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Sample records for profiles amino acid

  1. Amino Acid Profile of Biodegraded Brewers Spent Grains (BSG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The amino acids profiles of biodegraded brewers spent grains (BSG) were determined. The analysis revealed the presence of 17 amino acids including the major amino acids (cysteine, lysine and methionine) required in poultry nutrition. The concentrations of the amino acids however varied with the microbial species used ...

  2. Amino acids profile of four Nile fish

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    juba

    Amino acids contents of four commercial Nile fishes in Sudan. M. O. Mohammed* and D. I. Alim. Environment and Natural Resources Research Institute, the National Centre for Research, Khartoum, Sudan. Accepted 28 January, 2012. This study was intended to identify contents of amino acids (AAs) of four commercial Nile ...

  3. Determination of Proximate Composition and Amino Acid Profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate composition and amino acid profile of the seed of 30 Nigerian sesame genotypes were determined based on the standard methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) and the Sequential Multi- sample amino acid Analyzer (TSM). Proximate analysis showed that sesame seed contained ...

  4. Evaluation of methods to estimate the essential amino acids requirements of fish from the muscle amino acid profile

    OpenAIRE

    de Almeida Bicudo,Álvaro José; Possebon Cyrino,José Eurico

    2014-01-01

    Many methods to estimate amino acid requirement based on amino acid profile of fish have been proposed. This study evaluates the methodology proposed by Meyer & Fracalossi (2005) and by Tacon (1989) to estimate amino acids requirement of fish, which do exempt knowledge on previous nutritional requirement of reference amino acid. Data on amino acid requirement of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, were used to validate de accuracy of those methods. Meyer & Fracalossi's and Tacon's methodol...

  5. Proximate composition and amino acid profile of rice husk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Native rice husk (NRH) was fermented with Pleurotus ostreatus for 7, 14 and 21 days to improve the nutritional values. The proximate composition and amino acid profiles were determined. The results showed that crude fibre (CF), nitrogen free extract (NFE), acid detergent fibre (ADF), and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) were ...

  6. Examination of Vitamin and Amino Acid Profiles of Gmelina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examination of Vitamin and Amino Acid Profiles of Gmelina ( Gmelina Arborea ) Fruit and Fruit Pulp. ... (1.28-2.30 g/100g protein), histidine (1.07-1.61 g/100g protein), arginine (2.72-3.50 g/100g protein), aspartic acid (3.65-7.80 g/100g protein), serine (2.05-3.10 g/100g protein), glutamic acid (10.16-13.63 g/100g protein), ...

  7. Amino acid profiles of sufu, a Chinese fermented soybean food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, B.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Sufu is a Chinese soybean cheese-like product obtained by solid-state fungal fermentation and ripening of tofu. The resulting "pehtze" is salted, followed by maturation in brine. Total (TAA) and free amino acid (FAA) profiles were determined during consecutive stages of sufu manufacture, i.e., tofu,

  8. Preliminary analyses and amino acid profile of wild sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tithonia diversifolia (wild sunflower) leaves were harvested, sundried and milled to obtain Tithonia diversifolia leaf meal (TDLM). Samples of the TDLM were analysed for proximate composition, amino acid profile and certain antinutrients. Analysis revealed a composition of 20.6% CP, 18.9% CF, 4.0% EE, 42.5% CHO and ...

  9. Determination of Proximate Composition and Amino Acid Profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Johnny

    livestock nutrition. Keywords: Sesamum indicum; Proximate composition; Amino acid profile; Nutrient value. Correspondence: ubi.benjamin@yahoo.com. Introduction. Sesame ... presence of oxygen in the air to CO2 at a temperature of 600 0C (dry ashing). The % ash content was ..... Effect of Heat Treatment and Defatting.

  10. Fatty acid composition and amino acid profile of two freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate, fatty and amino acids composition of two commercially important freshwater fish species Clarias gariepinus and Tilapia zillii. purchased from local fishermen in two landing sites in Lagos State, Nigeria were determined. Live specimens of C. gariepinus were purchased while samples of T. zillii were stored in ...

  11. Branched chain amino acid profile in early chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Anil Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional status in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients is a predictor of prognosis during the first period of dialysis. Serum albumin is the most commonly used nutritional marker. Another index is plasma amino acid profile. Of these, the plasma levels of branched chain amino acids (BCAA, especially valine and leucine, correlate well with nutritional status. Plasma BCAAs were evaluated along with albumin and C-reactive protein in 15 patients of early stages of CKD and 15 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. A significant decrease in plasma valine, leucine and albumin levels was observed in CKD patients when compared with the controls (P <0.05. No significant difference in C-reactive protein (CRP levels was observed between the two groups. Malnutrition seen in our CKD patients in the form of hypoalbuminemia and decreased concentrations of BCAA points to the need to evaluate the nutritional status in the early stages itself. Simple measures in the form of amino acid supplementation should be instituted early to decrease the morbidity and mortality before start of dialysis in these patients.

  12. Evaluation of methods to estimate the essential amino acids requirements of fish from the muscle amino acid profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro José de Almeida Bicudo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many methods to estimate amino acid requirement based on amino acid profile of fish have been proposed. This study evaluates the methodology proposed by Meyer & Fracalossi (2005 and by Tacon (1989 to estimate amino acids requirement of fish, which do exempt knowledge on previous nutritional requirement of reference amino acid. Data on amino acid requirement of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, were used to validate de accuracy of those methods. Meyer & Fracalossi's and Tacon's methodology estimated the lysine requirement of pacu, respectively, at 13 and 23% above requirement determined using dose-response method. The values estimated by both methods lie within the range of requirements determined for other omnivorous fish species, the Meyer & Fracalossi (2005 method showing better accuracy.

  13. Amino acid, Antioxidant and Ion Profiles of Carpolobia lutea Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amino acid analysis was by cation-exchange chromatography using automated amino acid analyser. Antioxidant potential was obtained by spectrophotometric assay using 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl DPPH while elemental and ionic analyses were carried out by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and potentiometric ...

  14. Amino Acid Profile of Earthworm and Earthworm Meal (Lumbricus Rubellus) for Animal Feedstuff

    OpenAIRE

    L. Istiqomah; A. Sofyan; E. Damayanti; H. Julendra

    2009-01-01

    Earthworm meal (Lumbricus rubellus) has become one of natural material that could be used asfeed additive. Powdering method of earthworm was done by using formic acid addition. The study wascarried out (1) to evaluate the essential amino acid profile of earthworm and earthworm meal, (2) tocalculate the value of essential amino acid index (EAAI) of both materials. A modified EAAI equationwas developed from the essential amino acid profile of earthworm and earthworm meal. The resultshowed that ...

  15. AMINO ACID PROFILE OF EARTHWORM AND EARTHWORM MEAL (Lumbricus rubellus) FOR ANIMAL FEEDSTUFF

    OpenAIRE

    L. Istiqomah; A. Sofyan; E. Damayanti; H. Julendra

    2014-01-01

    Earthworm meal (Lumbricus rubellus) has become one of natural material that could be used asfeed additive. Powdering method of earthworm was done by using formic acid addition. The study wascarried out (1) to evaluate the essential amino acid profile of earthworm and earthworm meal, (2) tocalculate the value of essential amino acid index (EAAI) of both materials. A modified EAAI equationwas developed from the essential amino acid profile of earthworm and earthworm meal. The resultshowed that ...

  16. Amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002222.htm Amino acids To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . ...

  17. Hidden Markov model to predict the amino acid profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handamari, Endang Wahyu

    2017-12-01

    Sequence alignment is the basic method in sequence analysis, which is the process of composing or aligning two or more primary sequences so that the sequence similarity is apparent. One of the uses of this method is to predict the structure or function of an unknown protein by using a known protein information structure or function if the protein has the same sequence in database. Protein are macromolecules that make up more than half of the cell. Proteins are a chain of 20 amino acid combinations. Each type of protein has a unique number and sequence of amino acids. The method that can be applied for sequence alignment is the Genetic Algorithm, the other method is related to the Hidden Markov Model (HMM). The Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is a developmental form of the Markov Chain, which can be applied in cases that can not be directly observed. As Observed State (O) for sequence alignment is the sequence of amino acids in three categories: deletion, insertion and match. As for the Hidden State is the amino acid residue, which can determine the family protein corresponds to observation O.

  18. Amino acid profile of two non-conventional leafy vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves of Sesamum indicum and Balanites aegyptiaca are popularly consumed in Adamawa State of Nigeria largely by the rural communities. They were analyzed to determine proximate nutrient content, amino acid composition and antinutritional factors. Data obtained for proximate composition showed protein ...

  19. Amino Acid, Organic Acid, and Sugar Profiles of 3 Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, K M Maria; Luthria, Devanand

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we compared the amino acid, organic acid and sugar profiles of 3 different varieties of dry beans (black bean [BB], dark red bean [DRB], and cranberry bean [CB]). The efficiency of the 2 commonly used extraction solvents (water and methanol:chloroform:water [2.5:1:1, v/v/v/]) for cultivar differentiation based on their metabolic profile was also investigated. The results showed that the BB contained the highest concentration of amino acids followed by DRB and CB samples. Phenylalanine, a precursor for the biosynthesis of phenolic secondary metabolites was detected at low concentration in CB samples and correlated with the reduced anthocyanins content in CB extract as documented in the published literature. Comparing the extractability of 2 extraction solvents, methanol:chloroform:water (2.5:1:1, v/v/v/) showed higher recoveries of amino acids from 3 beans, whereas, sugars were extracted in higher concentration with water. Analytically, gas chromatography detected sugars (9), amino acids (11), and organic acids (3) in a single run after derivatization of the extracts. In comparison, ion chromatography detected only sugars in a single run without any derivatization step with the tested procedure. Bean samples are better differentiated by the sugar content extracted with water as compared to the aqueous organic solvent extracts using partial least-square discriminant analysis. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. PROFIL ASAM LEMAK DAN ASAM AMINO SUSU KAMBING SEGAR DAN TERFERMENTASI [Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Profile of Fresh and Fermented Goat Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Erna Kustyawati*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the composition of fatty acids and amino acids in fresh and fermented goa-milk. The milk was in oculated with 4% (v/v of L. casei and fermented at 37°C for 48 h. Analysis of fatty acids of fresh and fermented goat and cow’s milk was done by HPLC method, where as amino acid composition was analyzed by GC method. Twenty five semi-trained panelists evaluated the sensory characteristics of fermented milk. Results showed that the fermentation process changed fatty acid profile in goat milk. The saturated fatty acids found in fermented goat-milk were lauric, misristic, and palmitic acid while the unsaturated fatty acids were oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acid. The total amount of saturated fatty acid of fermented goat-milk was higher while unsaturated fatty acid was lower than those in fresh goat milk. The aroma of goaty flavor, strong and musky or “prengus”, was slightly detected in fermented goat milk. Linoleic acid was not detected in fermented goat milk and therefore it was less susceptible from oxidativedeterioration. On the other hand, the fermentation process did not change the profile of amino acids in goat milk. Fermented dairy product made from whole goat milkand cow’s milk was accepted by the panelist as it hadslightly sour taste, yellowish color, and slightly goaty flavor, yet it had high amount of saturated fatty acids.

  1. LCMS analysis of fingerprints, the amino acid profile of 20 donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Puit, Marcel; Ismail, Mahado; Xu, Xiaoma

    2014-03-01

    The analysis of amino acids present in fingerprints has been studied several times. In this paper, we report a method for the analysis of amino acids using an fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl chloride-derivatization for LC separation and MS detection. We have obtained good results with regard to the calibration curves and the limit of detection and LOQ for the target compounds. The extraction of the amino acids from the substrates used proved to be very efficient. Analysis of the derivatized amino acids enabled us to obtain full amino acid profiles for 20 donors. The intervariability is as expected rather large, with serine as the most abundant constituent, and when examining the total profile of the amino acids per donor, a characteristic pattern can be observed. Some amino acids were not detected in some donors, or fell out of the range of the calibration curve, where others showed a surprisingly high amount of material in the deposition analyses. Further investigations will have to address the intravariability of the amino acid profiles of the fingerprints from donors. By the development of the analytical method and the application to the analysis of fingerprints, we were able to gain insight in the variability of the constituents of fingerprints between the donors. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. AMINO ACID PROFILE OF EARTHWORM AND EARTHWORM MEAL (Lumbricus rubellus FOR ANIMAL FEEDSTUFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Istiqomah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Earthworm meal (Lumbricus rubellus has become one of natural material that could be used asfeed additive. Powdering method of earthworm was done by using formic acid addition. The study wascarried out (1 to evaluate the essential amino acid profile of earthworm and earthworm meal, (2 tocalculate the value of essential amino acid index (EAAI of both materials. A modified EAAI equationwas developed from the essential amino acid profile of earthworm and earthworm meal. The resultshowed that essential amino acid of earthworm was dominated by histidine (0.63% of dry matter basis,meanwhile the earthworm meal was dominated by isoleucine (1.98% of dry matter basis. The nonessential amino acid of earthworm and earthworm meal was dominated by glutamic acid (1.52% and3.60% of dry matter basis respectively. The value of essential amino acid index obtained fromearthworm meal was higher (58.67% than those from earthworm (21.23%. It is concluded thatpowdering method of earthworm by using formic acid addition had higher amino acid balance thanearthworm.

  3. Plasma amino acid profiling in major depressive disorder treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hye-In; Chun, Mi-Ryung; Yang, Jeong-Soo; Lim, Shinn-Won; Kim, Min-Ji; Kim, Seon-Woo; Myung, Woo-Jae; Kim, Doh-Kwan; Lee, Soo-Youn

    2015-05-01

    Amino acids are important body metabolites and seem to be helpful for understanding pathogenesis and predicting therapeutic response in major depressive disorder (MDD). We performed amino acid profiling to discover potential biomarkers in major depressive patients treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Amino acid profiling using aTRAQ™ kits for Amino Acid Analysis in Physiological Fluids on a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) system was performed on 158 specimens at baseline and at 6 weeks after the initiation of SSRI treatment for 68 patients with MDD and from 22 healthy controls. Baseline alpha-aminobutyric acid (ABA) discriminated the patients according to the therapeutic response. Plasma glutamic acid concentration and glutamine/glutamic acid ratio were different between before and after SSRI treatment only in the response group. Comparing patients with MDD with healthy controls, alterations of ten amino acids, including alanine, beta-alanine, beta-aminoisobutyric acid, cystathionine, ethanolamine, glutamic acid, homocystine, methionine, O-phospho-L-serine, and sarcosine, were observed in MDD. Metabolism of amino acids, including ABA and glutamic acid, has the potential to contribute to understandings of pathogenesis and predictions of therapeutic response in MDD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. PCI-GC-MS-MS approach for identification of non-amino organic acid and amino acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Hemi; Yang, Lin; Ji, Fenfen; Cai, Zongwei

    2017-03-15

    Alkyl chloroformate have been wildly used for the fast derivatization of metabolites with amino and/or carboxyl groups, coupling of powerful separation and detection systems, such as GC-MS, which allows the comprehensive analysis of non-amino organic acids and amino acids. The reagents involving n-alkyl chloroformate and n-alcohol are generally employed for providing symmetric labeling terminal alkyl chain with the same length. Here, we developed an asymmetric labeling strategy and positive chemical ionization gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (PCI-GC-MS-MS) approach for determination of non-amino organic acids and amino acids, as well as the short chain fatty acids. Carboxylic and amino groups could be selectively labelled by propyl and ethyl groups, respectively. The specific neutral loss of C3H8O (60Da), C3H5O2 (74Da) and C4H8O2 (88Da) were useful in the selective identification for qualitative analysis of organic acids and amino acid derivatives. PCI-GC-MS-MS using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was applied for semi-quantification of typical non-amino organic acids and amino acids. This method exhibited a wide range of linear range, good regression coefficient (R2) and repeatability. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of targeted metabolites showed excellent intra- and inter-day precision (GC-MS-MS, coupled with alkyl chloroformate derivatization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Profile of Fatty Acids, Amino Acids, Carotenoid Total, and α-Tocopherol from Flying Fish Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Azka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Flying fish are found in waters of eastern Indonesia, which until now is still limited information about nutritional content. The purpose of this research was determine the composition of fatty acids, amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol flying fish eggs (Hyrundicthys sp.. The composition of fatty acid was measured by gas chromatography (GC, while amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol was measured by High performanced Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Egg contained 22 fatty acids such as saturated fatty acid 29.71%, monounsaturated fatty acid 7.86%, and polysaturated fatty acid 13.64%. The result showed that eggs flying fish contained 17 amino acids, such as essential amino acid 14.96% and non-essential amino acids 20.27%. Eggs contained a total carotenoid of 245.37 ppm. α-tocopherol content of flying fish eggs by 1.06 ppm.

  6. Impact of the C-N status on the amino acid profile in tobacco source leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Christina; Mueller, Cathrin; Matt, Petra; Feil, Regina; Stitt, Mark

    2006-11-01

    This paper investigates the influence of the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) status on the amino acid profile in tobacco source leaves. Treatments used included growing plants at different light intensities, using an antisense RBCS (small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) construct to inhibit Rubisco activity, growing plants on 12 or 0.5 mM nitrate, comparing wild-types with genotypes that have small and large decreases in nitrate reductase (NIA) activity, and sampling plants at different times during the diurnal cycle. This combination of experiments provides information on how amino acid levels respond to several inputs including the C and N status, nitrate, excess light and light-dark transitions. The data set was analysed using principal component analysis, regression analysis and by normalizing the level of each individual amino acid on the total amino acid pool. Most amino acids show a downward trend when the C or the N status is decreased, and rise during day and fall at night during the diurnal cycle. However, individual amino acids often showed deviating responses. Furthermore, no evidence was found for feedback inhibition of minor amino acid synthesis, either within or between pathways, when 18 individual amino acids were supplied to detached leaves. Results indicate that regulation of amino acid metabolism, for example by the C and N status, leads to qualitatively similar responses of many amino acids, but homeostatic mechanisms involving feedback inhibition within or between individual amino acid biosynthesis pathways are not stringent. All of the above inputs affect the level of phenylalanine, an amino acid that is also the substrate for an important sector of secondary metabolism. The levels of glutamate were remarkably constant, indicating that unknown mechanisms stabilize the concentration of this key central amino acid. Analyses of metabolite levels and feeding experiments indicated that 2-oxoglutarate plays an important role

  7. Changes in amino acid profile of alfalfa silage preserved by chemical and biological additives during fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Michálková

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in amino acid profile of alfalfa silage preserved with chemical or biological additives were studied in fresh and wilted silage. The chemical additive was formic acid and the biological additive consisted of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L. plantarum, L. brevis, L. buchneri and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Second cut alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. was harvested at the bloom stage, ensiled in mini silos (15 dm3 and fermented at 20–23 °C for 12 weeks. The dry matter of the fresh silage was 228 g . kg−1 and 281.6 g . kg−1 for the wilted before ensiling. The amino acid content was estimated by using an automatic amino acid analyzer AAA (INGOS Prague. The results of the experiments indicated that amino acid breakdown was inhibited by increased dry matter and the use of chemical and biological additive. Additionally, the content of amino acids was found to change in relation to the degree of wilting and formic acid treatment yielded the lowest amino acid breakdown. The amino acid breakdown was also reduced by biological preservative especially in the silage with a higher level of dry matter content.

  8. Ion Chromatography Based Urine Amino Acid Profiling Applied for Diagnosis of Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Fan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Amino acid metabolism in cancer patients differs from that in healthy people. In the study, we performed urine-free amino acid profile of gastric cancer at different stages and health subjects to explore potential biomarkers for diagnosing or screening gastric cancer. Methods. Forty three urine samples were collected from inpatients and healthy adults who were divided into 4 groups. Healthy adults were in group A (n=15, early gastric cancer inpatients in group B (n=7, and advanced gastric cancer inpatients in group C (n=16; in addition, two healthy adults and three advanced gastric cancer inpatients were in group D (n=5 to test models. We performed urine amino acids profile of each group by applying ion chromatography (IC technique and analyzed urine amino acids according to chromatogram of amino acids standard solution. The data we obtained were processed with statistical analysis. A diagnostic model was constructed to discriminate gastric cancer from healthy individuals and another diagnostic model for clinical staging by principal component analysis. Differentiation performance was validated by the area under the curve (AUC of receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curves. Results. The urine-free amino acid profile of gastric cancer patients changed to a certain degree compared with that of healthy adults. Compared with healthy adult group, the levels of valine, isoleucine, and leucine increased (P<0.05, but the levels of histidine and methionine decreased (P<0.05, and aspartate decreased significantly (P<0.01. The urine amino acid profile was also different between early and advanced gastric cancer groups. Compared with early gastric cancer, the levels of isoleucine and valine decreased in advanced gastric cancer (P<0.05. A diagnosis model constructed for gastric cancer with AUC value of 0.936 tested by group D showed that 4 samples could coincide with it. Another diagnosis model for clinical staging with an AUC value of 0.902 tested by

  9. Free amino acid profile of Bubalus bubalis L. meat from the Campania region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Landi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study, we determined the amount of carnosine and anserine in water buffalo meat without hanging treatment and the free amino acid profile by using amino acid analyser with post-column ninhydrin derivatization procedure. The main free amino acids present in samples were glutamic acid (>60 mg/100 g, followed by alanine, glycine, and arginine. Other protein amino acids were detected in minor amounts (less than 2 mg/100 g. Among the non-protein amine-containing compounds, taurine and urea were the most abundant. The analysis showed that 50% of the total free amino acids was represented by dipeptides carnosine (average ~130.3 mg/100 g and anserine (average ~17.9 mg/100 g. Thus, this study for the first time reports the free amino acids profile of water buffalo meat and the content of carnosine and anserine, potentially involved in the darkening meat process and their ratio, that could be used to estimate the water buffalo meat portion in mixed meat products.

  10. Profile of Fatty Acids, Amino Acids, Carotenoid Total, and α-Tocopherol from Flying Fish Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Aulia Azka; Nurjanah Nurjanah; Agoes Mardiono Jacoeb

    2015-01-01

    Flying fish are found in waters of eastern Indonesia, which until now is still limited informationabout nutritional content. The purpose of this research was determine the composition offatty acids, amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol flying fish eggs (Hyrundicthys sp.).The composition of fatty acid was measured by gas chromatography (GC), while amino acids,total carotenoids, α-tocopherol was measured by High performanced Liquid Chromatography(HPLC). Egg contained 22 fatty acids such...

  11. Seasonal variations in the amino acid profile and protein nutritional value of Saccharina latissima cultivated in a commercial IMTA system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva Marinho, Goncalo; Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    .9 % (based on WHO/FAO/UNU requirements) was achieved in November 2013. The presence of epiphytes in July to November changed neither the amino acid content nor the EAA score. S. latissima is comparable with wheat as a protein ingredient for fish feed and appears to be a suitable protein/amino acid source......Seaweeds have potential for the provision of biomass for food and feed supplements. The demand is increasing especially for proteins as ingredients; however, the amino acid profile is essential for evaluation of the nutritional value of proteins. The year-round protein concentration and amino acid....... Aspartic and glutamic acids dominated the amino acid profile, accounting for up to 49 % of the total. Greatest seasonal differences in amino acid composition occurred in July, with leucine contributing most (22.7–26.7 %) of the observed differences. A maximal essential amino acid (EAA) score of 68...

  12. Amino acid, Antioxidant and Ion Profiles of Carpolobia lutea Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bayelsa State, Nigeria, 2Department of Biochemistry, 3 Department of Organic Chemistry – Chemistry Institute - São ... medicinal plants potentiate the effects of ... profiles of solvent/fractions of CLL. EXPERIMENTAL. Plant material. CLL was collected from the wild in Itak Ikot. Akap-Ikono LGA, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria in.

  13. Establishing an essential amino acid profile for maintenance in poultry using deletion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorigam, J C P; Sakomura, N K; de Lima, M B; Sarcinelli, M F; Suzuki, R M

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to estimate the essential amino acid profile and the ideal ratio for the maintenance of poultry by deletion method. A nitrogen balance (NB) trial was conducted using 198 adult roosters, housed individually in metabolic cages. The treatments were 33 purified diets being 11 diets with an amino acid mixture providing high protein intake of 500 mg N/BWkg (0.75) per day, 11 diets providing medium protein intake of 250 mg N/BWkg (0.75) per day (in each diet, one amino acid tested was diluted 50%) and 11 diets providing low protein intake of 125 mg N/BWkg (0.75) per day (made by omitting the amino acid tested). Each treatment had six replicates. After 48 h of fasting receiving water plus sucrose, the roosters were fed 40 g of the diets by tube once a day for 3 days. The excreta were collected within 72 h after the first feeding. The diets and excreta were analysed for nitrogen content. For each amino acid studied, a linear regression was fitted by NB and amino acid intake (AAI). The maintenance requirements were estimated as the AAI to maintain the NB equal to zero. The daily amino acid requirements for maintenance were estimated to be Lys 11, Met 29, Thr 23, Trp 5, Arg 50, Val 29, His 6, Gly 54, Phe 49, Leu 78 and Ile 21 mg/BWkg (0.75) per day. Therefore, the amino acid ratio for maintenance was concluded to be Lys 100, Met 276, Thr 220, Trp 48, Arg 467, Val 275, His 60, Gly 511, Phe 467, Leu 735 and Ile 198% independent of the scale. The essential amino acid profile and the ideal ratio for the maintenance of poultry estimated in this study contributed to improve the factorial model for estimating essential amino acid requirements for poultry. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Effects of a honeybee sting on the serum free amino acid profile in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Matysiak

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the response to a honeybee venom by analyzing serum levels of 34 free amino acids. Another goal of this study was to apply complex analytic-bioinformatic-clinical strategy based on up-to-date achievements of mass spectrometry in metabolomic profiling. The amino acid profiles were determined using hybrid triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometer coupled with a liquid chromatography instrument. Serum samples were collected from 27 beekeepers within 3 hours after they were stung and after a minimum of 6 weeks following the last sting. The differences in amino acid profiles were evaluated using MetaboAnalyst and ROCCET web portals. Chemometric tests showed statistically significant differences in the levels of L-glutamine (Gln, L-glutamic acid (Glu, L-methionine (Met and 3-methyl-L-histidine (3MHis between the two analyzed groups of serum samples. Gln and Glu appeared to be the most important metabolites for distinguishing the beekeepers tested shortly after a bee sting from those tested at least 6 weeks later. The role of some amino acids in the response of an organism to the honeybee sting was also discussed. This study indicated that proposed methodology may allow to identify the individuals just after the sting and those who were stung at least 6 weeks earlier. The results we obtained will contribute to better understanding of the human body response to the honeybee sting.

  15. Amino Acid Profiles in Term and Preterm Human Milk through Lactation: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiying Zhang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Amino acid profile is a key aspect of human milk (HM protein quality. We report a systematic review of total amino acid (TAA and free amino acid (FAA profiles, in term and preterm HM derived from 13 and 19 countries, respectively. Of the 83 studies that were critically reviewed, 26 studies with 3774 subjects were summarized for TAA profiles, while 22 studies with 4747 subjects were reviewed for FAA. Effects of gestational age, lactation stage, and geographical region were analyzed by Analysis of Variance. Data on total nitrogen (TN and TAA composition revealed general inter-study consistency, whereas FAA concentrations varied among studies. TN and all TAA declined in the first two months of lactation and then remained relatively unchanged. In contrast, the FAA glutamic acid and glutamine increased, peaked around three to six months, and then declined. Some significant differences were observed for TAA and FAA, based on gestational age and region. Most regional TAA and FAA data were derived from Asia and Europe, while information from Africa was scant. This systematic review represents a useful evaluation of the amino acid composition of human milk, which is valuable for the assessment of protein quality of breast milk substitutes.

  16. Amino acid profiles in term and preterm human milk through lactation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiying; Adelman, Alicia S; Rai, Deshanie; Boettcher, Julia; Lőnnerdal, Bo

    2013-11-26

    Amino acid profile is a key aspect of human milk (HM) protein quality. We report a systematic review of total amino acid (TAA) and free amino acid (FAA) profiles, in term and preterm HM derived from 13 and 19 countries, respectively. Of the 83 studies that were critically reviewed, 26 studies with 3774 subjects were summarized for TAA profiles, while 22 studies with 4747 subjects were reviewed for FAA. Effects of gestational age, lactation stage, and geographical region were analyzed by Analysis of Variance. Data on total nitrogen (TN) and TAA composition revealed general inter-study consistency, whereas FAA concentrations varied among studies. TN and all TAA declined in the first two months of lactation and then remained relatively unchanged. In contrast, the FAA glutamic acid and glutamine increased, peaked around three to six months, and then declined. Some significant differences were observed for TAA and FAA, based on gestational age and region. Most regional TAA and FAA data were derived from Asia and Europe, while information from Africa was scant. This systematic review represents a useful evaluation of the amino acid composition of human milk, which is valuable for the assessment of protein quality of breast milk substitutes.

  17. Profiles of amino acids and biogenic amines in the plasma of Cri-du-Chat patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Danielle Zildeana Sousa; de Moura Leite, Fernando Brunale Vilela; Barreto, Cleber Nunes; Faria, Bernadete; Jedlicka, Leticia Dias Lima; de Jesus Silva, Elisângela; da Silva, Heron Dominguez Torres; Bechara, Etelvino Jose Henriques; Assunção, Nilson Antonio

    2017-06-05

    Cri-du-chat syndrome (CDCS) is a rare innate disease attributed to chromosome 5p deletion characterized by a cat-like cry, craniofacial malformation, and altered behavior of affected children. Metabolomic analysis and a chemometric approach allow description of the metabolic profile of CDCS as compared to normal subjects. In the present work, UHPLC/MS was employed to analyze blood samples withdrawn from CDCS carriers (n=18) and normal parental subjects (n=18), all aged 0-34 years, aiming to set up a representative CDCS profile constructed from 33 targeted amino acids and biogenic amines. Methionine sulfoxide (MetO) was of particular concern with respect to CDCS redox balance. Increased serotonin (3-fold), methionine sulfoxide (2-fold), and Asp levels, and a little lower Orn, citrulline, Leu, Val, Ile, Asn, Gln, Trp, Thr, His, Phe, Met, and creatinine levels were found in the plasma of CDCS patients. Nitrotyrosine and Trp did not differ in normal and CDCS individuals.The accumulated metabolites may reflect, respectively, disturbances in the redox balance, deficient purine biosynthesis, and altered behavior, whereas the amino acid abatement in the latter group may affect the homeostasis of the urea cycle, citric acid cycle, branched chain amino acid synthesis, Tyr and Trp metabolism and amino acid biosynthesis. The identification of enzymatic deficiencies leading to the amino acid burden in CDCS is further required for elucidating its molecular bases and eventually propose specific or mixed amino acid supplementation to newborn patients aiming to balance their metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Plasma amino acid profiling identifies specific amino acid associations with cardiovascular function in patients with systolic heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daihiko Hakuno

    Full Text Available The heart has close interactions with other organs' functions and concomitant systemic factors such as oxidative stress, nitric oxide (NO, inflammation, and nutrition in systolic heart failure (HF. Recently, plasma amino acid (AA profiling as a systemic metabolic indicator has attracted considerable attention in predicting the future risk of human cardiometabolic diseases, but it has been scarcely studied in HF.Thirty-eight stable but greater than New York Heart Association class II symptomatic patients with left ventricular (LV ejection fraction <45% and 33 asymptomatic individuals with normal B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP value were registered as the HF and control groups, respectively. We analyzed fasting plasma concentrations of 41 AAs using high-performance liquid chromatography, serum NO metabolite concentration, hydroperoxide and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein measurements, echocardiography, and flow-mediated dilatation.We found that 17 AAs and two ratios significantly changed in the HF group compared with those in the control group (p < 0.05. In the HF group, subsequent univariate and stepwise multivariate analyses with clinical variables revealed that Fischer ratio and five specific AAs, ie, monoethanolamine, methionine, tyrosine, 1-methylhistidine, and histidine have significant correlation with BNP, LV ejection fraction, LV end-diastolic volume index, inferior vena cava diameter, the ratio of early diastolic velocity of the mitral inflow to mitral annulus, and BNP, respectively (p < 0.05. Interestingly, further exploratory factor analysis categorized these AAs into hepatic-related (monoethanolamine, tyrosine, and Fischer ratio and skeletal muscle-related (histidine, methionine, and 1-methylhistidine components. Some categorized AAs showed unique correlations with concomitant factors: monoethanolamine, tyrosine, and Fischer ratio with serum NO concentration; histidine with serum albumin; and 1-methylhistidine with flow

  19. Exploring the Lean Phenotype of Glutathione-Depleted Mice: Thiol, Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Profiles.

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    Amany K Elshorbagy

    Full Text Available Although reduced glutathione (rGSH is decreased in obese mice and humans, block of GSH synthesis by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO results in a lean, insulin-sensitive phenotype. Data is lacking about the effect of BSO on GSH precursors, cysteine and glutamate. Plasma total cysteine (tCys is positively associated with stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD activity and adiposity in humans and animal models.To explore the phenotype, amino acid and fatty acid profiles in BSO-treated mice.Male C3H/HeH mice aged 11 weeks were fed a high-fat diet with or without BSO in drinking water (30 mmol/L for 8 weeks. Amino acid and fatty acid changes were assessed, as well as food consumption, energy expenditure, locomotor activity, body composition and liver vacuolation (steatosis.Despite higher food intake, BSO decreased particularly fat mass but also lean mass (both P<0.001, and prevented fatty liver vacuolation. Physical activity increased during the dark phase. BSO decreased plasma free fatty acids and enhanced insulin sensitivity. BSO did not alter liver rGSH, but decreased plasma total GSH (tGSH and rGSH (by ~70%, and liver tGSH (by 82%. Glutamate accumulated in plasma and liver. Urine excretion of cysteine and its precursors was increased by BSO. tCys, rCys and cystine decreased in plasma (by 23-45%, P<0.001 for all, but were maintained in liver, at the expense of decreased taurine. Free and total plasma concentrations of the SCD products, oleic and palmitoleic acids were decreased (by 27-38%, P <0.001 for all.Counterintuitively, block of GSH synthesis decreases circulating tCys, raising the question of whether the BSO-induced obesity-resistance is linked to cysteine depletion. Cysteine-supplementation of BSO-treated mice is warranted to dissect the effects of cysteine and GSH depletion on energy metabolism.

  20. Effects of dietary methionine on feed utilization, plasma amino acid profiles and gene expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolland, Marine

    and similar nutritive properties. The major limitation in using pant derived protein, at least when using high quality protein concentrate, is the amino acid profiles of plant protein, which differs from that of fish meal. Their inclusion in aquafeed results in a product deficient in essential amino acids...... (EAA) compared to dietary requirements. Supplementation with amino acids in crystalline from (CAA) is a common practice to balance the dietary amino acid profile to achieve high growth performances. However, complete substitution of fish meal using plant proteins and CAAs often results in poorer growth...... with crystalline amino acids tended to improved nitrogen utilization, almost equaling the results obtained for the fish meal control diet. The relationship between dietary methionine level and form (free, coated and bound), and plasma amino acid profiles was further investigated in Paper II by applying statistical...

  1. Do dietary amino acid profiles affect performance of larval gilthead seabream?

    OpenAIRE

    Aragão, C.; Conceição, L. E. C.; Lacuisse, M.; Yúfera, M.; Dinis, Maria Teresa

    2007-01-01

    Live preys commonly used in fish larval rearing seem to be imbalanced in terms of amino acids. Manipulation of their amino acid composition is di fficult, but the use of microencapsulated diets allows this manipulation. This study analysed the effect of amino acid supplementation, in order to compensate for dietary amino acid imbalances, on growth and survival of gilthead seabream ( Sparus aurata ) larvae.

  2. Dynamic changes in amino acid concentration profiles in patients with sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longxiang Su

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to explore the dynamic concentration profiles of 42 amino acids and the significance of these profiles in relation to sepsis, with the aim of providing guidance for clinical therapies.Thirty-five critically ill patients with sepsis were included. These patients were further divided into sepsis (12 cases and severe sepsis (23 cases groups or survivor (20 cases and non-survivor (15 cases groups. Serum samples from the patients were collected on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 following intensive care unit (ICU admission, and the serum concentrations of 42 amino acids were measured.The metabolic spectrum of the amino acids changed dramatically in patients with sepsis. As the disease progressed further or with poor prognosis, the levels of the different amino acids gradually increased, decreased, or fluctuated over time. The concentrations of sulfur-containing amino acids (SAAs, especially taurine, decreased significantly as the severity of sepsis worsened or with poor prognosis of the patient. The serum concentrations of SAAs, especially taurine, exhibited weak negative correlations with the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA (r=-0.319 and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II (r=-0.325 scores. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of cystine, taurine, and SAA levels and the SOFA and APACHE II scores, which denoted disease prognosis, were 0.623, 0.674, 0.678, 0.86, and 0.857, respectively.Critically ill patients with disorders of amino acid metabolism, especially of SAAs such as cystine and taurine, may provide an indicator of the need for the nutritional support of sepsis in the clinic.ClinicalTrial.gov identifier NCT01818830.

  3. Potential of fermentation profiling via rapid measurement of amino acid metabolism by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalluge, Joseph J; Smith, Sean; Sanchez-Riera, Fernando; McGuire, Chris; Hobson, Russell

    2004-07-16

    Monitoring amino acid metabolism during fermentation has significant potential from the standpoint of strain selection, optimizing growth and production in host strains, and profiling microbial metabolism and growth state. A method has been developed based on rapid quantification of underivatized amino acids using liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) to monitor the metabolism of 20 amino acids during microbial fermentation. The use of a teicoplanin-based chiral stationary phase coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry allows complete amino acid analyses in less than 4 min. Quantification is accomplished using five isotopically labeled amino acids as internal standards. Because comprehensive chromatographic separation and derivatization are not required, analysis time is significantly less than traditional reversed- or normal-phase LC-based amino acid assays. Intra-sample precisions for amino acid measurements in fermentation supernatants using this method average 4.9% (R.S.D.). Inter-day (inter-fermentation) precisions for individual amino acid measurements range from 4.2 to 129% (R.S.D.). Calibration curves are linear over the range 0-300 microg/ml, and detection limits are estimated at 50-450 ng/ml. Data visualization techniques for constructing semi-quantitative fermentation profiles of nitrogen source utilization have also been developed and implemented, and demonstrate that amino acid profiles generally correlate with observed growth profiles. Further, cellular growth events, such as lag-time and cell lysis can be detected using this methodology. Correlation coefficients for the time profiles of each amino acid measured illustrate that while several amino acids are differentially metabolized in similar fermentations, a select group of amino acids display strong correlations in these samples, indicating a sub-population of analytes that may be most useful for fermentation profiling.

  4. GC/MS-based profiling of amino acids and TCA cycle-related molecules in ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Makoto; Nishiumi, Shin; Yoshie, Tomoo; Shiomi, Yuuki; Kohashi, Michitaka; Fukunaga, Ken; Nakamura, Shiro; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Hatano, Naoya; Shinohara, Masakazu; Irino, Yasuhiro; Takenawa, Tadaomi; Azuma, Takeshi; Yoshida, Masaru

    2011-09-01

    The roles that amino acids play in immunity and inflammation are well defined, and the relationship between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and certain amino acids has recently attracted attention. In this study, the levels of amino acids and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) cycle-related molecules in the colonic tissues and sera of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) were profiled by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), with the aim of evaluating whether the clinical state induced by UC leads to variations in the amino acid profile. Colonic biopsy samples from 22 UC patients were used, as well as serum samples from UC patients (n = 13), Crohn's disease (CD) patients (n = 21), and healthy volunteers (n = 17). In the GC/MS-based profiling of amino acids and TCA cycle-related molecules, lower levels of 16 amino acids and 5 TCA cycle-related molecules were observed in the colonic lesion tissues of the UC patients, and the serum profiles of amino acids and TCA cycle-related molecules of the UC patients were different from those of the CD patients and healthy volunteers. Our study raises the possibility that GC/MS-based profiling of amino acids and TCA cycle-related molecules is a useful early diagnostic tool for UC.

  5. The impact of amino acid availability and gene transcription on aroma compound profiling in Saccharomyces yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Procopio, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Aroma is an important quality character of beer. Amino acid (AA) assimilation by yeast during fermentation is linked to the aroma profile. Thus, significant AA on the detected aroma compound spectra were evaluated and DNA microarray analyses were performed to evaluate key genes associated with AA assimilation and its derived aroma active compounds. Further, the single addition of the significant AA on the transcription level of key genes was tested and could be correlated with the final conce...

  6. Impact of gluconic fermentation of strawberry using acetic acid bacteria on amino acids and biogenic amines profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, J L; Sainz, F; Callejón, R M; Troncoso, A M; Torija, M J; García-Parrilla, M C

    2015-07-01

    This paper studies the amino acid profile of beverages obtained through the fermentation of strawberry purée by a surface culture using three strains belonging to different acetic acid bacteria species (one of Gluconobacter japonicus, one of Gluconobacter oxydans and one of Acetobacter malorum). An HPLC-UV method involving diethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate (DEEMM) was adapted and validated. From the entire set of 21 amino acids, multiple linear regressions showed that glutamine, alanine, arginine, tryptophan, GABA and proline were significantly related to the fermentation process. Furthermore, linear discriminant analysis classified 100% of the samples correctly in accordance with the microorganism involved. G. japonicus consumed glucose most quickly and achieved the greatest decrease in amino acid concentration. None of the 8 biogenic amines were detected in the final products, which could serve as a safety guarantee for these strawberry gluconic fermentation beverages, in this regard. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of plant proteins and crystalline amino acid supplementation on postprandial plasma amino acid profiles and metabolic response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolland, Marine; Larsen, Bodil Katrine; Holm, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    The use of aquafeeds formulated with plant protein sources supplemented with crystalline amino acids (CAAs) is believed to influence amino acid (AA) uptake patterns and AA metabolic fate. Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion rates were measured in rainbow trout (468.5 +/- A 86.5 g) force fed 0.......75 % of their body mass with a diet based on either (1) fish meal (FM), (2) pea protein concentrate (PPC), or (3) pea protein concentrate supplemented with histidine, lysine, methionine and threonine (PPC+) to mimic FM AA profile. The specific dynamic action and nitrogen quotient (NQ) were calculated for 48 h...

  8. Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid profile of starry flounder Platichthys stellatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhidong; Wang, Jiying; Qiao, Hongjin; Li, Peiyu; Zhang, Limin; Xia, Bin

    2016-09-01

    Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid (AA) profile of starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus, were investigated and limiting amino acids were estimated compared with the essential AA profile between larvae and live food to clarify starry flounder larval nutritional requirements. Larvae were collected at the egg stage and 0, 2, 4, 7, 12, 17, 24 days after hatching (DAH) for analysis. Larvae grew from 1.91 mm at hatching to 12.13 mm at 24 DAH. Trypsin and chymotrypsin activities changed slightly by 4 DAH and then increased significantly 4 DAH. Pepsin activity increased sharply beginning 17 DAH. Lipase activity increased significantly 4 DAH and increased progressively with larval growth. Amylase activity was also detected in newly hatched larvae and increased 7 DAH followed by a gradual decrease. High free amino acid (FAA) content was detected in starry flounder eggs (110.72 mg/g dry weight). Total FAA content dropped to 43.29 mg/g in 4-DAH larvae and then decreased gradually to 13.74 mg/g in 24-DAH larvae. Most FAAs (except lysine and methionine) decreased >50% in 4-DAH larvae compared with those in eggs and then decreased to the lowest values in 24-DAH larvae. Changes in the protein amino acid (PAA) profile were much milder than those observed for FAAs. Most PAAs increased gradually during larval development, except lysine and phenylalanine. The percentages of free threonine, valine, isoleucine, and leucine decreased until the end of the trial, whereas the protein forms of these four AAs followed the opposite trend. A comparison of the essential AA composition of live food (rotifers, Artemia nauplii, and Artemia metanauplii) and larvae suggested that methionine was potentially the first limiting AA. These results may help develop starry flounder larviculture methods by solving the AA imbalance in live food. Moreover, the increased digestive enzyme activities indicate the possibility of introducing artificial compound feed.

  9. Longitudinal Metabolomic Profiling of Amino Acids and Lipids across Healthy Pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Lindsay

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is characterized by a complexity of metabolic processes that may impact fetal development and ultimately, infant health outcomes. However, our understanding of whole body maternal and fetal metabolism during this critical life stage remains incomplete. The objective of this study is to utilize metabolomics to profile longitudinal patterns of fasting maternal metabolites among a cohort of non-diabetic, healthy pregnant women in order to advance our understanding of changes in protein and lipid concentrations across gestation, the biochemical pathways by which they are metabolized and to describe variation in maternal metabolites between ethnic groups. Among 160 pregnant women, amino acids, tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle intermediates, keto-bodies and non-esterified fatty acids were detected by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, while polar lipids were detected through flow-injected mass spectrometry. The maternal plasma concentration of several essential and non-essential amino acids, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, free carnitine, acetylcarnitine, phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelins significantly decreased across pregnancy. Concentrations of several TCA intermediates increase as pregnancy progresses, as well as the keto-body β-hydroxybutyrate. Ratios of specific acylcarnitines used as indicators of metabolic pathways suggest a decreased beta-oxidation rate and increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 enzyme activity with advancing gestation. Decreasing amino acid concentrations likely reflects placental uptake and tissue biosynthesis. The absence of any increase in plasma non-esterified fatty acids is unexpected in the catabolic phase of later pregnancy and may reflect enhanced placental fatty acid uptake and utilization for fetal tissue growth. While it appears that energy production through the TCA cycle increases as pregnancy progresses, decreasing patterns of free carnitine and acetylcarnitine as

  10. Plasma amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  11. Amino acids content and electrophoretic profile of camel milk casein from different camel breeds in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Salmen, Saleh H.; Abu-Tarboush, Hamza M.; Al-Saleh, Abdulrahman A.; Metwalli, Ali A.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate amino acids content and the electrophoretic profile of camel milk casein from different camel breeds. Milk from three different camel breeds (Majaheim, Wadah and Safrah) as well as cow milk were used in this study.

  12. Chemical composition, mineral content and amino acid and lipid profiles in bones from various fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toppe, Jogeir; Albrektsen, Sissel; Hope, Britt; Aksnes, Anders

    2007-03-01

    The chemical composition, content of minerals and the profiles of amino acids and fatty acids were analyzed in fish bones from eight different species of fish. Fish bones varied significantly in chemical composition. The main difference was lipid content ranging from 23 g/kg in cod (Gadus morhua) to 509 g/kg in mackerel (Scomber scombrus). In general fatty fish species showed higher lipid levels in the bones compared to lean fish species. Similarly, lower levels of protein and ash were observed in bones from fatty fish species. Protein levels differed from 363 g/kg lipid free dry matter (dm) to 568 g/kg lipid free dm with a concomitant inverse difference in ash content. Ash to protein ratio differed from 0.78 to 1.71 with the lowest level in fish that naturally have highest swimming and physical activity. Saithe (Pollachius virens) and salmon (Salmo salar) were found to be significantly different in the levels of lipid, protein and ash, and ash/protein ratio in the bones. Only small differences were observed in the level of amino acids although species specific differences were observed. The levels of Ca and P in lipid free fish bones were about the same in all species analyzed. Fatty acid profile differed in relation to total lipid levels in the fish bones, but some minor differences between fish species were observed.

  13. The overnight effect of dietary energy balance on postprandial plasma free amino acid (PFAA profiles in Japanese adult men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Nishioka

    Full Text Available The plasma free amino acid (PFAA profile is affected by various nutritional conditions, such as the dietary energy balance. Regarding the clinical use of PFAA profiling, it is of concern that differences in food ingestion patterns may generate systematic errors in a plasma amino acid profile and constitute a confounding factor in assessment. In this study, the overnight impact of the dietary energy balance on the postprandial plasma amino acid profile was investigated to elucidate in particular the effects of high protein meals typical in Japanese cuisine. We conducted diet-controlled, crossover trials in eleven healthy male volunteers aged 40-61 y. They consumed either a normal meal (meal N or high protein meal (meal H at dinner. Forearm venous blood was collected, and plasma amino acid concentrations were measured before dinner and the next morning. We found that a high protein meal in the evening that contained 40% energy would significantly increase the PFAA concentration the next morning, even more than 12 hours after the meal. Among amino acids, the most significant difference was observed in the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs and in some urea-cycle related compounds. If the subject consumed the high protein diet at dinner, the PFAA profile after overnight fasting might be still affected by the meal even 12 hours after the meal, suggesting that the PFAA profile does not reflect the subject's health condition, but rather the acute effect of high protein ingestion.

  14. Ingredient classification according to the digestible amino acid profile: an exploratory analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DE Faria Filho

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed: 1 to classify ingredients according to the digestible amino acid (AA profile; 2 to determine ingredients with AA profile closer to the ideal for broiler chickens; and 3 to compare digestible AA profiles from simulated diets with the ideal protein profile. The digestible AA levels of 30 ingredients were compiled from the literature and presented as percentages of lysine according to the ideal protein concept. Cluster and principal component analyses (exploratory analyses were used to compose and describe groups of ingredients according to AA profiles. Four ingredient groups were identified by cluster analysis, and the classification of the ingredients within each of these groups was obtained from a principal component analysis, showing 11 classes of ingredients with similar digestible AA profiles. The ingredients with AA profiles closer to the ideal protein were meat and bone meal 45, fish meal 60 and wheat germ meal, all of them constituting Class 1; the ingredients from the other classes gradually diverged from the ideal protein. Soybean meal, which is the main protein source for poultry, showed good AA balance since it was included in Class 3. On the contrary, corn, which is the main energy source in poultry diets, was classified in Class 8. Dietary AA profiles were improved when corn and/or soybean meal were partially or totally replaced in the simulations by ingredients with better AA balance.

  15. Single amino acid modification of adeno-associated virus capsid changes transduction and humoral immune profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengwen; Diprimio, Nina; Bowles, Dawn E; Hirsch, Matthew L; Monahan, Paul E; Asokan, Aravind; Rabinowitz, Joseph; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Samulski, R Jude

    2012-08-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have the potential to promote long-term gene expression. Unfortunately, humoral immunity restricts patient treatment and in addition provides an obstacle to the potential option of vector readministration. In this study, we describe a comprehensive characterization of the neutralizing antibody (NAb) response to AAV type 1 (AAV1) through AAV5 both in vitro and in vivo. These results demonstrated that NAbs generated from one AAV type are unable to neutralize the transduction of other types. We extended this observation by demonstrating that a rationally engineered, muscle-tropic AAV2 mutant containing 5 amino acid substitutions from AAV1 displayed a NAb profile different from those of parental AAV2 and AAV1. Here we found that a single insertion of Thr from AAV1 into AAV2 capsid at residue 265 preserved high muscle transduction, while also changing the immune profile. To better understand the role of Thr insertion at position 265, we replaced all 20 amino acids and evaluated both muscle transduction and the NAb response. Of these variants, 8 mutants induced higher muscle transduction than AAV2. Additionally, three classes of capsid NAb immune profile were defined based on the ability to inhibit transduction from AAV2 or mutants. While no relationship was found between transduction, amino acid properties, and NAb titer or its cross-reactivity, these studies map a critical capsid motif involved in all steps of AAV infectivity. Our results suggest that AAV types can be utilized not only as templates to generate mutants with enhanced transduction efficiency but also as substrates for repeat administration.

  16. Profiling Amino Acids of Jordanian Scalp Hair as a Tool for Diabetes Mellitus Diagnosis: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashaid, Ayat H B; Harrington, Peter de B; Jackson, Glen P

    2015-07-21

    Hair analysis is an area of increasing interest in the fields of medical and forensic sciences. Human scalp hair has attractive features in clinical studies because hair can be sampled easily and noninvasively from human subjects, and unlike blood and urine samples, it contains a chronological record of medication use. Keratin protein is the major component of scalp hair shaft material and it is composed of 21 amino acids. The method used herein for the amino acid determination in hair included keratin protein acid hydrolysis using 6 M hydrochloric acid (HCl), followed by amino acids derivatization using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA), and the determination of derivatized amino acids by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Amino acid profiles of scalp hair of 27 Jordanian subjects (15 diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 patients and 12 control subjects) were analyzed. A fuzzy rule-building expert system (FuRES) classified the amino acid profiles into diabetic and control groups based on multivariate analyses of the abundance of 14 amino acids. The sensitivity and specificity were 100% for diabetes detection using leave-one-individual-out cross-validation. The areas under the receiver operative characteristics (ROC) curves were 1.0, which represents a highly sensitive and specific diabetes test. The nonessential amino acids Gly and Glu, and the essential amino acid Ile were more abundant in the scalp hair of diabetic patients compared to the hair of control subjects. The associations between the abundance of amino acids of human hair and health status may have clinical applications in providing diagnostic indicator or predicting other chronic or acute diseases.

  17. Egg and whole-body amino acid profile of African bonytongue (Heterotis niloticus) with an estimation of their dietary indispensable amino acids requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monentcham, Serge-Eric; Whatelet, Bernard; Pouomogne, Victor; Kestemont, Patrick

    2010-09-01

    African bonytongue, Heterotis niloticus, is a river fish from the Central and West Africa basin. The species presents a great potential for fish farming and has been increasingly raised in Central and South Cameroon. The total amino acid and proximate composition of the whole body of egg, larva, juvenile, immature, and adult Heterotis were determined. Ash, moisture, whole-body protein, and lipid contents were significantly affected by size (P amino acid composition of the whole-body tissue, when expressed as a percentage of dietary protein, was not significantly different among ontogenetic stages (ranging from 0.2 to 400 g mean body mass). The amino acid composition of the eggs was quite different to the one of whole-body tissue with lower levels of methionine, proline, and glycine, and higher levels of arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, threonine, valine, serine, and alanine. The A/E ratios of adult Heterotis muscle tissue are similar to those obtained for other fish species, except for histidine and tryptophan. Based on whole-body or muscle tissue indispensable amino acids (IAA) to A/E ratios, the IAA requirement profiles for Heterotis (from larva to adult) were estimated and are similar to those of other omnivorous fish species, except for tryptophan and histidine.

  18. Amino acid profiles as potential biomarkers for pediatric cancers: a preliminary communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synakiewicz, Anna; Sawicka-Zukowska, Malgorzata; Adrianowska, Natalia; Galezowska, Grazyna; Ratajczyk, Joanna; Owczarzak, Anna; Konieczna, Lucyna; Stachowicz-Stencel, Teresa

    2017-08-03

    Childhood cancer remains one of the main cause of death in the pediatric population. Amino acids (AAs) level alterations in plasma are considered to play a role in carcinogenesis and further course of the disease. Seventy-seven children with cancer, including 47 with hematological and 30 with solid tumors were enrolled in this study and compared with healthy children. Twenty-two plasma-free AAs were determined by HPLC with fluorometric detection. The results revealed significant decrease in glutamine levels for oncological patients and significant increase in aspartic acid, glutamic acid, asparagine, serine, citrulline, alanine, GABA, tryptophan, methionine, valine, phenylalanine and isoleucine levels in cancer children versus control. Plasma-free AA profile as a biomarker, which combines metabolic and clinical data, as an innovative and interdisciplinary approach, may allow for faster detection of tumor occurrence, and in the future for monitoring patient during treatment, and possible prediction of cancer recurrence.

  19. Trend analysis of the correlation of amino acid plasma profile with glycemic status in Saudi diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad A. Al-Abbasi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of amino acids in diabetes mellitus and its metabolic traits have been suggested previously; however, studied to a very limited scale in the Saudi patient population. Patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus were included in the current clinical study. Sample was representative and in accordance with the national population distribution. Blood samples were drawn and assayed for glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein. General biochemical markers, such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP, creatinine kinase (CK, aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT and blood urea nitrogen (BUN were assessed. Serum amino acids of different categories (essential, semi-essential and metabolic indicator amino acids were assessed. Correlation co-efficient between each amino acid and serum glucose level was calculated. The current study showed positive correlation between amino acid level and glucose serum concentration in male while it showed negative correlation in female Saudi diabetic patients. Male patients had significantly higher methionine concentration parallel to their glycemic status. Metabolic indicator amino acids significantly changed in concordance with the glycemic status of female patients more than in male patients. In conclusion, serum amino acid is positively correlated with glycemic status in Saudi male diabetic patients while negatively correlated in female patients. Yet, further study would be recommended to utilize serum amino acid profile as surrogate parameter for the metabolic complications of diabetes mellitus.

