamepolynomials. Antenna input impedances and far-field patterns are shown as results. In addition to computing the far-field patterns of a conical horn with elliptic cross section by the aperture field method, the authors analyze the radiation field by a multiple expansion analogous to the authors analyze method described above.

  9. α-induced reaction cross section measurements on 197Au

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szücs, Tamás; Gyürky, György; Halász, Zoltán; Kiss, Gábor Gy.; Fülöp, Zsolt

    2018-01-01

    The γ-process is responsible for creating the majority of the isotopes of heavier elements on the proton rich side of the valley of stability. The γ-process simulations fail to reproduce the measured solar system abundance of these isotopes. The problem can lie in the not well known astrophysical scenarios where the process takes place, or in the not sufficiently known nuclear physics input. To improve the latter part, α-induced reaction cross section measurements on 197Au were carried out at Atomki. With this dataset new experimental information will become available, which can be later used as validation of the theoretical cross section calculations used in the γ-process simulations.

  10. Near-Field Cross Section Imaging of Wideband Millimeter Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Yingzhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Near-field millimeter wave imaging has been a hot topic recent years for its importance applications in the area of anti-terrorism. The penetrating characteristic of millimeter wave is of significant importance to security, such as the concealed weapons detection, ground-penetrating radar imaging, through-barrier imaging and so on. Cross section imaging is a basic aspect for near-field millimeter wave imaging, which includes antenna array distribution and wideband signal processing. This paper utilizes back projection method in space area to realize ultra-band nearfield cross section imaging. We induce two dimensional direction integral formulas to obtain the reconstruction image of the near-field imaging area, and the simulation results validate the effectiveness of this imaging algorithm.

  11. Radar Cross Section measurements on the stealth metamaterial objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Fan, Kim; Strikwerda, Andrew C.

    have been realized in the form of thin, flexible metallized films of polyimide [1]. Here we apply a near-unity absorbing MM as a way to reduce the radar cross section of an object, and consider the real-life situation where the probe beam is significantly larger than the MM film and the object under...... investigation. We use a terahertz radar cross section (RCS) setup [2] for the characterization of the RCS of a real object covered with an absorbing MM film designed for high absorption in the THz frequency range, specifically at 0.8 THz. The results are in a form of 2D maps (sinograms), from which the RCS...

  12. Fully hadronic ttbar cross section measurement with ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bertella, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The top quark pair production cross section in the fully hadronic final state is characterized by a six jet topology, two of which could be identified as originating from a b-quark using ATLAS b-tagging algorithms. Compared to other decay channels, this final state presents an advantageous larger branching ratio; on the other hand it suffers from a very large QCD multi-jet background, generally difficult to estimate from Monte Carlo simulation and therefore evaluated using data-driven techniques. It is essential, to efficiently trigger on these fully hadronic ttbar events, to use dedicated triggers. An overview of the analysis for ttbar production cross section measurement in the fully hadronic final state and the state-of-the-art of the b-jet trigger performance estimation are presented in this contribution.

  13. Improved neutron capture cross section of Pu239

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, S.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Chyzh, A.; Couture, A.; Henderson, R.; Jandel, M.; Kwan, E.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ullmann, J.; Wu, C. Y.

    2014-03-01

    The 239Pu(n ,γ) cross section has been measured over the energy range 10 eV to 1 keV using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center as part of a campaign to produce precision (n ,γ) measurements on 239Pu. Fission coincidences were measured with a parallel-plate avalanche counter and used to measure the prompt fission γ-ray spectrum in this region to accurately characterize background. The resulting (n ,γ) cross section is generally in agreement with current evaluations. The experimental method utilizes much more detailed information than past measurements on 239Pu and can be used to extend the measurement to higher incident neutron energies.

  14. 23Na(p,γ)24Mg Cross Section Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeltzig, Axel; Best, Andreas; deBoer, Richard J.; DiLeva, Antonino; Imbriani, Gianluca; Junker, Matthias; Wiescher, Michael

    2018-01-01

    As a link between the NeNa and MgAl cycles in stellar burning, the reaction 23Na(p,γ)24Mg is of interest for various astrophysical scenarios, such as AGB stars. A combined effort at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA) and the Nuclear Science Laboratory (NSL) at the University of Notre Dame aims at a cross section determination for the this reaction, to constrain the astrophysical reaction rate by improving the knowledge of the resonance strengths and the non-resonant component. Experiments at LUNA benefit from the underground location at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory which allows for the measurement of resonances at low energies with high sensitivity in a low background environment. Measurements at the University of Notre Dame pursue a determination of the non-resonant cross section at higher energies. We present the two experiments and the status of the data analysis.

  15. Novel transmission detector used for total cross section measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arignon, M.; Azaiez, H.; Bystricky, J.; Deregel, J.; Drompt, P.; Fontaine, J. M.; Gosset, J.; Hasegawa, T.; Heer, E.; Hess, R.; Lehar, F.; Leo, W.; Martin, A.; Morenzoni, S.; Newsom, C. R.; Onel, Y.; Penzo, A.; Perrot, F.; Rapin, D.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Simmons, J. E.; Van Rossum, L.; Veluard, P.; Vrzal, J.; Whitten, C. A.; Yonnet, J.

    1985-04-01

    A new apparatus for total cross section measurements was developed and tested at Saturne II, Sacalay. The transmission ratios are determined using a ring-counter system coded in the Gray code, involving an exclusive four-fold coincidence between 4 counters among 8. Beam rate effects are suppressed by an electronic device which permits reaching an accuracy of better than 10 -4 in any transmission ratio. The apparatus was first used at SIN for the measurements of the total polarized proton-proton cross section difference Δσ L and of the spin correlation parameter A00 kk in pp → pp and pp → dπ+ reactions, and then at Saturne II for Δσ γ and Δσ L measurements in p-p scattering.

  16. Photoionization and electron impact excitation cross sections for Fe I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Manuel A.; Lind, Karin; Bergemann, Maria

    2017-10-01

    Context. Iron is a major contributor to the opacity in the atmospheres of late-type stars, as well as a major contributor to the observed lines in their visible spectrum. Iron lines are commonly used to derive basic stellar parameters from medium/high resolution spectroscopy, that is, spectroscopy which shows metal content, effective temperature, and surface gravity. Aims: Here we present large R-matrix calculations for photoionization cross sections and electron impact collision strengths. Methods: The photoionization calculations included 35 configurations and 134 LS close coupling terms of the target ion. The eigenfunction expansion accounts for the photoionization of the outer nl subshells, with n ≥ 4, as well as the open inner 3d subshell. Our results include total and partial (term-to-term) photoionization cross sections for 936 energy terms of iron with principal quantum number ≤10, and total angular momentum from zero to seven. Our electron impact collision strengths include the lowest 46 LS terms of the atom. Results: The present photoionization cross sections should be considerably more accurate than those currently available in the literature. On the other hand, the electron impact cross sections, which are being reported for the first time, are needed in non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) modeling of the solar spectrum and late-type stars in general. Tables 5 and 6 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/606/A127

  17. The total top-pair production cross section at NNLL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beneke, M. [Physik Department T31, James-Franck-Straße, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Falgari, P., E-mail: p.falgari@uu.nl [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Klein, S. [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Piclum, J. [Physik Department T31, James-Franck-Straße, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Schwinn, C. [Albert-Ludwigs Universität Freiburg, Physikalisches Institut, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Ubiali, M.; Yan, F. [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    We present results for the total top-pair production cross section at the Tevatron and the LHC. Our predictions supplement fixed-order results with resummation of soft logarithms and Coulomb singularities to next-to-next-to-leading (NNLL) logarithmic accuracy and include top-antitop bound-state effects. The effects of resummation, the dependence on the PDF set used, the residual sources of theoretical uncertainty and their implication for measurements of the top-quark mass are discussed.

  18. Stress in medical students: A cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, Hiteshkumar Muktilal; Shah, Hirendra R; Chauhan, Sumitraben Hiteshkumar; Chaudhary, Sucheta M

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives: Stress occurs when pressure is greater than resources available. Medical education has many factors causing stress among the medical students. This study was conducted to find out the prevalence of stress among medical students and to know the factors causing stress in them.Methods: This is a cross sectional study, conducted on the Ist MBBS to III/IInd MBBS students of B. J. Medical College, Ahmedabad, using a semistructured self administered questionnaire, in Oct...

  19. MRI cross sectional atlas of normal canine cervical musculoskeletal structure

    OpenAIRE

    Alizadeh, M.; Zindl, Claudia; Allen, Matthew James; Knapik, GG; FItzpatrick, N; Marras, WS

    2016-01-01

    Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been increasingly used as a diagnostic tool for cervical spine injuries in canines, a comprehensive normal MRI anatomy of the canine cervical spine muscles is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to build a magnetic resonance imaging atlas of the normal cross sectional anatomy of the muscles of the canine cervical spine. MRI scans were performed on a canine cadaver using a combination of T1 and T2-weighted images in the transverse, sa...

  20. C+C Fusion Cross Sections Measurements for Nuclear Astrophysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almaraz-Calderon S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Total fusion cross section of carbon isotopes were obtained using the newly developed MUSIC detector. MUSIC is a highly efficient, active target-detector system designed to measure fusion excitation functions with radioactive beams. The present measurements are relevant for understanding x-ray superbursts. The results of the first MUSIC campaign as well as the astrophysical implications are presented in this work.

  1. CROSS-SECTIONAL IMAGING EVALUATION OF RENAL REPLACEMENT LIPOMATOSIS (RRL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deb Kumar Boruah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Renal replacement lipomatosis is an uncommon benign entity where abundance of fibrofatty tissue proliferation occurs in renal sinus with further extension of proliferated fatty tissues into renal hilum, perinephric and periureteric spaces. It is usually associated with renal atrophy and marked renal parenchymal destruction. Aim of our study was cross-sectional imaging evaluation of Renal Replacement Lipomatosis (RRL. METHODS A hospital based cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted. The study group comprised of 16 patients presenting to the Departments of Radio-diagnosis, Surgery and Urology in a tertiary care hospital from May 2014 to April 2016. All patients were initially evaluated clinically and ultrasonographically followed by cross-sectional imaging modality like Computed Tomography (CT, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI or both. RESULTS Out of 16 patients of renal replacement lipomatosis, 15 patients (93.8% had associated renal pelvic or ureteric calculus while 1 patient (6.2% had left para-aortic mass without associated calculus. Out of fifteen patients of calculus related RRL, 8 patients (53.3% had calculus size more than 40 mm, followed by 4 patients (26.7% who had size from 20 to 40 mm and 3 patients (20% had size less than 20 mm. The mean CT HU value of calculus was 1334±84.5 in our study. Three patients (18.8% had only renal hilar fatty excessive deposition, 1 patient (6.2% had renal hilar and perinephric space fat depositions, 3 patients (18.8% had renal hilar, perinephric and periureteric spaces depositions and 9 patients (56.2% had renal hilar and periureteric excessive fatty depositions. Delayed renal functioning was noted in 9 patients (56%, followed by non-functioning in 5 patients (31.2% and 2 patients (12.5% had normally functioning kidneys. CONCLUSION Cross-sectional imaging like CT and MRI scan helps in diagnosing RRL and proper delineation of extensions of excessive fatty tissue proliferation.

  2. Top quark pair production cross section at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortiana, Giorgio; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.

    2008-04-01

    Top quark pair production cross section has been measured at the Tevatron by CDF and D0 collaborations using different channels and methods, in order to test standard model predictions, and to search for new physics hints affecting the t{bar t} production mechanism or decay. Measurements are carried out with an integrated luminosity of 1.0 to 2.0 fb{sup -1}, and are found to be consistent with standard model expectations.

  3. Evaluated activation cross-sections and intercomparison of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cross-sections. References. [1] A A Alharbi and A Azzam, Appl. Radiat. Isot. 70, 88 (2012). [2] J Zweit, A M Smith, S Downey and H L Sharma, Appl. Radiat. Isot. 42, 193 (1991). [3] L Daraban, K Abbas, F Simonelli, R Adam-Rebeles and N Gibson, Appl. Radiat. Isot. 66, 261. (2008). [4] M L Bonardi, F Groppi, C Birattari, L Gini, ...

  4. Truncated cross-sectional average length of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Guillot, Michel

    2015-01-01

    of developed countries. The truncated cross-sectional average length of life (TCAL) is a new measure that captures historical information about all cohorts present at a given moment and is not limited to countries with complete cohort mortality data. The value of TCAL depends on the rates used to complete...... for most of the disparity in mortality between the populations are identified. Supplementary material for this article is available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00324728.2015.1019955....

  5. Inclusive parton cross sections in photoproduction and photon structure

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, T; Andrieu, B; Appuhn, R D; Arpagaus, M; Aïd, S; Babaev, A; Ban, Y; Baranov, P S; Barrelet, E; Bartel, Wulfrin; Barth, Monique; Bassler, U; Beck, H P; Behrend, H J; Belousov, A; Berger, C; Bergstein, H; Bernardi, G; Bernet, R; Bertrand-Coremans, G H; Besançon, M; Beyer, R; Biddulph, P; Bispham, P; Bizot, J C; Blobel, Volker; Borras, K; Botterweck, F; Boudry, V; Braemer, A; Brasse, F W; Braunschweig, W; Brisson, V; Bruncko, Dusan; Brune, C R; Buchholz, R; Buniatian, A Yu; Burke, S; Burton, M; Buschhorn, G W; Bán, J; Bähr, J; Büngener, L; Bürger, J; Büsser, F W; Campbell, A J; Carli, T; Charles, F; Charlet, M; Chernyshov, V; Clarke, D; Clegg, A B; Clerbaux, B; Colombo, M G; Contreras, J G; Cormack, C; Coughlan, J A; Courau, A; Coutures, C; Cozzika, G; Criegee, L; Cussans, D G; Cvach, J; Dagoret, S; Dainton, J B; Dau, W D; Daum, K; David, M; De Wolf, E A; Del Buono, L; Delcourt, B; Di Nezza, P; Dollfus, C; Dowell, John D; Dreis, H B; Droutskoi, A; Duboc, J; Duhm, H; Düllmann, D; Dünger, O; Ebert, J; Ebert, T R; Eckerlin, G; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Eichenberger, S; Eichler, R; Eisele, Franz; Eisenhandler, Eric F; Ellison, R J; Elsen, E E; Erdmann, M; Erdmann, W; Erlichmann, H; Evrard, E; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Feeken, D; Felst, R; Feltesse, Joel; Ferencei, J; Ferrarotto, F; Flamm, K; Fleischer, M; Flieser, M; Flügge, G; Fomenko, A; Fominykh, B A; Forbush, M; Formánek, J; Foster, J M; Franke, G; Fretwurst, E; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gabathuler, K; Gamerdinger, K; Garvey, J; Gayler, J; Gebauer, M; Gellrich, A; Genzel, H; Gerhards, R; Goerlach, U; Gogitidze, N; Goldberg, M; Goldner, D; González-Pineiro, B; Gorelov, I V; Goritchev, P A; Grab, C; Greenshaw, T J; Grindhammer, G; Gruber, A; Gruber, C; Grässler, Herbert; Grässler, R; Görlich, L; Haack, J; Haidt, Dieter; Hajduk, L; Hamon, O; Hampel, M; Hanlon, E M; Hapke, M; Haynes, W J; Heatherington, J; Heinzelmann, G; Henderson, R C W; Henschel, H; Herynek, I; Hess, M F; Hildesheim, W; Hill, P; Hiller, K H; Hilton, C D; Hladky, J; Hoeger, K C; Horisberger, R P; Hudgson, V L; Huet, Patrick; Hufnagel, H; Höppner, M; Hütte, M; Ibbotson, M; Itterbeck, H; Jabiol, M A; Jacholkowska, A; Jacobsson, C; Jaffré, M; Janoth, J; Jansen, T; Johnson, D P; Johnson, L; Jung, H; Jönsson, L B; Kalmus, Peter I P; Kant, D; Kaschowitz, R; Kasselmann, P; Kathage, U; Katzy, J M; Kaufmann, H H; Kazarian, S; Kenyon, Ian Richard; Kermiche, S; Keuker, C; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Knies, G; Ko, W; Kolanoski, H; Kole, F; Kolya, S D; Korbel, V; Korn, M; Kostka, P; Kotelnikov, S K; Krasny, M W; Krehbiel, H; Krämerkämper, T; Krücker, D; Krüger, U P; Krüner-Marquis, U; Kubenka, J P; Kuhlen, M; Kurca, T; Kurzhöfer, J; Kuznik, B; Köhler, T; Köhne, J H; Küster, H; Lacour, D; Lamarche, F; Lander, R; Landon, M P J; Lange, W; Lanius, P; Laporte, J F; Lebedev, A; Leverenz, C; Levonian, S; Ley, C; Lindner, A; Lindström, G; Link, J; Linsel, F; Lipinski, J; List, B; Lobo, G; Loch, P; Lohmander, H; Lomas, J W; Lubimov, V; López, G C; Lüke, D; Magnussen, N; Malinovskii, E I; Mani, S; Maracek, R; Marage, P; Marks, J; Marshall, R; Martens, J; Martin, R D; Martyn, H U; Martyniak, J; Masson, S; Mavroidis, A; Maxfield, S J; McMahon, S J; Mehta, A; Meier, K; Mercer, D; Merz, T; Meyer, C A; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Migliori, A; Mikocki, S; Milstead, D; Moreau, F; Morris, J V; Mroczko, E; Murín, P; Müller, G; Müller, K; Nagovitsin, V; Nahnhauer, R; Naroska, Beate; Naumann, T; Newman, P R; Newton, D; Neyret, D; Nguyen, H K; Nicholls, T C; Niebergall, F; Niebuhr, C B; Niedzballa, C; Nisius, R; Nowak, G; Noyes, G W; Nyberg-Werther, M; Oakden, M N; Oberlack, H; Obrock, U; Olsson, J E; Ozerov, D; Panaro, E; Panitch, A; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Peppel, E; Phillips, J P; Pichler, C; Pieuchot, A; Pitzl, D; Pope, G; Prell, S; Prosi, R; Pérez, E; Rabbertz, K; Raupach, F; Reimer, P; Reinshagen, S; Ribarics, P; Rick, Hartmut; Riech, V; Riedlberger, J; Riess, S; Rietz, M; Rizvi, E; Robertson, S M; Robmann, P; Roloff, H E; Roosen, R; Rosenbauer, K; Rostovtsev, A A; Rouse, F; Royon, C; Rusakov, S V; Rybicki, K; Rylko, R; Rädel, G; Rüter, K; Sahlmann, N; Salesch, S G; Sankey, D P C; Schacht, P; Schiek, S; Schleper, P; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, D; Schmidt, G; Schröder, V; Schuhmann, E; Schwab, B; Schwind, A; Schöning, A; Sefkow, F; Seidel, M; Sell, R; Semenov, A A; Shekelian, V I; Shevyakov, I; Shooshtari, H; Shtarkov, L N; Siegmon, G; Siewert, U; Sirois, Y; Skillicorn, Ian O; Smirnov, P; Smith, J R; Solochenko, V; Soloviev, Yu V; Spiekermann, J; Spielman, S; Spitzer, H; Starosta, R; Steenbock, M; Steffen, P; Steinberg, R; Stella, B; Stephens, K; Stier, J; Stiewe, J; Stolze, K; Strachota, J; Straumann, U; Struczinski, W; Stösslein, U; Sutton, J P; Sánchez, E; Tapprogge, Stefan; Thiebaux, C; Thompson, G; Truöl, P; Turnau, J; Tutas, J; Uelkes, P; Usik, A; Valkár, S; Valkárová, A; Vallée, C; Van Esch, P; Van Mechelen, P; Vartapetian, A H; Vazdik, Ya A; Verrecchia, P; Villet, G; Wacker, K; Wagener, A; Wagener, M; Walker, I W; Walther, A; Weber, G; Weber, M; Wegener, D; Wegner, A; Wellisch, H P; West, L R; Willard, S; Winde, M; Winter, G G; Wittek, C; Wright, A E; Wulff, N; Wünsch, E; Yiou, T P; Zarbock, D; Zhang, Z; Zhokin, A S; Zimmer, M; Zimmermann, W; Zomer, F; Zuber, K; Zácek, J; de Roeck, A; von Schlippe, W

    1995-01-01

    Photoproduction of 2-jet events is studied with the H1 detector at HERA. Parton cross sections are extracted from the data by an unfolding method using leading order parton-jet correlations of a QCD generator. The gluon distribution in the photon is derived in the fractional momentum range 0.04\\le x_\\gamma \\le 1 at the average factorization scale 75 GeV^2.

  6. Top Quark Production Cross Section at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabalina, E.; /Chicago U.

    2006-05-01

    An overview of the preliminary results of the top quark pair production cross section measurements at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV carried out by the CDF and D0 collaborations is presented. The data samples used for the analyses are collected in the current Tevatron run and correspond to an integrated luminosity from 360 pb{sup -1} up to 760 pb{sup -1}.

  7. Inclusive jet cross-section measurement at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norniella, Olga; /Barcelona, IFAE

    2007-05-01

    The CDF Collaboration has measured the inclusive jet cross section using 1992-93 collider data at 1.8 TeV. The CDF measurement is in very good agreement with NLO QCD predictions for transverse energies (E{sub T}) below 200 GeV. However, it is systematically higher than NLO QCD predictions for E{sub T} above 200 GeV.

  8. Ozone Cross-Section Measurement by Gas Phase Titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallon, Joële; Moussay, Philippe; Flores, Edgar; Wielgosz, Robert I

    2016-11-01

    Elevated values of ground-level ozone damage health, vegetation, and building materials and are the subject of air quality regulations. Levels are monitored by networks using mostly ultraviolet (UV) absorption instruments, with traceability to standard reference photometers, relying on the UV absorption of ozone at the 253.65 nm line of mercury. We have redetermined the ozone cross-section at this wavelength based on gas phase titration (GPT) measurements. This is a well-known chemical method using the reaction of ozone (O3) with nitrogen monoxide (NO) resulting in nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and oxygen (O2). The BIPM GPT facility uses state-of-the-art flow measurement, chemiluminescence for NO concentration measurements, a cavity phase shift analyzer (CAPS) for NO2 measurements, and a UV ozone analyzer. The titration experiment is performed over the concentration range 100-500 nmol/mol, with NO and NO2 reactants/calibrants diluted down from standards with nominal mole fractions of 50 μmol/mol. Accurate measurements of NO, NO2, and O3 mole fractions allow the calculation of ozone absorption cross section values at 253.65 nm, and we report a value of 11.24 × 10-18 cm2 molecule-1 with a relative expanded uncertainty of 1.8% (coverage factor k = 2) based on nitrogen monoxide titration values and a value of 11.22 × 10-18 cm2 molecule-1 with a relative expanded uncertainty of 1.4% (coverage factor k = 2) based on nitrogen dioxide titration values. The excellent agreement between these values and recently published absorption cross-section measurements directly on pure ozone provide strong evidence for revising the conventionally accepted value of ozone cross section at 253.65 nm.

  9. Measurement of Charmonium Production Cross Section at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Frosini, M

    2010-01-01

    The great abundance of charmonium states, collected from the start up of LHC, allows to study its production mechanism. In particular the total and differential $J/\\psi$ production cross section are measured in the transverse momentum range [0;10] GeV/$c$ and in the pseudorapidity range $y \\in$ [2.5;4]. The measurements are performed disentagling the prompt (direct production in $pp$ collisions and feed down from excited charmonium states) and delayed ($b$-hadron decays products) component.

  10. Cross sections and kinematics of proton induced fragmentation of carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streibel, T.; Roecher, H.; Huentrup, G.; Heinrich, W. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Physics

    1997-09-01

    Charge changing fragmentation cross sections for C at a proton energy of about 70 MeV were measured. The discrepancies between measurement and model predictions indicate the necessity of further investigations. We have also measured distributions of fragment emission angles which can be described using a model with a momentum transfer to the fragmenting nucleus. The developed model leads to predictions for momentum distributions of proton induced target fragments of C at small energies. (orig.)

  11. Depression among Ethiopian Adults: Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Molla, Getasew Legas; Sebhat, Haregwoin Mulat; Hussen, Zebiba Nasir; Mekonen, Amsalu Belete; Mersha, Wubalem Fekadu; Yimer, Tesfa Mekonen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Depression is one of the most common mental disorders worldwide and is the second leading cause of disability and major contributor to suicide. Methods. Community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 779 adults residing in Northwest Ethiopia. Multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select study participants. Depression was measured by Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Bivariate as well as multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify associated f...

  12. (n,α reactions cross section research at IPPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorginis G.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experimental set-up based on an ionization chamber with a Frisch grid and wave form digitizer was used for (n,α cross section measurements. Use of digital signal processing allowed us to select a gaseous cell inside the sensitive area of the ionization chamber and determine the target atoms in it with high accuracy. This kind of approach provided us with a powerful method to suppress background arising from the detector structure and parasitic reactions on the working gas components. This method is especially interesting to study neutron reactions with elements for which solid target preparation is difficult (noble gases for example. In the present experiments we used a set of working gases which contained admixtures of nitrogen, oxygen, neon, argon and boron. Fission of 238U was used as neutron flux monitor. The cross section of the (n,α reaction for 16O, 14N, 20Ne, 36Ar, 40Ar and the yield ratio α0/α1 of 10B(n,α0 to 10B(n,α1 reactions was measured for neutron energies between 1.5 and 7 MeV. Additionally a measurement of the 50Cr(n,α cross section using a solid chromium target is also reported.

  13. Monostatic radar cross section of flying wing delta planforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevoor Meenakshisundaram Vaitheeswaran

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The design of the flying wing and its variants shapes continues to have a profound influence in the design of the current and future use of military aircraft. There is very little in the open literature available to the understanding and by way of comparison of the radar cross section of the different wing planforms, for obvious reasons of security and sensitivity. This paper aims to provide an insight about the radar cross section of the various flying wing planforms that would aid the need and amount of radar cross section suppression to escape detection from surveillance radars. Towards this, the shooting and bouncing ray method is used for analysis. In this, the geometric optics theory is first used for launching and tracing the electromagnetic rays to calculate the electromagnetic field values as the waves bounce around the target. The physical optics theory is next used to calculate the final scattered electric field using the far field integration along the observation direction. For the purpose of comparison, all the planform shapes are assumed to be having the same area, and only the aspect ratio and taper ratio are varied to feature representative airplanes.

  14. Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 3. Higgs Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemeyer, S; et al.

    2013-01-01

    This Report summarizes the results of the activities in 2012 and the first half of 2013 of the LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group. The main goal of the working group was to present the state of the art of Higgs Physics at the LHC, integrating all new results that have appeared in the last few years. This report follows the first working group report Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 1. Inclusive Observables (CERN-2011-002) and the second working group report Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 2. Differential Distributions (CERN-2012-002). After the discovery of a Higgs boson at the LHC in mid-2012 this report focuses on refined prediction of Standard Model (SM) Higgs phenomenology around the experimentally observed value of 125-126 GeV, refined predictions for heavy SM-like Higgs bosons as well as predictions in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model and first steps to go beyond these models. The other main focus is on the extraction of the characteristics and properties of the newly discovered particle such as couplings to SM particles, spin and CP-quantum numbers etc.