  20. Chemical Composition, Nitrogen Fractions and Amino Acids Profile of Milk from Different Animal Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Rafiq

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Milk composition is an imperative aspect which influences the quality of dairy products. The objective of study was to compare the chemical composition, nitrogen fractions and amino acids profile of milk from buffalo, cow, sheep, goat, and camel. Sheep milk was found to be highest in fat (6.82%±0.04%, solid-not-fat (11.24%±0.02%, total solids (18.05%±0.05%, protein (5.15%±0.06% and casein (3.87%±0.04% contents followed by buffalo milk. Maximum whey proteins were observed in camel milk (0.80%±0.03%, buffalo (0.68%±0.02% and sheep (0.66%±0.02% milk. The non-protein-nitrogen contents varied from 0.33% to 0.62% among different milk species. The highest r-values were recorded for correlations between crude protein and casein in buffalo (r = 0.82, cow (r = 0.88, sheep (r = 0.86 and goat milk (r = 0.98. The caseins and whey proteins were also positively correlated with true proteins in all milk species. A favorable balance of branched-chain amino acids; leucine, isoleucine, and valine were found both in casein and whey proteins. Leucine content was highest in cow (108±2.3 mg/g, camel (96±2.2 mg/g and buffalo (90±2.4 mg/g milk caseins. Maximum concentrations of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and histidine were noticed in goat milk caseins. Glutamic acid and proline were dominant among non-essential amino acids. Conclusively, current exploration is important for milk processors to design nutritious and consistent quality end products.

  1. Blood amino acids profile responding to heat stress in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of heat stress on milk protein and blood amino acid profile in dairy cows. Methods Twelve dairy cows with the similar parity, days in milk and milk yield were randomly divided into two groups with six cows raised in summer and others in autumn, respectively. Constant managerial conditions and diets were maintained during the experiment. Measurements and samples for heat stress and no heat stress were obtained according to the physical alterations of the temperature-humidity index. Results Results showed that heat stress significantly reduced the milk protein content (p<0.05. Heat stress tended to decrease milk yield (p = 0.09. Furthermore, heat stress decreased dry matter intake, the concentration of blood glucose and insulin, and glutathione peroxidase activity, while increased levels of non-esterified fatty acid and malondialdehyde (p<0.05. Additionally, the concentrations of blood Thr involved in immune response were increased under heat stress (p<0.05. The concentration of blood Ala, Glu, Asp, and Gly, associated with gluconeogenesis, were also increased under heat stress (p<0.05. However, the concentration of blood Lys that promotes milk protein synthesis was decreased under heat stress (p<0.05. Conclusion In conclusion, this study revealed that more amino acids were required for maintenance but not for milk protein synthesis under heat stress, and the decreased availability of amino acids for milk protein synthesis may be attributed to competition of immune response and gluconeogenesis.

  2. Total amino acid profiles of heat-processed fresh Elaeis guineensis and Raphia hookeri wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibegbulem, C O; Igwe, C U; Okwu, G N; Ujowundu, C O; Onyeike, E N; Ayalogu, E O

    2013-06-01

    Total amino acid (AA) profiles of heat-processed fresh Elaeis guineensis and Raphia hookeri wines were studied. Heating their fresh wines to 85°C, cooling and diluting to original volumes distilled off ethanol, but did not change their moisture and nitrogen contents. R. hookeri wine contained more (pguineensis wine which contained more (p0.05). Glycine and Pro contents were low suggesting high globular protein concentrations. ∑basic AA/∑acidic AA ratios were >1 suggesting high basic protein contents. The E. guineensis and R. hookeri wines contained 58.25 ± 0.56% and 56.79 ± 0.4% essential AAs, respectively. Essential AA scores suggested Leu as their limiting AA. In conclusion, the wines can adequately meet daily nitrogen and essential AA needs when a 70 kg adult drinks 1425.45 ml. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Variation of whole body amino acid profile in Eurasian perch Perca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Gatsing

    amino acid needs of other fish in order to design and improve their test diets. Wilson and Poe (1985) have reported that the amino acid patterns of fish eggs and whole body tissue have been used for this purpose in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Rumsey and Ketola (1975) reported that improved growth was observed ...

  4. Identification of botanical origin of Chinese unifloral honeys by free amino acid profiles and chemometric methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Sun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The amino acid contents of five floral sources Chinese honeys (jujube, rape, chaste, acacia, and lungan were measured using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. The results showed that proline was the main amino acid in most of the analyzed samples. Phenylalanine presents at the highest content in chaste honey samples, and the total amino acid contents of chaste honeys were also significantly higher than those of other honey samples. Based on the amino acid contents, honey samples were classified using chemometric methods (cluster analysis (CA, principal component analysis (PCA, and discriminant analysis (DA. According to the CA results, chaste honeys could be separated from other honeys, while the remaining samples were correctly grouped together when the chaste honey data were excluded. By using DA, the overall correct classification rate reached 100%. The results revealed that amino acid contents could potentially be used as indicators to identify the botanical origin of unifloral honeys.

  5. Zinc biofortification improves phytochemicals and amino-acidic profile in Brassica oleracea cv. Bronco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrameda-Medina, Yurena; Blasco, Begoña; Lentini, Marco; Esposito, Sergio; Baenas, Nieves; Moreno, Diego A; Ruiz, Juan M

    2017-05-01

    Zn deficiency is currently listed as a major risk factor for human health. Recently, a complimentary solution to mineral malnutrition termed 'biofortification' has been proposed. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of a Zn-biofortification program on Zn levels, amino acidic profile and the phytochemicals content in an edible leafy vegetable, such as Brassica oleracea cv. Bronco. Our results indicate that supplementation of 80-100μM Zn is optimal for maintaining the normal growth of plants and to promote the major Zn concentration in the edible part of B. oleracea. Any further increase of Zn supply induced an accumulation of total amino acids, and increased the enzymatic activities involved in sulfur assimilation and synthesis of phenols, finally resulting in a foliar accumulation of glucosinolates and phenolic compounds. Thus, it could be proposed that the growth of B. oleracea under 80-100μM Zn may increase the intake of this micronutrient and other beneficial compunds for the human health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Reduced dietary protein level influences the free amino acid and gene expression profiles of selected amino acid transceptors in skeletal muscle of growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y H; Li, F N; Wu, L; Liu, Y Y; Wei, H K; Li, T J; Tan, B E; Kong, X F; Wu, F; Duan, Y H; Oladele, O A; Yin, Y L

    2017-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of reduced dietary protein level on growth performance, muscle mass weight, free amino acids (FAA) and gene expression profile of selected amino acid transceptors in different fibre type of skeletal muscle tissues (longissimus dorsi, psoas major, biceps femoris) of growing pigs. A total of 18 cross-bred growing pigs (Large White × Landrace × Duroc) with initial body weight (9.57 ± 0.67 kg) were assigned into three dietary treatments: 20% crude protein (CP) diet (normal recommended, NP), 17% CP diet (low protein, LP) and 14% CP diet (very low protein, VLP). The results indicated improved feed-to-gain ratio was obtained for pigs fed LP and NP diets (p  0.05). Majority of the determined FAA concentration of LP group were greater than or equal to those of NP group in both longissimus dorsi and psoas major muscle (p dietary protein level (3 points of percentage less than recommended level) would upregulate the mRNA expression of amino acid transceptors to enhance the absorption of FAA in skeletal muscle of growing pigs. There seems to be a relationship between response of AA transceptors to the dietary protein level in skeletal muscle tissue of different fibre type. To illustrate the underlying mechanisms will be beneficial to animal nutrition. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Amino Acid Profile, Group of Functional and Molecular Weight Distribution of Goat Skin Gelatin That Produced Through Acid Process

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Irfan Said; Suharjono Triatmojo; Yuny Erwanto; Achmad Fudholi

    2012-01-01

    Gelatin is a product of hydrolysis of collagen protein from animals that are partially processed.  Gelatin used in food and non food industries.  Gelatin is produced when many import of raw skins and bones of pigs and cows.  Goat skins potential as a raw material substitution that still doubt its halal. Process production of gelatin determine the properties of gelatin. The objectives of this research were to determine amino acid profile, group of functional and molecular weight distribution o...

  8. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this process. One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup urine disease. Amino acids are "building blocks" that join together to form ...

  9. Assessment of plasma amino acid profile in autism using cation-exchange chromatography with postcolumn derivatization by ninhydrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Mona Mohamed; Abdel-Al, Hala; Al-Sawi, Mohamed

    2017-02-27

    Autism is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder. This study aimed to assess the clinical significance of amino acid profile assay in autism using cation-exchange chromatography with ninhydrin postcolumn derivatization. This study included 42 autistic children and 26 apparently healthy children. All participants were subjected to the assay of plasma amino acids (essential, nonessential, and nonstandard) using cation-exchange chromatography with postcolumn derivatization by ninhydrin. The levels of most of the essential amino acids were significantly lower in autistic children than controls. As regards nonessential amino acids, significantly lower levels for plasma cysteine, tyrosine, and serine and significantly higher levels for plasma glutamic acid were recorded in autistic children than controls. Finally, the autistic group demonstrated significantly lower levels of α-aminoadipic acid, carnosine, and β-alanine and significantly higher levels of hydroxyproline, phosphoserine, β-amino-isobutyric acid, and ammonia as compared to controls. The study revealed that autistic children exhibit distinct alterations in the plasma levels of some amino acids, which can in turn participate in the disease etiology and can be applied as a diagnostic tool for early detection of autism.

  10. Effects of Dietary Garlic Extracts on Whole Body Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Composition, Muscle Free Amino Acid Profiles and Blood Plasma Changes in Juvenile Sterlet Sturgeon,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hoon Lee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of studies were carried out to investigate the supplemental effects of dietary garlic extracts (GE on whole body amino acids, whole body and muscle free amino acids, fatty acid composition and blood plasma changes in 6 month old juvenile sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus. In the first experiment, fish with an average body weight of 59.6 g were randomly allotted to each of 10 tanks (two groups of five replicates, 20 fish/tank and fed diets with (0.5% or without (control GE respectively, at the level of 2% of fish body weight per day for 5 wks. Whole body amino acid composition between the GE and control groups were not different (p>0.05. Among free amino acids in muscle, L-glutamic acid, L-alanine, L-valine, L-leucine and L-phenylalanine were significantly (p0.05 were noticed at 12 h (74.6 vs 73.0. Plasma insulin concentrations (μIU/ml between the two groups were significantly (p<0.05 different at 1 (10.56 vs 5.06 and 24 h (32.56 vs 2.96 after feeding. The present results suggested that dietary garlic extracts could increase dietary glucose utilization through the insulin secretion, which result in improved fish body quality and feed utilization by juvenile sterlet sturgeon.

  11. Metabolic profiling of plasma amino acids shows that histidine increases following the consumption of pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samman S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Samir Samman,1 Ben Crossett,2 Miles Somers,1 Kirstine J Bell,1 Nicole T Lai,1,3 David R Sullivan,3 Peter Petocz4 1Discipline of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2Discipline of Proteomics and Biotechnology, School of Molecular Bioscience, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4Department of Statistics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Amino acid (AA status is determined by factors including nutrition, metabolic rate, and interactions between the metabolism of AA, carbohydrates, and lipids. Analysis of the plasma AA profile, together with markers of glucose and lipid metabolism, will shed light on metabolic regulation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the acute responses to the consumption of meals containing either pork (PM or chicken (CM, and to identify relationships between plasma AA and markers of glycemic and lipemic control. A secondary aim was to explore AA predictors of plasma zinc concentrations. Ten healthy adults participated in a postprandial study on two separate occasions. In a randomized cross-over design, participants consumed PM or CM. The concentrations of 21 AA, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids, and zinc were determined over 5 hours postprandially. The meal composition did not influence glucose, insulin, triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acid, or zinc concentrations. Plasma histidine was higher following the consumption of PM (P=0.014, with consistently higher changes observed after 60 minutes (P<0.001. Greater percentage increases were noted at limited time points for valine and leucine + isoleucine in those who consumed CM compared to PM. In linear regression, some AAs emerged as predictors of the metabolic responses, irrespective of the meal that was consumed. The present study demonstrates that a single meal of PM or CM produces a differential profile of AA in the

  12. Amino acids and proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Vlaardingerbroek, Hester; van den Akker, Chris H.; de Groof, Femke; van der Schoor, Sophie R. D.

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids and protein are key factors for growth. The neonatal period requires the highest intake in life to meet the demands. Those demands include amino acids for growth, but proteins and amino acids also function as signalling molecules and function as neurotransmitters. Often the nutritional

  13. Amino acids and fatty acids profile of chia (Salvia hispanica L. and flax (Linum usitatissimum L. seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Nitrayová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of most plants are rich in various nutrients and can provide a lot of useful health benefits. The objective of this study was to determine and compare differences in fat, fatty acids, crude protein and amino acids concentrations for chia and flax seeds. Study was carried out using brown and gold seeds of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. and Chia (Salvia hispanica L.. The mean protein content in tested seeds ranged from 211.8 to 252.5 g/kg dry matter and in chia seed was about 13.10% higher than the average value of crude protein content in brown and gold flax seed (223.25 g/kg dry matter. Differences in the content of individual amino acids among the seeds were not statistically significant (P <0.05, except that for glutamic acid. Percentage of the essential to the total amino acids, which is considered as indicator of protein quality, was 37.87%, 33.76% and 35.18%, for chia, brown and gold flax seed respectively, which demonstrates the high quality of these proteins. The average fat content of flax seeds was about 71.42 g/kg higher than that in chia seed (321.37 g/kg dry matter. The fatty acids composition showed the presence of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, α- linolenic and arachidic fatty acids in all tested samples. The α-linolenic acid constitutes on average 54.38% of the total fatty acids of flax seeds and 63.79% of chia seed, and for linoleic acid it was 15.30% and 18.89%. All seeds had low n-6 PUFA / n-3 PUFA ratio. Results of our study confirmed the excellent quality of protein and fat in chia seed, brown and gold flax seed samples. There was no significant effect of the flax seed coat colour for all measured values. Chia seed is the richest of n-3 PUFA α-linolenic fatty acid in the vegetable world. Both, flax seed and chia seed are the good choice of healthy food to maintain a balanced serum lipid profile. It must be pointed that flax seeds must be ground to release their nutrients, but chia seeds do not.

  14. Chemical profile and amino acids composition of edible mushrooms Pleurotus sajor-caju.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyetayo, F L; Akindahunsi, A A; Oyetayo, V O

    2007-01-01

    Two varieties of Pleurotus sajor-caju, obtained from the wild and cultivated (on shredded corncobs) were separated into cap and stalk and analysed on dry weight basis. The proximate composition (g/100 g) showed that both varieties were highly concentrated in crude protein. The cultivated cap (Cc) was found to accumulate higher concentration of crude protein (26.34%) and ash (10.37%) than the wild cap (Wc), which had higher crude fat (3.90%) and crude fibre (16.32%) concentrations while the wild stalk (Ws) contained the highest concentration of crude fibre (26.14%). Amino acid analysis showed the mushroom protein to be a rich source of nutritionally useful essential amino acids with leucine as the most abundant occurring in highest concentration (mg/g) in the Cc (64.8 +/- 0.24). Methionine and cysteine concentrations were low as confirmed by their chemical scores (0.29-0.59). There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in the distribution of amino acids in the mushroom varieties and parts. The total essential amino acid (TEAA) in the cultivated range between 42.91-43.69% while in the wild it was between 42.90-43.73 % of the total amino acid content. The amino acid concentration was a function of mushroom variety and part selected.

  15. Investigation of storage time-dependent alterations of enantioselective amino acid profiles in kimchi using liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Moyu; Konya, Yutaka; Nakano, Yosuke; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2017-10-01

    Although naturally abundant amino acids are represented mainly by l-enantiomers, fermented foods are known to contain various d-amino acids. Enantiospecific profiles of food products can vary due to fermentation by bacteria, and such alterations may contribute to changes in food properties that would not be dependent exclusively on l-amino acids. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the study of temporal alterations of d-amino acid profiles during fermentation process. However, there have been very few studies reporting time-dependent profiling of d-amino acids because enantioseparation of widely targeted d-amino acids is technically difficult. This study aimed to achieve high throughput profiling of amino acids enantiomers. Enantioselective profiling of amino acids using CROWNPAK CR-I(+) column, liquid chromatography, time of flight mass spectrometry, and principle component analysis was performed to investigate time-dependent alterations in concentrations of free d- and l-amino acids in kimchi stored at 4°C or 25°C. We demonstrated significant changes in d- and l-amino acid profiles in kimchi stored at 25°C. In particular, concentrations of the amino acids d-Ala, d-Ser, d-allo-Ile, d-Leu, d-Asp, d-Glu, and d-Met became higher in kimchi with storage time. This is the first report of time-dependent alterations of d- and l-amino acid contents in kimchi. This study showed that our analytical method of enantioselective detection of amino acids using liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS) with CROWNPAK CR-I(+) enables high throughput food screening and can be recommended for advanced studies of the relationship between d-amino acid content and food properties. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A Novel Multivariate Index for Pancreatic Cancer Detection Based On the Plasma Free Amino Acid Profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyasu Fukutake

    Full Text Available The incidence of pancreatic cancer (PC continues to increase in the world, while most patients are diagnosed with advanced stages and survive <12 months. This poor prognosis is attributable to difficulty of early detection. Here we developed and evaluated a multivariate index composed of plasma free amino acids (PFAAs for early detection of PC.We conducted a cross-sectional study in multi-institutions in Japan. Fasting plasma samples from PC patients (n = 360, chronic pancreatitis (CP patients (n = 28, and healthy control (HC subjects (n = 8372 without apparent cancers who were undergoing comprehensive medical examinations were collected. Concentrations of 19 PFAAs were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We generated an index consisting of the following six PFAAs: serine, asparagine, isoleucine, alanine, histidine, and tryptophan as variables for discrimination in a training set (120 PC and matching 600 HC and evaluation in a validation set (240 PC, 28 CP, and 7772 HC.Several amino acid concentrations in plasma were significantly altered in PC. Plasma tryptophan and histidine concentrations in PC were particularly low, while serine was particularly higher than that of HC. The area under curve (AUC based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis of the resulting index to discriminate PC from HC were 0.89 [95% confidence interval (CI, 0.86-0.93] in the training set. In the validation set, AUCs based on ROC curve analysis of the PFAA index were 0.86 (95% CI, 0.84-0.89 for all PC patients versus HC subjects, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.75-0.86 for PC patients from stage IIA to IIB versus HC subjects, and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.80-0.93 for all PC patients versus CP patients.These findings suggest that the PFAA profile of PC was significantly different from that of HC. The PFAA index is a promising biomarker for screening and diagnosis of PC.

  17. iDNA-Prot|dis: identifying DNA-binding proteins by incorporating amino acid distance-pairs and reduced alphabet profile into the general pseudo amino acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Xu, Jinghao; Lan, Xun; Xu, Ruifeng; Zhou, Jiyun; Wang, Xiaolong; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Playing crucial roles in various cellular processes, such as recognition of specific nucleotide sequences, regulation of transcription, and regulation of gene expression, DNA-binding proteins are essential ingredients for both eukaryotic and prokaryotic proteomes. With the avalanche of protein sequences generated in the postgenomic age, it is a critical challenge to develop automated methods for accurate and rapidly identifying DNA-binding proteins based on their sequence information alone. Here, a novel predictor, called "iDNA-Prot|dis", was established by incorporating the amino acid distance-pair coupling information and the amino acid reduced alphabet profile into the general pseudo amino acid composition (PseAAC) vector. The former can capture the characteristics of DNA-binding proteins so as to enhance its prediction quality, while the latter can reduce the dimension of PseAAC vector so as to speed up its prediction process. It was observed by the rigorous jackknife and independent dataset tests that the new predictor outperformed the existing predictors for the same purpose. As a user-friendly web-server, iDNA-Prot|dis is accessible to the public at http://bioinformatics.hitsz.edu.cn/iDNA-Prot_dis/. Moreover, for the convenience of the vast majority of experimental scientists, a step-by-step protocol guide is provided on how to use the web-server to get their desired results without the need to follow the complicated mathematic equations that are presented in this paper just for the integrity of its developing process. It is anticipated that the iDNA-Prot|dis predictor may become a useful high throughput tool for large-scale analysis of DNA-binding proteins, or at the very least, play a complementary role to the existing predictors in this regard.

  18. Distinct Plasma Profile of Polar Neutral Amino Acids, Leucine, and Glutamate in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirouvanziam, Rabindra; Obukhanych, Tetyana V.; Laval, Julie; Aronov, Pavel A.; Libove, Robin; Banerjee, Arpita Goswami; Parker, Karen J.; O'Hara, Ruth; Herzenberg, Leonard A.; Herzenberg, Leonore A.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to examine plasma amino acid (AA) levels in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD, N = 27) and neuro-typically developing controls (N = 20). We observed reduced plasma levels of most polar neutral AA and leucine in children with ASD. This AA profile conferred significant post hoc power for discriminating…

  19. Pyruvate: immunonutritional effects on neutrophil intracellular amino or alpha-keto acid profiles and reactive oxygen species production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathioudakis, D.; Engel, J.; Welters, I.D.; Dehne, M.G.; Matejec, R.; Harbach, H.; Henrich, M.; Schwandner, T.; Fuchs, M.; Weismuller, K.; Scheffer, G.J.; Muhling, J.

    2011-01-01

    For the first time the immunonutritional role of pyruvate on neutrophils (PMN), free alpha-keto and amino acid profiles, important reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced [superoxide anion (O(2) (-)), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))] as well as released myeloperoxidase (MPO) acitivity has been

  20. Determination of underivatized amino acid delta(13)C by liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry for nutritional studies: the effect of dietary non-essential amino acid profile on the isotopic signature of individual amino acids in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullagh, James; Gaye-Siessegger, Julia; Focken, Ulfert

    2008-06-01

    This study provides data for the effect of dietary non-essential amino acid composition on the delta(13)C values of individual amino acids in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using liquid chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS). In this experiment, trout were reared either on a control diet or on three experimental diets, differing in the composition of non-essential/conditionally essential amino acids, for a period of 6 weeks. The control diet was a commercial trout starter feed with fish meal as the main protein source. The experimental diets contained no protein, only synthetic amino acids. Diet 1 resembled the composition of fish meal in both essential and non-essential amino acids, Diet 2 had all essential amino acids, but cysteine, glycine, proline and tyrosine were replaced by the corresponding amounts of their precursors, and in Diet 3 all non-essential amino acids were replaced by glutamate. LC/IRMS was used for the determination of delta(13)C values of individual amino acids from diets and tissues without derivatization. Diet affected the delta(13)C of individual amino acids in fish. For fish on Diets 1-3 amino acid delta(13)C values showed a similar trend: phenylalanine showed very little change from diet to body tissue. Arginine, lysine, tyrosine and proline showed strong depletion from diet to body tissue and glycine, alanine, aspartate and serine all showed variable but strong enrichment in (13)C. Improvements are necessary before all amino acid delta(13)C values can be determined; however, this study demonstrates that measuring amino acid isotopic signatures by LC/IRMS is a promising new technique for nutritional physiologists.

  1. Quantitative amino acid profiling and stable isotopically labeled amino acid tracer enrichment used for in vivo human systemic and tissue kinetics measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornø, Andreas; van Hall, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    . The present study describes a new sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry method quantifying 20 amino acids and their tracer(s) ([ring-(13)C6]/D5Phenylalanine) in human plasma and skeletal muscle specimens. Before analysis amino acids were extracted and purified via deprotonization/ion...... exchange, derivatized using a phenylisothiocyanate reagent and each amino acid was quantitated with its own stable isotopically labeled internal standard (uniformly labeled-(13)C/(15)N). The method was validated according to general recommendations for chromatographic analytical methods. The calibration...

  2. Parenteral Nutrition: Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2017-03-10

    There is growing interest in nutrition therapies that deliver a generous amount of protein, but not a toxic amount of energy, to protein-catabolic critically ill patients. Parenteral amino acids can achieve this goal. This article summarizes the biochemical and nutritional principles that guide parenteral amino acid therapy, explains how parenteral amino acid solutions are formulated, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different parenteral amino acid products with enterally-delivered whole protein products in the context of protein-catabolic critical illness.

  3. Amino acid profiles of lactic acid bacteria, isolated from kefir grains and kefir starter made from them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simova, Emilina; Simov, Zhelyasko; Beshkova, Dora; Frengova, Ginka; Dimitrov, Zhechko; Spasov, Zdravko

    2006-03-15

    The characteristics of cell growth, lactic acid production, amino acid release and consumption by single-strain cultures of lactic acid bacteria (isolated from kefir grains), and by a multiple-strain kefir starter prepared from them, were studied. The change in the levels of free amino acids was followed throughout the kefir process: single-strain kefir bacteria and the kefir starter (Lactococcus lactis C15-1%+Lactobacillus helveticus MP12-3%+(Streptococcus thermophilus T15+Lactobacillus bulgaricus HP1 = 1:1)-3%) were cultivated in pasteurized (92 degrees C for 20 min) cow's milk (3% fat content) at 28 degrees C for 5 h (the kefir starter reached pH 4.7) and subsequently grown at 20 degrees C for 16 h; storage was at 4 degrees C for 168 h. The strain L. helveticus MP12 was unrivaled with respect to free amino acid production (53.38 mg (100 g)(-1)) and cell growth (17.8 x 10(8) CFU ml(-1)); however, it manifested the lowest acidification activity. L. bulgaricus HP1 released approximately 3.7 times less amino acids, nearly 5 times lower cell growth, and produced about 1.2 times more lactic acid. S. thermophilus T15 demonstrated dramatically complex amino acid necessities for growth and metabolism. With L. lactis C15, the highest levels of growth and lactic acid synthesis were recorded (18.3 x 10(8) CFU ml(-1) and 7.8 g l(-1) lactic acid at the 21st hour), and as for free amino acid production, it approximated L. bulgaricus HP1 (17.03 mg (100 g)(-1) maximum concentration). In the L. lactis C15 culture, the amino acids were used more actively throughout the first exponential growth phase (by the 10th hour) than during the second growth phase. The unique properties of the L. helveticus MP12 strain to produce amino acids were employed to create a symbiotic bioconsortium kefir culture, which, under conditions of kefir formation, enhanced lactic acid production and shortened the time required to reach pH 4.7; intensified cell growth activity, resulting in a respective 90

  4. Chemical constituents: water-soluble vitamins, free amino acids and sugar profile from Ganoderma adspersum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kıvrak, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Ganoderma adspersum presents a rigid fruiting body owing to chitin content and having a small quantity of water or moisture. The utility of bioactive constituent of the mushroom can only be available by extraction for human usage. In this study, carbohydrate, water-soluble vitamin compositions and amino acid contents were determined in G. adspersum mushroom. The composition in individual sugars was determined by HPLC-RID, mannitol (13.04 g/100 g) and trehalose (10.27 g/100 g) being the most abundant sugars. The examination of water-soluble vitamins and free amino acid composition was determined by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Essential amino acid constituted 67.79% of total amino acid, which is well worth the attention with regard to researchers and consumers. In addition, G. adspersum, which is also significantly rich in B group vitamins and vitamin C, can provide a wide range of notable applications in the pharmaceutics, cosmetics, food and dietary supplement industries. G. adspersum revealed its value for pharmacy and nutrition fields.

  5. Branched chain amino acid metabolism profiles in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lake, A.D.; Novák, Petr; Shipkova, P.; Aranibar, N.; Robertson, D.G.; Reily, M.D.; Lehman-McKeeman, L.D.; Vaillancourt, R.R.; Cherrington, N.J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 3 (2015), s. 603-615 ISSN 0939-4451 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Branched chain amino acid * nonalcoholic fatty liver disease * nonalcoholic steatohepatitis * metabolomics and transcriptomics Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.196, year: 2015

  6. Muscle metabolism and whole blood amino acid profile in patients with liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Gitte; Sørensen, Michael; Buhl, Mads; Sandahl, Thomas D; Møller, Niels; Ott, Peter; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are used in liver cirrhosis to promote protein synthesis, support ammonia detoxification, and treat hepatic encephalopathy. Cirrhosis leads to subnormal BCAA plasma concentrations and studies indicate that levels are decreased due to their role in muscle ammonia removal. Muscle contribution has not been fully elucidated. We studied muscle amino acid metabolism in six healthy subjects, 13 cirrhosis patients and six patients with an episode of alcoholic hepatitis. Subjects had catheters inserted into the femoral artery and vein to obtain arterial (A) and venous (V) concentrations of amino acids (μmol/L blood). BCAA concentrations were lower in patients with cirrhosis compared to healthy subjects (p BCAA uptake was variable and on average higher in patients with alcoholic hepatitis and patients with stable cirrhosis compared to healthy subjects (mean A-V difference 0.5 and 32 vs. - 12 μmol/L blood) (p = 0.22). The release of aromatic amino acids (AAA) was comparable in the three groups (P > 0.30). The BCAA/AAA (Fischer's ratio) was lower in patients with cirrhosis and patients with alcoholic hepatitis compared to healthy subjects (mean 1.65, 1.17 and 2.73, both p BCAA and higher AAA blood concentrations compared to healthy subjects. The trend towards an increased muscle uptake of BCAA may have contributed but this was not significant.

  7. Amino acid profile of raw and boiled seeds of african walnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among the essential amino acids, the accession from Abia had the highest arginine and lysine content; Rivers had the highest concentration of histidine and valine, while Enugu showed the highest methionine and threonine content, though statistically similar with that of Abia. Boiling significantly (p < 0.05) increased the ...

  8. Profile of amino acid, fatty acid, and mineral content of Tambelo (Bactronophorus sp. from Kendari, Southeast Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riviani Riviani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Public coastal had trust natural material as medicine became one of the most important things inthe discovery of medicine latest. Papua, Belitung, and Kendari coastal communities believed that tambelo(Bactronophorus sp. can treat various kinds of diseases like lumbago, rheumatism, cough, flu, malaria, andimprove production of the breast milk, increase appetite, and vitality of man. It was important to know whatcourse content of tambelo. Tambelo could be examined amino acids, fatty acids, and mineral contents. Thehighest essential amino acids in tambelo were leucyne, lysine, and valin of 0.57%, 0.39%, 0.36%. The highestnon essential amino acid was alanin, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid of 1.24%, 1.09%, and 0.78%. Barrierof amino acid was histidine. Fatty acid total of tambelo was 29.52%, whereas the fatty acid compositionsconsist of 10.09% saturated fatty acid (SAFA was 14.37% monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA was 5.06%polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Among them, those occuring in the highest proportions were palmaticacid (4.49%, oleic acid (5.73%, palmitoleic acid (4.96%, and Aracidic acid (1.88%. Tambelo had n6/n3ratio of 1.84. Tambelo had mineral contents as Natrium of 1144000 mg/kg, calcium of 17000 mg/kg, Kaliumof 21000 mg/kg, magnesium of 13000 mg/kg, phosphor of 1900 mg/kg, cadmium < 0.24 mg/kg, and lead<1.25 mg/kg.Keyword : amino acids, Bactronophorus sp., fatty acids, mineral contents, tambelo

  9. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  10. Profile of amino acid, fatty acid, and mineral content of Tambelo (Bactronophorus sp. from Kendari, Southeast Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riviani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Public coastal had trust natural material as medicine became one of the most important things in the discovery of medicine latest. Papua, Belitung, and Kendari coastal communities believed that tambelo (Bactronophorus sp. can treat various kinds of diseases like lumbago, rheumatism, cough, flu, malaria, and improve production of the breast milk, increase appetite, and vitality of man. It was important to know what course content of tambelo. Tambelo could be examined amino acids, fatty acids, and mineral contents. The highest essential amino acids in tambelo were leucyne, lysine, and valin of 0.57%, 0.39%, 0.36%. The highest non essential amino acid was alanin, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid of 1.24%, 1.09%, and 0.78%. Barrier of amino acid was histidine. Fatty acid total of tambelo was 29.52%, whereas the fatty acid compositions consist of 10.09% saturated fatty acid (SAFA was 14.37% monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA was 5.06% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Among them, those occuring in the highest proportions were palmatic acid (4.49%, oleic acid (5.73%, palmitoleic acid (4.96%, and Aracidic acid (1.88%. Tambelo had n6/n3 ratio of 1.84. Tambelo had mineral contents as Natrium of 1144000 mg/kg, calcium of 17000 mg/kg, Kalium of 21000 mg/kg, magnesium of 13000 mg/kg, phosphor of 1900 mg/kg, cadmium < 0.24 mg/kg, and lead <1.25 mg/kg.

  11. Variation of whole body amino acid profile in Eurasian perch Perca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of fish were analyzed on the Water Pico-Tag amino acid analysis system. For the study period, survival rate calculated after counting all survival fish reached 7.5%. Final fish body weight averaged 0.850 ± 0.678 g (measured for 600 fish), but some large fish reached up to 2.1 g. During the first week, specific growth ...

  12. Amino acid profile of saliva from patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma using high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Indira; Sherlin, Herald J; Ramani, Pratibha; Premkumar, Priya; Natesan, Anuja; Chandrasekar, Thiruvengadam

    2012-09-01

    Oral cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide and it is the eighth most common cause of cancer death. Cancer cells utilize more glucose and amino acids than their benign counterparts. Diagnosis of disease via the analysis of saliva is potentially valuable, as the collection of fluid is associated with fewer compliance problems than the collection of blood. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the comprehensive amino acid profiling of saliva by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The study group comprised 16 subjects, of whom eight were classified as having well-differentiated oral squamous (OSCC) cell carcinoma (Group I) and eight were classified as having moderately differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma (Group II). Eight healthy individuals comprised the control group (Group III). The results showed increased salivary levels of all the amino acids in both groups of OSCC patients (Groups I and II) when compared with healthy controls (Group III). Hence, our study showed higher levels of all amino acids in the saliva of OSCC patients than in the saliva of healthy controls. The increased levels may serve as a "diagnostic and prognostic marker" for oral squamous cell carcinoma and for further detection of metastatic spread.

  13. Nutritional and amino acid analysis of raw, partially fermented and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results of the amino acid analysis showed that the partially fermented sample had the lowest quantities of all amino acids determined and had lysine as the limiting amino acid, whereas the raw and completely fermented samples had very similar amino acid profile with amino acid scores of 100, indicating that there are no ...

  14. Amino Acids and Chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie E.

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  15. Long-term effect of dexfenfluramine on amino acid profiles and food selection in obese patients during weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, L; Møller, S E; Andersen, T

    1996-01-01

    groups. Macronutrient selection was not affected by the dF treatment. In the placebo group weight loss was associated with a high pre-treatment energy intake and a high carbohydrate-protein ratio (p age was found to explain 82......In depressive disorders an association between basal pre-treatment plasma ratios of tryptophan (Trp) and tyrosine (Tyr) to other large neutral amino acids (LNAA) and the clinical efficacy of serotonergic acting drugs have been established. In order to clarify whether a similar relation exists...... in obesity and to elucidate the long-term effect of dexfenfluramine (dF) on plasma amino acid profiles and macronutrient selection, we examined 29 obese patients participating in a 12 months double-blind weight loss trial with either dexfenfluramine (dF) (30 mg/day) or placebo (PL) in conjunction with 4...

  16. Azetidinic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Bunch, Lennart; Chopin, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    A set of ten azetidinic amino acids, that can be envisioned as C-4 alkyl substituted analogues of trans-2-carboxyazetidine-3-acetic acid (t-CAA) and/or conformationally constrained analogues of (R)- or (S)-glutamic acid (Glu) have been synthesized in a diastereo- and enantiomerically pure form from...... of two diastereoisomers that were easily separated and converted in two steps into azetidinic amino acids. Azetidines 35-44 were characterized in binding studies on native ionotropic Glu receptors and in functional assays at cloned metabotropic receptors mGluR1, 2 and 4, representing group I, II and III...

  17. Bioavailability Studies and in vitro Profiling of the Selective Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter Subtype 1 (EAAT1) Inhibitor UCPH‐102

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haym, Isabell; Huynh, Tri H. V.; Hansen, Stinne W.

    2016-01-01

    Although the selective excitatory amino acid transporter subtype 1 (EAAT1) inhibitor UCPH‐101 has become a standard pharmacological tool compound for in vitro and ex vivo studies in the EAAT research field, its inability to penetrate the blood–brain barrier makes it unsuitable for in vivo studies...... displayed substantially improved properties in this respect. In vitro profiling of UCPH‐102 (10 μm) at 51 central nervous system targets in radioligand binding assays strongly suggests that the compound is completely selective for EAAT1. Finally, in a rodent locomotor model, p.o. administration of UCPH‐102...

  18. Amino acids and fatty acids profile of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) and flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seed

    OpenAIRE

    Soňa Nitrayová; Matej Brestenský; Jaroslav Heger; Peter Patráš; Ján Rafay; Alexander Sirotkin

    2014-01-01

    The seeds of most plants are rich in various nutrients and can provide a lot of useful health benefits. The objective of this study was to determine and compare differences in fat, fatty acids, crude protein and amino acids concentrations for chia and flax seeds. Study was carried out using brown and gold seeds of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and Chia (Salvia hispanica L.). The mean protein content in tested seeds ranged from 211.8 to 252.5 g/kg dry matter and in chia seed was about 13.10% h...

  19. High-quality green tea leaf production by artificial cultivation under growth chamber conditions considering amino acids profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, Shunsuke; Yuki, Takayuki; Fuji, Hiroshi; Kojima, Kunio; Yonetani, Tsutomu; Tomio, Ayako; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2014-12-01

    The current study focused on the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) as a target for artificial cultivation because of the variation in its components in response to light conditions. We analyzed its sensory quality by multi-marker profiling using multicomponent data based on metabolomics to optimize the conditions of light and the environment during cultivation. From the analysis of high-quality tea samples ranked in a tea contest, the ranking predictive model was created by the partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis to examine the correlation between the amino-acid content (X variables) and the ranking in the tea contest (Y variables). The predictive model revealed that glutamine, arginine, and theanine were the predominant amino acids present in high-ranking teas. Based on this result, we established a cover-culture condition (i.e., a low-light intensity condition) during the later stage of the culture process and obtained artificially cultured tea samples, which were predicted to be high-quality teas. The aim of the current study was to optimize the light conditions for the cultivation of tea plants by performing data analysis of their sensory qualities through multi-marker profiling in order to facilitate the development of high-quality teas by plant factories. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Amino acid profile of raw and locally processed seeds of Prosopis africana and Ricinus communis: potential antidotes to protein malnutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidi U. Igwe

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing incidence of malnutrition occasioned by high incidence of hunger,worsening food situation in the world, insufficient availability and high cost of animal protein sources, has necessitated extensive research into and use of alternative plant protein sources especially underexploited leguminous seeds.Methods: Flours from raw, boiled and fermented seeds of Prosopis africana and Ricinus communis were evaluated for crude protein and amino acid (AA profiles, and their protein qualities determined. Results: Fermentation improved the protein contents of raw seeds of P. africana and R. communis by 18.70% and 3.95% respectively. In the raw and fermented P. africana seeds, glutamate at 132.60 ± 1.30 and 182.70 ± 3.02 mg/g crude protein (mg/gcp was the most abundant amino acid (AA, while leucine (62.80 ± 0.60 and 79.50 ± 2.01 mg/gcp was the most concentrated essential amino acid (EAA. Aspartate (151.90 ± 2.01 and 170.10 ± 2.00 mg/gcp and arginine (72.80 ± 2.01 and 78.60 ± 2.00 mg/gcp were the most concentrated and abundant non-essential amino acid (NEAA and EAA in the raw and fermented samples of R. communisrespectively. The total AA concentrations (mg/gcp of raw and fermented P. africana were 733.00 and 962.60 respectively, while those of R. communis were 823.50 and 894.10 respectively. The total EAA contents (mg/gcp for P. africana were 311.00 (raw and 404.50 (fermented, and for R. communis; 401.10 (raw and 430.30 (fermented. Threonine was the limiting EAA in raw and fermented P. africana, whereas lysine was the limiting EAA in R. communis raw sample. Fermentation significantly (p<0.05 increased the individual AA compositions of P. africana and R. communis by 94% and 53% respectively, while boiling reduced these parameters significantly (p<0.05 by 47% and 82% respectively. Conclusion: P. africana and R. communis seeds are potentially important plant sources of protein and essential amino acids, and so could be of great

  1. Influence of monochromatic light on quality traits, nutritional, fatty acid, and amino acid profiles of broiler chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M J; Parvin, R; Mushtaq, M M H; Hwangbo, J; Kim, J H; Na, J C; Kim, D W; Kang, H K; Kim, C D; Cho, K O; Yang, C B; Choi, H C

    2013-11-01

    The role of monochromatic lights was investigated on meat quality in 1-d-old straight-run broiler chicks (n = 360), divided into 6 light sources with 6 replicates having 10 chicks in each replicate. Six light sources were described as incandescent bulbs (IBL, as a control) and light-emitting diode (LED) light colors as white light (WL), blue light, red light (RL), green light, and yellow light. Among LED groups, the RL increased the concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (P meat. It can be extracted that the light produced by LED responded similar to the IBL light in influencing nutrient contents of meat. Moreover, LED is not decisive in improving fatty acid composition of meat. However, the role of IBL in reducing n-6:n-3 ratio and enhancing n-3 cannot be neglected. Among LED, WL is helpful in improving essential and nonessential amino acid contents of broiler meat.

  2. Antioxidant activity, anti-proliferative activity, and amino acid profiles of ethanolic extracts of edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthong, S; Boonsathorn, N; Chuchawankul, S

    2016-10-17

    Biological activities of various mushrooms have recently been discovered, particularly, immunomodulatory and antitumor activities. Herein, three edible mushrooms, Auricularia auricula-judae (AA), Pleurotus abalonus (PA) and Pleurotus sajor-caju (PS) extracted using Soxhlet ethanol extraction were evaluated for their antioxidative, anti-proliferative effects on leukemia cells. Using the Folin-Ciocalteau method and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay, phenolics and antioxidant activity were found in all sample mushrooms. Additionally, anti-proliferative activity of mushroom extracts against U937 leukemia cells was determined using a viability assay based on mitochondrial activity. PA (0.5 mg/mL) and AA (0.25-0.5 mg/mL) significantly reduced cell viability. Interestingly, PS caused a hormetic-like biphasic dose-response. Low doses (0-0.25 mg/L) of PS promoted cell proliferation up to 140% relative to control, whereas higher doses (0.50 mg/mL) inhibited cell proliferation. Against U937 cells, AA IC 50 was 0.28 ± 0.04 mg/mL, which was lower than PS or PA IC 50 (0.45 ± 0.01 and 0.49 ± 0.001 mg/mL, respectively). Furthermore, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage conferred cytotoxicity. PS and PA were not toxic to U937 cells at any tested concentration; AA (0.50 mg/mL) showed high LDH levels and caused 50% cytotoxicity. Additionally, UPLC-HRMS data indicated several phytochemicals known to support functional activities as either antioxidant or anti-proliferative. Glutamic acid was uniquely found in ethanolic extracts of AA, and was considered an anti-cancer amino acid with potent anti-proliferative effects on U937 cells. Collectively, all mushroom extracts exhibited antioxidant effects, but their anti-proliferative effects were dose-dependent. Nevertheless, the AA extract, with highest potency, is a promising candidate for future applications.

  3. Expression Profile of Cationic Amino Acid Transporters in Rats with Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Ray Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The transcellular arginine transportation via cationic amino acid transporter (CAT is the rate-limiting step in nitric oxide (NO synthesis, which is crucial in intraocular inflammation. In this study, CAT isoforms and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression was investigated in endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU. Methods. EIU was induced in Lewis rats by lipopolysaccharide (LPS injection. In the treatment group, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib before EIU induction. After 24 hours, leukocyte quantification, NO measurement of the aqueous humor, and histopathological examination were evaluated. The expression of CAT isoforms and iNOS was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB binding activity was evaluated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 was used to validate the in vivo findings. Results. LPS significantly stimulated iNOS, CAT-2A, and CAT-2B mRNA and protein expression but did not affect CAT-1 in EIU rats and RAW 264.7 cells. Bortezomib attenuated inflammation and inhibited iNOS, CAT-2A, and CAT-2B expression through NF-κB inhibition. Conclusions. CAT-2 and iNOS, but not CAT-1, are specifically involved in EIU. NF-κB is essential in the induction of CAT-2 and iNOS in EIU.

  4. Plasma free amino acid profiling of five types of cancer patients and its application for early detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Miyagi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, rapid advances have been made in metabolomics-based, easy-to-use early cancer detection methods using blood samples. Among metabolites, profiling of plasma free amino acids (PFAAs is a promising approach because PFAAs link all organ systems and have important roles in metabolism. Furthermore, PFAA profiles are known to be influenced by specific diseases, including cancers. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine the characteristics of the PFAA profiles in cancer patients and the possibility of using this information for early detection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Plasma samples were collected from approximately 200 patients from multiple institutes, each diagnosed with one of the following five types of cancer: lung, gastric, colorectal, breast, or prostate cancer. Patients were compared to gender- and age- matched controls also used in this study. The PFAA levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-electrospray ionization (ESI-mass spectrometry (MS. Univariate analysis revealed significant differences in the PFAA profiles between the controls and the patients with any of the five types of cancer listed above, even those with asymptomatic early-stage disease. Furthermore, multivariate analysis clearly discriminated the cancer patients from the controls in terms of the area under the receiver-operator characteristics curve (AUC of ROC >0.75 for each cancer, regardless of cancer stage. Because this study was designed as case-control study, further investigations, including model construction and validation using cohorts with larger sample sizes, are necessary to determine the usefulness of PFAA profiling. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that PFAA profiling has great potential for improving cancer screening and diagnosis and understanding disease pathogenesis. PFAA profiles can also be used to determine various disease diagnoses from a single blood sample, which involves a

  5. Studies on the effect of dry Sundakai (Solanum torvum) powder supplementation on lipid profile, glycated proteins and amino acids in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, U M; Mehta, N C; Mani, I; Mani, U V

    1992-04-01

    The effect of dry Sundakai powder supplementation (7 g providing 1.23 g of crude fibre) on glycemic control, lipidemic control, total amino acids and uronic acid was studied on 30 non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients. All the patients were on hypoglycemic drugs. The above parameters were monitored at day 1, 15 and 30 days. After one month of fibre supplementation, no significant changes were observed with respect to glucose, lipid profile, glycated proteins, total amino acids and uronic acid levels in these subjects.

  6. Promising new applications of Castanea sativa shell: nutritional composition, antioxidant activity, amino acids and vitamin E profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Francisca; Santos, Joana; Pimentel, Filipa B; Braga, Nair; Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Ana; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-08-01

    The present study was aimed to assess the macronutrient composition and the amino acid and vitamin E profiles of Castanea sativa shell from different production regions of Portugal (Minho, Trás-os-Montes and Beira-Alta). The nutritional composition was similar for all samples, with a high moisture content and low fat amounts. Arginine and leucine were the predominant essential amino acids (EAA) accounting for 3.55-7.21% and 1.59-2.08%, respectively, for samples of the different production zones. All the shells presented high contents of vitamin E (481.5 mg per 100 g sample, 962.8 mg per 100 g sample and 567.5 mg per 100 g sample, respectively, for Minho, Trás-os-Montes and Beira-Alta). The predominant vitamer was γ-tocopherol (670 mg per 100 g sample for Trás-os-Montes). The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of C. sativa shell were also determined. Trás-os-Montes extracts displayed the highest antioxidant activity (EC50 = 31.8 ± 1.3 μg mL(-1) for DPPH; 8083.5 ± 164.8 μmol per mg db for FRAP). The total phenolic content (TPC) varied from 241.9 mg to 796.8 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE) per g db sample, the highest TPC being obtained for Trás-os-Montes. The total flavonoid content (TFC) varied from 31.4 to 43.3 mg of catechin equivalents (CEQ) per g db sample. No antimicrobial activity was observed. The results showed the potentialities of C. sativa shell extracts.

  7. Antisense-mediated suppression of C-hordein biosynthesis in the barley grain results in correlated changes in the transcriptome, protein profile, and amino acid composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Lange, Marianne; Friis, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    Antisense- or RNAi-mediated suppression of the biosynthesis of nutritionally inferior storage proteins is a promising strategy for improving the amino acid profile of seeds. However, the potential pleiotropic effects of this on interconnected pathways and the agronomic quality traits need...... to be addressed. In the current study, a transcriptomic analysis of an antisense C-hordein line of barley was performed, using a grain-specific cDNA array. The C-hordein antisense line is characterized by marked changes in storage protein and amino acid profiles, while the seed weight is within the normal range...... and no external morphological irregularities were observed. The results of the transcriptome analysis showed excellent correlation with data on changes in the relative proportions of storage proteins and amino acid composition. The antisense line had a lower C-hordein level and down-regulated transcript encoding...

  8. Black soldier fly as dietary protein source for broiler quails: meat proximate composition, fatty acid and amino acid profile, oxidative status and sensory traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullere, M; Tasoniero, G; Giaccone, V; Acuti, G; Marangon, A; Dalle Zotte, A

    2017-07-24

    In the perspective of improving the sustainability of meat production, insects have been rapidly emerging as innovative feed ingredient for some livestock species, including poultry. However, at present, there is still limited knowledge regarding the quality and sensory traits of the derived meat. Therefore, the present study tested the effect of a partial substitution of soya bean meal and oil with defatted black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal (H) in the diet for growing broiler quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) on meat proximate composition, cholesterol, amino acid and mineral contents, fatty acid profile, oxidative status and sensory characteristics. To this purpose, three dietary treatments were designed: a control diet (C) and two diets (H1 and H2) corresponding to 10% and 15% H inclusion levels, respectively, were fed to growing quails from 10 to 28 days of age. At 28 days of age, quails were slaughtered and breast meat was used for meat quality evaluations. Meat proximate composition, cholesterol content and oxidative status remained unaffected by H supplementation as well as its sensory characteristics and off-flavours perception. Differently, with increasing the dietary H inclusion, the total saturated fatty acid and total monounsaturated fatty acid proportions raised to the detriment of the polyunsaturated fatty acid fraction thus lowering the healthiness of the breast meat. The H2 diet increased the contents of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, alanine, serine, tyrosine and threonine thus further enhancing the biological value of the meat protein. As a direct result of the dietary content of Ca and P, the meat of quails fed with the highest H level, displayed the highest Ca and the lowest P values. Therefore, meat quality evaluations confirmed H to be a promising insect protein source for quails. The only potential drawback from feeding H to broiler quails regarded the fatty acid profile of the meat, therefore requiring further research

  9. acetyl amino acids and dipeptides

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemistry. 2-(2'-Isopropyl-5'-methylphenoxy)acetic acid (1) was prepared by phenoxylation of thymol by using chloroacetic acid in alkaline conditions. Dipeptides Boc-Gly-Gly-OMe, Boc-Pro-Pro-. OMe and Boc-Ala-Leu-OMe were prepared from the corresponding amino acid methyl esters and Boc-amino acids using DCC ...

  10. Plasma free amino acid profiles of Boer goat bucks as influenced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The RG group had higher concentrations of valine, isoleucine, leucine, threonine, methionine, lysine, taurine, ornithine, hydroxyproline and tri-methyl-histidine, while glycine, serine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, histidine and proline levels were similar in both groups. From the results it can be concluded that plasma ...

  11. Composition of amino acids, fatty acids and dietary fibre monomers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is increasing demand for sources of energy and non-meat protein with balanced amino acid profiles worldwide. Nuts are rich in protein and essential amino acids, and have a high energy value due to their high fat content. Kernels from two wild fruits in Mozambique, Adansonia digitata and Sclerocarya birrea, were ...

  12. Comprehensive Profiling of Amino Acid Response Uncovers Unique Methionine-Deprived Response Dependent on Intact Creatine Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaohu; Keenan, Melissa M.; Wu, Jianli; Lin, Chih-An; Dubois, Laura; Thompson, J. Will; Freedland, Stephen J.; Murphy, Susan K.; Chi, Jen-Tsan

    2015-01-01

    Besides being building blocks for protein synthesis, amino acids serve a wide variety of cellular functions, including acting as metabolic intermediates for ATP generation and for redox homeostasis. Upon amino acid deprivation, free uncharged tRNAs trigger GCN2-ATF4 to mediate the well-characterized transcriptional amino acid response (AAR). However, it is not clear whether the deprivation of different individual amino acids triggers identical or distinct AARs. Here, we characterized the global transcriptional response upon deprivation of one amino acid at a time. With the exception of glycine, which was not required for the proliferation of MCF7 cells, we found that the deprivation of most amino acids triggered a shared transcriptional response that included the activation of ATF4, p53 and TXNIP. However, there was also significant heterogeneity among different individual AARs. The most dramatic transcriptional response was triggered by methionine deprivation, which activated an extensive and unique response in different cell types. We uncovered that the specific methionine-deprived transcriptional response required creatine biosynthesis. This dependency on creatine biosynthesis was caused by the consumption of S-Adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) during creatine biosynthesis that helps to deplete SAM under methionine deprivation and reduces histone methylations. As such, the simultaneous deprivation of methionine and sources of creatine biosynthesis (either arginine or glycine) abolished the reduction of histone methylation and the methionine-specific transcriptional response. Arginine-derived ornithine was also required for the complete induction of the methionine-deprived specific gene response. Collectively, our data identify a previously unknown set of heterogeneous amino acid responses and reveal a distinct methionine-deprived transcriptional response that results from the crosstalk of arginine, glycine and methionine metabolism via arginine

  13. PROFIL ASAM AMINO PENSTIMULASI SEKRESI INSULIN DALAM EKSTRAK SESUDAH PEMISAHAN PROTEIN KECAMBAH KACANG-KACANGAN LOKAL (Profile of Amino Acid for Stimulation of Insulin Secretion in the Extract after Protein Removal of Local Legumes Sprout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Kanetro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There are many local legumes in Indonesia that are potential to substitute soybean as functional food. Seed germination of legumes increased protease activity that could hydrolize protein, hence the extract of legumes sprout after removal of macromolecule protein contained small peptides dan free amino acids. The aims of this research were to determine the best local legume (winged bean, velvet bean, or cowpea sprout based on its profile of amino acid for stimulation of insulin secretion such as Leucine (Leu, Arginine (Arg, Alanine (Ala, Phenylalanine (Phe, Isoleucine (Ile, and Lycine (Lys in the extract after removal of macromolecule protein. Legume seeds were germinated, dried, and milled become the flour. The extracts of legume sprouts were prepared by mixing the flour and aquadest, centrifugated, and removed of the protein by precipitation at pH isoelectris. The extracts after removal of the macromolecule protein were analyzed for the total solid, soluble protein, and the profile of amino acid for stimulation of insulin secretion by HPLC. The result of this research showed that the extract of legumes sprout contained soluble protein and amino acid for stimulation of insulin secretion. The content of amino acids in the extract after removal of the protein of winged bean, velvet bean, cowpea sprouts and soybean seed as a control were 142,00;  206,40; 183,00; and 129,00 µg/ml for the Ala;  627,00; 1604,80; 524,00; and 422,40 µg/ml for the Arg; 136,00; 340,00; 124,20; and 119,40 µg/ml for the Phe; 122,80; 322,80; 104,60; and 100,40 µg/ml for the Ile; 190,80; 440,80; 136,40; and 168,00 µg/ml for the Leu;  340,40;  748,40; 177,00; and 256,40 µg/ml for the Lys respectively. Based on the data,  the velvet bean was chosen as the best legume due to the contain of amino acids for stimulation of insulin secretion was higher than the other legumes. Keywords: local legumes, sprout, amino acid, stimulation, insulin   ABSTRAK Indonesia memiliki

  14. Relations between the crude protein content and the amino acid profile of organically produced field beans (Vicia faba L.) and field peas (Pisum sativum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Witten, Stephanie; Aulrich, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In Organic Farming, grain legumes are important protein feedstuffs. There are hints indicating that the amino acid (AA) profile is affected by factors associated with varying crude protein (CP) contents of crops. The knowledge on this relationship between CP and AA profile needs to be extended to optimize feeding strategies for monogastrics as well as the selection of cultivars and varieties in fodder crop cultivation. Therefore, samples of 67 field beans (Vicia faba L.) and 86 field peas (Pi...

  15. Effects of Arginine Supplementation on Amino Acid Profiles in Blood and Tissues in Fed and Overnight-Fasted Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Holecek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic arginine intake is believed to have favorable effects on the body. However, it might be hypothesized that excessive consumption of an individual amino acid exerts adverse effects on distribution and metabolism of other amino acids. We evaluated the effect of chronic intake of arginine on amino acid concentrations in blood plasma, liver, kidneys, and soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles. Rats were fed a standard diet or a high-arginine diet (HAD for two months. Half of the animals in each group were sacrificed in the fed state, and the other half after fasting overnight. HAD increased blood plasma concentrations of urea, creatinine, arginine, and ornithine and decreased most other amino acids. Arginine and ornithine also increased in muscles and kidneys; an increase of lysine was observed in both muscle types. Methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, asparagine, glycine, serine, and taurine decreased in most tissues of HAD fed animals. Most of the effects of HAD disappeared after overnight fasting. It is concluded that (i enhanced dietary arginine intake alters distribution of almost all amino acids; and (ii to attain a better assessment of the effects of various nutritional interventions, an appropriate number of biochemical measurements must be performed in both postprandial and postabsorptive states.

  16. Excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T N; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Ebert, B

    1997-01-01

    We have previously shown that (RS)-2-amino-2-(5-tert-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-4-yl)acetic acid (ATAA) is an antagonist at N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptors. We have now resolved ATAA via diastereomeric salt formation...

  17. Metabolic analysis revealed altered amino acid profiles in Lupinus albus organs as a result of boron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Marta; Chicau, Paula; Matias, Helena; Passarinho, José; Pinheiro, Carla; Ricardo, Cândido Pinto

    2011-07-01

    We analysed the changes in the metabolites of Lupinus albus organs (leaf-blades, petioles, apexes, hypocotyls and roots) as a consequence of B deficiency. The deficiency did not affect malate concentration and induced only minor changes in the sugar content, suggesting that the carbohydrate metabolism is little affected by the deficiency. Contrarily, marked changes in the content of free amino acids were observed, with some specific variations associated with the different organs. These changes indicate that various aspects of metabolism implicated in the amino acid accumulation were affected by B deficiency. Most of the detected changes appear to have implications with some stress responses or signalling processes. Asparagine and proline that increase in many stresses also accumulated in petioles, apexes and hypocotyls. Accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid shunt amino acids, indicative of production of reactive oxygen species, occurs in the same three organs and also the roots. The increase in the branched-chain amino acids, observed in all organs, suggests the involvement of B with the cytoskeleton, whereas glycine decrease in leaf-blades and active growing organs (apexes and roots) could be associated with the proposed role of this amino acids in plant signalling in processes that might be associated with the decreased growth rates observed in B deficiency. Despite the admitted importance of free amino acids in plant metabolism, the available information on this matter is scarce. So our results bring new information concerning the effects of B deficiency in the metabolism of the several L. albus organs. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2011.

  18. Contig sequences and their annotation (amino acid sequence and results of homology search), and expression profile - Dicty_cDB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Dicty_cDB Contig sequences and their annotation (amino acid sequence and results of homology... search), and expression profile Data detail Data name Contig sequences and their annotation (amino acid seq...f data contents Contig sequences of cDNA sequences of Dictyostelium discoideum and the...EST-3'EST-ligated sequence and full-length cDNA sequence by the assembly program ...Phrap ( http://www.phrap.org/index.html ). Link to the list of clones constituting the contig, the information on its mapping to the

  19. Amino acids and gut function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W W; Qiao, S Y; Li, D F

    2009-05-01

    The intestine is not only critical for the absorption of nutrients, but also interacts with a complex external milieu. Most foreign antigens enter the body through the digestive tract. Dietary amino acids are major fuels for the small intestinal mucosa, as well as important substrates for syntheses of intestinal proteins, nitric oxide, polyamines, and other products with enormous biological importance. Recent studies support potential therapeutic roles for specific amino acids (including glutamine, glutamate, arginine, glycine, lysine, threonine, and sulfur-containing amino acids) in gut-related diseases. Results of these new lines of work indicate trophic and cytoprotective effects of amino acids on gut integrity, growth, and health in animals and humans.

  20. Qualitative and quantitative prediction of volatile compounds from initial amino acid profiles in Korean rice wine (makgeolli) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bo-Sik; Lee, Jang-Eun; Park, Hyun-Jin

    2014-06-01

    In Korean rice wine (makgeolli) model, we tried to develop a prediction model capable of eliciting a quantitative relationship between initial amino acids in makgeolli mash and major aromatic compounds, such as fusel alcohols, their acetate esters, and ethyl esters of fatty acids, in makgeolli brewed. Mass-spectrometry-based electronic nose (MS-EN) was used to qualitatively discriminate between makgeollis made from makgeolli mashes with different amino acid compositions. Following this measurement, headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with partial least-squares regression (PLSR) method was employed to quantitatively correlate amino acid composition of makgeolli mash with major aromatic compounds evolved during makgeolli fermentation. In qualitative prediction with MS-EN analysis, the makgeollis were well discriminated according to the volatile compounds derived from amino acids of makgeolli mash. Twenty-seven ion fragments with mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of 55 to 98 amu were responsible for the discrimination. In GC-MS combined with PLSR method, a quantitative approach between the initial amino acids of makgeolli mash and the fusel compounds of makgeolli demonstrated that coefficient of determination (R(2)) of most of the fusel compounds ranged from 0.77 to 0.94 in good correlation, except for 2-phenylethanol (R(2) = 0.21), whereas R(2) for ethyl esters of MCFAs including ethyl caproate, ethyl caprylate, and ethyl caprate was 0.17 to 0.40 in poor correlation. The amino acids have been known to affect the aroma in alcoholic beverages. In this study, we demonstrated that an electronic nose qualitatively differentiated Korean rice wines (makgeollis) by their volatile compounds evolved from amino acids with rapidity and reproducibility and successively, a quantitative correlation with acceptable R2 between amino acids and fusel compounds could be established via HS-SPME GC-MS combined with partial least

  1. Effects of dietary water-soaked barley on amino acid digestibility, growth performance, pork quality and Longissimus dorsi muscle fatty acid profiles in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian Ping; Kim, In Ho

    2014-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the feeding value of water-soaked barley (WB) as a replacement for dehulled barley (DB) in pigs. In experiment (Exp.) 1, eight barrows (body weight = 30.56 ± 0.78 kg) were fitted with a T-cannula and allotted to a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square design: WB10, 100g/kg WB; WB20, 200 g/kg WB; DB10, 100 g/kg DB; and DB20, 200 g/kg DB. In Exp. 2, 80 barrows (body weight = 70.56 ± 1.29 kg) were used in a 56-day experiment: (i) WB15, 150 g/kg WB; (ii) WBD10, 100 g/kg WB and 50 g/kg DB; (iii) WBD5, 50 g/kg WB and 100 g/kg DB; and (iv) DB15, 150 g/kg DB. In Exp. 1, the apparent ileal digestibilities of total essential amino acids were higher (P water-soaked barley improved some amino acid digestibility and the cooking loss and moderate fatty acid profiles in Longissimus dorsi muscle. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Dietary Protein and Amino Acid Profiles in Relation to Risk of Dysglycemia: Findings from a Prospective Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Mirmiran

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the limited knowledge on the effects of dietary amino acid intake on dysglycemia, we assessed the possible association of dietary protein and amino acid patterns with the risk of pre-diabetes in a prospective population-based study. Participants without diabetes and pre-diabetes (n = 1878 were recruited from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study and were followed for a mean of 5.8 years. Their dietary protein and amino acid intakes were assessed at baseline (2006–2008; demographic, lifestyle, and biochemical variables were evaluated at baseline and in follow-up examinations. Pre-diabetes was defined according to the American Diabetes Association criteria. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate the risk of pre-diabetes across tertiles of dietary protein and amino acid pattern scores. The mean age of the participants (44.9% men was 38.3 ± 12.7 years at baseline. Three major amino acid patterns were characterized: (1 higher loads of lysine, methionine, valine, aspartic acids, tyrosine, threonine, isoleucine, leucine, alanine, histidine, and serine; (2 higher loads of glycine, cysteine, arginine, and tryptophan; and (3 higher loads of proline and glutamic acid. Dietary total protein intake Hazard Ratio (HR = 1.13, 95% Confidence Interval (CI = 0.92–1.38 and HR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.81–1.23, in the second and third tertile, respectively was not related to the development of pre-diabetes. The highest score of second dietary amino acid pattern tended to be associated with a decreased risk of pre-diabetes (HR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.65–1.01, whereas the third pattern was related to an increased risk in the fully adjusted model (HR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.02–1.52; p for trend = 0.05. These novel data suggest that the amino acid composition of an individual’s diet may modify their risk of pre-diabetes.

  3. Amino acid quality indices of the leaves of Clerodendrum volubile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochuko Lucky Erukainure

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the amino acid profile and quality indices of Clerodendrum volubile (C. volubile leaves. Methods: Dried leaves of C. volubile were blended, defatted and subjected to amino acid analysis using the technicon sequential multi-sample amino acid analyzer. The amino acid quality indices which covers for chemical score, essential amino acid index, nutritional index, true digestibility, protein digestibility corrected amino acid score, and digestible indispensable amino acid score were evaluated using standard formulas. Results: Amino acid analysis revealed glutamic acid to have the highest concentration, with cysteine having the least. Aspartic acid had the highest chemical score, this was followed by glycine, histidine and arginine, respectively. The least scores were observed in serine and methionine. Glutamic acid had the highest value for true digestibility and protein digestibility corrected amino acid score, with the least observed in cysteine. Digestible indispensable amino acid score evaluation showed histidine to have the highest value for infants (birth to 6 months, threonine for children (6 months to 3 years, while isoleucine was observed to have the highest value for older children, adolescents and adults. The essential amino acid index value was less than 4, while nutritional index value was less than 0.5. Conclusions: These results indicated the leaves of C. volubile as a potential source of amino acids in the human diet as portrayed by its amino acids profile and qualities.

  4. Contrasting amino acid profiles among permissive and non-permissive hosts of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, putative causal agent of Huanglongbing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoudou Sétamou

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing is a devastating disease of citrus. In this study, a comprehensive profile of phloem sap amino acids (AA in four permissive host plants of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas and three non-permissive Rutaceae plants was conducted to gain a better understanding of host factors that may promote or suppress the bacterium. The AA profiles of Diaphorina citri nymphs and adults were similarly analyzed. A total of 38 unique AAs were detected in phloem sap of the various plants and D. citri samples, with phloem sap of young shoots containing more AAs and at higher concentrations than their mature counterparts. All AAs detected in phloem sap of non-permissive plants were also present in CLas -permissive hosts plus additional AAs in the latter class of plants. However, the relative composition of 18 commonly shared AAs varied between CLas -permissive hosts and non-permissive plants. Multivariate analysis with a partial least square discriminant methodology revealed a total of 12 AAs as major factors affecting CLas host status, of which seven were positively related to CLas tolerance/resistance and five positively associated with CLas susceptibility. Most of the AAs positively associated with CLas susceptibility were predominantly of the glutamate family, notably stressed-induced AAs such as arginine, GABA and proline. In contrast, AAs positively correlated with CLas tolerance/resistance were mainly of the serine family. Further analysis revealed that whereas the relative proportions of AAs positively associated with CLas susceptibility did not vary with host developmental stages, those associated with CLas tolerance/resistance increased with flush shoot maturity. Significantly, the proline-to-glycine ratio was determined to be an important discriminating factor for CLas permissivity with higher values characteristic of CLas -permissive hosts. This ratio could be exploited as a biomarker in HLB-resistance breeding programs.

  5. 40 Oil Characterization, Amino Acid and Vitamin A and C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AL-AMAANI

    email: johntsadom@gmail.com. ABSTRACT. Oil characterization, amino acid and vitamin A and C composition of Cucurbita maxima seeds was carried out using standard analytical methods. The amino acid profile was determined using Techno sequential multi sample amino acid analyser and except phenylalanine which ...

  6. utilisation of synthetic amino acids

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    student

    Crystalline amino acids are used increasingly to meet the lysine, methionine and threonine requirements of poultry. Initially this was on economic grounds but their use is now being encouraged by concerns over N-pollution (Fisher, 2000). When modelling the amino acid requirements of broiler breeder hens, a question that ...

  7. Differential distribution of amino acids in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Sharma, Anket; Kaur, Ravdeep; Thukral, Ashwani Kumar; Bhardwaj, Renu; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2017-05-01

    Plants are a rich source of amino acids and their individual abundance in plants is of great significance especially in terms of food. Therefore, it is of utmost necessity to create a database of the relative amino acid contents in plants as reported in literature. Since in most of the cases complete analysis of profiles of amino acids in plants was not reported, the units used and the methods applied and the plant parts used were different, amino acid contents were converted into relative units with respect to lysine for statistical analysis. The most abundant amino acids in plants are glutamic acid and aspartic acid. Pearson's correlation analysis among different amino acids showed that there were no negative correlations between the amino acids. Cluster analysis (CA) applied to relative amino acid contents of different families. Alismataceae, Cyperaceae, Capparaceae and Cactaceae families had close proximity with each other on the basis of their relative amino acid contents. First three components of principal component analysis (PCA) explained 79.5% of the total variance. Factor analysis (FA) explained four main underlying factors for amino acid analysis. Factor-1 accounted for 29.4% of the total variance and had maximum loadings on glycine, isoleucine, leucine, threonine and valine. Factor-2 explained 25.8% of the total variance and had maximum loadings on alanine, aspartic acid, serine and tyrosine. 14.2% of the total variance was explained by factor-3 and had maximum loadings on arginine and histidine. Factor-4 accounted 8.3% of the total variance and had maximum loading on the proline amino acid. The relative content of different amino acids presented in this paper is alanine (1.4), arginine (1.8), asparagine (0.7), aspartic acid (2.4), cysteine (0.5), glutamic acid (2.8), glutamine (0.6), glycine (1.0), histidine (0.5), isoleucine (0.9), leucine (1.7), lysine (1.0), methionine (0.4), phenylalanine (0.9), proline (1.1), serine (1.0), threonine (1

  8. Free Amino Acid Profiles from 'Pinot Noir' Grapes are Influenced by Vine N-status and Sample Preparation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the impact of extraction method on ammonia, free amino acids, and YAN (yeast assimilable nitrogen) concentrations in 'Pinot noir' berries obtained from a vine nutrition study (altered supply of N, P, or K). Berries were either juiced or exhaustively extracted as whole berries pri...

  9. Thiamine Induces Long-Term Changes in Amino Acid Profiles and Activities of 2-Oxoglutarate and 2-Oxoadipate Dehydrogenases in Rat Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsepkova, P M; Artiukhov, A V; Boyko, A I; Aleshin, V A; Mkrtchyan, G V; Zvyagintseva, M A; Ryabov, S I; Ksenofontov, A L; Baratova, L A; Graf, A V; Bunik, V I

    2017-06-01

    Molecular mechanisms of long-term changes in brain metabolism after thiamine administration (single i.p. injection, 400 mg/kg) were investigated. Protocols for discrimination of the activities of the thiamine diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent 2-oxoglutarate and 2-oxoadipate dehydrogenases were developed to characterize specific regulation of the multienzyme complexes of the 2-oxoglutarate (OGDHC) and 2-oxoadipate (OADHC) dehydrogenases by thiamine. The thiamine-induced changes depended on the brain-region-specific expression of the ThDP-dependent dehydrogenases. In the cerebral cortex, the original levels of OGDHC and OADHC were relatively high and not increased by thiamine, whereas in the cerebellum thiamine upregulated the OGDHC and OADHC activities, whose original levels were relatively low. The effects of thiamine on each of the complexes were different and associated with metabolic rearrangements, which included (i) the brain-region-specific alterations of glutamine synthase and/or glutamate dehydrogenase and NADP+-dependent malic enzyme, (ii) the brain-region-specific changes of the amino acid profiles, and (iii) decreased levels of a number of amino acids in blood plasma. Along with the assays of enzymatic activities and average levels of amino acids in the blood and brain, the thiamine-induced metabolic rearrangements were assessed by analysis of correlations between the levels of amino acids. The set and parameters of the correlations were tissue-specific, and their responses to the thiamine treatment provided additional information on metabolic changes, compared to that gained from the average levels of amino acids. Taken together, the data suggest that thiamine decreases catabolism of amino acids by means of a complex and long-term regulation of metabolic flux through the tricarboxylic acid cycle, which includes coupled changes in activities of the ThDP-dependent dehydrogenases of 2-oxoglutarate and 2-oxoadipate and adjacent enzymes.

  10. Effects of Peptone Supplementation in Different Culture Media on Growth, Metabolic Pathway and Productivity of CHO DG44 Cells; a New Insight into Amino Acid Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davami, Fatemeh; Eghbalpour, Farnaz; Nematollahi, Leila; Barkhordari, Farzaneh; Mahboudi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    The optimization of bioprocess conditions towards improved growth profile and productivity yield is considered of great importance in biopharmaceutical manufacturing. Peptones as efficient sources of nutrients have been studied for their effect on media development; however, their role on metabolic pathway is not well understood. In the present study, the effect of different concentration of peptones on a recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line grown in three serum-free suspension cultures was determined. Six peptones of different origins and available amino acid profiles were investigated regarding their impact on cell growth, productivity, and metabolic pathways changes. In optimized feeding strategies, increases of 136% and 159% in volumetric productivity (for a low-nutrient culture media) and 55% (for a high-nutrient culture media) were achieved. Furthermore, particular sources of peptones with specific amino acid profile developed preferential results for each different culture medium. Two peptones, SoyA2SC and SoyE-110, were the only hydrolysates that showed production improvement in all three media. Casein Peptone plus Tryptone N1 and SoyA3SC showed different improved results based on their implemented concentration for each individual basal medium. The amino acid profile of peptones may provide clues to identify the most effective feeding strategies for recombinant CHO cells.

  11. Influence of Amino Acid Compositions and Peptide Profiles on Antioxidant Capacities of Two Protein Hydrolysates from Skipjack Tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis Dark Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Feng Chi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Influence of amino acid compositions and peptide profiles on antioxidant capacities of two protein hydrolysates from skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis dark muscle was investigated. Dark muscles from skipjack tuna were hydrolyzed using five separate proteases, including pepsin, trypsin, Neutrase, papain and Alcalase. Two hydrolysates, ATH and NTH, prepared using Alcalase and Neutrase, respectively, showed the strongest antioxidant capacities and were further fractionated using ultrafiltration and gel filtration chromatography. Two fractions, Fr.A3 and Fr.B2, isolated from ATH and NTH, respectively, showed strong radical scavenging activities toward 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (EC50 1.08% ± 0.08% and 0.98% ± 0.07%, hydroxyl radicals (EC50 0.22% ± 0.03% and 0.48% ± 0.05%, and superoxide anion radicals (EC50 1.31% ± 0.11% and 1.56% ± 1.03% and effectively inhibited lipid peroxidation. Eighteen peptides from Fr.A3 and 13 peptides from Fr.B2 were isolated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography, and their amino acid sequences were determined. The elevated antioxidant activity of Fr.A3 might be due to its high content of hydrophobic and aromatic amino acid residues (181.1 and 469.9 residues/1000 residues, respectively, small molecular sizes (3–6 peptides, low molecular weights (524.78 kDa, and amino acid sequences (antioxidant score 6.11. This study confirmed that a smaller molecular size, the presence of hydrophobic and aromatic amino acid residues, and the amino acid sequences were the key factors that determined the antioxidant activities of the proteins, hydrolysates and peptides. The results also demonstrated that the derived hydrolysates and fractions from skipjack tuna (K. pelamis dark muscles could prevent oxidative reactions and might be useful for food preservation and medicinal purposes.

  12. Amino Acids from a Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie Elisla

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 to Earth in January 2006. Examinations of the organic compounds in cometary samples can reveal information about the prebiotic organic inventory present on the early Earth and within the early Solar System, which may have contributed to the origin of life. Preliminary studies of Stardust material revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds (cometary- vs. terrestrial contamination) could not be identified. We have recently measured the carbon isotopic ratios of these amino acids to determine their origin, leading to the first detection of a coetary amino acid.

  13. Usefulness of Amino Acid Profiling in Ovarian Cancer Screening with Special Emphasis on Their Role in Cancerogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Plewa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to quantitate 42 serum-free amino acids, propose the biochemical explanation of their role in tumor development, and identify new ovarian cancer (OC biomarkers for potential use in OC screening. The additional value of this work is the schematic presentation of the interrelationship between metabolites which were identified as significant for OC development and progression. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry technique using highly-selective multiple reaction monitoring mode and labeled internal standards for each analyzed compound was applied. Performed statistical analyses showed that amino acids are potentially useful as OC biomarkers, especially as variables in multi-marker models. For the distinguishing metabolites the following metabolic pathways involved in cancer growth and development were proposed: histidine metabolism; tryptophan metabolism; arginine biosynthesis; arginine and proline metabolism; and alanine, aspartate and glutamine metabolism. The presented research identifies histidine and citrulline as potential new OC biomarkers. Furthermore, it provides evidence that amino acids are involved in metabolic pathways related to tumor growth and play an important role in cancerogenesis.

  14. Treatment of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... amino acid metabolism disorders Treatment of amino acid metabolism disorders E-mail to a friend Please fill ... It's been added to your dashboard . Amino acid metabolism disorders are rare health conditions that affect a ...

  15. Amino acid "little Big Bang": representing amino acid substitution matrices as dot products of Euclidian vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Karel; Gibrat, Jean-François

    2010-01-04

    Sequence comparisons make use of a one-letter representation for amino acids, the necessary quantitative information being supplied by the substitution matrices. This paper deals with the problem of finding a representation that provides a comprehensive description of amino acid intrinsic properties consistent with the substitution matrices. We present a Euclidian vector representation of the amino acids, obtained by the singular value decomposition of the substitution matrices. The substitution matrix entries correspond to the dot product of amino acid vectors. We apply this vector encoding to the study of the relative importance of various amino acid physicochemical properties upon the substitution matrices. We also characterize and compare the PAM and BLOSUM series substitution matrices. This vector encoding introduces a Euclidian metric in the amino acid space, consistent with substitution matrices. Such a numerical description of the amino acid is useful when intrinsic properties of amino acids are necessary, for instance, building sequence profiles or finding consensus sequences, using machine learning algorithms such as Support Vector Machine and Neural Networks algorithms.

  16. Amino acid "little Big Bang": Representing amino acid substitution matrices as dot products of Euclidian vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermann Karel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence comparisons make use of a one-letter representation for amino acids, the necessary quantitative information being supplied by the substitution matrices. This paper deals with the problem of finding a representation that provides a comprehensive description of amino acid intrinsic properties consistent with the substitution matrices. Results We present a Euclidian vector representation of the amino acids, obtained by the singular value decomposition of the substitution matrices. The substitution matrix entries correspond to the dot product of amino acid vectors. We apply this vector encoding to the study of the relative importance of various amino acid physicochemical properties upon the substitution matrices. We also characterize and compare the PAM and BLOSUM series substitution matrices. Conclusions This vector encoding introduces a Euclidian metric in the amino acid space, consistent with substitution matrices. Such a numerical description of the amino acid is useful when intrinsic properties of amino acids are necessary, for instance, building sequence profiles or finding consensus sequences, using machine learning algorithms such as Support Vector Machine and Neural Networks algorithms.

  17. SHORT COMMUNICATION DETERMINATION OF AMINO ACIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    ABSTRACT. Royal jelly (RJ) is popular among consumers around the world due to its perceived health benefits. The purpose of this study was to assess the levels of free and total amino acid profile as well as protein content in order to characterize Bulgarian RJ samples. A total of 17 fresh and commercial RJ samples from.

  18. Nutrients, amino acid, fatty acid and non-starch polysaccharide profile and in vitro digestibility of macadamia nut cake in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Utsav P; Jha, Rajesh

    2017-08-01

    The highly variable cost and limited availability of conventional feedstuffs make it imperative to explore alternative feedstuffs to be used in swine. Macadamia nut cake (MNC), a coproduct of the macadamia nut oil industry, has not been well studied. MNC was analyzed for its nutrient profile, gross energy (GE), fibers, amino acids and fatty acids content. Dry matter (DM) and GE digestibility of MNC in swine was determined using an in vitro model. On a DM basis, ash, crude protein, ether extract, NDF, ADF, lignin and GE were found to be 3.7, 25.5, 11.9, 35.8, 28.0, 16.0% and 5581 kcal/kg, respectively. Total and soluble non-starch polysaccharide content were 32.2 and 11.8%, respectively. The concentration of lysine was found to be 0.7%. The DM and GE digestibility were found to be 75.7 and 71.4%, respectively. Gross energy content of MNC is comparable with that of corn and higher than soybean meal, while protein content is twice as high as corn but lower than soybean meal. In conclusion, MNC is not merely a good source of protein and energy but also has fairly high digestibility in swine. Hence, it can be used as a viable alternative source of energy and protein in swine diets. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Capsaicinoids, amino acid and fatty acid profiles in different fruit components of the world hottest Naga king chilli (Capsicum chinense Jacq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthan, R; Subhash, K; Longvah, T

    2018-01-01

    The world hottest Naga king chilli is cultivated and consumed in Northeast India. Capsaicinoids, amino acids and fatty acids were studied in fruit and fruit components of Naga king chilli. Capsaicinoid content was increased in each ripening stage and maximum level was observed at red color fruits. Total protein and fat content of placenta was 19.41 and 20.36% respectively. Capsaicinoids of placenta (7.35±2.241%) was higher followed by seed (3.83±1.358%) and pericarp (2.91±0.667%). Similarly, essential amino acid content was also higher in placenta compared to other components. Amino acid score ranged from 37 to 38 with cystine and methionine as limiting amino acid. Low level of palmitic, stearic and α-linolenic acid and very high level of linoleic acid were found in seeds. Total polyunsaturates of seeds were higher followed by whole fruit. Naga king chilli is unique due to its high capsaicinoid content and it offers potential crop for the future exploitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Branched-Chain Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Ghiringhelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study is focused on evaluation and use of the most effective and correct nutrients. In particular, our attention is directed to the role of certain amino acids in cachectic patients. During parenteral nutrition in humans, physician already associates in the PN-bags different formulations including amino acids, lipids and glucose solutions or essential amino acids solution alone or exclusively branched-chain amino acids (BCAA. Studies investigated the effects of dietary BCAA ingestion on different diseases and conditions such as obesity and metabolic disorders, liver disease, muscle atrophy, cancer, impaired immunity or injuries (surgery, trauma, burns, and sepsis. BCAAs have been shown to affect gene expression, protein metabolism, apoptosis and regeneration of hepatocytes, and insulin resistance. They have also been shown to inhibit the proliferation of liver cancer cells in vitro, and are essential for lymphocyte proliferation and dendritic cell maturation. Oral or parenteral administration of these three amino acids will allow us to evaluate the real efficacy of these compounds during a therapy to treat malnutrition in subjects unable to feed themselves.

  1. The arbuscular mycorrhizal status has an impact on the transcriptome profile and amino acid composition of tomato fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvioli Alessandra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM symbiosis is the most widespread association between plant roots and fungi in natural and agricultural ecosystems. This work investigated the influence of mycorrhization on the economically relevant part of the tomato plant, by analyzing its impact on the physiology of the fruit. To this aim, a combination of phenological observations, transcriptomics (Microarrays and qRT-PCR and biochemical analyses was used to unravel the changes that occur on fruits from Micro-Tom tomato plants colonized by the AM fungus Glomus mosseae. Results Mycorrhization accelerated the flowering and fruit development and increased the fruit yield. Eleven transcripts were differentially regulated in the fruit upon mycorrhization, and the mycorrhiza-responsive genes resulted to be involved in nitrogen and carbohydrate metabolism as well as in regulation and signal transduction. Mycorrhization has increased the amino acid abundance in the fruit from mycorrhizal plants, with glutamine and asparagine being the most responsive amino acids. Conclusions The obtained results offer novel data on the systemic changes that are induced by the establishment of AM symbiosis in the plant, and confirm the work hypothesis that AM fungi may extend their influence from the root to the fruit.

  2. Effect of different drying methods on the myosin structure, amino acid composition, protein digestibility and volatile profile of squid fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yun; Luo, Yali; Wang, Yuegang; Zhao, Yanyun

    2015-03-15

    The impacts of freeze drying (FD), hot-air drying (AD), and heat pump drying (HPD) on myosin structure, amino acid composition, protein digestibility and volatile compounds of squid (Todarodes pacificus) fillets were evaluated. Freeze-dried squids showed similar amino acid composition to that of raw squids, but differed from that of AD and HPD samples. The percentage of in vitro digestibility followed the order of FD (76.81%)>HPD (70.51%)>raw (67.99%)>AD (61.47%) samples. AD caused more damage to squid myosin structure than HPD, while FD effectively retained the myosin integrity. Drying decreased total number of volatile compounds, but increased the content of total volatile compounds based on GC × GC-TOFMS results. HPD and AD samples had the highest and lowest total numbers and contents of volatiles, respectively. In general, FD provided squids with the best quality, followed by HPD. Considering the production cost and product quality, HPD demonstrated the potential for industrial application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dietary Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell Wall Extract Supplementation Alleviates Oxidative Stress and Modulates Serum Amino Acids Profiles in Weaned Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall extract (SCCWE on growth performance, oxidative stress, intestinal morphology, and serum amino acid concentration in weaned piglets. Utilizing a completely randomized design, 40 healthy piglets weaned at 21 d were grouped into 4 experimental treatments with 10 pigs per treatment group. Treatments consisted of a basal diet (T0, a basal diet with a 0.05% SCCWE (T1, a basal diet with a 0.10% SCCWE (T2, and a basal diet with a 0.15% SCCWE (T3. SCCWE supplementation increased the average daily gain and final body weight compared with T0 (P<0.05. SCCWE in T2 and T3 improved the average daily feed intake and decreased the feed/gain ratio compared with T1 and T2 (P<0.05. SCCWE decreased serum malondialdehyde (MDA and increased activities of catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and superoxide dismutase (SOD significantly compared to T0 (P<0.05. SCCWE increased the concentration of Ile compared to T0 (P<0.05. Moreover, the concentrations of Leu, Phe, and Arg were higher in T2 and T3 (P<0.05. These findings indicate beneficial effects of SCCWE supplementation on growth performance, the concentration of some essential amino acids, and alleviation of oxidative stress in weaned piglets.

  4. New Insight into Quinoa Seed Quality under Salinity: Changes in Proteomic and Amino Acid Profiles, Phenolic Content, and Antioxidant Activity of Protein Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisi, Iris; Parrotta, Luigi; Ruiz, Karina B.; Landi, Claudia; Bini, Luca; Cai, Giampiero; Biondi, Stefania; Del Duca, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is an ancient Andean seed-producing crop well known for its exceptional nutritional properties and resistance to adverse environmental conditions, such as salinity and drought. Seed storage proteins, amino acid composition, and bioactive compounds play a crucial role in determining the nutritional value of quinoa. Seeds harvested from three Chilean landraces of quinoa, one belonging to the salares ecotype (R49) and two to the coastal-lowlands ecotype, VI-1 and Villarrica (VR), exposed to two levels of salinity (100 and 300 mM NaCl) were used to conduct a sequential extraction of storage proteins in order to obtain fractions enriched in albumins/globulins, 11S globulin and in prolamin-like proteins. The composition of the resulting protein fractions was analyzed by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results confirmed a high polymorphism in seed storage proteins; the two most representative genotype-specific bands of the albumin/globulin fraction were the 30- and 32-kDa bands, while the 11S globulin showed genotype-specific polymorphism for the 40- and 42-kDa bands. Spot analysis by mass spectrometry followed by in silico analyses were conducted to identify the proteins whose expression changed most significantly in response to salinity in VR. Proteins belonging to several functional categories (i.e., stress protein, metabolism, and storage) were affected by salinity. Other nutritional and functional properties, namely amino acid profiles, total polyphenol (TPC) and flavonoid (TFC) contents, and antioxidant activity (AA) of protein extracts were also analyzed. With the exception of Ala and Met in R49, all amino acids derived from protein hydrolysis were diminished in seeds from salt-treated plants, especially in landrace VI-1. By contrast, several free amino acids were unchanged or increased by salinity in R49 as compared with VR and VI-1, suggesting a greater tolerance in the salares landrace. VR had the

  5. New insight into quinoa seed quality under salinity: changes in proteomic and amino acid profiles, phenolic content, and antioxidant activity of protein extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris eAloisi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd is an ancient Andean seed-producing crop well known for its exceptional nutritional properties and resistance to adverse environmental conditions, such as salinity and drought. Storage proteins, amino acid composition, and bioactive compounds play a crucial role in determining the nutritional value of quinoa seeds. Seeds harvested from three Chilean landraces of quinoa, one belonging to the salares ecotype (R49 and two to the coastal-lowlands ecotype, VI-1 and Villarrica (VR, exposed to two levels of salinity (100 and 300 mM NaCl were used to conduct a sequential extraction of storage proteins in order to obtain fractions enriched in albumins/globulins, 11S globulin and in prolamin-like proteins. The composition of the resulting protein fractions was analyzed by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results confirmed a high polymorphism in seed storage proteins; the two most representative genotype-specific bands of the albumin/globulin fraction were the 30- and 32-kDa bands, while the 11S globulin showed genotype-specific polymorphism for the 40- and 42-kDa bands. Spot analysis by mass spectrometry followed by in silico analyses were conducted to identify the proteins whose expression changed most significantly in response to salinity in VR. Proteins belonging to several functional categories (i.e., stress protein, metabolism, and storage were affected by salinity. Other nutritional and functional properties, namely amino acid profiles, total polyphenol (TPC and flavonoid (TFC contents, and antioxidant activity (AA of protein extracts were also analyzed. With the exception of Ala and Met in R49, all amino acids derived from protein hydrolysis were diminished in seeds from salt-treated plants, especially in landrace VI-1. By contrast, several free amino acids were unchanged or increased by salinity in R49 as compared with VR and VI-1, suggesting a greater tolerance in the salares landrace

  6. New Insight into Quinoa Seed Quality under Salinity: Changes in Proteomic and Amino Acid Profiles, Phenolic Content, and Antioxidant Activity of Protein Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisi, Iris; Parrotta, Luigi; Ruiz, Karina B; Landi, Claudia; Bini, Luca; Cai, Giampiero; Biondi, Stefania; Del Duca, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is an ancient Andean seed-producing crop well known for its exceptional nutritional properties and resistance to adverse environmental conditions, such as salinity and drought. Seed storage proteins, amino acid composition, and bioactive compounds play a crucial role in determining the nutritional value of quinoa. Seeds harvested from three Chilean landraces of quinoa, one belonging to the salares ecotype (R49) and two to the coastal-lowlands ecotype, VI-1 and Villarrica (VR), exposed to two levels of salinity (100 and 300 mM NaCl) were used to conduct a sequential extraction of storage proteins in order to obtain fractions enriched in albumins/globulins, 11S globulin and in prolamin-like proteins. The composition of the resulting protein fractions was analyzed by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results confirmed a high polymorphism in seed storage proteins; the two most representative genotype-specific bands of the albumin/globulin fraction were the 30- and 32-kDa bands, while the 11S globulin showed genotype-specific polymorphism for the 40- and 42-kDa bands. Spot analysis by mass spectrometry followed by in silico analyses were conducted to identify the proteins whose expression changed most significantly in response to salinity in VR. Proteins belonging to several functional categories (i.e., stress protein, metabolism, and storage) were affected by salinity. Other nutritional and functional properties, namely amino acid profiles, total polyphenol (TPC) and flavonoid (TFC) contents, and antioxidant activity (AA) of protein extracts were also analyzed. With the exception of Ala and Met in R49, all amino acids derived from protein hydrolysis were diminished in seeds from salt-treated plants, especially in landrace VI-1. By contrast, several free amino acids were unchanged or increased by salinity in R49 as compared with VR and VI-1, suggesting a greater tolerance in the salares landrace. VR had the

  7. Synthesis of new isoxazoline-based acidic amino acids and investigation of their affinity and selectivity profile at ionotropic glutamate receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Andrea; Conti, Paola; Grazioso, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of four new isoxazoline-based amino acids being analogues of previously described glutamate receptor ligands is reported and their affinity for ionotropic glutamate receptors is analyzed in comparison with that of selected model compounds. Molecular modelling investigations have been...

  8. Different Flour Microbial Communities Drive to Sourdoughs Characterized by Diverse Bacterial Strains and Free Amino Acid Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celano, Giuseppe; De Angelis, Maria; Minervini, Fabio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This work aimed to investigate whether different microbial assemblies in flour may influence the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of traditional sourdough. To reach this purpose, members of lactic acid bacteria, enterobacteria, and yeasts were isolated from durum wheat flour. Secondly, the isolated microorganisms (Pediococcus pentosaceus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pantoea agglomerans, and Escherichia hermannii) were inoculated in doughs prepared with irradiated flour (gamma rays at 10 kGy), so that eight different microbial assemblies were obtained. Two non-inoculated controls were prepared, one of which (C-IF) using irradiated flour and the other (C) using non-irradiated flour. As shown by plate counts, irradiation of flour caused total inactivation of yeasts and a decrease of all the other microbial populations. However, acidification occurred also in the dough C-IF, due to metabolic activity of P. pentosaceus that had survived irradiation. After six fermentations, P. pentosaceus was the dominant lactic acid bacterium species in all the sourdoughs produced with irradiated flour (IF). Yet, IF-based sourdoughs broadly differed from each other in terms of strains of P. pentosaceus, probably due to the different microorganisms initially inoculated. Quantitative and qualitative differences of free amino acids concentration were found among the sourdoughs, possibly because of different microbial communities. In addition, as shown by culture-independent analysis (16S metagenetics), irradiation of flour lowered and modified microbial diversity of sourdough ecosystem.

  9. Different flour microbial communities drive to sourdoughs characterized by diverse bacterial strains and free amino acid profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIUSEPPE CELANO

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to investigate whether different microbial assemblies in flour may influence the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of traditional sourdough. To reach this purpose, members of lactic acid bacteria, enterobacteria, and yeasts were isolated from durum wheat flour. Secondly, the isolated microorganisms (Pediococcus pentosaceus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pantoea agglomerans, and Escherichia hermanni were inoculated in doughs prepared with irradiated flour (gamma rays at 10 kGy, so that eight different microbial assemblies were obtained. Two non-inoculated controls were prepared, one of which (C-IF using irradiated flour and the other (C using non-irradiated flour.As shown by plate counts, irradiation of flour caused total inactivation of yeasts and a decrease of all the other microbial populations. However acidification occurred also in the dough C-IF, due to metabolic activity of P. pentosaceus that had survived irradiation. After six fermentations, P. pentosaceus was the dominant lactic acid bacterium species in all the sourdoughs produced with irradiated flour (IF. Yet, IF-based sourdoughs broadly differed from each other in terms of strains of P. pentosaceus, probably due to the different microorganisms initially inoculated. Quantitative and qualitative differences of free amino acids concentration were found among the sourdoughs, possibly because of different microbial communities. In addition, as shown by culture-independent analysis (16S metagenetics, irradiation of flour lowered and modified microbial diversity of sourdough ecosystem.

  10. Synthesis of Trishomocubane Amino Acid Derivatives | Govender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acid fluoride is required for activation of the cage amino acid in SPPS. Esterification of the sterically hindered trishomocubane amino acid is also reported, indicating sufficient reactivity of the acid function for potential use in SPPS. Keywords: Trishomocubane amino acid, hydantoin, Fmoc protection, t-Boc protection, ...

  11. Combinatorics of aliphatic amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grützmann, Konrad; Böcker, Sebastian; Schuster, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    This study combines biology and mathematics, showing that a relatively simple question from molecular biology can lead to complicated mathematics. The question is how to calculate the number of theoretically possible aliphatic amino acids as a function of the number of carbon atoms in the side chain. The presented calculation is based on earlier results from theoretical chemistry concerning alkyl compounds. Mathematical properties of this number series are highlighted. We discuss which of the theoretically possible structures really occur in living organisms, such as leucine and isoleucine with a chain length of four. This is done both for a strict definition of aliphatic amino acids only involving carbon and hydrogen atoms in their side chain and for a less strict definition allowing sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. While the main focus is on proteinogenic amino acids, we also give several examples of non-proteinogenic aliphatic amino acids, playing a role, for instance, in signalling. The results are in agreement with a general phenomenon found in biology: Usually, only a small number of molecules are chosen as building blocks to assemble an inconceivable number of different macromolecules as proteins. Thus, natural biological complexity arises from the multifarious combination of building blocks.

  12. Serum amino acid abnormalities in pediatric patients with chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohamad A. El Sawy

    2011-08-10

    Aug 10, 2011 ... Levels of plasma and intracellular amino acids are signifi- cant early indicators of protein metabolism and nutritional sta- tus assessment [1,3]. Many of the characteristic alterations in the plasma amino acid profile that are observed in chronic end-stage renal disease are already present in mild renal insuf-.

  13. In Silico profiling of deleterious amino acid substitutions of potential pathological importance in haemophlia A and haemophlia B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C George Priya Doss

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, instead of current biochemical methods, the effects of deleterious amino acid substitutions in F8 and F9 gene upon protein structure and function were assayed by means of computational methods and information from the databases. Deleterious substitutions of F8 and F9 are responsible for Haemophilia A and Haemophilia B which is the most common genetic disease of coagulation disorders in blood. Yet, distinguishing deleterious variants of F8 and F9 from the massive amount of nonfunctional variants that occur within a single genome is a significant challenge. Methods We performed an in silico analysis of deleterious mutations and their protein structure changes in order to analyze the correlation between mutation and disease. Deleterious nsSNPs were categorized based on empirical based and support vector machine based methods to predict the impact on protein functions. Furthermore, we modeled mutant proteins and compared them with the native protein for analysis of protein structure stability. Results Out of 510 nsSNPs in F8, 378 nsSNPs (74% were predicted to be 'intolerant' by SIFT, 371 nsSNPs (73% were predicted to be 'damaging' by PolyPhen and 445 nsSNPs (87% as 'less stable' by I-Mutant2.0. In F9, 129 nsSNPs (78% were predicted to be intolerant by SIFT, 131 nsSNPs (79% were predicted to be damaging by PolyPhen and 150 nsSNPs (90% as less stable by I-Mutant2.0. Overall, we found that I-Mutant which emphasizes support vector machine based method outperformed SIFT and PolyPhen in prediction of deleterious nsSNPs in both F8 and F9. Conclusions The models built in this work would be appropriate for predicting the deleterious amino acid substitutions and their functions in gene regulation which would be useful for further genotype-phenotype researches as well as the pharmacogenetics studies. These in silico tools, despite being helpful in providing information about the nature of mutations, may also function as a

  14. Toward Sustainable Amino Acid Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuda, Yoshihiro; Hara, Yoshihiko; Kojima, Hiroyuki

    Because the global amino acid production industry has been growing steadily and is expected to grow even more in the future, efficient production by fermentation is of great importance from economic and sustainability viewpoints. Many systems biology technologies, such as genome breeding, omics analysis, metabolic flux analysis, and metabolic simulation, have been employed for the improvement of amino acid-producing strains of bacteria. Synthetic biological approaches have recently been applied to strain development. It is also important to use sustainable carbon sources, such as glycerol or pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass, instead of conventional carbon sources, such as glucose or sucrose, which can be used as food. Furthermore, reduction of sub-raw substrates has been shown to lead to reduction of environmental burdens and cost. Recently, a new fermentation system for glutamate production under acidic pH was developed to decrease the amount of one sub-raw material, ammonium, for maintenance of culture pH. At the same time, the utilization of fermentation coproducts, such as cells, ammonium sulfate, and fermentation broth, is a useful approach to decrease waste. In this chapter, further perspectives for future amino acid fermentation from one-carbon compounds are described.

  15. Oenological characteristics, amino acids and volatile profiles of Hongqu rice wines during pottery storage: Effects of high hydrostatic pressure processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuting; Huang, Jiamei; Xie, Tingting; Huang, Luqiang; Zhuang, Weijin; Zheng, Yafeng; Zheng, Baodong

    2016-07-15

    Hongqu rice wines were subjected to high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatments of 200 MPa and 550 MPa at 25 °C for 30 min and effects on wine quality during pottery storage were examined. HHP treatment can significantly (pfusel-like alcohols and maintain the concentration of lactones in these wines. After 18 months of storage, the HHP-treated wines exhibited a more rapid decrease in total sugars (9.3-15.3%), lower free amino acid content (e.g. lysine content decreased by 45.0-84.5%), and higher ketone content (e.g. 6- and 14-fold increase for 2-nonanone). These changes could be attributed to the occurrence of Maillard and oxidation reactions. The wines treated at 550 MPa for 30 min developed about twice as rapidly during pottery storage than untreated wines based on principal component analysis. After only 6 months, treated wines had a volatile composition and an organoleptic quality similar to that of untreated wines stored in pottery for 18 months. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Transcriptome profiling and physiological studies reveal a major role for aromatic amino acids in mercury stress tolerance in rice seedlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-An Chen

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg is a serious environmental pollution threat to the planet. The accumulation of Hg in plants disrupts many cellular-level functions and inhibits growth and development, but the mechanism is not fully understood. To gain more insight into the cellular response to Hg, we performed a large-scale analysis of the rice transcriptome during Hg stress. Genes induced with short-term exposure represented functional categories of cell-wall formation, chemical detoxification, secondary metabolism, signal transduction and abiotic stress response. Moreover, Hg stress upregulated several genes involved in aromatic amino acids (Phe and Trp and increased the level of free Phe and Trp content. Exogenous application of Phe and Trp to rice roots enhanced tolerance to Hg and effectively reduced Hg-induced production of reactive oxygen species. Hg induced calcium accumulation and activated mitogen-activated protein kinase. Further characterization of the Hg-responsive genes we identified may be helpful for better understanding the mechanisms of Hg in plants.

  17. Effects of eccentric exercise on branched-chain amino acid profiles in rat serum and skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qun, Z; Xinkai, Y; Jing, W

    2014-04-01

    Supplementation of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) is often used to attenuate exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage and promote adaptation, but no definitive conclusion on the benefits of BCAA on muscle recovery after injurious exercise can be drawn. Exploration of the systematic BCAA alteration in muscular injury-repair stage per se without any BCAA supplement should provide some useful information in favour of BCAA application in muscle regeneration after injury. One bout of 90-min downhill-running exercise was performed to cause rat skeletal muscle injury. After exercise, myofibrillar BCAA concentrations showed minor changes compared with exercise before, while serum concentrations of BCAA were lower after exercise. Especially, serum leucine, isoleucine and total BCAA concentrations 2 weeks post-run were significantly lower than normal values of exercise before (p = 0.008, p = 0.041, p = 0.015). The data demonstrate that a single eccentric exercise can significantly decrease the serum BCAA concentrations, which mean high utilization of BCAA for myogenesis after injurious exercise. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Seq2Logo: a method for construction and visualization of amino acid binding motifs and sequence profiles including sequence weighting, pseudo counts and two-sided representation of amino acid enrichment and depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Martin Christen Frølund; Nielsen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Seq2Logo is a web-based sequence logo generator. Sequence logos are a graphical representation of the information content stored in a multiple sequence alignment (MSA) and provide a compact and highly intuitive representation of the position-specific amino acid composition of binding motifs, active...

  19. Amino acids in sheep production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoard, Susan A; Sales, Francisco A; Sciascia, Quentin L

    2016-01-01

    Increasing production efficiency with a high standard of animal welfare and respect for the environment is a goal of sheep farming systems. Substantial gains in productivity have been achieved through improved genetics, nutrition and management changes; however the survival and growth performance of multiple-born lambs still remains a problem. This is a significant production efficiency and animal well-being issue. There is a growing body of evidence that some amino acids have a role in regulating growth, reproduction and immunity through modulation of metabolic and cell signaling pathways. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of what is currently known about the role of amino acids in sheep production and the potential for supplementation strategies to influence on-farm survival and growth of lambs.

  20. AMINO ACIDS APPLICATION TO CREATE OF NANOSTRUCTURES

    OpenAIRE

    I. S. Chekman; N. A. Gorchakova; H. O. Sirova; O. O. Kazakova; T. I. Nagorna; V. F. Shatornaya

    2014-01-01

    Review is devoted to the amino acids that could be used for nanostructures creation. The investigation of corresponding properties of amino acids is essential for their role definition in creation of nanomedicines. However, amino acid studying as components of nanostructures is insufficient. Study of nanoparticles for medicines creation was initiated by the development of nanotechnology. Amino acids in complexes with the nanoparticles of organic and inorganic nature play an important role for...

  1. Symmetry Scheme for Amino Acid Codons

    OpenAIRE

    Balakrishnan, J.

    2003-01-01

    Group theoretical concepts are invoked in a specific model to explain how only twenty amino acids occur in nature out of a possible sixty four. The methods we use enable us to justify the occurrence of the recently discovered twenty first amino acid selenocysteine, and also enables us to predict the possible existence of two more, as yet undiscovered amino acids.

  2. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, Ashton T; Chin, Jason W; Anderson, Christopher J; Schultz, Peter G

    2013-05-21

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  3. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, T. Ashton; Chin, Jason W.; Anderson, Christopher J.; Schultz, Peter G.

    2017-10-25

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  4. Amino acids as antioxidants for frying oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids, proteins and hydrolysates of proteins have been known to protect edible oils from oxidation. While amino acids and related materials have high potential as antioxidants for frying oil, effectiveness of each amino acid and mechanisms of their activities are not well understood yet. Propo...

  5. Carcass amino acid composition and utilization of dietary amino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcass amino acid composition and utilization of dietary amino acids by chickens. A.J. Saunders, J.P.H. Wessels, R.M. Gous. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics Loading ... Metrics powered by PLOS ...

  6. Bacterial synthesis of D-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radkov, Atanas D; Moe, Luke A

    2014-06-01

    Recent work has shed light on the abundance and diversity of D-amino acids in bacterial extracellular/periplasmic molecules, bacterial cell culture, and bacteria-rich environments. Within the extracellular/periplasmic space, D-amino acids are necessary components of peptidoglycan, and disruption of their synthesis leads to cell death. As such, enzymes responsible for D-amino acid synthesis are promising targets for antibacterial compounds. Further, bacteria are shown to incorporate a diverse collection of D-amino acids into their peptidoglycan, and differences in D-amino acid incorporation may occur in response to differences in growth conditions. Certain D-amino acids can accumulate to millimolar levels in cell culture, and their synthesis is proposed to foretell movement from exponential growth phase into stationary phase. While enzymes responsible for synthesis of D-amino acids necessary for peptidoglycan (D-alanine and D-glutamate) have been characterized from a number of different bacteria, the D-amino acid synthesis enzymes characterized to date cannot account for the diversity of D-amino acids identified in bacteria or bacteria-rich environments. Free D-amino acids are synthesized by racemization or epimerization at the α-carbon of the corresponding L-amino acid by amino acid racemase or amino acid epimerase enzymes. Additionally, D-amino acids can be synthesized by stereospecific amination of α-ketoacids. Below, we review the roles of D-amino acids in bacterial physiology and biotechnology, and we describe the known mechanisms by which they are synthesized by bacteria.

  7. Amino acid profile of metabolisable protein in lactating dairy cows is affected by dry matter concentration in grass-clover silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Marianne; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2018-01-01

    Our previous study showed that supply of metabolisable protein (MP) to lactating dairy cows increased with increasing dry matter (DM) concentration in grass-clover silage. The aim of this study was to examine how amino acid (AA) profile of MP was affected by silage DM concentration. Eight grass......-clover silages with DM concentrations ranging from 283 to 725 g/kg were fed ad libitum to four multi-fistulated dairy cows in an incomplete balanced scheme over five periods. Individual AA were analysed in silages, in microbes isolated from the rumen, and in duodenal and ileal chyme, respectively. Proportion...... of arginine in silage AA increased, proportions of cysteine and proline in silage AA tended to increase, whereas proportions of alanine, histidine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, ornithine, serine, threonine and valine in silage AA decreased with increased silage DM concentration. Crude protein (CP) and AA...

  8. Comparative study of the usefulness of low energy Cs(+), Xe(+), and O(2)(+) ions for depth profiling amino-acid and sugar films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehbe, Nimer; Houssiau, Laurent

    2010-12-15

    This work reports a comparative study on the capability of low energy primary ion beams for depth profiling nonpolymeric molecules including amino-acid and sugar layers. Due to their different behavior regarding depth profiling, phenylalanine and trehalose molecules are chosen as reference systems. Each molecule was dissolved in suitable solvent prior to spin-coating on clean silicon wafer. The film thicknesses were in the order of 70 and 100 nm for phenylalanine and trehalose respectively. Depth profiling feasibility were assessed first using Cs(+) as reactive sputtering ion at various energies. The results obtained under Cs(+) sputtering ions are compared afterward to those obtained under Xe(+) sputtering ions which are inert and have a mass very similar to Cs(+). In order to investigate the effect of oxygen, depth profiling are also performed using either Xe(+) under oxygen flooding or O(2)(+) as sputtering ions. While phenylalanine could be depth profiled successfully using Cs(+) ions, Xe(+) and O(2)(+) ions failed to retain any characteristic signal. The sputtering yields measured as a function of the ion beam energies were higher using Cs(+), in particular at low energies. The chemical reactivity of the cesium atoms being implanted during the sputtering process helps to prevent the loss of the molecular phenylalanine signal. In contrast, depth profiling of trehalose was more successful upon Xe(+) and O(2)(+) compared to Cs(+). In this case the sputtering yields were higher if Xe(+) primary ion is employed instead of Cs(+). The different trends observed in this study are interpreted using arguments involving the reactivity of the sputtering ions.

  9. Amino acid properties conserved in molecular evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold R Rudnicki

    Full Text Available That amino acid properties are responsible for the way protein molecules evolve is natural and is also reasonably well supported both by the structure of the genetic code and, to a large extent, by the experimental measures of the amino acid similarity. Nevertheless, there remains a significant gap between observed similarity matrices and their reconstructions from amino acid properties. Therefore, we introduce a simple theoretical model of amino acid similarity matrices, which allows splitting the matrix into two parts - one that depends only on mutabilities of amino acids and another that depends on pairwise similarities between them. Then the new synthetic amino acid properties are derived from the pairwise similarities and used to reconstruct similarity matrices covering a wide range of information entropies. Our model allows us to explain up to 94% of the variability in the BLOSUM family of the amino acids similarity matrices in terms of amino acid properties. The new properties derived from amino acid similarity matrices correlate highly with properties known to be important for molecular evolution such as hydrophobicity, size, shape and charge of amino acids. This result closes the gap in our understanding of the influence of amino acids on evolution at the molecular level. The methods were applied to the single family of similarity matrices used often in general sequence homology searches, but it is general and can be used also for more specific matrices. The new synthetic properties can be used in analyzes of protein sequences in various biological applications.

  10. Storage protein profile and amino acid content in wild rice Oryza glumaepatula Perfil da proteína de reserva e conteúdo de aminoácidos no arroz silvestre Oryza glumaepatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Freire D'eça Nogueira Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available - The objective of this work was to determine the total protein profile and the contents of the four major protein fractions (albumin, globulin, prolamin and glutelin and of the amino acids in the endosperm of the rice wild species Oryza glumaepatula. The experiment was performed with 29 accessions of this species, collected from 13 Brazilian locations, and two commercial cultivars. Protein samples were prepared using dried, polished, and ground grains to obtain homogeneous, dry flour used in the preparation of extracts. Oryza glumaepatula accessions were identified with the highest levels of total protein, albumin and glutelin protein fractions, and amino acids (with the exception of tryptophan in comparison to the two analized rice cultivars. The albumin and glutelin profiles in SDS-Page were distinct between rice cultivars and O. glumaepatula. This wild species has the potential to increase the nutritional quality of rice storage protein through interspecific crosses.- O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar os perfis de proteína total e o conteúdo das quatro principais frações proteicas (albumina, globulina, prolamina e glutelina e de aminoácidos no endosperma da espécie de arroz silvestre Oryza glumaepatula. O experimento foi realizado com 29 acessos dessa espécie, coletados em 13 locais no Brasil, e duas cultivares comerciais. Amostras de proteínas foram preparadas com grãos secos, polidos e moídos, para obtenção de uma farinha seca e homogênea, usada no preparo dos estratos. Acessos de O. glumaepatula foram identificados com os maiores níveis de proteína total, frações proteicas de albumina e glutelina, e aminoácidos (com exceção do triptofano, em comparação às duas cultivares de arroz avaliadas. Os perfis de albumina e glutelina em SDS-PAGE foram distintos entre as cultivares de arroz e O. glumaepatula. Essa espécie silvestre tem o potencial de aumentar a qualidade nutricional da proteína de reserva do arroz por

  11. Amino acid profiles of rumen undegradable protein: a comparison between forages including cereal straws and alfalfa and their respective total mixed rations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B; Jiang, L S; Liu, J X

    2017-10-06

    Optimizing the amino acid (AA) profile of rumen undegradable protein (RUP) can positively affect the amount of milk protein. This study was conducted to improve knowledge regarding the AA profile of rumen undegradable protein from corn stover, rice straw and alfalfa hay as well as the total mixed ratio diets (TMR) based on one of them as forage source [forage-to-concentrate ratio of 45:55 (30% of corn stover (CS), 30% of rice straw (RS), 23% of alfalfa hay (AH) and dry matter basis)]. The other ingredients in the three TMR diets were similar. The RUP of all the forages and diets was estimated by incubation for 16 hr in the rumen of three ruminally cannulated lactating cows. All residues were corrected for microbial colonization, which was necessary in determining the AA composition of RUP from feed samples using in situ method. Compared with their original AA composition, the AA pattern of forages and forage-based diets changed drastically after rumen exposure. In addition, the extent of ruminal degradation of analysed AA was not constant among the forages. The greatest individual AA degradability of alfalfa hay and corn stover was Pro, but was His of rice straw. A remarkable difference was observed between microbial attachment corrected and uncorrected AA profiles of RUP, except for alfalfa hay and His in the three forages and TMR diets. The ruminal AA degradability of cereal straws was altered compared with alfalfa hay but not for the TMR diets. In summary, the AA composition of forages and TMR-based diets changed significantly after ruminal exposure, indicating that the original AA profiles of the feed cannot represent its AA composition of RUP. The AA profile of RUP and ruminal AA degradability for corn stover and rice straw contributed to missing information in the field. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Branched-Chain Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Keisuke; Tsuchisaka, Atsunari; Yukawa, Hideaki

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), viz., L-isoleucine, L-leucine, and L-valine, are essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized in higher organisms and are important nutrition for humans as well as livestock. They are also valued as synthetic intermediates for pharmaceuticals. Therefore, the demand for BCAAs in the feed and pharmaceutical industries is increasing continuously. Traditional industrial fermentative production of BCAAs was performed using microorganisms isolated by random mutagenesis. A collection of these classical strains was also scientifically useful to clarify the details of the BCAA biosynthetic pathways, which are tightly regulated by feedback inhibition and transcriptional attenuation. Based on this understanding of the metabolism of BCAAs, it is now possible for us to pursue strains with higher BCAA productivity using rational design and advanced molecular biology techniques. Additionally, systems biology approaches using augmented omics information help us to optimize carbon flux toward BCAA production. Here, we describe the biosynthetic pathways of BCAAs and their regulation and then overview the microorganisms developed for BCAA production. Other chemicals, including isobutanol, i.e., a second-generation biofuel, can be synthesized by branching the BCAA biosynthetic pathways, which are also outlined.