  15. Indoor Radar Cross Section Measurements of Simple Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Alexandre Souza Miacci

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper has described the radar absorbing materials characterization and radar cross section measurements, in the frequency range of 8 to 12 GHz, using a very simple setup. Simple targets like sphere, cylinder, flat plate, and dihedral corner were characterized by measuring the backscattered radiation patterns when these targets were illuminated by monostatic microwave radiation. Measurements were carried out inside an anechoic chamber (9x5x4m3. Typical radar cross section patterns were obtained in different aspect angles, by rotating the targets around their vertical axes. The measured values and the theoretical previsions for each metallic target showed that the used setup guarantees a good precision of the obtained data. By recovering one of the targets, a cylinder, with a specific radar absorbing material developed at Materials Division of the Brazilian Aeronautics and Space Institute, it was possible to compare the obtained patterns and to discuss the influence of radar absorbing materials on the observed radar cross section reduction patterns. The used methodology showed to be useful for attending aeronautical and telecommunication applications.

  16. Fully hadronic ttbar cross section measurement with ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bertella, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    The top quark pair production cross section in the fully hadronic final state is characterized by a six jet topology, two of which could be identified as originating from a b-quark using ATLAS b-tagging algorithms. Compared to other decay channels, this final state presents an advantageous larger branching ratio; on the other hand it suffers from a very large QCD multi-jet background, generally difficult to estimate from Monte Carlo simulation and therefore evaluated using data-driven techniques. The analysis is performed using 36pb-1 of pp collisions produced at the LHC with a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The observed upper limit is set at 261 pb at 95% confidence level, where the expected Standard Model cross-section for the ttbar process is 165+11-16 pb. In the future, when the LHC luminosity increases, it is essential, to efficiently trigger on these fully hadronic ttbar events, to use dedicated triggers. An overview of the analysis for ttbar production cross section measurement in the fully hadronic f...

  17. Measurements of four fermion cross-sections at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Kopal, Miroslav

    2002-01-01

    The production of four fermions in e+e− collisions at LEP allows the verification of the Standard Model of the Electroweak Interactions in the Charged and Neutral Current Sectors. Among the four-fermion final states, the highest purity and the clearest four-fermion events are characterized by the presence of leptons in the final state. The identification of such final states in the full data sample collected by the L3 experiment at LEP in the years from 1997 through 2000 is described. The total amount of data analyzed in this thesis corresponds to the total integrated luminosity 675.5 pb−1. ^ This thesis presents the results of the selection of the Z boson pair production together with the measurement of the cross-section for leptonic four-fermion final states, and the first measurement of cross-sections in the four-lepton and two-lepton and missing energy channels of the Zg* production with the L3 detector. The cross-section average over the whole data sample was found to be: s&parl0;e+e-→Zg *→l+...

  18. Determination of Optimum Cross-section for Oran Highway Revetment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velioglu, Deniz; Sogut, Erdinc; Guler, Isikhan

    2017-04-01

    Revetments are shore parallel, sloping coastal structures which are built to provide protection from the negative effects of the sea. The revetment mentioned in this study is located in the City of Oran, Algeria and is currently under construction. This study investigates the determination of the optimum revetment cross section for Oran highway, considering both the hydraulic stability of the revetment and economy. The existence of cliffs in the region and the settlement of the City of Oran created a necessity to re-align Oran highway; therefore, it was shifted towards the Gulf of Oran. Approximately 1 km of the highway is to be constructed on the Mediterranean Sea due to the new alignment. In order to protect the sea side of the road from the adverse effects of the sea, a revetment was designed. The proposed cross section had an armour layer composed of 23 tons of antifer units and regular placement of armour units was recommended. In order to check the hydraulic stability of the proposed section, physical model tests were performed in the laboratory of LEM (Laboratoire d'Etudes Maritimes) in Algeria, using the pre-determined design wave conditions. The physical model tests revealed that the trunk of the revetment was totaly damaged. Accordingly, the proposed section was found insufficient and certain modifications were required. The first modification was made in the arrangement of armour units, changing them from regular to irregular. After testing the new cross section, it was observed that the revetment was vulnerable to breaking wave attack due to the toe geometry and thus the toe of the revetment had to be re-shaped. Therefore, the second option was to reduce the toe elevation. It was observed that even though the revetment trunk was safe, the damage in the toe was not in acceptable limits. The new cross section was found insufficient and as the final option, the weight of the antifer units used in the armour layer was increased, the toe length of the

  19. Yogurt consumption is associated with higher nutrient intake, diet quality and favourable metabolic profile in children: a cross-sectional analysis using data from years 1-4 of the National diet and Nutrition Survey, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, D A; Givens, D I; Lovegrove, J A

    2018-01-12

    Yogurt consumption has been associated with higher nutrient intakes, better diet quality and improved metabolic profiles in adults. Few studies have investigated these associations in children. This study investigated the association of yogurt consumption with nutrient intakes, diet quality and metabolic profile in British children. Data from  1687 children aged 4-10 and 11-18 years of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) years 1-4 were analysed. Yogurt consumption was determined using a 4-day diet diary. Diet quality was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010). Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, pulse pressure, plasma glucose, HbA1c, C-reactive protein, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, high-and low-density cholesterol from NDNS were used. The highest tertile of yogurt consumption (T3) was associated with higher nutrient intakes, particularly for calcium (children 4-10 years: P yogurt/day) and 11-18 years (mean ± SD: 105.4 ± 37.5 g yogurt/day) compared with non-consumers (0 g yogurt/d). Yogurt consumption was associated with significantly lower pulse pressure in children aged 4-10 years and lower HbA1c concentration, being shorter and having a larger hip circumference in children aged 11-18 years, compared with non-yogurt consumers. This study suggests that British children who are yogurt consumers (> 60 g/day) have higher overall diet quality, nutrient intakes and adequacy, lower pulse pressure (children aged 4-10 years) and HbA1c concentrations (children aged 11-18 years), were shorter and had a smaller hip circumference (children aged 11-18 years).

  20. Measuring and modeling the backscattering cross section of a leaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, T. B. A.; Sarabandi, K.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1987-01-01

    Leaves are a significant feature of any vegetation canopy, and for remote sensing purposes it is important to develop an effective model for predicting the scattering from a leaf. From measurements of the X band backscattering cross section of a coleus leaf in varying stages of dryness, it is shown that a uniform resistive sheet constitutes such a model for a planar leaf. The scattering is determined by the (complex) resistivity which is, in turn, entirely specified by the gravimetric moisture content of the leaf. Using an available asymptotic expression for the scattering from a rectangular resistive plate which includes, as a special case, a metallic plate whose resistivity is zero, the computed backscattering cross sections for both principal polarizations are found to be in excellent agreement with data measured for rectangular sections of leaves with different moisture contents. If the resistivity is sufficiently large, the asymptotic expressions do not differ significantly from the physical optics ones, and for naturally shaped leaves as well as rectangular sections, the physical optics approximation in conjunction with the resistive sheet model faithfully reproduces the dominant feataures of the scattering patterns under all moisture conditions.

  1. What is the most appropriate lipid profile ratio predictor for insulin resistance in each sex? A cross-sectional study in Korean populations (The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, A Ri; Lee, Sang Wha; Lee, Hong Soo; Shim, Kyung Won

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) reduces reactivity of the target organ to blood insulin. Researchers have attempted to evaluate IR using various serum lipid concentration ratios. We aimed to determine the most strongly IR-predictive lipid profile ratios for each sex by studying associations between lipid concentration ratios and IR using data from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V-1) 2010. Overall, 8958 individuals participated in health interview and examination surveys. Among them, 1910 individuals who completed physical examinations and 8-h fasting blood tests and were older than 20 years of age were enrolled (929 men and 981 women). The lipid-ratio-related study outcomes were the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C), triglyceride (TG)/HDL-C, and non-HDL-C (LDL-C + TG/5)/HDL-C ratios. We divided subjects into 4 groups according to lipid profile ratio quartiles for a comparison of homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-IR values. Regression analyses were performed after adjusting for the confounding factors of age, body mass index, and diabetes mellitus history. HOMA-IR values tended to increase significantly along with LDL-C/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C, and non-HDL-C/HDL-C ratios in both sexes. In men, multiple linear regression analyses showed that after adjusting for confounding factors, a significant positive association remained only with the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (p = 0.0238, R(2) = 0.3605, root mean squared error [MSE] =0.3512). In women, multiple linear regression analyses showed that after adjusting for confounding factors, significant positive associations remained with the LDL-C/HDL-C (p < 0.0001, R-square = 0.2329, root MSE = 0.3776), TG/HDL-C (p = 0.0001, R(2) = 0.2373, root MSE = 0.3766), and non-HDL-C/HDL-C ratios (p < 0.0001, R(2) = 0.2456, root MSE = 0.3745). The LDL-C/HDL-C ratio in men and LDL-C/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C, and non

  2. Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 3. Higgs Properties Report of the LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group

    CERN Document Server

    Heinemeyer, S; Passarino, G; Tanaka, R; Andersen, J R; Artoisenet, P; Bagnaschi, E A; Banfi, A; Becher, T; Bernlochner, F U; Bolognesi, S; Bolzoni, P; Boughezal, R; Buarque, D; Campbell, J; Caola, F; Carena, M; Cascioli, F; Chanon, N; Cheng, T; Choi, S Y; David, A; de Aquino, P; Degrassi, G; Del Re, D; Denner, A; van Deurzen, H; Diglio, S; Di Micco, B; Di Nardo, R; Dittmaier, S; Dührssen, M; Ellis, R K; Ferrera, G; Fidanza, N; Flechl, M; de Florian, D; Forte, S; Frederix, R; Frixione, S; Gangal, S; Gao, Y; Garzelli, M V; Gillberg, D; Govoni, P; Grazzini, M; Greiner, N; Griffiths, J; Gritsan, A V; Grojean, C; Hall, D C; Hays, C; Harlander, R; Hernandez-Pinto, R; Höche, S; Huston, J; Jubb, T; Kadastik, M; Kallweit, S; Kardos, A; Kashif, L; Kauer, N; Kim, H; Klees, R; Krämer, M; Krauss, F; Laureys, A; Laurila, S; Lehti, S; Li, Q; Liebler, S; Liu, X; Logan, E; Luisoni, G; Malberti, M; Maltoni, F; Mawatari, K; Maierhoefer, F; Mantler, H; Martin, S; Mastrolia, P; Mattelaer, O; Mazzitelli, J; Mellado, B; Melnikov, K; Meridiani, P; Miller, D J; Mirabella, E; Moch, S O; Monni, P; Moretti, N; Mück, A; Mühlleitner, M; Musella, P; Nason, P; Neu, C; Neubert, M; Oleari, C; Olsen, J; Ossola, G; Peraro, T; Peters, K; Petriello, F; Piacquadio, G; Potter, C T; Pozzorini, S; Prokofiev, K; Puljak, I; Rauch, M; Rebuzzi, D; Reina, L; Rietkerk, R; Rizzi, A; Rotstein-Habarnau, Y; Salam, G P; Sborlini, G; Schissler, F; Schönherr, M; Schulze, M; Schumacher, M; Siegert, F; Slavich, P; Smillie, J M; Stål, O; von Soden-Fraunhofen, J F; Spira, M; Stewart, I W; Tackmann, F J; Taylor, P T E; Tommasini, D; Thompson, J; Thorne, R S; Torrielli, P; Tramontano, F; Tran, N V; Trócsányi, Z; Ubiali, M; Vazquez Acosta, M; Vickey, T; Vicini, A; Waalewijn, W J; Wackeroth, D; Wagner, C; Walsh, J R; Wang, J; Weiglein, G; Whitbeck, A; Williams, C; Yu, J; Zanderighi, G; Zanetti, M; Zaro, M; Zerwas, P M; Zhang, C; Zirke, T J E; Zuberi, S

    2013-01-01

    This Report summarizes the results of the activities in 2012 and the first half of 2013 of the LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group. The main goal of the working group was to present the state of the art of Higgs Physics at the LHC, integrating all new results that have appeared in the last few years. This report follows the first working group report Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 1. Inclusive Observables (CERN-2011-002) and the second working group report Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 2. Differential Distributions (CERN-2012-002). After the discovery of a Higgs boson at the LHC in mid-2012 this report focuses on refined prediction of Standard Model (SM) Higgs phenomenology around the experimentally observed value of 125-126 GeV, refined predictions for heavy SM-like Higgs bosons as well as predictions in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model and first steps to go beyond these models. The other main focus is on the extraction of the characteristics and properties of the newly discovered p...

  3. From ZZ to ZH : How Low Can These Cross Sections Go or Everybody, Let's Cross Section Limbo!

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Emanuel Alexandre [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2009-08-01

    We report on two searches performed at the D0 detector at the Fermi National Laboratory. The first is a search for Z di-boson production with a theoretical cross section of 1.4 pb. The search was performed on 2.6 fb-1 of data and contributed to the first observation of ZZ production at a hadron collider. The second is a search for a low mass Standard Model Higgs in 4.2 fb-1 of data. The Higgs boson is produced in association with a Z boson where the Higgs decays hadronically and the Z decays to two leptons. The ZZ search was performed in both the di-electron and di-muon channels. For the ZH search, we will focus on the muonic decays where we expanded the traditional coverage by considering events in which one of the two muons fails the selection requirement, and is instead reconstructed as an isolated track. We consider Higgs masses between 100 and 150 GeV, with theoretical cross sections ranging from 0.17 to 0.042 pb, and set upper limits on the ZH production cross-section at 95% confidence level.

  4. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patient Profiles, Diseases Control and Complications at Four Public Health Facilities- A Cross-sectional Study based on the Adult Diabetes Control and Management (ADCM) Registry 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, B H; Shariff-Ghazali, S; Lee, P Y; Cheong, A T; Mastura, I; Haniff, J; Bujang, M A; Taher, S W; Mustapha, F I

    2013-10-01

    Diabetes care at different healthcare facilities varied from significantly better at one setting to no difference amongst them. We examined type 2 diabetes patient profiles, disease control and complication rates at four public health facilities in Malaysia. This study analyzed data from diabetes registry database, the Adult Diabetes Control and Management (ADCM). The four public health facilities were hospital with specialist (HS), hospital without specialist (HNS), health clinics with family physicians (CS) and health clinic without doctor (CND). Independent risk factors were identified using multivariate regression analyses. The means age and duration of diabetes in years were significantly older and longer in HS (ANOVA, p< 0.0001). There were significantly more patients on insulin (31.2%), anti-hypertensives (80.1%), statins (68.1%) and antiplatelets (51.2%) in HS. Patients at HS had significantly lower means BMI, HbA1c, LDL-C and higher mean HDL-C. A significant larger proportion of type 2 diabetes patients at HS had diabetes-related complications (2-5 times). Compared to the HS, the CS was more likely to achieve HbA1c ≤ 6.5% (adjusted OR 1.2) and BP target < 130/80 mmHg (adjusted OR 1.4), the HNS was 3.4 times more likely not achieving LDL-C target < 2.6 mmol/L. Public hospitals with specialists in Malaysia were treating older male Chinese type 2 diabetes patients with more complications, and prescribed more medications. Patients attending these hospitals achieved better LDL-C target but poorer in attaining BP and lower HbA1c targets as compared to public health clinics with doctors and family physicians.

  5. WHEELSET AXLE WITH THE CAVITY OF UNIFORM CROSS SECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Kolesnykov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Due to operation in complex loading conditions, the rolling stock wheelsets should provide high reliability, since the train traffic safety largely depends on them. Design and technical condition of wheelsets affect the smoothness, intensity of forces generated by the interaction between the car and track, and the motion resistance. Specificity of the axle operation consists in the fact that it undergoes the bending stresses under loading. These stresses are unevenly distributed along the cross-sectional area, reaching the highest values in the outer fibers and the minimal values in the internal ones. This aspect sets the problem of replacement of the uniform cross section with the hollow cross section. The disadvantages of hollow axle design, which are used at the present time, should include a significant manufacturing complexity of the variable section cavity. The purpose is to develop a modernized design of the wheelset axle. Methodology. A construction of the hollow axle having an inner longitudinal cylindrical through hole of the constant diameter throughout its length was proposed. The item is made of steel seamless tube. The inner surface of the tube is treated by mechanical means to remove the voltage concentrations in the internal longitudinal cylindrical through hole, which has a constant diameter along the entire length of the axle. Findings. Application of this design will facilitate manufacturing of the hollow axle and the machining of the inner longitudinal through hole, while retaining all the use advantages of the hollow axle in the rolling stock wheel pairs. Another use advantage of the hollow axle of this design is the absence of partial heterogeneity of the metal, which is inevitably, occurs during the solid axles blanking. Originality. A new design of the wheelset hollow axle of railway rolling stock was proposed. Practical value. Introduction of the new design simplifying the manufacture and mechanical treatment of

  6. Curves and tables of neutron cross sections in JENDL-3.3

    CERN Document Server

    Nakagawa, T; Shibata, K

    2002-01-01

    Neutron cross sections of 337 nuclides in JENDL-3.3 are presented in figures and tables. In the tables, shown are cross sections at 0.0253 eV and 14 MeV, Maxwellian average cross sections (kT = 0.0253 eV), resonance integrals and fission spectrum average cross sections. The average cross sections calculated with typical reactor spectra are also tabulated. The numbers of delayed and total neutrons per fission are given in figures.

  7. Curves and tables of neutron cross sections in JENDL-3.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Shibata, Keiichi (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kawasaki, Hiromitsu [CRC Solutions Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    Neutron cross sections of 337 nuclides in JENDL-3.3 are presented in figures and tables. In the tables, shown are cross sections at 0.0253 eV and 14 MeV, Maxwellian average cross sections (kT = 0.0253 eV), resonance integrals and fission spectrum average cross sections. The average cross sections calculated with typical reactor spectra are also tabulated. The numbers of delayed and total neutrons per fission are given in figures. (author)

  8. Formulation and Analysis of the Quantum Radar Cross Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandsema, Matthew J.

    In radar, the amount of returns that an object sends back to the receiver after being struck by an electromagnetic wave is characterized by what is known as the radar cross section, denoted by sigma typically. There are many mechanisms that affect how much radiation is reflected back in the receiver direction, such as reflectivity, physical contours and dimensions, attenuation properties of the materials, projected cross sectional area and so on. All of these characteristics are lumped together in a single value of sigma, which has units of m2. Stealth aircrafts for example are designed to minimize its radar cross section and return the smallest amount of radiation possible in the receiver direction. A new concept has been introduced called quantum radar, that uses correlated quantum states of photons as well as the unique properties of quantum mechanics to ascertain information on a target at a distance. At the time of writing this dissertation, quantum radar is very much in its infancy. There still exist fundamental questions about the feasibility of its implementation, especially in the microwave spectrum. However, what has been theoretically determined, is that quantum radar has a fundamental advantage over classical radar in terms of resolution and returns in certain regimes. Analogous to the classical radar cross section (CRCS), the concept of the quantum radar cross section (QRCS) has been introduced. This quantity measures how an object looks to a quantum radar be describing how a single photon, or small cluster of photons scatter off of a macroscopic target. Preliminary simulations of the basic quantum radar cross section equation have yielded promising results showing an advantage in sidelobe response in comparison to the classical RCS. This document expands upon this idea by providing insight as to where this advantage originates, as well as developing more rigorous simulation analysis, and greatly expanding upon the theory. The expanded theory presented

  9. Hadronic Production of Ψ(2S) Cross section and Polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Kwangzoo [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2008-05-01

    The hadronic production cross section and the polarization of Ψ(2S) meson are measured by using the data from p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. The datasets used correspond to integrated luminosity of 1.1 fb-1 and 800 pb-1, respectively. The decay Ψ(2S) → μ+μ- is used to reconstruct Ψ(2S) mesons in the rapidity range |y(Ψ(2S))| < 0.6. The coverage of the pT range is 2.0 GeV/c ≤ pT (Ψ(2S)) < 30 GeV/c for the cross section analysis and pT ≥ 5 GeV/c for the polarization analysis. For events with pT (Ψ(2S)) > 2 GeV/c the integrated inclusive cross section multiplied by the branching ratio for dimuon decay is 3.17 ± 0.04 ± 0.28 nb . This result agrees with the CDF Run I measurement considering the increased center-of-mass energy from 1.8 TeV to 1.96 TeV. The polarization of the promptly produced Ψ(2S) mesons is found to be increasingly longitudinal as pT increases from 5 GeV/c to 30 GeV/c. The result is compared to contemporary theory models.

  10. Mass Spectra and Ion Collision Cross Sections of Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yang; Terrier, Peran; Douglas, D. J.

    2011-02-01

    Mass spectra of commercially obtained hemoglobin (Hb) show higher levels of monomer and dimer ions, heme-deficient dimer ions, and apo-monomer ions than hemoglobin freshly prepared from blood. This has previously been attributed to oxidation of commercial Hb. Further, it has been reported that that dimer ions from commercial bovine Hb have lower collision cross sections than low charge state monomer ions. To investigate these effects further, we have recorded mass spectra of fresh human Hb, commercial human and bovine Hb, fresh human Hb oxidized with H2O2, lyophilized fresh human Hb, fresh human Hb both lyophilized and chemically oxidized, and commercial human Hb oxidized with H2O2. Masses of α-monomer ions of all hemoglobins agree with the masses expected from the sequences within 3 Da or better. Mass spectra of the β chains of commercial Hb and oxidized fresh human Hb show a peak or shoulder on the high mass side, consistent with oxidation of the protein. Both commercial proteins and oxidized fresh human Hb produce heme-deficient dimers with masses 32 Da greater than expected and higher levels of monomer and dimer ions than fresh Hb. Lyophilization or oxidation of Hb both produce higher levels of monomer and dimer ions in mass spectra. Fresh human Hb, commercial human Hb, commercial bovine Hb, and oxidized commercial human Hb all give dimer ions with cross sections greater than monomer ions. Thus, neither oxidation of Hb or the difference in sequence between human and bovine Hb make substantial differences to cross sections of ions.

  11. Validation of minor actinides fission neutron cross-sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Milan P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Verification of neutron fission cross-sections of minor actinides from some recently available evaluated nuclear data libraries was carried out by comparison of the reaction rates calculated by the MCNP6.1 computer code to the experimental values. The experimental samples, containing thin layers of 235U, 237Np, 238,239,240,241Pu, 242mAm, 243Cm, 245Cm, and 247Cm, deposited on metal support and foils of 235U (pseudo-alloy 27Al + 235U, 238U, natIn, 64Zn, 27Al, and multi-component sample alloy 27Al + 55Mn + natCu + natLu + 197Au, were irradiated in the channels of the tank containing fluorine salts 0.52NaF + 0.48ZrF4, labelled as the Micromodel Salt Blanket, inserted in the lattice centre of the MAKET heavy water critical assembly at the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow. This paper is a continuation of earlier initiated scientific-research activities carried out for validation of the evaluated fission cross-sections of actinides that were supposed to be used for the quality examination of the fuel design of the accelerator driven systems or fast reactors, and consequently, determination of transmutation rates of actinides, and therefore, determination of operation parameters of these reactor facilities. These scientific-research activities were carried out within a frame of scientific projects supported by the International Science and Technology Center and the International Atomic Energy Agency co-ordinated research activities, from 1999 to 2010. Obtained results confirm that further research is needed in evaluations in order to establish better neutron cross-section data for the minor actinides and selected nuclides which could be used in the accelerator driven systems or fast reactors.

  12. Detailed photonuclear cross-section calculations and astrophysical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, D.G.; Gardner, M.A.; Hoff, R.W.

    1989-06-15

    We have investigated the role of an isomeric state and its coupling to the ground state (g.s.) via photons and neutron inelastic scattering in a stellar environment by making detailed photonuclear and neutron cross-section calculations for /sup 176/Lu and /sup 210/Bi. In the case of /sup 176/Lu, the g.s. would function as an excellent galactic slow- (s-) process chronometer were it not for the 3.7-h isomer at 123 keV. Our calculations predicted much larger photon cross sections for production of the isomer, as well as a lower threshold, than had been assumed based on earlier measurements. These two factors combine to indicate that an enormous correction, a factor of 10/sup 7/, must be applied to shorten the current estimate of the half-life against photoexcitation of /sup 176/Lu as a function of temperature. This severely limits the use of /sup 176/Lu as a stellar chronometer and indicates a significantly lower temperature at which the two states reach thermal equilibrium. For /sup 210/Bi, our preliminary calculations of the production and destruction of the 3 /times/ 10/sup 6/ y isomeric state by neutrons and photons suggest that the /sup 210/Bi isomer may not be destroyed by photons as rapidly as assumed in certain stellar environments. This leads to an alternate production path of /sup 207/Pb and significantly affects presently interpreted lead isotopic abundances. We have been able to make such detailed nuclear cross-section calculations using: modern statistical-model codes of the Hauser-Feshbach type, with complete conservation of angular momentum and parity; reliable systematics of the input parameters required by these codes, including knowledge of the absolute gamma-ray strength-functions for E1, M1, and E2 transitions; and codes developed to compute large, discrete, nuclear level sets, their associated gamma-ray branchings, and the presence and location of isomeric states. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Highlights of top quark cross-section measurements at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Bielski, Rafal; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of inclusive and differential top-quark production cross sections in proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider are presented at a center of mass energy of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The inclusive measurements of top quark pair and single top quark production reach high precision and are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. Differential measurements of the kinematic properties of top quark events are also discussed. These measurements, including results using boosted top quarks, probe our understanding of top quark production in the TeV regime.

  14. Phenomenological dirac optical potential for neutron cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Shin-ichi; Kitsuki, Hirohiko; Shigyo, Nobuhiro; Ishibashi, Kenji [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    Because of limitation on neutron-incident data, it is difficult to obtain global optical model potential for neutrons. In contrast, there are some global optical model potentials for proton in detail. It is interesting to convert the proton-incident global optical potentials into neutron-incident ones. In this study we introduce (N-Z)/A dependent symmetry potential terms into the global proton-incident optical potentials, and then obtain neutron-incident ones. The neutron potentials reproduce total cross sections in an acceptable degree. However, a comparison with potentials proposed by other authors brings about a confused situation in the sign of the symmetry terms. (author)

  15. Estimation of the Human Absorption Cross Section Via Reverberation Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinböck, Gerhard; Pedersen, Troels; Fleury, Bernard Henri

    2018-01-01

    Since the presence of persons affects the reverberation time observed for in-room channels, the absorption cross section of a person can be estimated from measurements via Sabine's and Eyring's models for the reverberation time. We propose an estimator relying on the more accurate model by Eyring...... in the literature. We also suggest the use of controlled environments with low average absorption coefficients to obtain more reliable estimates. The obtained values can be used to predict the change of reverberation time with persons in the propagation environment. This allows prediction of channel characteristics...

  16. Market Skewness Risk and the Cross Section of Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young Chang, Bo; Christoffersen, Peter F.; Jacobs, Kris

    2013-01-01

    The cross section of stock returns has substantial exposure to risk captured by higher moments of market returns. We estimate these moments from daily Standard & Poor's 500 index option data. The resulting time series of factors are genuinely conditional and forward-looking. Stocks with high...... exposure to innovations in implied market skewness exhibit low returns on average. The results are robust to various permutations of the empirical setup. The market skewness risk premium is statistically and economically significant and cannot be explained by other common risk factors such as the market...... excess return or the size, book-to-market, momentum, and market volatility factors, or by firm characteristics....