  13. Amino and fatty acids in carbonaceous meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvenvolden, K. A.

    1974-01-01

    Analyses of two carbonaceous meteorites have provided much of the latest evidence which seems to support Oparin's theory on the origin of life. The meteorites involved are the Murray meteorite, which fell in 1950, and the Murchison meteorite, which fell in 1969. The amino acids in the two meteorites are similar in composition. Eight of the twenty amino acids found belong to amino acids present in proteins. A number of monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic fatty acids were also found in the meteorites.

  14. Amino Acids Are an Ineffective Fertilizer for Dunaliella spp. Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphree, Colin A; Dums, Jacob T; Jain, Siddharth K; Zhao, Chengsong; Young, Danielle Y; Khoshnoodi, Nicole; Tikunov, Andrey; Macdonald, Jeffrey; Pilot, Guillaume; Sederoff, Heike

    2017-01-01

    Autotrophic microalgae are a promising bioproducts platform. However, the fundamental requirements these organisms have for nitrogen fertilizer severely limit the impact and scale of their cultivation. As an alternative to inorganic fertilizers, we investigated the possibility of using amino acids from deconstructed biomass as a nitrogen source in the genus Dunaliella. We found that only four amino acids (glutamine, histidine, cysteine, and tryptophan) rescue Dunaliella spp. growth in nitrogen depleted media, and that supplementation of these amino acids altered the metabolic profile of Dunaliella cells. Our investigations revealed that histidine is transported across the cell membrane, and that glutamine and cysteine are not transported. Rather, glutamine, cysteine, and tryptophan are degraded in solution by a set of oxidative chemical reactions, releasing ammonium that in turn supports growth. Utilization of biomass-derived amino acids is therefore not a suitable option unless additional amino acid nitrogen uptake is enabled through genetic modifications of these algae.

  15. Amino Acids Are an Ineffective Fertilizer for Dunaliella spp. Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin A. Murphree

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Autotrophic microalgae are a promising bioproducts platform. However, the fundamental requirements these organisms have for nitrogen fertilizer severely limit the impact and scale of their cultivation. As an alternative to inorganic fertilizers, we investigated the possibility of using amino acids from deconstructed biomass as a nitrogen source in the genus Dunaliella. We found that only four amino acids (glutamine, histidine, cysteine, and tryptophan rescue Dunaliella spp. growth in nitrogen depleted media, and that supplementation of these amino acids altered the metabolic profile of Dunaliella cells. Our investigations revealed that histidine is transported across the cell membrane, and that glutamine and cysteine are not transported. Rather, glutamine, cysteine, and tryptophan are degraded in solution by a set of oxidative chemical reactions, releasing ammonium that in turn supports growth. Utilization of biomass-derived amino acids is therefore not a suitable option unless additional amino acid nitrogen uptake is enabled through genetic modifications of these algae.

  16. Amino-acid contamination of aqueous hydrochloric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolman, Y.; Miller, S. L.

    1971-01-01

    Considerable amino-acid contamination in commercially available analytical grade hydrochloric acid (37% HCl) was found. One bottle contained 8,300 nmol of amino-acids per liter. A bottle from another supplier contained 6,700 nmol per liter. The contaminants were mostly protein amino-acids and several unknowns. Data on the volatility of the amino-acids during HCl distillation were also obtained.

  17. Amino Acid Transport in a Polyaromatic Amino Acid Auxotroph of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greasham, Randolph L.; Moat, Albert G.

    1973-01-01

    The initiation of growth of a polyaromatic auxotrophic mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was inhibited by several amino acids, whereas growth of the parent prototroph was unaffected. A comparative investigation of amino acid transport in the two strains employing 14C-labeled amino acids revealed that the transport of amino acids in S. cerevisiae was mediated by a general transport system responsible for the uptake of all neutral as well as basic amino acids. Both auxotrophic and prototrophic strains exhibited stereospecificity for l-amino acids and a Km ranging from 1.5 × 10−5 to 5.0 × 10−5 M. Optimal transport activity occurred at pH 5.7. Cycloheximide had no effect on amino acid uptake, indicating that protein synthesis was not a direct requirement for amino acid transport. Regulation of amino acid transport was subject to the concentration of amino acids in the free amino acid pool. Amino acid inhibition of the uptake of the aromatic amino acids by the aromatic auxotroph did not correlate directly with the effect of amino acids on the initiation of growth of the auxotroph but provides a partial explanation of this effect. PMID:4580574

  18. Prediction of Protein S-Nitrosylation Sites Based on Adapted Normal Distribution Bi-Profile Bayes and Chou’s Pseudo Amino Acid Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cangzhi Jia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein S-nitrosylation is a reversible post-translational modification by covalent modification on the thiol group of cysteine residues by nitric oxide. Growing evidence shows that protein S-nitrosylation plays an important role in normal cellular function as well as in various pathophysiologic conditions. Because of the inherent chemical instability of the S-NO bond and the low abundance of endogenous S-nitrosylated proteins, the unambiguous identification of S-nitrosylation sites by commonly used proteomic approaches remains challenging. Therefore, computational prediction of S-nitrosylation sites has been considered as a powerful auxiliary tool. In this work, we mainly adopted an adapted normal distribution bi-profile Bayes (ANBPB feature extraction model to characterize the distinction of position-specific amino acids in 784 S-nitrosylated and 1568 non-S-nitrosylated peptide sequences. We developed a support vector machine prediction model, iSNO-ANBPB, by incorporating ANBPB with the Chou’s pseudo amino acid composition. In jackknife cross-validation experiments, iSNO-ANBPB yielded an accuracy of 65.39% and a Matthew’s correlation coefficient (MCC of 0.3014. When tested on an independent dataset, iSNO-ANBPB achieved an accuracy of 63.41% and a MCC of 0.2984, which are much higher than the values achieved by the existing predictors SNOSite, iSNO-PseAAC, the Li et al. algorithm, and iSNO-AAPair. On another training dataset, iSNO-ANBPB also outperformed GPS-SNO and iSNO-PseAAC in the 10-fold crossvalidation test.

  19. Leucine-rich diet improves the serum amino acid profile and body composition of fetuses from tumor-bearing pregnant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Laís Rosa; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina C

    2013-05-01

    Pregnancy is a complex process that can be jeopardized when associated with cancer, because of the coexistence of two complex metabolic conditions: a fetus and cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate fetal growth in association with cancer development as well as the indirect effects produced by tumors in pregnant mice subjected to a leucine-rich diet, knowing that leucine supplementation can minimize the tumor effects by acting as a cell signaling agent to improve the protein synthesis process. We evaluated fetuses (n = 6) from NMRI pregnant mice fed either a control or a leucine-rich diet in either the presence or absence of an MAC16 colon adenocarcinoma or ascitic fluid inoculation. The fetal serum amino acids were separated using high-performance liquid chromatography, and fetal cytokine levels were analyzed using a microsphere-based multiplex immunoassay (Luminex xMAP). Fetal body composition was measured as the water, fat, and protein total content and total serum protein, albumin, and glucose content. Tumor growth resulted in a severe reduction in fetal body weight and protein content and increased fetal resorption, associated with placental weight decrease; these effects were minimized by a leucine-rich diet. Serum total protein and glucose content were reduced in fetuses from tumor-bearing dams but were reverted by nutritional supplementation. The serum amino acid profiles differed significantly between the tumor-bearing mice fed with a leucine-rich diet and controls. Certain tumor effects were reproduced in fetuses from ascitic fluid-injected dams, suggesting indirect effects of tumor growth. We conclude that certain effects of tumor growth can be mimicked by ascitic fluid injection and can be modulated by a leucine-rich diet.

  20. Influences of dietary protein sources and crude protein levels on intracellular free amino acid profile in the longissimus dorsi muscle of finishing gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chunfu; Huang, Ping; Qiu, Kai; Sun, Wenjuan; Xu, Ling; Zhang, Xin; Yin, Jingdong

    2015-01-01

    The current study was carried out to determine effects of dietary protein source and crude protein (CP) level on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and muscle amino acid (AA) profile in finishing gilts. The experiment was designed as a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with two sources of dietary proteins (cottonseed meal, CSM vs. soybean meal, SBM) and two levels of CP (12 % vs. 14 %, as-fed basis). Seventy-two crossbred gilts (89.5 ± 0.9 kg) were allotted to one of four dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design for a period of 28 d. All diets were formulated to be isoenergetic and similar concentrations of standardized ileal digestible essential AA covering the nutrient requirements of pigs. Growth, carcass characteristics and meat quality were not affected by dietary protein source nor crude protein level (P > 0.10) except that average daily feed intake was increased by CSM diets (P = 0.03). Gilts offered reduced protein diets had lower muscle pH45min (P gilts offered CSM diets, while muscle intracellular free valine concentration was increased (P = 0.03). The gilts offered reduced protein diets had greater intracellular concentrations of free methionine, lysine, and total AA in muscle (P < 0.05). These results suggest that CSM could replace SBM as a primary protein source in finishing pig diets in terms of performance, N efficiency, carcass characteristics, and meat quality, but decrease the concentrations of muscle specific AA. Furthermore, the reduced protein diet played an important role in increasing muscle intracellular concentrations of specific free amino acids (FAA), and in reducing the relative ratios of specific FAA to lysine in longissimus dorsi muscle of pig, whose biological meaning needs further studies.

  1. Amino acid catabolism by Lactobacillus helveticus in cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kananen, Soila Kaarina

    manufacture were studied. Amino acid catabolism related enzyme activities were studied in vitro from eight out of 39 Lb. helveticus strains selected based on different pulsed field gel electrophoresis profiles. Amino acids can be initially converted into a-keto acids by transamination reaction. Lb helveticus......Amino acid catabolism is the final step in the conversion of caseins to flavour compounds and a part of a complex combination of biochemical pathways in cheese flavour formation. Lactobacillus helveticus is a thermophilic lactic acid bacterium that is used in cheese manufacture as a primary starter...... culture or as an adjunct culture. It has shown high proteolytic activities in conversion of caseins to peptides and further to amino acids and flavour compounds. Better understanding of the enzyme activity properties and the influence of different properties on final cheese flavour is favourable...

  2. Amino acid composition of some Mexican foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales de León, Josefina; Camacho, M Elena; Bourges, Héctor

    2005-06-01

    Knowledge of the amino acid composition of foods is essential to calculate their chemical score, which is used to predict protein quality of foods and diets. Though amino acid composition of many foods is reasonably well established, better knowledge is needed on native foods consumed in different regions and countries. This paper presents the amino acid composition of different presentations of raw and processed foods produced and consumed in Mexico. The amino acid composition was determined using Beckman amino acid analyzers (models 116 and 6300). Tryptophan was determined using the Spies and Chambers method. Of the different foods analyzed, some comments are made on native or basic foods in Mexico: Spirulin, where lysine is the limiting amino acid, with a chemical score of 67%, is a good source of tryptophan (1.16g/16 gN); amaranth contains high levels of sulphur amino acids (4.09 to 5.34 g/16gN), with a protein content of 15 g/100g; and pulque, a Pre-Hispanic beverage that contains high levels of tryptophan (2.58 g/16 gN) and sulphur amino acids (2.72 g/16 gN). Finally, insects are good sources of sulphur amino acids and lysine.

  3. Specific plasma amino acid disturbances associated with metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Siomkajło, Marta; Rybka, Jacek; Mierzchała-Pasierb, Magdalena; Gamian, Andrzej; Stankiewicz-Olczyk, Joanna; Bolanowski, Marek; Daroszewski, Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The primary objective of the present study was to examine the association between branched chain and aromatic amino acid profiles (BCAA and AAA respectively) and the metabolic syndrome (MS), and to evaluate the clinical utility of these associations in the diagnostic process. Methods Two hundred and sixty three healthy men with MS [MS(+): n = 165] and without MS [MS(−): n = 98] were enrolled in the observational study. Anthropometrical, biochemical, and amino acid measurements were pe...

  4. An Investigation of the Complexity of Maillard Reaction Product Profiles from the Thermal Reaction of Amino Acids with Sucrose Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Golon

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermal treatment of food changes its chemical composition drastically with the formation of “so-called” Maillard reaction products, being responsible for the sensory properties of food, along with detrimental and beneficial health effects. In this contribution, we will describe the reactivity of several amino acids, including arginine, lysine, aspartic acid, tyrosine, serine and cysteine, with carbohydrates. The analytical strategy employed involves high and ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry followed by chemometric-type data analysis. The different reactivity of amino acids towards carbohydrates has been observed with cysteine and serine, resulting in complex MS spectra with thousands of detectable reaction products. Several compounds have been tentatively identified, including caramelization reaction products, adducts of amino acids with carbohydrates, their dehydration and hydration products, disproportionation products and aromatic compounds based on molecular formula considerations.

  5. An Investigation of the Complexity of Maillard Reaction Product Profiles from the Thermal Reaction of Amino Acids with Sucrose Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golon, Agnieszka; Kropf, Christian; Vockenroth, Inga; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2014-08-07

    Thermal treatment of food changes its chemical composition drastically with the formation of "so-called" Maillard reaction products, being responsible for the sensory properties of food, along with detrimental and beneficial health effects. In this contribution, we will describe the reactivity of several amino acids, including arginine, lysine, aspartic acid, tyrosine, serine and cysteine, with carbohydrates. The analytical strategy employed involves high and ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry followed by chemometric-type data analysis. The different reactivity of amino acids towards carbohydrates has been observed with cysteine and serine, resulting in complex MS spectra with thousands of detectable reaction products. Several compounds have been tentatively identified, including caramelization reaction products, adducts of amino acids with carbohydrates, their dehydration and hydration products, disproportionation products and aromatic compounds based on molecular formula considerations.

  6. Pyrolysis of amino acids - Mechanistic considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, M. A., Jr.; Medley, E. E.; Simmonds, P. G.

    1974-01-01

    Pyrolysis of several structurally different amino acids in a column at 500 C showed differences in the mechanisms and final products. The aliphatic protein amino acids decompose mainly by simple decarboxylation and condensation reactions, while the beta amino acids undergo deamination to unsaturated acids. Alpha amino acids with alpha alkyl substituents undergo an unusual intramolecular SN1 reaction with the formation of an intermediate alpha lactone which decomposes to yield a ketone. The alpha alkyl substituents appear to stabilize the developing negative charge formed by partial heterolytic cleavage of the alpha carbon - NH3 bond. The gamma and delta amino acids give 2-pyrrolidinone and 2-piperidone respectively, while the epsilon acids yield mixed products.

  7. The effects of free amino acids profiles on seeds germination/dormancy and seedlings development of two genetically different cultivars of Yemeni Pomegranates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhadi Fatima A.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant seeds used rely on a wide range of internal mechanisms and physio-chemical factors to ensure their germination under favorable environmental conditions. Most plant seeds have complex process of germination, including water, oxygen, temperature availability, genome-wide gene expression, signal transduction, hormones stimulations, inhibitors removal and catalytic protein synthesis. In addition, influences of seeds nutrient values such as, protein, lipids, sugars and free amino acids have a special importance. Regarding, seeds free amino acids. Discussion of these individual factors needs to be put in context of their role in germination processes. Regarding, free amino acids seed storage, there is limited information about their relevant functions in activation and/or deactivation of required metabolic mechanisms and interactive compounds involved in this process in commercial plant cultivars. Therefore, current study was aimed to determine the probable influence of free amino acid compositions of seeds on germination process of two different (Punica granatum L. pomegranate cultivars including wild type Automi cultivar and edible Khazemi cultivar. In particular, we focused on the impact of amino acids contents variations on germination process and associated AAs compositional changes during various stages of germination and seedlings establishment. Amino acid analysis using HPLC detected all the essential and non-essential amino acids in the raw seeds of the studied cultivars, Automi and Khazemi along with AAs compositional changes occurred during different stages of seed germination. These AAs have been extensively analyzed in the context of their role in dormancy breaking capacities in plants species. Automi raw seeds are rich in Phe, that, is strongly related to ABA synthesis and hence might be responsible for the dormancy of Automi seeds, Khazemi raw seeds have sufficient levels of Arg, Glu and Met that have been reported to enhance

  8. Research Progress of Amino Acid Metabolism PET Imaging in Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIE Da-hong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Amino acid metabolism PET imaging plays a very important role in metabolism molecular imaging. Amino acid PET tracers include [1-11C]amino acid, labeling α-C amino acid, labeling side-chain amino acid, and N-substituted labeling amino acid. Uptake mechanism of these amino acids in tumor mainly involves in amino acid transport and amino acid metabolism PET imaging has an advantage of differential diagnosis of neuropsychiatric diseases, brain cancer, neuroendocrine tumor, and other tumors. The research progress of amino acid metabolism PET imaging in tumor were summarized.

  9. carcass amino acid composition and utilization of dietary amino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the dissimilar diets fed. Highly significant correlation coefficients u,ere obtained br:tween body water content and the content of es- sential amino acids in the carcass. Carcass arnino acid analysis couid the'refore, under set conditions, be calculated from the body water content by using predetermined regression equations.

  10. Comparability of the amino acid composition of aril and seed of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparability of the amino acid composition of aril and seed of blighia sapida fruit. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... investigation into the concentrations of amino acids of the aril and seed parts of Blighia sapida fruit was carried out using standard methods to determine amino acid profiles ...

  11. Oil characterization, amino acid and vitamin A and C composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil characterization, amino acid and vitamin A and C composition of Cucurbita maxima seeds was carried out using standard analytical methods. The amino acid profile was determined using Techno sequential multi sample amino acid analyser and except phenylalanine which was most abundant in the sample had the ...

  12. A potential new selection criterion for breeding winter barley optimal protein and amino acid profiles for liquid pig feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Bjerg; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    of glutamic acid revealed differences between the cultivars and the solubilised protein at all three times. These preliminary results may indicate that improvements of the nitrogen utilization in pigs fed soaked winter barley depends on the choice of cultivar and soaking time, and may serve as a new selection...... was to evaluate the effect of soaking on the amount of water soluble protein and AAs from different winter barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars. In this experiment, grains from 9 different barley cultivars were soaked and samples were collected at 15 minutes, 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, 48 and 72 hours. The protein...... concentration was analysed in the supernatant after centrifugation. After 15 min., app. 16% of the total protein was soluble and until 8 hours an increase of 5% units was observed. However, from 8 to 48 hours it increased with 10% units for some cultivars. Based on these analyses, cultivars were selected...

  13. Amino acid regulation of autophagosome formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Alfred J.

    2008-01-01

    Amino acids are not only substrates for various metabolic pathways, but can also serve as signaling molecules controlling signal transduction pathways. One of these signaling pathways is mTOR-dependent and is activated by amino acids (leucine in particular) in synergy with insulin. Activation of

  14. THE AMINO ACID SEQUENCE OF HYPERTENSIN II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeggs, Leonard T.; Lentz, Kenneth E.; Kahn, Joseph R.; Shumway, Norman P.; Woods, Kenneth R.

    1956-01-01

    The amino acid sequence of horse hypertensin II has been determined by the use of chymotrypsin, the fluorodinitrobenzene method, and stepwise phenylisothiocyanate degradation. The results indicate that the amino acids of hypertensin II are arranged in the following order: asp-arg-val-tyr-iso-hist-pro-phe. PMID:13345964

  15. Amino acids transport in lactic streptococci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, Arnold Jacob Mathieu

    1987-01-01

    Lactic streptococci are extremely fastidious bacteria. For growth an exogenous source of amino acids and other nutrients is essential. The amino acid requirement in milk is fulfilled by the milk-protein casein, which is degraded by sequential hydrolysis, involving proteases and peptidases. ... Zie:

  16. The Apollo Program and Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Sidney W.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the determination of hydrolyzable amino acid precursors and a group of six amino acids in the returned lunar samples of the Apollo programs. Indicates that molecular evolution is arrested at the precursor stage on the Moon because of lack of water. (CC)

  17. Crystalline amino acids and nitrogen emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstegen, M.W.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.

    2003-01-01

    Reductions in dietary protein level and supplementation with certain crystalline amino acids is a well-established method of formulating diets to achieve a more ideal amino acid pattern and to reduce nitrogen excretion. Up to 35% reduction in nitrogen excretion may be achieved by supplementing pig

  18. Antiproliferative and Antioxidant Activities and Mycosporine-Like Amino Acid Profiles of Wild-Harvested and Cultivated Edible Canadian Marine Red Macroalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasantha Athukorala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiproliferative and antioxidant activities and mycosporine-like amino acid (MAA profiles of methanol extracts from edible wild-harvested (Chondrus crispus, Mastocarpus stellatus, Palmaria palmata and cultivated (C. crispus marine red macroalgae were studied herein. Palythine, asterina-330, shinorine, palythinol, porphyra-334 and usujirene MAAs were identified in the macroalgal extracts by LC/MS/MS. Extract reducing activity rankings were (p < 0.001: wild P. palmata > cultivated C. crispus = wild M. stellatus > wild low-UV C. crispus > wild high-UV C. crispus; whereas oxygen radical absorbance capacities were (p < 0.001: wild M. stellatus > wild P. palmata > cultivated C. crispus > wild low-UV C. crispus > wild high-UV C. crispus. Extracts were antiproliferative against HeLa and U-937 cells (p < 0.001 from 0.125–4 mg/mL, 24 h. Wild P. palmata and cultivated C. crispus extracts increased (p < 0.001 HeLa caspase-3/7 activities and the proportion of cells arrested at Sub G1 (apoptotic compared to wild-harvested C. crispus and M. stellatus extracts. HeLa cells incubated with wild P. palmata and cultivated C. crispus extracts also exhibited morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis (shrinkage, rounding. Thus, extracts rich in low-polarity usujirene and polar palythine and asterina-330 MAAs were antiproliferative as inducers of apoptosis in HeLa cells.

  19. Relationship between Branched-Chain Amino Acids, Metabolic Syndrome, and Cardiovascular Risk Profile in a Chinese Population: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs, metabolic syndrome (MS, and other cardiovascular (CV risk factors in middle-aged and elderly Chinese population at high risk for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Methods. 1302 subjects were enrolled from the Huai’an Diabetes Prevention Program. Results. BCAAs levels were positively correlated with MS, its components, and CV risk profile. The odds ratio (OR for MS among subjects in the fourth quartile of BCAAs levels showed a 2.17-fold increase compared with those in the first quartile. BCAAs were independently associated with high Framingham risk score even after adjusting for MS and its components (P<0.0001. Additionally, the OR for high CV risk was 3.20-fold (P<0.0001 in participants in the fourth BCAAs quartile with MS compared with participants in the first BCAAs quartile without MS. Conclusions. Increased BCAAs levels are independent risk factors of MS and CVD in addition to the traditional factors in middle-aged and elderly Chinese population. The development of CVD in MS patients with high level BCAAs is accelerated. Intervention studies are needed to investigate whether the strategy of BCAAs reduction has impacts on endpoints in patients with higher CV risk. This study is registered with ChiCTR-TRC-14005029.

  20. OH-PRED: prediction of protein hydroxylation sites by incorporating adapted normal distribution bi-profile Bayes feature extraction and physicochemical properties of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Cang-Zhi; He, Wen-Ying; Yao, Yu-Hua

    2017-03-01

    Hydroxylation of proline or lysine residues in proteins is a common post-translational modification event, and such modifications are found in many physiological and pathological processes. Nonetheless, the exact molecular mechanism of hydroxylation remains under investigation. Because experimental identification of hydroxylation is time-consuming and expensive, bioinformatics tools with high accuracy represent desirable alternatives for large-scale rapid identification of protein hydroxylation sites. In view of this, we developed a supporter vector machine-based tool, OH-PRED, for the prediction of protein hydroxylation sites using the adapted normal distribution bi-profile Bayes feature extraction in combination with the physicochemical property indexes of the amino acids. In a jackknife cross validation, OH-PRED yields an accuracy of 91.88% and a Matthew's correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.838 for the prediction of hydroxyproline sites, and yields an accuracy of 97.42% and a MCC of 0.949 for the prediction of hydroxylysine sites. These results demonstrate that OH-PRED increased significantly the prediction accuracy of hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine sites by 7.37 and 14.09%, respectively, when compared with the latest predictor PredHydroxy. In independent tests, OH-PRED also outperforms previously published methods.

  1. Plasma amino acids in Greenlanders and Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Erling B; Jørgensen, Marit E; Siggaard, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    Basal metabolic rate is elevated among circumpolar populations. It has been our hypotheses that this is reflected in the levels of plasma amino acids, that amino acid concentration in plasma differs between Greenlanders and Danes, and that this difference is related to residence, ethnicity, diet......, and season. The purpose of the study was to measure plasma amino acids in Greenlanders and Danes and to analyze the influence of residence, ethnicity, diet, and season. Amino acids in plasma were measured in four groups of healthy subjects both during summer and winter: Group 1, Danes living in Denmark...... consuming European food; Group 2, Greenlanders living in Denmark consuming European food; Group 3, Greenlanders living in Greenland consuming European food; and Group 4, Greenlanders living in Greenland consuming mainly traditional Greenlandic food. Amino acids were determined by pre-column derivatization...

  2. Optical Sensors for Detection of Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettiwala, Aafrin M; Singh, Prabhat K

    2017-11-06

    Amino acids are crucially involved in a myriad of biological processes. Any aberrant changes in physiological level of amino acids often manifest in common metabolic disorders, serious neurological conditions and cardiovascular diseases. Thus, devising methods for detection of trace amounts of amino acids becomes highly elemental to their efficient clinical diagnosis. Recently, the domain of developing optical sensors for detection of amino acids has witnessed significant activity which is the focus of the current review article. We undertook a detailed search of the peer-reviewed literature that primarily deals with optical sensors for amino acids and focuses on the use of different type of materials as a sensing platform. Ninety-five papers have been included in the review, majority of which deals with optical sensors. We attempt to systematically classify these contributions based on applications of various chemical and biological scaffolds such as polymers, supramolecular assemblies, nanoparticles, DNA, heparin etc. for the sensing of amino acids. This review identifies that supramolecular assemblies and nanomaterial continue to be commonly used materials to devise sensors for amino acids followed by surfactant assemblies. The broad implications of amino acids in human health and diagnosis have stirred a lot of interest to develop optimized optical detection systems for amino acids in recent years, using different materials based on chemical and biological scaffolds. We have also attempted to highlight the merits and demerits of some of the noteworthy sensor systems to instigate further efforts for constructing amino acids sensor based on unconventional concepts. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of novel bicyclic acidic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Paola; De Amici, Marco; Joppolo Di Ventimiglia, Samuele

    2003-01-01

    Bicyclic acidic amino acids (+/-)-6 and (+/-)-7, which are conformationally constrained homologues of glutamic acid, were prepared via a strategy based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The new amino acids were tested toward ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes; both of them...

  4. Gemini surfactants from natural amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Lourdes; Pinazo, Aurora; Pons, Ramon; Infante, Mrosa

    2014-03-01

    In this review, we report the most important contributions in the structure, synthesis, physicochemical (surface adsorption, aggregation and phase behaviour) and biological properties (toxicity, antimicrobial activity and biodegradation) of Gemini natural amino acid-based surfactants, and some potential applications, with an emphasis on the use of these surfactants as non-viral delivery system agents. Gemini surfactants derived from basic (Arg, Lys), neutral (Ser, Ala, Sar), acid (Asp) and sulphur containing amino acids (Cys) as polar head groups, and Geminis with amino acids/peptides in the spacer chain are reviewed. © 2013.

  5. An overview on D-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genchi, Giuseppe

    2017-07-05

    More than half a century ago researchers thought that D-amino acids had a minor function compared to L-enantiomers in biological processes. Many evidences have shown that D-amino acids are present in high concentration in microorganisms, plants, mammals and humans and fulfil specific biological functions. In the brain of mammals, D-serine (D-Ser) acts as a co-agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors, responsible for learning, memory and behaviour. D-Ser metabolism is relevant for disorders associated with an altered function of the NMDA receptor, such as schizophrenia, ischemia, epilepsy and neurodegenerative disorders. On the other hand, D-aspartate (D-Asp) is one of the major regulators of adult neurogenesis and plays an important role in the development of endocrine function. D-Asp is present in the neuroendocrine and endocrine tissues and testes, and regulates the synthesis and secretion of hormones and spermatogenesis. Also food proteins contain D-amino acids that are naturally originated or processing-induced under conditions such as high temperatures, acid and alkali treatments and fermentation processes. The presence of D-amino acids in dairy products denotes thermal and alkaline treatments and microbial contamination. Two enzymes are involved in the metabolism of D-amino acids: amino acid racemase in the synthesis and D-amino acid oxidase in the degradation.

  6. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Mark M.; Shoup, Timothy

    1998-09-15

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is ›.sup.18 F!-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an .alpha.-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of .alpha.-aminoisobutyric acid.

  7. Profile of digested feed amino acids from untreated and expander treated feeds estimated using in situ methods in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    2008-01-01

    Guar meal, sunflower meal, rapeseed cake, peas, maize, rye, wheat and barley were subjected to expander treatment at different temperatures (95-150 °C), and effect on amino acid availability was assessed using rumen nylon bag and mobile bagin situ methods. Expander treatment of rapeseed cake at 142...

  8. Application of chemometrics to assess the influence of ultrasound frequency, Lactobacillus sakei culture and drying on beef jerky manufacture: Impact on amino acid profile, organic acids, texture and colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikha Ojha, K; Granato, Daniel; Rajuria, Gaurav; Barba, Francisco J; Kerry, Joseph P; Tiwari, Brijesh K

    2018-01-15

    The effects of ultrasound (US) frequency, addition of Lactobacillus sakei culture and drying time on key nutritional (protein, amino acids, and organic acids) and physicochemical properties (texture and colour) of cultured and uncultured beef jerky were evaluated. Cultured and uncultured jerky samples were subjected to US frequencies of 25kHz, 33kHz and 45kHz for 30min prior to marination and drying. Principal component analysis demonstrated a significant effect of beef jerky processing conditions on physicochemical properties. Taurine content of jerky samples was found to increase with an increase in ultrasonic frequencies for cultured samples. No significant changes in colour values were observed for ultrasound pre-treated and control samples. Interactive effects of culture treatment, drying and ultrasonic frequency were observed. This study demonstrates that the nutritional profile of beef jerky can be improved through the incorporation of L. sakei. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nontargeted LC–MS Metabolomics Approach for Metabolic Profiling of Plasma and Urine from Pigs Fed Branched Chain Amino Acids for Maximum Growth Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assadi Soumeh, Elham; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2016-01-01

    was optimum. The optimum dietary Leu resulted in increased urinary excretion of ascorbic acid and choline and relatively decreased excretion of 2-aminoadipic acid, acetyl-dl-valine, Ile, 2-methylbutyrylglycine, and Tyr. In conclusion, plasma glycocholic acid and taurocholic acid were discriminating...... metabolites to the optimum dietary Ile. The optimum dietary Leu was associated with reduced plasma creatine and urinary 2-aminoadipic acid and elevated urinary excretion of ascorbic acid and choline. The optimum dietary Val had a less pronounced metabolic response reflected in plasma or urine than other BCAA.......The metabolic response in plasma and urine of pigs when feeding an optimum level of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) for best growth performance is unknown. The objective of the current study was to identify the metabolic phenotype associated with the BCAAs intake level that could be linked...

  10. Amino acids in human and animal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karau, Andreas; Grayson, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids are key components of human and animal nutrition, both as part of a protein-containing diet, and as supplemented individual products. In the last 10 years there has been a marked move away from the extraction of amino acids from natural products, which has been replaced by efficient fermentation processes using nonanimal carbon sources. Today several amino acids are produced in fermentation plants with capacities of more than 100,000 tonnes to serve the requirements of animal feed and human nutrition. The main fermentative amino acids for animal nutrition are L-lysine, L-threonine, and L-tryptophan. DL-Methionine continues to be manufactured for animal feed use principally by chemical synthesis, and a pharmaceutical grade is manufactured by enzymatic resolution. Amino acids play an important role in medical nutrition, particularly in parenteral nutrition, where there are high purity requirements for infusion grade products. Amino acids are also appearing more often in dietary supplements, initially for performance athletes, but increasingly for the general population. As the understanding of the effects of the individual amino acids on the human metabolism is deepened, more specialized product mixtures are being offered to improve athletic performance and for body-building.

  11. Amino Acid Stability in the Early Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E. T.; Brinton, K. L.; Burton, A. S.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Bada, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    It is likely that a variety of amino acids existed in the early oceans of the Earth at the time of the origin and early evolution of life. "Primordial soup", hydrothermal vent, and meteorite based processes could have contributed to such an inventory. Several "protein" amino acids were likely present, however, based on prebiotic synthesis experiments and carbonaceous meteorite studies, non-protein amino acids, which are rare on Earth today, were likely the most abundant. An important uncertainty is the length of time these amino acids could have persisted before their destruction by abiotic and biotic processes. Prior to life, amino acid concentrations in the oceans were likely regulated by circulation through hydro-thermal vents. Today, the entire ocean circulates through vent systems every 10(exp 7) years. On the early Earth, this value was likely smaller due to higher heat flow and thus marine amino acid life-time would have been shorter. After life, amino acids in the oceans could have been assimilated by primitive organisms.

  12. Enantiomer-specific selection of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xueying; Tellez, Luis A; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2013-12-01

    Dietary intake of L-amino acids impacts on several physiological functions, including the control of gastrointestinal motility, pancreatic secretion, and appetite. However, the biological mechanisms regulating behavioral predilections for certain amino acid types remain poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that, in mice, the potency with which a given glucogenic amino acid increases glucose utilization reflects its rewarding properties. We have found that: (1) during long-, but not short-, term preference tests, L-alanine and L-serine were preferred over their D-enantiomer counterparts, while no such effect was observed for L-threonine vs. D-threonine; (2) these behavioral patterns were closely associated with the ability of L-amino acids to promote increases in respiratory exchange ratios such that those, and only those, L-amino acids able to promote increases in respiratory exchange ratios were preferred over their D-isomers; (3) these behavioral preferences were independent of gustatory influences, since taste-deficient Trpm5 knockout mice displayed ingestive responses very similar to those of their wild-type counterparts. We conclude that the ability to promote increases in respiratory exchange ratios enhances the reward value of nutritionally relevant amino acids and suggest a mechanistic link between substrate utilization and amino acid preferences.

  13. Distribution of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Noble, S. K.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most eagerly studied questions upon initial return of lunar samples was whether significant amounts of organic compounds, including amino acids, were present. Analyses during the 1970s produced only tentative and inconclusive identifications of indigenous amino acids. Those analyses were hampered by analytical difficulties including relative insensitivity to certain compounds, the inability to separate chiral enantiomers, and the lack of compound-specific isotopic measurements, which made it impossible to determine whether the detected amino acids were indigenous to the lunar samples or the results of contamination. Numerous advances have been made in instrumentation and methodology for amino acid characterization in extraterrestrial samples in the intervening years, yet the origin of amino acids in lunar regolith samples has been revisited only once for a single lunar sample, (3) and remains unclear. Here, we present initial data from the analyses of amino acid abundances in 12 lunar regolith samples. We discuss these abundances in the context of four potential amino acid sources: (1) terrestrial biological contamination; (2) contamination from lunar module (LM) exhaust; (3) derivation from solar windimplanted precursors; and (4) exogenous delivery from meteorites.

  14. Dietary N-Carbamylglutamate Supplementation in a Reduced Protein Diet Affects Carcass Traits and the Profile of Muscle Amino Acids and Fatty Acids in Finishing Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Changchuan; Zeng, Xiangzhou; Zhu, Jinlong; Liu, Ying; Ye, Qianhong; Qiao, Shiyan; Zeng, Xiangfang

    2017-07-19

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) supplementation in a reduced protein diet affected carcass traits and meat quality in finishing pigs. A total of 120 gilts were randomly assigned to one of four treatments for 40 days, including a standard protein diet (SP), a reduced protein diet supplemented with 1.7% l-alanine (RP + Ala), a reduced protein diet supplemented with 1.0% l-arginine (RP + Arg), and a reduced protein diet supplemented with 0.1% NCG and 1.7% l-alanine (RP + NCG). NCG supplementation increased the endogenous synthesis of l-arginine. The RP + NCG diet significantly increased the loin eye area (p protein diet was effective to produce functional pork with a high content of leucine (p dietary NCG supplementation. In conclusion, the RP + NCG diet is effective to increase the longissimus dorsi muscle area, decrease back fat accretion, and produce functional pork with a high content of leucine but without a negative impact on the muscle fatty acid profile in finishing pigs.

  15. Cytokines: muscle protein and amino acid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hall, Gerrit

    2012-01-01

    raises TNF-α and IL-6 to moderate levels, has only identified IL-6 as a potent cytokine, decreasing systemic amino acid levels and muscle protein metabolism. The marked decrease in circulatory and muscle amino acid concentrations was observed with a concomitant reduction in both the rates of muscle...... of IL-6 on the regulation of muscle protein metabolism but indirectly via IL-6 reducing amino acid availability. SUMMARY: Recent studies suggest that the best described cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 are unlikely to be the major direct mediators of muscle protein loss in inflammatory diseases. However...

  16. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitory Activity, Antioxidant Properties, Phenolic Content and Amino Acid Profiles of Fucus spiralis L. Protein Hydrolysate Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisete Paiva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Food protein-derived hydrolysates with multi-bioactivities such as antihypertensive and antioxidant properties have recently received special attention since both activities can play significant roles in preventing cardiovascular diseases. This study reports, for the first time, the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE-inhibition and antioxidant properties of ultrafiltrate fractions (UF with different molecular weight ranges (<1, 1–3 and ≥3 kDa obtained from Fucus spiralis protein hydrolysate (FSPH digested with cellulase–bromelain. The amino acids profile, recovery yield, protein, peptide and total phenolic contents of these FSPH-UF, and the in vitro digestibility of F. spiralis crude protein were also investigated. FSPH-UF ≥3 kDa presented remarkably higher ACE-inhibition, yield, peptide and polyphenolic (phlorotannins contents. Antioxidant analysis showed that FSPH-UF <1 kDa and ≥3 kDa exhibited significantly higher scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and ferrous ion-chelating (FIC activity. FSPH-UF ≥3 kDa had also notably higher ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. Strong correlations were observed between ACE-inhibition and antioxidant activities (FIC and FRAP. The results suggest that ACE-inhibition and antioxidant properties of FSPH-UF may be due to the bioactive peptides and polyphenols released during the enzymatic hydrolysis. In conclusion, this study shows the potential use of defined size FSPH-UF for the prevention/treatment of hypertension and/or oxidative stress-related diseases.

  17. Comparison of plasma amino acid profile-based index and CA125 in the diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancers and borderline malignant tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Etsuko; Maruyama, Yasuyo; Mogami, Tae; Numazaki, Reiko; Ikeda, Atsuko; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Hirahara, Fumiki

    2017-02-01

    We previously developed a new plasma amino acid profile-based index (API) to detect ovarian, cervical, and endometrial cancers. Here, we compared API to serum cancer antigen 125 (CA125) for distinguishing epithelial ovarian malignant tumors from benign growths. API and CA125 were measured preoperatively in patients with ovarian tumors, which were later classified into 59 epithelial ovarian cancers, 21 epithelial borderline malignant tumors, and 97 benign tumors including 40 endometriotic cysts. The diagnostic accuracy and cutoff points of API were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The area under the ROC curves showed the equivalent performance of API and CA125 to discriminate between malignant/borderline malignant and benign tumors (both 0.77), and API was superior to CA125 for discrimination between malignant/borderline malignant lesions and endometriotic cysts (API, 0.75 vs. CA125, 0.59; p borderline malignancies (API, 0.71 vs. CA125, 0.74; p = 0.84) or cancers alone (API, 0.73 vs. CA125, 0.85; p = 0.12). However, API had a significantly lower detection rate of benign endometriotic cysts (0.35; 95 % CI, 0.21-0.52) compared with that of CA125 (0.65; 95 % CI, 0.48-0.79) (p borderline malignancies with a low false-positive rate for endometriosis. A large-scale prospective clinical study using the cutoff value of API determined in this study is warranted to validate API for practical clinical use.

  18. Synthesis of Trishomocubane Amino Acid Derivatives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    The synthesis of four novel trishomocubane amino acid derivatives is described. The hydantoin precursor and bis-Boc protected hydantoin (>95% yield) were previously reported. A mild hydrolysis of the bis-Boc hydantoin with lithium hydroxide at room temperature quantitatively yielded the corresponding novel cage amino ...

  19. Discovery and History of Amino Acid Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shin-Ichi

    There has been a strong demand in Japan and East Asia for L-glutamic acid as a seasoning since monosodium glutamate was found to present umami taste in 1907. The discovery of glutamate fermentation by Corynebacterium glutamicum in 1956 enabled abundant and low-cost production of the amino acid, creating a large market. The discovery also prompted researchers to develop fermentative production processes for other L-amino acids, such as lysine. Currently, the amino acid fermentation industry is so huge that more than 5 million metric tons of amino acids are manufactured annually all over the world, and this number continues to grow. Research on amino acid fermentation fostered the notion and skills of metabolic engineering which has been applied for the production of other compounds from renewable resources. The discovery of glutamate fermentation has had revolutionary impacts on both the industry and science. In this chapter, the history and development of glutamate fermentation, including the very early stage of fermentation of other amino acids, are reviewed.

  20. Regulation of the proteome by amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgoin-Voillard, Sandrine; Goron, Arthur; Seve, Michel; Moinard, Christophe

    2016-03-01

    Besides their main contribution as substrates for protein synthesis, amino acids as signaling molecules could exert some regulatory functions on protein synthesis and/or proteolysis that have been emphasized in a number of recent studies. Several publications have highlighted supplemental roles of those amino acids in protein metabolism as well as in immunity, heat shock response, or apoptosis processes. In this way, via their regulatory properties, selected amino acids (such as leucine, glutamine, arginine, citrulline, or methionine) directly influence the proteome. In this review, we are proposing an overview of the regulation of the proteome by amino acids in mammals. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Amino Acid Biosynthesis Pathways in Diatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz A. Bromke

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids are not only building blocks for proteins but serve as precursors for the synthesis of many metabolites with multiple functions in growth and other biological processes of a living organism. The biosynthesis of amino acids is tightly connected with central carbon, nitrogen and sulfur metabolism. Recent publication of genome sequences for two diatoms Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum created an opportunity for extensive studies on the structure of these metabolic pathways. Based on sequence homology found in the analyzed diatomal genes, the biosynthesis of amino acids in diatoms seems to be similar to higher plants. However, one of the most striking differences between the pathways in plants and in diatomas is that the latter possess and utilize the urea cycle. It serves as an important anaplerotic pathway for carbon fixation into amino acids and other N-containing compounds, which are essential for diatom growth and contribute to their high productivity.

  2. Side Chain Cyclized Aromatic Amino Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van der Poorten, Olivier; Knuhtsen, Astrid; Sejer Pedersen, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Constraining the conformation of flexible peptides is a proven strategy to increase potency, selectivity, and metabolic stability. The focus has mostly been on constraining the backbone dihedral angles; however, the correct orientation of the amino acid side chains (χ-space) that constitute...... the peptide pharmacophore is equally important. Control of χ-space utilizes conformationally constrained amino acids that favor, disfavor, or exclude the gauche (-), the gauche (+), or the trans conformation. In this review we focus on cyclic aromatic amino acids in which the side chain is connected...... to the peptide backbone to provide control of χ(1)- and χ(2)-space. The manifold applications for cyclized analogues of the aromatic amino acids Phe, Tyr, Trp, and His within peptide medicinal chemistry are showcased herein with examples of enzyme inhibitors and ligands for G protein-coupled receptors....

  3. AMINO ACIDS APPLICATION TO CREATE OF NANOSTRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Chekman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Review is devoted to the amino acids that could be used for nanostructures creation. The investigation of corresponding properties of amino acids is essential for their role definition in creation of nanomedicines. However, amino acid studying as components of nanostructures is insufficient. Study of nanoparticles for medicines creation was initiated by the development of nanotechnology. Amino acids in complexes with the nanoparticles of organic and inorganic nature play an important role for medicines targeting in pathological process. They could reduce toxicity of the nanomaterials used in nanomedicine and are used for creation of biosensors, lab-on-chip and therefore they are a promising material for synthesis of new nanodrugs and diagnostic tools.

  4. Recombinant thiopeptides containing noncanonical amino acids

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Xiaozhou; Zambaldo, Claudio; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Yuhan; Xuan, Weimin; Wang, Chen; Reed, Sean A.; Yang, Peng-Yu; Wang, Rongsheng E.; Javahishvili, Tsotne; Schultz, Peter G.; Young, Travis S.

    2016-01-01

    Thiopeptides are a subclass of ribosomally synthesized natural products with complex structures and potent antimicrobial activities. Here we describe a general strategy that allows the incorporation of noncanonical amino acids into thiopeptides by introducing orthogonal amber suppressor aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNA pairs into a thiocillin-producing strain of Bacillus cereus. We show that thiocillin variants harboring a noncanonical amino acid with bioorthogonal chemical reactivity can be fu...

  5. Wafer Cakes of Improved Amino Acid Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roksolana Boidunyk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the study of the amino acid composition of newly developed wafer cakes with adipose fillings combined with natural additives. The appropriateness of the using non-traditional raw materials (powder of willow herb, poppy oilcake, carob, as well as skimmed milk powder in order to increase the biological value of wafer cakes and improve their amino acid composition is proven.

  6. Genetically encoded fluorescent coumarin amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiangyun; Xie, Jianming; Schultz, Peter G.

    2010-10-05

    The invention relates to orthogonal pairs of tRNAs and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases that can incorporate the coumarin unnatural amino acid L-(7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl) ethylglycine into proteins produced in eubacterial host cells such as E. coli. The invention provides, for example but not limited to, novel orthogonal synthetases, methods for identifying and making the novel synthetases, methods for producing proteins containing the unnatural amino acid L-(7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl)ethylglycine and related translation systems.

  7. Modelling the effects of dietary methionine level and form on postprandial plasma essential amino acid profiles in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolland, Marine; Feekings, Jordan P.; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang

    2016-01-01

    essential amino acid (EAA) in rainbow trout. Twelve diets were formulated with pea and soya protein concentrate or fish meal as the main protein ingredients and were supplemented or not with increasing amount of either crystalline or agar-coated methionine. Fish were acclimatized to one of the 12 diets......Aquafeed formulation is susceptible to affect amino acid (AA) availability for metabolic functions. Statistical models were applied to quantify the effect of dietary methionine level (from 6.01 to 16.17 g kg 1 dry matter) and form (free, coated or bound) on postprandial concentrations of plasma...... for 6 weeks before postprandial plasma sampling (six sampling points up to 36 h, seven fish each time), further analysed for EAA content. Using generalized additive models, we show that (i) dietary methionine level and form explained 74% postprandial methionine plasma variations and that (ii...

  8. Whole body protein deposition and plasma amino acid profiles in growing and/or finishing pigs fed increasing levels of sulfur amino acids with and without Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J C; Mullan, B P; Frey, B; Payne, H G; Pluske, J R

    2012-12-01

    A split plot experiment with 72 male pigs weighing 52.9 ± 0.39 kg (mean ± SEM) was conducted to examine AA partitioning and body protein deposition (PD) in response to increasing dietary sulfur amino acids (SAA) with or without immune system (IS) activation. The main plot was with and without IS activation, and 4 diets containing different amounts of standardized ileal digestible (SID) SAA (SAA to Lys ratios of 0.45, 0.55, 0.65 and 0.75) were the subplots. Activation of IS was achieved by intramuscular injection of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS; serotype 055:B5, Sigma; 30 μg/kg BW) every Monday and Thursday, with control pigs injected with sterile saline. Maximum body PD, measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and minimum plasma urea content were achieved at SID SAA:Lys ratio of 0.55 in saline-injected pigs but were achieved at a SID SAA:Lys ratio of 0.75 in IS-activated pigs. Immune system activation increased rectal temperature (P < 0.05), plasma haptoglobin (1.1 vs. 2.0 mg/mL; P < 0.001), and the proportion of neutrophils (0.39 vs. 0.42; P < 0.05) and decreased serum albumin content (38.4 vs. 36.8 g/L; P < 0.01). Increasing dietary SAA had no effects on these variables. Immune system-activated pigs had lower levels of homocysteine (Hcy; P < 0.001) and a lower Ser content (P < 0.05). Results showed that increasing dietary SAA as DL-methionine in growing and/or finishing pigs altered plasma AA contents, and that use efficiency of the AA was improved when greater levels of SAA were supplemented in IS-activated pigs.

  9. Amino Acid Patterns around Disulfide Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, José R. F.; da Fonseca, Rute R.; Drury, Brett; Melo, André

    2010-01-01

    Disulfide bonds provide an inexhaustible source of information on molecular evolution and biological specificity. In this work, we described the amino acid composition around disulfide bonds in a set of disulfide-rich proteins using appropriate descriptors, based on ANOVA (for all twenty natural amino acids or classes of amino acids clustered according to their chemical similarities) and Scheffé (for the disulfide-rich proteins superfamilies) statistics. We found that weakly hydrophilic and aromatic amino acids are quite abundant in the regions around disulfide bonds, contrary to aliphatic and hydrophobic amino acids. The density distributions (as a function of the distance to the center of the disulfide bonds) for all defined entities presented an overall unimodal behavior: the densities are null at short distances, have maxima at intermediate distances and decrease for long distances. In the end, the amino acid environment around the disulfide bonds was found to be different for different superfamilies, allowing the clustering of proteins in a biologically relevant way, suggesting that this type of chemical information might be used as a tool to assess the relationship between very divergent sets of disulfide-rich proteins. PMID:21151463

  10. Amino acid patterns around disulfide bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, José R F; da Fonseca, Rute R; Drury, Brett; Melo, André

    2010-11-18

    Disulfide bonds provide an inexhaustible source of information on molecular evolution and biological specificity. In this work, we described the amino acid composition around disulfide bonds in a set of disulfide-rich proteins using appropriate descriptors, based on ANOVA (for all twenty natural amino acids or classes of amino acids clustered according to their chemical similarities) and Scheffé (for the disulfide-rich proteins superfamilies) statistics. We found that weakly hydrophilic and aromatic amino acids are quite abundant in the regions around disulfide bonds, contrary to aliphatic and hydrophobic amino acids. The density distributions (as a function of the distance to the center of the disulfide bonds) for all defined entities presented an overall unimodal behavior: the densities are null at short distances, have maxima at intermediate distances and decrease for long distances. In the end, the amino acid environment around the disulfide bonds was found to be different for different superfamilies, allowing the clustering of proteins in a biologically relevant way, suggesting that this type of chemical information might be used as a tool to assess the relationship between very divergent sets of disulfide-rich proteins.

  11. Determination of amino acids and protein content in fresh and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Royal jelly (RJ) is popular among consumers around the world due to its perceived health benefits. The purpose of this study was to assess the levels of free and total amino acid profile as well as protein content in order to characterize Bulgarian RJ samples. A total of 17 fresh and commercial RJ samples from different ...

  12. Longitudinal Profiles of Metabolism and Bioenergetics Associated with Innate Immune Hormonal Inflammatory Responses and Amino-Acid Kinetics in Severe Sepsis and Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanaki, Anna Maria; Tavladaki, Theonymfi; Dimitriou, Helen; Kozlov, Andrey V; Duvigneau, J Catharina; Meleti, Eftychia; Weidinger, Adelheid; Papakonstantinou, Evangelos; Briassoulis, George

    2018-01-16

    Experimental data indicate that sepsis influences the mitochondrial function and metabolism. We aim to investigate longitudinal bioenergetic, metabolic, hormonal, amino-acid, and innate immunity changes in children with sepsis. Sixty-eight children (sepsis, 18; systemic inflammatory response syndrome [SIRS], 23; healthy controls, 27) were enrolled. Plasma amino acids were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); flow-cytometry expressed as mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of heat shock protein (HSP) levels from monocytes (m) and neutrophils (n); resistin, adiponectin, and extracellular (e) HSPs evaluated by ELISA; ATP levels in white blood cells by luciferase luminescent assay; lipid peroxidation products (TBARS) by colorimetric test; nitrite and nitrate levels by chemiluminescent assay; biliverdin reductase (BVR) activity by enzymatic assay; and energy-expenditure (EE) by E-COVX. Resistin, eHSP72, eHSP90α, and nitrate were longitudinally higher in sepsis compared with SIRS (pmetabolic pattern were repressed in sepsis compared with SIRS (pmetabolism, mHSP72, and induced resistin and adiponectin (pmetabolic-hormones and eHSP72/HSP90α, repression of bioenergetics and innate immunity, hypo-metabolism, and amino-acid kinetics changes discriminate sepsis from SIRS; malnutrition, hypo-metabolism, and persistently increased resistin and adiponectin are associated with poor outcome. © 2018 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  13. Hybrid gold single crystals incorporating amino acids

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Linfeng; Weber, Eva; Fitch, Andy N; Pokroy, Boaz

    2016-01-01

    Composite hybrid gold crystals are of profound interest in various research areas ranging from materials science to biology. Their importance is due to their unique properties and potential implementation, for example in sensing or in bio-nanomedicine. Here we report on the formation of hybrid organic-metal composites via the incorporation of selected amino acids histidine, aspartic acid, serine, glutamine, alanine, cysteine, and selenocystine into the crystal lattice of single crystals of gold. We used electron microscopy, chemical analysis and high-resolution synchrotron powder X ray diffraction to examine these composites. Crystal shape, as well as atomic concentrations of occluded amino acids and their impact on the crystal structure of gold, were determined. Concentration of the incorporated amino acid was highest for cysteine, followed by serine and aspartic acid. Our results indicate that the incorporation process probably occurs through a complex interaction of their individual functional groups with ...

  14. Simultaneous determination of free amino acids in Pu-erh tea and their changes during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuchen; Luo, Yinghua; Wang, Pengpu; Zhao, Mengyao; Li, Lei; Hu, Xiaosong; Chen, Fang

    2016-03-01

    Pu-erh ripened tea is produced through a unique microbial fermentation process from the sun-dried leaves of large-leaf tea species (Camellia sinensis (Linn.) var. assamica (Masters) Kitamura) in Yunnan province of China. In this study, the changes of amino acid profiles during fermentation of Pu-erh tea were investigated, based on the improved HPLC-UV method with PITC pre-column derivatization for the simultaneous determination of twenty free amino acids. Results showed that aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, alanine, theanine and tyrosine were the major amino acids in tea samples. Fermentation significantly influenced on the amino acid profiles. The total free amino acid contents significantly decreased during fermentation (pfermentation and then decreased gradually. The results provided the useful information for the manipulation of fermentation process according to the changes of amino acids and acrylamide contents in Pu-erh ripened tea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Amino acid uptake in rust fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The plant pathogenic rust fungi colonize leaf tissue and feed off their host plants without killing them. Certain economically important species of different genera such as Melampsora, Phakopsora, Puccinia, or Uromyces are extensively studied for resolving the mechanisms of the obligate biotrophy. As obligate parasites rust fungi only can complete their life cycle on living hosts where they grow through the leaf tissue by developing an extended network of intercellular hyphae from which intracellular haustoria are differentiated. Haustoria are involved in key functions of the obligate biotrophic lifestyle: suppressing host defense responses and acquiring nutrients. This review provides a survey of rust fungi nitrogen nutrition with special emphasis on amino acid uptake. A variety of sequences of amino acid transporter genes of rust fungi have been published; however, transport activity of only three in planta highly up-regulated amino acid permeases have been characterized. Functional and immunohistochemical investigations have shown the specificity and localization of these transporters. Sequence data of various genome projects allowed identification of numerous rust amino acid transporter genes. An in silico analysis reveals that these genes can be classified into different transporter families. In addition, genetic and molecular data of amino acid transporters have provided new insights in the corresponding metabolic pathways. PMID:25699068

  16. Amino acid uptake in rust fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eStruck

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The plant pathogenic rust fungi colonize leaf tissue and feed off their host plants without killing them. Certain economically important species of different genera such as Melampsora, Phakopsora, Puccinia or Uromyces are extensively studied for resolving the mechanisms of the obligate biotrophy. As obligate parasites rust fungi only can complete their life cycle on living hosts where they grow through the leaf tissue by developing an extended network of intercellular hyphae from which intracellular haustoria are differentiated. Haustoria are involved in key functions of the obligate biotrophic lifestyle: suppressing host defense responses and acquiring nutrients. This review provides a survey of rust fungi nitrogen nutrition with special emphasis on amino acid uptake. A variety of sequences of amino acid transporter genes of rust fungi have been published; however, transport activity of only three in planta highly up-regulated amino acid permeases have been characterized. Functional and immunohistochemical investigations have shown the specificity and localization of these transporters. Sequence data of various genome projects allowed identification of numerous rust amino acid tranporter genes. An in silico analysis reveals that these genes can be classified into different transporter families. In addition, genetic and molecular data of amino acid transporters have provided new insights in the corresponding metabolic pathways.

  17. Amino acid, fatty acid, and mineral profiles of materials recovered from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) processing by-products using isoelectric solubilization/precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y-C; Tou, J C; Jaczynski, J

    2007-11-01

    Protein, lipid, and insolubles (bones, skin, scales, fins, insoluble protein, and more) were recovered from rainbow trout processing by-products by means of isoelectric solubilization/precipitation at basic pH and acidic pH. Isoelectric solubilization/precipitation of the trout processing by-products resulted in the recovery of protein that was higher (P acids (EAAs), non-EAAs, and total EAA/total AA ratio when compared to the processing by-products. Basic pH treatments yielded a higher (P acidic pH treatments. Nutritional quality of the recovered protein was high based on EAAs meeting the FAO/WHO/UNU recommendations for adults. The presence of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids (omega-3, omega-6 FAs) and the omega-3/omega-6 ratio in the recovered lipids were similar to the trout processing by-products, indicating that the pH treatments had no effect on these FAs. Ca and P contents of the processing by-products exceeded the recommended dietary allowances (RDA), but Fe and Mg did not. Basic pH treatments yielded protein with the lowest (P acidic pH. The isoelectric solubilization/precipitation of the processing by-products effectively removed minerals from the recovered protein without removal of the bones, skin, scales, fins, and so on, prior to processing. The results indicated that isoelectric solubilization/precipitation, particularly at basic pH, permitted recovery of high-quality protein and lipids from fish processing by-products for human food uses; also, the recovered insolubles may be used in animal feeds as a source of minerals.

  18. Amino acid requirements of South African Mutton Merino lambs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1998-11-15

    Nov 15, 1998 ... An exception is the branched chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine .... By supplementing the amino acids in short supply, the amino acids ... titatively undersupplied in the duodenum, the infusion of a mixture of amino acids at different lev- ... Tackman et al., 1990) and is thought to have wider application to.

  19. Postprandial fate of amino acids: adaptation to molecular forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolles, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    During the postprandial phase dietary proteins are digested to peptides and amino acids and absorbed. Once absorbed the peptides are further hydrolyzed to amino acids and transported to the tissues. These amino acids are largely incorporated into body proteins. Not all amino acids are, however,

  20. Determinotion of Apparent and True Amino Acid Digestibility of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Behrooz

    However, it is recognized that in the diet formulation for chickens the digestibility of amino acids is required rather than the gross amino acid content of the dietary ingredients. The purpose of this study was to determine the digestibility of the amino acids in artemia meal when using the amino acid content of ileal digesta vs.

  1. 4,4-Dimethyl- and diastereomeric 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-(2S)-glutamate analogues display distinct pharmacological profiles at ionotropic glutamate receptors and excitatory amino acid transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunch, Lennart; Pickering, Darryl S; Gefflaut, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    this approach has provided important insight into the structure-activity relationships (SAR) for ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs and mGluRs), as well as the excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs). In this work, three 4,4-disubstituted Glu analogues 1-3, which are hybrid structures......Subtype-selective ligands are of great interest to the scientific community, as they provide a tool for investigating the function of one receptor or transporter subtype when functioning in its native environment. Several 4-substituted (S)-glutamate (Glu) analogues were synthesized, and altogether...

  2. Amino acids in the sedimentary humic and fulvic acids

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.

    Humic and fulvic acids isolated from a few sediment samples from Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal were analysed for total hydrolysable amino acids concentration and their composition. The amono acids content of fulvic acids was higher than in the humic...

  3. Ionotropic excitatory amino acid receptor ligands. Synthesis and pharmacology of a new amino acid AMPA antagonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, U; Sløk, F A; Stensbøl, T B

    2000-01-01

    We have previously described the potent and selective (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptor agonist, (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-carboxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (ACPA), and the AMPA receptor antagonist (RS)-2-amino-3-[3-(carboxymethoxy)-5-methyl-4......-isoxazolyl]propionic acid (AMOA). Using these AMPA receptor ligands as leads, a series of compounds have been developed as tools for further elucidation of the structural requirements for activation and blockade of AMPA receptors. The synthesized compounds have been tested for activity at ionotropic...... excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors using receptor binding and electrophysiological techniques, and for activity at metabotropic EAA receptors using second messenger assays. Compounds 1 and 4 were essentially inactive. (RS)-2-Amino-3-[3-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl]propionic acid (ACMP, 2...

  4. Cometary Amino Acids from the STARDUST Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie Elsila

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81 P/WiId 2 to Earth in January 2006. Examinations of the organic compounds in cometary samples can reveal information about the prebiotic organic inventory present on the early Earth and within the early Solar System, which may have contributed to the origin of life. Preliminary studies of Stardust material revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds (cometary vs. terrestrial contamination) could not be identified. We have recently measured the carbon isotopic ratios of these amino acids to determine their origin, leading to the first detection of a cometary amino acid.

  5. Large neutral amino acids in daily practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Kirsten Kiær

    2010-01-01

    At the Kennedy Centre for Phenylketonuria, Denmark, large neutral amino acids (LNAAs) are being used to treat adult and adolescent patients who are nonadherent to dietary treatment for phenylketonuria (PKU). At the start of treatment, a patient must undergo dietary analysis and regular blood...... sampling to measure plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations. The aim of this analysis and treatment is that the patient receives 25-30% of the daily protein requirement from LNAA supplementation and the remaining 70-75% from natural, low-phenylalanine proteins (although some patients have difficulties...

  6. Amino acid nutrition of fishes: requirements and supplementation of diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketola, H.G.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is: (1) to make a concise review of the published dietary requirements of fishes for amino acids, (2) to describe recent findings at the Tunison Laboratory concerning amino acid nutrition of trout, (3) to review specific signs of deficiency of amino acids, and (4) to discuss use of the fish egg amino acid pattern as a guideline to formulating new feeds or studying amino acid requirements of fishes for which there is limited information on their quantitative requirements.

  7. Amino acid derived 1,4-dialkyl substituted imidazolones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Frederik; Meldal, Morten Peter

    2010-01-01

    A general method for synthesis of 1,4-substituted imidazolones from amino acids on solid support or in solution has been developed. Amino acid derived 3-Boc-(1,3)-oxazinane (Box) protected amino aldehyde building blocks were coupled through urea bonds to the amino terminal of dipeptides or amino...

  8. Impact of grazing dairy steers on winter rye (Secale cereale) versus winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) and effects on meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability of organic beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Hannah N; Heins, Bradley J; Delate, Kathleen; Turnbull, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Meat from Holstein and crossbred organic dairy steers finished on winter rye and winter wheat pastures was evaluated and compared for meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability. Two adjacent 4-ha plots were established with winter rye or winter wheat cover crops in September 2015 at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris, MN). During spring of 2015, 30 steers were assigned to one of three replicate breed groups at birth. Breed groups were comprised of: Holstein (HOL; n = 10), crossbreds comprised of Montbéliarde, Viking Red, and HOL (MVH; n = 10), and crossbreds comprised of Normande, Jersey, and Viking Red (NJV; n = 10). Dairy steers were maintained in their respective replicate breed group from three days of age until harvest. After weaning, steers were fed an organic total mixed ration of organic corn silage, alfalfa silage, corn, soybean meal, and minerals until spring 2016. Breed groups were randomly assigned to winter rye or winter wheat and rotationally grazed from spring until early summer of 2016. For statistical analysis, independent variables were fixed effects of breed, forage, and the interaction of breed and forage, with replicated group as a random effect. Specific contrast statements were used to compare HOL versus crossbred steers. Fat from crossbreds had 13% greater omega-3 fatty acids than HOL steers. Furthermore, the omega-6/3 ratio was 14% lower in fat from crossbreds than HOL steers. For consumer acceptability, steaks from steers grazed on winter wheat had greater overall liking than steers grazed on winter rye. Steak from crossbreeds had greater overall liking than HOL steers. The results suggest improvement in fatty acids and sensory attributes of beef from crossbred dairy steers compared to HOL steers, as well as those finished on winter wheat compared to winter rye.

  9. Impact of grazing dairy steers on winter rye (Secale cereale versus winter wheat (Triticum aestivum and effects on meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability of organic beef.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah N Phillips

    Full Text Available Meat from Holstein and crossbred organic dairy steers finished on winter rye and winter wheat pastures was evaluated and compared for meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability. Two adjacent 4-ha plots were established with winter rye or winter wheat cover crops in September 2015 at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris, MN. During spring of 2015, 30 steers were assigned to one of three replicate breed groups at birth. Breed groups were comprised of: Holstein (HOL; n = 10, crossbreds comprised of Montbéliarde, Viking Red, and HOL (MVH; n = 10, and crossbreds comprised of Normande, Jersey, and Viking Red (NJV; n = 10. Dairy steers were maintained in their respective replicate breed group from three days of age until harvest. After weaning, steers were fed an organic total mixed ration of organic corn silage, alfalfa silage, corn, soybean meal, and minerals until spring 2016. Breed groups were randomly assigned to winter rye or winter wheat and rotationally grazed from spring until early summer of 2016. For statistical analysis, independent variables were fixed effects of breed, forage, and the interaction of breed and forage, with replicated group as a random effect. Specific contrast statements were used to compare HOL versus crossbred steers. Fat from crossbreds had 13% greater omega-3 fatty acids than HOL steers. Furthermore, the omega-6/3 ratio was 14% lower in fat from crossbreds than HOL steers. For consumer acceptability, steaks from steers grazed on winter wheat had greater overall liking than steers grazed on winter rye. Steak from crossbreeds had greater overall liking than HOL steers. The results suggest improvement in fatty acids and sensory attributes of beef from crossbred dairy steers compared to HOL steers, as well as those finished on winter wheat compared to winter rye.

  10. Antidyslipidemic and antioxidant activity of an unusual amino acid (2-amino-5-hydroxyhexanoic acid) isolated from the seeds of Crotalaria juncea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Janki; Singh, Vinay Kr; Shrivastava, Atul; Chaturvedi, Upma; Bhatia, Gitika; Arya, K R; Awasthi, S K; Narender, T

    2013-12-15

    In continuation of our drug discovery programme on Indian medicinal plants, we isolated an unusual amino acid, i.e. 2-amino-5-hydroxyhexanoic acid (1) from the seeds of Crotalaria juncea. The 2-amino-5-hydroxyhexanoic acid (1) showed dose dependent lipid lowering activity in the in vivo experiments and also showed good in vitro antioxidant activity. The cyclized compound, 3-amino-6-methyltetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-one (2) showed better lipid lowering and antioxidant profile than the parent compound 1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Polymerization of amino acids containing nucleotide bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Cheikh, Azzouz; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1990-01-01

    The nucleoamino acids 1-(3'-amino,3'-carboxypropyl)uracil (3) and 9-(3'-amino,3'-carboxypropyl)adenine (4) have been prepared as (L)-en-antiomers and as racemic mixtures. When 3 or 4 is suspended in water and treated with N,N'-carbon-yldiimidazole, peptides are formed in good yield. The products formed from the (L)-enantiomers are hydrolyzed to the monomeric amino acids by pronase. Attempts to improve the efficiency of these oligomerizations by including a polyuridylate template in the reaction mixture were not successful. Similarly, oligomers derived from the (L)-enantiomer of 3 did not act as templates to facilitate the oligomerization of 4.

  12. Kinetics of oxidation of acidic amino acids by sodium N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Keywords. Acidic amino acids; bromamine-B; oxidation kinetics, acid medium. 1. Introduction. The chemistry of aromatic sulphonyl haloamines has evoked considerable interest, as they are sources of halonium cations, hypohalite species, and N-anions which act both as bases and nucleophiles. The prominent members of ...

  13. Amino acids analysis during lactic acid fermentation by single strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-09

    Jul 9, 2014 ... of the three LAB strains to utilize amino acids for growth and lactic acid production were employed to ... Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are used for the .... broth. These findings confirm that L. salivarius released alanine and glycine, which are non-essential for the growth of this bacterium. P. acidilactici ...

  14. Kinetics of oxidation of acidic amino acids by sodium N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 113; Issue 4. Kinetics of oxidation of acidic amino acids by sodium N-bromobenzenesulphonamide in acid medium: A mechanistic approach ... Department of Post-Graduate Studies in Chemistry, Central College, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560 001, India ...

  15. Amino Acid Flux from Metabolic Network Benefits Protein Translation: the Role of Resource Availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Pan; Yang, Yi; Ma, Bin-Guang

    2015-06-09

    Protein translation is a central step in gene expression and affected by many factors such as codon usage bias, mRNA folding energy and tRNA abundance. Despite intensive previous studies, how metabolic amino acid supply correlates with protein translation efficiency remains unknown. In this work, we estimated the amino acid flux from metabolic network for each protein in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using Flux Balance Analysis. Integrated with the mRNA expression level, protein abundance and ribosome profiling data, we provided a detailed description of the role of amino acid supply in protein translation. Our results showed that amino acid supply positively correlates with translation efficiency and ribosome density. Moreover, with the rank-based regression model, we found that metabolic amino acid supply facilitates ribosome utilization. Based on the fact that the ribosome density change of well-amino-acid-supplied genes is smaller than poorly-amino-acid-supply genes under amino acid starvation, we reached the conclusion that amino acid supply may buffer ribosome density change against amino acid starvation and benefit maintaining a relatively stable translation environment. Our work provided new insights into the connection between metabolic amino acid supply and protein translation process by revealing a new regulation strategy that is dependent on resource availability.

  16. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Melvin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is the third in a series of six articles to discuss the major classes of dietary supplements (vitamins; minerals; amino acids; herbs or botanicals; metabolites, constituents/extracts, or combinations. The major focus is on efficacy of such dietary supplements to enhance exercise or sport performance.

  17. Synthesis of Trishomocubane Amino Acid Derivatives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    Fmoc group is base-labile and a ninhydrin test indicated that some deprotection of a dry sample had occurred after three weeks of storage in a refrigerator. As indicated in the introduction, synthesizing trishomocubane amino acid derivatives (such as 8 and 9) suitable for peptide synthesis, is a worthwhile goal. However ...

  18. 21 CFR 172.320 - Amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Amino acids. 172.320 Section 172.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.320...

  19. Present Global Situation of Amino Acids in Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonouchi, Naoto; Ito, Hisao

    At present, amino acids are widely produced and utilized industrially. Initially, monosodium glutamate (MSG) was produced by extraction from a gluten hydrolysate. The amino acid industry started using the residual of the lysate. The discovery of the functions of amino acids has led to the expansion of their field of use. In addition to seasoning and other food use, amino acids are used in many fields such as animal nutrients, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. On the other hand, the invention of the glutamate fermentation process, followed by the development of fermentation methods for many other amino acids, is no less important. The supply of these amino acids at a low price is very essential for their industrial use. Most amino acids are now produced by fermentation. The consumption of many amino acids such as MSG or feed-use amino acids is still rapidly increasing.

  20. Metabolomic profiling and stable isotope labelling of Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus reveal major differences in amino acid metabolism including the production of 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid, cystathionine and S-methylcysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrop, Gareth D; Wang, Lijie; Blackburn, Gavin J; Zhang, Tong; Zheng, Liang; Watson, David G; Coombs, Graham H

    2017-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus are pathogens that parasitise, respectively, human and bovine urogenital tracts causing disease. Using LC-MS, reference metabolomic profiles were obtained for both species and stable isotope labelling with D-[U-13C6] glucose was used to analyse central carbon metabolism. This facilitated a comparison of the metabolic pathways of T. vaginalis and T. foetus, extending earlier targeted biochemical studies. 43 metabolites, whose identities were confirmed by comparison of their retention times with authentic standards, occurred at more than 3-fold difference in peak intensity between T. vaginalis and T. foetus. 18 metabolites that were removed from or released into the medium during growth also showed more than 3-fold difference between the species. Major differences were observed in cysteine and methionine metabolism in which homocysteine, produced as a bi-product of trans-methylation, is catabolised by methionine γ-lyase in T. vaginalis but converted to cystathionine in T. foetus. Both species synthesise methylthioadenosine by an unusual mechanism, but it is not used as a substrate for methionine recycling. T. vaginalis also produces and exports high levels of S-methylcysteine, whereas only negligible levels were found in T. foetus which maintains significantly higher intracellular levels of cysteine. 13C-labeling confirmed that both cysteine and S-methylcysteine are synthesised by T. vaginalis; S-methylcysteine can be generated by recombinant T. vaginalis cysteine synthase using phosphoserine and methanethiol. T. foetus contained higher levels of ornithine and citrulline than T. vaginalis and exported increased levels of putrescine, suggesting greater flux through the arginine dihydrolase pathway. T. vaginalis produced and exported hydroxy acid derivatives of certain amino acids, particularly 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid derived from leucine, whereas negligible levels of these metabolites occurred in T. foetus.

  1. Nutritional Stress Induced by Tryptophan-Degrading Enzymes Results in ATF4-Dependent Reprogramming of the Amino Acid Transporter Profile in Tumor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timosenko, Elina; Ghadbane, Hemza; Silk, Jonathan D; Shepherd, Dawn; Gileadi, Uzi; Howson, Lauren J; Laynes, Robert; Zhao, Qi; Strausberg, Robert L; Olsen, Lars R; Taylor, Stephen; Buffa, Francesca M; Boyd, Richard; Cerundolo, Vincenzo

    2016-11-01

    Tryptophan degradation is an immune escape strategy shared by many tumors. However, cancer cells' compensatory mechanisms remain unclear. We demonstrate here that a shortage of tryptophan caused by expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) resulted in ATF4-dependent upregulation of several amino acid transporters, including SLC1A5 and its truncated isoforms, which in turn enhanced tryptophan and glutamine uptake. Importantly, SLC1A5 failed to be upregulated in resting human T cells kept under low tryptophan conditions but was enhanced upon cognate antigen T-cell receptor engagement. Our results highlight key differences in the ability of tumor and T cells to adapt to tryptophan starvation and provide important insights into the poor prognosis of tumors coexpressing IDO and SLC1A5. Cancer Res; 76(21); 6193-204. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Biosynthesis of natural products containing β-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Fumitaka; Miyanaga, Akimasa; Eguchi, Tadashi

    2014-08-01

    Covering: up to January, 2014. We focus here on β-amino acids as components of complex natural products because the presence of β-amino acids produces structural diversity in natural products and provides characteristic architectures beyond those of ordinary α-L-amino acids, thus generating significant and unique biological functions in nature. In this review, we first survey the known bioactive β-amino acid-containing natural products including nonribosomal peptides, macrolactam polyketides, and nucleoside-β-amino acid hybrids. Next, the biosynthetic enzymes that form β-amino acids from α-amino acids and the de novo synthesis of β-amino acids are summarized. Then, the mechanisms of β-amino acid incorporation into natural products are reviewed. Because it is anticipated that the rational swapping of the β-amino acid moieties with various side chains and stereochemistries by biosynthetic engineering should lead to the creation of novel architectures and bioactive compounds, the accumulation of knowledge regarding β-amino acid-containing natural product biosynthetic machinery could have a significant impact in this field. In addition, genome mining of characteristic β-amino acid biosynthetic genes and unique β-amino acid incorporation machinery could lead to the discovery of new β-amino acid-containing natural products.

  3. Effects of L-theanine on anxiety-like behavior, cerebrospinal fluid amino acid profile, and hippocampal activity in Wistar Kyoto rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Shintaro; Ota, Miho; Ogura, Jun; Kato, Koichi; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    The amino acid L-theanine (N-ethyl-L-glutamine) has historically been considered a relaxing agent. In the present study, we examined the effects of repeated L-theanine administration on behavior, levels of amino acids in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and hippocampal activity in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, an animal model of anxiety and depressive disorders. Behavioral tests were performed after 7-10 days of L-theanine (0.4 mg kg -1  day -1 ) or saline administration, followed by CSF sampling for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. An independent set of animals was subjected to [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) scanning after the same dose of L-theanine or saline administration for 7 days. In the elevated plus maze test, the time spent in the open arms was significantly longer in the L-theanine group than in the saline group (P = 0.035). In addition, significantly lower CSF glutamate (P = 0.039) and higher methionine (P = 0.024) concentrations were observed in the L-theanine group than in the saline group. A significant increase in the standard uptake value ratio was observed in the hippocampus/cerebellum of the L-theanine group (P L-theanine enhances hippocampal activity and exerts anxiolytic effects, which may be mediated by changes in glutamate and methionine levels in the brain. Further study is required to more fully elucidate the mechanisms underlying the effects of L-theanine.

  4. Evidence of enhanced serum amino acid profile but not appetite suppression by dietary glycomacropeptide (GMP): a comparison of dairy whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppitt, Sally D; Strik, Caroline M; McArdle, Brian H; McGill, Anne-Thea; Hall, Ramon S

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence that high-protein foods increase satiety and may aid weight loss, yet little is known of differential effects of protein composition. The aim of the study was to compare the acute effects of 4 whey proteins on satiety and food intake and to evaluate possible relationships with postprandial serum amino acid concentrations. Isoenergetic high-protein shakes (∼1 MJ) containing 25 g whey protein were given to 18 lean male participants using a crossover design. Three protein fractions identified as satiating in a rat model, glycomacropeptide (GMP), beta-lactoglobulin (ß-lac), and colostrum whey protein concentrate (WPC), were compared with a WPC control. A standardized 2.5MJ breakfast was given at 0830 hours, followed by the preload beverages at 1130 hours. Participants rated appetite sensations using visual analogue scales (VAS) prior to the beverage (baseline, 0 minutes) and then at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 150, and 210 minutes. Energy and macronutrient intake was measured by covert weighing of an ad libitum lunch meal at 90 minutes. Repeat blood samples were collected via venous cannulation. Serum amino acid (a.a.) concentrations differed between whey fractions (p=0.012) and were higher following GMP compared to ß-lac (p=0.051) and colostrum WPC (p=0.044) but not the WPC control (p=0.20). There was no difference in VAS-rated hunger, satisfaction, or thoughts of food between whey fractions, but fullness did differ (p=0.032) and was highest following the ß-lac beverage. Energy intake was not suppressed relative to control by any of the 3 whey fractions. We conclude that total serum a.a. concentration was a poor indicator of satiety, with little evidence of differential satiety between these whey proteins other than a modest enhancement of fullness by ß-lac.

  5. Diverse characteristics of the urinary excretion of amino acids in humans and the use of amino acid supplementation to reduce fatigue and sub-health in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, R H; Sparkes, D L; Macdonald, M M; De Jonge, X Janse; Dascombe, B J; Gottfries, J; Gottfries, C-G; Roberts, T K

    2017-03-23

    The excretion of amino acids in urine represents an important avenue for the loss of key nutrients. Some amino acids such as glycine and histidine are lost in higher abundance than others. These two amino acids perform important physiological functions and are required for the synthesis of key proteins such as haemoglobin and collagen. Stage 1 of this study involved healthy subjects (n = 151) who provided first of the morning urine samples and completed symptom questionnaires. Urine was analysed for amino acid composition by gas chromatography. Stage 2 involved a subset of the initial cohort (n = 37) who completed a 30 day trial of an amino acid supplement and subsequent symptom profile evaluation. Analyses of urinary amino acid profiles revealed that three groups could be objectively defined from the 151 participants using k-means clustering. The amino acid profiles were significantly different between each of the clusters (Wilks' Lambda = 0.13, p amino acids with histidine being the most abundant component. Cluster 2 had glycine present as the most abundant urinary amino acid and cluster 3 had equivalent abundances of glycine and histidine. Strong associations were observed between urinary proline concentrations and fatigue/pain scores (r = .56 to .83) for females in cluster 1, with several other differential sets of associations observed for the other clusters. Different phenotypic subsets exist in the population based on amino acid excretion characteristics found in urine. Provision of the supplement resulted in significant improvements in reported fatigue and sleep for 81% of the trial cohort with all females reporting improvements in fatigue. The study was registered on the 18th April 2011 with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ( ACTRN12611000403932 ).

  6. Revisiting amino acid substitution matrices for identifying distantly related proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kazunori; Tomii, Kentaro

    2014-02-01

    Although many amino acid substitution matrices have been developed, it has not been well understood which is the best for similarity searches, especially for remote homology detection. Therefore, we collected information related to existing matrices, condensed it and derived a novel matrix that can detect more remote homology than ever. Using principal component analysis with existing matrices and benchmarks, we developed a novel matrix, which we designate as MIQS. The detection performance of MIQS is validated and compared with that of existing general purpose matrices using SSEARCH with optimized gap penalties for each matrix. Results show that MIQS is able to detect more remote homology than the existing matrices on an independent dataset. In addition, the performance of our developed matrix was superior to that of CS-BLAST, which was a novel similarity search method with no amino acid matrix. We also evaluated the alignment quality of matrices and methods, which revealed that MIQS shows higher alignment sensitivity than that with the existing matrix series and CS-BLAST. Fundamentally, these results are expected to constitute good proof of the availability and/or importance of amino acid matrices in sequence analysis. Moreover, with our developed matrix, sophisticated similarity search methods such as sequence-profile and profile-profile comparison methods can be improved further. Newly developed matrices and datasets used for this study are available at http://csas.cbrc.jp/Ssearch/.

  7. Amino Acid Enantiomeric Ratios in Biogeochemistry: Complications and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, G. D.; Sun, H. J.; Tsapin, A. I.

    2003-12-01

    Amino acid enantiomeric ratios have been used for many years as an indicator of the process of racemization, and thus as a method to determine the age of biological samples such as bones, shells, and teeth. Dating biological samples by this method relies on an accurate knowledge of the environmental temperatures the sample has experienced, and the racemization kinetic parameters in the sample matrix. In some environments, where an independent dating method such as radiocarbon is available, the observed amino acid D/L ratios are found to be either higher or lower than those expected due to racemization alone. The observed D/L ratios in these cases can be clues to biogeochemical processes operating in addition to, or in place of, chemical racemization. In Siberian permafrost (Brinton et al. 2002, Astrobiology 2, 77) we have found D/L ratios lower than expected, which we have interpreted as evidence for low-level D-amino acid metabolism and recycling in microorganisms previously thought to be metabolically dormant. In microbially-colonized Antarctic Dry Valley sandstones (McDonald and Sun 2002, Eos Trans. AGU 83, Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract B11A-0720) we have found D/L ratios higher than can be accounted for by racemization alone, most likely due to the accumulation of D-amino-acid-containing peptidoglycan material from multiple bacterial generations. D/L profiles in polar ices and in ice-covered lakes (Tsapin et al. 2002, Astrobiology 2, 632) can be used to indicate the sources and histories of water or ice samples. Multiple biological and biogeochemical processes may complicate the interpretation of amino acid enantiomeric excesses in both terrestrial and extraterrestrial samples; however, amino acid racemization remains a useful tool in biogeochemistry and astrobiology. With a good knowledge of the environmental history of samples, amino acid D/L profiles can be used as a window into processes such as molecular repair and biomass turnover that are difficult to

  8. Nonconventional techniques for separation of biosynthetic amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloetzer, Lenuţa; Poştaru, Mădălina; Cheptea, Corina; Caşcaval, D; Galaction, Anca-Irina

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids can be obtained by biosynthesis, by protein hydrolysis or by extraction from natural sources. The most efficient methods are the first two, but the separation of amino acids from fermentation broths or protein hydrolysates is rather difficult. Amino acids dissociate in aqueous solutions, forming characteristic ionic species depending on the solution pH-value. These properties make amino acids to be hydrophilic at any pH-value. This paper presents a review of the separation studies of some amino acids by nonconventional methods, namely individual or selective reactive extraction. Separation of some amino acids from their mixture obtained either by fermentation or protein hydrolysis by reactive extraction with different extractants indicated the possibility of the amino acids selective separation as a function of the pH-value of aqueous solution correlated with the acidic or basic character of each amino acid.

  9. Recent advances in amino acid production by microbial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirasawa, Takashi; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2016-12-01

    Amino acids have been utilized for the production of foods, animal feeds and pharmaceuticals. After the discovery of the glutamic acid-producing bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum by Japanese researchers, the production of amino acids, which are primary metabolites, has been achieved using various microbial cells as hosts. Recently, metabolic engineering studies on the rational design of amino acid-producing microbial cells have been successfully conducted. Moreover, the technology of systems biology has been applied to metabolic engineering for the creation of amino acid-producing microbial cells. Currently, new technologies including synthetic biology, single-cell analysis, and evolutionary engineering have been utilized to create amino acid-producing microbial cells. In addition, useful compounds from amino acids have been produced by microbial cells. Here, current researches into the metabolic engineering of microbial cells toward production of amino acids and amino acid-related compounds are reviewed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Specific plasma amino acid disturbances associated with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siomkajło, Marta; Rybka, Jacek; Mierzchała-Pasierb, Magdalena; Gamian, Andrzej; Stankiewicz-Olczyk, Joanna; Bolanowski, Marek; Daroszewski, Jacek

    2017-12-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to examine the association between branched chain and aromatic amino acid profiles (BCAA and AAA respectively) and the metabolic syndrome (MS), and to evaluate the clinical utility of these associations in the diagnostic process. Two hundred and sixty three healthy men with MS [MS(+): n = 165] and without MS [MS(-): n = 98] were enrolled in the observational study. Anthropometrical, biochemical, and amino acid measurements were performed. The ability of the BCAA and AAA to discriminate subjects with MS and insulin resistance was tested. Based on logistic discrimination, a multivariate early MS diagnostic model was built, and its discrimination properties were evaluated. Two functionally independent amino acid clusters were identified. BCAA and phenylalanine differed significantly between MS(+) and MS(-) participants (P = 0.003). These factors were also found to be indicators of MS(+) individuals (AUC: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.5757-0.7469), and correlated with cardiometabolic factors. No statistically significant differences in amino acid concentrations between those with and without insulin resistance were noted, and none of the amino groups were indicators of insulin resistance. The proposed MS multivariate diagnostic model consisted of phenylalanine, insulin, leptin, and adiponectin, and had good discrimination properties [AUC 0.79; 95% CI: 0.7239-0.8646]. MS is associated with selective BCAA and AAA profile disturbances, which could be part of cardiometabolic disease pathogenesis and derive neither directly from insulin sensitivity impairment, nor obesity or muscle mass. The MS diagnostic model developed and described herein should be validated in future studies.

  11. Amino acids analysis during lactic acid fermentation by single strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-09

    Jul 9, 2014 ... Amino acids analysis during lactic acid fermentation by single strain cultures of lactobacilli and mixed culture starter made from them. KiBeom Lee1*, Ho-Jin Kim1 and Sang-Kyu Park2. 1Bio Center Technopark, 7-50 Songdo, Yeonsu-Gu, Incheon 406-840, Republic of Korea. 2Nambu University, Chumdan ...

  12. Weight loss is associated with plasma free amino acid alterations in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochikubo, O; Nakamura, H; Jinzu, H; Nagao, K; Yoshida, H; Kageyama, N; Miyano, H

    2016-02-29

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide, especially in Asian populations. Early detection and effective intervention are vital. Plasma free amino acid profile is a potential biomarker for the early detection for lifestyle-related diseases. However, little is known about whether the altered plasma free amino acid profiles in subjects with metabolic syndrome are related to the effectiveness of dietary and exercise interventions. Eighty-five Japanese subjects who fulfilled the Japanese diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome were enrolled in a 3-month diet and exercise intervention. The plasma free amino acid concentrations and metabolic variables were measured, and the relationships between plasma free amino acid profiles, metabolic variables and the extent of body weight reduction were investigated. Those who lost more than 3% of body weight were compared with those who lost less than 3%. Baseline levels of most amino acids in the subset that went on to lose weight were markedly lower compared with the counterpart, although both groups showed similar proportional pattern of plasma amino acid profiles. The weight loss induced by the diet and exercise intervention normalized plasma free amino acid profiles. For those with a high degree of weight loss, those changes were also associated with improvement in blood pressure, triglyceride and hemoglobin A1c levels. These data suggest that among Japanese adults meeting the criteria for metabolic syndrome, baseline plasma free amino acid profiles may differ in ways that predict who will be more vs less beneficially responsive to a standard diet and exercise program. Plasma free amino acid profiles may also be useful as markers for monitoring the risks of developing lifestyle-related diseases and measuring improvement in physiological states.

  13. Application of chemometrics to assess the influence of ultrasound frequency, Lactobacillus sakei culture and drying on beef jerky manufacture: Impact on amino acid profile, organic acids, texture and colour

    OpenAIRE

    Ojha, K. Shikha; Granato, Daniel; Rajuria, Gaurav; Barba, Francisco J.; Kerry, Joseph P.; Tiwari, Brijesh K.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of ultrasound (US) frequency, addition of Lactobacillus sakei culture and drying time on key nutritional (protein, amino acids, and organic acids) and physicochemical properties (texture and colour) of cultured and uncultured beef jerky were evaluated. Cultured and uncultured jerky samples were subjected to US frequencies of 25 kHz, 33 kHz and 45 kHz for 30 min prior to marination and drying. Principal component analysis demonstrated a significant effect of beef jerky processing c...

  14. Homeostatic responses to amino acid insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy G. Anthony

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a brief overview describing how two key signaling pathways, namely the integrated stress response and the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1, work together to facilitate cellular adaptation to dietary amino acid insufficiency. A deeper understanding of these mechanisms is leading to identification of novel targets which aid in disease treatments, improve stress recovery and increase health span through slowed aging and enhanced metabolic fitness.

  15. Free amino acids and 5'-nucleotides in Finnish forest mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manninen, Hanna; Rotola-Pukkila, Minna; Aisala, Heikki; Hopia, Anu; Laaksonen, Timo

    2018-05-01

    Edible mushrooms are valued because of their umami taste and good nutritional values. Free amino acids, 5'-nucleotides and nucleosides were analyzed from four Nordic forest mushroom species (Lactarius camphoratus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, Craterellus tubaeformis) using high precision liquid chromatography analysis. To our knowledge, these taste components were studied for the first time from Craterellus tubaeformis and Lactarius camphoratus. The focus was on the umami amino acids and 5'-nucleotides. The free amino acid and 5'-nucleotide/nucleoside contents of studied species differed from each other. In all studied samples, umami amino acids were among five major free amino acids. The highest concentration of umami amino acids was on L. camphoratus whereas B. edulis had the highest content of sweet amino acids and C. cibarius had the highest content of bitter amino acids. The content of umami enhancing 5'-nucleotides were low in all studied species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Change in amino acids content during germination and seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    presence of histidine (His) and phenylalanine (Phe), but also to amide amino acids asparagine (Asn), glutamine (Gln) and Arg contents. In Cola sp., free amino acids varied significantly during these two processes indicating their high utilization.

  17. Alimentary proteins, amino acids and cholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blachier, François; Lancha, Antonio H; Boutry, Claire; Tomé, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Numerous data from both epidemiological and experimental origins indicate that some alimentary proteins and amino acids in supplements can modify the blood LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and total cholesterol. After an initial approval of the health claim for soy protein consumption for the prevention of coronary heart disease, more recently it has been concluded from an overall analysis of literature that isolated soy protein with isoflavones only slightly decrease LDL and total cholesterol. Other plant extracts and also some proteins from animal origin have been reported to exert a lowering effect on blood cholesterol when compared with a reference protein (often casein). The underlying mechanisms are still little understood. Individual amino acids and mixture of amino acids have also been tested (mostly in animal studies) for their effects on cholesterol parameters and on cholesterol metabolism. Methionine, lysine, cystine, leucine, aspartate and glutamate have been tested individually and in combination in different models of either normo or hypercholesterolemic animals and found to be able to modify blood cholesterol and/or LDL cholesterol and/or HDL cholesterol. It is however not known if these results are relevant to human nutrition.

  18. Dietary amino acids budget for juvenile yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata)

    OpenAIRE

    Masumoto, Toshiro; Itoh, Yoshiaki; Ruchimat, Toni; Hosokawa, Hidetsuyo; Shimeno, Sadao

    1998-01-01

    Yellowtail weighing 31.7g was fed 4 levels of fish meal diet for 21 days. Based on the amino acid intake and gain data from the best growth exhibited crude protein content 52% fed fish, the amino acid budget was estimated. Average of each amino acid value showed that about 32% and 57% of intake amino acids were utilized for growth and for as an energy source and maintenance, respectively.

  19. Branched-chain amino acids for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, B; Koretz, R L; Kjaergard, L L

    2003-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy may be caused by a decreased plasma ratio of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to aromatic amino acids. Treatment with BCAA may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy.......Hepatic encephalopathy may be caused by a decreased plasma ratio of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to aromatic amino acids. Treatment with BCAA may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy....

  20. Changes in plasma amino acid profiles, growth performance and intestinal antioxidant capacity of piglets following increased consumption of methionine as its hydroxy analogue

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hao; Mercier, Yves; Zhang, Xiaoling; Wu, Caimei; Wu, Xiuqun; Tang, Li; Che, Lianqiang; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Tian, Gang; Wu, De; Fang, Zhengfeng

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether early weaning-induced growth retardation could be attenuated by increased consumption of methionine as DL-methionine (DLM) or DL-2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutyrate (HMTBA) in both lactating sows and weaned piglets. Therefore, diets containing DLM and HMTBA at 25\\% of the total sulphur-containing amino acids (AA) present in the control (CON) diet were fed to lactating sows and weaned piglets and their responses were evaluated. Compared with the CON diet-fed sows, the HMTBA diet-fed sows exhibited a tendency (P<0.10) towards higher plasma taurine concentrations and the DLM diet-fed sows had higher (P<0.05) plasma taurine concentrations, but lower (P<0.05) isoleucine concentrations. Suckling piglets in the HMTBA treatment group had higher (P<0.05) intestinal reduced glutathione (GSH) content, lower (P<0.05) oxidised glutathione (GSSG): GSH ratio, and higher (P<0.05) plasma cysteine and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity than those in the CON ...

  1. Simultaneous extraction and derivatization of amino acids and free fatty acids in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggio, Antonella; Belsito, Emilia Lucia; De Marco, Rosaria; Liguori, Angelo; Siciliano, Carlo; Spinella, Mariagiovanna

    2012-06-08

    In meat products the contents of free amino acids and free fatty acids are two important parameters used to establish their quality. These compounds play a very important role in defining the sensorial characteristics and acceptability of meat products. An innovative procedure for the measurement of free amino acid and fatty acid contents in meat and meat derivatives was developed. A single experiment can be performed in order to determine simultaneously the free amino acid and free fatty acid profiles. The analytes of interest are rapidly extracted from the meat matrix and derivatized by using methyl chloroformate. This reagent allows the transformation of the two groups of analytes into the corresponding N-methyloxycarbonyl amino acid methyl esters and fatty acid methyl esters that can easily be extracted and sampled for their further identification and quantitation. The measurement of the obtained amino acid and fatty acid derivatives is performed by GC/MS analysis and their concentrations are calculated by using two appropriate internal standards. The main advantage of the proposed protocol is the determination at the same time of two important classes of analytes that are of great importance in food analysis and characterization. Moreover, minimal sample manipulation and preparation, and reduced total extraction times are required to obtain the response with respect to conventional procedures, in which instead the analysis of both the two classes of compounds must be performed separately. The helpfulness of the protocol was tested in the analysis of a cured meat product that is typical of the South of Italy. The optimized protocol successfully allowed the determination of thirteen free amino acids and six free fatty acids, namely those most abundant in the lipid content of the cured meat product under evaluation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination and stability constants of Manganese (II) amino acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination and stability constants of Manganese (II) amino acid complexes. HN Aliyu, J Na'aliya. Abstract. The stepwise and the overall stability constants of the complexes formed by manganese (II) ion and twelve (12) amino acids have been determined. The dissociation constants, pKa, of the amino acids determined ...

  3. Origin, Microbiology, Nutrition, and Pharmacology of D-Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of food proteins to certain processing conditions induces two major chemical changes: racemization of all L-amino acids (LAA) to D-amino acids (DAA) and concurrent formation of crosslinked amino acids such as lysinoalanine (LAL). The diet contains both processing-induced and naturally-form...

  4. A Convenient Synthesis of Amino Acid Methyl Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaowu Sha

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of amino acid methyl ester hydrochlorides were prepared in good toexcellent yields by the room temperature reaction of amino acids with methanol in thepresence of trimethylchlorosilane. This method is not only compatible with natural aminoacids, but also with other aromatic and aliphatic amino acids.

  5. Proximate and Amino Acid Composition of Celosia argentea Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate, trace metals and amino acids composition of Celosia argentea were determined. The crude fat, fibre and protein contents were moderate with 1.10, 3.53 and 5.17% respectively while high in the ash content (22.43%). Results of the amino acid analysis revealed high contents of the essential amino acids with ...

  6. Soil amino acid composition across a boreal forest successional sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy R. Werdin-Pfisterer; Knut Kielland; Richard D. Boone

    2009-01-01

    Soil amino acids are important sources of organic nitrogen for plant nutrition, yet few studies have examined which amino acids are most prevalent in the soil. In this study, we examined the composition, concentration, and seasonal patterns of soil amino acids across a primary successional sequence encompassing a natural gradient of plant productivity and soil...

  7. Evaluation of Mineral and Amino Acid Composition of Leaves of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to determine the mineral and amino acid composition of the leave of Ocimum gratissimum. The mineral composition showed major minerals such as Na, K, Ca and Mg should essential and non-essential amino acids. The amino acids compared favorably with FAO reference protein. The leave were ...

  8. The relationship between amino acid and protein content of yellow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the content of these amino acids from the amount of crude protein in maize are given. The remaining amino acids can be estimated without loss of accuracy from their mean value expressed as g/16 9. N. Although the relationship between certain amino acids and crude protein differed between certain areas, it is unlikely that ...

  9. Metabolism of amino acid amides in Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, H.F.M.; Croes, L.M.; Peeters, W.P.H.; Peters, P.J.H.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    1993-01-01

    The metabolism of the natural amino acid L-valine, the unnatural amino acids D-valine, and D-, L-phenylglycine (D-, L-PG), and the unnatural amino acid amides D-, L-phenylglycine amide (D, L-PG-NH2) and L-valine amide (L-Val-NH2) was studied in Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633. The organism possessed

  10. Pre-staining thin layer chromatography method for amino acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-12-13

    Dec 13, 2010 ... The modified thin layer chromatography can be used for the analysis of amino acids. When compared to the classical thin layer ... amino acid-producing microbes as well as amino acid fermentation processes. ... sodium hydroxide solution to a final concentration of 0.01M. The fermentation broth was directly.

  11. Nutritional and medicinal aspects of D-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel; Levin, Carol E

    2012-05-01

    This paper reviews and interprets a method for determining the nutritional value of D-amino acids, D-peptides, and amino acid derivatives using a growth assay in mice fed a synthetic all-amino acid diet. A large number of experiments were carried out in which a molar equivalent of the test compound replaced a nutritionally essential amino acid such as L-lysine (L-Lys), L-methionine (L-Met), L-phenylalanine (L-Phe), and L-tryptophan (L-Trp) as well as the semi-essential amino acids L-cysteine (L-Cys) and L-tyrosine (L-Tyr). The results show wide-ranging variations in the biological utilization of test substances. The method is generally applicable to the determination of the biological utilization and safety of any amino acid derivative as a potential nutritional source of the corresponding L-amino acid. Because the organism is forced to use the D-amino acid or amino acid derivative as the sole source of the essential or semi-essential amino acid being replaced, and because a free amino acid diet allows better control of composition, the use of all-amino-acid diets for such determinations may be preferable to protein-based diets. Also covered are brief summaries of the widely scattered literature on dietary and pharmacological aspects of 27 individual D-amino acids, D-peptides, and isomeric amino acid derivatives and suggested research needs in each of these areas. The described results provide a valuable record and resource for further progress on the multifaceted aspects of D-amino acids in food and biological samples.

  12. Amino acid biogeo- and stereochemistry in coastal Chilean sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomstein, Bente Aagaard; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Schubert, Carsten J.

    2006-01-01

    aspartate and its non-protein degradation product β-alanine confirmed this observation. Furthermore, estimates of THAA mineralization showed that sedimentary amino acid reactivity decreased with both increasing water depth as well as progressive degradation status of the organic matter that was incorporated...... in the cores. The contribution of peptidoglycan amino acids to THAA was estimated from the concentrations of D-aspartate, D-glutamic acid, D-serine, and D-alanine. Peptidoglycan amino acids accounted for >18% of THAA in all investigated samples. In surface sediments peptidoglycan amino acids accounted......The spatial distribution of total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA) and amino acid enantiomers (D- and L-forms) was investigated in sediments underlying two contrasting Chilean upwelling regions,: at ~23°S off Antofagasta and at ~36°S off Concepcion. The contribution of amino acids to total organic...

  13. Neighbor Preferences of Amino Acids and Context-Dependent Effects of Amino Acid Substitutions in Human, Mouse, and Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingchuan Fu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids show apparent propensities toward their neighbors. In addition to preferences of amino acids for their neighborhood context, amino acid substitutions are also considered to be context-dependent. However, context-dependence patterns of amino acid substitutions still remain poorly understood. Using relative entropy, we investigated the neighbor preferences of 20 amino acids and the context-dependent effects of amino acid substitutions with protein sequences in human, mouse, and dog. For 20 amino acids, the highest relative entropy was mostly observed at the nearest adjacent site of either N- or C-terminus except C and G. C showed the highest relative entropy at the third flanking site and periodic pattern was detected at G flanking sites. Furthermore, neighbor preference patterns of amino acids varied greatly in different secondary structures. We then comprehensively investigated the context-dependent effects of amino acid substitutions. Our results showed that nearly half of 380 substitution types were evidently context dependent, and the context-dependent patterns relied on protein secondary structures. Among 20 amino acids, P elicited the greatest effect on amino acid substitutions. The underlying mechanisms of context-dependent effects of amino acid substitutions were possibly mutation bias at a DNA level and natural selection. Our findings may improve secondary structure prediction algorithms and protein design; moreover, this study provided useful information to develop empirical models of protein evolution that consider dependence between residues.

  14. Neighbor Preferences of Amino Acids and Context-Dependent Effects of Amino Acid Substitutions in Human, Mouse, and Dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Mingchuan; Huang, Zhuoran; Mao, Yuanhui; Tao, Shiheng

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids show apparent propensities toward their neighbors. In addition to preferences of amino acids for their neighborhood context, amino acid substitutions are also considered to be context-dependent. However, context-dependence patterns of amino acid substitutions still remain poorly understood. Using relative entropy, we investigated the neighbor preferences of 20 amino acids and the context-dependent effects of amino acid substitutions with protein sequences in human, mouse, and dog. For 20 amino acids, the highest relative entropy was mostly observed at the nearest adjacent site of either N- or C-terminus except C and G. C showed the highest relative entropy at the third flanking site and periodic pattern was detected at G flanking sites. Furthermore, neighbor preference patterns of amino acids varied greatly in different secondary structures. We then comprehensively investigated the context-dependent effects of amino acid substitutions. Our results showed that nearly half of 380 substitution types were evidently context dependent, and the context-dependent patterns relied on protein secondary structures. Among 20 amino acids, P elicited the greatest effect on amino acid substitutions. The underlying mechanisms of context-dependent effects of amino acid substitutions were possibly mutation bias at a DNA level and natural selection. Our findings may improve secondary structure prediction algorithms and protein design; moreover, this study provided useful information to develop empirical models of protein evolution that consider dependence between residues. PMID:25210846

  15. l-amino acid oxidase expression profile and biochemical responses of rabbitfish (Siganus oramin) after exposure to a high dose of Cryptocaryon irritans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Biao; Wang, Jing; Luo, Heng-Li; Lu, Ge-Ling; Li, Yan-Wei; Li, An-Xing

    2017-10-01

    Cryptocaryon irritans is an important protozoan parasite which infects almost all kinds of marine teleosts, causing heavy economic losses. In our previous studies, we found that rabbitfish (Siganus oramin) displayed high resistance to C. irritans infection, and a novel protein, l-amino acid oxidase (LAAO), was identified from the serum that was lethal to C. irritans. In this study, the rabbitfish were firstly infected with a high dose of C. irritans, then the LAAO mRNA expression pattern and the activity of three enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), Na+/K+-ATPase and Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase] were measured in various tissues. The results indicated that, after infection, the feeding and swimming of rabbitfish was normal, and the infection intensity in the host was low. Tissue distribution analysis showed that LAAO mRNA was most pronounced in the head kidney and gill, with lower expression observed in the muscle. After infection with C. irritans, the LAAO mRNA was up-regulated early post infection (from 6 to 24 h) in both gill and spleen, but then returned to normal levels, implying that LAAO may play an important role in the host's early immune response. The SOD activity in the liver was significantly higher in the infection group than in the control group by 48 h post infection, while Na+/K+-ATPase and Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase activities in the gill were decreased by 12 and 24 h after infection; no significant difference was detected at the other time points throughout the experiment. Together, these results suggest that biochemical responses of rabbitfish are relatively mild after infection with a high dose of parasite, and the LAAO may play an important role in the host's defense against C. irritans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Detection of D-amino acids in purified proteins synthesized in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Tetsuya; Sekine, Masae; Ogawa, Tetsuhiro; Hidaka, Makoto; Homma, Hiroshi; Masaki, Haruhiko

    2010-05-01

    It has long been believed that amino acids comprising proteins of all living organisms are only of the L-configuration, except for Gly. However, peptidyl D-amino acids were observed in hydrolysates of soluble high molecular weight fractions extracted from cells or tissues of various organisms. This strongly suggests that significant amounts of D-amino acids are naturally present in usual proteins. Thus we analyzed the D-amino acid contents of His-tag-purified beta-galactosidase and human urocortin, which were synthesized by Escherichia coli grown in controlled synthetic media. After acidic hydrolysis for various times at 110 degrees C, samples were derivatized with 4-fluoro-7-nitro-2, 1, 3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-F) and separated on a reverse-phase column followed by a chiral column into D- and L-enantiomers. The contents of D-enantiomers of Ala, Leu, Phe, Val, Asp, and Glu were determined by plotting index D/(D + L) against the incubation time for hydrolysis and extrapolating the linear regression line to 0 h to eliminate the effect of racemization of amino acids during the incubation. Significant contents of D-amino acids were reproducibly detected, the D-amino acid profile being specific to an individual protein. This finding indicated the likelihood that D-amino acids are in fact present in the purified proteins. On the other hand, the D-amino acid contents of proteins were hardly influenced by the addition of D- or L-amino acids to the cultivation medium, whereas intracellular free D-amino acids sensitively varied according to the extracellular conditions. The origin of these D-amino acids detected in proteins was discussed.

  17. Stability and assessment of amino acids in parenteral nutrition solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Nina; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

    2017-08-02

    Sterile amino acid solutions are applied in medical care as part of Total Parenteral Nutrition systems. Typical formulations consist of variable admixtures of essential and non-essential amino acids together with carbohydrates, electrolytes, vitamins, trace element solutions and lipid emulsions. The complexity of these formulations gives rise to stability and compatibility reflections. This review focuses on amino acid stability in pure amino acid solution and name methods of assessment. Incompatibilities of amino acids with the other ingredients are matter of concern in clinical practice and evaluated for relevance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Rationale and design of a proof-of-concept trial investigating the effect of uninterrupted perioperative (parenteral nutrition on amino acid profile, cardiomyocytes structure, and cardiac perfusion and metabolism of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cocchieri Riccardo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition is very common in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Malnutrition can change myocardial substrate utilization which can induce adverse effects on myocardial metabolism and function. We aim to investigate the hypothesis that there is a disturbed amino acids profile in the cardiac surgical patient which can be normalized by (parenteral nutrition before, during and after surgery, subsequently improving cardiomyocyte structure, cardiac perfusion and glucose metabolism. Methods/Design This randomized controlled intervention study investigates the effect of uninterrupted perioperative (parenteral nutrition on cardiac function in 48 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Patients are given enteral nutrition (n = 16 or parenteral nutrition (n = 16, at least two days before, during, and two days after coronary artery bypass grafting, or are treated according to the standard guidelines (control (n = 16. We will illustrate the effect of (parenteral nutrition on differences in concentrations of amino acids and asymmetric dimethylarginine and in activity of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase and arginase in cardiac tissue and blood plasma. In addition, cardiomyocyte structure by histological, immuno-histochemical and ultrastructural analysis will be compared between the (parenteral and control group. Furthermore, differences in cardiac perfusion and global left ventricular function and glucose metabolism, and their changes after coronary artery bypass grafting are evaluated by electrocardiography-gated myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and 18F-fluorodeoxy-glucose positron emission tomography respectively. Finally, fat free mass is measured before and after intervention with bioelectrical impedance spectrometry in order to evaluate nutritional status. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR: NTR2183

  19. Disorders of branched chain amino acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoli, I; Venditti, C P

    2016-11-07

    The three essential branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), leucine, isoleucine and valine, share the first enzymatic steps in their metabolic pathways, including a reversible transamination followed by an irreversible oxidative decarboxylation to coenzyme-A derivatives. The respective oxidative pathways subsequently diverge and at the final steps yield acetyl- and/or propionyl-CoA that enter the Krebs cycle. Many disorders in these pathways are diagnosed through expanded newborn screening by tandem mass spectrometry. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is the only disorder of the group that is associated with elevated body fluid levels of the BCAAs. Due to the irreversible oxidative decarboxylation step distal enzymatic blocks in the pathways do not result in the accumulation of amino acids, but rather to CoA-activated small carboxylic acids identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis of urine and are therefore classified as organic acidurias. Disorders in these pathways can present with a neonatal onset severe-, or chronic intermittent- or progressive forms. Metabolic instability and increased morbidity and mortality are shared between inborn errors in the BCAA pathways, while treatment options remain limited, comprised mainly of dietary management and in some cases solid organ transplantation.

  20. The Role of Microbial Amino Acid Metabolism in Host Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien P. J. G. Neis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Disruptions in gut microbiota composition and function are increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The functional output of the gut microbiota, including short-chain fatty acids and amino acids, are thought to be important modulators underlying the development of these disorders. Gut bacteria can alter the bioavailability of amino acids by utilization of several amino acids originating from both alimentary and endogenous proteins. In turn, gut bacteria also provide amino acids to the host. This could have significant implications in the context of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus, conditions associated with elevated systemic concentrations of certain amino acids, in particular the aromatic and branched-chain amino acids. Moreover, several amino acids released by gut bacteria can serve as precursors for the synthesis of short-chain fatty acids, which also play a role in the development of obesity. In this review, we aim to compile the available evidence on the contribution of microbial amino acids to host amino acid homeostasis, and to assess the role of the gut microbiota as a determinant of amino acid and short-chain fatty acid perturbations in human obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  1. Dissolved amino acids in oceanic basaltic basement fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huei-Ting; Amend, Jan P.; LaRowe, Douglas E.; Bingham, Jon-Paul; Cowen, James P.