  17. Shrinkage singularities of amplitudes and weak interaction cross- section asymptotic

    CERN Document Server

    Dolgov, A D; Okun, Lev Borisovich

    1972-01-01

    The so called shrinkage singularities of amplitudes caused by shrinkage of diffraction peak at asymptotically high energies are discussed given the condition that the amplitude singularities are not stronger than t/sup 2/ ln t (as is case for neutrino pair exchange diagrams) then total cross-section sigma /sub tot/ cannot increase faster at s to infinity than s/sup 1/3/. If shrinkage singularities are absent then sigma /sub tot/ cannot increase as any power of s. All the conclusions are valid, if the dispersion relations with finite number of subtractions exist at t

  18. Single-crystalline vanadium dioxide nanowires with rectangular cross sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiton, Beth S; Gu, Qian; Prieto, Amy L; Gudiksen, Mark S; Park, Hongkun

    2005-01-19

    We report the synthesis of single-crystalline VO2 nanowires with rectangular cross sections using a vapor transport method. These nanowires have typical diameters of 60 (+/-30) nm and lengths up to >10 mum. Electron microscopy and diffraction measurements show that the VO2 nanowires are single crystalline and exhibit a monoclinic structure. Moreover, they preferentially grow along the [100] direction and are bounded by the (01) and (011) facets. These VO2 nanowires should provide promising materials for fundamental investigations of nanoscale metal-insulator transitions.

  19. Scattering cross section of metal catalyst atoms in silicon nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Troels; Rurali, R.; Cartoixa, X.

    2010-01-01

    strength of the different metal atoms. We find that Au, Ag, and Cu impurities have very similar scattering cross sections, while Al differs from the rest. Impurities located in the center of the wires scatter significantly more than impurities close to or at the surface. The results for nanowires...... are compared with bulk Si scattering calculations and good agreement is found. This agreement shows that the scattering results for the ultrathin nanowires (which are computationally feasible) are not dominated by finite size or surface effects, and indicate that the results can be extended to larger...

  20. Covariances for the 56Fe radiation damage cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simakov, Stanislav P.; Koning, Arjan; Konobeyev, Alexander Yu.

    2017-09-01

    The energy-energy and reaction-reaction covariance matrices were calculated for the n + 56Fe damage cross-sections by Total Monte Carlo method using the TENDL-2013 random files. They were represented in the ENDF-6 format and added to the unperturbed evaluation file. The uncertainties for the spectrum averaged radiation quantities in the representative fission, fusion and spallation facilities were first time assessed as 5-25%. Additional 5 to 20% have to be added to the atom displacement rate uncertainties to account for accuracy of the primary defects simulation in materials. The reaction-reaction correlation were shown to be 1% or less.

  1. Inelastic proton cross-section at 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Myska, Miroslav; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Poster describes the recent measurement of the inelastic cross-section at 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector, extracted with independent measurements of the rate of inelastic collisions and the LHC luminosity. The result of 79.3 $\\pm$ 2.9 mb has been obtained after extrapolation to the full phase space and is compared with a range of theoretical predictions. In addition, the fraction of diffractive events is measured using two event selections. The low-luminosity data of total integrated luminosity of 60.1 $\\mu b^{-1}$ recorded in June 2016 was used.

  2. Long Memory, Fractional Integration, and Cross-Sectional Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Niels; Vera-Valdés, Eduardo

    under certain conditions and that the aggregated series will have an autocorrelation function that exhibits hyperbolic decay. In this paper, we further analyze this phenomenon. We demonstrate that the aggregation argument leading to long memory is consistent with a wide range of definitions of long...... memory. In a simulation study we seek to quantify Granger's result and find that indeed both the time series and cross-sectional dimensions have to be rather significant to reflect the theoretical asymptotic results. Long memory can result even for moderate T,N dimensions but can vary considerably from...

  3. Fission cross section calculations of actinides with EMPIRE code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sin, M.; Oblozinsky, P.; Herman,M.; Capote,R.

    2010-04-30

    The cross sections of the neutron induced reactions on {sup 233,234,236}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 238,242}Pu, {sup 241,243}Am, {sup 242,246}Cm carried out in the energy range 1 keV-20 MeV with EMPIRE code are presented, emphasizing the fission channel. Beside a consistent, accurate set of evaluations, the paper contains arguments supporting the choice of the reaction models and input parameters. A special attention is paid to the fission parameters and their uncertainties.

  4. Proton radiography, nuclear cross sections and multiple Coulomb scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjue, Sky K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-04

    The principles behind proton radiography including multiple Coulomb scattering are discussed for a purely imaginary square well nucleus in the eikonal approximation. It is found that a very crude model can reproduce the angular dependence of the cross sections measured at 24 GeV/c. The largest differences are ~3% for the 4.56 mrad data, and ~4% for the 6.68 mrad data. The prospect of understanding how to model deterministically high-energy proton radiography over a very large range of energies is promising, but it should be tested more thoroughly.

  5. SCAMPI: A code package for cross-section processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, C.V.; Petrie, L.M.; Bowman, S.M.; Broadhead, B.L.; Greene, N.M.; White, J.E.

    1996-04-01

    The SCAMPI code package consists of a set of SCALE and AMPX modules that have been assembled to facilitate user needs for preparation of problem-specific, multigroup cross-section libraries. The function of each module contained in the SCANTI code package is discussed, along with illustrations of their use in practical analyses. Ideas are presented for future work that can enable one-step processing from a fine-group, problem-independent library to a broad-group, problem-specific library ready for a shielding analysis.

  6. Bibliography of Photon Total Cross Section (Attenuation Coefficient) Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Hubbell, J H

    A bibliography is presented of papers reporting absolute measurements of photon (XUV, x-ray, gamma-ray, bremsstrahlung) total interaction cross sections or attenuation coefficients for the elements and some compounds. The energy range covered is from 10 eV to above 10 GeV. These papers are part of the reference collection of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Photon and Charged Particle Data Center. They cover the period from 1907 through 1995. Included with each reference are annotations specifying the energy range covered and the substances studied. This updated bibliography now includes 580 non-duplicative references to available measured data, plus 42 references to critical evaluatio

  7. Application of backpack Lidar to geological cross-section measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jingyu; Wang, Ran; Xiao, Zhouxuan; Li, Lu; Yao, Weihua; Han, Wei; Zhao, Baolin

    2017-11-01

    As the traditional geological cross section measurement, the artificial traverse method was recently substituted by using point coordinates data. However, it is still the crux of the matter that how to acquire the high-precision point coordinates data quickly and economically. Thereby, the backpack Lidar is presented on the premise of the principle of using point coordinates in this issue. Undoubtedly, Lidar technique, one of booming and international active remote sensing techniques, is a powerful tool in obtaining precise topographic information, high-precision 3-D coordinates and building a real 3-D model. With field practice and date processing indoors, it is essentially accomplished that geological sections maps could be generated simply, accurately and automatically in the support of relevant software such as ArcGIS and LiDAR360.

  8. Pre-Processing of Cross-Sections Using Dimensionality Reduction Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Mandelli; C. Rabiti; A. Alfonsi

    2012-11-01

    Reactor physics codes rely on cross-section data to determine, for example, flux profiles or burn-up calculations. This data contains cross section values for different neutron-atom interactions (e.g., absorption, fission and scattering) for a large number of isotopes as function of energy and it is tabulated for a specific set of parameters (e.g., moderator temperature, fuel temperature, moderator density). In order to perform such neutronic calculations, the amount of this data that needs to be stored is very large due to the high number of isotopes and many tabulation points are needed. This data needs to be retrieved at each time iteration of the code from the machine memory which negatively affects the computational time of the code itself.

  9. First spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon cross section limits from the LUX experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Akerib, D S; Bai, X; Bailey, A J; Balajthy, J; Beltrame, P; Bernard, E P; Bernstein, A; Biesiadzinski, T P; Boulton, E M; Bradley, A; Bramante, R; Cahn, S B; Carmona-Benitez, M C; Chan, C; Chapman, J J; Chiller, A A; Chiller, C; Currie, A; Cutter, J E; Davison, T J R; de Viveiros, L; Dobi, A; Dobson, J E Y; Druszkiewicz, E; Edwards, B N; Faham, C H; Fiorucci, S; Gaitskell, R J; Gehman, V M; Ghag, C; Gibson, K R; Gilchriese, M G D; Hall, C R; Hanhardt, M; Haselschwardt, S J; Hertel, S A; Hogan, D P; Horn, M; Huang, D Q; Ignarra, C M; Ihm, M; Jacobsen, R G; Ji, W; Kazkaz, K; Khaitan, D; Knoche, R; Larsen, N A; Lee, C; Lenardo, B G; Lesko, K T; Lindote, A; Lopes, M I; Malling, D C; Manalaysay, A; Mannino, R L; Marzioni, M F; McKinsey, D N; Mei, D M; Mock, J; Moongweluwan, M; Morad, J A; Murphy, A St J; Nehrkorn, C; Nelson, H N; Neves, F; O'Sullivan, K; Oliver-Mallory, K C; Ott, R A; Palladino, K J; Pangilinan, M; Pease, E K; Phelps, P; Reichhart, L; Rhyne, C; Shaw, S; Shutt, T A; Silva, C; Solovov, V N; Sorensen, P; Stephenson, S; Sumner, T J; Szydagis, M; Taylor, D J; Taylor, W; Tennyson, B P; Terman, P A; Tiedt, D R; To, W H; Tripathi, M; Tvrznikova, L; Uvarov, S; Verbus, J R; Webb, R C; White, J T; Whitis, T J; Witherell, M S; Wolfs, F L H; Yazdani, K; Young, S K; Zhang, C

    2016-01-01

    We present the first experimental constraints on the spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon elastic cross sections from LUX data acquired in 2013. LUX is a dual-phase xenon time projection chamber operating at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (Lead, South Dakota), which is designed to observe the recoil signature of galactic WIMPs scattering from xenon nuclei. A profile likelihood ratio analysis of $1.4~\\times~10^{4}~\\text{kg}\\cdot~\\text{days}$ of fiducial exposure allows 90% CL upper limits to be set on the WIMP-neutron (WIMP-proton) cross section of $\\sigma_n~=~9.4~\\times~10^{-41}~\\text{cm}^2$ ($\\sigma_p~=~2.9~\\times~10^{-39}~\\text{cm}^2$) at 33~GeV/c$^2$. The spin-dependent WIMP-neutron limit is the most sensitive constraint to date for this channel.

  10. Deeply virtual Compton Scattering cross section measured with CLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guegan, Baptistse [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay

    2014-09-01

    The Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) provide a new description of nucleon structure in terms of its elementary constituents, the quarks and the gluons. Including and extending the information provided by the form factors and the parton distribution functions, they describe the correlation between the transverse position and the longitudinal momentum fraction of the partons in the nucleon. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS), the electroproduction of a real photon on a single quark in the nucleon eN --> e'N'g, is the exclusive process most directly interpretable in terms of GPDs. A dedicated experiment to study DVCS with the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab has been carried out using a 5.9-GeV polarized electron beam and an unpolarized hydrogen target, allowing us to collect DVCS events in the widest kinematic range ever explored in the valence region : 1.0 < Q2 < 4.6 GeV2, 0.1 < xB < 0.58 and 0.09 < -t < 2.0 GeV2. In this paper, we show preliminary results of unpolarized cross sections and of polarized cross section differences for the DVCS channel.

  11. Rosenbluth separation of the $\\pi^0$ electroproduction cross section

    CERN Document Server

    Defurne, M; Albataineh, H; Allada, K; Aniol, K A; Bellini, V; Benali, M; Boeglin, W; Bertin, P; Brossard, M; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Chandavar, S; Chen, C; Chen, J -P; de Jager, C W; de Leo, R; Desnault, C; Deur, A; Fassi, L El; Ent, R; Flay, D; Friend, M; Fuchey, E; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gaskell, D; Giusa, A; Glamazdin, O; Golge, S; Gomez, J; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D; Holmstrom, T; Horn, T; Huang, J; Huang, M; Hyde, C E; Iqbal, S; Itard, F; Kang, H; Kelleher, A; Keppel, C; Koirala, S; Korover, I; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R; Long, E; Magne, M; Mammei, J; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Jimenez-Arguello, A Marti; Meddi, F; Meekins, D; Michaels, R; Mihovilovic, M; Camacho, C Munoz; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nuruzzaman, N; Paremuzyan, R; Puckett, A; Punjabi, V; Qiang, Y; Rakhman, A; Rashad, M N H; Riordan, S; Roche, J; Russo, G; Sabati, F; Saenboonruang, K; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Selvy, L; Shahinyan, A; Sirca, S; Solvignon, P; Sperduto, M L; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Sutera, C; Tobias, W A; Urciuoli, G M; Wang, D; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yao, H; Ye, Z; Zafar, A; Zhan, X; Zhang, J; Zhao, B; Zhao, Z; Zheng, X; Zhu, P

    2016-01-01

    We present deeply virtual $\\pi^0$ electroproduction cross-section measurements at $x_B$=0.36 and three different $Q^2$--values ranging from 1.5 to 2 GeV$^2$, obtained from experiment E07-007 that ran in the Hall A at Jefferson Lab. The Rosenbluth technique was used to separate the longitudinal and transverse responses. Results demonstrate that the cross section is dominated by its transverse component, and thus is far from the asymptotic limit predicted by perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics. An indication of a non-zero longitudinal contribution is provided by the interference term $\\sigma_{LT}$ also measured. Results are compared with several models based on the leading twist approach of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs). In particular, a fair agreement is obtained with models where the scattering amplitude is described by a convolution of chiral-odd (transversity) GPDs of the nucleon with the twist-3 pion distribution amplitude. Therefore, neutral pion electroproduction may offer the exciting possibil...

  12. Rosenbluth Separation of the π^{0} Electroproduction Cross Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defurne, M; Mazouz, M; Ahmed, Z; Albataineh, H; Allada, K; Aniol, K A; Bellini, V; Benali, M; Boeglin, W; Bertin, P; Brossard, M; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Chandavar, S; Chen, C; Chen, J-P; de Jager, C W; de Leo, R; Desnault, C; Deur, A; El Fassi, L; Ent, R; Flay, D; Friend, M; Fuchey, E; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gaskell, D; Giusa, A; Glamazdin, O; Golge, S; Gomez, J; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D; Holmstrom, T; Horn, T; Huang, J; Huang, M; Huber, G M; Hyde, C E; Iqbal, S; Itard, F; Kang, Ho; Kang, Hy; Kelleher, A; Keppel, C; Koirala, S; Korover, I; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R; Long, E; Magne, M; Mammei, J; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Martí Jiménez-Argüello, A; Meddi, F; Meekins, D; Michaels, R; Mihovilovic, M; Muangma, N; Muñoz Camacho, C; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nuruzzaman, N; Paremuzyan, R; Puckett, A; Punjabi, V; Qiang, Y; Rakhman, A; Rashad, M N H; Riordan, S; Roche, J; Russo, G; Sabatié, F; Saenboonruang, K; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Selvy, L; Shahinyan, A; Sirca, S; Solvignon, P; Sperduto, M L; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Sutera, C; Tobias, W A; Urciuoli, G M; Wang, D; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yao, H; Ye, Z; Zana, L; Zhan, X; Zhang, J; Zhao, B; Zhao, Z; Zheng, X; Zhu, P

    2016-12-23

    We present deeply virtual π^{0} electroproduction cross-section measurements at x_{B}=0.36 and three different Q^{2} values ranging from 1.5 to 2  GeV^{2}, obtained from Jefferson Lab Hall A experiment E07-007. The Rosenbluth technique is used to separate the longitudinal and transverse responses. Results demonstrate that the cross section is dominated by its transverse component and, thus, is far from the asymptotic limit predicted by perturbative quantum chromodynamics. Nonetheless, an indication of a nonzero longitudinal contribution is provided by the measured interference term σ_{LT}. Results are compared with several models based on the leading-twist approach of generalized parton distributions (GPDs). In particular, a fair agreement is obtained with models in which the scattering amplitude includes convolution terms of chiral-odd (transversity) GPDs of the nucleon with the twist-3 pion distribution amplitude. This experiment, together with previous extensive unseparated measurements, provides strong support to the exciting idea that transversity GPDs can be accessed via neutral pion electroproduction in the high-Q^{2} regime.

  13. Production cross sections of proton-induced reactions on yttrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Sung-Chul; Song, Tae-Yung; Lee, Young-Ouk [Nuclear Data Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Guinyun, E-mail: gnkim@knu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-01

    The production cross sections of residual radionuclides such as {sup 86,88,89g}Zr, {sup 86g,87m,87g,88}Y, {sup 83g,85g}Sr, and {sup 83,84g}Rb in the {sup 89}Y(p,x) reaction were measured using a stacked-foil activation and offline γ-ray spectrometric technique with proton energies of 57 MeV and 69 MeV at the 100 MeV proton linac in the Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC), Gyeongju, Korea. The induced activities of the activated samples were measured using a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector, and the proton flux was determined using the {sup nat}Cu(p,x){sup 62}Zn reaction. The measured data was compared with other experimental data and the data from the TENLD-2015 library based on the TALYS code. The present results are generally lower than those in literature, but are found to be in agreement with the shape of the excitation functions. The integral yields for the thick target using the measured cross sections are given.

  14. Momentum transfer cross sections for the heavy noble gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, A. D.; McEachran, R. P.

    2012-10-01

    We have used our relativistic optical potential method [1] to calculate the momentum transfer cross sections for Ar, Kr and Xe from threshold to 1000 eV. The target ground state as well as the open excited and ionization channels used in the optical potential have been calculated using the MCDF program [2]. We have included 17 excitation channels for Ar, 26 for Kr and 15 for Xe. In the ionization channels, ionization of the outer p, s and d shells were included for Kr and Xe while for Ar all electrons were allowed to be ionized. Comparisons with previous calculations and experimental measurements will be included. We also include analytic fits to our cross sections to aid in plasma modelling studies. [4pt] [1] S. Chen, R. P. McEachran and A. D. Stauffer, J. Phys. B 41 025201 (2008) [0pt] [2] I. P. Grant, B. J. McKenzie, P. H. Norrington, D. F. Mayers and N. C. Pyper, Comput. Phys. Commun. 21 207 (1980)

  15. Cross Sectional Attitudes of Public Sculpture Matrix in Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Akintunde Akintonde

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Public outdoor sculpture practice in the Southwestern Nigeria entails different types of attitudes. These attitudes are discernable from the stage of commissioning of work, its conceptualization to the display and uses in the public sphere generated diverse fundamental, constant technical issues. Some are explicitly alluring while others are absurd, fleeting and injurious to the practice. However, whatever attitude advanced in the public outdoor sculpture practice, it has not been discussed cross sectionally. The inadequate scholarship attention on the attitudinal issues in outdoor sculpture certainly created art historical gap apt to make the study of contemporary Nigeria art incoherent. Apparently, attitudinal studies certainly involve psychological measurement - a type of instrument that does not required descriptive survey. For this reason, the study was based on qualitative methods. The study categorised various attitudes in outdoor sculpture practice in the studied area into pre-unveiling, unveiling and post unveiling stages and critically examined them. Some attitudes in the practice of the art were observed to be stimulant for advancement; invariably others are clearly incongruous to the spirit of typical Yoruba societal value orientation in orderliness, therefore degrading and detrimental to the development of the outdoor sculpture in the public sphere.Keywords: Art patron; cross sectional attitude; outdoor sculpture; post-unveiling; pre-unveiling; public art; Southwestern Nigeria; unveiling.

  16. Neutron cross section standards and instrumentation. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasson, O.A.

    1993-07-01

    The objective of this interagency program is to provide accurate neutron interaction measurements for the US Department of Energy nuclear programs which include waste disposal, fusion, safeguards, defense, fission, and personnel protection. These measurements are also useful to other energy programs which indirectly use the unique properties of the neutron for diagnostic and analytical purposes. The work includes the measurement of reference cross sections and related neutron data employing unique facilities and capabilities at NIST and other laboratories as required; leadership and participation in international intercomparisons and collaborations; the preservation of standard reference deposits and the development of improved neutron detectors and measurement methods. A related and essential element of the program is critical evaluation of neutron interaction data including international coordinations. Data testing of critical data for important applications is included. The program is jointly supported by the Department of Energy and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. This report from the National Institute of Standards and Technology contains a summary of the accomplishments of the Neutron Cross Section Standards and Instrumentation Project during the third year of this three-year interagency agreement. The proposed program and required budget for the following three years are also presented. The program continues the shifts in priority instituted in order to broaden the program base.

  17. CROSS SECTION EVALUATIONS FOR ENDF/B-VII.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HERMAN, M.; ROCHMAN, D.; OBLOZINSKY, P.

    2006-06-05

    This is the final report of the work performed under the LANL contract on neutron cross section evaluations for ENDF/B-VII (April 2005-May 2006). The purpose of the contract was to ensure seamless integration of the LANL neutron cross section evaluations in the new ENDF/B-VII library. The following work was performed: (1) LANL evaluated data files submitted for inclusion in ENDF/B-VII were checked and, when necessary, formal formatting errors were corrected. As a consequence, ENDF checking codes, run on all LANL files, do not report any errors that would rise concern. (2) LANL dosimetry evaluations for {sup 191}Ir and {sup 193}Ir were completed to match ENDF requirements for the general purpose library suitable for transport calculations. A set of covariances for both isotopes is included in the ENDF files. (3) Library of fission products was assembled and successfully tested with ENDF checking codes, processed with NJOY-99.125 and simple MCNP calculations. (4) KALMAN code has been integrated with the EMPIRE system to allow estimation of covariances based on the combination of measurements and model calculations. Covariances were produced for 155,157-Gd and also for 6 remaining isotopes of Gd.

  18. Neutrino-nucleon cross section measurements in NOMAD

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Qun

    2006-01-01

    The NOMAD (Neutrino Oscillation MAgnetic Detector) experiment, using the SPS (Super Proton Syncrotron) neutrino beam (1 GeV < E [nu] < 200 GeV) at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research), has collected more than 1.7 million neutrino induced charged and neutral current (CC and NC) events. This data is the largest high resolution neutrino nucleon scattering data to date and is ideal for precision measurements and searches in neutrino-physics. This thesis presents the precise measurement of the inclusive neutrino CC cross section in 2.5 GeV < E [nu] < 150 GeV region. The linear dependence of the inclusive CC cross section ([Special characters omitted.] ) versus the incoming neutrino energy ( E [nu] ) is observed in the high energy region of 30 GeV < E [nu] < 150 GeV. Especially, the measurement in 2.5 GeV < E [nu] < 30 GeV region provides the first precise determination of [Special characters omitted.] . The significant deviation from the linear dependence for [Special character...

  19. Photodetachment cross-section evaluation using asymptotic considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babilotte, Philippe; Vandevraye, Mickael

    2017-06-01

    Mathematical calculations are given concerning the evaluation of the negative ions photodetachment cross-section σ , into a so-called saturation regime. The interaction between a negative ion particle beam and a laser beam is examined under theoretical aspects. A quantitative criterion S is proposed to define the saturation threshold between the linear and the saturated domains, which are both present in this saturation regime. The asymptotic behaviours extracted at the low and high energy limits are used to determine this threshold quantitative criterion S and to evaluate also the photodetachment cross-section σ . The case of a symmetric gaussian photodetachment laser beam shape is examined according to the proposed formalism, which can be used either for the photo-detachment or photo-ionization processes, and could be potentially used into technological solutions for negative ion neutralisation processes (such as neutral beam injector) in the future fusion energy devices. Estimations onto the errors related to the use of this methodology are given.

  20. Production cross sections of proton-induced reactions on yttrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sung-Chul; Song, Tae-Yung; Lee, Young-Ouk; Kim, Guinyun

    2017-05-01

    The production cross sections of residual radionuclides such as 86,88,89gZr, 86g,87m,87g,88Y, 83g,85gSr, and 83,84gRb in the 89Y(p,x) reaction were measured using a stacked-foil activation and offline γ-ray spectrometric technique with proton energies of 57 MeV and 69 MeV at the 100 MeV proton linac in the Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC), Gyeongju, Korea. The induced activities of the activated samples were measured using a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector, and the proton flux was determined using the natCu(p,x)62Zn reaction. The measured data was compared with other experimental data and the data from the TENLD-2015 library based on the TALYS code. The present results are generally lower than those in literature, but are found to be in agreement with the shape of the excitation functions. The integral yields for the thick target using the measured cross sections are given.

  1. WW cross section and branching fraction measurements at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Malgeri, L

    1999-01-01

    In two years of running at energies above WW production threshold, LEP-II provided each experiment an integrated luminosity of ~80 pb /sup -1/ until the end of 1997. The amount of collected events, ~1000 /experiment, allows to measure with high precision the total e/sup + /e/sup -/ to WW cross section: sigma /sub WW/( square root s=182.7 Ge V)=15.89+or-0.40 pb and the W-boson decay branching fractions: BR(W to qq)=68.79+or-0.77% and BR(W to l nu /sub l/)=10.40+or-0.26%, both in good agreement with Standard Model expectations. The W decay branching fractions and the total WW cross section are also used to extract a value for the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Mas kawa matrix element V /sub cs/ and to put stringent limits on the invisible W width, Gamma /sub W//sup in upsilon /. A preliminary and incomplete look at the first data of this year, which is foreseen to increase the available statistics by four times, is also herein presented. (14 refs).

  2. Absolute experimental cross sections for the electron impact ionization of rubidium. Technical summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, D.W.; Feeney, R.K.

    1980-03-31

    The absolute cross sections for the double, triple, and quadruple ionization of Rb/sup +/ ions by electron impact have been measured from below their respective thresholds to approximately 3000 eV. This determination has been accomplished using a crossed beam facility in which monoenergetic beams of ions and electrons are caused to intersect at right angles in a well-defined collision volume. Multiply charged, product ions born as a result of the electron impact are deflected into their respective detectors by cascaded electrostatic analyzers. The multiply charged beam current component is measured by means of a vibrating reed electrometer operating in the rate-of-charge mode. The required singly charged rubidium ions are produced in a thermionic ion source and pass through a series of focusing, collimating and deflecting structures before entering the interaction region. A thermionically generated, rectangular electron beam intercepts the target ions in a spatially designated collision volume. Just prior to entering this interaction region the two beams can be made to pass through a movable slit scanner which determines their spatial profiles. The various charged particle currents, energies and beam current density distributions represent the experimental data from which the desired absolute cross sections have been determined. The results obtained with this technique are compared with available theoretical predictions of the appropriate cross sections.

  3. Curves and tables of neutron cross sections of fission product nuclei in JENDL-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo [ed.

    1992-06-15

    Neutron cross sections of 172 nuclei in the fission product region stored in JENDL-3 are shown in graphs and tables. The evaluation work of these nuclei was made by the Fission Product Nuclear Data Working Group of the Japanese Nuclear Data Committee, in the neutron energy region from 10{sup {minus}5} eV to 20 MeV. Almost of the cross section data reproduced in graphs in this report. The cross section averaged over 38 energy intervals are listed in a table. Shown in order tables are thermal cross sections, resonance integrals, Maxwellian neutron flux average cross sections, fission spectrum average cross sections, 14-MeV cross sections, one group average cross sections in neutron flux of typical types of fission reactors and average cross sections in the 30-keV Maxwellian spectrum.