    2015-09-01

    The oceanic basaltic basement contains the largest aquifer on Earth and potentially plays an important role in the global carbon cycle as a net sink for dissolved organic carbon (DOC). However, few details of the organic matter cycling in the subsurface are known because great water depths and thick sediments typically hinder direct access to this environment. In an effort to examine the role of water-rock-microorganism interaction on organic matter cycling in the oceanic basaltic crust, basement fluid samples collected from three borehole observatories installed on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge were analyzed for dissolved amino acids. Our data show that dissolved free amino acids (1-13 nM) and dissolved hydrolyzable amino acids (43-89 nM) are present in the basement. The amino acid concentrations in the ridge-flank basement fluids are at the low end of all submarine hydrothermal fluids reported in the literature and are similar to those in deep seawater. Amino acids in recharging deep seawater, in situ amino acid production, and diffusional input from overlying sediments are potential sources of amino acids in the basement fluids. Thermodynamic modeling shows that amino acid synthesis in the basement can be sustained by energy supplied from inorganic substrates via chemolithotrophic metabolisms. Furthermore, an analysis of amino acid concentrations and compositions in basement fluids support the notion that heterotrophic activity is ongoing. Similarly, the enrichment of acidic amino acids and depletion of hydrophobic ones relative to sedimentary particulate organic matter suggests that surface sorption and desorption also alters amino acids in the basaltic basement. In summary, although the oceanic basement aquifer is a net sink for deep seawater DOC, similar amino acid concentrations in basement aquifer and deep seawater suggest that DOC is preferentially removed in the basement over dissolved amino acids. Our data also suggest that organic carbon

  2. Antioxidative Categorization of Twenty Amino Acids Based on Experimental Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naijin Xu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In view of the great importance bestowed on amino acids as antioxidants in oxidation resistance, we attempted two common redox titration methods in this report, including micro-potassium permanganate titration and iodometric titration, to measure the antioxidative capacity of 20 amino acids, which are the construction units of proteins in living organisms. Based on the relative intensities of the antioxidative capacity, we further conducted a quantitative comparison and found out that the product of experimental values obtained from the two methods was proven to be a better indicator for evaluating the relative antioxidative capacity of amino acids. The experimental results were largely in accordance with structural analysis made on amino acids. On the whole, the 20 amino acids concerned could be divided into two categories according to their antioxidative capacity. Seven amino acids, including tryptophan, methionine, histidine, lysine, cysteine, arginine and tyrosine, were greater in total antioxidative capacity compared with the other 13 amino acids.

  3. Antioxidative Categorization of Twenty Amino Acids Based on Experimental Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Naijin; Chen, Guanqun; Liu, Hui

    2017-11-27

    In view of the great importance bestowed on amino acids as antioxidants in oxidation resistance, we attempted two common redox titration methods in this report, including micro-potassium permanganate titration and iodometric titration, to measure the antioxidative capacity of 20 amino acids, which are the construction units of proteins in living organisms. Based on the relative intensities of the antioxidative capacity, we further conducted a quantitative comparison and found out that the product of experimental values obtained from the two methods was proven to be a better indicator for evaluating the relative antioxidative capacity of amino acids. The experimental results were largely in accordance with structural analysis made on amino acids. On the whole, the 20 amino acids concerned could be divided into two categories according to their antioxidative capacity. Seven amino acids, including tryptophan, methionine, histidine, lysine, cysteine, arginine and tyrosine, were greater in total antioxidative capacity compared with the other 13 amino acids.

  4. Amino acids analysis during lactic acid fermentation by single strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L. salivarius alone showed relatively good assimilation of various amino acids that existed at only a little amounts in MRS media (Asn, Asp, Cit, Cys, Glu, His, Lys, Orn, Phe, Pro, Tyr, Arg, Ile, Leu, Met, Ser, Thr, Trp and Val), whereas Ala and Gly accumulated in L. salivarius cultures. P. acidilactici, in contrast, hydrolyzed the ...

  5. Fatty acids and amino acids contents in Scomber scombrus fillets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition, fats and amino acids of Atlantic Mackerel fillets (Scomber scombrus) from the South East of Tunisia in different seasons, were analyzed in order to assess nutritive characteristics of this species. Samples were collected monthly from Zarzis fishing port located in the South-East of Tunisia. Total fats and ...

  6. Photoinduced dynamics in protonated aromatic amino acid

    CERN Document Server

    Grégoire, Gilles; Barat, Michel; Fayeton, Jacqueline; Dedonder-Lardeux, Claude; Jouvet, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    UV photoinduced fragmentation of protonated aromatics amino acids have emerged the last few years, coming from a situation where nothing was known to what we think a good understanding of the optical properties. We will mainly focus this review on the tryptophan case. Three groups have mostly done spectroscopic studies and one has mainly been involved in dynamics studies of the excited states in the femtosecond/picosecond range and also in the fragmentation kinetics from nanosecond to millisecond. All these data, along with high level ab initio calculations, have shed light on the role of the different electronic states of the protonated molecules upon the fragmentation mechanisms.

  7. AMINO ACIDS: SENSING AND IMPLICATION INTO AGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleh Lushchak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An ability to sense and respond to nutrient availability is an important requisite for life. Nutrient limitation is among main factors to influence the evolution of most cellular processes. Different pathways that sense intracellular and extracellular levels of carbohydtrates, amino acids, lipids, and intermediate metabolites are integrated and coordinated at the organismal level through neuronal and humoral signals. During food abundance, nutrient-sensing pathways engage anabolism and storage, whereas limitation triggers the mechanisms, such as the mobilization of internal stores including through autophagy. These processes are affected during aging and are themselves important regulators of longevity, stress resistance, and age-related complications.

  8. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in the Almahata Sitta Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Parker, Eric T.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2010-01-01

    Amino acid analysis of a meteorite fragment of asteroid 2008 TC3 called Almahata Sitta was carried out using reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled with UV fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-FD/ToF-MS) as part of a sample analysis consortium. LC-FD/ToF-MS analyses of hot-water extracts from the meteorite revealed a complex distribution of two- to seven-carbon aliphatic amino acids and one- to three-carbon amines with abundances ranging from 0.5 to 149 parts-per-billion (ppb). The enantiomeric ratios of the amino acids alanine, R-amino-n-butyric acid (beta-ABA), 2-amino-2-methylbutanoic acid (isovaline), and 2-aminopentanoic acid (norvaline) in the meteorite were racemic (D/L approximately 1), indicating that these amino acids are indigenous to the meteorite and not terrestrial contaminants. Several other non-protein amino acids were also identified in the meteorite above background levels including alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), 4-amino-2- methylbutanoic acid, 4-amino-3-methylbutanoic acid, and 3-, 4-, and 5-aminopentanoic acid. The total abundances of isovaline and alpha-AIB in Almahata Sitta are 1000 times lower than the abundances of these amino acids found in the CM carbonaceous chondrite Murchison. The extremely low abundances and unusual distribution of five carbon amino acids in Almahata Sitta compared to Cl, CM, and CR carbonaceous chondrites may reflect extensive thermal alteration of amino acids on the parent asteroid by partial melting during formation or subsequent impact shock heating. It is also possible that amino acids were synthesized by catalytic reactions on the parent body after asteroid 2008 TC3 cooled to lower temperatures.

  9. Evolutionary systems biology of amino acid biosynthetic cost in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Barton

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Every protein has a biosynthetic cost to the cell based on the synthesis of its constituent amino acids. In order to optimise growth and reproduction, natural selection is expected, where possible, to favour the use of proteins whose constituents are cheaper to produce, as reduced biosynthetic cost may confer a fitness advantage to the organism. Quantifying the cost of amino acid biosynthesis presents challenges, since energetic requirements may change across different cellular and environmental conditions. We developed a systems biology approach to estimate the cost of amino acid synthesis based on genome-scale metabolic models and investigated the effects of the cost of amino acid synthesis on Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene expression and protein evolution. First, we used our two new and six previously reported measures of amino acid cost in conjunction with codon usage bias, tRNA gene number and atomic composition to identify which of these factors best predict transcript and protein levels. Second, we compared amino acid cost with rates of amino acid substitution across four species in the genus Saccharomyces. Regardless of which cost measure is used, amino acid biosynthetic cost is weakly associated with transcript and protein levels. In contrast, we find that biosynthetic cost and amino acid substitution rates show a negative correlation, but for only a subset of cost measures. In the economy of the yeast cell, we find that the cost of amino acid synthesis plays a limited role in shaping transcript and protein expression levels compared to that of translational optimisation. Biosynthetic cost does, however, appear to affect rates of amino acid evolution in Saccharomyces, suggesting that expensive amino acids may only be used when they have specific structural or functional roles in protein sequences. However, as there appears to be no single currency to compute the cost of amino acid synthesis across all cellular and environmental

  10. Adsorption Behavior of Amino Acids on a Stainless Steel Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura; Mimura; Okamoto; Sakiyama; Nakanishi

    2000-09-01

    The adsorption behavior of various amino acids on a stainless steel surface was investigated at 30 degrees C and over a pH range of 3-10. Acidic and basic amino acids except histidine adsorbed remarkably at pH 3-4 and 7-10, respectively, and showed Langmuir-type adsorption isotherms. The effects of pH and ionic strength on the adsorption isotherms were investigated to analyze the interactions between amino acids and adsorption sites on the stainless steel. Hydrophobic amino acids and glycine showed only small adsorbed amounts at all pHs tested. For the acidic and basic amino acids, reversibility of the absorption and the influence of the ionic strength on the adsorption behavior were examined. The adsorption isotherms of the derivatives of aspartic acid were also measured in order to examine the contribution of the carboxylic groups of acidic amino acids to the adsorption. Furthermore, a Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic analysis and semiempirical molecular orbital calculation were carried out to analyze the ionization states and the configuration of the amino acids adsorbed on a stainless steel surface. These investigations suggest that the acidic and basic amino acids adsorb through two electrostatic interactions of two ionized groups in the amino acid with a stainless steel surface. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  11. Sugar amino acids and related molecules: Some recent developments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sugar amino acids constitute an important class of such polyfunctional scaffolds where the carboxyl, amino and hydroxyl termini provide an excellent opportunity to organic chemists to create structural diversities akin to Nature's molecular arsenal. In recent years, sugar amino acids have been used extensively in the area of ...

  12. Intestinal adaptation and amino acid transport following massive enterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H T; Miller, J H; Iannoli, P; Sax, H C

    1997-11-01

    Morphological and physiological adaptation in residual small intestine occurs after massive enterectomy and is influenced significantly by different growth factors and hormones. The mechanism of adaptation occurs through hypertrophy and hyperplasia as well as nutrient transporter changes. These transporters are classified into different classes dependent on its biological properties. The adaptation process evolves over time and different nutrient absorption profiles occur at different postoperative stages. There is an initial decrease in amino acid transport after resection followed by a return to approximately normal levels. Glucose also follows a similar pattern of changes but returns to normal later than amino acids. The time course of these changes are different for different animals with rat adaptation being much faster than rabbit. Growth hormone (GH) induces increased amino acid transport during this adaptation period, however, appears not to affect small intestine hypertrophy or hyperplasia. The increase in transport occurs via an increase in transport numbers rather than affinity. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) also increases amino acid transport in postoperative animals. Its advantage is it is orally stable when given with a protease inhibitor. EGF also reverses the down-regulating effects of the somatostatin analogue Octreotide (SMS) post resection. EGF in combination with GH has additive effects. However, the effects of the growth factors are site specific. GH and EGF combination therapy significantly increased alanine and arginine transport in distal small bowel after 70 % enterectomy but not in the proximal small bowel. The same combination increases leucine and glutamine transport in the proximal small intestine only. Understanding the specific changes that occur with these therapies may improve quality of life for patients and also reduce that need for total parenteral nutrition.

  13. Amino acids as modulators of endothelium-derived nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakoki, Masao; Kim, Hyung-Suk; Edgell, Cora-Jean S; Maeda, Nobuyo; Smithies, Oliver; Mattson, David L

    2006-08-01

    To examine the mechanisms whereby amino acids modulate nitric oxide (NO) production and blood flow in the renal vasculature, chemiluminescence techniques were used to quantify NO in the renal venous effluent of the isolated, perfused rat kidney as different amino acids were added to the perfusate. The addition of 10(-4) or 10(-3) M cationic amino acids (l-ornithine, l-lysine, or l-homoarginine) or neutral amino acids (l-glutamine, l-leucine, or l-serine) to the perfusate decreased NO and increased renal vascular resistance. Perfusion with anionic amino acids (l-glutamate or l-aspartate) had no effect on either parameter. The effects of the cationic and neutral amino acids were reversed with 10(-3) M l-arginine and prevented by deendothelialization or NO synthase inhibition. The effects of the neutral amino acids but not the cationic amino acids were dependent on extracellular sodium. Cationic and neutral amino acids also decreased calcimycin-induced NO, as assessed by DAF-FM-T fluorescence, in cultured EA.hy926 endothelial cells. Inhibition of system y(+) or y(+)L by siRNA for the cationic amino acid transporter 1 or the CD98/4F2 heavy chain diminished the NO-depleting effects of these amino acids. Finally, transport studies in cultured cells demonstrated that cationic or neutral amino acids in the extracellular space stimulate efflux of l-arginine out of the cell. Thus the present experiments demonstrate that cationic and neutral amino acids can modulate NO production in endothelial cells by altering cellular l-arginine transport through y(+) and y(+)L transport mechanisms.

  14. Transfer of Asymmetry between Proteinogenic Amino Acids under Harsh Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasevych, Arkadii V.; Vives, Thomas; Snytnikov, Valeriy N.; Guillemin, Jean-Claude

    2017-09-01

    The heating above 400 °C of serine, cysteine, selenocysteine and threonine leads to a complete decomposition of the amino acids and to the formation in low yields of alanine for the three formers and of 2-aminobutyric acid for the latter. At higher temperature, this amino acid is observed only when sublimable α-alkyl-α-amino acids are present, and with an enantiomeric excess dependent on several parameters. Enantiopure or enantioenriched Ser, Cys, Sel or Thr is not able to transmit its enantiomeric excess to the amino acid formed during its decomposition. The presence during the sublimation-decomposition of enantioenriched valine or isoleucine leads to the enantioenrichment of all sublimable amino acids independently of the presence of many decomposition products coming from the unstable derivative. All these studies give information on a potentially prebiotic key-reaction of abiotic transformations between α-amino acids and their evolution to homochirality.

  15. Formation of specific amino acid sequences during thermal polymerization of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, J; Brand, M C; Dose, K

    1981-01-01

    The mechanism of the thermal polymerization (at 180 degrees C) of glutamic acid, tyrosine, and glycine has been studied. Glutamic acid is quickly and almost completely converted into pyroglutamic acid. The only dipeptide that is formed by dimerization of the remaining two amino acids is cyclic glycyl-tyrosine (a diketopiperazine). In a secondary reaction pyroglutamic acid interacts with cyclic glycyl-tyrosine and yields pyroglutamyl-glycyl-tyrosine and pyroglutamyl-tyrosyl-glycine. Other di- or tripeptides are not observed. The preferential appearance of the two pyroglutamyl-peptides has been reported earlier by Nakashima et al. (1977). The present data explain those results. Model experiments show that cyclic glycyl-tyrosine can also be cleaved by other acids or bases. In the presence of acetic acid at 118 degrees C N-acetyl-glycyl-tyrosine is the major product. Partial hydrolysis predominantly yields tyrosyl-glycine. These effects are explained by stereospecific interactions. The results on self-ordering of amino acids during peptide formation are discussed in respect of the origin of prebiotic enzymes and genetic information.

  16. Nectar amino acids enhance reproduction in male butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahenzli, Fabian; Erhardt, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    After over 30 years of research, it was recently shown that nectar amino acids increase female butterfly fecundity. However, little attention has been paid to the effect of nectar amino acids on male butterfly reproduction. Here, we show that larval food conditions (nitrogen-rich vs. nitrogen-poor host plants) and adult diet quality (nectar with or without amino acids) affected the amount of consumed nectar in Coenonympha pamphilus males. Furthermore, amino acids in the nectar diet of males increased progeny's larval hatching mass, irrespective of paternal larval reserves. Our study takes the whole reproductive cycle of male butterflies into account, and also considers the role of females in passing male nutrients to offspring, as males' realized reproduction was examined indirectly via nuptial gifts, by female performance. With this comprehensive approach, we demonstrate for the first time that nectar amino acids can improve male butterfly reproduction, supporting the old postulate that nectar amino acids generally enhance butterfly fitness.

  17. Quest for steroidomimetics: Amino acids derived steroidal and nonsteroidal architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagufta; Ahmad, Irshad; Panda, Gautam

    2017-06-16

    The chiral pool amino acids have been utilized for the construction of steroidal and non-steroidal architectures in the quest for steroidomimetics. Chirality derived from amino acid-based architectures provides new and easy to incorporate chiral chemical space, which is otherwise very difficult to introduce and comprised of several synthetic steps for asymmetric steroids. The different and exciting ligand-receptor interactions may arise from the use of each amino acid enantiomer that was introduced into the chiral steroidal backbone. The A and D rings of steroidal architectures can be mimicked by the phenyl group of the amino acid tyrosine. The Mitsunobu reaction, nucleophilic substitution and elimination, etc. were utilized for constructing diverse tri- and tetracyclic steroidal skeletons as well as benzofused seco-steroids from amino acids. These benzofused, amino acid-derived steroidal and nonsteroidal molecules had promising biological activity in hormonal related disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Distribution and Origin of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; McLain, H. L.; Noble, S. K.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The existence of organic compounds on the lunar surface has been a question of interest from the Apollo era to the present. Investigations of amino acids immediately after collection of lunar samples yielded inconclusive identifications, in part due to analytical limitations including insensitivity to certain compounds, an inability to separate enantiomers, and lack of compound-specific isotopic measurements. It was not possible to determine if the detected amino acids were indigenous to the lunar samples or the result of terrestrial contamination. Recently, we presented initial data from the analysis of amino acid abundances in 12 lunar regolith samples and discussed those results in the context of four potential amino acid sources [5]. Here, we expand on our previous work, focusing on amino acid abundances and distributions in seven regolith samples and presenting the first compound-specific carbon isotopic ratios measured for amino acids in a lunar sample.

  19. Diversity of amino acids in a typical chernozem of Moldova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frunze, N. I.

    2014-12-01

    The content and composition of the amino acids in typical chernozems were studied. The objects of the study included a reference soil under an old fallow and three variants under fodder crop rotations: not fertilized, with mineral fertilizers, and with organic fertilizers. The contents of 18 amino acids were determined in these soils. The amino acids were extracted by the method of acid hydrolysis and identified by the method of ion-exchange chromatography. The total content of most of the amino acids was maximal in the reference soil; it was much lower in the cultivated soils and decreased in the following sequence: organic background > mineral background > no fertilization. The diversity of amino acids was evaluated quantitatively using different parameters applied in ecology for estimating various aspects of the species composition of communities (Simpson, Margalef, Menhinick, and Shannon's indices). The diversity and contribution of different amino acids to the total pool of amino acids also varied significantly in the studied variants. The maximum diversity of amino acids and maximum evenness of their relative abundance indices were typical of the reference chernozem; these parameters were lower in the cultivated soils. It was concluded that the changes in the structure of the amino acids under the impact of agricultural loads are similar to those that are usually observed under stress conditions.

  20. the amino acid composition of selected south african feed ingredients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The amino acid composition of l4 different feed ingredients used in a local feed millwere determined on replicate samples drawn from the mill at intervals over a period of .... this tube, 6 mol dm -t - hydrochloric acid (3 cm.r) was added. The mixture was ... standardised to present results as g amino acid residuell00 g sample.

  1. Amino acid composition and protein quality of white melon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amino acid composition of the seed flour and its protein fractions were determined using standard analytical techniques in the laboratory. Protein quality of the seed flour was evaluated using the invitro techniques. Results showed that glutamic acid is the most abundant amino acid (128.2 156.4 mg/g protein) while leucine ...

  2. Non-protein amino acids in peptide design

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    protein amino acids in peptide design ... illustrate the use -aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) in the construction of helices, D-amino acids in the design of helix termination segments and DPro-Xxx segments for nucleating of -hairpin structures. - and ...

  3. The Origin of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; McLain, Hannah L.; Noble, Sarah K.; Gibson, Everett K., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the amino acid content of seven lunar regolith samples returned by the Apollo 16 and Apollo 17 missions and stored under NASA curation since collection using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Consistent with results from initial analyses shortly after collection in the 1970s, we observed amino acids at low concentrations in all of the curated samples, ranging from 0.2 parts-per-billion (ppb) to 42.7 ppb in hot-water extracts and 14.5 ppb to 651.1 ppb in 6M HCl acid-vapor-hydrolyzed, hot-water extracts. Amino acids identified in the Apollo soil extracts include glycine, D- and L-alanine, D- and L-aspartic acid, D- and L-glutamic acid, D- and L-serine, L-threonine, and L-valine, all of which had previously been detected in lunar samples, as well as several compounds not previously identified in lunar regoliths: -aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), D-and L-amino-n-butyric acid (-ABA), DL-amino-n-butyric acid, -amino-n-butyric acid, -alanine, and -amino-n-caproic acid. We observed an excess of the L enantiomer in most of the detected proteinogenic amino acids, but racemic alanine and racemic -ABA were present in some samples.

  4. Genetic incorporation of recycled unnatural amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Wooseok; Kim, Sanggil; Jo, Kyubong; Lee, Hyun Soo

    2016-02-01

    The genetic incorporation of unnatural amino acids (UAAs) into proteins has been a useful tool for protein engineering. However, most UAAs are expensive, and the method requires a high concentration of UAAs, which has been a drawback of the technology, especially for large-scale applications. To address this problem, a method to recycle cultured UAAs was developed. The method is based on recycling a culture medium containing the UAA, in which some of essential nutrients were resupplemented after each culture cycle, and induction of protein expression was controlled with glucose. Under optimal conditions, five UAAs were recycled for up to seven rounds of expression without a decrease in expression level, cell density, or incorporation fidelity. This method can generally be applied to other UAAs; therefore, it is useful for reducing the cost of UAAs for genetic incorporation and helpful for expanding the use of the technology to industrial applications.

  5. Interactive Hangman teaches amino acid structures and abbreviations

    OpenAIRE

    Pennington, BO; Sears, D; Clegg, DO

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 42(6):495-500, 2014. We developed an interactive exercise to teach students how to draw the structures of the 20 standard amino acids and to identify the one-letter abbreviations by modifying the familiar game of "Hangman." Amino acid structures were used to represent single letters throughout the game. To provide additional practice in identifying structures, hints to the answers were written in "amino acid sentences" f...

  6. Amino acid composition in parenteral nutrition: what is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarandi, Shadi S.; Zhao, Vivian M.; Hebbar, Gautam; Ziegler, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of review Complete parenteral nutrition solutions contain mixed amino acid products providing all nine essential amino acids and a varying composition of nonessential amino acids. Relatively little rigorous comparative efficacy research on altered parenteral nutrition amino acid composition has been published in recent years. Recent findings Limited data from randomized, double-blind, adequately powered clinical trials to define optimal doses of total or individual amino acids in parenteral nutrition are available. An exception is the growing number of studies on the efficacy of glutamine supplementation of parenteral nutrition or given as a single parenteral agent. Parenteral glutamine appears to confer benefit in selected patients; however, additional data to define optimal glutamine dosing and the patient subgroups who may most benefit from this amino acid are needed. Although some promising studies have been published, little data are available in the current era of nutrition support on the clinical efficacy of altered doses of arginine, branched chain amino acids, cysteine, or taurine supplementation of parenteral nutrition. Summary Despite routine use of parenteral nutrition, surprisingly little clinical efficacy data are available to guide total or specific amino acid dosing in adult and pediatric patients requiring this therapy. This warrants increased attention by the research community and funding agencies to better define optimal amino acid administration strategies in patient subgroups requiring parenteral nutrition. PMID:21076291

  7. D-Amino Acids in the Nervous and Endocrine Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshimitsu Kiriyama; Hiromi Nochi

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids are important components for peptides and proteins and act as signal transmitters. Only L-amino acids have been considered necessary in mammals, including humans. However, diverse D-amino acids, such as D-serine, D-aspartate, D-alanine, and D-cysteine, are found in mammals. Physiological roles of these D-amino acids not only in the nervous system but also in the endocrine system are being gradually revealed. N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are associated with learning and me...

  8. Amino acids in the cultivation of mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Andrew; Keusgen, Michael; von Hagen, Jörg

    2016-05-01

    Amino acids are crucial for the cultivation of mammalian cells. This importance of amino acids was realized soon after the development of the first cell lines, and a solution of a mixture of amino acids has been supplied to cultured cells ever since. The importance of amino acids is further pronounced in chemically defined mammalian cell culture media, making the consideration of their biological and chemical properties necessary. Amino acids concentrations have been traditionally adjusted to their cellular consumption rates. However, since changes in the metabolic equilibrium of amino acids can be caused by changes in extracellular concentrations, metabolomics in conjunction with flux balance analysis is being used in the development of culture media. The study of amino acid transporters is also gaining importance since they control the intracellular concentrations of these molecules and are influenced by conditions in cell culture media. A better understanding of the solubility, stability, dissolution kinetics, and interactions of these molecules is needed for an exploitation of these properties in the development of dry powdered chemically defined media for mammalian cells. Due to the complexity of these mixtures however, this has proven to be challenging. Studying amino acids in mammalian cell culture media will help provide a better understanding of how mammalian cells in culture interact with their environment. It would also provide insight into the chemical behavior of these molecules in solutions of complex mixtures, which is important in the understanding of the contribution of individual amino acids to protein structure.

  9. Rumen degradability and ileal digestibility of proteins and amino acids of feedstuffs for cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Maskaľová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the profile of amino acids of the rumen-undegradable protein can help in the formulation of diets to provide amino acids that complement microbial protein as well as supply amino acids, which are most limiting for milk production. Three non-lactating cows fitted with rumen cannulas were used to determine the effect of in situ rumen degradation on crude protein and amino acid profile of rumen-undegraded protein of feedstuffs. The obtained values of rumen degradability of crude protein with significant difference (P in vitro modified 3-step method was used to determine intestinal digestibility. Intestinal digestibility of undegraded protein varied from 54.5 ± 1.4% in raw soybean to 95.2 ± 1.0% in corn gluten feed. The absorbable amino acid profile of rumen-undegraded protein for each feedstuff was compared with profiles of the original feedstuff and the rumen-exposed undegraded protein. Absorbable lysine (9.3 ± 1.1 g/kg of crude protein was higher in products of soybean and sunflower cake. Corn gluten feed and meal supplied more absorbable methionine (3.6 ± 0.6 g/kg of crude protein. This study showed that the digestibility factor of crude protein and amino acid based on in situ and in vitro methods for thermal treatment of protein feeds can be used in models to optimize the amino acid nutrition of dairy cows and expand knowledge about rumen degradability and ileal digestibility of amino acids in feedstuffs.

  10. Abnormalities of cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in patients with the Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Corston, R N; McGale, E H; Stonier, C; Aber, G. M.; Hutchinson, E.C.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma amino acid concentrations have been made in 12 patients with the Guillain-Barré syndrome. The CSF protein concentration was normal in seven specimens and raised in 13. Abnormalities of the CSF amino acid profile were found in all specimens but were more marked in those with a raised CSF protein concentration. The possible causes and diagnostic significance of these changes are discussed.

  11. Proteolytic pathways induced by herbicides that inhibit amino acid biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaia Zulet

    Full Text Available The herbicides glyphosate (Gly and imazamox (Imx inhibit the biosynthesis of aromatic and branched-chain amino acids, respectively. Although these herbicides inhibit different pathways, they have been reported to show several common physiological effects in their modes of action, such as increasing free amino acid contents and decreasing soluble protein contents. To investigate proteolytic activities upon treatment with Gly and Imx, pea plants grown in hydroponic culture were treated with Imx or Gly, and the proteolytic profile of the roots was evaluated through fluorogenic kinetic assays and activity-based protein profiling.Several common changes in proteolytic activity were detected following Gly and Imx treatment. Both herbicides induced the ubiquitin-26 S proteasome system and papain-like cysteine proteases. In contrast, the activities of vacuolar processing enzymes, cysteine proteases and metacaspase 9 were reduced following treatment with both herbicides. Moreover, the activities of several putative serine protease were similarly increased or decreased following treatment with both herbicides. In contrast, an increase in YVADase activity was observed under Imx treatment versus a decrease under Gly treatment.These results suggest that several proteolytic pathways are responsible for protein degradation upon herbicide treatment, although the specific role of each proteolytic activity remains to be determined.

  12. Amino acid fermentation at the origin of the genetic code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vladar Harold P

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is evidence that the genetic code was established prior to the existence of proteins, when metabolism was powered by ribozymes. Also, early proto-organisms had to rely on simple anaerobic bioenergetic processes. In this work I propose that amino acid fermentation powered metabolism in the RNA world, and that this was facilitated by proto-adapters, the precursors of the tRNAs. Amino acids were used as carbon sources rather than as catalytic or structural elements. In modern bacteria, amino acid fermentation is known as the Stickland reaction. This pathway involves two amino acids: the first undergoes oxidative deamination, and the second acts as an electron acceptor through reductive deamination. This redox reaction results in two keto acids that are employed to synthesise ATP via substrate-level phosphorylation. The Stickland reaction is the basic bioenergetic pathway of some bacteria of the genus Clostridium. Two other facts support Stickland fermentation in the RNA world. First, several Stickland amino acid pairs are synthesised in abiotic amino acid synthesis. This suggests that amino acids that could be used as an energy substrate were freely available. Second, anticodons that have complementary sequences often correspond to amino acids that form Stickland pairs. The main hypothesis of this paper is that pairs of complementary proto-adapters were assigned to Stickland amino acids pairs. There are signatures of this hypothesis in the genetic code. Furthermore, it is argued that the proto-adapters formed double strands that brought amino acid pairs into proximity to facilitate their mutual redox reaction, structurally constraining the anticodon pairs that are assigned to these amino acid pairs. Significance tests which randomise the code are performed to study the extent of the variability of the energetic (ATP yield. Random assignments can lead to a substantial yield of ATP and maintain enough variability, thus selection can

  13. Amino acid fermentation at the origin of the genetic code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vladar, Harold P

    2012-02-10

    There is evidence that the genetic code was established prior to the existence of proteins, when metabolism was powered by ribozymes. Also, early proto-organisms had to rely on simple anaerobic bioenergetic processes. In this work I propose that amino acid fermentation powered metabolism in the RNA world, and that this was facilitated by proto-adapters, the precursors of the tRNAs. Amino acids were used as carbon sources rather than as catalytic or structural elements. In modern bacteria, amino acid fermentation is known as the Stickland reaction. This pathway involves two amino acids: the first undergoes oxidative deamination, and the second acts as an electron acceptor through reductive deamination. This redox reaction results in two keto acids that are employed to synthesise ATP via substrate-level phosphorylation. The Stickland reaction is the basic bioenergetic pathway of some bacteria of the genus Clostridium. Two other facts support Stickland fermentation in the RNA world. First, several Stickland amino acid pairs are synthesised in abiotic amino acid synthesis. This suggests that amino acids that could be used as an energy substrate were freely available. Second, anticodons that have complementary sequences often correspond to amino acids that form Stickland pairs. The main hypothesis of this paper is that pairs of complementary proto-adapters were assigned to Stickland amino acids pairs. There are signatures of this hypothesis in the genetic code. Furthermore, it is argued that the proto-adapters formed double strands that brought amino acid pairs into proximity to facilitate their mutual redox reaction, structurally constraining the anticodon pairs that are assigned to these amino acid pairs. Significance tests which randomise the code are performed to study the extent of the variability of the energetic (ATP) yield. Random assignments can lead to a substantial yield of ATP and maintain enough variability, thus selection can act and refine the assignments

  14. Amino acid fermentation at the origin of the genetic code

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that the genetic code was established prior to the existence of proteins, when metabolism was powered by ribozymes. Also, early proto-organisms had to rely on simple anaerobic bioenergetic processes. In this work I propose that amino acid fermentation powered metabolism in the RNA world, and that this was facilitated by proto-adapters, the precursors of the tRNAs. Amino acids were used as carbon sources rather than as catalytic or structural elements. In modern bacteria, amino acid fermentation is known as the Stickland reaction. This pathway involves two amino acids: the first undergoes oxidative deamination, and the second acts as an electron acceptor through reductive deamination. This redox reaction results in two keto acids that are employed to synthesise ATP via substrate-level phosphorylation. The Stickland reaction is the basic bioenergetic pathway of some bacteria of the genus Clostridium. Two other facts support Stickland fermentation in the RNA world. First, several Stickland amino acid pairs are synthesised in abiotic amino acid synthesis. This suggests that amino acids that could be used as an energy substrate were freely available. Second, anticodons that have complementary sequences often correspond to amino acids that form Stickland pairs. The main hypothesis of this paper is that pairs of complementary proto-adapters were assigned to Stickland amino acids pairs. There are signatures of this hypothesis in the genetic code. Furthermore, it is argued that the proto-adapters formed double strands that brought amino acid pairs into proximity to facilitate their mutual redox reaction, structurally constraining the anticodon pairs that are assigned to these amino acid pairs. Significance tests which randomise the code are performed to study the extent of the variability of the energetic (ATP) yield. Random assignments can lead to a substantial yield of ATP and maintain enough variability, thus selection can act and refine the assignments

  15. Impact of egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca (Pers.) parasitism on amino acid composition of carrot (Daucus carota L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandula, V K; Foster, J G; Foy, C L

    2000-09-01

    The relationship between the organic nitrogen status of Egyptian broomrape and one of its hosts, carrot, was studied by comparing amino acid profiles of leaf and root tissues of nonparasitized and broomrape-parasitized carrot plants and by analyzing amino acid profiles of broomrape at different growth stages. Total N concentrations, expressed as a percentage of the dry weight of the tissues, were similar in leaves of nonparasitized and parasitized carrot plants but were lower in parasitized roots than in nonparasitized roots. In both dry and germinated broomrape seeds, N concentrations were lower than or similar to those in broomrape tubercles, shoots, or callus. Individual amino acid concentrations in hydrolysates of leaves of parasitized carrot plants tended to be similar to or greater than those in hydrolysates of nonparasitized carrot plants. Roots of parasitized plants tended to have similar or lower amino acid concentrations than roots of nonparasitized plants. Dry and germinated broomrape seeds had similar amino acid profiles, but individual amino acid concentrations were lower than in the other broomrape tissues examined. The broomrape shoot tended to have lower amino acid concentrations than the tubercle and callus. Free amino acid profiles of leaves and roots of parasitized plants paralleled those of nonparasitized plants, respectively. Individual free amino acids tended to occur at similar or lower levels in dry and germinated broomrape seeds than in the tubercle, shoot, or callus. Free amino acid composition of the broomrape tubercle was similar to that of the parasitized root. Arginine and alanine concentrations in broomrape callus were dramatically higher than those of other amino acids in this or other tissues investigated. These results indicate that changes in the composition of both free and bound amino acids in carrot are associated with broomrape parasitism.

  16. Studies related to primitive chemistry. A proton and nitrogen-14 nuclear magnetic resonance amino acid and nucleic acid constituents and a and their possible relation to prebiotic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manatt, S. L.; Cohen, E. A.; Shiller, A. M.; Chan, S. I.

    1973-01-01

    Preliminary proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies were made to determine the applicability of this technique for the study of interactions between monomeric and polymeric amino acids with monomeric nucleic acid bases and nucleotides. Proton NMR results for aqueous solutions (D2O) demonstrated interactions between the bases cytosine and adenine and acidic and aromatic amino acids. Solutions of 5'-AMP admixed with amino acids exhibited more complex behavior but stacking between aromatic rings and destacking at high amino acids concentration was evident. The multisite nature of 5'-AMP was pointed out. Chemical shift changes for adenine and 5'-AMP with three water soluble polypeptides demonstrated that significant interactions exist. It was found that the linewidth-pH profile of each amino acid is unique. It is concluded that NMR techniques can give significant and quantitative data on the association of amino acid and nucleic acid constituents.

  17. Degradation of Fructans and Production of Propionic Acid by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron are Enhanced by the Shortage of Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamberg, Signe; Tomson, Katrin; Vija, Heiki; Puurand, Marju; Kabanova, Natalja; Visnapuu, Triinu; Jõgi, Eerik; Alamäe, Tiina; Adamberg, Kaarel

    2014-01-01

    Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron is commonly found in the human colon and stabilizes its ecosystem by catabolism of various polysaccharides. A model of cross-talk between the metabolism of amino acids and fructans in B. thetaiotaomicron was proposed. The growth of B. thetaiotaomicron DSM 2079 in two defined media containing mineral salts and vitamins, and supplemented with either 20 or 2 amino acids, was studied in an isothermal microcalorimeter. The polyfructans inulin (from chicory) and levan (synthesized using levansucrase from Pseudomonas syringae), two fructooligosaccharide preparations with different composition, sucrose and fructose were tested as substrates. The calorimetric power-time curves were substrate specific and typically multiauxic. A surplus of amino acids reduced the consumption of longer oligosaccharides (degree of polymerization > 3). Bacterial growth was not detected either in the carbohydrate free medium containing amino acids or in the medium with inulin as a sole carbohydrate. In amino acid-restricted medium, fermentation leading to acetic acid formation was dominant at the beginning of growth (up to 24 h), followed by increased lactic acid production, and mainly propionic and succinic acids were produced at the end of fermentation. In the medium supplemented with 20 amino acids, the highest production of d-lactate (82 ± 33 mmol/gDW) occurred in parallel with extensive consumption (up to 17 mmol/gDW) of amino acids, especially Ser, Thr, and Asp. The production of Ala and Glu was observed at growth on all substrates, and the production was enhanced under amino acid deficiency. The study revealed the influence of amino acids on fructan metabolism in B. thetaiotaomicron and showed that defined growth media are invaluable in elucidating quantitative metabolic profiles of the bacteria. Levan was shown to act as an easily degradable substrate for B. thetaiotaomicron. The effect of levan on balancing or modifying colon microbiota will

  18. Degradation of fructans and production of propionic acid by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron are enhanced by shortage of amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe eAdamberg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron is commonly found in the human colon and stabilizes its ecosystem by the catabolism of various polysaccharides. A model of cross-talk between the metabolism of amino acids and fructans in B. thetaiotaomicron was proposed. The growth of B. thetaiotaomicron DSM 2079 in two defined media containing mineral salts and vitamins, and supplemented with either 20 or 2 amino acids, was studied in an isothermal microcalorimeter. The polyfructans inulin (from chicory and levan (synthesized using levansucrase from Pseudomonas syringae, two fructooligosaccharide preparations with different composition, sucrose and fructose were tested as substrates. The calorimetric power-time curves were substrate specific and typically multiauxic. A surplus of amino acids reduced the consumption of longer oligosaccharides (DP > 3. Bacterial growth was not detected either in the carbohydrate free medium containing amino acids or in the medium with inulin as a sole carbohydrate. In amino acid-restricted medium, fermentation leading to acetic acid formation was dominant at the beginning of growth (up to 24 h, followed by increased lactic acid production, and mainly propionic and succinic acids were produced at the end of fermentation. In the medium supplemented with 20 amino acids, the highest production of D-lactate (82 ± 33 mmol/gDW occurred in parallel with extensive consumption (up to 17 mmol/gDW of amino acids, especially Ser, Thr and Asp. The production of Ala and Glu was observed at growth on all substrates, and the production was enhanced under amino acid deficiency. The study revealed the influence of amino acids on fructan metabolism in B. thetaiotaomicron and showed that defined growth media are invaluable in elucidating quantitative metabolic profiles of the bacteria. Levan was shown to act as an easily degradable substrate for B. thetaiotaomicron. The effect of levan on balancing or modifying colon microbiota will be studied in

  19. Utilization of acidic α-amino acids as acyl donors: an effective stereo-controllable synthesis of aryl-keto α-amino acids and their derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Murai, Yuta; Yoshida, Takuma; Okamoto, Masashi; Tachrim, Zetryana Puteri; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki; Hashimoto, Makoto

    2014-05-16

    Aryl-keto-containing α-amino acids are of great importance in organic chemistry and biochemistry. They are valuable intermediates for the construction of hydroxyl α-amino acids, nonproteinogenic α-amino acids, as well as other biofunctional components. Friedel-Crafts acylation is an effective method to prepare aryl-keto derivatives. In this review, we summarize the preparation of aryl-keto containing α-amino acids by Friedel-Crafts acylation using acidic α-amino acids as acyl-donors and Lewis acids or Brönsted acids as catalysts.

  20. Amino Acid Availability Modulates Vacuolar H+-ATPase Assembly*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stransky, Laura A.; Forgac, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) is an ATP-dependent proton pump composed of a peripheral ATPase domain (V1) and a membrane-integral proton-translocating domain (V0) and is involved in many normal and disease processes. An important mechanism of regulating V-ATPase activity is reversible assembly of the V1 and V0 domains. Increased assembly in mammalian cells occurs under various conditions and has been shown to involve PI3K. The V-ATPase is necessary for amino acid-induced activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which is important in controlling cell growth in response to nutrient availability and growth signals. The V-ATPase undergoes amino acid-dependent interactions with the Ragulator complex, which is involved in recruitment of mTORC1 to the lysosomal membrane during amino acid sensing. We hypothesized that changes in the V-ATPase/Ragulator interaction might involve amino acid-dependent changes in V-ATPase assembly. To test this, we measured V-ATPase assembly by cell fractionation in HEK293T cells treated with and without amino acids. V-ATPase assembly increases upon amino acid starvation, and this effect is reversed upon readdition of amino acids. Lysosomes from amino acid-starved cells possess greater V-ATPase-dependent proton transport, indicating that assembled pumps are catalytically active. Amino acid-dependent changes in both V-ATPase assembly and activity are independent of PI3K and mTORC1 activity, indicating the involvement of signaling pathways distinct from those implicated previously in controlling assembly. By contrast, lysosomal neutralization blocks the amino acid-dependent change in assembly and reactivation of mTORC1 after amino acid starvation. These results identify an important new stimulus for controlling V-ATPase assembly. PMID:26378229

  1. Adsorption of amino acids by fullerenes and fullerene nanowhiskers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizume, Hideo; Hirata, Chika; Fujii, Kazuko; Miyazawa, Kun'ichi

    2015-12-01

    We have investigated the adsorption of some amino acids and an oligopeptide by fullerene (C60) and fullerene nanowhiskers (FNWs). C60 and FNWs hardly adsorbed amino acids. Most of the amino acids used have a hydrophobic side chain. Ala and Val, with an alkyl chain, were not adsorbed by the C60 or FNWs. Trp, Phe and Pro, with a cyclic structure, were not adsorbed by them either. The aromatic group of C60 did not interact with the side chain. The carboxyl or amino group, with the frame structure of an amino acid, has a positive or negative charge in solution. It is likely that the C60 and FNWs would not prefer the charged carboxyl or amino group. Tri-Ala was adsorbed slightly by the C60 and FNWs. The carboxyl or amino group is not close to the center of the methyl group of Tri-Ala. One of the methyl groups in Tri-Ala would interact with the aromatic structure of the C60 and FNWs. We compared our results with the theoretical interaction of 20 bio-amino acids with C60. The theoretical simulations showed the bonding distance between C60 and an amino acid and the dissociation energy. The dissociation energy was shown to increase in the order, Val < Phe < Pro < Asp < Ala < Trp < Tyr < Arg < Leu. However, the simulation was not consistent with our experimental results. The adsorption of albumin (a protein) by C60 showed the effect on the side chains of Try and Trp. The structure of albumin was changed a little by C60. In our study Try and Tyr were hardly adsorbed by C60 and FNWs. These amino acids did not show a different adsorption behavior compared with other amino acids. The adsorptive behavior of mono-amino acids might be different from that of polypeptides.

  2. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles using various amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Tatsuo; Fujimoto, Yuhei; Maekawa, Tetsuya

    2015-06-01

    Gold nanoparticles (4-7nm) were synthesized from tetraauric acid using various amino acids as reducing and capping agents. The gold nanoparticles were produced from the incubation of a AuCl4(-) solution with an amino acid at 80°C for 20min. Among the twenty amino acids tested, several amino acids produced gold nanoparticles. The color of the nanoparticle solutions varied with the amino acids used for the reduction. We adopted l-histidine as a reducing agent and investigated the effects of the synthesis conditions on the gold nanoparticles. The His and AuCl4(-) concentrations affected the size of the gold nanoparticles and their aggregates. The pH of the reaction solution also affected the reaction yields and the shape of the gold nanoparticles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Intraoperative Use of Epsilon Amino Caproic Acid and Tranexamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intraoperative Use of Epsilon Amino Caproic Acid and Tranexamic Acid in Surgeries Performed Under Cardiopulmonary Bypass: a Comparative Study To Assess Their Impact On Reopening Due To Postoperative Bleeding.

  4. A plasma membrane association module in yeast amino acid transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popov-Čeleketić, Dušan; Bianchi, Frans; Ruiz, Stephanie J; Meutiawati, Febrina; Poolman, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Amino acid permeases (AAPs) in the plasma membrane (PM) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are responsible for the uptake of amino acids and involved in regulation of their cellular levels. Here, we report on a strong and complex module for PM association found in the C-terminal tail of AAPs. Using in

  5. Generation of deviation parameters for amino acid singlets, doublets ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deviation parameters (DP) for amino acid singlets, doublets and triplets were computed with respect to secondary structural elements of proteins based on the dictionary of secondary structure prediction (DSSP)-generated secondary structure for 408 selected non-homologous proteins. To the amino acid triplets which are ...

  6. CO2 sorption by supported amino acid ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention concerns the absorption and desorption behaviour of carbon dioxide (CO2) using ionic liquids derived from amino acids adsorbed on porous carrier materials.......The present invention concerns the absorption and desorption behaviour of carbon dioxide (CO2) using ionic liquids derived from amino acids adsorbed on porous carrier materials....

  7. Site-selective covalent reactions on proteinogenic amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Wing Ho; Zhang, Yu; Kang, Wei; Wong, Clarence T T; Sun, Hongyan; Xia, Jiang

    2017-07-05

    To achieve precise control of the signaling events or to achieve unmistakable synthesis of biomolecules, nature has evolved organic reactions involving proteinogenic amino acids with unparalleled site selectivity. For example, dedicated enzymes accurately dictate the site of post-translational modifications in signaling proteins, and ribosomes precisely link the C-terminal carboxylic acid of one unprotected amino acid with the N-terminal amino group of the other amino acid through spatially confined proximity. For many years, chemists have been striving to achieve site selectivity on biomolecules by mimicking nature. Driven by the development of chemoselective protein conjugation reactions, enzymology and protein-protein interactions, the past decade has witnessed a boom in site-selective protein conjugation reactions. (In this review, a site-selective protein conjugation reaction is defined as an organic reaction that targets a single amino acid instead of a kind of amino acids in a protein or a proteome under physiological conditions, for example, a single cysteine residue among all of the cysteines.) In this review, we summarize the recent advancements of bioconjugation reactions that demonstrate this feature of precise site selectivity, focusing on the reactions of the proteinogenic amino acids (excluding those at non-coded or non-proteinogenic amino acids that are introduced to proteins through genetic manipulations). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Meteoritic Amino Acids: Diversity in Compositions Reflects Parent Body Histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, Jamie E; Aponte, José C; Blackmond, Donna G; Burton, Aaron S; Dworkin, Jason P; Glavin, Daniel P

    2016-06-22

    The analysis of amino acids in meteorites dates back over 50 years; however, it is only in recent years that research has expanded beyond investigations of a narrow set of meteorite groups (exemplified by the Murchison meteorite) into meteorites of other types and classes. These new studies have shown a wide diversity in the abundance and distribution of amino acids across carbonaceous chondrite groups, highlighting the role of parent body processes and composition in the creation, preservation, or alteration of amino acids. Although most chiral amino acids are racemic in meteorites, the enantiomeric distribution of some amino acids, particularly of the nonprotein amino acid isovaline, has also been shown to vary both within certain meteorites and across carbonaceous meteorite groups. Large l-enantiomeric excesses of some extraterrestrial protein amino acids (up to ∼60%) have also been observed in rare cases and point to nonbiological enantiomeric enrichment processes prior to the emergence of life. In this Outlook, we review these recent meteoritic analyses, focusing on variations in abundance, structural distributions, and enantiomeric distributions of amino acids and discussing possible explanations for these observations and the potential for future work.

  9. Effect of fortifying amaranth diets with amino acids, casein and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two feeding trials with broilers (1-31 days of age) were carried out to determine the effect of fortifying grain amaranth based diets with lysine, methionine, casein and ethylene diamine tetra acetate (EDTA) on broiler performance, amino acid availability, plasma amino acid concentrations and nitrogen and mineral retention.

  10. Change in amino acids content during germination and seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-08-30

    Aug 30, 2010 ... Proteins, amino acids and sugars in mature seeds (I), germinated seeds (II) and seedlings (III) of six accessions of. Cola acuminata ...... Inherited disorders of GABA metabolism. J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. 16(4): 704-715. Lea PJ, Joy KW (1983). Amino acid interconversion in germinating seeds. In: Nozzolillo, Lea ...

  11. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA; Wang, Lei [San Diego, CA

    2012-02-14

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  12. The intercorrelation of the amino acid quality between raw, steeped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Levels of amino acids were determined in the grains of guinea corn, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. The steeped sample was best in His, Arg, Thr, Ser, Pro, Gly, Ala, Met, Cys, Val, Phe and Tyr contents whereas germinated sample was best in Lys, Asp, Glu, Leu and Ile. The total amino acid contents were: steeped [57.71 ...

  13. Generation of deviation parameters for amino acid singlets, doublets ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present a new method, secondary structure prediction by deviation parameter (SSPDP) for predicting the secondary structure of proteins from amino acid sequence. Deviation parameters (DP) for amino acid singlets, doublets and triplets were computed with respect to secondary structural elements of proteins based on ...

  14. Chemical and essential amino acid composition of South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-05-05

    May 5, 1997 ... Since there is no information regarding the essential amino acid requirements of these ani- mals, further research is required. To determine the amino acid composition of the carcass, at least half the carcass has to be milled, thoroughly mixed and a representative sample taken for analysis (MacRae er al.,.

  15. Impact of dietary crude protein and nonessential amino acids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nebonid

    The authors gratefully acknowledge the Degussa AG and its technical service manager in Iran, Ali. Afsar, for conducting the amino acid analyses of our feedstuffs and providing crystalline amino acids. References. Abdullah, R. & Falconer, L.R., 1977. Responses of thyroid activity to feed restriction in the goat. Aust. J. Boil.

  16. Genetic analysis of amino acid content in wheat grain

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-08-22

    Aug 22, 2014 ... Therefore, it is important to enhance the level of nutrition in food by increasing the protein content of wheat, especially improving the amino acid composition of protein. Contents of wheat grain amino acids are quantitative traits, controlled by many genes, and their genetic basis was. ∗For correspondence.

  17. Nitrogen and amino acid metabolism in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamminga, S.

    1981-01-01

    For the process of milk production, the dairy cow requires nutrients of which energy supplying nutrients and protein or amino acid supplying nutrients are the most important. Amino acid supplying nutrients have to be absorbed from the small intestine and the research reported in this thesis mainly

  18. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA; Wang, Lei [San Diego, CA

    2008-10-07

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  19. Meteoritic Amino Acids: Diversity in Compositions Reflects Parent Body Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, Jamie E.; Aponte, Jose C.; Blackmond, Donna G.; Burton, Aaron S.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of amino acids in meteorites dates back over 50 years; however, it is only in recent years that research has expanded beyond investigations of a narrow set of meteorite groups (exemplied by the Murchison meteorite) into meteorites of other types and classes. These new studies have shown a wide diversity in the abundance and distribution of amino acids across carbonaceous chondrite groups, highlighting the role of parent body processes and composition in the creation, preservation, or alteration of amino acids. Although most chiral amino acids are racemic in meteorites, the enantiomeric distribution of some amino acids, particularly of the nonprotein amino acid isovaline, has also been shown to vary both within certain meteorites and across carbonaceous meteorite groups. Large -enantiomeric excesses of some extraterrestrial protein amino acids (up to 60) have also been observed in rare cases and point to nonbiological enantiomeric enrichment processes prior to the emergence of life. In this Outlook, we review these recent meteoritic analyses, focusing on variations in abundance, structural distributions, and enantiomeric distributions of amino acids and discussing possible explanations for these observations and the potential for future work.

  20. Insulin-dependent signaling: regulation by amino acids and energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A. J.

    2004-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that amino acids stimulate a signal-transduction pathway that is also used by insulin. Moreover, for insulin to exert its anabolic and anticatabolic effects on protein, there is an absolute requirement for amino acids. This signaling pathway becomes inhibited by

  1. Effect of supplementing grain amaranth diets with amino acids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    James Bond

    Effect of fortifying amaranth diets with amino acids, casein and ethylene diamine tetra acetate on broiler performance, amino acid availability and mineral utilisation. L.W. Kabuage1#, P.N. Mbugua1, B.N. Mitaru1, T.A. Ngatia2 and K. Schafer3. 1Department of Animal Production, 2Department of Veterinary Pathology, ...

  2. Protein and Amino Acid Composition of Water Melon ( Citrullus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The protein and amino acids composition of seeds and pulp of watermelon, Citrullus lanatus were analyzed using Kjeldahl method and ion-exchange chromatography (IEC) respectively. The protein contents (% dry matter) of seeds and pulp were found to be 24.23 and 1.05% respectively. The results of amino acids ...

  3. Extraordinarily Adaptive Properties of the Genetically Encoded Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilardo, Melissa; Meringer, Markus; Freeland, Stephen; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor; Cleaves II, H. James

    2015-01-01

    Using novel advances in computational chemistry, we demonstrate that the set of 20 genetically encoded amino acids, used nearly universally to construct all coded terrestrial proteins, has been highly influenced by natural selection. We defined an adaptive set of amino acids as one whose members thoroughly cover relevant physico-chemical properties, or “chemistry space.” Using this metric, we compared the encoded amino acid alphabet to random sets of amino acids. These random sets were drawn from a computationally generated compound library containing 1913 alternative amino acids that lie within the molecular weight range of the encoded amino acids. Sets that cover chemistry space better than the genetically encoded alphabet are extremely rare and energetically costly. Further analysis of more adaptive sets reveals common features and anomalies, and we explore their implications for synthetic biology. We present these computations as evidence that the set of 20 amino acids found within the standard genetic code is the result of considerable natural selection. The amino acids used for constructing coded proteins may represent a largely global optimum, such that any aqueous biochemistry would use a very similar set. PMID:25802223

  4. Separation of amino acid enantiomers by micelle-enhanced ultrafiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de T.J.M.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Zuilhof, H.; Rodenburg, L.M.; Overdevest, P.E.M.; Padt, van der A.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.

    2000-01-01

    A Micelle-enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) separation process was investigated that can potentially be used for large-scale enantioseparations. Copper(II)-amino acid derivatives dissolved in nonionic surfactant micelles were used as chiral selectors for the separation of dilute racemic amino acids

  5. Physiological and biochemical studies of bacterial amino acid amide metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Hubertus Franciscus Maria

    2008-01-01

    Amino acids represent a class of versatile chiral building blocks for a whole range of fine chemicals, used in the pharmaceutical and agro-chemical industry. Considerable experience currently is available with a wide variety of chemo-enzymatic processes for the synthesis of amino acids, which is

  6. Mechanisms controlling renal hemodynamics and electrolyte excretion during amino acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, L.L.; Mizelle, H.L.; Montani, J.P.; Hall, J.E.

    1986-08-01

    Our purpose was to investigate the mechanisms by which increased plasma amino acids elevate renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Since transport of amino acids and Na is linked in the proximal tubule, the authors hypothesized that increased amino acids might stimulate proximal tubular Na reabsorption (PR/sub Na/) and thus increase RBF and GFR by a macula densa feedback mechanism. A solution of four amino acids (Ala, Ser, Gly, Pro) was infused intravenously into anesthetized dogs with normal kidneys (NK) and with kidneys in which the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism was blunted by lowering renal artery pressure (LPK) or blocked by making the kidneys nonfiltering (NFK). In NK, RBF and GFR increased by 35 +/- 4% and 30 +/- 7% after 90 min of amino acid infusion, while PR/sub Na/ (estimated from lithium clearance) and O2 consumption increased by 31 +/- 5% and 29 +/- 5% and distal Na delivery remained relatively constant. Autoregulation of RBF and GFR in response to step deceases in renal artery pressure was impaired during amino acids in NK. The hemodynamic responses to amino acids were abolished in LPK and NFK. Infusion of the nonmetabolized -aminoisobutyric acid into NK produced changes in renal hemodynamics that were similar to the responses observed with the four metabolizable amino acids. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that elevation of plasma amino acids increases RBF and GFR by a mechanism that requires an intact macula densa feedback. Metabolism of the amino acids does not appear to be necessary for these changes to occur.

  7. Gamma amino butyric acid accumulation in medicinal plants without stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anju, P; Moothedath, Ismail; Rema Shree, Azhimala Bhaskaranpillai

    2014-01-01

    Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) is an important ubiquitous four carbon nonprotein amino acid with an amino group attached to gamma carbon instead of beta carbon. It exists in different organisms including bacteria, plants, and animals and plays a crucial role in humans by regulating neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. It is directly responsible for the regulation of muscle tone and also effective in lowering stress, blood pressure, and hypertension. The aim of the study was to develop the fingerprint profile of selected medicinally and economically important plants having central nervous system (CNS) activity and to determine the quantity of GABA in the selected plants grown under natural conditions without any added stress. The high-performance thin layer chromatography analysis was performed on precoated silica gel plate 60F-254 plate (20 cm × 10 cm) in the form of bands with width 8 mm using Hamilton syringe (100 μl) using n-butanol, acetic acid, and water in the proportion 5:2:2 as mobile phase in a CAMAG chamber which was previously saturated for 30 min. CAMAG TLC scanner 3 was used for the densitometric scanning at 550 nm. Specific marker compounds were used for the quantification. Among the screened medicinal plants, Zingiber officinale and Solanum torvum were found to have GABA. The percentage of GABA present in Z. officinale and S. torvum were found to be 0.0114% and 0.0119%, respectively. The present work confirmed that among the selected CNS active medicinal plants, only two plants contain GABA. We found a negative correlation with plant having CNS activity and accumulation of GABA. The GABA shunt is a conserved pathway in eukaryotes and prokaryotes but, although the role of GABA as a neurotransmitter in mammals is clearly established, its role in plants is still vague.

  8. Gamma amino butyric acid accumulation in medicinal plants without stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anju, P.; Moothedath, Ismail; Rema Shree, Azhimala Bhaskaranpillai

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) is an important ubiquitous four carbon nonprotein amino acid with an amino group attached to gamma carbon instead of beta carbon. It exists in different organisms including bacteria, plants, and animals and plays a crucial role in humans by regulating neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. It is directly responsible for the regulation of muscle tone and also effective in lowering stress, blood pressure, and hypertension. Aim and Objective: The aim of the study was to develop the fingerprint profile of selected medicinally and economically important plants having central nervous system (CNS) activity and to determine the quantity of GABA in the selected plants grown under natural conditions without any added stress. Materials and Methods: The high-performance thin layer chromatography analysis was performed on precoated silica gel plate 60F–254 plate (20 cm × 10 cm) in the form of bands with width 8 mm using Hamilton syringe (100 μl) using n-butanol, acetic acid, and water in the proportion 5:2:2 as mobile phase in a CAMAG chamber which was previously saturated for 30 min. CAMAG TLC scanner 3 was used for the densitometric scanning at 550 nm. Specific marker compounds were used for the quantification. Results and Conclusion: Among the screened medicinal plants, Zingiber officinale and Solanum torvum were found to have GABA. The percentage of GABA present in Z. officinale and S. torvum were found to be 0.0114% and 0.0119%, respectively. The present work confirmed that among the selected CNS active medicinal plants, only two plants contain GABA. We found a negative correlation with plant having CNS activity and accumulation of GABA. The GABA shunt is a conserved pathway in eukaryotes and prokaryotes but, although the role of GABA as a neurotransmitter in mammals is clearly established, its role in plants is still vague. PMID:25861139

  9. Incretin effect after oral amino Acid ingestion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Ola; Pacini, Giovanni; Tura, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    ) was administered orally or iv at a rate resulting in matching total amino acid concentrations to 12 male volunteers with age 22.5 ± 1.4 years and a body mass index 22.4 ± 1.4 kg/m(2), who had no history of diabetes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Main outcome measures were area under the 120-minute curve for insulin, C......CONTEXT: The incretin effect is the augmented insulin secretion by oral vs iv glucose at matching glucose levels. We previously demonstrated an augmented insulin secretion when fat is given orally rather than iv, suggesting an incretin effect also after fat. However, whether an incretin effect......: Oral amino acid mixture ingestion elicits a stronger insulin secretory response than iv amino acid at matching amino acid levels and this is associated with increased GIP level, suggesting that an incretin effect exists also after oral amino acids, possibly mediated by GIP....

  10. ANALYSIS OF AMINO ACIDS BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qurat E Noor Baig

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and are considered as the key precursors for the formation of hormones and low molecular weight nitrogenous substances with biological importance. Since the analysis of amino acids has been carried out for both qualitative and quantitative purposes with an aim to study their levels in the plasma concentration, the quantitative determination, in particular, also helps in the diagnosis of different diseases associated with their deficiency. This review article deals with the determination of amino acids by chromatographic methods which include ion-exchange chromatography (IEC, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC and ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC. The review will also give an idea for the preparation of samples, derivatization methods for the analysis of amino acids (direct and indirect methods and separation of amino acids by high performance liquid chromatographic technique.

  11. Supernovae, Neutrinos and the Chirality of Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshitaka Kajino

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A mechanism for creating an enantioenrichment in the amino acids, the building blocks of the proteins, that involves global selection of one handedness by interactions between the amino acids and neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae is defined. The chiral selection involves the dependence of the interaction cross sections on the orientations of the spins of the neutrinos and the 14N nuclei in the amino acids, or in precursor molecules, which in turn couple to the molecular chirality. It also requires an asymmetric distribution of neutrinos emitted from the supernova. The subsequent chemical evolution and galactic mixing would ultimately populate the Galaxy with the selected species. The resulting amino acids could either be the source thereof on Earth, or could have triggered the chirality that was ultimately achieved for Earth’s proteinaceous amino acids.

  12. Analysis of Free Amino Acids in Mammalian Brain Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksenofontov, A L; Boyko, A I; Mkrtchyan, G V; Tashlitsky, V N; Timofeeva, A V; Graf, A V; Bunik, V I; Baratova, L A

    2017-10-01

    An optimized method for analysis of free amino acids using a modified lithium-citrate buffer system with a Hitachi L-8800 amino acid analyzer is described. It demonstrates clear advantages over the sodium-citrate buffer system commonly used for the analysis of protein hydrolysates. A sample pretreatment technique for amino acid analysis of brain extracts is also discussed. The focus has been placed on the possibility of quantitative determination of the reduced form of glutathione (GSH) with simultaneous analysis of all other amino acids in brain extracts. The method was validated and calibration coefficient (KGSH) was determined. Examples of chromatographic separation of free amino acids in extracts derived from different parts of the brain are presented.

  13. Stardust, Supernovae and the Chirality of the Amino Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, R N; Kajino, T; Onaka, T

    2011-03-09

    A mechanism for creating enantiomerism in the amino acids, the building blocks of the proteins, that involves global selection of one chirality by interactions between the amino acids and neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae is described. The selection involves the dependence of the interaction cross sections on the orientations of the spins of the neutrinos and the 14N nuclei in the amino acids, or in precursor molecules, which in turn couple to the molecular chirality. The subsequent chemical evolution and galactic mixing would ultimately populate the Galaxy with the selected species. The resulting amino acids could either be the source thereof on Earth, or could have triggered the chirality that was ultimately achieved for Earth's amino acids.

  14. Regulation of intestinal protein metabolism by amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Julien; Goichon, Alexis; Déchelotte, Pierre; Coëffier, Moïse

    2013-09-01

    Gut homeostasis plays a major role in health and may be regulated by quantitative and qualitative food intake. In the intestinal mucosa, an intense renewal of proteins occurs, at approximately 50% per day in humans. In some pathophysiological conditions, protein turnover is altered and may contribute to intestinal or systemic diseases. Amino acids are key effectors of gut protein turnover, both as constituents of proteins and as regulatory molecules limiting intestinal injury and maintaining intestinal functions. Many studies have focused on two amino acids: glutamine, known as the preferential substrate of rapidly dividing cells, and arginine, another conditionally essential amino acid. The effects of glutamine and arginine on protein synthesis appear to be model and condition dependent, as are the involved signaling pathways. The regulation of gut protein degradation by amino acids has been minimally documented until now. This review will examine recent data, helping to better understand how amino acids regulate intestinal protein metabolism, and will explore perspectives for future studies.

  15. Amino acids: metabolism, functions, and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guoyao

    2009-05-01

    Recent years have witnessed the discovery that amino acids (AA) are not only cell signaling molecules but are also regulators of gene expression and the protein phosphorylation cascade. Additionally, AA are key precursors for syntheses of hormones and low-molecular weight nitrogenous substances with each having enormous biological importance. Physiological concentrations of AA and their metabolites (e.g., nitric oxide, polyamines, glutathione, taurine, thyroid hormones, and serotonin) are required for the functions. However, elevated levels of AA and their products (e.g., ammonia, homocysteine, and asymmetric dimethylarginine) are pathogenic factors for neurological disorders, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular disease. Thus, an optimal balance among AA in the diet and circulation is crucial for whole body homeostasis. There is growing recognition that besides their role as building blocks of proteins and polypeptides, some AA regulate key metabolic pathways that are necessary for maintenance, growth, reproduction, and immunity. They are called functional AA, which include arginine, cysteine, glutamine, leucine, proline, and tryptophan. Dietary supplementation with one or a mixture of these AA may be beneficial for (1) ameliorating health problems at various stages of the life cycle (e.g., fetal growth restriction, neonatal morbidity and mortality, weaning-associated intestinal dysfunction and wasting syndrome, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, the metabolic syndrome, and infertility); (2) optimizing efficiency of metabolic transformations to enhance muscle growth, milk production, egg and meat quality and athletic performance, while preventing excess fat deposition and reducing adiposity. Thus, AA have important functions in both nutrition and health.

  16. Electronic coupling through natural amino acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berstis, Laura; Beckham, Gregg T., E-mail: michael.crowley@nrel.gov, E-mail: gregg.beckham@nrel.gov; Crowley, Michael F., E-mail: michael.crowley@nrel.gov, E-mail: gregg.beckham@nrel.gov [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, National Bioenergy Center, 15013 Denver West Pkwy, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    2015-12-14

    Myriad scientific domains concern themselves with biological electron transfer (ET) events that span across vast scales of rate and efficiency through a remarkably fine-tuned integration of amino acid (AA) sequences, electronic structure, dynamics, and environment interactions. Within this intricate scheme, many questions persist as to how proteins modulate electron-tunneling properties. To help elucidate these principles, we develop a model set of peptides representing the common α-helix and β-strand motifs including all natural AAs within implicit protein-environment solvation. Using an effective Hamiltonian strategy with density functional theory, we characterize the electronic coupling through these peptides, furthermore considering side-chain dynamics. For both motifs, predictions consistently show that backbone-mediated electronic coupling is distinctly sensitive to AA type (aliphatic, polar, aromatic, negatively charged and positively charged), and to side-chain orientation. The unique properties of these residues may be employed to design activated, deactivated, or switch-like superexchange pathways. Electronic structure calculations and Green’s function analyses indicate that localized shifts in the electron density along the peptide play a role in modulating these pathways, and further substantiate the experimentally observed behavior of proline residues as superbridges. The distinct sensitivities of tunneling pathways to sequence and conformation revealed in this electronic coupling database help improve our fundamental understanding of the broad diversity of ET reactivity and provide guiding principles for peptide design.

  17. Protein engineering with unnatural amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, William H; Otting, Gottfried; Jackson, Colin J

    2013-08-01

    Protein engineering has become an extensively used tool in many fields, allowing us to probe protein function, characterize proteins using a range of biophysical techniques, chemically modify proteins and improve protein function for medical and industrial applications. It is now possible to site-specifically incorporate unnatural, or non-canonical, amino acids (uAAs) into proteins, which has had a major impact on protein engineering. In this review, we discuss the recent technical developments in the field and how uAA-protein engineering is becoming an increasingly valuable molecular tool, with the unique chemical functionalities of some uAAs allowing a range of otherwise impossible experiments to be performed. Finally, the impediments that have resulted in a relatively small number of recent studies in which uAA-protein engineering has been used to improve protein function are discussed, alongside some of the recent technical developments that may serve to overcome these obstacles. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Functional amino acids in nutrition and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guoyao

    2013-09-01

    The recent years have witnessed growing interest in biochemistry, physiology and nutrition of amino acids (AA) in growth, health and disease of humans and other animals. This results from the discoveries of AA in cell signaling involving protein kinases, G protein-coupled receptors, and gaseous molecules (i.e., NO, CO and H2S). In addition, nutritional studies have shown that dietary supplementation with several AA (e.g., arginine, glutamine, glutamate, leucine, and proline) modulates gene expression, enhances growth of the small intestine and skeletal muscle, or reduces excessive body fat. These seminal findings led to the new concept of functional AA, which are defined as those AA that participate in and regulate key metabolic pathways to improve health, survival, growth, development, lactation, and reproduction of the organisms. Functional AA hold great promise in prevention and treatment of metabolic diseases (e.g., obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disorders), intrauterine growth restriction, infertility, intestinal and neurological dysfunction, and infectious disease (including viral infections).

  19. Application of UHPLC for the determination of free amino acids in different cheese varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Helmut K; Fiechter, Gregor

    2013-10-01

    A rapid ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) protocol for the determination of amino acids as their respective 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC) derivatives was successfully applied for assessing free amino acid levels in commercial cheese samples representing typical product groups (ripening protocols) in cheesemaking. Based on the Waters AccQ.Tag™ method as a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) amino acid solution designed for hydrolyzate analyses, method adaptation onto UHPLC was performed, and detection of AQC derivatives was changed from former fluorescence (λ(Ex) 250 nm/λ(Em) 395 nm) to UV (254 nm). Compared to the original HPLC method, UHPLC proved to be superior by facilitating excellent separations of 18 amino acids within 12 min only, thus demonstrating significantly shortened runtimes (>35 min for HPLC) while retaining the original separation chemistry and amino acid elution pattern. Free amino acid levels of the analyzed cheese samples showed a high extent of variability depending on the cheese type, with highest total amounts found for original Italian extra-hard cheeses (up to 9,000 mg/100 g) and lowest for surface mold- or bacterial smear-ripened soft cheeses (200-600 mg/100 g). Despite the intrinsic variability in both total and specific concentrations, the established UHPLC method enabled reliable and interference-free amino acid profiling throughout all cheese types, thus demonstrating a valuable tool to generate high quality data for the characterization of cheese ripening.

  20. Metabolic Effects of Dietary Proteins, Amino Acids and The Other Amine Consisting Compounds on Cardiovascular System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Uğur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, first cause of deaths in the world, diet has a vital role. While nutrition programs for the cardiovascular health generally focus on lipids and carbohydrates, effects of proteins are not well concerned. Thus this review is written in order to examine effect of proteins, amino acids, and the other amine consisting compounds on cardiovascular system. Because of that animal or plant derived proteins have different protein composition in different foods such as dairy products, egg, meat, chicken, fish, pulse and grains, their effects on blood pressure and regulation of lipid profile are unlike. In parallel amino acids made up proteins have different effect on cardiovascular system. From this point, sulfur containing amino acids, branched chain amino acids, aromatic amino acids, arginine, ornithine, citrulline, glycine, and glutamine may affect cardiovascular system in different metabolic pathways. In this context, one carbon metabolism, synthesis of hormone, stimulation of signaling pathways and effects of intermediate and final products that formed as a result of amino acids metabolism is determined. Despite the protein and amino acids, some other amine consisting compounds in diet include trimethylamine N-oxide, heterocyclic aromatic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and products of Maillard reaction. These amine consisting compounds generally increase the risk for cardiovascular diseases by stimulating oxidative stress, inflammation, and formation of atherosclerotic plaque.

  1. A comparative genomics study on the effect of individual amino acids on ribosome stalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background During protein synthesis, the nascent peptide chain emerges from the ribosome through the ribosomal exit tunnel. Biochemical interactions between the nascent peptide and the tunnel may stall the ribosome movement and thus affect the expression level of the protein being synthesized. Earlier studies focused on one model organism (S. cerevisiae), have suggested that certain amino acid sequences may be responsible for ribosome stalling; however, the stalling effect at the individual amino acid level across many organisms has not yet been quantified. Results By analyzing multiple ribosome profiling datasets from different organisms (including prokaryotes and eukaryotes), we report for the first time the organism-specific amino acids that significantly lead to ribosome stalling. We show that the identity of the stalling amino acids vary across the tree of life. In agreement with previous studies, we observed a remarkable stalling signal of proline and arginine in S. cerevisiae. In addition, our analysis supports the conjecture that the stalling effect of positively charged amino acids is not universal and that in certain conditions, negative charge may also induce ribosome stalling. Finally, we show that the beginning part of the tunnel tends to undergo more interactions with the translated amino acids than other positions along the tunnel. Conclusions The reported results support the conjecture that the ribosomal exit tunnel interacts with various amino acids and that the nature of these interactions varies among different organisms. Our findings should contribute towards better understanding of transcript and proteomic evolution and translation elongation regulation. PMID:26449596

  2. Chemistry, nutrition, and microbiology of D-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, M

    1999-09-01

    Exposure of food proteins to certain processing conditions induces two major chemical changes: racemization of all L-amino acids to D-isomers and concurrent formation of cross-linked amino acids such as lysinoalanine. Racemization of L-amino acids residues to their D-isomers in food and other proteins is pH-, time-, and temperature-dependent. Although racemization rates of the 18 different L-amino acid residues in a protein vary, the relative rates in different proteins are similar. The diet contains both processing-induced and naturally formed D-amino acids. The latter include those found in microorganisms, plants, and marine invertebrates. Racemization impairs digestibility and nutritional quality. The nutritional utilization of different D-amino acids varies widely in animals and humans. In addition, some D-amino acids may be both beneficial and deleterious. Thus, although D-phenylalanine in an all-amino-acid diet is utilized as a nutritional source of L-phenylalanine, high concentrations of D-tyrosine in such diets inhibit the growth of mice. Both D-serine and lysinoalanine induce histological changes in the rat kidney. The wide variation in the utilization of D-amino acids is illustrated by the fact that whereas D-methionine is largely utilized as a nutritional source of the L-isomer, D-lysine is totally devoid of any nutritional value. Similarly, although L-cysteine has a sparing effect on L-methionine when fed to mice, D-cysteine does not. Because D-amino acids are consumed by animals and humans as part of their normal diets, a need exists to develop a better understanding of their roles in nutrition, food safety, microbiology, physiology, and medicine. To contribute to this effort, this multidiscipline-oriented overview surveys our present knowledge of the chemistry, nutrition, safety, microbiology, and pharmacology of D-amino acids. Also covered are the origin and distribution of D-amino acids in the food chain and in body fluids and tissues and

  3. Hydration of amino acids: FTIR spectra and molecular dynamics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuszko, Aneta; Adamczak, Beata; Czub, Jacek; Gojło, Emilia; Stangret, Janusz

    2015-11-01

    The hydration of selected amino acids, alanine, glycine, proline, valine, isoleucine and phenylalanine, has been studied in aqueous solutions by means of FTIR spectra of HDO isotopically diluted in H2O. The difference spectra procedure and the chemometric method have been applied to remove the contribution of bulk water and thus to separate the spectra of solute-affected HDO. To support interpretation of obtained spectral results, molecular dynamics simulations of amino acids were performed. The structural-energetic characteristic of these solute-affected water molecules shows that, on average, water affected by amino acids forms stronger and shorter H-bonds than those in pure water. Differences in the influence of amino acids on water structure have been noticed. The effect of the hydrophobic side chain of an amino acid on the solvent interactions seems to be enhanced because of the specific cooperative coupling of water strong H-bond chain, connecting the carboxyl and amino groups, with the clathrate-like H-bond network surrounding the hydrocarbon side chain. The parameter derived from the spectral data, which corresponds to the contributions of the population of weak hydrogen bonds of water molecules which have been substituted by the stronger ones in the hydration sphere of amino acids, correlated well with the amino acid hydrophobicity indexes.

  4. Effects of alkali or acid treatment on the isomerization of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmori, Taketo; Mutaguchi, Yuta; Doi, Katsumi; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2012-10-01

    The effect of alkali treatment on the isomerization of amino acids was investigated. The 100×D/(D+L) values of amino acids from peptide increased with increase in the number of constituent amino acid residues. Furthermore, the N-terminal amino acid of a dipeptide was isomerized to a greater extent than the C-terminal residue. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. The putative Cationic Amino acid Transporter 9 is targeted to vesicles and may be involved in plant amino acid homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaiyu eYang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids are major primary metabolites. Their uptake, translocation, compartmentation and re-mobilization require a diverse set of cellular transporters. Here, the broadly expressed gene product of CATIONIC AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER 9 (CAT9 was identified as mainly localized to vesicular membranes that are involved in vacuolar trafficking, including those of the trans-Golgi network. In order to probe whether and how these compartments are involved in amino acid homeostasis, a loss-of-function cat9-1 mutant and ectopic over-expressor plants were isolated. Under restricted nitrogen supply in soil, cat9-1 showed a chlorotic phenotype, which was reversed in the over-expressors. The total soluble amino acid pools were affected in the mutants, but this was only significant under poor nitrogen supply. Upon nitrogen starvation, the major soluble amino acid leaf pools decreased. This decrease was lower in cat9-1 and augmented in the over-expressor. Over-expression generally affected total soluble amino acid concentrations and finally improved the survival upon severe nitrogen starvation. The results potentially identify a novel function of vesicular amino acid transport mediated by CAT9 in the cellular nitrogen-dependent amino acid homeostasis.

  6. Essential amino acids are primarily responsible for the amino acid stimulation of muscle protein anabolism in healthy elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Elena; Kobayashi, Hisamine; Sheffield-Moore, Melinda; Mittendorfer, Bettina; Wolfe, Robert R

    2003-08-01

    Nutritional supplementation may be used to treat muscle loss with aging (sarcopenia). However, if physical activity does not increase, the elderly tend to compensate for the increased energy delivered by the supplements with reduced food intake, which results in a calorie substitution rather than supplementation. Thus, an effective supplement should stimulate muscle anabolism more efficiently than food or common protein supplements. We have shown that balanced amino acids stimulate muscle protein anabolism in the elderly, but it is unknown whether all amino acids are necessary to achieve this effect. We assessed whether nonessential amino acids are required in a nutritional supplement to stimulate muscle protein anabolism in the elderly. We compared the response of muscle protein metabolism to either 18 g essential amino acids (EAA group: n = 6, age 69 +/- 2 y; +/- SD) or 40 g balanced amino acids (18 g essential amino acids + 22 g nonessential amino acids, BAA group; n = 8, age 71 +/- 2 y) given orally in small boluses every 10 min for 3 h to healthy elderly volunteers. Muscle protein metabolism was measured in the basal state and during amino acid administration via L-[ring-(2)H(5)]phenylalanine infusion, femoral arterial and venous catheterization, and muscle biopsies. Phenylalanine net balance (in nmol x min(-1). 100 mL leg volume(-1)) increased from the basal state (P anabolism in the elderly.

  7. Biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids in Nocardia sp. 239 : effects of amino acid analogues on growth and regulatory enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, L. de; Grobben, G.; Vrijbloed, J.W.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    1990-01-01

    Further steps required for overproduction of aromatic amino acids by a mutant strain of Nocardia sp. 239 (Noc 87-13), unable to grow on L-phenylalanine as a sole carbon and energy source, were investigated. A number of analogues of the aromatic amino acids displayed severe inhibitory effects on the

  8. Enantioseparation of amino acids by micelle-enhanced ultrafiltration : experimental and theoretical studies of copper (II) amino acid interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de T.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    A micelle-enhanced ultrafiltration system, which can potentially be used for large scale separations, has been used to investigate the resolution of amino acid enantiomers. For this purpose amino acid derivatives were synthesized, which in combination with copper(II) ions were used as

  9. Amino Acid Synthesis in a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide - Water System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Kouki; Futamura, Yasuhiro; Shiohara, Tomoo; Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Kanaya, Fumihide; Manome, Yoshinobu; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Mars is a CO2-abundant planet, whereas early Earth is thought to be also CO2-abundant. In addition, water was also discovered on Mars in 2008. From the facts and theory, we assumed that soda fountains were present on both planets, and this affected amino acid synthesis. Here, using a supercritical CO2/liquid H2O (10:1) system which mimicked crust soda fountains, we demonstrate production of amino acids from hydroxylamine (nitrogen source) and keto acids (oxylic acid sources). In this research, several amino acids were detected with an amino acid analyzer. Moreover, alanine polymers were detected with LC-MS. Our research lights up a new pathway in the study of life’s origin. PMID:19582225

  10. Abiotic racemization kinetics of amino acids in marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Andrew; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Lomstein, Bente Aagaard

    2013-01-01

    Enantiomeric ratios of amino acids can be used to infer the sources and composition of sedimentary organic matter. Such inferences, however, rely on knowing the rates at which amino acids in sedimentary organic racemize abiotically. Based on a heating experiment, we report Arrhenius parameters...... for aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, and alanine in bulk sediment from Aarhus Bay, Denmark, taken from the surface, 30 cm, and 340 cm depth. Extrapolation to a typical cold deep sea sediment temperature of 3 °C suggests racemization rate constants of on the order of 10-5 yr-1 without evident differences...... between different amino acids or depths. These results can be used in conjunction with measurements of sediment age to predict the ratio of D:L amino acids due solely to abiotic racemization of the source material, deviations from which can indicate the abundance and turnover of active microbial...

  11. Amino Acid Synthesis in a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide - Water System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyoshi Hoshino

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Mars is a CO2-abundant planet, whereas early Earth is thought to be also CO2-abundant. In addition, water was also discovered on Mars in 2008. From the facts and theory, we assumed that soda fountains were present on both planets, and this affected amino acid synthesis. Here, using a supercritical CO2/liquid H2O (10:1 system which mimicked crust soda fountains, we demonstrate production of amino acids from hydroxylamine (nitrogen source and keto acids (oxylic acid sources. In this research, several amino acids were detected with an amino acid analyzer. Moreover, alanine polymers were detected with LC-MS. Our research lights up a new pathway in the study of life’s origin.

  12. Amino Acid and Peptide Immobilization on Oxidized Nanocellulose: Spectroscopic Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Daneault

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, oxidized nanocellulose (ONC was synthesized and chemically coupled with amino acids and peptides using a two step coupling method at room temperature. First, ONC was activated by N-ethyl-N’-(3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide hydrochloride, forming a stable active ester in the presence of N-hydroxysuccinimide. Second, the active ester was reacted with the amino group of the amino acid or peptide, forming an amide bond between ONC and the grafted molecule. Using this method, the intermolecular interaction of amino acids and peptides was avoided and uniform coupling of these molecules on ONC was achieved. The coupling reaction was very fast in mild conditions and without alteration of the polysaccharide. The coupling products (ONC-amino acids and ONC-peptides were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and by the absorption, emission, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS spectroscopic techniques.

  13. Amino acid sequence of toxin III from Anemonia sulcata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bĕress, L; Wunderer, G; Wachter, E

    1977-08-01

    Toxin III, the smallest toxin component of the poison of the sea anemone Anemonia sulcata, is a polypeptide with 27 amino acids. Its structure is stabilized by three disulfide bridges. The amino acid sequence was determined by solid-phase Edman degradation of the aminoethylated derivative. The peptide was coupled to the carrier, porous glass, by thiourea bridges between the alpha-amino group of arginine-1 and the epsilon-amino group of lysine-26 and the isothiocyanate groups of the carrier. Another fraction of the polypeptide was bound by an acid-amide condensation of the C-terminal valine-27 with the aminopropyl group of the carrier. The sequence of toxin III has no regions homologous to the 47-residue toxin II. Comparison with the known partial sequence of toxin I, which contains 46 amino acids (Wunderer, G. & Eulitz, M., in preparation) also fails to reveal homologies.

  14. Comparison of Free Total Amino Acid Compositions and Their Functional Classifications in 13 Wild Edible Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liping; Liu, Qiuming; Bao, Changjun; Fan, Jian

    2017-02-24

    Thirteen popular wild edible mushroom species in Yunnan Province, Boletus bicolor , Boletus speciosus , Boletus sinicus , Boletus craspedius , Boletus griseus , Boletus ornatipes , Xerocomus , Suillus placidus , Boletinus pinetorus , Tricholoma terreum , Tricholomopsis lividipileata , Termitomyces microcarpus , and Amanita hemibapha , were analyzed for their free amino acid compositions by online pre-column derivazation reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) analysis. Twenty free amino acids, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, glycine, alanine, praline, cysteine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, histidine, threonine, asparagines, glutamine, arginine, tyrosine, and tryptophan, were determined. The total free amino acid (TAA) contents ranged from 1462.6 mg/100 g in B. craspedius to 13,106.2 mg/100 g in T. microcarpus . The different species showed distinct free amino acid profiles. The ratio of total essential amino acids (EAA) to TAA was 0.13-0.41. All of the analyzed species showed high contents of hydrophobic amino acids, at 33%-54% of TAA. Alanine, cysteine, glutamine, and glutamic acid were among the most abundant amino acids present in all species. The results showed that the analyzed mushrooms possessed significant free amino acid contents, which may be important compounds contributing to the typical mushroom taste, nutritional value, and potent antioxidant properties of these wild edible mushrooms. Furthermore, the principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the accumulative variance contribution rate of the first four principal components reached 94.39%. Cluster analysis revealed EAA composition and content might be an important parameter to separate the mushroom species, and T. microcarpus and A. hemibapha showed remarkable EAA content among the 13 species.

  15. Fortifying Horticultural Crops with Essential Amino Acids: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoping; Xu, Mengyun; Wang, Wenyi; Galili, Gad

    2017-06-19

    To feed the world's growing population, increasing the yield of crops is not the only important factor, improving crop quality is also important, and it presents a significant challenge. Among the important crops, horticultural crops (particularly fruits and vegetables) provide numerous health compounds, such as vitamins, antioxidants, and amino acids. Essential amino acids are those that cannot be produced by the organism and, therefore, must be obtained from diet, particularly from meat, eggs, and milk, as well as a variety of plants. Extensive efforts have been devoted to increasing the levels of essential amino acids in plants. Yet, these efforts have been met with very little success due to the limited genetic resources for plant breeding and because high essential amino acid content is generally accompanied by limited plant growth. With a deep understanding of the biosynthetic pathways of essential amino acids and their interactions with the regulatory networks in plants, it should be possible to use genetic engineering to improve the essential amino acid content of horticultural plants, rendering these plants more nutritionally favorable crops. In the present report, we describe the recent advances in the enhancement of essential amino acids in horticultural plants and possible future directions towards their bio-fortification.

  16. Distribution of soluble amino acids in maize endosperm mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toro Alejandro Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available For human nutrition the main source of vegetable proteins are cereal and legume seeds. The content of total soluble amino acids in mature endosperm of wild-type, opaque and floury maize (Zea mays L. mutants were determined by HPLC. The total absolute concentration of soluble amino acids among the mutants varied depending on the mutant. The o11 and o13 mutants exhibited the highest average content, whereas o10, fl3 and fl1 exhibited the lowest average content. In general, the mutants exhibited similar concentrations of total soluble amino acids when compared to the wild-type lines, with the clear exception of mutants o11 and fl1, with the o11 mutant exhibiting a higher concentration of total soluble amino acids when compared to its wild-type counterpart W22 and the fl1 mutant a lower concentration when compared to its wild-type counterpart Oh43. For methionine, the mutants o2 and o11 and wild-type Oh43 exhibited the highest concentrations of this amino acid. Significant differences were not observed between mutants for other amino acids such as lysine and threonine. The high lysine concentrations obtained originally for these mutants may be due to the amino acids incorporated into storage proteins, but not those present in the soluble form.

  17. Fortifying Horticultural Crops with Essential Amino Acids: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoping Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To feed the world′s growing population, increasing the yield of crops is not the only important factor, improving crop quality is also important, and it presents a significant challenge. Among the important crops, horticultural crops (particularly fruits and vegetables provide numerous health compounds, such as vitamins, antioxidants, and amino acids. Essential amino acids are those that cannot be produced by the organism and, therefore, must be obtained from diet, particularly from meat, eggs, and milk, as well as a variety of plants. Extensive efforts have been devoted to increasing the levels of essential amino acids in plants. Yet, these efforts have been met with very little success due to the limited genetic resources for plant breeding and because high essential amino acid content is generally accompanied by limited plant growth. With a deep understanding of the biosynthetic pathways of essential amino acids and their interactions with the regulatory networks in plants, it should be possible to use genetic engineering to improve the essential amino acid content of horticultural plants, rendering these plants more nutritionally favorable crops. In the present report, we describe the recent advances in the enhancement of essential amino acids in horticultural plants and possible future directions towards their bio-fortification.

  18. Cyanobacteria as efficient producers of mycosporine-like amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shikha; Prajapat, Ganshyam; Abrar, Mustari; Ledwani, Lalita; Singh, Anoop; Agrawal, Akhil

    2017-09-01

    Mycosporine-like amino acids are the most common group of transparent ultraviolet radiation absorbing intracellular secondary metabolites. These molecules absorb light in the range of ultraviolet-A and -B with a maximum absorbance between 310 and 362 nm. Cyanobacteria might have faced the most deleterious ultraviolet radiation, which leads to an evolution of ultraviolet protecting mycosporine-like amino acids for efficient selection in the environment. In the last 30 years, scientists have investigated various cyanobacteria for novel mycosporine-like amino acids, applying different induction techniques. This review organizes all the cyanobacterial groups that produce various mycosporine-like amino acids. We found out that cyanobacteria belonging to orders Synechococcales, Chroococcales, Oscillatoriales, and Nostocales are frequently studied for the presence of mycosporine-like amino acids, while orders Gloeobacterales, Spirulinales, Pleurocapsales, and Chroococcidiopsidales are still need to be investigated. Nostoc and Anabaena strains are major studied genus for the mycosporine-like amino acids production. Hence, this review will give further insight to the readers about potential mycosporine-like amino acid producing cyanobacterial groups in future investigations. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Aromatic amino acids in high selectivity bismuth(III) recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatak, Sumanta Kumar; Dey, Debarati; Sen, Souvik; Sen, Kamalika

    2013-04-21

    The three aromatic amino acids, tyrosine, tryptophan and phenylalanine, play different physiological roles in life processes. Metal ions capable of binding these amino acids may aid in the reduction of effective concentration of these amino acids in any physiological system. Here we have studied the efficacy of some heavy metals for their complexation with these three amino acids. Bismuth has been found to bind selectively with these aromatic amino acids and this was confirmed using spectrofluorimetric, spectrophotometric and cyclic voltammetric studies. The series of heavy metals has been chosen because each of these metals remains associated with the others at very low concentration levels and Bi(III) is the least toxic amongst the other elements. So, selective recognition for Bi(III) would also mean no response for the other heavy elements if contaminants are present even at low concentration levels. The affinity towards these amino acids has been found to be in the order tryptophan < phenylalanine < tyrosine. The association constants of these amino acids have been calculated using Benesi-Hildebrand equations and the corresponding free energy change has also been calculated. The values of the association constants obtained from BH equations using absorbance values corroborate with the Stern-Volmer constants obtained from fluorimetric studies. The evidence for complexation is also supported by the results of cyclic voltammetry.

  20. New Functions and Potential Applications of Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uneyama, Hisayuki; Kobayashi, Hisamine; Tonouchi, Naoto

    Currently, several types of amino acids are being produced and used worldwide. Nevertheless, several new functions of amino acids have been recently discovered that could result in other applications. For example, oral stimulation by glutamate triggers the cephalic phase response to prepare for food digestion. Further, the stomach and intestines have specific glutamate-recognizing systems in their epithelial mucosa. Regarding clinical applications, addition of monosodium glutamate to the medicinal diet has been shown to markedly enhance gastric secretion in a vagus-dependent manner. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are the major components of muscles, and ingestion of BCAAs has been found to be effective for decreasing muscle pain. BCAAs are expected to be a solution for the serious issue of aging. Further, ingestion of specific amino acids could be beneficial. Glycine can be ingested for good night's sleep: glycine ingestion before bedtime significantly improved subjective sleep quality. Ingestion of alanine and glutamine effectively accelerates alcohol metabolism, and ingestion of cystine and theanine effectively prevents colds. Finally, amino acids could be used in a novel clinical diagnostic method: the balance of amino acids in the blood could be an indicator of the risk of diseases such as cancer. These newly discovered functions of amino acids are expected to contribute to the resolution of various issues.

  1. Rewiring protein synthesis: From natural to synthetic amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yongqiang; Evans, Christopher R; Ling, Jiqiang

    2017-11-01

    The protein synthesis machinery uses 22 natural amino acids as building blocks that faithfully decode the genetic information. Such fidelity is controlled at multiple steps and can be compromised in nature and in the laboratory to rewire protein synthesis with natural and synthetic amino acids. This review summarizes the major quality control mechanisms during protein synthesis, including aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, elongation factors, and the ribosome. We will discuss evolution and engineering of such components that allow incorporation of natural and synthetic amino acids at positions that deviate from the standard genetic code. The protein synthesis machinery is highly selective, yet not fixed, for the correct amino acids that match the mRNA codons. Ambiguous translation of a codon with multiple amino acids or complete reassignment of a codon with a synthetic amino acid diversifies the proteome. Expanding the genetic code with synthetic amino acids through rewiring protein synthesis has broad applications in synthetic biology and chemical biology. Biochemical, structural, and genetic studies of the translational quality control mechanisms are not only crucial to understand the physiological role of translational fidelity and evolution of the genetic code, but also enable us to better design biological parts to expand the proteomes of synthetic organisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Biochemistry of Synthetic Biology - Recent Developments" Guest Editor: Dr. Ilka Heinemann and Dr. Patrick O'Donoghue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Short- and longer-term effects of feeding increased metabolizable protein with or without an altered amino acid profile to dairy cows immediately postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carder, E G; Weiss, W P

    2017-06-01

    The first few weeks after parturition is marked by low, but increasing feed intake and sharply increasing milk production by dairy cows. Because of low intake, the nutrient density of the diet may need to be higher during this period to support increasing milk yields. We hypothesized that feeding higher levels of metabolizable protein (MP) or a protein supplement with rumen-protected lysine and methionine during the immediate postpartum period would increase yields of milk and milk components. Fifty-six Holstein cows (21 primiparous and 35 multiparous) starting at 3 d in milk were used in a randomized block design. In phase 1 (3 through 23 d in milk), cows were fed 1 of 3 diets that differed in supply of MP and AA profile. At 23 d in milk, all cows were moved to a common freestall pen and fed the control diet used in phase 1 for an additional 63 d (phase 2). Diets were formulated using the National Research Council model and were control [16.5% crude protein (CP), 10.9% rumen-degradable protein (RDP), and 5.6% rumen-undegradable protein (RUP)], high MP (HMP; 18.5% CP, 11.6% RDP, 6.9% RUP), and AA (MPAA; 17.5% CP, 10.5% RDP, 7.0% RUP 29.7). The MPAA diet included a proprietary spray-dried blood meal product (Perdue Agribusiness, Salisbury, MD) and contained a model-estimated 7.2 and 2.6% of digestible lysine and methionine (% of MP). The HMP and control diets contained 6.3 and 6.7% digestible lysine and both had 1.8% digestible methionine. In phase 1, diet did not affect milk yield (33.6, 34.7, and 33.2 kg for control, HMP, and MPAA, respectively), dry matter intake (17.8, 18.0, and 18.5 kg/d for control, HMP, and MPAA), or milk protein yield (1.07 kg/d). Feeding additional protein (HMP or MPAA) increased both the concentration and yield of milk fat, and milk protein concentration was greater (3.30 vs. 3.17%) for MPAA compared with the HMP diet. Energy-corrected milk was greater (38.4 and 38.6 vs. 35.3 kg/d, respectively) for MPAA and HP than for the control. Cows

  3. Synthesis and chirality of amino acids under interstellar conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Chaitanya; Goesmann, Fred; Meinert, Cornelia; Evans, Amanda C; Meierhenrich, Uwe J

    2013-01-01

    Amino acids are the fundamental building blocks of proteins, the biomolecules that provide cellular structure and function in all living organisms. A majority of amino acids utilized within living systems possess pre-specified orientation geometry (chirality); however the original source for this specific orientation remains uncertain. In order to trace the chemical evolution of life, an appreciation of the synthetic and evolutional origins of the first chiral amino acids must first be gained. Given that the amino acids in our universe are likely to have been synthesized in molecular clouds in interstellar space, it is necessary to understand where and how the first synthesis might have occurred. The asymmetry of the original amino acid synthesis was probably the result of exposure to chiral photons in the form of circularly polarized light (CPL), which has been detected in interstellar molecular clouds. This chirality transfer event, from photons to amino acids, has been successfully recreated experimentally and is likely a combination of both asymmetric synthesis and enantioselective photolysis. A series of innovative studies have reported successful simulation of these environments and afforded production of chiral amino acids under realistic circumstellar and interstellar conditions: irradiation of interstellar ice analogues (CO, CO2, NH3, CH3OH, and H2O) with circularly polarized ultraviolet photons at low temperatures does result in enantiomer enriched amino acid structures (up to 1.3% ee). This topical review summarizes current knowledge and recent discoveries about the simulated interstellar environments within which amino acids were probably formed. A synopsis of the COSAC experiment onboard the ESA cometary mission ROSETTA concludes this review: the ROSETTA mission will soft-land on the nucleus of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in November 2014, anticipating the first in situ detection of asymmetric organic molecules in cometary ices.

  4. Cultivation of Arthrospira (spirulina platensis in desalinator wastewater and salinated synthetic medium: protein content and amino-acid profile Cultivo de Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis em rejeito de dessalinizador e meio sintético salinizado: teor protéico e perfil de aminoácidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Volkmann

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis was cultivated in laboratory under controlled conditions (30ºC, photoperiod of 12 hours light/dark provided by fluorescent lamps at a light intensity of 140 µmol photons.m-2.s-1 and constant bubbling air in three different culture media: (1 Paoletti medium (control, (2 Paoletti supplemented with 1 g.L-1 NaCl (salinated water and (3 Paoletti medium prepared with desalinator wastewater. The effects of these treatments on growth, protein content and amino acid profile were measured. Maximum cell concentrations observed in Paoletti medium, Paoletti supplemented with salinated water or with desalinator wastewater were 2.587, 3.545 and 4.954 g.L-1, respectively. Biomass in medium 3 presented the highest protein content (56.17%, while biomass in medium 2 presented 48.59% protein. All essential amino acids, except lysine and tryptophan, were found in concentrations higher than those requiried by FAO.Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis foi cultivada em laboratório sob condições controladas (30ºC, intensidade luminosa de 140 µmol fótons.m-2.s-1, 12 horas claro/escuro e insuflação constante de ar atmosférico, em três meios de cultivo: (1 meio de Paoletti (controle, (2 meio de Paoletti suplementado com 1,0 g.L-1 de NaCl (água salinizada e (3 meio de Paoletti preparado com rejeito de dessalinizador. Foi verificado o efeito destes tratamentos no crescimento, teor de proteínas e aminoácidos. As concentrações celulares máximas obtidas foram de 2,587; 3,545 e 4,954 g.L-1 no meio controle, meio de Paoletti suplementado com água salinizada ou com rejeito de dessalinizador, respectivamente. Com relação às concentrações protéicas, estas foram maiores na biomassa cultivada no meio 3, com 56,17%, enquanto que a biomassa cultivada no meio 2 apresentou 48,59%. A maioria dos aminoácidos essenciais encontrou-se acima dos limites requeridos pela FAO, com exceção apenas de lisina e triptofano.

  5. [Free amino acids of various lacteal formulas used in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periago, J L; Faus, O; Martínez Valverde, A; Bueno Sánchez, A; Faus, M J; Gil, A

    1984-11-15

    A comparative study has been made upon free amino-acids in human milk, cow's milk and some infant formulas commercialized in Spain. The contents of free amino-acids in human milk is significantly increased when compared to those of raw of UHT sterilized cow's milk and to those of infant formulas. The concentrations of alanine are significantly lower in cow's milk and in infant formulas compared to human milk. The same occurs with branched chain amino-acids, glutamic acid, serine, threonine and taurine. On the contrary, the levels of free cysteine are significantly higher in cow's milk and in infant formulas. The concentrations of free amino-acids determined in different infant formulas on sale in Spain are rather similar between each others, being the cuantitative pattern very different from that determined in human milk.

  6. The origin of amino acids in lunar regolith samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, Jamie E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; McLain, Hannah L.; Noble, Sarah K.; Gibson, Everett K.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the amino acid content of seven lunar regolith samples returned by the Apollo 16 and Apollo 17 missions and stored under NASA curation since collection using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Consistent with results from initial analyses shortly after collection in the 1970s, we observed amino acids at low concentrations in all of the curated samples, ranging from 0.2 parts-per-billion (ppb) to 42.7 ppb in hot-water extracts and 14.5-651.1 ppb in 6 M HCl acid-vapor-hydrolyzed, hot-water extracts. Amino acids identified in the Apollo soil extracts include glycine, D- and L-alanine, D- and L-aspartic acid, D- and L-glutamic acid, D- and L-serine, L-threonine, and L-valine, all of which had previously been detected in lunar samples, as well as several compounds not previously identified in lunar regoliths: α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), D- and L-β-amino-n-butyric acid (β-ABA), DL-α-amino-n-butyric acid, γ-amino-n-butyric acid, β-alanine, and ε-amino-n-caproic acid. We observed an excess of the L enantiomer in most of the detected proteinogenic amino acids, but racemic alanine and racemic β-ABA were present in some samples. We also examined seven samples from Apollo 15, 16, and 17 that had been previously allocated to a non-curation laboratory, as well as two samples of terrestrial dunite from studies of lunar module engine exhaust that had been stored in the same laboratory. The amino acid content of these samples suggested that contamination had occurred during non-curatorial storage. We measured the compound-specific carbon isotopic ratios of glycine, β-alanine, and L-alanine in Apollo regolith sample 70011 and found values of -21‰ to -33‰. These values are consistent with those seen in terrestrial biology and, together with the enantiomeric compositions of the proteinogenic amino acids, suggest that terrestrial biological contamination is a primary source of the

  7. A common periodic table of codons and amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, J C; Benyó, B; Sansom, C; Szlávecz, A; Fördös, G; Micsik, T; Benyó, Z

    2003-06-27

    A periodic table of codons has been designed where the codons are in regular locations. The table has four fields (16 places in each) one with each of the four nucleotides (A, U, G, C) in the central codon position. Thus, AAA (lysine), UUU (phenylalanine), GGG (glycine), and CCC (proline) were placed into the corners of the fields as the main codons (and amino acids) of the fields. They were connected to each other by six axes. The resulting nucleic acid periodic table showed perfect axial symmetry for codons. The corresponding amino acid table also displaced periodicity regarding the biochemical properties (charge and hydropathy) of the 20 amino acids and the position of the stop signals. The table emphasizes the importance of the central nucleotide in the codons and predicts that purines control the charge while pyrimidines determine the polarity of the amino acids. This prediction was experimentally tested.

  8. Reactivity of amino acid anions with nitrogen and oxygen atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe-Chen; Li, Ya-Ke; He, Sheng-Gui; Bierbaum, Veronica M

    2018-02-14

    For many decades, astronomers have searched for biological molecules, including amino acids, in the interstellar medium; this endeavor is important for investigating the hypothesis of the origin of life from space. The space environment is complex and atomic species, such as nitrogen and oxygen atoms, are widely distributed. In this work, the reactions of eight typical deprotonated amino acids (glycine, alanine, cysteine, proline, aspartic acid, histidine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) with ground state nitrogen and oxygen atoms are studied by experiment and theory. These amino acid anions do not react with nitrogen atoms. However, the reactions of these ions with oxygen atoms show an intriguing variety of ionic products and the reaction rate constants are of the order of 10 -10 cm 3 s -1 . Density functional calculations provide detailed mechanisms of the reactions, and demonstrate that spin conversion is essential for some processes. Our study provides important data and insights for understanding the kinetic and dynamic behavior of amino acids in space environments.

  9. EFFECT OF TETRACYCLINES ON THE INTRACELLULAR AMINO ACIDS OF MOLDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FREEMAN, B A; CIRCO, R

    1963-07-01

    Freeman, Bob A. (University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill.) and Richard Circo. Effect of tetracyclines on the intracellular amino acids of molds. J. Bacteriol. 86:38-44. 1963.-The tetracycline antibiotics were shown to alter the amino acid metabolism of molds whose growth is not markedly affected. Eight molds were grown in the presence of these antiobiotics; four exhibited a general reduction in the concentration of the intracellular amino acids, except for glutamic acid and alanine. In most of these four cultures, the tetracyclines also caused the complete disappearance of arginine, lysine, proline, phenylalanine, and tyrosine from the intracellular amino acid pool. The significance of these observations and the usefulness of the method in the study of the mechanisms of antibiotic action are discussed.

  10. Hybride magnetic nanostructure based on amino acids functionalized polypyrrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nan, Alexandrina, E-mail: alexandrina.nan@itim-cj.ro; Bunge, Alexander; Turcu, Rodica [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    Conducting polypyrrole is especially promising for many commercial applications because of its unique optical, electric, thermal and mechanical properties. We report the synthesis and characterization of novel pyrrole functionalized monomers and core-shell hybrid nanostructures, consisting of a conjugated polymer layer (amino acids functionalized pyrrole copolymers) and a magnetic nanoparticle core. For functionalization of the pyrrole monomer we used several amino acids: tryptophan, leucine, phenylalanine, serine and tyrosine. These amino acids were linked via different types of hydrophobic linkers to the nitrogen atom of the pyrrole monomer. The magnetic core-shell hybrid nanostructures are characterized by various methods such as FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and magnetic measurements.

  11. Digestible indispensable amino acid score and digestible amino acids in eight cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Pahm, Sarah K; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H

    2014-05-01

    To determine values for the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS), it is recommended that ileal amino acid (AA) digestibility values obtained in growing pigs are used to characterise protein quality in different foods. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in eight cereal grains (yellow dent maize, Nutridense maize, dehulled barley, dehulled oats, polished white rice, rye, sorghum and wheat) fed to pigs, where SID values in pigs can be used to calculate approximate DIAAS values in humans. In the present experiment, twenty-four barrows with a T-cannula inserted in the distal ileum were allotted to eight diets and fed for three periods to give a total of nine replicate pigs per diet. Each period lasted 14 d, and ileal digesta samples were collected on days 13 and 14. Among the SID values obtained for all cereal grains, values for total indispensable AA were greatest (Poats, but greater (P< 0·05) than in the other cereal grains, and the concentrations of SID indispensable AA in Nutridense maize were greater (P< 0·05) than in yellow dent maize and sorghum, but less (P< 0·05) than in the other cereal grains, except rye. In conclusion, results indicate that to meet dietary requirements for AA in humans, diets based on yellow dent maize or sorghum require more AA supplementation than diets based on other cereal grains.

  12. Transport of amino acids and GABA analogues via the human proton-coupled amino acid transporter, hPAT1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mie; Larsen, Birger Brodin; Frølund, Bente

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate transepithelial amino acid transport as a function of Caco-2 cell culture time. Furthermore, the objective was to investigate apical uptake characteristics of hPAT1-mediated transport under various experimental conditions. Apical amino acid uptake......, which has been shown to function as a carboxylic acid bioisostere for substrates of the GABA receptor and transport systems....

  13. Method Development for Efficient Incorporation of Unnatural Amino Acids

    KAUST Repository

    Harris, Paul D.

    2014-04-01

    The synthesis of proteins bearing unnatural amino acids has the potential to enhance and elucidate many processes in biochemistry and molecular biology. There are two primary methods for site specific unnatural amino acid incorporation, both of which use the cell’s native protein translating machinery: in vitro chemical acylation of suppressor tRNAs and the use of orthogonal amino acyl tRNA synthetases. Total chemical synthesis is theoretically possible, but current methods severely limit the maximum size of the product protein. In vivo orthogonal synthetase methods suffer from the high cost of the unnatural amino acid. In this thesis I sought to address this limitation by increasing cell density, first in shake flasks and then in a bioreactor in order to increase the yield of protein per amount of unnatural amino acid used. In a parallel project, I used the in vitro chemical acylation system to incorporate several unnatural amino acids, key among them the fluorophore BODIPYFL, with the aim of producing site specifically fluorescently labeled protein for single molecule FRET studies. I demonstrated successful incorporation of these amino acids into the trial protein GFP, although incorporation was not demonstrated in the final target, FEN1. This also served to confirm the effectiveness of a new procedure developed for chemical acylation.

  14. [Studies on interaction of acid-treated nanotube titanic acid and amino acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huqin; Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Zhensheng; Liao, Guangxi; Wu, Xiaoming; Du, Jianqiang; Cao, Xiang

    2010-06-01

    Nanotube titanic acid (NTA) has distinct optical and electrical character, and has photocatalysis character. In accordance with these qualities, NTA was treated with acid so as to enhance its surface activity. Surface structures and surface groups of acid-treated NTA were characterized and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The interaction between acid-treated NTA and amino acids was investigated. Analysis results showed that the lengths of acid-treated NTA became obviously shorter. The diameters of nanotube bundles did not change obviously with acid-treating. Meanwhile, the surface of acid-treated NTA was cross-linked with carboxyl or esterfunction. In addition, acid-treated NTA can catch amino acid residues easily, and then form close combination.

  15. Searching for Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in a Contaminated Meteorite: Amino Acid Analyses of the Canakkale L6 Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, A. S.; Elsila, J. E.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Ornek, C. Y.; Esenoglu, H. H.; Unsalan, O.; Ozturk, B.

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids can serve as important markers of cosmochemistry, as their abundances and isomeric and isotopic compositions have been found to vary predictably with changes in parent body chemistry and alteration processes. Amino acids are also of astrobiological interest because they are essential for life on Earth. Analyses of a range of meteorites, including all groups of carbonaceous chondrites, along with H, R, and LL chondrites, ureilites, and a martian shergottite, have revealed that amino acids of plausible extraterrestrial origin can be formed in and persist after a wide range of parent body conditions. However, amino acid analyses of L6 chondrites to date have not provided evidence for indigenous amino acids. In the present study, we performed amino acid analysis on larger samples of a different L6 chondite, Canakkale, to determine whether or not trace levels of indigenous amino acids could be found. The Canakkale meteor was an observed fall in late July, 1964, near Canakkale, Turkey. The meteorite samples (1.36 and 1.09 g) analyzed in this study were allocated by C. Y. Ornek, along with a soil sample (1.5 g) collected near the Canakkale recovery site.

  16. Hydroxy, carboxylic and amino acid functionalized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    precipitation method and modified with different coating agents such as ascorbic acid, hexanoic acid, salicylic acid, L-arginine and L-cysteine. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by various techniques such as FT IR, XRD, VSM, ...

  17. Pre-staining thin layer chromatography method for amino acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The modified thin layer chromatography can be used for the analysis of amino acids. When compared to the classical thin layer chromatography, the improved method was more rapid and inexpensive and the results obtained were clean and reproducible. However, it is suitable for the high throughput screening of amino ...

  18. Sugar amino acids and related molecules: Some recent developments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    where the carboxyl, amino and hydroxyl termini provide an excellent opportunity to organic chemists to create structural diversities akin to Nature's molecular arsenal. In recent years, sugar amino acids have been used extensively in the area of peptidomimetic studies. Advances made in the area of combinatorial chemistry ...

  19. Utilization of milk amino acids for body gain in suckling mink (Mustela vison) kits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, Anne-Helene; Fink, Rikke; Hansen, Niels E

    2005-01-01

    The efficiency of utilization of milk amino acids for body gain in suckling mink kits from small (n = 3), medium (n = 6) and large litters (n = 9) was investigated by using 36 mink dams and their litters for measurements during lactation weeks 1 through 4. Measurements on each dam and litter were......% of total amino acids. Branched chained amino acids made up slightly more than 20% and sulphur containing amino acids less than 5% of total milk amino acids. In kit bodies the sum of glutamate, aspartate and leucine made up about 32% of amino acids, branched chain amino acids about 16% and sulphur...... containing amino acids about 4%. The amino acid composition of both milk and bodies changed as lactation progressed with decreasing proportions of essential amino acids. The ratio between body and milk amino acids was constantly over 1 only for lysine, suggesting that it was the most limiting amino acid...

  20. Amino acid secondary transporters: toward a common transport mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikhard, Eva S; Ziegler, Christine M

    2012-01-01

    Solute carriers (SLC) that transport amino acids are key players in health and diseases in humans. Their prokaryotic relatives are often involved in essential physiological processes in microorganisms, e.g. in homeostasis and acidic/osmotic stress response. High-resolution X-ray structures of the sequence-unrelated amino acid transporters unraveled a striking structural similarity between carriers, which were formerly assigned to different families. The highly conserved fold is characterized by two inverted structural repeats of five transmembrane helices each and indicates common mechanistic transport concepts if not an evolutionary link among a large number of amino acid transporters. Therefore, these transporters are classified now into the structural amino acid-polyamine-organocation superfamily (APCS). The APCS includes among others the mammalian SLC6 transporters and the heterodimeric SLC7/SLC3 transporters. However, it has to be noted that the APCS is not limited entirely to amino acid transporters but contains also transporters for, e.g. amino acid derivatives and sugars. For instance, the betaine-choline-carnitine transporter family of bacterial activity-regulated Na(+)- and H(+)-coupled symporters for glycine betaine and choline is also part of this second largest structural superfamily. The APCS fold provides different possibilities to transport the same amino acid. Arginine can be transported by an H(+)-coupled symport or by antiport mechanism in exchange against agmatine for example. The convergence of the mechanistic concept of transport under comparable physiological conditions allows speculating if structurally unexplored amino acid transporters, e.g. the members of the SLC36 and SLC38 family, belong to the APCS, too. In the kidney, which is an organ that depends critically on the regulated amino acid transport, these different SLC transporters have to work together to account for proper function. Here, we will summarize the basic concepts of Na

  1. Extending enzyme molecular recognition with an expanded amino acid alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windle, Claire L; Simmons, Katie J; Ault, James R; Trinh, Chi H; Nelson, Adam; Pearson, Arwen R; Berry, Alan

    2017-03-07

    Natural enzymes are constructed from the 20 proteogenic amino acids, which may then require posttranslational modification or the recruitment of coenzymes or metal ions to achieve catalytic function. Here, we demonstrate that expansion of the alphabet of amino acids can also enable the properties of enzymes to be extended. A chemical mutagenesis strategy allowed a wide range of noncanonical amino acids to be systematically incorporated throughout an active site to alter enzymic substrate specificity. Specifically, 13 different noncanonical side chains were incorporated at 12 different positions within the active site of N-acetylneuraminic acid lyase (NAL), and the resulting chemically modified enzymes were screened for activity with a range of aldehyde substrates. A modified enzyme containing a 2,3-dihydroxypropyl cysteine at position 190 was identified that had significantly increased activity for the aldol reaction of erythrose with pyruvate compared with the wild-type enzyme. Kinetic investigation of a saturation library of the canonical amino acids at the same position showed that this increased activity was not achievable with any of the 20 proteogenic amino acids. Structural and modeling studies revealed that the unique shape and functionality of the noncanonical side chain enabled the active site to be remodeled to enable more efficient stabilization of the transition state of the reaction. The ability to exploit an expanded amino acid alphabet can thus heighten the ambitions of protein engineers wishing to develop enzymes with new catalytic properties.