  4. Estimating Reaction Cross Sections from Measured (Gamma)-Ray Yields: The 238U(n,2n) and 239Pu(n,2n) Cross Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, W

    2002-11-18

    A procedure is presented to deduce the reaction-channel cross section from measured partial {gamma}-ray cross sections. In its simplest form, the procedure consists in adding complementary measured and calculated contributions to produce the channel cross section. A matrix formalism is introduced to provide a rigorous framework for this approach. The formalism is illustrated using a fictitious product nucleus with a simple level scheme, and a general algorithm is presented to process any level scheme. In order to circumvent the cumbersome algebra that can arise in the matrix formalism, a more intuitive graphical procedure is introduced to obtain the same reaction cross-section estimate. The features and limitations of the method are discussed, and the technique is applied to extract the {sup 235}U (n,2n) and {sup 239}Pu(n,2n) cross sections from experimental partial {gamma}-ray cross sections, coupled with (enhanced) Hauser-Feshbach calculations.

  5. MicroBooNE and its Cross Section Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Yun-Tse [SLAC

    2017-05-22

    MicroBooNE (the Micro Booster Neutrino Experiment) is a short-baseline neutrino experiment based on the technology of a liquid-argon time-projection chamber (LArTPC), and has recently completed its first year of data-taking in the Fermilab Booster Neutrino Beam. It aims to address the anomalous excess of events with an electromagnetic final state in MiniBooNE, to measure neutrino-argon interaction cross sections, and to provide relevant R\\&D for the future LArTPC experiments, such as DUNE. In these proceedings, we present the first reconstructed energy spectrum of Michel electrons from cosmic muon decays, the first kinematic distributions of the candidate muon tracks from $\

  6. Optimising neutron polarisers--measuring a single cross-section

    CERN Document Server

    Goossens, D J

    2002-01-01

    This article is part of a series of works exploring the optimisation of neutron polarisation analysis measurements. It deals with measurements of individual spin flip and non-spin flip neutron scattering cross-sections. An instrumental quality factor is presented. The optimum effective thickness for gaseous spin polarised sup 3 He transmission filters is derived and presented. Cu sub 2 MnAl Heusler alloy polarising monochromators and supermirror devices are considered using the quality factor. Absolute comparisons are made between these different types of polarisers. The effect of instrumental background is calculated for a wide range of experimental situations. Even very small backgrounds can have a very large effect on the quality of measurements achievable indicating that great attention must be paid to background reduction on polarisation analysis instruments.

  7. Unexpected behaviour of cross sections of high energy protons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dremin I.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nobody expected that protons will try to keep their entity in their collisions at higher and higher energies. However, the comparison of experimental results on proton-proton interactions from ISR to LHC energies clearly shows this tendency with a definitely increasing share of the elasic scattering cross section. This unexpected behaviour immediately leads to the unexpected corollary about the shape of the spatial interaction region of the two protons. The unquestionable principle of unitarity combined with available experimental data on elastic scattering is used to get new conclusions about this shape. Its evolution at present energies from the ISR to the LHC and predictions about its behaviour at ever higher energies are considered. The shape can transform rather drastically if the share of elastic processes keeps rising. The possible origin of the effect and its interrelation to the strong interaction dynamics are speculated. Cosmic ray studies can help in clarifying this behaviour.

  8. Development of radar cross section analysis system of naval ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kookhyun Kim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A software system for a complex object scattering analysis, named SYSCOS, has been developed for a systematic radar cross section (RCS analysis and reduction design. The system is based on the high frequency analysis methods of physical optics, geometrical optics, and physical theory of diffraction, which are suitable for RCS analysis of electromagnetically large and complex targets as like naval ships. In addition, a direct scattering center analysis function has been included, which gives relatively simple and intuitive way to discriminate problem areas in design stage when comparing with conventional image-based approaches. In this paper, the theoretical background and the organization of the SYSCOS system are presented. To verify its accuracy and to demonstrate its applicability, numerical analyses for a square plate, a sphere and a cylinder, a weapon system and a virtual naval ship have been carried out, of which results have been compared with analytic solutions and those obtained by the other existing software.

  9. Model microswimmers in channels with varying cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malgaretti, Paolo; Stark, Holger

    2017-05-01

    We study different types of microswimmers moving in channels with varying cross section and thereby interacting hydrodynamically with the channel walls. Starting from the Smoluchowski equation for a dilute suspension, for which interactions among swimmers can be neglected, we derive analytic expressions for the lateral probability distribution between plane channel walls. For weakly corrugated channels, we extend the Fick-Jacobs approach to microswimmers and thereby derive an effective equation for the probability distribution along the channel axis. Two regimes arise dominated either by entropic forces due to the geometrical confinement or by the active motion. In particular, our results show that the accumulation of microswimmers at channel walls is sensitive to both the underlying swimming mechanism and the geometry of the channels. Finally, for asymmetric channel corrugation, our model predicts a rectification of microswimmers along the channel, the strength and direction of which strongly depends on the swimmer type.

  10. Measurement of Dijet Cross Sections in Photoproduction at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Andrieu, B.; Anthonis, T.; Arkadov, V.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Becker, J.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Berger, C.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Bohme, J.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruckner, W.; Bruncko, D.; Burger, J.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Clarke, D.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Droutskoi, A.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Franke, G.; Frising, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Grab, C.; Grabski, V.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Haynes, W.J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C .; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, C.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kermiche, S.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Kjellberg, P.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Krehbiel, H.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, K.; Kuhr, T.; Kurca, T.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebailly, E.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loginov, A.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Mahlke-Kruger, H.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Malinovski, I.; Mangano, S.; Maracek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mkrtchyan, T.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, T.; Nellen, G.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Radel, G.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Reyna, D.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Schatzel, S.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Chekelian, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Swart, M.; Tchetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tobien, N.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vassiliev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Vichnevski, A.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Wallny, R.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; White, G.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Woehrling, E.E.; Wunsch, E.; Wyatt, A.C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; zur Nedden, M.

    2002-01-01

    Dijet cross sections as functions of several jet observables are measured in photoproduction using the H1 detector at HERA. The data sample comprises e^+p data with an integrated luminosity of 34.9 pb^(-1). Jets are selected using the inclusive k_T algorithm with a minimum transverse energy of 25 GeV for the leading jet. The phase space covers longitudinal proton momentum fraction x_p and photon longitudinal momentum fraction x_gamma in the ranges 0.05

  11. Quantum computation of the electromagnetic cross section of dielectric targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzagorta, Marco; Uhlmann, Jeffrey; Jitrik, Oliverio; Venegas-Andraca, Salvador E.; Wiesman, Seth

    2016-05-01

    The Radar Cross Section (RCS) is a crucial element for assessing target visibility and target characterization, and it depends not only on the target's geometry but also on its composition. However, the calculation of the RCS is a challenging task due to the mathematical description of electromagnetic phenomena as well as the computational resources needed. In this paper, we will introduce two ideas for the use of quantum information processing techniques to calculate the RCS of dielectric targets. The first is to use toolboxes of quantum functions to determine the geometric component of the RCS. The second idea is to use quantum walks, expressed in terms of scattering processes, to model radar absorbing materials.

  12. AFCI-2.0 Neutron Cross Section Covariance Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, M.; Herman, M; Oblozinsky, P.; Mattoon, C.M.; Pigni, M.; Hoblit, S.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Sonzogni, A.; Talou, P.; Chadwick, M.B.; Hale, G.M.; Kahler, A.C.; Kawano, T.; Little, R.C.; Yount, P.G.

    2011-03-01

    The cross section covariance library has been under development by BNL-LANL collaborative effort over the last three years. The project builds on two covariance libraries developed earlier, with considerable input from BNL and LANL. In 2006, international effort under WPEC Subgroup 26 produced BOLNA covariance library by putting together data, often preliminary, from various sources for most important materials for nuclear reactor technology. This was followed in 2007 by collaborative effort of four US national laboratories to produce covariances, often of modest quality - hence the name low-fidelity, for virtually complete set of materials included in ENDF/B-VII.0. The present project is focusing on covariances of 4-5 major reaction channels for 110 materials of importance for power reactors. The work started under Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) in 2008, which changed to Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) in 2009. With the 2011 release the name has changed to the Covariance Multigroup Matrix for Advanced Reactor Applications (COMMARA) version 2.0. The primary purpose of the library is to provide covariances for AFCI data adjustment project, which is focusing on the needs of fast advanced burner reactors. Responsibility of BNL was defined as developing covariances for structural materials and fission products, management of the library and coordination of the work; LANL responsibility was defined as covariances for light nuclei and actinides. The COMMARA-2.0 covariance library has been developed by BNL-LANL collaboration for Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative applications over the period of three years, 2008-2010. It contains covariances for 110 materials relevant to fast reactor R&D. The library is to be used together with the ENDF/B-VII.0 central values of the latest official release of US files of evaluated neutron cross sections. COMMARA-2.0 library contains neutron cross section covariances for 12 light nuclei (coolants and moderators), 78 structural

  13. Scattering cross section of unequal length dipole arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a detailed and systematic analytical treatment of scattering by an arbitrary dipole array configuration with unequal-length dipoles, different inter-element spacing and load impedance. It provides a physical interpretation of the scattering phenomena within the phased array system. The antenna radar cross section (RCS) depends on the field scattered by the antenna towards the receiver. It has two components, viz. structural RCS and antenna mode RCS. The latter component dominates the former, especially if the antenna is mounted on a low observable platform. The reduction in the scattering due to the presence of antennas on the surface is one of the concerns towards stealth technology. In order to achieve this objective, a detailed and accurate analysis of antenna mode scattering is required. In practical phased array, one cannot ignore the finite dimensions of antenna elements, coupling effect and the role of feed network while estimating the antenna RCS. This book presents the RCS estimati...

  14. The stellar neutron capture cross section of 60Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reifarth, Rene; Heil, Michael [GSI, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Schumann, Dorothea [PSI, 5313 Villigen (Switzerland); Dillmann, Iris; Domingo-Pardo, Cesar; Kaeppeler, Franz; Maganiec, Justyna; Voss, Fritz; Walter, Stefan [FZK, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Uberseder, Ethan; Goerres, Joachim; Wiescher, Michael [University of Notre Dame, Physics Department, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    60Fe is one of the most interesting radioisotopes found on earth. With an halflife of 1.5 Myr it is sensitive to the younger history of the universe (seen as 60Co decays) and the earth (seen as 60Fe in deep see manganese crusts), but contains basically no pre-solar information. In order to use the observational information in a quantitative manner, production and destruction mechanisms of 60Fe have to be understood. Therefore we measured the neutron capture cross section of 60Fe in the astrophysically interesting energy region applying the activation technique at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK). The sample material of 1.1{sup *}10{sup **}16 atoms has been retrieved from a cupper beam stop, which has been irradiated with protons at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI).

  15. AFCI-2.0 Library of Neutron Cross Section Covariances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, M.; Herman,M.; Oblozinsky,P.; Mattoon,C.; Pigni,M.; Hoblit,S.; Mughabghab,S.F.; Sonzogni,A.; Talou,P.; Chadwick,M.B.; Hale.G.M.; Kahler,A.C.; Kawano,T.; Little,R.C.; Young,P.G.

    2011-06-26

    Neutron cross section covariance library has been under development by BNL-LANL collaborative effort over the last three years. The primary purpose of the library is to provide covariances for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) data adjustment project, which is focusing on the needs of fast advanced burner reactors. The covariances refer to central values given in the 2006 release of the U.S. neutron evaluated library ENDF/B-VII. The preliminary version (AFCI-2.0beta) has been completed in October 2010 and made available to the users for comments. In the final 2.0 release, covariances for a few materials were updated, in particular new LANL evaluations for {sup 238,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am were adopted. BNL was responsible for covariances for structural materials and fission products, management of the library and coordination of the work, while LANL was in charge of covariances for light nuclei and for actinides.

  16. Requirements engineering for cross-sectional information chain models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, U; Cruel, E; Gök, M; Garthaus, M; Zimansky, M; Remmers, H; Rienhoff, O

    2012-01-01

    Despite the wealth of literature on requirements engineering, little is known about engineering very generic, innovative and emerging requirements, such as those for cross-sectional information chains. The IKM health project aims at building information chain reference models for the care of patients with chronic wounds, cancer-related pain and back pain. Our question therefore was how to appropriately capture information and process requirements that are both generally applicable and practically useful. To this end, we started with recommendations from clinical guidelines and put them up for discussion in Delphi surveys and expert interviews. Despite the heterogeneity we encountered in all three methods, it was possible to obtain requirements suitable for building reference models. We evaluated three modelling languages and then chose to write the models in UML (class and activity diagrams). On the basis of the current project results, the pros and cons of our approach are discussed.

  17. Parton distribution functions and benchmark cross sections at NNLO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekhin, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP), Protvino (Russian Federation); Bluemlein, J.; Moch, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    We present a determination of parton distribution functions (ABM11) and the strong coupling constant {alpha}{sub s} at next-to-leading order and next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in QCD based on world data for deep-inelastic scattering and fixed-target data for the Drell-Yan process. The analysis is performed in the fixed-flavor number scheme for n{sub f}=3,4,5 and uses the MS-scheme for {alpha}{sub s} and the heavy-quark masses. At NNLO we obtain the value {alpha}{sub s}(MZ)=0.1134{+-}0.0011. The fit results are used to compute benchmark cross sections at hadron colliders to NNLO accuracy and to compare to data from the LHC. (orig.)

  18. Interpreting sediment transport data with channel cross section analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Hunt, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Suspended sediment load estimation is important for the management of stream environments. However suspended load data are uncommon and scalable models are needed to take maximum advantage of the measurements available. One of the most commonly used models for correlating suspended sediment load is an empirical power law relationship (Qs=aQ^b, Qs: suspended load, Q: flow rate). However, the relationship of log-scaled suspended load to flow rate has multiple exponents for different flow regimes at a given site, so a single power law relationship is not a good fit. Thus we are exploring an alternative approach that employs channel cross section data historically collected by the US Geological Survey during stream gauge calibration. For our research, daily flow and sediment discharge were selected from about 180 possible USGS gauging sites in California. Among those, about 20 sites were relatively unaffected by human activities, and had more than three years of data including near monthly measurements of channel cross section data. From our analysis, a slope break was consistently observed in the relationship of log-scaled suspended load to flow rate as illustrated in Figure 1 for Redwood Creek at Orick, CA. Most of the selected natural sites clearly show this slope break. The slope break corresponds to a transition of flow from a flat, wide stream to flow constrained by steep banks as verified in Figure 2 for the same site. This suggests that physical factors in the streams such as shear stress are affected by this channel morphological change and result in the greater exponent of sediment load during higher flow regime. Figure1. Daily values of measured sediment transport and flow rate reported by USGS between 1970 and 2001. Figure2. Near monthly values of measured mean water depth and width reported by USGS between 1969 and 1987.

  19. Cross-sectional measurement of grain boundary segregation using WDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christien, F., E-mail: frederic.christien@emse.fr [Laboratoire Georges Friedel, CNRS, Ecole des Mines de Saint-Etienne, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint-Etienne (France); Risch, P. [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), CNRS, Université de Nantes, Rue Christian Pauc, 44306 Nantes (France)

    2016-11-15

    A new method is proposed for the quantification of grain boundary segregation using Wavelength Dispersive Spectroscopy (WDS) in a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Analyses are undertaken on a simple metallographically polished section of material. The method is demonstrated for the model system of sulphur segregation to nickel grain boundaries. Quantification was carried out from sulphur concentration profiles acquired across 11 grain boundaries of a nickel specimen containing 5.4 wt ppm of sulphur in the bulk and equilibrated at 550 °C. The average sulphur grain boundary concentration determined is µ=35.2 ng cm{sup −2}=6.6×10{sup 14} atoms cm{sup −2}≈0.5 monolayer, which is in good agreement with a previous quantification obtained from SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) on the same material. However this is lower by a factor of two than the quantification obtained using “surface” techniques on fractured specimens of the same material. With the conditions of analysis used in this study, the limit of detection of the method developed is found to be better than 10% of a sulphur monolayer. - Highlights: • Impurity grain boundary segregation can be measured using WDS in a SEM. • The method proposed is quantitative. • The specimen preparation is simple: metallographical section.

  20. A new automated method for the determination of cross-section limits in ephemeral gullies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Carlos; Ángel Campo-Bescós, Miguel; Casalí, Javier; Giménez, Rafael

    2017-04-01

    The assessment of gully erosion relies on the estimation of the soil volume enclosed by cross sections limits. Both 3D and 2D methods require the application of a methodology for the determination of the cross-section limits what has been traditionally carried out in two ways: a) by visual inspection of the cross-section by a certain expert operator; b) by the automated identification of thresholds for different geometrical variables such as elevation, slope or plan curvature obtained from the cross-section profile. However, for these last methods, typically, the thresholds are not of general application because they depend on absolute values valid only for the local gully conditions where they were derived. In this communication we evaluate an automated method for cross-section delimitation of ephemeral gullies and compare its performance with the visual assessment provided by five scientists experienced in gully erosion assessment, defining gully width, depth and area for a total of 60 ephemeral gullies cross-sections obtained from field surveys conducted on agricultural plots in Navarra (Spain). The automated method only depends on the calculation of a simple geometrical measurement, which is the bank trapezoid area for every point of each gully bank. This rectangle trapezoid (right-angled trapezoid) is defined by the elevation of a given point, the minimum elevation and the extremes of the cross-section. The gully limit for each bank is determined by the point in the bank with the maximum trapezoid area. The comparison of the estimates among the different expert operators showed large variation coefficients (up to 70%) in a number of cross-sections, larger for cross sections width and area and smaller for cross sections depth. The automated method produced comparable results to those obtained by the experts and was the procedure with the highest average correlation with the rest of the methods for the three dimensional parameters. The errors of the automated

  1. Parenting Stress and Dimensions of Parenting Behavior : Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Links with Adolescents' Somatization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rousseau, Sofie; Grietens, Hans; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Hoppenbrouwers, Karel; Wiersema, Jan Roelf; Van Leeuwen, Karla

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study explored direct and indirect associations between adolescents' somatization, parenting stress, and three parenting dimensions (warmth, psychological control, and harsh punishment). First, the associations were explored cross-sectionally. Second, significant cross-sectional

  2. Palliative therapy in adults with cancer: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelita Visentin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To characterize the socioeconomic and clinical profile of adult cancer patients in palliative therapy. Method: Cross-sectional study in an oncology hospital in Paraná, with 124 adult patients who started palliative therapy in the period from Jan. 2 to June 30, 2015. Results: Of the participating population, 60.5% were women, 68.5% white, 48.4% married, 72.6% catholic and with income of one to two minimum wages. Non-smokers, 45.2%, non-alcoholics 75%, and 92% had Performance Status 1 and 2. The predominant primary diagnosis was breast cancer, with previous chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The sites of metastasis were lung/mediastinum/bronchi and lymph nodes. Conclusion: The socioeconomic and clinical context characterized the profile of adult patients in palliative therapy. The demand arising from the increase in cases of advanced cancer requires nursing care at all stages of treatment.

  3. A compact fast-neutron producing target for high resolution cross section measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flaska, M.

    2006-01-01

    A proper knowledge of neutron cross sections is very important for the operation safety of various nuclear facilities. Reducing uncertainties in the neutron cross sections can lead to an enhanced safety of present and future nuclear power systems. Accurate neutron cross sections also play a relevant

  4. From cutting-edge pointwise cross-section to groupwise reaction rate: A primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sublet, Jean-Christophe; Fleming, Michael; Gilbert, Mark R.

    2017-09-01

    The nuclear research and development community has a history of using both integral and differential experiments to support accurate lattice-reactor, nuclear reactor criticality and shielding simulations, as well as verification and validation efforts of cross sections and emitted particle spectra. An important aspect to this type of analysis is the proper consideration of the contribution of the neutron spectrum in its entirety, with correct propagation of uncertainties and standard deviations derived from Monte Carlo simulations, to the local and total uncertainty in the simulated reactions rates (RRs), which usually only apply to one application at a time. This paper identifies deficiencies in the traditional treatment, and discusses correct handling of the RR uncertainty quantification and propagation, including details of the cross section components in the RR uncertainty estimates, which are verified for relevant applications. The methodology that rigorously captures the spectral shift and cross section contributions to the uncertainty in the RR are discussed with quantified examples that demonstrate the importance of the proper treatment of the spectrum profile and cross section contributions to the uncertainty in the RR and subsequent response functions. The recently developed inventory code FISPACT-II, when connected to the processed nuclear data libraries TENDL-2015, ENDF/B-VII.1, JENDL-4.0u or JEFF-3.2, forms an enhanced multi-physics platform providing a wide variety of advanced simulation methods for modelling activation, transmutation, burnup protocols and simulating radiation damage sources terms. The system has extended cutting-edge nuclear data forms, uncertainty quantification and propagation methods, which have been the subject of recent integral and differential, fission, fusion and accelerators validation efforts. The simulation system is used to accurately and predictively probe, understand and underpin a modern and sustainable understanding

  5. Stringent constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross section from the region of the Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Dan; Kelso, Chris; Queiroz, Farinaldo S.

    2013-06-01

    For any realistic halo profile, the Galactic Center is predicted to be the brightest source of gamma-rays from dark matter annihilations. Due in large part to uncertainties associated with the dark matter distribution and astrophysical backgrounds, however, the most commonly applied constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross section have been derived from other regions, such as dwarf spheroidal galaxies. In this article, we study Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope data from the direction of the inner Galaxy and derive stringent upper limits on the dark matter's annihilation cross section. Even for the very conservative case of a dark matter distribution with a significant (˜kpc) constant-density core, normalized to the minimum density needed to accommodate rotation curve and microlensing measurements, we find that the Galactic Center constraint is approximately as stringent as those derived from dwarf galaxies (which were derived under the assumption of an NFW distribution). For NFW or Einasto profiles (again, normalized to the minimum allowed density), the Galactic Center constraints are typically stronger than those from dwarfs.

  6. Stringent constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross section from the region of the Galactic Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, Dan; Kelso, Chris; Queiroz, Farinaldo S.

    2013-06-01

    For any realistic halo profile, the Galactic Center is predicted to be the brightest source of gamma-rays from dark matter annihilations. Due in large part to uncertainties associated with the dark matter distribution and astrophysical backgrounds, however, the most commonly applied constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross section have been derived from other regions, such as dwarf spheroidal galaxies. In this article, we study Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope data from the direction of the inner Galaxy and derive stringent upper limits on the dark matter's annihilation cross section. Even for the very conservative case of a dark matter distribution with a significant (~kpc) constant-density core, normalized to the minimum density needed to accommodate rotation curve and microlensing measurements, we find that the Galactic Center constraint is approximately as stringent as those derived from dwarf galaxies (which were derived under the assumption of an NFW distribution). For NFW or Einasto profiles (again, normalized to the minimum allowed density), the Galactic Center constraints are typically stronger than those from dwarfs.

  7. Precise Cross-Sectional Measurement of Photoresist Shrinkage Caused by Electron Beam Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Takeyoshi; Sekiguchi, Tomoko; Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Tanaka, Junichi; Kawada, Hiroki

    2013-06-01

    A mechanism of the photoresist shrinkage induced by electron-beam (EB) irradiation was studied in detail. A precise cross-sectional profile of a photoresist pattern is obtained by a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) after HfO2 atomic layer deposition on a sample. Photoresist lines and spaces formed on either of bottom anti-reflective coating (BARC) layer or spin-on-glass (SOG) layer were exposed to EB at a much higher dose than a practical dose (to accelerate shrinkage intentionally). The obtained STEM images of the patterns before and after EB irradiation showed that EB irradiation causes necking of the pattern profile as well as linewidth slimming. In addition, it was suggested that the BARC layer shrinkage results in the elastic deformation of the pattern profile, whereas the SOG layer does not shrink. Furthermore, EB irradiation only to the lines or spaces was performed. The EB irradiation to spaces caused sidewall shrinkage and necking of the pattern profile, although no electron was irradiated directly into the pattern. This result is considered to be due to the electrons scattered from the spaces to the pattern sidewall. Finally, a Monte Carlo simulation showed that the distribution of the deposited energy on the pattern surface corresponds to the change of the pattern shape. Consequently, our study clarifies the importance of the effect of elastic shape change and the impact of the electrons scattered from the underlying layer to the sidewall on photoresist shrinkage.

  8. Analytical technique for satellite projected cross-sectional area calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yaacov, Ohad; Edlerman, Eviatar; Gurfil, Pini

    2015-07-01

    Calculating the projected cross-sectional area (PCSA) of a satellite along a given direction is essential for implementing attitude control modes such as Sun pointing or minimum-drag. The PCSA may also be required for estimating the forces and torques induced by atmospheric drag and solar radiation pressure. This paper develops a new analytical method for calculating the PCSA, the concomitant torques and the satellite exposed surface area, based on the theory of convex polygons. A scheme for approximating the outer surface of any satellite by polygons is developed. Then, a methodology for calculating the projections of the polygons along a given vector is employed. The methodology also accounts for overlaps among projections, and is capable of providing the true PCSA in a computationally-efficient manner. Using the Space Autonomous Mission for Swarming and Geo-locating Nanosatellites mechanical model, it is shown that the new analytical method yields accurate results, which are similar to results obtained from alternative numerical tools.

  9. Headache in chronic cocaine users: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fofi, Luisa; Orlandi, Valerio; Vanacore, Nicola; Mizzoni, Maria C; Rosa, Alba; Aurilia, Cinzia; Egeo, Gabriella; Casella, Pietro; Barbanti, Piero

    2014-08-01

    Headache is one of the most common symptoms after cocaine use. We investigated headache frequency and characteristics and the correlation between headache and acute cocaine intake in a cross-sectional study in a consecutive series of chronic cocaine users. Participation rate was 94.1%. Of the 80 subjects enrolled, 72 (90%) reported current headaches, in most cases migraine or probable migraine without aura. Of these 72, 29 (40.3%) had a headache history, whereas 43 (59.7%) reported de novo headache after beginning to use cocaine. After acute cocaine use, a large percentage of users reported headache attacks: 86.2% of previous headache sufferers (migraine or probable migraine without aura in all cases) and 93% of de novo headache sufferers (migraine/probable migraine without aura = 35; episodic tension-type headache = three patients; cocaine-induced headache= two patients). Most subjects reported that when they used cocaine headaches worsened. Chronic cocaine use frequently seems to worsen or induce headache with migraine or migraine-like characteristics, probably owing to a serotoninergic and dopaminergic system impairment. In headache sufferers, especially those with migraine headaches, clinicians should enquire into possible cocaine use. © International Headache Society 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Incontinence care in nursing homes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, Manuela; Halfens, Ruud J G; Lohrmann, Christa

    2015-09-01

    To describe the quality of incontinence care in nursing homes. Main outcome measures were: (1) availability of structural quality indicators on ward and institutional levels; (2) use of nursing interventions as quality indicators on a process level; (3) prevalence of incontinence as an outcome indicator. Incontinence in older people is a major problem in nursing care that presents a high workload for nurses, increases costs and places a high burden on affected individuals. The availability of structural indicators, and the use of nursing interventions, is recommended to improve the quality of care. Only limited amounts of reliable and valid data are available regarding the quality of incontinence care in nursing homes. A cross-sectional multicentre study in 16 nursing homes (N = 1302) in 2013. A standardized and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. Each resident was assessed by two trained nurses. The primary outcome of the study indicated that structural indicators, such as the availability of information brochures, are limited in nursing homes. On a process level, the provision of body worn pads or underlay pads to protect beds or chairs were most frequently used and training interventions were only delivered to a small proportion of residents with incontinence. The prevalence of all types of incontinence, particularly double incontinence, was high (69·2%). Due to the high prevalence of double incontinence and low rate of training interventions regarding this type of incontinence, ongoing efforts to improve the quality of incontinence care are warranted. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Determinants of burn first aid knowledge: Cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Hilary J; O'Neill, Tomas B; Wood, Fiona M; Edgar, Dale W; Rea, Suzanne M

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated demographic factors, experience of burn/care and first aid course attendance as factors influencing burn first aid knowledge. A cross-sectional study was undertaken using convenience sampling of members of sporting and recreation clubs. The main outcome measure was the proportion of correct responses to multiple-choice questions relating to four burn scenarios: (1) scald, (2) contact burn, (3) ignited clothing, and (4) chemical burn. A total of 2602 responses were obtained. Large gaps (30-50% incorrect answers) were identified in burn first aid knowledge across all scenarios. 15% more individuals gave correct answers if they had attended a first aid course compared to those who had not (pfirst aid knowledge. Gender and age were significant predictors of first aid course attendance, with males and younger (≤25 years) and older (≥65 years) age-groups less likely to have attended a first aid course. In this sample, first aid training undertaken within the last 5 years with a specific burns component was associated with enhanced burn first aid knowledge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychiatric problems in children with hemiplegia: cross sectional epidemiological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, R.; Graham, P.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the prevalence and predictors of psychiatric problems in children with hemiplegia. DESIGN--Cross sectional questionnaire survey of an epidemiological sample with individual assessments of a representative subgroup. The questionnaire survey was repeated on school age subjects four years later. SUBJECTS--428 hemiplegic children age 2 1/2-16 years, of whom 149 (aged 6-10 years) were individually assessed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Psychiatric symptom scores and the occurrence of psychiatric disorder. RESULTS--Psychiatric disorders affected 61% (95% confidence interval 53% to 69%) of subjects as judged by individual assessments and 54% (49% to 59%) and 42% (37% to 47%) as judged from parent and teacher questionnaires, respectively. Few affected children had been in contact with child mental health services. The strongest consistent predictor of psychiatric problems was intelligence quotient (IQ), which was highly correlated with an index of neurological severity; age, sex, and laterality of lesion had little or no predictive power. CONCLUSION--Though most hemiplegic children have considerable emotional or behavioural difficulties, these psychological complications commonly go unrecognised or untreated. Comprehensive health provision for children with chronic neurodevelopmental disorders such as hemiplegia should be psychologically as well as physically oriented. PMID:8616413

  13. Health literacy among Saudi population: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Latif, Mohamed M M; Saad, Sherif Y

    2017-09-12

    Health literacy is a major problem worldwide and adversely affects an individual's health. The aim of the present study was to assess health literacy level among Saudi population. A cross-sectional study was conducted among a randomly selected population (n = 500) in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire comprised of questions pertaining to demographic characteristics, health literacy and health information. Health literacy was measured by REALM-R test. Internal reliability was determined using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The majority of the respondents had intermediate (43.8%) and basic (34.4%) health literacy levels. A higher percentage among men had intermediate (59.8%) and basic (70.93%) health literacy levels compared with women. About 30% of respondents had difficulty in understanding health screening tests and disease treatment. More than half of participants (52.4%) had difficulty in finding health information. The REALM-R test revealed that about 42.6% of individuals with score of >6 had adequate health literacy compared with 57.4% with score of ≤6 had inadequate health literacy. The present study demonstrated that a majority of Saudi individuals had inadequate health literacy that associated with poor knowledge of health information. Our findings highlighted the importance of understanding the status of health literacy among Saudis and the need for educational programs to raise the health literacy awareness among Saudi population. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Unintended Pregnancy in Ethiopia: Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidest Getu Melese

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Unintended pregnancy is defined as a pregnancy which is a sum of mistimed pregnancy (pregnancy wanted at a later time and unwanted pregnancy (pregnancy which is not wanted at all. Unintended pregnancy is a global public health problem and its sequels are major causes for maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality with its effect to maternal metal illness as well. Objective. To determine the prevalence and associated factors of unintended pregnancy in Debre Birhan town, northeast of Ethiopia, in 2014. Method. Community based cross-sectional study and questionnaire developed from Ethiopian demographic health survey 2011. Participants were 690 currently pregnant mothers. Association of unintended pregnancy with factors was measured with bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Result. In this study unintended pregnancy is found to be 23.5%. Being formerly married and never married, distance to the nearest health facility >80 minutes, gravidity >5, 1-2 parity, and partner disagreement on desired number of children are the variables significantly associated with unintended pregnancy. Conclusion. Significant proportion of unintended pregnancy is found in the study area. To minimize unintended pregnancy concerned bodies should work on the identified factors, so we can minimize maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality and keep the health of the family specifically and country in general.

  15. Measurement of photon production cross sections with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Turra, Ruggero; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The production of prompt isolated photons at hadron colliders provides a stringent test of perturbative QCD and can be used to probe the proton structure. The ATLAS collaboration has performed precise measurements of the inclusive production of isolated prompt photons at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, differential in both rapidity and the photon transverse momentum. In addition, the integrated and differential cross sections for isolated photon pairs at 8 TeV have been measured. The results are compared with state-of-the-art theory predictions at NLO in QCD and with predictions of several MC generators. The production of prompt photons in association with jets provides an additional testing ground for perturbative QCD (pQCD) with a hard colourless probe less affected by hadronisation effects than jet production. The ATLAS collaboration has studied the dynamics of isolated-photon plus jet production in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 and 13 TeV, which will be presented and discussed.

  16. GP registrar well-being: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schattner Peter

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To investigate the major stressors affecting GP registrars, how those at risk can be best identified and the most useful methods of managing or reducing their stress. Design, setting and participants Cross-sectional postal questionnaire of all GP registrars in one large regional training provider's catchment area. Main outcome measures The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS, a specifically developed Registrar Stressor Scale consisting of five subscales of potential stressors, plus closed questions on how to identify and manage stress in GP registrars. Results Survey response rate of 51% (102/199. Rural difficulties followed by achieving a work/life balance were the principal stressors. Ten percent of registrars were mildly or moderately depressed or anxious (DASS and 7% mild to moderately anxious (DASS. Registrars preferred informal means of identifying those under stress (a buddy system and talks with their supervisors; similarly, they preferred to manage stress by discussions with family and friends, debriefing with peers and colleagues, or undertaking sport and leisure activities. Conclusions This study supports research which confirms that poor psychological well-being is an important issue for a significant minority of GP trainees. Regional training providers should ensure that they facilitate formal and informal strategies to identify those at risk and assist them to cope with their stress.

  17. Depression among Ethiopian Adults: Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getasew Legas Molla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Depression is one of the most common mental disorders worldwide and is the second leading cause of disability and major contributor to suicide. Methods. Community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 779 adults residing in Northwest Ethiopia. Multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select study participants. Depression was measured by Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Bivariate as well as multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify associated factors. p value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Result. The prevalence of depression was 17.5%, where 10.7% of patients were with mild depression, 4.2% were with moderate depression, 1.9% were with moderately severe depression, and 0.6% had severe depression. Being female, age of 55 years and above, poor social support, having a comorbidity medical illness, current tobacco smoking, and living alone were significantly associated with depression. Conclusion and Recommendation. The prevalence of depression in Ethiopia is as common as the other lower and middle income countries. Female gender, being currently not married, poor social support, low wealth index, tobacco smoking, older age, having comorbid illness, and living alone were significantly associated with depression. So, depression is a significant public health problem that requires a great emphasis and some factors like smoking habit are modifiable.

  18. Exploring resilience in Chinese nurses: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yu-Fang; Cross, Wendy; Plummer, Virginia; Lam, Louisa; Luo, Yuan-Hui; Zhang, Jing-Ping

    2017-04-01

    To explore the state of resilience and its predictors among nurses in mainland China. Resilience is considered as an important ability to influence the prevention of job dissatisfaction and burnout. There are few studies on resilience in Chinese nurses, particularly investigating the predictors of resilience. A cross-sectional survey was employed and 1061 nurses from six three-level hospitals in Hunan responded to participate in the study. Data were collected using self-reported questionnaires. Nurses experienced moderate levels of resilience and self-efficacy and tended to use a positive coping style. Multiple linear regression showed that a high level of self-efficacy and education, having a positive coping style rather than a negative coping style, exercising regularly and not using cigarettes predicted a high level of resilience (P resilience among nurses and suggests that a high level of self-efficacy and education, as well as having a positive coping style and choosing a healthy lifestyle may increase nurses' resilience. Hospital administrators and nursing managers need to explore the resilience state among nurses and understand the predictors of resilience. Then, scientific and evidence-based interventions for improving resilience should be adopted. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Measurement of photon production cross sections with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Turra, Ruggero; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The production of prompt isolated photons at hadron colliders provides a stringent test of perturbative QCD and can be used to probe the proton structure. The ATLAS Collaboration has performed precise measurements of the inclusive production of isolated prompt photons at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, differential in both rapidity and photon transverse momentum. In addition, the integrated and differential cross sections for isolated photon pairs at 8 TeV have been measured. The results are compared with state-of-the-art theory predictions at NLO in QCD and with predictions of several MC generators. The production of prompt photons in association with jets provides an additional testing ground for perturbative QCD (pQCD) with a hard colourless probe less affected by hadronisation effects than jet production. The dynamics of isolated-photon plus jet production in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 and 13 TeV will be presented and discussed.

  20. Organizational home care models across Europe: A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eenoo, Liza; van der Roest, Henriëtte; Onder, Graziano; Finne-Soveri, Harriet; Garms-Homolova, Vjenka; Jonsson, Palmi V; Draisma, Stasja; van Hout, Hein; Declercq, Anja

    2018-01-01

    Decision makers are searching for models to redesign home care and to organize health care in a more sustainable way. The aim of this study is to identify and characterize home care models within and across European countries by means of structural characteristics and care processes at the policy and the organization level. At the policy level, variables that reflected variation in health care policy were included based on a literature review on the home care policy for older persons in six European countries: Belgium, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Italy, and the Netherlands. At the organizational level, data on the structural characteristics and the care processes were collected from 36 home care organizations by means of a survey. Data were collected between 2013 and 2015 during the IBenC project. An observational, cross sectional, quantitative design was used. The analyses consisted of a principal component analysis followed by a hierarchical cluster analysis. Fifteen variables at the organizational level, spread across three components, explained 75.4% of the total variance. The three components made it possible to distribute home care organizations into six care models that differ on the level of patient-centered care delivery, the availability of specialized care professionals, and the level of monitoring care performance. Policy level variables did not contribute to distinguishing between home care models. Six home care models were identified and characterized. These models can be used to describe best practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Employee Engagement within the NHS: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadava Bapurao Jeve

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Employee engagement is the emotional commitment of the employee towards the organisation. We aimed to analyse baseline work engagement using Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES at a teaching hospital. Methods We have conducted a cross-sectional study within the National Health Service (NHS Teaching Hospital in the UK. All participants were working age population from both genders directly employed by the hospital. UWES has three constituting dimensions of work engagement as vigor, dedication, and absorption. We conducted the study using UWES-9 tool. Outcome measures were mean score for each dimension of work engagement (vigor, dedication, absorption and total score compared with control score from test manual. Results We found that the score for vigor and dedication is significantly lower than comparison group (P< 0.0001 for both. The score for absorption was significantly higher than comparison group (P< 0.0001. However, total score is not significantly different. Conclusion The study shows that work engagement level is below average within the NHS employees. Vigor and dedication are significantly lower, these are characterised by energy, mental resilience, the willingness to invest one’s effort, and persistence as well as a sense of significance, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, and challenge. The NHS employees are immersed in work. Urgent need to explore strategies to improve work engagement as it is vital for improving productivity, safety and patient experience.

  2. Child abuse: Cross-sectional survey of general dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harsimran; Chaudhary, Seema; Choudhary, Nidhi; Manuja, Naveen; Chaitra, T R; Amit, Sinha Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Child abuse continues to be a social menace causing both physical and emotional trauma to benevolent children. Census has shown that nearly 50-75% of child abuse include trauma to mouth, face, and head. Thus, dental professionals are in strategic position to identify physical and emotional manifestations of abuse. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken to assess knowledge and attitude of dental practitioners regarding child abuse and to identify the barriers in reporting the same. With prior consent, a 20-question survey including both multiple choice and dichotomous (Yes/No) questions was mailed to 120 state-registered general dentists, and the data collected were subjected to statistical analysis. Overall response rate to the questionnaires was 97%. Lack of knowledge about dentist's role in reporting child abuse accounted to 55% in the reasons for hesitancy to report. Pearson chi-square test did not show any significant difference between male and female regarding reason for hesitancy to report and legal obligation of dentists. Although respondent dentists were aware of the diagnosis of child abuse, they were hesitant and unaware of the appropriate authority to report. Increased instruction in the areas of recognition and reporting of child abuse and neglect should be emphasized.

  3. Employee engagement within the NHS: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeve, Yadava Bapurao; Oppenheimer, Christina; Konje, Justin

    2015-02-01

    Employee engagement is the emotional commitment of the employee towards the organisation. We aimed to analyse baseline work engagement using Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) at a teaching hospital. We have conducted a cross-sectional study within the National Health Service (NHS) Teaching Hospital in the UK. All participants were working age population from both genders directly employed by the hospital. UWES has three constituting dimensions of work engagement as vigor, dedication, and absorption. We conducted the study using UWES-9 tool. Outcome measures were mean score for each dimension of work engagement (vigor, dedication, absorption) and total score compared with control score from test manual. We found that the score for vigor and dedication is significantly lower than comparison group (Pwork engagement level is below average within the NHS employees. Vigor and dedication are significantly lower, these are characterised by energy, mental resilience, the willingness to invest one's effort, and persistence as well as a sense of significance, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, and challenge. The NHS employees are immersed in work. Urgent need to explore strategies to improve work engagement as it is vital for improving productivity, safety and patient experience.

  4. Silicosis among Stone- Cutter Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghilinejad, Mashaallah; Naserbakht, Ali; Naserbakht, Morteza; Attari, Ghavamedin

    2012-01-01

    Production process of most factory-made products is harmful to our health and environment. Silica is the most important stone used in stone cutting factories. Numerous researches have reported respiratory diseases due to the inhalation of these particles in various occupations. Silicosis is a disease with typical radiographic pattern caused as the result of inhalation of silica particles. According to the intensity of exposures and onset of initiation of clinical symptoms silicosis is classified into three groups of acute, chronic and accelerated forms. The present study evaluated silicosis among stone cutter workers. This cross sectional study was performed on stone cutter workers in Malayer city (Azandarian) between 2008 and 2009. Respiratory data of our study participants were collected with a respiratory questionnaire and performing spirometry tests and chest radiography. Among our participants, 16 silicosis cases were diagnosed by radiographic changes. Among them, 10 workers had exposure for more than three years and 6 workers were smokers. Eleven workers had an abnormal radiographic pattern on their chest x-rays. Seven workers had obstructive and 4 workers had restrictive spirometric patterns. Prevalence of silicosis was high among our understudy workers and preventive strategies are required to control it.

  5. Acromegaly and aging: a comparative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoglu, Esra; Yuruyen, Mehmet; Keskin, Ela; Yavuzer, Hakan; Niyazoglu, Mutlu; Doventas, Alper; Erdincler, Deniz Suna; Beger, Tanju; Kadioglu, Pinar; Gundogdu, Sadi

    2015-02-01

    Cognitive and functional geriatric assessment may change in acromegaly. Herein we aimed to determine at which points geriatric assessment of the cases with acromegaly differs from that of general elderly population. In this comparative cross-sectional study, a total of 30 cases with acromegaly (controlled n = 14, uncontrolled n = 16) and 30 gender and body-mass index-matched cases without acromegaly (control group, CG) above 60 years old were included. Cognitive functions were evaluated on the basis of the mini-mental state exam (MMSE). Affective status was determined using the geriatric depression scale. Activities of daily living (ADL) were ranked according to the Barthel index while instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) were graded on the basis of the Lawton scale. Nutritional status was evaluated using the mini-nutritional assessment (MNA). Body composition was measured through bioimpedance analysis. Functional mobility was determined using the Timed Up and Go test (TUG) and muscle strength with the handgrip strength test. Scores on the MMSE were significantly lower in the elderly cases with acromegaly than in the cases without acromegaly (p functional impairment based on Barthel ADL in the acromegaly group than in the CG (p = 0.04). Acromegaly may impair cognitive functions, functional mobility and instrumental daily living activities in the geriatric population. With acromegaly, the risk of malnutrition may also increase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Radar-cross-section reduction of wind turbines. part 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, Billy C.; Loui, Hung; McDonald, Jacob J.; Paquette, Joshua A.; Calkins, David A.; Miller, William K.; Allen, Steven E.; Clem, Paul Gilbert; Patitz, Ward E.

    2012-03-05

    In recent years, increasing deployment of large wind-turbine farms has become an issue of growing concern for the radar community. The large radar cross section (RCS) presented by wind turbines interferes with radar operation, and the Doppler shift caused by blade rotation causes problems identifying and tracking moving targets. Each new wind-turbine farm installation must be carefully evaluated for potential disruption of radar operation for air defense, air traffic control, weather sensing, and other applications. Several approaches currently exist to minimize conflict between wind-turbine farms and radar installations, including procedural adjustments, radar upgrades, and proper choice of low-impact wind-farm sites, but each has problems with limited effectiveness or prohibitive cost. An alternative approach, heretofore not technically feasible, is to reduce the RCS of wind turbines to the extent that they can be installed near existing radar installations. This report summarizes efforts to reduce wind-turbine RCS, with a particular emphasis on the blades. The report begins with a survey of the wind-turbine RCS-reduction literature to establish a baseline for comparison. The following topics are then addressed: electromagnetic model development and validation, novel material development, integration into wind-turbine fabrication processes, integrated-absorber design, and wind-turbine RCS modeling. Related topics of interest, including alternative mitigation techniques (procedural, at-the-radar, etc.), an introduction to RCS and electromagnetic scattering, and RCS-reduction modeling techniques, can be found in a previous report.

  7. Ion mobility derived collision cross sections to support metabolomics applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglia, Giuseppe; Williams, Jonathan P; Menikarachchi, Lochana; Thompson, J Will; Tyldesley-Worster, Richard; Halldórsson, Skarphédinn; Rolfsson, Ottar; Moseley, Arthur; Grant, David; Langridge, James; Palsson, Bernhard O; Astarita, Giuseppe

    2014-04-15

    Metabolomics is a rapidly evolving analytical approach in life and health sciences. The structural elucidation of the metabolites of interest remains a major analytical challenge in the metabolomics workflow. Here, we investigate the use of ion mobility as a tool to aid metabolite identification. Ion mobility allows for the measurement of the rotationally averaged collision cross-section (CCS), which gives information about the ionic shape of a molecule in the gas phase. We measured the CCSs of 125 common metabolites using traveling-wave ion mobility-mass spectrometry (TW-IM-MS). CCS measurements were highly reproducible on instruments located in three independent laboratories (RSD proof of concept, we used UPLC-TW-IM-MS to compare the cellular metabolome of epithelial and mesenchymal cells, an in vitro model used to study cancer development. Experimentally determined and computationally derived CCS values were used as orthogonal analytical parameters in combination with retention time and accurate mass information to confirm the identity of key metabolites potentially involved in cancer. Thus, our results indicate that adding CCS data to searchable databases and to routine metabolomics workflows will increase the identification confidence compared to traditional analytical approaches.

  8. Dental pain in Brazilian schoolchildren: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lacerda, Josimari T; de Bem Pereira, Mariana; Traebert, Jefferson

    2013-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence, intensity and associated factors of dental pain in 7- and 8-year-old schoolchildren in a Southern Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was carried out involving a representative sample (n=401) of schoolchildren of Tubarão, Brazil. The data were obtained through oral examinations, following WHO criteria. Dental pain was analysed using a specific questionnaire developed to measure it. Prevalence and intensity of spontaneous pain and pain caused by cold and hot food and liquids were analysed. Association studies were carried out using chi-square test followed by nonconditional multiple logistic regression analysis to test for independence of association between outcomes and explanatory variables. The prevalence of spontaneous dental pain and dental pain caused by cold and hot food and liquids was 31.7 and 28.1%, respectively. Females and schoolchildren who had visited the dentist at least once showed statistically higher prevalence of spontaneous pain and pain caused by cold and hot food and liquids. Eight-year-old schoolchildren and those presenting cavities in the primary dentition also showed higher prevalence of spontaneous dental pain. The prevalence and intensity of dental pain were considered high. The prevalence showed to be associated with female gender, higher age, the presence of cavities in the primary dentition and dental visit. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2012 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Swimming and spinal deformities: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaina, Fabio; Donzelli, Sabrina; Lusini, Monia; Minnella, Salvatore; Negrini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of spinal deformities and low back pain (LBP) in adolescent competitive swimmers and normal controls. This was a cross-sectional study with convenience sample of 112 adolescent competitive swimmers (62 females) compared with 217 students (106 females) of the same age (12.5 years). We designed a questionnaire to collect data on LBP and measured the angle of trunk rotation with a Bunnell scoliometer to screen for scoliosis, along with the plumbline distances for kyphosis and lordosis. Clinical cutoffs defined in the literature for detection of spinal deformities were applied. Analyses were performed using the t test and χ(2) test, and ORs and 95% CIs were calculated. Swimming was found to increase the risk of trunk asymmetries (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.08-3.20). Swimming also increased the risk of hyperkyphosis (OR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.35-3.77) and hyperlordosis (OR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.06-4.73), and increased LBP in females by 2.1-fold (95% CI, 1.08-4.06). Swimming is associated with an increased risk of trunk asymmetries and hyperkyphosis. Although swimming has been considered a complete sport and a treatment option for scoliosis, our data contradict that approach, and also show a higher prevalence of LBP in females. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Partial cross sections of helium satellites at medium photon energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehlitz, R.; Sellin, I.A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hemmers, O. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Still of current interest is the important role of single ionization with excitation compared to single ionization alone. The coupling between the electrons and the incoming photon is a single-particle operator. Thus, an excitation in addition to an ionization, leading to a so-called satellite line in a photoelectron spectrum, is entirely due to electron-electron interaction and probes the electron correlation in the ground and final state. Therefore the authors have undertaken the study of the intensity of helium satellites He{sup +}nl (n = 2 - 6) relative to the main photoline (n = 1) as a function of photon energy at photon energies well above threshold up to 900 eV. From these results they could calculate the partial cross-sections of the helium satellites. In order to test the consistency of their satellite-to-1s ratios with published double-to-single photoionization ratios, the authors calculated the double-to-single photoionization ratio from their measured ratios using the theoretical energy-distribution curves of Chang and Poe and Le Rouzo and Dal Cappello which proved to be valid for photon energies below 120 eV. These calculated double-to-single ionization ratios agree fairly well with recent ion measurements. In the lower photon energy range the authors ratios agree better with the ratios of Doerner et al. while for higher photon energies the agreement is better with the values of Levin et al.

  11. Depression among Ethiopian Adults: Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Getasew Legas; Sebhat, Haregwoin Mulat; Hussen, Zebiba Nasir; Mekonen, Amsalu Belete; Mersha, Wubalem Fekadu; Yimer, Tesfa Mekonen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Depression is one of the most common mental disorders worldwide and is the second leading cause of disability and major contributor to suicide. Methods. Community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 779 adults residing in Northwest Ethiopia. Multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select study participants. Depression was measured by Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Bivariate as well as multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify associated factors. p value of depression was 17.5%, where 10.7% of patients were with mild depression, 4.2% were with moderate depression, 1.9% were with moderately severe depression, and 0.6% had severe depression. Being female, age of 55 years and above, poor social support, having a comorbidity medical illness, current tobacco smoking, and living alone were significantly associated with depression. Conclusion and Recommendation. The prevalence of depression in Ethiopia is as common as the other lower and middle income countries. Female gender, being currently not married, poor social support, low wealth index, tobacco smoking, older age, having comorbid illness, and living alone were significantly associated with depression. So, depression is a significant public health problem that requires a great emphasis and some factors like smoking habit are modifiable.

  12. Grit and Work Engagement: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhei Suzuki

    Full Text Available Grit, defined as perseverance of effort and consistency of interest, has attracted attention as a predictor of success in various fields beyond IQ and the Big Five personality dimension of Conscientiousness. The purpose of the current study was to examine previously uninvestigated questions regarding grit using a cross-sectional design among a large number of working adults in Japan. First, we tested geographical generalizability of associations between grit and orientations towards happiness by comparing previous studies in the U.S. and the current study in Japan. It was confirmed that orientation towards meaning rather than orientation towards engagement had a stronger positive correlation with grit in our sample of Japanese people. This result is inconsistent with previous studies in the U.S. Furthermore, the Big Five dimension of Openness to Experience was newly confirmed as having a positive association with grit. Second, we examined the association between grit and work engagement, which is considered as an outcome indicator for work performance. In this analysis, grit was a strong predictor for work performance as well as academic performance.

  13. Ionisation cross sections of rare-gas atoms by electron impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, E.; Srivastava, S. K.

    1988-01-01

    A pulsed electron beam and ion extraction method is used to measure normalized values of partial ionization cross sections for rare gases from threshold to 1000 eV. Cross sections obtained for singly ionized species are used to calibrate the mass transmission efficiency of the ion extraction/analyzer/detection system by the relative flow technique, and this mass transmission curve is then used to determine the absolute cross sections of the multiply ionized species. Total ion cross sections are found by summation of the individual partial cross sections with proper weighting for charge.

  14. SigmaCalc recent development and present status of the evaluated cross-sections for IBA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurbich, A.F.

    2016-03-15

    A new version of the SigmaCalc Internet site ( (http://sigmacalc.iate.obninsk.ru)) intended to provide evaluated differential cross-sections for spectra simulation is presented. Results of the revision of previously evaluated cross-sections and new evaluations including data for PIGE were made available to the IBA community through a simple interface. New SigmaCalc features allow users to compare evaluated differential cross-sections with the available results of the cross-section measurements taken on-the-fly from the IBANDL database and to validate them against benchmarks. The current status of the evaluated cross-sections for IBA is discussed.

  15. Measurements of the total, elastic and inelastic pp cross section with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Heinz, Christian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The total pp cross section is a fundamental property of the strong interaction which can not be calculated in perturbative QCD but only described based on phenomenological models. The ATLAS collaboration has recently measured the total inelastic protonproton cross section and the diffractive part of the inelastic cross section at 13 TeV in special data sets taken with low beam currents and using forward scintillators. A more precise measurement of the total pp cross section as well as elastic and inelastic contributions has been extracted from a measurement of the differential elastic cross section using the optical theorem. The ATLAS Collaboration has performed this measurement in elastic data collected with high beta* optics at 8 TeV centreofmass energy with the ALFA Roman Pot detector. From the extrapolation of the differential elastic cross section to t=0, using the optical theorem, the total cross section is extracted in a luminositydependent method with unprecedented precision. In addition the nuclear s...

  16. Measurement of photon (also +jets) production cross sections, jets production cross sections and extraction of the strong coupling constant

    CERN Document Server

    Villaplana Perez, Miguel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The production of prompt isolated photons at hadron colliders provides a stringent test of perturbative QCD and can be used to probe the proton structure. The ATLAS collaboration has performed precise measurements of the inclusive production of isolated prompt photons at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, differential in both rapidity and the photon transverse momentum. In addition, the integrated and differential cross sections for isolated photon pairs and tri-photon production 8 TeV have been measured. The results are compared with state-of-the-art theory predictions at NLO in QCD and with predictions of several MC generators. The production of prompt photons in association with jets provides an additional testing ground for perturbative QCD (pQCD) with a hard colourless probe less affected by hadronisation effects than jet production. The ATLAS collaboration has studied the dynamics of isolated-photon production in association with gluon, light and heavy quark final states in pp collisions at a centre-of-...

  17. Endoanal MRI of the anal sphincter complex: correlation with cross-sectional anatomy and histology.

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, S M; Stoker, J; Zwamborn, A W; Den Hollander, J C; Kuiper, J W; Entius, C A; Laméris, J S

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this study was to correlate the in vivo endoanal MRI findings of the anal sphincter with the cross-sectional anatomy and histology. Fourteen patients with rectal tumours were examined with a rigid endoanal MR coil before undergoing abdominoperineal resection. In addition, 12 cadavers were used to obtain cross-sectional anatomical sections. The images were correlated with the histology and anatomy of the resected rectal specimens as well as with the cross-sectional a...

  18. Smoking habits in French farmers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Pauline; Guillien, Alicia; Soumagne, Thibaud; Ritter, Ophélie; Laplante, Jean-Jacques; Travers, Cécile; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Peiffer, Gérard; Laurent, Lucie; Degano, Bruno

    2017-02-04

    Farmers are exposed to multiple air contaminants that may interact with tobacco smoking in the development of respiratory diseases. Farmers are currently considered to smoke less than non-farmers, but precise data in different categories of age and farming activities are lacking. Smoking habits were studied in a cross-sectional study involving 4105 farmers and 996 non-farming controls aged 40-74 years in 9 French departments between October 2012 and May 2013. Three age groups were defined (40-54, 55-64 and 65-74years). Farmers were divided into four activity groups, namely cattle breeders, livestock farmers working in confined spaces, crop farmers and others. Smoking prevalence was compared between farmers and controls, and odds ratios (ORs) for smoking adjusted for age were calculated. The adjusted OR for ever-smoking was lower among farmers than among non-farmers in all age categories, but the ORs for current smoking were similar in farmers and controls. Smoking prevalence varied according to the type of farming activity, and was lower than in non-farming controls only among cattle breeders and confined livestock farmers. In farmers, the proportion of smokers was higher in the youngest age categories compared with the older age classes. Our results confirm that the prevalence of ever-smokers is lower in farmers than in non-farmers. Nevertheless, our data show that active smoking prevalence is similar in farmers and in non-farmers. This suggests that farmers, just like non-farmers, should be targeted by primary prevention campaigns against smoking.

  19. Anemia in pregnancy in Malaysia: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haniff, Jamaiyah; Das, Anita; Onn, Lim Teck; Sun, Chen Won; Nordin, Noraihan Mohd; Rampal, Sanjay; Bahrin, Safiah; Ganeslingam, Muralitharan; Kularatnam, Kumar Iswaran K; Zaher, Zaki Morad Mohamad

    2007-01-01

    Anemia is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency during pregnancy. Except for a study conducted 10 years ago in Kelantan, Malaysia's available statistics are based on isolated small urban maternity hospital studies from the 1980s. There was therefore, a need for a large study at national level to estimate the magnitude of the problem in the country as well as to understand its epidemiology. This multi-center, cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March 2005, to assess the prevalence of anemia. Multistage stratified random sampling technique was used and 59 Ministry of Health (MOH) primary health care clinics were selected. Our final dataset consisted of 1,072 antenatal mothers from 56 clinics. The overall prevalence of anemia in this population was 35 % (SE 0.02) if the cut off level is 11 g/dL and 11 % (SE 0.03) if the cut-off level is 10 g/dL. The majority was of the mild type. The prevalence was higher in the teenage group, Indians followed by Malays and Chinese being the least, grandmultiparas, the third trimester and from urban residence. After multiple linear regression analysis, only gestational age remained significant. These findings are useful for our Maternal Health program planners and implementers to target and evaluate interventions. Work is in progress for outcomes and cost-effectiveness studies to best tackle this problem. In conclusion, the prevalence of anemia is 35% and mostly of the mild type and more prevalent in the Indian and Malays.

  20. Control of asthma in primary care: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raziye Şule Gümüştakım

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays asthma treatment is focused on control. Asthma control is used as a term to express the reduction of asthma signs and the goal of treatment. Asthma control is not at the desired level in the world and in our country. The aim of this study is to assess the level of asthma control in primary care and to raise awareness about asthma.Methods: The universe of research consists of asthma patients admitted to Karaman Sarıveliler State Integrated Hospital. The researcher conducted face-to-face interview using 19-item questionnaire asking demographic features, Asthma Control Test (ACT and the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ. This clinical research is a cross sectional descriptive study and SPSS for Windows Version 16.0 was used for statistical evaluations. The numerical values indicated in the form of continuous and discrete numeric values and percentage. Results were evaluated in 95% confidence interval, p<0.05 was accepted as the value for statistical significance.Results: The average ACT score was 12.89, and the ACQ score was 14.86. 30% of patients had hypertension with asthma while 18% of patients had no additional disease. 91% of patients (n= 91 is not under control, and 9% (n= 9 was partially under control. There was no patient under full control. 94.9% of women and 76.2% of men were not under control. A statistically significant difference was found between the control status and gender, profession, tobacco use. It was found that other demographic factors had no effect on the control of asthma.Conclusion: Asthma is one of the chronic diseases which have high prevalence in our country. So asthma control is very important. In this regard, patients should be evaluated by a simple test like ACT in the primary care and if necessary they should be referred to the secondary care by the physician.

  1. Nursing Student Attitudes toward Euthanasia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Kazem; Rafiei, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Euthanasia is among the most common and controversial end-of-life care issues. Examining the attitudes of nursing students to this issue is important because they may well encounter these issues during the course of their clinical placements. Research aims: This study aims to examine the attitudes of a sample of Iranian nursing students towards euthanasia. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. Participants and research context: Using convenience sampling, 382 Muslim nursing students were enrolled in this study. Data were collected using a demographic variables checklist and a self-administered questionnaire that included a definition of euthanasia and 11 closed questions that sought to record participants' level of agreement with euthanasia based on a Likert scale. Ethical consideration: Consent for participation was implicit, indicated by the participants having returned the completed questionnaires. Participants were assured that their data would remain anonymous, be kept confidential and be stored safely. Of the 382 participants, 61.5% were female, and the remainder were male. The mean age was 62.6 ± 14.1 years (range: 32-91 years). In total, 34.2%, 41.6% and 24% of students reported a negative, neutral and positive attitude to euthanasia, respectively. Most students with clinical experience, and 38.5% of students with no clinical experience, indicated their agreement with active euthanasia. There are a number of misconceptions among Iranian Muslim nursing students regarding the definition of euthanasia. Nonetheless, most students exhibit positive attitudes to euthanasia consistent with their clinical experiences. It is recommended to explore the factors that induced nursing students' tendency to euthanasia.

  2. Optimizing muscle power after stroke: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavric Verna A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke remains a leading cause of disability worldwide and results in muscle performance deficits and limitations in activity performance. Rehabilitation aims to address muscle dysfunction in an effort to improve activity and participation. While muscle strength has an impact on activity performance, muscle power has recently been acknowledged as contributing significantly to activity performance in this population. Therefore, rehabilitation efforts should include training of muscle power. However, little is known about what training parameters, or load, optimize muscle power performance in people with stroke. The purpose of this study was to investigate lower limb muscle power performance at differing loads in people with and without stroke. Methods A cross-sectional study design investigated muscle power performance in 58 hemiplegic and age matched control participants. Lower limb muscle power was measured using a modified leg press machine at 30, 50 and 70% of one repetition maximum (1-RM strength. Results There were significant differences in peak power between involved and uninvolved limbs of stroke participants and between uninvolved and control limbs. Peak power was greatest when pushing against a load of 30% of 1RM for involved, uninvolved and control limbs. Involved limb peak power irrespective of load (Mean:220 ± SD:134 W was significantly lower (p  Conclusions Significant power deficits were seen in both the involved and uninvolved limbs after stroke. Maximal muscle power was produced when pushing against lighter loads. Further intervention studies are needed to determine whether training of both limbs at lighter loads (and higher velocities are preferable to improve both power and activity performance after stroke.

  3. Cardiovascular Complications of Acute Amphetamine Abuse; Cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Bazmi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate cardiovascular complications among patients who abuse amphetamines. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between April 2014 and April 2015 among 3,870 patients referred to the Toxicology Emergency Department of Baharlou Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Those with clinical signs of drug abuse and positive urine screening tests were included in the study, while cases of chronic abuse were excluded. Cardiac complications were evaluated via electrocardiography (ECG and transthoracic echocardiography. Results: A total of 230 patients (5.9% had a history of acute amphetamine abuse and positive urine tests. Of these, 32 patients (13.9% were <20 years old and 196 (85.2% were male. In total, 119 (51.7% used amphetamine and methamphetamine compounds while 111 (48.3% used amphetamines with morphine or benzodiazepines. The most common ECG finding was sinus tachycardia (43.0%, followed by sinus tachycardia plus a prolonged QT interval (34.3%. Mean creatine kinase-MB and troponin I levels were 35.9 ± 4.3 U/mL and 0.6 ± 0.2 ng/mL, respectively. A total of 60 patients (26.1% were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit. The majority (83.3% of these patients had normal echocardiography results. The mean aortic root diameter (ARD was 27.2 ± 2.8 mm. Abnormalities related to the ARD were found in 10 patients (16.7%, three of whom subsequently died. Conclusion: According to these findings, cardiac complications were common among Iranian patients who abuse amphetamines, although the majority of patients had normal echocardiography and ECG findings.

  4. Adolescents and Body Image: A Cross Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mannat M; Ashok, Lena; Binu, V S; Parsekar, Shradha S; Bhumika, T V

    2015-12-01

    To assess proportion of adolescents perceiving their body image as normal and to study association between body shape, self-esteem and body mass index; each with body image perception. A cross sectional study was conducted among pre university college (PUC) students of Udupi taluk. A total of 550 students in the age group of 15-19y were randomly selected from 11 PUC's: four were taken from government and unaided strata respectively and three from aided. The PUC's were selected based on proportional allocation from a total of 48 PUC's. From each PUC a class was randomly chosen as a cluster; all students in the class were included. Body shape questionnaire and Rosenberg self-esteem scale were used to assess body shape concerns and self-esteem respectively. Height and weight was measured and body mass index was calculated. SPSS version 15 has been used for analysis. Results were tabulated using frequency distribution and proportions. Multinomial logistic regression was done. About 38 % of the respondents perceived their body image as normal. Body shape [OR = 0.48,95 % CI: 0.305, 0.76], self-esteem [OR = 6.12,95 % CI: 2.76, 13.9] and body mass index [OR = 4.65,95 % CI: 2.13,10.12] were found to be independently associated with body image perception. Educational institutes are a major component of adolescent's lives; the identified factors for body image perception should be taken into consideration and appropriate educational efforts to be incorporated into the routine curriculum.

  5. Wave Dynamics in the Channels of Variable Cross-Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Pelinovsky

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of long sea waves in the channels of variable depth and variable rectangular cross-section is discussed within various approximations – from the shallow water equations to those of nonlinear dispersion theory. General approach permitting to find traveling (non-reflective waves in inhomogeneous channels is demonstrated within the framework of the shallow water linear theory. The appropriate conditions are determined by solving a system of ordinary differential equations. The so-called self-consistent channel in which the width is connected with its depth in a specific way is studied in detail. Within the linear theory of shallow water, a wave does not reflect from the bottom irregularities. The wave shape remains unchanged on the records of the wave gauges (mareographs fixed along the channel axis, but it varies in space. Nonlinearity and dispersion lead to the wave transformation in such a channel. Within the framework of the shallow water weakly nonlinear theory, the wave shape is described by the Riemann solution, and the wave breaks (gradient catastrophe quicker in the zones of decreasing depth. The modified Korteweg – de Vries equation describing evolution of a solitary wave of weak but finite amplitude in a self-consistent channel, the depth of which can vary arbitrary, is derived. Some examples of a solitary wave transformation in such a channel are analyzed (particularly, a soliton adiabatic transformation in the channel with the slowly varying parameters, and a solitary wave fission into the group of solitons after it has passed the zone where the depth changes abruptly. The obtained solutions extend the class of those represented earlier by S.F. Dotsenko and his colleagues.

  6. Patients for patient safety in China: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiongwen; Li, Yulin; Li, Jing; Mao, Xuanyue; Zhang, Lijuan; Ying, Qinghua; Wei, Xin; Shang, Lili; Zhang, Mingming

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the baseline status of patients' awareness, knowledge, and attitudes to patient safety in China, and to determine the factors that influence patients' involvement in patient safety. We conducted a cross sectional survey using questionnaires adapted from recent studies on patient safety from outside China. The items included medical errors, infection, medication safety, and other aspects of patient safety. The questionnaire included 17 items and 5 domains. The survey was conducted between Jan. 2009 and Dec. 2010 involving 1000 patients from ten grade-A hospitals in seven provinces or cities in China. Most patients from the surgery departments completed the questionnaires voluntarily and anonymously. Five reviewers independently input the data into Microsoft Excel 2003, and the data were double-checked. Data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 software for differences in the perceptions and attitudes of patients toward patient safety among different genders, ages, and regions. We distributed 1000 questionnaires and collected 959 completed questionnaires (response rate: 96%). Among the respondents, 58% of patients did not know what medical error is. Sixty-five percent of patients wanted disclosure of all medical errors. After errors occurred, 58% of patients wanted explanations of all possible harms that had resulted. Among 187 patients who had experienced medical errors, 83% of patients had sought appropriate legal action. About 52% of patients understood hospital infection, but 28% patients did not know that infections could occur in hospital. Seventy-eight percent of patients thought that medical staff should wash their hands before examining patients. More than half of the patients (68%) were willing to remind the staff of hygiene if they saw unsanitary conditions in a health clinic. Only 14% of patients knew the side effects of medications that they took. The majority of patients surveyed expressed willingness to contribute to patient safety, but their

  7. Pet ownership and adolescent health: cross-sectional population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, Megan; Canterford, Louise; Olds, Tim; Waters, Elizabeth; Wake, Melissa

    2010-12-01

    To determine whether adolescent health and well-being are associated with having a pet in the household (any pet, or specifically dogs, cats or horses/ponies) or average daily time spent caring for/playing with pet(s). Design, setting and participants--Cross-sectional data from the third wave of the Health of Young Victorians Study (HOYVS), a school-based population study in Victoria, Australia. Predictors--Adolescent-reported pet ownership and average daily time spent caring for/playing with pet(s). Outcomes--Self-reported quality of life (KIDSCREEN); average 4-day daily physical activity level from a computerised diary; parent-proxy and self-reported physical and psychosocial health status (PedsQL); measured BMI status (not overweight, overweight, obese) and blood pressure. Statistical Analysis--Regression methods, adjusted for socio-demographic factors, and non-parametric methods. Household pet data were available for 928 adolescents (466 boys; mean age of 15.9 (SD 1.2) years). Most adolescents (88.7%) reported having a pet in their household. Of these, 75.1% reported no activity involving pets over the surveyed days. It appeared that neither owning a pet nor time spent caring for/playing with a pet was related, positively or negatively, to adolescent health or well-being. Despite high rates of pet ownership, adolescents had little interaction with pets. It appears that owning a pet and time spent caring for/playing with a pet was not clearly associated with adolescents' health or well-being. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2010 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  8. Perimenopausal contraception in Turkish women: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharbouch Sema B

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic research has shown that perimenopausal contraception is an important medical issue, because women during the perimenopause still need effective contraception. The objective of the study was to assess the contraceptive choices of perimenopausal Turkish women. Methods This is a descriptive cross-sectional study that in a non – random fashion recruited 202 perimenopausal and naturally menopausal women who lived in a suburban area of Istanbul. Women who took part were aged between 45–59 years old. Chief database used to identify the suitable participants in the district. Subjects who voluntarily participated in the study were interviewed in their homes by the researcher. The analysis of the data was evaluated using percentages. Results The percentage of sexually active women among the participants was 87.6%. A large majority – 80.2% – of the participants did not have any idea of when they should bring contraception to an end. The method most commonly used was withdrawal (Coitus Interruptus, represented by 38.8%. In regard to the participants' choices of medical contraception, those being utilized were the IUD (24.3%, tubal sterilization (8.9%, condom (5.9% and COC (6.4%. Additionally, 18% of women used other traditional methods including vaginal lavage, vaginal aspirin, and even inserting a small sponge presoaked with fresh lemon juice or cola deep into the vagina. Among the perimenopausal women who participated, the IUD was the most popular and appropriate contraceptive method. Conclusion Most perimenopausal Turkish women are still using traditional methods and women's knowledge about contraception in the menopausal stages is very limited. Health professionals should provide information about perimenopausal contraception.

  9. Alcohol misuse among university staff: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Awoliyi

    Full Text Available To examine the prevalence of hazardous drinking among staff in a UK university and its association with key socio-demographic features.A cross-sectional study.A university in the UK.All employees on the university employee database were eligible to participate. Those who completed and returned the questionnaire were included in the sample. Respondents were 131 university employees.An AUDIT cut-off score of ≥8 was used as a measure of hazardous drinking. AUDIT total score as well as a score of ≥1 in each of the three conceptual domains of alcohol consumption (questions 1-3, dependence symptoms (questions 4-6 and alcohol-related problems (questions 7-10 were used as indicators of levels of drinking and alcohol-related consequences. Secondary outcomes were employees' demographics.Over one third (35% of respondents were classified as hazardous drinkers. Twenty three per cent reported having blackouts after drinking and 14% had injuries or had injured someone. The odds of being a hazardous drinker for an employee in central departments (Human Resources, Registry etc is only one third of that of an employee in science and health-related departments (OR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.14 to 0.91. The proportion of hazardous drinkers was higher in males compared to females (43% and 30% respectively, part-time compared to full-time (46% and 34% respectively, and academic compared to non-academic employees (39% and 32% respectively, although these were not statistically significant (p>0.05. Furthermore, age, religion and ethnic origin were not found to be significantly associated with hazardous drinking, although total scores were significantly lower for ethnic minorities compared to white employees (p = 0.019.In this study, hazardous drinking was highly prevalent among university employees. However, overt recruiting of staff to address sensitive issues such as alcohol misuse is problematic.

  10. Drug-related celebrity deaths: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, Johannes M; Bleckwenn, Markus; Schnakenberg, Rieke; Skatulla, Philipp; Weckbecker, Klaus

    2016-12-09

    Celebrities are at risk for premature mortality as well as drug-related death. Despite being a vulnerable patient group, celebrities influence people's health behaviours through biological, psychological and social processes. Therefore, celebrity endorsement of the topic could be one way to challenge the current "opioid endemic". Our aim was to better understand the factors surrounding drug-related celebrity deaths by investigating the incidence as well as substances used between 1970 and 2015 using a cross-sectional study design. We searched public databases for drug-related celebrity deaths between 1970 and 2015. They were categorized for sex, profession, age at death, year of death and substances involved. The main outcome measures are descriptive values including number of drug deaths per year and substances involved. Secondary outcome measures are analytical questions to examine whether and which factors influence age at death and year of death (e.g. type of substance use disorder). We identified 220 celebrities who died a drug-related death with a clear indication of involved substances between 1970 and 2015. The average age at death was 38.6 years; 75% were male. Most celebrities died between the age of 25 and 40. The number of drug-related deaths increased in the 21st century, with a significant increase in the use of prescription opioids. Deaths involving prescription opioids and heroin were associated with a significantly lower mean age at death compared to deaths where these substances were not involved. Compared to the 20th century, the total number of celebrities who died from a drug-related death in the 21st century increased, possibly due to an increased involvement of prescription opioids. Negative effects on individual health decisions of celebrity's followers could be the result.

  11. A global reference for caesarean section rates (C-Model): a multicountry cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, J P; Betran, A P; Dumont, A; de Mucio, B; Gibbs Pickens, C M; Deneux-Tharaux, C; Ortiz-Panozo, E; Sullivan, E; Ota, E; Togoobaatar, G; Carroli, G; Knight, H; Zhang, J; Cecatti, J G; Vogel, J P; Jayaratne, K; Leal, M C; Gissler, M; Morisaki, N; Lack, N; Oladapo, O T; Tunçalp, Ö; Lumbiganon, P; Mori, R; Quintana, S; Costa Passos, A D; Marcolin, A C; Zongo, A; Blondel, B; Hernández, B; Hogue, C J; Prunet, C; Landman, C; Ochir, C; Cuesta, C; Pileggi-Castro, C; Walker, D; Alves, D; Abalos, E; Moises, Ecd; Vieira, E M; Duarte, G; Perdona, G; Gurol-Urganci, I; Takahiko, K; Moscovici, L; Campodonico, L; Oliveira-Ciabati, L; Laopaiboon, M; Danansuriya, M; Nakamura-Pereira, M; Costa, M L; Torloni, M R; Kramer, M R; Borges, P; Olkhanud, P B; Pérez-Cuevas, R; Agampodi, S B; Mittal, S; Serruya, S; Bataglia, V; Li, Z; Temmerman, M; Gülmezoglu, A M

    2016-02-01

    To generate a global reference for caesarean section (CS) rates at health facilities. Cross-sectional study. Health facilities from 43 countries. Thirty eight thousand three hundred and twenty-four women giving birth from 22 countries for model building and 10,045,875 women giving birth from 43 countries for model testing. We hypothesised that mathematical models could determine the relationship between clinical-obstetric characteristics and CS. These models generated probabilities of CS that could be compared with the observed CS rates. We devised a three-step approach to generate the global benchmark of CS rates at health facilities: creation of a multi-country reference population, building mathematical models, and testing these models. Area under the ROC curves, diagnostic odds ratio, expected CS rate, observed CS rate. According to the different versions of the model, areas under the ROC curves suggested a good discriminatory capacity of C-Model, with summary estimates ranging from 0.832 to 0.844. The C-Model was able to generate expected CS rates adjusted for the case-mix of the obstetric population. We have also prepared an e-calculator to facilitate use of C-Model (www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/maternal_perinatal_health/c-model/en/). This article describes the development of a global reference for CS rates. Based on maternal characteristics, this tool was able to generate an individualised expected CS rate for health facilities or groups of health facilities. With C-Model, obstetric teams, health system managers, health facilities, health insurance companies, and governments can produce a customised reference CS rate for assessing use (and overuse) of CS. The C-Model provides a customized benchmark for caesarean section rates in health facilities and systems. © 2015 World Health Organization; licensed by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  12. Partial cross sections for positive and negative ion formation following electron impact on uracil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feil, S.; Gluch, K.; Matt-Leubner, S.; Scheier, P.; Limtrakul, J.; Probst, M.; Deutsch, H.; Becker, K.; Stamatovic, A.; Märk, T. D.

    2004-08-01

    We report absolute partial cross sections for the formation of selected positive and negative ions resulting from electron interactions with uracil. Absolute calibration of the measured partial cross sections for the formation of the three most intense positive ions, the parent C4H4N2O+2 ion and the C3H3NO+ and OCN+ fragment ions, was achieved by normalization of the total single uracil ionization cross section (obtained as the sum of all measured partial single ionization cross sections) to a calculated cross section based on the semi-classical Deutsch-Märk formalism at 100 eV. Subsequently, we used the OCN+ cross section in conjunction with the known sensitivity ratio for positive and negative ion detection in our apparatus (obtained from the well-known cross sections for SF+4 and SF-4 formation from SF6) to determine the dissociative attachment cross section for OCN- formation from uracil. This cross section was found to be roughly an order of magnitude smaller, about 5 × 10-22 m2 at 6.5 eV, compared to our previously reported preliminary value. We attribute this discrepancy to the difficult determination of the uracil target density in the earlier work. Using a reliably calculated cross section for normalization purposes avoids this complication.

  13. Numerics made easy: solving the Navier-Stokes equation for arbitrary channel cross-sections using Microsoft Excel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Christiane; Kotz, Frederik; Giselbrecht, Stefan; Helmer, Dorothea; Rapp, Bastian E

    2016-06-01

    The fluid mechanics of microfluidics is distinctively simpler than the fluid mechanics of macroscopic systems. In macroscopic systems effects such as non-laminar flow, convection, gravity etc. need to be accounted for all of which can usually be neglected in microfluidic systems. Still, there exists only a very limited selection of channel cross-sections for which the Navier-Stokes equation for pressure-driven Poiseuille flow can be solved analytically. From these equations, velocity profiles as well as flow rates can be calculated. However, whenever a cross-section is not highly symmetric (rectangular, elliptical or circular) the Navier-Stokes equation can usually not be solved analytically. In all of these cases, numerical methods are required. However, in many instances it is not necessary to turn to complex numerical solver packages for deriving, e.g., the velocity profile of a more complex microfluidic channel cross-section. In this paper, a simple spreadsheet analysis tool (here: Microsoft Excel) will be used to implement a simple numerical scheme which allows solving the Navier-Stokes equation for arbitrary channel cross-sections.

  14. Research on the Cross Section Precision of High-strength Steel Tube with Rectangular Section in Rotary Draw Bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongliang; Zhao, Hao; Xing, Zhongwen

    2017-11-01

    For the demand of energy conservation and security improvement, high-strength steel (HSS) is increasingly being used to produce safety related automotive components. However, cross-section distortion occurs easily in bending of HSS tube with rectangular section (RS), affecting the forming precision. HSS BR1500HS tube by rotary draw bending is taken as the study object and a description method of cross-section distortion is proposed in this paper. The influence on cross-section precision of geometric parameters including cross-section position, thickness of tube, bend radius etc. are studied by experiment. Besides, simulation of the rotary draw bending of HSS tube with rectangular section by ABAQUS are carried out and compared to the experiment. The results by simulation agree well with the experiment and show that the cross-section is approximately trapezoidal after distortion; the maximum of distortion exists at 45 ∼ 60° of the bending direction; and the absolute and relative distortion values increase with the decreasing of tube thickness or bending radius. Therefore, the results can provide a reference for the design of geometric parameters of HSS tube with rectangular section in rotary draw bending.

  15. Bending-shear interaction of steel I-shaped cross-sections. Statistical investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, R.W.A.; Snijder, H.H.; Maljaars, J.

    2017-01-01

    Clause 6.2 of EN 1993-1-1 covers the cross-sectional resistance of steel sections. The bending-shear interaction design rules for I-shaped cross-sections make use of a reduced yield stress for the web area. On this basis, a reduced design plastic resistance moment allowing for the shear force is

  16. Doctors' Attitude Towards Euthanasia: A Cross-sectional Study Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subba, Sonu Hangma; Khullar, Varun; Latafat, Yusra; Chawla, Khushboo; Nirmal, Apoorva; Chaudhary, Tanvi

    2016-06-01

    Euthanasia is a controversial issue that puts doctors into a dilemma and can have the capacity to end the patients' sufferings. However, it is never an easy decision; hence, this study was planned to find the attitude of practicing doctors of medical colleges in a South Indian city of Mangalore towards euthanasia. A cross sectional study was conducted in March-April 2010 among the doctors practicing in the four medical colleges of Mangalore city. A pretested semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 220 doctors after their informed consent. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 11.5. Mean age of the doctors was 37.9 years (SD=9. 4), most of them were males and belonging to the Hindu religion. Euthanasia was justified according to 46.8% of the doctors in order to curtail the sufferings of the patients or to ameliorate the emotional and financial burden. Another 41% said it should be legalized and 39% said that they would use it if it was legalized. Nevertheless 84.5% of them were concerned that it may be misused if legalized. More than half of them felt it was not justified in the face of moral obligations and legal complications. Religion and department were independently associated with the doctors feeling that euthanasia was justified with 69.4% of Muslim doctors saying it was justified as compared to 59.2% of Hindu doctors (OR=2.82; p=.001) and 59.3% of doctors from medical specialities said it was justified as opposed to 39.8% of doctors from surgical specialities (OR=2.3; p=.008). Despite the illegality of it, 25% of the doctors had received requests from patients and 22.3% from relatives for euthanasia. Though euthanasia is illegal in the country, there are doctors who feel it is justified in some situations, yet not without reservations. The fact that they had been requested for euthanasia by the patients and relatives show that even the public are being aware and accepting the practice. Yet, the law in our country has not changed and it

  17. PHOSPHATE METABOLISM IN KIDNEY DONORS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar Edathedathe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM To study the changes in phosphate metabolism in kidney donors, to study the correlation of albuminuria, fractional excretion of phosphorus [FE Pi] and estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] with fibroblast growth factor 23 [FGF 23] in kidney donors, to study the early tubule interstitial injury in the remnant kidney of donors by measuring urine transforming growth factor beta [TGF beta] levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study in which kidney donors with 1 year or more after donation were included. 69 kidney donors with a mean duration of 5.86 years after kidney donation were studied. Serum phosphate level, fractional excretion of phosphorus [FE Pi] and serum levels of parathyroid hormone were measured. Plasma levels of FGF 23 were measured by a second generation enzyme linked immune sorbent assay [ELISA]. Renal function was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] and degree of albuminuria. Urine levels of transforming growth factor beta [TGF beta] were measured by ELISA. A hypothesis that in kidney donors with reduced nephron number, the single nephron excretion of phosphorus will be increased to maintain normal phosphorus homeostasis and that this increase in single nephron phosphorus excretion may be mediated by FGF 23 was proposed. Testing of this hypothesis was done by studying the correlation between parameters of phosphorus metabolism, FGF 23 and the renal function of the donors. RESULTS The mean eGFR was 70.36 mL/min/1.73 m2 . 52.2% of donors had moderate increase in albuminuria [microalbuminuria], Serum phosphorus, fractional excretion of phosphorus and serum PTH levels were in the normal range. FGF 23 levels were in the normal reference range and showed no correlation with FE pi, eGFR or albuminuria, Urine TGF-beta levels were undetectable in all the donors. DISCUSSION Normal phosphorus homeostasis is maintained in kidney donors. There was no correlation between FE pi and FGF 23 levels. Kidney

  18. Eating patterns of Turkish adolescents: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Mehmet; Akan, Hülya; Izbirak, Güldal; Tanriöver, Özlem; Tilev, Sırma Mine; Yildiz, Anil; Tektaş, Simge; Vitrinel, Ayça; Hayran, Osman

    2010-12-19

    Adolescence is a crucial period for development of dietary behaviors that continue into adulthood and influence the risk of chronic diseases later in life. The aim of this study was to determine the eating patterns of adolescents' and their compliance with the Food Guide Pyramid. 625 students, aged between 11-15 years, from an elementary school in Istanbul, Turkey were enrolled in this cross-sectional survey. A questionnaire of eating patterns (QEP) was administered to all participants. QEP is consisted of questions assessing the knowledge and behaviors on healthy eating, factors affecting food choice, physical activity status and demographical variables. Height and weight of all participants were measured. Physical activity status was determined by questioning about participation in regular sport activities, how much time spent watching TV, playing computer games or doing homework. The mean age of the participants was 12.15 ± 1.15 and 50.5% were female. According to body mass index (BMI) percentiles, 8.3% (52) were obese and 10.2% were overweight. 51% had breakfast every day and only 1.9% met all the recommendations of the Food Guide Pyramid. Among the participants, 31% have fast food at least once every day and 60.8% skip meals. When participants were asked to rate the factors effecting their food choice according to a 10 point Likert scale, the highest mean scores (high impact on food choice) were for the factors; family, health, body perception, teachers and friends; 7.5 ± 3.1, 7.4 ± 3.1, 6.1 ± 3.2, 4.8 ± 3.3 and 4.2 ± 3.0 respectively. Total mean time spent on all passive activities (TV, computer, reading homework etc) per day was 9.8 ± 4.7 hours. In this study we have demonstrated that, adolescents do not have healthy eating patterns. Educational interventions should be planned to decrease the health risks attributable to their eating behaviors.

  19. Eating patterns of Turkish adolescents: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Adolescence is a crucial period for development of dietary behaviors that continue into adulthood and influence the risk of chronic diseases later in life. The aim of this study was to determine the eating patterns of adolescents' and their compliance with the Food Guide Pyramid. Methods 625 students, aged between 11-15 years, from an elementary school in Istanbul, Turkey were enrolled in this cross-sectional survey. A questionnaire of eating patterns (QEP) was administered to all participants. QEP is consisted of questions assessing the knowledge and behaviors on healthy eating, factors affecting food choice, physical activity status and demographical variables. Height and weight of all participants were measured. Physical activity status was determined by questioning about participation in regular sport activities, how much time spent watching TV, playing computer games or doing homework. Results The mean age of the participants was 12.15 ± 1.15 and 50.5% were female. According to body mass index (BMI) percentiles, 8.3% (52) were obese and 10.2% were overweight. 51% had breakfast every day and only 1.9% met all the recommendations of the Food Guide Pyramid. Among the participants, 31% have fast food at least once every day and 60.8% skip meals. When participants were asked to rate the factors effecting their food choice according to a 10 point Likert scale, the highest mean scores (high impact on food choice) were for the factors; family, health, body perception, teachers and friends; 7.5 ± 3.1, 7.4 ± 3.1, 6.1 ± 3.2, 4.8 ± 3.3 and 4.2 ± 3.0 respectively. Total mean time spent on all passive activities (TV, computer, reading homework etc) per day was 9.8 ± 4.7 hours. Conclusions In this study we have demonstrated that, adolescents do not have healthy eating patterns. Educational interventions should be planned to decrease the health risks attributable to their eating behaviors. PMID:21167070

  20. Eating patterns of Turkish adolescents: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayran Osman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescence is a crucial period for development of dietary behaviors that continue into adulthood and influence the risk of chronic diseases later in life. The aim of this study was to determine the eating patterns of adolescents' and their compliance with the Food Guide Pyramid. Methods 625 students, aged between 11-15 years, from an elementary school in Istanbul, Turkey were enrolled in this cross-sectional survey. A questionnaire of eating patterns (QEP was administered to all participants. QEP is consisted of questions assessing the knowledge and behaviors on healthy eating, factors affecting food choice, physical activity status and demographical variables. Height and weight of all participants were measured. Physical activity status was determined by questioning about participation in regular sport activities, how much time spent watching TV, playing computer games or doing homework. Results The mean age of the participants was 12.15 ± 1.15 and 50.5% were female. According to body mass index (BMI percentiles, 8.3% (52 were obese and 10.2% were overweight. 51% had breakfast every day and only 1.9% met all the recommendations of the Food Guide Pyramid. Among the participants, 31% have fast food at least once every day and 60.8% skip meals. When participants were asked to rate the factors effecting their food choice according to a 10 point Likert scale, the highest mean scores (high impact on food choice were for the factors; family, health, body perception, teachers and friends; 7.5 ± 3.1, 7.4 ± 3.1, 6.1 ± 3.2, 4.8 ± 3.3 and 4.2 ± 3.0 respectively. Total mean time spent on all passive activities (TV, computer, reading homework etc per day was 9.8 ± 4.7 hours. Conclusions In this study we have demonstrated that, adolescents do not have healthy eating patterns. Educational interventions should be planned to decrease the health risks attributable to their eating behaviors.

  1. Light element standard cross sections for ENDF/B. Version IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, G.M.; Stewart, L.; Young, P.G.

    1976-09-01

    Several light-element standard cross-section evaluations in the ENDF/B-IV file are described and compared with experimental measurements. The hydrogen scattering cross section has long been accepted as a standard since it is essentially equal to the total cross section which is well known and varies smoothly with incident neutron energy. The /sup 3/He(n,p)T, /sup 6/Li(n,t)..cap alpha.., /sup 10/B(n,..cap alpha../sub 0/)/sup 7/Li, and /sup 10/B(n,..cap alpha../sub 1/)/sup 7/Li*(478-keV ..gamma..) reactions have positive Q values and large thermal cross sections which make them ideal to use in neutron flux monitors. The Yale phase shifts were used to generate the hydrogen elastic scattering cross section and angular distributions while comprehensive R-matrix analyses were performed to determine the /sup 6/Li and /sup 10/B cross sections.

  2. SPECIAL FEATURES OF MAGNETIC PULSE HARDENING PROCESSING OF STEEL CYLINDRICAL PRODUCTS OF VARIABLE CROSS-SECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Alifanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The calculations of the magnetic field induction and the magnetic field intensity were carried out by the Finite Element Method (FEM with the use of the software FEMM. The cylindrical inductor of the Magnetic-Pulse Installation (MPI generates the magnetic field near the surface of the cylindrical steel product as of the uniform as well as variable cross section. It is shown that the regions of the products of the complex cross-section located at the minimal distance to the helix inductor are exposed to highest level of hardening. It is necessary to increase the current pulse in the inductor or to use a split inductor with the variable inner diameter repeating the product profile for hardening of the product regions located at large distances from inductor. The side surfaces of protrusions that are perpendicular to the axis of the system are not exposed to hardening due to the low gradient of the energy density of magnetic field near its surface. In the case of close proximity of the protrusions (for distance less than 1 cm, the material on the product surface in the space between protrusions is not exposedto sufficient hardening.

  3. Particle-driven gravity currents in non-rectangular cross-section channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemach, Tamar

    2015-11-01

    Particle-driven gravity currents are suspensions of dense particles that spread into an ambient fluid due to the difference between the density of the suspension and that of the ambient fluid. During the evolution of the current, particles continually sediment and are deposited from the flow. Particle-driven gravity currents are important in many environmental situations (volcanic ash flows, turbidity currents). In the present work we consider the propagation of a high-Reynolds-number gravity current generated by suspension of heavier particles in fluid of density ρi propagating along a channel into an ambient fluid of the density ρa. The bottom and top of the channel are at z = 0 , H , and the cross-section is given by the quite general -f1 (z) <= y <=f2 (z) for 0 <= z <= H . The flow is modeled by the one-layer shallow-water equation. We solve the problem by the finite-difference numerical code to present typical height h (x , t) , velocity u (x , t) and volume fraction of particles ϕ (x , t) profiles. The methodology is illustrated for flow in typical geometries: power-law, trapezoidal and circle. The presence of the particles reduces the speed of propagation, however the details are depend on the geometry of the cross-section.

  4. Investigation on entrance length for electroosmotic flow in circular and noncircular cross section nanochannel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaakub, Tuan Norjihan Tuan; Yunas, Jumril; Majlis, Burhanuddin Yeop

    2017-09-01

    Characteristics of bulk electroosmotic flow in nanochannel are different to microchannel because the electric double layer (EDL) becomes comparable to the channel height. This work presents a numerical investigation on the entrance length of pure electroosmotic flow inside 3D rectangular, cylinder and triangular nanochannel with same channel length. The electric field is fixed at 250 kV/cm for all models. A finite element analysis has been performed to solve the governing equation for laminar flow under the influenced of an electric field. The entry length estimation for fully developed electroosmotic laminar flow in a circular and noncircular cross sections are compared by evaluating the electroosmotic velocity magnitude and flow profiles at the centre line cut plane inside the nanochannel. The entrance length in nanochannel is found shorter in a smaller depth flow in rectangular, cylinder and triangular channels. While the triangular nanochannel has the shortest entry length for fully developed laminar flow compare to other cross section shape models. The effect of a step change in ζ-potential on the channel wall surface to the electroosmotic flow entrance length is also presented.

  5. Receptive vocabulary in boys with autism spectrum disorder: cross-sectional developmental trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kover, Sara T; McDuffie, Andrea S; Hagerman, Randi J; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2013-11-01

    In light of evidence that receptive language may be a relative weakness for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), this study characterized receptive vocabulary profiles in boys with ASD using cross-sectional developmental trajectories relative to age, nonverbal cognition, and expressive vocabulary. Participants were 49 boys with ASD (4-11 years) and 80 typically developing boys (2-11 years). Receptive vocabulary, assessed with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, was a weakness for boys with ASD relative to age and nonverbal cognition. Relative to expressive vocabulary, assessed with the Expressive Vocabulary Test, receptive vocabulary increased at a lower rate for boys with ASD. Vocabulary trajectories in ASD are distinguished from typical development; however, nonverbal cognition largely accounts for the patterns observed.

  6. Receptive Vocabulary in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Cross-Sectional Developmental Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffie, Andrea S.; Hagerman, Randi J.; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    In light of evidence that receptive language may be a relative weakness for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), this study characterized receptive vocabulary profiles in boys with ASD using cross-sectional developmental trajectories relative to age, nonverbal cognition, and expressive vocabulary. Participants were 49 boys with ASD (4–11 years) and 80 typically developing boys (2–11 years). Receptive vocabulary, assessed with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, was a weakness for boys with ASD relative to age and nonverbal cognition. Relative to expressive vocabulary, assessed with the Expressive Vocabulary Test, receptive vocabulary increased at a lower rate for boys with ASD. Vocabulary trajectories in ASD are distinguished from typical development; however, nonverbal cognition largely accounts for the patterns observed. PMID:23588510

  7. A Cross-Sectional Study of Ageing and Cardiovascular Function over the Baboon Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Kristen R.; Pears, Suzanne; Heffernan, Scott J.; Makris, Angela; Hennessy, Annemarie; Lind, Joanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ageing is associated with changes at the molecular and cellular level that can alter cardiovascular function and ultimately lead to disease. The baboon is an ideal model for studying ageing due to the similarities in genetic, anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics with humans. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the changes in cardiovascular profile of baboons over the course of their lifespan. Methods Data were collected from 109 healthy baboons (Papio hamadryas) at the Australian National Baboon Colony. A linear regression model, adjusting for sex, was used to analyse the association between age and markers of ageing with P 12 years) had significantly shorter telomeres when compared to younger (<3 years) baboons (P = 0.001). Conclusion This study is the first to demonstrate that cardiovascular function alters with age in the baboon. This research identifies similarities within cardiovascular parameters between humans and baboon even though the length of life differs between the two species. PMID:27427971

  8. Hyperuricemia and associated factors: a cross-sectional study of Japanese-Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Poletto

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the prevalence of hyperuricemia and associated risk factors among Japanese-Brazilians. We obtained data on demographic, health history, food intake, and laboratory variables. Chi-square and prevalence ratios were used as measures of association. 35.3% of the subjects presented hyperuricemia, which was more frequent in smokers, males, age > 55 years, with co-morbidities, individuals on uric acid-increasing medication, serum creatinine > 1.4mg/dL, high alcohol consumption, and low consumption of milk and dairy products. In the multivariate analysis, the associations remained significant with gender, overweight, central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and use of specific drugs. Among males, low intake of saturated fat was associated with hyperuricemia. Individuals with hypertension showed a negative association with dairy product consumption. The high hyperuricemia prevalence suggests that changes in nutritional profile and control of associated co-morbidities could help minimize occurrence of this condition.

  9. Association of Preventive Maintenance Therapy Compliance and Peri-Implant Diseases: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Alberto; Wang, Hom-Lay; Nart, José

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to investigate association between peri-implant maintenance therapy (PIMT) and the frequency of peri-implant diseases and to further identify factors that contribute to failure of PIMT compliance. A cross-sectional study on patients who were healthy and partially edentulous was conducted. They were grouped in the following categories according to PIMT compliance: 1) regular compliers (RC) (≥2 PIMT/year); 2) erratic compliers (EC) (maintenance compliance ≥2 PIMT/year seems to be crucial to prevent peri-implantitis in healthy patients. Furthermore, history of periodontal disease and disease severity, as well as its extent and a smoking habit, appear to be factors that influence the compliance risk profile (NCT02789306).

  10. A Cross-Sectional Study of Ageing and Cardiovascular Function over the Baboon Lifespan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen R Yeung

    Full Text Available Ageing is associated with changes at the molecular and cellular level that can alter cardiovascular function and ultimately lead to disease. The baboon is an ideal model for studying ageing due to the similarities in genetic, anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics with humans. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the changes in cardiovascular profile of baboons over the course of their lifespan.Data were collected from 109 healthy baboons (Papio hamadryas at the Australian National Baboon Colony. A linear regression model, adjusting for sex, was used to analyse the association between age and markers of ageing with P 12 years had significantly shorter telomeres when compared to younger (<3 years baboons (P = 0.001.This study is the first to demonstrate that cardiovascular function alters with age in the baboon. This research identifies similarities within cardiovascular parameters between humans and baboon even though the length of life differs between the two species.

  11. Tobacco Usage among Males in Rural Tamil Nadu, India: A Cross-sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaivani Annadurai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowing the prevalence of tobacco use and the socio-demographic profile of users might prove useful in further strengthening the information, education, communicationand regulatory activities, thereby by decreasing tobacco use. The objective was to study the prevalence and pattern of tobacco use among rural men aged 18 years and above in rural area of Tamil Nadu.Methods: A cross sectional study was performed among 714 males aged 18 years and above in Vadagarai village of Tamil Nadu during 2010 and interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Systematic random sampling was used to select the participants. Results: Prevalence of smoking was found to be 36.7%. Cigarette smoking was more common than beedi and smokeless tobacco.Conclusion: Strict enforcement of anti-tobacco legislation and awareness measures targeting ill-effects of tobacco can be intensified to reduce tobacco related morbidity and mortality.

  12. Modeled Neutron Induced Nuclear Reaction Cross Sections for Radiochemistry in the region of Iriduim and Gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, R D; Dietrich, F S; Kelley, K; Escher, J; Bauer, R; Mustafa, M

    2008-02-26

    We have developed a set of modeled nuclear reaction cross sections for use in radiochemical diagnostics. Systematics for the input parameters required by the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model were developed and used to calculate neutron induced nuclear reaction cross sections for targets ranging from osmium (Z = 76) to gold (Z = 79). Of particular interest are the cross sections on Ir and Au including reactions on isomeric targets.

  13. Measurement of reaction cross sections of fission products induced by DT neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Daisuke; Murata, Isao; Takahashi, Akito [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    With the view of future application of fusion reactor to incineration of fission products, we have measured the {sup 129}I(n,2n){sup 128}I reaction cross section by DT neutrons with the activation method. The measured cross section was compared with the evaluated nuclear data of JENDL-3.2. From the result, it was confirmed that the evaluation overestimated the cross section by about 20-40%. (author)

  14. Ionization cross section for a strongly coupled partially ionized hydrogen plasma: variable phase approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baimbetov, F B; Kudyshev, Z A [Department of Physics, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 050012 Almaty (Kazakhstan)], E-mail: Fazylhan.Baimbetov@kaznu.kz, E-mail: Z.Kudyshev@mail.ru

    2009-05-29

    In the present work an electron impact ionization cross section is considered. The electron impact ionization cross section is calculated with the help of a variable phase approach to potential scattering. The Calogero equation is numerically solved, based on a pseudopotential model of interaction between partially ionized plasma particles, which accounts for correlation effects. As a result, scattering phase shifts are obtained. On the basis of the scattering phase shifts, the ionization cross section is calculated.

  15. Measurement of the Drell–Yan differential cross-section $ d/dM ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The measured cross-section is normalized to the cross-section of the -peak region, for both dimuon and dielectron final state, in the dilepton invariant mass range of 15–600 GeV/c2. The normalized cross-section values are quoted in the full phase-space and within the detector acceptance. The effect of final-state radiation ...

  16. Total, direct and dissociative electron impact ionization cross sections of the acetylene molecule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILAN KUREPA

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The total electron impact ionization cross sections of the acetylene molecule have been measured in the incident electron energy range from threshold to 1000 eV. These results are compared with other existing data, obtained by direct measurements of this molecular property or by indirect ones, via the partial ionization cross sections for the formation of different ions. Using three semiempirical equations, the total ionization cross sections were calculated and compared to available data, too. Direct and dissociative ionization cross sections were also calculated by a semiempirical equation and compared to existing data.

  17. Single Top quark production cross section measurements using the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Alhroob, Muhammad; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This proceeding contains single top quark production measurements based on 8 and 13 TeV datasets collected by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. In the t-channel, the total production cross section, the ratio of top quark and top antiquark cross sections, as well as measurements of inclusive and differential cross sections are shown. Measurements of the inclusive production cross section of a single top quark in association with a W boson are included, as well as the first evidence of single top quark production in association with a Z boson.

  18. Cross section calculations for electron scattering from platinum chemotherapeutic compounds. Electron scattering from carboplatin and oxaliplatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żywicka, B.; Możejko, P.

    2013-10-01

    Cross section for electron impact ionization of carboplatin, C6H12N2O4Pt, and oxaliplatin, C8H14N2O4Pt, have been calculated within binary-encounter-Bethe model for energies from the ionization threshold up to 5000 eV. Cross section for elastic electron scattering from carboplatin and oxaliplatin molecules have also been derived using independent atom method (IAM) and additivity rule for collision energies ranging from 50 eV to 3000 eV. Obtained cross sections have been compared with relevant cross sections for cisplatin molecules.

  19. Differential cross sections for the ionization of oriented H2 molecules by electron-impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colgan, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pindzola, M S [AUBURN UNIV; Kaiser, C [UNIV MANCHESTER; Madison, D H [MISSOURI INST.; Robicheaux, F [AUBURN UNIV; Balance, J [ROLLINS COLLEGE

    2008-01-01

    A nonperturbative close-coupling technique is used to calculate differential cross sections for the electron-impact ionization of H{sub 2} at an energy of 35.4 eV. Our approach allows cross sections for any orientation of the molecule with respect to the incident electron beam to be analyzed. New features in the resulting cross sections are found compared with the case where the molecular orientation is averaged, and also with cross sections for He at equivalent electron kinematics. When averaged over all possible molecular orientations, good agreement is found with recent experimental results.

  20. New Tools to Prepare ACE Cross-section Files for MCNP Analytic Test Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Monte Carlo Codes Group

    2016-06-17

    Monte Carlo calculations using one-group cross sections, multigroup cross sections, or simple continuous energy cross sections are often used to: (1) verify production codes against known analytical solutions, (2) verify new methods and algorithms that do not involve detailed collision physics, (3) compare Monte Carlo calculation methods with deterministic methods, and (4) teach fundamentals to students. In this work we describe 2 new tools for preparing the ACE cross-section files to be used by MCNP® for these analytic test problems, simple_ace.pl and simple_ace_mg.pl.

  1. Charge Exchange Cross Sections Measured at Low Energies in Q-Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla; Michelsen, Poul

    1972-01-01

    A new technique for measurements of charge exchange cross sections at low energies is described. The measurements are performed in a single‐ended Q machine. The resonance charge exchange cross section for Cs at 2 eV was found to be 0.6×10−13 cm2±20%.......A new technique for measurements of charge exchange cross sections at low energies is described. The measurements are performed in a single‐ended Q machine. The resonance charge exchange cross section for Cs at 2 eV was found to be 0.6×10−13 cm2±20%....

  2. Investigating fusion dynamics at high angular momentum via fission cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palshetkar, C. S.; Hinde, D. J.; Williams, E.; Ramachandran, K.; Dasgupta, M.; Cook, K. J.; Wakhle, A.; Jeung, D. Y.; Rafferty, D. C.; McNeil, S. D.; Carter, I. P.; Luong, D. H.

    2017-11-01

    A quantitative understanding of fusion dynamics at high angular momentum is attempted employing experimental fission cross sections as a probe and carrying out a simultaneous description of the fusion and fission cross sections at above barrier energies. For this, experimental fission fragment angular distributions for three systems: 16O+148Sm, 28Si+136Ba and 40Ca+124Sn, all forming the same compound nucleus 164Yb at similar excitation energies, have been measured at four beam energies above their respective capture barriers. A simultaneous description of the angle integrated fission cross sections and evaporation residue/fusion cross sections available in literature for the systems is carried out using coupled-channels and statistical model calculations. Fission cross sections, which are most sensitive to the changes in angular momentum, provide very stringent constraints for model calculations thus indicating the need of precision evaporation residue as well as fission cross sections in such studies. A large diffuseness (ao>0.65 fm) of the nuclear potential gives the best reproduction of the experimental data. In addition, different coupling schemes give very different angular momentum distributions, which, in turn, give very different fission cross section predictions. Both these observations hint at the explanation that depending on energy dissipation of the interacting nuclei occurring inside or outside the fusion pocket, very different fission cross sections can result due to heavily altered angular momentum and thus justifies the sensitivity of fission cross sections used as probes in the present work.

  3. pbarp, pbarD, pbar sup 4 He annihilation cross sections at low energy

    CERN Document Server

    Tessaro, S; Capponi, M; Cereda, B; De Castro, S; Ferretti, A; Galli, D; Giacobbe, B; Marconi, U; Piccinini, M; Semprini-Cesari, N; Spighi, R; Vecchi, S; Vezzani, A; Vigotti, F; Villa, M; Vitale, A; Zoccoli, A; Belli, G; Corradini, M; Donzella, A; Lodi-Rizzini, E; Venturelli, L; Zenoni, A; Cicalò, C; Masoni, A; Puddu, G; Serci, S; Temnikov, P P; Usai, G L; Ableev, V G; Denisov, O Yu; Gorchakov, O E; Prakhov, S N; Rozhdestvensky, A M; Sapozhnikov, M G; Tretyak, V I; Poli, M; Gianotti, P; Guaraldo, C; Lanaro, A; Lucherini, V; Nichitiu, F; Petrascu, C; Rosca, A; Cavion, C; Gastaldi, Ugo; Lombardi, M; Vannucci, Luigi; Vedovato, G; Andrighetto, A; Morando, M; Ricci, R A; Bendiscioli, G; Filippini, V; Fontana, A; Montagna, P; Rotondi, A; Saino, A; Salvini, P; Filippi, A; Balestra, F; Botta, E; Bressani, Tullio; Bussa, M P; Busso, L; Calvo, D; Cerello, P G; Costa, S; D'Isep, F; Fava, L; Feliciello, A; Ferrero, L; Garfagnini, R; Grasso, A; Maggiora, A; Marcello, S; Mirfakhraee, N; Panzieri, D; Parena, D; Rossetto, E; Tosello, F; Zosi, G; Agnello, M; Iazzi, F; Minetti, B; Pauli, G; Tessaro, S; Santi, L

    1999-01-01

    New measurements of the pbarp annihilation cross section have been performed with the OBELIX apparatus between 37 and 70 MeV/c. From previous samples of data it was already clear that the 1/p behaviour for the annihilation cross section is drastically modified at very low momenta, due to the Coulomb interaction. However, at the lowest measured momentum (43.6 MeV/c), the annihilation cross section was unexpectedly high; this evidence suggested a more accurate investigation of this region. Furthermore, measurements of annihilation cross section have been performed with pbar impinging on D sub 2 and sup 4 He targets.

  4. Hadron cross sections at ultra high energies and unitarity bounds on diffraction dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yodh, G. B.; Gaisser, T. K.

    1985-01-01

    It was shown that if unitarity bounds on diffractive cross sections are valid at ultra high energies then diffractive dominance models which ascribe the increase in total hadron-hadron cross sections to diffractive processes only are ruled out. Calculations also show that cosmic ray cross sections derived from air shower experiments at ultra high energies clearly rule out models for hadron-hadron cross sections with nat.log ns energy dependence and favor those with nat.log n(2)s variation.

  5. Latex allergy in dental students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangveeravong, Mukda; Sirikul, Jintana; Daengsuwan, Tassalapa

    2011-08-01

    Latex allergy is a major occupational health problem in health care workers who regularly use latex gloves. Dentists are one of the high risk groups for latex allergy and sensitization as it is generally found that healthcare workers (HCW) have 3 times greater prevalence of latex allergy. There are very few studies of latex allergy in HCW in Thailand. To study the prevalence of latex-related symptoms, latex-sensitization and possible risk factors in dental students. A cross-sectional study was performed on all dental students of the Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University, during Dec 2007 to May 2008, using questionnaires and skin prick tests (SPT), using 3 latex extracts prepared from Proglove, Doctor Plus gloves and a commercial latex allergen (Stallergenes, France). SPT was done only in those who were willing and signed informed consents. There were 617 completed questionnaires (87.3%). The mean age of the volunteers was 20.9 +/- 1.7 years with 29.3% male and 70.7% female. The prevalence of latex glove-related symptoms was 5.0%. These symptoms were all local, cutaneous symptoms, ranging from hand pruritus (64.5%), hand eczema (19.4%) and contact urticaria (16.1%). Eight subjects (1.3%) reported pruritus or urticaria on exposure to other rubber products while 12 subjects (1.9%) reported reactions to some fruits. The risk factors for latex-glove allergy were personal history of allergic diseases (atopic dermatitis, urticaria, pruritus and rubber allergy), duration of using gloves more than 18 hours per week, more than 3 pairs of gloves used per day and timing of glove exposure. The 4th to 6th year students were observed significantly more prevalence of symptoms than the 1st to 3rd year students (OR, 3.69; 95% CI, 1.73-7.87; p = 0.0003). SPT for 3 extracts of latex was done in 247 cases (40.0%); overall latex sensitization rate was 14.2%. The commercial extract had higher incidence of latex sensitization compared to the 2 gloves extract. The 1st year

  6. Profile catalogue for airfoil sections based on 3D computations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, F.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Johansen, Jeppe

    2006-01-01

    This report is a continuation of the Wind Turbine Airfoil Catalogue [1] which objective was, firstly to provide a database of aerodynamic characteristics for a wide range of airfoil profiles aimed at wind turbine applications, and secondly to test thetwo-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys2D...... and the actual fluid flow, and thereby the incorrect prediction of airfoil characteristics. In addition, other features of the flow solver, such astransition and turbulence modelling, and their influence onto the numerical results are investigated. Conclusions are drawn regarding the evaluation of airfoil...

  7. From cutting-edge pointwise cross-section to groupwise reaction rate: A primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sublet Jean-Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear research and development community has a history of using both integral and differential experiments to support accurate lattice-reactor, nuclear reactor criticality and shielding simulations, as well as verification and validation efforts of cross sections and emitted particle spectra. An important aspect to this type of analysis is the proper consideration of the contribution of the neutron spectrum in its entirety, with correct propagation of uncertainties and standard deviations derived from Monte Carlo simulations, to the local and total uncertainty in the simulated reactions rates (RRs, which usually only apply to one application at a time. This paper identifies deficiencies in the traditional treatment, and discusses correct handling of the RR uncertainty quantification and propagation, including details of the cross section components in the RR uncertainty estimates, which are verified for relevant applications. The methodology that rigorously captures the spectral shift and cross section contributions to the uncertainty in the RR are discussed with quantified examples that demonstrate the importance of the proper treatment of the spectrum profile and cross section contributions to the uncertainty in the RR and subsequent response functions. The recently developed inventory code FISPACT-II, when connected to the processed nuclear data libraries TENDL-2015, ENDF/B-VII.1, JENDL-4.0u or JEFF-3.2, forms an enhanced multi-physics platform providing a wide variety of advanced simulation methods for modelling activation, transmutation, burnup protocols and simulating radiation damage sources terms. The system has extended cutting-edge nuclear data forms, uncertainty quantification and propagation methods, which have been the subject of recent integral and differential, fission, fusion and accelerators validation efforts. The simulation system is used to accurately and predictively probe, understand and underpin a modern and

  8. Precise measurement of photoresist cross-sectional shape change caused by SEM-induced shrinkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Takeyoshi; Sekiguchi, Tomoko; Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Tanaka, Junichi; Kawada, Hiroki

    2013-04-01

    The mechanism of photoresist shrinkage induced by electron-beam (EB) irradiation was studied. A precise cross-sectional profile of a photoresist pattern was obtained by a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) after atomic layer deposition of HfO2 on the sample patterns. Photoresist lines and spaces fabricated with positive-tone development and negative-tone development were exposed to an EB with much higher dose than a practical dose (to accelerate shrinkage intentionally). The obtained STEM images of the patterns before and after EB irradiation show that the shrinkage of the negative-tone-developed patterns is smaller than that of the positive-tone-developed patterns. This observation is explained by the fact that negative-tone-developed photoresist molecules do not contain protection groups, whose volatilization caused by EB irradiation is one of the origins of shrinkage. Another finding is that the EB irradiation causes top-rounding and necking of the pattern profile as well as linewidth slimming. The rounding of the pattern top profile suggests that the pattern's shape was elastically deformed. In addition, EB irradiation only onto the spaces caused sidewall shrinkage and a necking profile, although no electrons were irradiated directly onto the pattern. These phenomena are considered to be due to the electrons scattered from the spaces to the pattern sidewall. Finally, a Monte Carlo simulation of electron scattering showed that the distribution of the deposited EB energy on the pattern surface corresponds to the above-described change in pattern shape. Consequently, these observations and simulation results clarify the importance of the effect of elastic shape change and the impact of the electrons scattered from the underlying layer onto the sidewall in the mechanism of photoresist shrinkage.

  9. Profile of Caesarian Section in Orotta Maternity Hospital.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information for the research was acquired using the following approaches. 1. Documenting records of total deliveries in general and the caesarian sections in particular from delivery records of Orotta Hospital5. 2. Using data from the Health Management. Information System, MOH Eritrea. Decision. Support System Database ...

  10. Parametric study on shear behaviour for triangular web profile steel section with openings

    Science.gov (United States)

    De'nan, Fatimah; Keong, Choong Kok; Hashim, Nor Salwani; Yan, Kong Jing

    2017-10-01

    The cost of steel section had been the important factor in design process. Hence, triangular web profile which has higher shear capacity than normal flat web had been introduced. In order to reduce the steel weight, opening in web had been introduced. In this paper, a numerical study on shear strength for triangular web profile steel section with opening is carried out. A total of four various opening shapes and sizes of triangular web profile steel section are developed. A comparison of finite element analysis results on triangular web profile steel section with various web openings is reported. Overall results show that in term of deformed shapes, each model of the triangular web profile steel section with openings behave similarly. Triangular web profile steel section without opening has higher ultimate shear strength compared with triangular web profile steel section with openings. The best shape of opening is diamond shape because it's give highest shear buckling capacity compared to circle, square and hexagon shape openings. Reduction in volume for diamond shape is lesser than the reduction in volume for circle, square and hexagon shape openings. The reduction in volume decreases, as the opening size decreases.

  11. Reduction of radar cross-section of a wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Jacob Jeremiah; Brock, Billy C.; Clem, Paul G.; Loui, Hung; Allen, Steven E.

    2016-08-02

    The various technologies presented herein relate to formation of a wind turbine blade having a reduced radar signature in comparison with a turbine blade fabricated using conventional techniques. Various techniques and materials are presented to facilitate reduction in radar signature of a wind turbine blade, where such techniques and materials are amenable for incorporation into existing manufacturing techniques without degradation in mechanical or physical performance of the blade or major alteration of the blade profile.

  12. Total and ionization cross-sections of N2 and CO by positron impact ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Figure 2. Total cross-sections (QT) and elastic cross-sections (Qel) of electron and positron impact with N2. Blue solid line − QT of electron [1]; magenta solid line –. Qel of electron [1]; black solid line – present QT of positron; short dash – present Qel of positron; wine dot – Reid and Wadehra [10] Qel of positron. 484.

  13. Technical note: A stereological analysis of the cross-sectional variability of the femoral osteon population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Chiara; Lynnerup, Niels

    2010-01-01

    to stereological principles on a sample of 28 femoral cross sections of Caucasoid males aged 20-89 years. A regular grid was overlaid on the cross section, and the ROIs were selected as close as possible to the periosteum in the anterior, lateral, and medial regions. The areas consisting of all intact secondary...

  14. The shell structure effects in neutron cross section calculation by a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of the shell structure properties of the nucleus in the calculation of neutron-induced reaction cross-section data based on nuclear reaction theory has been investigated. In this investigation, measured, evaluated and calculated (n.p) reaction cross-section data on la spherical nucleus (i.e. 112Sn) and a deformed ...

  15. The Method of Purging Applied to Repeated Cross-Sectional Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grotenhuis, Manfred te; Eisinga, Rob; Scheepers, Peer

    2004-01-01

    In cross-sectional survey research, it is quite common to estimate the (standardized) effect of independent variable(s) on a dependent variable. However, if repeated cross-sectional data are available, much is to be gained if the consequences of these effects on longitudinal social change are

  16. Does Realized Skewness Predict the Cross-Section of Equity Returns?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amaya, Diego; Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris

    We use intraday data to compute weekly realized variance, skewness, and kurtosis for equity returns and study the realized moments’ time-series and cross-sectional properties. We investigate if this week’'s realized moments are informative for the cross-section of next week'’s stock returns. We f...

  17. MC2-3: Multigroup Cross Section Generation Code for Fast Reactor Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C. H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yang, W. S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-11-08

    The MC2-3 code is a Multigroup Cross section generation Code for fast reactor analysis, developed by improving the resonance self-shielding and spectrum calculation methods of MC2-2 and integrating the one-dimensional cell calculation capabilities of SDX. The code solves the consistent P1 multigroup transport equation using basic neutron data from ENDF/B data files to determine the fundamental mode spectra for use in generating multigroup neutron cross sections. A homogeneous medium or a heterogeneous slab or cylindrical unit cell problem is solved in ultrafine (~2000) or hyperfine (~400,000) group levels. In the resolved resonance range, pointwise cross sections are reconstructed with Doppler broadening at specified isotopic temperatures. The pointwise cross sections are directly used in the hyperfine group calculation whereas for the ultrafine group calculation, self-shielded cross sections are prepared by numerical integration of the pointwise cross sections based upon the narrow resonance approximation. For both the hyperfine and ultrafine group calculations, unresolved resonances are self-shielded using the analytic resonance integral method. The ultrafine group calculation can also be performed for two-dimensional whole-core problems to generate region-dependent broad-group cross sections. Multigroup cross sections are written in the ISOTXS format for a user-specified group structure. The code is executable on UNIX, Linux, and PC Windows systems, and its library includes all isotopes of the ENDF/BVII. 0 data.

  18. Total and Compound Formation Cross Sections for Americium Nuclei: Recommendations for Coupled-Channels Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, J. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-04-11

    Calculations for total cross sections and compound-nucleus (CN) formation cross sections for americium isotopes are described, for use in the 2017 NA-22 evaluation effort. The code ECIS 2006 was used in conjunction with Frank Dietrich's wrapper `runtemplate'.

  19. Age, Adaptive Behavior, and Alzheimer Disease in Down Syndrome: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Dianne E.; Sobsey, Dick

    1994-01-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses compared age-related changes in adaptive functioning in institutionalized adults with and without Down's syndrome. Cross-sectional analysis showed significant differences related to level of functioning but not to age or etiology. Longitudinal analysis showed a decline in self-help and communication skills…

  20. Proton-proton bremsstrahlung cross-sections including the kinematical singularity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahjour-Shafiei, M.; Amir-Ahmadi, H. R.; Bacelar, J. C. S.; Castelijns, R.; Ermisch, K.; van Garderen, E. D.; Gasparic, I.; Harakeh, M. N.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kis, M.; Loehner, H.; Scholten, O.

    Integrated cross-section data for proton-proton bremsstrahlung including the points with the phase-space singularity, which occurs close to the maximum non-coplanarity angle, are presented. A numerical integration of theoretical cross-sections is performed over the non-coplanarity angle to integrate

  1. Elastic scattering and fusion cross-sections in Li + Al reaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. With an aim to understand the effects of breakup and transfer channels on elastic scat- tering and fusion cross-sections in the 7Li + 27Al reaction, simultaneous measurement of elastic scattering angular distributions and fusion cross-sections have been carried out at various energies. (Elab = 8.0–16.0 MeV) around ...

  2. Measurements of inclusive jet and dijet cross sections at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Francavilla, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    This review discusses the measurements of the inclusive jet and dijet cross section performed by the experimental collaborations at the LHC during what is now being called LHC Run 1 (2009 - 2013). It summarises some of the experimental challenges and the techniques used in the measurements of jets cross sections during the LHC Run 1.

  3. Visual Literacy in Primary Science: Exploring Anatomy Cross-Section Production Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Fernández, Beatriz; Ruiz-Gallardo, José Reyes

    2017-01-01

    Are children competent producing anatomy cross-sections? To answer this question, we carried out a case study research aimed at testing graphic production skills in anatomy of nutrition. The graphics produced by 118 children in the final year of primary education were analysed. The children had to draw a diagram of a human cross section,…

  4. Determination of the thermal neutron induced O-17(n,alpha) C-14 reaction cross section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemans, J; Wagemans, C; Bieber, R; Geltenbort, P

    1998-01-01

    The. O-17(n(th),alpha)C-14 reaction cross section was determined at the high flux reactor of the ILL in Grenoble relative to the known N-14(n(th),p)C-14 cross section. For the flux calibration measurements, N-14(2) from the air was used. The O-17(n,alpha) measurements were performed with several

  5. Determination of neutron-induced activation cross sections using nirr-1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermal Activation cross-sections for the (n, γ) reaction were experimentally measured using NIRR-1 facilities. The irradiated target isotopes were 71Ga, 109Ag, 55Mn 94Zr; 96Zr; 238U, 74Se, 75As and 48Ca. In order to obtain reliable activation cross sections, careful attention was paid to neutron irradiation and to the ...

  6. Bond scission cross sections for alpha-particles in cellulose nitrate (LR115)

    CERN Document Server

    Barillon, R; Chambaudet, A; Katz, R; Stoquert, J P; Pape, A

    1999-01-01

    Chemical damage created by alpha-particles in cellulose nitrate (LR115) have been studied by infrared spectroscopy. This technique enables identifying the sensitive bonds and giving an order of magnitude of their scission cross sections for given alpha-particle energies. The high cross sections observed suggest a new description of the track etch velocity in this material.

  7. Using a Time Projection Chamber to Measure High Precision Neutron-Induced Fission Cross Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, Brett [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-06

    2014 LANSCE run cycle data will provide a preliminary 239Pu(n,f) cross section and will quantify uncertainties: PID and Target/beam non-uniformities. Continued running during the 2015 LANSCE run cycle: Thin targets to see both fission fragments and 239Pu(n,f) cross section and fully quantified uncertainties

  8. Measurement of the cross-section of Zγ and limits on ADD models at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... The measurement of the inclusive cross-section for Z production at LHC with 7 TeV proton–proton collision is presented. The electron and muon decay modes are used to reconstruct the boson. The total cross-section is measured for photon transverse energy greater than 10 GeV and with photon and ...

  9. Temperature Effect on O4 Cross Sections for Estimating its Slant Column Density by Using OMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S. S.; Takemura, T.; Kim, J.

    2016-12-01

    The slant column densities (SCDs) of oxygen dimers (O4) have sensitivities to the temperature-dependent O4 cross section used as the input to the radiative transfer model (RTM) calculation. In this study, the linearized pseudo-spherical vector discrete ordinate radiative transfer (VLIDORT) is used as a RTM, which is basically not taken account to the temperature dependence. The simulated SCDs are compared based on the databases between the temperature-independent cross section and the newly investigated temperature-dependent cross section. To adopt the temperature dependence of O4 cross section, the O4 cross section databases of 203 K and 293 K are used for the radiance simulation by interpolating atmospheric layer temperature. Based on the RTM simulation, the temperature-dependent cross section significantly affects the O4 SCD increasing. The O4 SCD is generally estimated 3.9% increase based on the observation geometries of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and the above O4 SCD increase corrects the 20% of total underestimation of the O4 SCD between observation and simulation. The O4 SCD variations due to the surface pressure and background aerosol effect are relatively insignificant as compared to those due to the temperature-dependent cross section. The temperature dependence of cross section makes closer to describe extinction intensities in the real atmosphere by the RTM calculation.

  10. Measurements of effective total macroscopic cross sections and effective energy of continuum beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Hisao [Rikkyo Univ., Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan). Inst. for Atomic Energy

    1998-03-01

    Two practically useful quantities are introduced in this study to characterize a continuum neutron beam and to describe transmission phenomena of the beam in field of quantitative neutron radiography: an effective energy instead of a peak energy or a mean energy of the spectrum and an effective total macroscopic (ETM) cross section instead of a total macroscopic (TM) cross section defined at the monochromatic energy. The effective energy was evaluated by means of energy dependence of ETM cross section. To realize the method a beam quality indicator (BQI) has been proposed recently. Several effective energies were measured for non-filtered, filtered neutron beams, and outputs of neutron guide tubes in world by the BQI. A thermal neutron beam and three beams modulated by Pb filters with different thicknesses are studied to measure ETM cross sections for various materials and summarized in a table. Validity of the effective energy determined by the BQI is discussed relating with ETM cross sections of materials. (author)

  11. Impact of photon cross section systematic uncertainties on Monte Carlo-determined depth-dose distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Aguirre, Eder; David, Mariano; deAlmeida, Carlos E

    2016-01-01

    This work studies the impact of systematic uncertainties associated to interaction cross sections on depth dose curves determined by Monte Carlo simulations. The corresponding sensitivity factors are quantified by changing cross sections in a given amount and determining the variation in the dose. The influence of total cross sections for all particles, photons and only for Compton scattering is addressed. The PENELOPE code was used in all simulations. It was found that photon cross section sensitivity factors depend on depth. In addition, they are positive and negative for depths below and above an equilibrium depth, respectively. At this depth, sensitivity factors are null. The equilibrium depths found in this work agree very well with the mean free path of the corresponding incident photon energy. Using the sensitivity factors reported here, it is possible to estimate the impact of photon cross section uncertainties on the uncertainty of Monte Carlo-determined depth dose curves.

  12. Parameter-free calculation of charge-changing cross sections at high energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Y.; Horiuchi, W.; Terashima, S.; Kanungo, R.; Ameil, F.; Atkinson, J.; Ayyad, Y.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Dillmann, I.; Estradé, A.; Evdokimov, A.; Farinon, F.; Geissel, H.; Guastalla, G.; Janik, R.; Knoebel, R.; Kurcewicz, J.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Marta, M.; Mostazo, M.; Mukha, I.; Nociforo, C.; Ong, H. J.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Scheidenberger, C.; Sitar, B.; Strmen, P.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, J.; Tanihata, I.; Vargas, J.; Weick, H.; Winfield, J. S.

    2016-07-01

    Charge-changing cross sections at high energies are expected to provide useful information on nuclear charge radii. No reliable theory to calculate the cross section has yet been available. We develop a formula using Glauber and eikonal approximations and test its validity with recent new data on carbon isotopes measured at around 900 A MeV. We first confirm that our theory reproduces the cross sections of 12,13,14C+12C consistently with the known charge radii. Next we show that the cross sections of C-1912 on a proton target are all well reproduced provided the role of neutrons is accounted for. We also discuss the energy dependence of the charge-changing cross sections.

  13. Determination of the 243,246,248Cm thermal neutron induced fission cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serot, O.; Wagemans, C.; Vermote, S.; Heyse, J.; Soldner, T.; Geltenbort, P.

    2005-11-01

    The minor actinide waste produced in nuclear power plants contains various Cm-isotopes, and transmutation scenarios require improved fission cross section data. The available thermal neutron induced fission cross section data for 243Cm, 246Cm and 248Cm are not very accurate, so new cross section measurements have been performed at the high flux reactor of the ILL in Grenoble (France) under better experimental conditions (highly enriched samples, very intense and clean neutron beam). The measurements were performed at a neutron energy of 5.38 meV, yielding fission cross section values of (1240±28)b for 243Cm, (25±47)mb for 246Cm and (685±84)mb for 248Cm. From these results, thermal fission cross section values of (572±14)b; (12±25)mb and (316±43)mb have been deduced for 243Cm, 246Cm and 248Cm, respectively.

  14. Self-consistency of electron-THF cross sections using electron swarm techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, M. J. E.; de Urquijo, J.; Serkovic Loli, L. N.; Cocks, D. G.; Boyle, G. J.; Jones, D. B.; Brunger, M. J.; White, R. D.

    2017-11-01

    The drift velocity and first Townsend ionization coefficient of electrons in gaseous tetrahydrofuran are measured over the range of reduced electric fields 4-1000 Td using a pulsed-Townsend technique. The measured drift velocities and Townsend ionization coefficients are subsequently used, in conjunction with a multi-term Boltzmann equation analysis, as a further discriminative assessment on the accuracy and completeness of a recently proposed set of electron-THF vapor cross sections. In addition, the sensitivity of the transport coefficients to uncertainties in the existing cross sections is presented. As a result of that analysis, a refinement of the momentum transfer cross section for electron-THF scattering is presented, along with modifications to the neutral dissociation and dissociative electron attachment cross sections. With these changes to the cross section database, we find relatively good self-consistency between the measured and simulated drift velocities and Townsend coefficients.

  15. A novel, open access, elliptical cross-section magnet for paediatric MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, Stuart; Forbes, Lawrence K.; Doddrell, David M.

    1998-01-01

    Almost all clinical magnetic resonance imaging systems are based on circular cross-section magnets. Recent advances in elliptical cross-section RF probe and gradient coil hardware raise the question of the possibility of using elliptical cross-section magnet systems. This paper presents a methodology for calculating rapidly the magnetic fields generated by a multi-turn coil of elliptical cross-section and incorporates this in a stochastic optimization method for magnet design. An open magnet system of elliptical cross-section is designed that both reduces the claustrophobia for the patients and allows ready access by attending physicians. The magnet system is optimized for paediatric use. The coil geometry produced by the optimization method has several novel features.

  16. Status of the problem of nuclear cross section data for IBA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurbich, A. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Bondarenko 1, 249033, Obninsk (Russian Federation)], E-mail: gurbich@ippe.ru; Bogdanovic-Radovic, I. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka c. 54, P.O. Box 180, 100002 Zagreb (Croatia); Chiari, M. [Insituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare, Via Sansone 1, Sesto Fiorentino, I-50019 Firenze (Italy); Jeynes, C. [University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre, Guildford GU2 7XH England (United Kingdom); Kokkoris, M. [National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 157 80 Athens, Zografou (Greece); Ramos, A.R. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Mayer, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Rauhala, E. [University of Helsinki, Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 64, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Schwerer, O. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Liqun, Shi [Fudan University, Institute of Modern Physics, Shanghai 200433 (China); Vickridge, I. [Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, UMR7588 du CNRS, Universite de Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France)

    2008-04-15

    The progress achieved in an IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to improve the cross section data for IBA is reported. The objective of the CRP, started in 2005, is to create a nuclear cross section database for IBA that contains reliable and usable data freely available to the entire IBA community. The major results achieved so far by the CRP participants are discussed. The results include compilation and assessment of the existing cross sections, new experimental data and evaluation of the most wanted cross sections. The experimental results are incorporated into the IBANDL database ( (www-nds.iaea.org/ibandl/)) and evaluated data are presented at the SigmaCalc cross section calculator ( (www-nds.iaea.org/sigmacalc/))

  17. Orthopaedic nurses' perception of research utilization - A cross sectional survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2015-01-01

    of acceptance from colleagues and section head nurses and a shortage of time. This study forms a baseline as a part of a larger study and contributes knowledge useful to other orthopaedic departments with an interest in optimizing nursing research to improve orthopaedic nursing care quality....

  18. Measuring patients satisfaction: a cross sectional study to improve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To measure the satisfaction of patients attending the OPD in SKIMS tertiary hospital of Soura, India. Methods: Pre-structured questionnaire was framed and data collected from consenting patients attending the OPD of SKIMS hospital. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 12. Settings: OPD section of ...

  19. Flow visualization studies of bodies with square cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, G. T.; Clarkson, M. H.

    1983-01-01

    A water-tunnel study was conducted of four bodies. A solution of sodium fluorescein coating the body provided visualization of vortices and feeding sheets and isolated dots of methyl blue dye provided visualization of stream lines. These data, along with published oil-flow photos, were analyzed to develop the topological representation of the flows in cross-flow planes. Presented are the development of the flow along the body at fixed angles of attack and at a fixed body station with changes in angle of attack. Effects of roll angle, body corner radius, and nose bluntness are illustrated.

  20. Continuous Extraction of Subway Tunnel Cross Sections Based on Terrestrial Point Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhizhong Kang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method for the continuous extraction of subway tunnel cross sections using terrestrial point clouds is proposed. First, the continuous central axis of the tunnel is extracted using a 2D projection of the point cloud and curve fitting using the RANSAC (RANdom SAmple Consensus algorithm, and the axis is optimized using a global extraction strategy based on segment-wise fitting. The cross-sectional planes, which are orthogonal to the central axis, are then determined for every interval. The cross-sectional points are extracted by intersecting straight lines that rotate orthogonally around the central axis within the cross-sectional plane with the tunnel point cloud. An interpolation algorithm based on quadric parametric surface fitting, using the BaySAC (Bayesian SAmpling Consensus algorithm, is proposed to compute the cross-sectional point when it cannot be acquired directly from the tunnel points along the extraction direction of interest. Because the standard shape of the tunnel cross section is a circle, circle fitting is implemented using RANSAC to reduce the noise. The proposed approach is tested on terrestrial point clouds that cover a 150-m-long segment of a Shanghai subway tunnel, which were acquired using a LMS VZ-400 laser scanner. The results indicate that the proposed quadric parametric surface fitting using the optimized BaySAC achieves a higher overall fitting accuracy (0.9 mm than the accuracy (1.6 mm obtained by the plain RANSAC. The results also show that the proposed cross section extraction algorithm can achieve high accuracy (millimeter level, which was assessed by comparing the fitted radii with the designed radius of the cross section and comparing corresponding chord lengths in different cross sections and high efficiency (less than 3 s/section on average.