  2. The Amino Acid Composition of the Sutter's Mill Carbonaceous Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, D. P.; Burton, A. S.; Elsila, J. E.; Dworkin, J. P.; Yin, Q. Z.; Cooper, G.; Jenniskens, P.

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to the Murchison meteorite which had a complex distribution of amino acids with a total C2 to Cs amino acid abundance of approx.14,000 parts-per-billion (ppb) [2], the Sutters Mill meteorite was found to be highly depleted in amino acids. Much lower abundances (approx.30 to 180 ppb) of glycine, beta-alanine, L-alanine and L-serine were detected in SM2 above procedural blank levels indicating that this meteorite sample experienced only minimal terrestrial amino acid contamination after its fall to Earth. Carbon isotope measurements will be necessary to establish the origin of glycine and beta-alanine in SM2. Other non-protein amino acids that are rare on Earth, yet commonly found in other CM meteorites such as aaminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB) and isovaline, were not identified in SM2. However, traces of beta-AIB (approx.1 ppb) were detected in SM2 and could be" extraterrestrial in origin. The low abundances of amino acids in the Sutter's Mill meteorite is consistent with mineralogical evidence that at least some parts of the Sutter's Mill meteorite parent body experienced extensive aqueous and/or thermal alteration.

  3. Updates on industrial production of amino acids using Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendisch, Volker F; Jorge, João M P; Pérez-García, Fernando; Sgobba, Elvira

    2016-06-01

    L-Amino acids find various applications in biotechnology. L-Glutamic acid and its salts are used as flavor enhancers. Other L-amino acids are used as food or feed additives, in parenteral nutrition or as building blocks for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. L-amino acids are synthesized from precursors of central carbon metabolism. Based on the knowledge of the biochemical pathways microbial fermentation processes of food, feed and pharma amino acids have been developed. Production strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum, which has been used safely for more than 50 years in food biotechnology, and Escherichia coli are constantly improved using metabolic engineering approaches. Research towards new processes is ongoing. Fermentative production of L-amino acids in the million-ton-scale has shaped modern biotechnology and its markets continue to grow steadily. This review focusses on recent achievements in strain development for amino acid production including the use of CRISPRi/dCas9, genome-reduced strains, biosensors and synthetic pathways to enable utilization of alternative carbon sources.

  4. Proximate and Amino Acid Composition of Celosia argentea Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    amino acids with the WHO recommended values, the vegetable is adequate in these acids. ... Vegetables are sources of vitamins, ascorbic acid, niacin, riboflavin and thiamine and minerals, calcium and iron, as well as supplementary protein and calories. (FAO, 1988). ... pupa and cultivars with deep green narrow leaves.

  5. Effect of amino acids on bioleaching of chalcopyrite ore by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diptajeet

    2012-01-26

    Jan 26, 2012 ... Amino acids seem to play a major role during bioleaching of chalcopyrite ore by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. Efficiency of microbial leaching of chalcopyrite by T. ferrooxidans was investigated in the presence of L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid, L-histidine and L-serine. The bioleaching of copper ion. (Cu2+) ...

  6. Effect of amino acids on bioleaching of chalcopyrite ore by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amino acids seem to play a major role during bioleaching of chalcopyrite ore by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. Efficiency of microbial leaching of chalcopyrite by T. ferrooxidans was investigated in the presence of L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid, L-histidine and L-serine. The bioleaching of copper ion (Cu2+) from the low grade ...

  7. Amino acid composition of parturient plasma, the intervillous space of the placenta and the umbilical vein of term newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. Camelo Jr.

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the levels of amino acids in maternal plasma, placental intervillous space and fetal umbilical vein in order to identify the similarities and differences in amino acid levels in these compartments of 15 term newborns from normal pregnancies and deliveries. All amino acids, except tryptophan, were present in at least 186% higher concentrations in the intervillous space than in maternal venous blood, with the difference being statistically significant. This result contradicted the initial hypothesis of the study that the plasma amino acid levels in the placental intervillous space should be similar to those of maternal plasma. When the maternal venous compartment was compared with the umbilical vein, we observed values 103% higher on the fetal side which is compatible with currently accepted mechanisms of active amino acid transport. Amino acid levels of the placental intervillous space were similar to the values of the umbilical vein except for proline, glycine and aspartic acid, whose levels were significantly higher than fetal umbilical vein levels (average 107% higher. The elevated levels of the intervillous space are compatible with syncytiotrophoblast activity, which maintain high concentrations of free amino acids inside syncytiotrophoblast cells, permitting asymmetric efflux or active transport from the trophoblast cells to the blood in the intervillous space. The plasma amino acid levels in the umbilical vein of term newborns probably may be used as a standard of local normality for clinical studies of amino acid profiles.

  8. Amino acid assisted dehalogenation of carbon tetrachloride by green rust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Weizhao; Strobel, Bjarne W.; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun

    2017-01-01

    of CF formation with only ~ 10% of CF recovery while sarcosine (SAR) showed insignificant effects. For two non-amino acid buffers, TRIS had little effect while HEPES resulted in a 40 times lower rate constant compared to experiments where no buffer was added. The FeII complexing properties of the amino...... acids and buffers caused variable extents of GRCl dissolution which was linearly correlated with CF suppression and dehalogenation rate. We hypothesize that the CF suppression seen for amino acids is caused by stabilization of carbene intermediates via the carbonyl group. Different effects on CF...... that reduce the formation of toxic by-products such as chloroform (CF). In this study, carbon tetrachloride (CT) dehalogenation by the chloride form of GR (GRCl) was tested in presence of glycine (GLY) and other selected amino acids. GLY, alanine (ALA) or serine (SER) all resulted in remarkable suppression...

  9. Free amino acids: an innovative treatment for ocular surface disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusciano, Dario; Roszkowska, Anna Maria; Gagliano, Caterina; Pezzino, Salvatore

    2016-09-15

    Amino acids are the basic constituents of living organisms, and have both a structural and an active dynamic role in tissue and cell physiology. Human tears contain 23 amino acids, the relative proportion of which may change with the different physiological states of the eye surface. In this review, we present a collection of data from the published literature that indicate an active role of amino acids in the maintenance of eye surface homeostasis. Moreover, another series of published clinical data indicate that supplementation of amino acids, either as food supplements or as a topical treatment in enriched eye drops, is beneficial to the eye surface, and may improve its healing in cases of eye surface disease due to different causes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Azide- and alkyne-derivatised α-amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Karl Henrik; Pedersen, D.S.

    2012-01-01

    for their synthesis. In this review we have compiled available methods for synthesising optically active azide- and alkyne-derivatised α-amino acids that can be prepared from readily available α-amino acids. We highlight a number of commonly overlooked problems associated with existing methods and direct attention......With the emergence of the copper-catalysed Huisgen cycloaddition the use of azide- and alkyne-derivatised α-amino acids has found widespread use within most chemistry disciplines. Despite a growing interest in these building blocks researchers are struggling to identify the best way...... to unexplored possibilities. Azide- and alkyne-derivatised α-amino acids are finding widespread use within most chemistry disciplines. However, it is far from clear what the best way for the synthesis of these useful building blocks is. Herein we show the available methods for synthesis of optically active...

  11. Astrobionibbler: In Situ Microfluidic Subcritical Water Extraction of Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noell, A. C.; Fisher, A. M.; Takano, N.; Fors-Francis, K.; Sherrit, S.; Grunthaner, F.

    2016-10-01

    A fluidic-chip based instrument for subcritical water extraction (SCWE) of amino acids and other organics from powder samples has been developed. A variety of soil analog extractions have been performed to better understand SCWE capabilities.

  12. Molecular Evolution Directs Protein Translation Using Unnatural Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Vanessa E; Gaucher, Eric A

    2015-12-02

    Unnatural amino acids have in recent years established their importance in a wide range of fields, from pharmaceuticals to polymer science. Unnatural amino acids can increase the number of chemical groups within proteins and thus expand or enhance biological function. Our ability to utilize these important building blocks, however, has been limited by the inherent difficulty in incorporating these molecules into proteins. To address this challenge, researchers have examined how the canonical twenty amino acids are incorporated, regulated, and modified in nature. This review focuses on achievements and techniques used to engineer the ribosomal protein-translation machinery, including the introduction of orthogonal translation components, how directed evolution enhances the incorporation of unnatural amino acids, and the potential utility of ancient biomolecules for this process. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. Placental Amino Acids Transport in Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avagliano, Laura; Garò, Chiara; Marconi, Anna Maria

    2012-01-01

    The placenta represents a key organ for fetal growth as it acts as an interface between mother and fetus, regulating the fetal-maternal exchange of nutrients, gases, and waste products. During pregnancy, amino acids represent one of the major nutrients for fetal life, and both maternal and fetal concentrations are significantly different in pregnancies with intrauterine growth restriction when compared to uncomplicated pregnancies. The transport of amino acids across the placenta is a complex process that includes the influx of neutral, anionic, and cationic amino acids across the microvilluos plasma membrane of the syncytiotrophoblast, the passage through the cytoplasm of the trophoblasts, and the transfer outside the trophoblasts across the basal membrane into the fetal circulation. In this paper, we review the transport mechanisms of amino acids across the placenta in normal pregnancies and in pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction. PMID:22997583

  14. Genetic analysis of amino acid content in wheat grain

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ) were conducted to analyse inheritance of 17 amino acid contents by using the genetic model including seed, cytoplasmic, maternal and environment interaction effects on quantitative traits of seeds in cereal crops. The results showed that ...

  15. Direct N-alkylation of unprotected amino acids with alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tao; Feringa, Ben L.; Barta, Katalin

    2017-01-01

    N-alkyl amino acids find widespread application as highly valuable, renewable building blocks. However, traditional synthesis methodologies to obtain these suffer from serious limitations, providing a major challenge to develop sustainable alternatives. We report the first powerful catalytic strategy for the direct N-alkylation of unprotected α-amino acids with alcohols. This method is highly selective, produces water as the only side product leading to a simple purification procedure, and a variety of α-amino acids are mono- or di-N-alkylated, in most cases with excellent retention of optical purity. The hydrophobicity of the products is tunable, and even simple peptides are selectively alkylated. An iron-catalyzed route to mono-N-alkyl amino acids using renewable fatty alcohols is also described that represents an ideal green transformation for obtaining fully bio-based surfactants. PMID:29226249

  16. Chemical Approaches to Studying Labile Amino Acid Phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmelstein, Alan M; Moreno, Javier; Fiedler, Dorothea

    2017-04-01

    Phosphorylation of serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues is the archetypal posttranslational modification of proteins. While phosphorylation of these residues has become standard textbook knowledge, phosphorylation of other amino acid side chains is underappreciated and minimally characterized by comparison. This disparity is rooted in the relative instability of these chemically distinct amino acid side chain moieties, namely phosphoramidates, acyl phosphates, thiophosphates, and phosphoanhydrides. In the case of the O-phosphorylated amino acids, synthetic constructs were critical to assessing their stability and developing tools for their study. As the chemical biology community has become more aware of these alternative phosphorylation sites, methodology has been developed for the synthesis of well-characterized standards and close mimics of these phosphorylated amino acids as well. In this article, we review the synthetic chemistry that is a prerequisite to progress in this field.

  17. Direct N-alkylation of unprotected amino acids with alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tao; Feringa, Ben L; Barta, Katalin

    2017-12-01

    N-alkyl amino acids find widespread application as highly valuable, renewable building blocks. However, traditional synthesis methodologies to obtain these suffer from serious limitations, providing a major challenge to develop sustainable alternatives. We report the first powerful catalytic strategy for the direct N-alkylation of unprotected α-amino acids with alcohols. This method is highly selective, produces water as the only side product leading to a simple purification procedure, and a variety of α-amino acids are mono- or di-N-alkylated, in most cases with excellent retention of optical purity. The hydrophobicity of the products is tunable, and even simple peptides are selectively alkylated. An iron-catalyzed route to mono-N-alkyl amino acids using renewable fatty alcohols is also described that represents an ideal green transformation for obtaining fully bio-based surfactants.

  18. Amino acids interacting with defected carbon nanotubes: ab initio calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Darvish Ganji

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of a number of amino acids on a defected single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT is investigated by using the density-functional theory (DFT calculations. The adsorption energies and equilibrium distances are calculated for various configurations such as amino acid attaching to defect sites heptagon, pentagon and hexagon in defective tube and also for several molecular orientations with respect to the nanotube surface. The results showed that amino acids prefer to be physisorbed on the outer surface of the defected nanotube with different interaction strength following the hierarchy histidine > glycine > phenylalanine > cysteine. Comparing these findings with those obtained for perfect SWCNTs reveals that the adsorption energy of the amino acids increase for adsorption onto defected CNTs. The adsorption nature has also been evaluated by means of electronics structures analysis within the Mulliken population and DOS spectra for the interacting entities.

  19. Enzymatic stereoselective synthesis of B-amino acids

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chhiba, V

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available , antimicrobials, and as nonstandard amino acids in therapeutic peptides or peptidomimetics. Access to these compounds can be achieved through diverse synthetic routes with enantioselective steps catalyzed in different ways, including by means of nitrile hydrolysis...

  20. Direct N-alkylation of unprotected amino acids with alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Tao; Feringa, Ben L; Barta, Katalin

    2017-01-01

    N-alkyl amino acids find widespread application as highly valuable, renewable building blocks. However, traditional synthesis methodologies to obtain these suffer from serious limitations, providing a major challenge to develop sustainable alternatives. We report the first powerful catalytic

  1. Amino acids production focusing on fermentation technologies – A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Este, Martina; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Angelidaki, Irini

    2017-01-01

    Amino acids are attractive and promising biochemicals with market capacity requirements constantly increasing. Their applicability ranges from animal feed additives, flavour enhancers and ingredients in cosmetic to specialty nutrients in pharmaceutical and medical fields. This review gives...... an overview of the processes applied for amino acids production and points out the main advantages and disadvantages of each. Due to the advances made in the genetic engineering techniques, the biotechnological processes, and in particular the fermentation with the aid of strains such as Corynebacterium...... glutamicum or Escherichia coli, play a significant role in the industrial production of amino acids. Despite the numerous advantages of the fermentative amino acids production, the process still needs significant improvements leading to increased productivity and reduction of the production costs. Although...

  2. Comparison of amino acids interaction with gold nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Fatemeh; Amanlou, Massoud; Rafii-Tabar, Hashem

    2014-04-01

    The study of nanomaterial/biomolecule interface is an important emerging field in bionanoscience, and additionally in many biological processes such as hard-tissue growth and cell-surface adhesion. To have a deeper understanding of the amino acids/gold nanoparticle assemblies, the adsorption of these amino acids on the gold nanoparticles (GNPs) has been investigated via molecular dynamics simulation. In these simulations, all the constituent atoms of the nanoparticles were considered to be dynamic. The geometries of amino acids, when adsorbed on the nanoparticle, were studied and their flexibilities were compared with one another. The interaction of each of 20 amino acids was considered with 3 and 8 nm gold GNPs.

  3. Inhibitors of amino acids biosynthesis as antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzębowska, Kamila; Gabriel, Iwona

    2015-02-01

    Fungal microorganisms, including the human pathogenic yeast and filamentous fungi, are able to synthesize all proteinogenic amino acids, including nine that are essential for humans. A number of enzymes catalyzing particular steps of human-essential amino acid biosynthesis are fungi specific. Numerous studies have shown that auxotrophic mutants of human pathogenic fungi impaired in biosynthesis of particular amino acids exhibit growth defect or at least reduced virulence under in vivo conditions. Several chemical compounds inhibiting activity of one of these enzymes exhibit good antifungal in vitro activity in minimal growth media, which is not always confirmed under in vivo conditions. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the present knowledge on pathways of amino acids biosynthesis in fungi, with a special emphasis put on enzymes catalyzing particular steps of these pathways as potential targets for antifungal chemotherapy.

  4. The amino acid sequence of snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) ribonuclease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beintema, Jacob; Broos, Jaap; Meulenberg, Janneke; Schüller, Cornelis

    1985-01-01

    Snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) ribonuclease was isolated from pancreatic tissue. Turtle ribonuclease binds much more weakly to the affinity chromatography matrix used than mammalian ribonucleases. The amino acid sequence was determined from overlapping peptides obtained from three different

  5. Genetics Home Reference: aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... amino acid decarboxylase deficiency Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... involuntary body processes such as the regulation of blood pressure and body temperature. Resulting signs and symptoms can ...

  6. Proximate composition, amino acid profile and phytochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are large varieties of legumes and oil seeds in tropical Africa which are part of traditional food systems but whose nutritional and economic values have not been completely determined and are far less exploited for both human and livestock utilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate Lophira lanceolata ...

  7. Abiotic synthesis of amino acids and self-crystallization under prebiotic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liying; Dziedzic, Pawel; Spacil, Zdenek; Zhao, Gui-Ling; Nilsson, Lennart; Ilag, Leopold L.; Córdova, Armando

    2014-01-01

    Building on previous research on the origin and homochirality of life, this study focuses on analyses profiling important building blocks of life: the natural amino acids. The spark discharge variation of the iconic Miller experiment was performed with a reducing gas mixture of ammonia, methane, water and hydrogen. Amino acid analysis using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry after pre-column derivatizaiton revealed the generation of several amino acids including those essential for life. Re-crystallization of the synthetic products and enantiomeric ratio analysis were subsequently performed. Results from liquid chromatography coupled with either fluorescent detector or tandem mass spectrometry after pre-column derivatization with chiral reagent revealed spontaneous and effective asymmetric resolution of serine and alanine. This work describes a useful analytical platform for investigation of hypotheses regarding the origin and homochirality of amino acids under prebiotic conditions. The formation of numerous amino acids in the electric discharge experiment and the occurrence of high enantiomeric ratios of amino acids in re-crystallization experiment give valuable implications for future studies in unraveling fundamental questions regarding origins and evolution of life. PMID:25346284

  8. Amino Acid Permeases and Virulence in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Felipe Cruz Martho

    Full Text Available Fungal opportunistic pathogens colonize various environments, from plants and wood to human and animal tissue. Regarding human pathogens, one great challenge during contrasting niche occupation is the adaptation to different conditions, such as temperature, osmolarity, salinity, pressure, oxidative stress and nutritional availability, which may constitute sources of stress that need to be tolerated and overcome. As an opportunistic pathogen, C. neoformans faces exactly these situations during the transition from the environment to the human host, encountering nutritional constraints. Our previous and current research on amino acid biosynthetic pathways indicates that amino acid permeases are regulated by the presence of the amino acids, nitrogen and temperature. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans have twenty-four and twenty-seven genes encoding amino acid permeases, respectively; conversely, they are scarce in number in Basidiomycetes (C. neoformans, Coprinopsis cinerea and Ustilago maydis, where nine to ten permease genes can be found depending on the species. In this study, we have demonstrated that two amino acid permeases are essential for virulence in C. neoformans. Our data showed that C. neoformans uses two global and redundant amino acid permeases, Aap4 and Aap5 to respond correctly to thermal and oxidative stress. Double deletion of these permeases causes growth arrest in C. neoformans at 37°C and in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The inability to uptake amino acid at a higher temperature and under oxidative stress also led to virulence attenuation in vivo. Our data showed that thermosensitivity caused by the lack of permeases Aap4 and Aap5 can be remedied by alkaline conditions (higher pH and salinity. Permeases Aap4 and Aap5 are also required during fluconazole stress and they are the target of the plant secondary metabolite eugenol, a potent antifungal inhibitor that targets amino acid permeases. In summary, our work

  9. Facile synthesis of α-hydroxy carboxylic acids from the corresponding α-amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuhr-Hansen, Nicolai; Padrah, Shahrokh; Strømgaard, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    An effective and improved procedure is developed for the synthesis of α-hydroxy carboxylic acids by treatment of the corresponding protonated α-amino acid with tert-butyl nitrite in 1,4-dioxane-water. The amino moiety must be protonated and located α to a carboxylic acid function in order...... to undergo initial diazotization and successive hydroxylation, since neither β-amino acids nor acid derivatives such as esters and amides undergo hydroxylations. The method is successfully applied for the synthesis of 18 proteinogenic amino acids....

  10. Sublimation of natural amino acids and induction of asymmetry by meteoritic amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasevych, Arkadii V.; Guillemin, Jean-Claude

    It is believed that the homochirality of building blocks of life like amino acids (AAs) and sugars is a prerequisite requirement for the origin and evolution of life. Among different mechanisms that might have triggered the initial disparity in the enantiomeric ratio on the primitive Earth, the key roles were assigned to: (i) local chiral symmetry breaking and (ii) the inflow of extraterrestrial matter (eg the carbonaceous meteorites containing non-racemic AAs). Recently it has been revealed that sublimation, a subject almost completely neglected for a long time, gives a pathway to enantioenrichment of natural AAs (1,2 and references herein). Sublimation is however one of the key physical processes that occur on comets. Starting from a mixture with a low content of an enantiopure AA, a partial sublimation gives an important enrichment of the sublimate (1,2). The resulted disparity in the ratio between enantiomers of a partial sublimate is determined by the crystalline nature of the starting mixture: we observed a drastic difference in the behavior of (i) mixtures based on true racemic compounds and (ii) mechanical mixtures of two enantiopure solid phases. On the other hand, combination of crystallization and sublimation can lead to segregation of enantioenriched fractions starting from racemic composition of sublimable aliphatic AAs (Ala, Leu, Pro, Val) in mixtures with non-volatile enantiopure ones (Asn, Asp, Glu, Ser, Thr) (3). The resulted sense of chirality correlates with the handedness of the non-volatile AAs: the observed changes in enantiomeric ratios clearly demonstrate the preferential homochiral interactions and a tendency of natural amino acids to homochiral self-organization. It is noteworthy that just these 5 (Asn, Asp, Glu, Ser, Thr) out of 22 proteinogenic amino acids are able to local symmetry breaking. On the other hand, recent data on the enantiomeric composition of the Tagish Lake, a C2-type carbonaceous meteorite, revealed a large L

  11. Co2 chemosorption by functionalized amino acid derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The absorption and desorption behaviour of carbon dioxide (CO2) using a composition comprising an ionic compound comprising a cation [A+] and an anion [B-] is described, wherein the anion [B-] is a mono-amine functionalized amino acid.......The absorption and desorption behaviour of carbon dioxide (CO2) using a composition comprising an ionic compound comprising a cation [A+] and an anion [B-] is described, wherein the anion [B-] is a mono-amine functionalized amino acid....

  12. Mass Spectrometric Determination of Gas Phase Structures of Amino Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Rožman, Marko; Srzić, Dunja

    2005-01-01

    In the past two decades mass spectrometry became an important tool in the structural investigations of biomolecules (amino acids). Although, the primary focus of mass spectrometry is on compound identification and sequence information (primary structure), some mass spectrometry based methods as ion chromatography, hydrogen/deuterium exchange, and kinetic method are able to determine secondary gas phase structure of the amino acids. For example, it is possible to distinguish the zwitterionic a...

  13. Amino acid fermentation at the origin of the genetic code

    OpenAIRE

    de Vladar, Harold P

    2012-01-01

    Abstract There is evidence that the genetic code was established prior to the existence of proteins, when metabolism was powered by ribozymes. Also, early proto-organisms had to rely on simple anaerobic bioenergetic processes. In this work I propose that amino acid fermentation powered metabolism in the RNA world, and that this was facilitated by proto-adapters, the precursors of the tRNAs. Amino acids were used as carbon sources rather than as catalytic or structural elements. In modern bact...

  14. The biotransformation of aromatic amino acids by Phoma macrostoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagunova, Yevgeniya; Sorensen, John L

    2010-01-01

    A search for natural products produced in fermentation cultures of a strain of Phoma macrostoma led to the identification of tyrosol as the major metabolite produced by this organism. The addition of the amino acid tyrosine to growing fermentation cultures of P. macrostoma resulted in an increase in the production of tyrosol. It was subsequently determined that this strain of P. macrostoma was also capable of the biotransformation of other amino acids into similar alcohols.

  15. Amino Acids Are an Ineffective Fertilizer for Dunaliella spp. Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Colin A. Murphree; Dums, Jacob T.; Jain, Siddharth K.; Chengsong Zhao; Young, Danielle Y.; Nicole Khoshnoodi; Andrey Tikunov; Jeffrey Macdonald; Guillaume Pilot; Heike Sederoff

    2017-01-01

    Autotrophic microalgae are a promising bioproducts platform. However, the fundamental requirements these organisms have for nitrogen fertilizer severely limit the impact and scale of their cultivation. As an alternative to inorganic fertilizers, we investigated the possibility of using amino acids from deconstructed biomass as a nitrogen source in the genus Dunaliella. We found that only four amino acids (glutamine, histidine, cysteine, and tryptophan) rescue Dunaliella spp. growth in nitroge...

  16. The complete amino acid sequence of human serum transferrin.

    OpenAIRE

    MacGillivray, R. T.; Mendez, E. (Elena); Sinha, S. K.; Sutton, M.R.; Lineback-Zins, J; Brew, K

    1982-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of human serum transferrin has been determined by aligning the structures of the 10 CNBr fragments. The order of these fragments in the polypeptide chain is deduced from the structures of peptides overlapping methionine residues and other evidence. Human transferrin contains 678 amino acid residues and--including the two asparagine-linked glycans--has an overall molecular weight of 79,550. The polypeptide chain contains two homologous domains consisting of res...

  17. Systems metabolic engineering strategies for the production of amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Ma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Systems metabolic engineering is a multidisciplinary area that integrates systems biology, synthetic biology and evolutionary engineering. It is an efficient approach for strain improvement and process optimization, and has been successfully applied in the microbial production of various chemicals including amino acids. In this review, systems metabolic engineering strategies including pathway-focused approaches, systems biology-based approaches, evolutionary approaches and their applications in two major amino acid producing microorganisms: Corynebacterium glutamicum and Escherichia coli, are summarized.

  18. Stereoselective synthesis of unsaturated α-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, Roberto; Jeanne-Julien, Louis; René, Adeline; Martinez, Jean; Cavelier, Florine

    2015-06-01

    Stereoselective synthesis of unsaturated α-amino acids was performed by asymmetric alkylation. Two methods were investigated and their enantiomeric excess measured and compared. The first route consisted of an enantioselective approach induced by the Corey-Lygo catalyst under chiral phase transfer conditions while the second one involved the hydroxypinanone chiral auxiliary, both implicating Schiff bases as substrate. In all cases, the use of a prochiral Schiff base gave higher enantiomeric excess and yield in the final desired amino acid.

  19. Systems metabolic engineering strategies for the production of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qian; Zhang, Quanwei; Xu, Qingyang; Zhang, Chenglin; Li, Yanjun; Fan, Xiaoguang; Xie, Xixian; Chen, Ning

    2017-06-01

    Systems metabolic engineering is a multidisciplinary area that integrates systems biology, synthetic biology and evolutionary engineering. It is an efficient approach for strain improvement and process optimization, and has been successfully applied in the microbial production of various chemicals including amino acids. In this review, systems metabolic engineering strategies including pathway-focused approaches, systems biology-based approaches, evolutionary approaches and their applications in two major amino acid producing microorganisms: Corynebacterium glutamicum and Escherichia coli, are summarized.

  20. Did evolution select a nonrandom "alphabet" of amino acids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Gayle K; Freeland, Stephen J

    2011-04-01

    The last universal common ancestor of contemporary biology (LUCA) used a precise set of 20 amino acids as a standard alphabet with which to build genetically encoded protein polymers. Considerable evidence indicates that some of these amino acids were present through nonbiological syntheses prior to the origin of life, while the rest evolved as inventions of early metabolism. However, the same evidence indicates that many alternatives were also available, which highlights the question: what factors led biological evolution on our planet to define its standard alphabet? One possibility is that natural selection favored a set of amino acids that exhibits clear, nonrandom properties-a set of especially useful building blocks. However, previous analysis that tested whether the standard alphabet comprises amino acids with unusually high variance in size, charge, and hydrophobicity (properties that govern what protein structures and functions can be constructed) failed to clearly distinguish evolution's choice from a sample of randomly chosen alternatives. Here, we demonstrate unambiguous support for a refined hypothesis: that an optimal set of amino acids would spread evenly across a broad range of values for each fundamental property. Specifically, we show that the standard set of 20 amino acids represents the possible spectra of size, charge, and hydrophobicity more broadly and more evenly than can be explained by chance alone.

  1. Potential role of amino acids in pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Shamaila; Shaukat, Faiza; Gul, Anjuman; Arooj, Mahwish; Malik, Arif

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a syndrome of inconclusive etiopathogenesis with a prevalence of about 1% in general population. Underlying factors include genetic predisposition and defected neurodevelopment in early stages of life. The role of amino acids has been indicated in some reports. However, very few workers have detailed the effect of each amino acid in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Thus, in the present review, we aimed to provide an insight into the potential role of amino acids levels during schizophrenia. Any single amino acid defect cannot lead to the development of the disease. Higher concentration of glycine, serine, glutamate, homocysteine, and arginine are reported by many scientists in blood samples of patients of schizophrenia. Levels of rest of the amino acids show inconsistent results. Involvement of glutamate in pathophysiology of schizophrenia was hypothesized as early as the 1980s. It was demonstrated that dissociative anesthetics which are N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists can produce all negative, psychotic, cognitive, and physiological features of schizophrenia in healthy controls. This led to the development of hypothesis of NMDA receptor hypofunctioning in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Later on, it was also found that agents enhancing functioning of NMDA receptor at glycine modulatory site, improved symptoms in patients of schizophrenia receiving antipsychotic medications. Thus, the relationship of perturb amino acid levels with the biological basis and pathophysiology of schizophrenia is an important area to be further explored for effective management of schizophrenic patients.

  2. Amino acids in the rhizosphere: from plants to microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Luke A

    2013-09-01

    Often referred to as the "building blocks of proteins", the 20 canonical proteinogenic amino acids are ubiquitous in biological systems as the functional units in proteins. Sometimes overlooked are their varying additional roles that include serving as metabolic intermediaries, playing structural roles in bioactive natural products, acting as cosubstrates in enzymatic transformations, and as key regulators of cellular physiology. Amino acids can also serve as biological sources of both carbon and nitrogen and are found in the rhizosphere as a result of lysis or cellular efflux from plants and microbes and proteolysis of existing peptides. While both plants and microbes apparently prefer to take up nitrogen in its inorganic form, their ability to take up and use amino acids may confer a selective advantage in certain environments where organic nitrogen is abundant. Further, certain amino acids (e.g., glutamate and proline) and their betaines (e.g., glycine betaine) serve as compatible solutes necessary for osmoregulation in plants and microbes and can undergo rapid cellular flux. This ability is of particular importance in an ecological niche such as the rhizosphere, which is prone to significant variations in solute concentrations. Amino acids are also shown to alter key phenotypes related to plant root growth and microbial colonization, symbiotic interactions, and pathogenesis in the rhizosphere. This review will focus on the sources, transport mechanisms, and potential roles of the 20 canonical proteinogenic amino acids in the rhizosphere.

  3. Transport Function of Rice Amino Acid Permeases (AAPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Margaret R; Reinders, Anke; Ward, John M

    2015-07-01

    The transport function of four rice (Oryza sativa) amino acid permeases (AAPs), OsAAP1 (Os07g04180), OsAAP3 (Os06g36180), OsAAP7 (Os05g34980) and OsAAP16 (Os12g08090), was analyzed by expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and electrophysiology. OsAAP1, OsAAP7 and OsAAP16 functioned, similarly to Arabidopsis AAPs, as general amino acid permeases. OsAAP3 had a distinct substrate specificity compared with other rice or Arabidopsis AAPs. OsAAP3 transported the basic amino acids lysine and arginine well but selected against aromatic amino acids. The transport of basic amino acids was further analyzed for OsAAP1 and OsAAP3, and the results support the transport of both neutral and positively charged forms of basic amino acids by the rice AAPs. Cellular localization using the tandem enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-red fluorescent protein (RFP) reporter pHusion showed that OsAAP1 and OsAAP3 localized to the plasma membrane after transient expression in onion epidermal cells or stable expression in Arabidopsis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Amino acids production focusing on fermentation technologies - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Este, Martina; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Angelidaki, Irini

    Amino acids are attractive and promising biochemicals with market capacity requirements constantly increasing. Their applicability ranges from animal feed additives, flavour enhancers and ingredients in cosmetic to specialty nutrients in pharmaceutical and medical fields. This review gives an overview of the processes applied for amino acids production and points out the main advantages and disadvantages of each. Due to the advances made in the genetic engineering techniques, the biotechnological processes, and in particular the fermentation with the aid of strains such as Corynebacterium glutamicum or Escherichia coli, play a significant role in the industrial production of amino acids. Despite the numerous advantages of the fermentative amino acids production, the process still needs significant improvements leading to increased productivity and reduction of the production costs. Although the production processes of amino acids have been extensively investigated in previous studies, a comprehensive overview of the developments in bioprocess technology has not been reported yet. This review states the importance of the fermentation process for industrial amino acids production, underlining the strengths and the weaknesses of the process. Moreover, the potential of innovative approaches utilizing macro and microalgae or bacteria are presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. D-Amino Acids in the Nervous and Endocrine Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriyama, Yoshimitsu

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids are important components for peptides and proteins and act as signal transmitters. Only L-amino acids have been considered necessary in mammals, including humans. However, diverse D-amino acids, such as D-serine, D-aspartate, D-alanine, and D-cysteine, are found in mammals. Physiological roles of these D-amino acids not only in the nervous system but also in the endocrine system are being gradually revealed. N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are associated with learning and memory. D-Serine, D-aspartate, and D-alanine can all bind to NMDA receptors. H2S generated from D-cysteine reduces disulfide bonds in receptors and potentiates their activity. Aberrant receptor activity is related to diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), such as Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and schizophrenia. Furthermore, D-amino acids are detected in parts of the endocrine system, such as the pineal gland, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, pancreas, adrenal gland, and testis. D-Aspartate is being investigated for the regulation of hormone release from various endocrine organs. Here we focused on recent findings regarding the synthesis and physiological functions of D-amino acids in the nervous and endocrine systems. PMID:28053803

  6. Computational protein design quantifies structural constraints on amino acid covariation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah Ollikainen

    Full Text Available Amino acid covariation, where the identities of amino acids at different sequence positions are correlated, is a hallmark of naturally occurring proteins. This covariation can arise from multiple factors, including selective pressures for maintaining protein structure, requirements imposed by a specific function, or from phylogenetic sampling bias. Here we employed flexible backbone computational protein design to quantify the extent to which protein structure has constrained amino acid covariation for 40 diverse protein domains. We find significant similarities between the amino acid covariation in alignments of natural protein sequences and sequences optimized for their structures by computational protein design methods. These results indicate that the structural constraints imposed by protein architecture play a dominant role in shaping amino acid covariation and that computational protein design methods can capture these effects. We also find that the similarity between natural and designed covariation is sensitive to the magnitude and mechanism of backbone flexibility used in computational protein design. Our results thus highlight the necessity of including backbone flexibility to correctly model precise details of correlated amino acid changes and give insights into the pressures underlying these correlations.

  7. D-Amino Acids in the Nervous and Endocrine Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimitsu Kiriyama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids are important components for peptides and proteins and act as signal transmitters. Only L-amino acids have been considered necessary in mammals, including humans. However, diverse D-amino acids, such as D-serine, D-aspartate, D-alanine, and D-cysteine, are found in mammals. Physiological roles of these D-amino acids not only in the nervous system but also in the endocrine system are being gradually revealed. N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors are associated with learning and memory. D-Serine, D-aspartate, and D-alanine can all bind to NMDA receptors. H2S generated from D-cysteine reduces disulfide bonds in receptors and potentiates their activity. Aberrant receptor activity is related to diseases of the central nervous system (CNS, such as Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and schizophrenia. Furthermore, D-amino acids are detected in parts of the endocrine system, such as the pineal gland, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, pancreas, adrenal gland, and testis. D-Aspartate is being investigated for the regulation of hormone release from various endocrine organs. Here we focused on recent findings regarding the synthesis and physiological functions of D-amino acids in the nervous and endocrine systems.

  8. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in Ureilites Including Almahata Sitta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, A. S.; Glavin, D. P.; Callahan, M. P.; Dworkin, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    Ureilites are a class of meteorites that lack chondrules (achondrites) but have relatively high carbon abundances, averaging approx.3 wt %. Using highly sensitive liquid chromatography coupled with UV fluorescence and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-FD/ToF-MS), it was recently determined that there are amino acids in. fragment 94 of the Almahata Sitta ureilite[l]. Based on the presence of amino acids that are rare in the Earth's biosphere, as well as the near-racemic enantiomeric ratios of marry of the more common amino acids, it was concluded that most of the detected amino acids were indigenous to the meteorite. Although the composition of the Almahata Sitta ureilite appears to be unlike other recovered ureilites, the discovery of amino acids in this meteorite raises the question of whether other ureilites rnav also contain amino acids. Herein we present the results of LC-FDlTo.F-MS analyses of: a sand sample from the Almahata Sitta strewn held, Almahata Sitta fragments 425 (an ordinary H5 chondrite) and 427 (ureilite), as well as an Antarctic ureilite (Allan lulls, ALHA 77257).

  9. Transperitoneal absorption of glucose and amino acids for nutritional support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, B E; Borzatta, M

    1987-03-01

    To evaluate the peritoneal membrane as an absorptive surface for nutritional support, 14 New Zealand rabbits with peritoneal catheters were rapidly infused with 75 mL/kg of a 5% glucose and 2.5% mixed amino acid solution. Plasma and peritoneal fluid glucose, amino acid, and electrolyte concentrations and osmolarities were measured serially for six hours following infusion, and nutrient absorptions were calculated. Plasma osmolarity rose minimally, peritoneal fluid osmolarity declined rapidly, and there was a small increase in peritoneal fluid volume. Peritoneal fluid concentrations of glucose and amino acids fell precipitously during the initial two hours, while plasma concentrations rose in reciprocal fashion. Two thirds of the glucose and 83% of the amino acid loads were absorbed at six hours, with most of the absorption occurring within the first two hours. Amino acid absorption was independent of molecular weight and configuration. While glucose and amino acids were rapidly absorbed in adequate amounts, an intraperitoneal nutrition support system will require fat to provide total energy needs.

  10. Cytokinin producing bacteria stimulate amino acid deposition by wheat roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudoyarova, Guzel R; Melentiev, Alexander I; Martynenko, Elena V; Timergalina, Leila N; Arkhipova, Tatiana N; Shendel, Galina V; Kuz'mina, Ludmila Yu; Dodd, Ian C; Veselov, Stanislav Yu

    2014-10-01

    Phytohormone production is one mechanism by which rhizobacteria can stimulate plant growth, but it is not clear whether the bacteria gain from this mechanism. The hypothesis that microbial-derived cytokinin phytohormones stimulate root exudation of amino acids was tested. The rhizosphere of wheat plants was drenched with the synthetic cytokinin trans-zeatin or inoculated with Bacillus subtilis IB-22 (which produces zeatin type cytokinins) or B. subtilis IB-21 (which failed to accumulate cytokinins). Growing plants in a split root system allowed spatial separation of zeatin application or rhizobacterial inoculation to one compartment and analyses of amino acid release from roots (rhizodeposition) into the other compartment (without either microbial inoculation or treatment with exogenous hormone). Supplying B. subtilis IB-22 or zeatin to either the whole root system or half of the roots increased concentrations of amino acids in the soil solution although the magnitude of the increase was greater when whole roots were treated. There was some similarity in amino acid concentrations induced by either bacterial or zeatin treatment. Thus B. subtilis IB-22 increased amino acid rhizodeposition, likely due to its ability to produce cytokinins. Furthermore, B. subtilis strain IB-21, which failed to accumulate cytokinins in culture media, did not significantly affect amino acid concentrations in the wheat rhizosphere. The ability of rhizobacteria to produce cytokinins and thereby stimulate rhizodeposition may be important in enhancing rhizobacterial colonization of the rhizoplane. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Amino acid modifiers in guayule rubber compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tire producers are increasingly interested in biobased materials, including rubber but also as compounding chemicals. An alternative natural rubber for tire use is produced by guayule, a woody desert shrub native to North America. Alternative compounding chemicals include naturally-occurring amino a...

  12. Glycolic acid peels versus amino fruit acid peels for acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilknur, Turna; Demirtaşoğlu, Melda; Biçak, Mehtap Unlü; Ozkan, Sebnem

    2010-10-01

    Chemical exfoliation resulting in the reduction of keratotic plugs serves as a second-line treatment used as an adjunct to anti-acne agents. This study was designed to compare the therapeutic effects of glycolic acid (GA) peels and amino fruit acid (AFA) peels in patients with acne vulgaris. In this single-blind, randomized, right-left comparison study, 24 patients received 12 serial peels (GA and AFA, at concentrations from the lowest to the highest) on the two halves of the face at 2-week intervals for 6 months. In addition, cutaneous tolerability assessments during the applications and the patient preference test between both peeling methods at the end of the study were performed. There was a statistically significant decrease in the number of non-inflamed lesions with GA following the first month and with AFA following the second month (p applications were compared with each other, there was not a statistically significant difference in terms of non-inflamed and inflamed lesions (p > 0.05). During the application, it was observed that AFA peels caused fewer problems than GA peels did. AFA concentrations were increased more rapidly and more sessions were performed at the highest concentration of AFA. Based on the results of this study, we can state that both GA and AFA peels are efficacious for comedonal acne. And, compared to a GA peel, an AFA peel is less irritating and better tolerated.

  13. AANT: the Amino Acid-Nucleotide Interaction Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Michael M; Khrapov, Maksim A; Cox, J Colin; Yao, Jianchao; Tong, Lingnan; Ellington, Andrew D

    2004-01-01

    We have created an Amino Acid-Nucleotide Interaction Database (AANT; http://aant.icmb.utexas. edu/) that categorizes all amino acid-nucleotide interactions from experimentally determined protein-nucleic acid structures, and provides users with a graphic interface for visualizing these interactions in aggregate. AANT accomplishes this by extracting individual amino acid-nucleotide interactions from structures in the Protein Data Bank, combining and superimposing these interactions into multiple structure files (e.g. 20 amino acids x 5 nucleotides) and grouping structurally similar interactions into more readily identifiable clusters. Using the Chime web browser plug-in, users can view 3D representations of the superimpositions and clusters. The unique collection and representation of data on amino acid-nucleotide interactions facilitates understanding the specificity of protein-nucleic acid interactions at a more fundamental level, and allows comparison of otherwise extremely disparate sets of structures. Moreover, by modularly representing the fundamental interactions that govern binding specificity it may prove possible to better engineer nucleic acid binding proteins.

  14. Estimation of the dietary essential amino acid requirements of colliroja Astyanax fasciatus by using the ideal protein concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Massamitu Furuya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Colliroja, Astyanax fasciatus, is a new aquaculture species, and information on its dietary essential amino acid requirements is lacking. The whole body composition of 120 farmed fish (16.2 ± 8.8 g was determined to estimate the dietary essential amino acid requirement based on the ideal protein concept ((each essential amino acid/lysine x100, and the findings were correlated to the whole body essential amino acid content of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. The dietary essential amino acids, including cysteine and tyrosine, accounted for 5.46, 4.62, 1.16, 3.28, 5.63, 2.01, 2.59, 2.84, 4.66, 3.39, 0.65, and 3.51% of the total protein for lysine, arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, methionine+tyrosine, phenylalanine, phenylalanine+tyrosine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine, respectively. There were positive linear and high correlations (r = 0.971 between the whole body amino acid profiles of colliroja and Nile tilapia. Thus, the whole body amino acid profile of colliroja might be used to estimate accurately the essential amino acid requirement.

  15. Evaluation of circulating levels and renal clearance of natural amino acids in patients with Cushing's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggiano, A; Pivonello, R; Melis, D; Alfieri, R; Filippella, M; Spagnuolo, G; Salvatore, F; Lombardi, G; Colao, A

    2002-02-01

    Although the hypercortisolism-induced impairment of protein homeostasis is object of several studies, a detailed evaluation of the complete amino acid profile of patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) has never been performed. The aim of the current open transversal controlled study was to evaluate serum and urinary concentrations as well as renal clearance of the complete series of natural amino acids and their relationship with glucose tolerance in patients with Cushing's disease (CD). Twenty patients with CD (10 active and 10 cured) and 20 sex- and age-matched healthy controls entered the study. Measurement of serum and urinary levels of the complete series of natural amino acids was performed in all patients analyzed by cationic exchange high performance liquid cromatography (HPLC) after 2 weeks of a standardized protein intake regimen. The renal clearance (renal excretion rate) of each amino acid was calculated on the basis of the serum and urinary concentrations of creatinine and the specific amino acid. Fasting glucose and insulin levels, glucose and insulin response to standard glucose load, insulinogenic and homeostasis model insulin resistance (Homa-R) indexes were also evaluated and correlated to the circulating levels and renal clearances of each amino acid. Significantly higher serum (p<0.01) and urinary (p<0.05) levels of alanine and cystine, lower serum and higher urinary levels of leucine, isoleucine and valine (p<0.05) and higher renal excretion rates of leucine, isoleucine and valine (p<0.01) were found in patients with active CD than in patients cured from the disease and in controls. No difference was found between cured patients and controls. Creatinine clearance was similar in active and cured patients and in controls. In patients with active CD, urinary cortisol levels were significantly correlated to urinary cystine levels (r=0.85; p<0.01) and renal excretion rate of leucine (r=-0.76; p<0.05), isoleucine (r=-0.76; p<0.05) and valine (r=-0

  16. Arrangement of Proteinogenic α-Amino Acids on a Cyclic Peptide Comprising Alternate Biphenyl-Cored ζ-Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Shohei; Chiba, Masayuki; Shionoya, Mitsuhiko

    2017-05-18

    Aiming at precisely arranging several proteinogenic α-amino acids on a folded scaffold, we have developed a cyclic hexapeptide comprising an alternate sequence of biphenyl-cored ζ-amino acids and proteinogenic α-amino acids such as l-leucine. The amino acids were connected by typical peptide synthesis, and the resultant linear hexapeptide was intramolecularly cyclized to form a target cyclic peptide. Theoretical analyses and NMR spectroscopy suggested that the cyclic peptide was folded into an unsymmetrical conformation, and the structure was likely to be flexible in CHCl 3 . The optical properties including UV/Vis absorption, fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) were also evaluated. Furthermore, the cyclic peptide became soluble in water by introducing three carboxylate groups at the periphery of the cyclic skeleton. This α/ζ-alternating cyclic peptide is therefore expected to serve as a unique scaffold for arranging several functionalities. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Hydroxy, carboxylic and amino acid functionalized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by simple co-precipitation method and modified with different coating agents such as ascorbic acid, hexanoic acid, salicylic acid, L-arginine and L-cysteine. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by various techniques such as FT IR, XRD,.

  18. Alteration of metabolomic markers of amino-acid metabolism in piglets with in-feed antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Chunlong; Yang, Yuxiang; Yu, Kaifan; Yu, Miao; Zhang, Chuanjian; Su, Yong; Zhu, Weiyun

    2017-04-01

    In-feed antibiotics have been used to promote growth in piglets, but its impact on metabolomics profiles associated with host metabolism is largely unknown. In this study, to test the hypothesis that antibiotic treatment may affect metabolite composition both in the gut and host biofluids, metabolomics profiles were analyzed in antibiotic-treated piglets. Piglets were fed a corn-soy basal diet with or without in-feed antibiotics from postnatal day 7 to day 42. The serum biochemical parameters, metabolomics profiles of the serum, urine, and jejunal digesta, and indicators of microbial metabolism (short-chain fatty acids and biogenic amines) were analyzed. Compared to the control group, antibiotics treatment did not have significant effects on serum biochemical parameters except that it increased (P Antibiotics treatment increased the relative concentrations of metabolites involved in amino-acid metabolism in the serum, while decreased the relative concentrations of most amino acids in the jejunal content. Antibiotics reduced urinary 2-ketoisocaproate and hippurate. Furthermore, antibiotics decreased (P Antibiotics significantly affected the concentrations of biogenic amines, which are derived from microbial amino-acid metabolism. The three major amines, putrescine, cadaverine, and spermidine, were all increased (P antibiotics-treated piglets. These results identified the phenomena that in-feed antibiotics may have significant impact on the metabolomic markers of amino-acid metabolism in piglets.

  19. Designed Amino Acid Feed in Improvement of Production and Quality Targets of a Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Torkashvand

    Full Text Available Cell culture feeds optimization is a critical step in process development of pharmaceutical recombinant protein production. Amino acids are the basic supplements of mammalian cell culture feeds with known effect on their growth promotion and productivity. In this study, we reported the implementation of the Plackett-Burman (PB multifactorial design to screen the effects of amino acids on the growth promotion and productivity of a Chinese hamster ovary DG-44 (CHO-DG44 cell line producing bevacizumab. After this screening, the amino acid combinations were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM to determine the most effective concentration in feeds. Through this strategy, the final monoclonal antibody (mAb titre was enhanced by 70%, compared to the control group. For this particular cell line, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine and glycine had the highest positive effects on the final mAb titre. Simultaneously, the impact of the designed amino acid feed on some critical quality attributes of bevacizumab was examined in the group with highest productivity. The product was analysed for N-glycan profiles, charge variant distribution, and low molecular weight forms. The results showed that the target product quality has been improved using this feeding strategy. It was shown how this strategy could significantly diminish the time and number of experiments in identifying the most effective amino acids and related concentrations in target product enhancement. This model could be successfully applied to other components of culture media and feeds.

  20. Characterization of 2-aminoisobutyric acid transport in Neurospora crassa: a general amino acid permease-specific substrate.

    OpenAIRE

    Ogilvie-Villa, S; DeBusk, R M; DeBusk, A G

    1981-01-01

    We report the characterization of an amino acid 2-aminoisobutyric acid was transported solely by the general amino acid permease and not by the neutral amino acid permease. Furthermore, this substrate was not metabolized after transport. The potential for a system-specific nonmetabolizable substrate as a tool in the analysis of amino acid transport and its regulation is discussed.

  1. Non-protein amino acids and neurodegeneration: the enemy within.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Kenneth J

    2014-03-01

    Animals, in common with plants and microorganisms, synthesise proteins from a pool of 20 protein amino acids (plus selenocysteine and pyrolysine) (Hendrickson et al., 2004). This represents a small proportion (~2%) of the total number of amino acids known to exist in nature (Bell, 2003). Many 'non-protein' amino acids are synthesised by plants, and in some cases constitute part of their chemical armoury against pathogens, predators or other species competing for the same resources (Fowden et al., 1967). Microorganisms can also use selectively toxic amino acids to gain advantage over competing organisms (Nunn et al., 2010). Since non-protein amino acids (and imino acids) are present in legumes, fruits, seeds and nuts, they are ubiquitous in the diets of human populations around the world. Toxicity to humans is unlikely to have been the selective force for their evolution, but they have the clear potential to adversely affect human health. In this review we explore the links between exposure to non-protein amino acids and neurodegenerative disorders in humans. Environmental factors play a major role in these complex disorders which are predominantly sporadic (Coppede et al., 2006). The discovery of new genes associated with neurodegenerative diseases, many of which code for aggregation-prone proteins, continues at a spectacular pace but little progress is being made in identifying the environmental factors that impact on these disorders. We make the case that insidious entry of non-protein amino acids into the human food chain and their incorporation into protein might be contributing significantly to neurodegenerative damage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Energetics of Amino Acid Synthesis in Alkaline Hydrothermal Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadai, Norio

    2015-12-01

    Alkaline hydrothermal systems have received considerable attention as candidates for the origin and evolution of life on the primitive Earth. Nevertheless, sufficient information has not yet been obtained for the thermodynamic properties of amino acids, which are necessary components for life, at high temperatures and alkaline pH. These properties were estimated using experimental high-temperature volume and heat capacity data reported in the literature for several amino acids, together with correlation algorithms and the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equations of state. This approach enabled determination of a complete set of the standard molal thermodynamic data and the revised HKF parameters for the 20 protein amino acids in their zwitterionic and ionization states. The obtained dataset was then used to evaluate the energetics of amino acid syntheses from simple inorganic precursors (CO2, H2, NH3 and H2S) in a simulated alkaline hydrothermal system on the Hadean Earth. Results show that mixing between CO2-rich seawater and the H2-rich hydrothermal fluid can produce energetically favorable conditions for amino acid syntheses, particularly in the lower-temperature region of such systems. Together with data related to the pH and temperature dependences of the energetics of amino acid polymerizations presented in earlier reports, these results suggest the following. Hadean alkaline hydrothermal settings, where steep pH and temperature gradients may have existed between cool, slightly acidic Hadean ocean water and hot, alkaline hydrothermal fluids at the vent-ocean interface, may be energetically the most suitable environment for the synthesis and polymerization of amino acids.

  3. Postprandial Levels of Branch Chained and Aromatic Amino Acids Associate with Fasting Glycaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Filip Ottosson; Ulrika Ericson; Peter Almgren; Jeanette Nilsson; Martin Magnusson; Céline Fernandez; Olle Melander

    2016-01-01

    High fasting plasma concentrations of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine have been associated with increased risk of hyperglycaemia and incidence of type 2 diabetes. Whether these associations are diet or metabolism driven is unknown. We examined how the dietary protein source affects the postprandial circulating profile of these three diabetes associated amino acids (DMAAs) and tested whether the postprandial DMAA profiles are associated with fasting glycaemia. We used a crossover desig...

  4. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Novel Amino Acid-(N'-Benzoyl Hydrazide and Amino Acid-(N'-Nicotinoyl Hydrazide Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherine N. Khattab

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The coupling reaction of benzoic acid and nicotinic acid hydrazides with N- protected L-amino acids including valine, leucine, phenylalanine, glutamic acid and tyrosine is reported. The target compounds, N-Boc-amino acid-(N`-benzoyl- and N- Boc-amino acid-(N`-nicotinoyl hydrazides 5a-5e and 6a-6e were prepared in very high yields and purity using N-[(dimethylamino-1H-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5-b]pyridin-1-yl- methylene]-N-methyl-methanaminium hexafluorophosphate N-oxide (HATU as coupling reagent. The antimicrobial activity of the Cu and Cd complexes of the designed compounds was tested. The products were deprotected affording the corresponding amino acid-(N`-benzoyl hydrazide hydrochloride salts (7a-7e and amino acid-(N`- nicotinoyl hydrazide hydrochloride salts (8a-8e. These compounds and their Cu and Cd complexes were also tested for their antimicrobial activity. Several compounds showed comparable activity to that of ampicillin against S. aureus and E. coli.

  5. Variation in amino acid and lipid composition of latent fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxton, Ruth S; Baron, Mark G; Butler, David; Kent, Terry; Sears, Vaughn G

    2010-06-15

    The enhancement of latent fingerprints, both at the crime scene and in the laboratory using an array of chemical, physical and optical techniques, permits their use for identification. Despite the plethora of techniques available, there are occasions when latent fingerprints are not successfully enhanced. An understanding of latent fingerprint chemistry and behaviour will aid the improvement of current techniques and the development of novel ones. In this study the amino acid and fatty acid content of 'real' latent fingerprints collected on a non-porous surface was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Squalene was also quantified in addition. Hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid and cis-9-octadecenoic acid were the most abundant fatty acids in all samples. There was, however, wide variation in the relative amounts of each fatty acid in each sample. It was clearly demonstrated that touching sebum-rich areas of the face immediately prior to fingerprint deposition resulted in a significant increase in the amount of fatty acids and squalene deposited in the resulting 'groomed' fingerprints. Serine was the most abundant amino acid identified followed by glycine, alanine and aspartic acid. The significant quantitative differences between the 'natural' and 'groomed' fingerprint samples seen for fatty acids were not observed in the case of the amino acids. This study demonstrates the variation in latent fingerprint composition between individuals and the impact of the sampling protocol on the quantitative analysis of fingerprints. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A molecular rotor based ratiometric sensor for basic amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettiwala, Aafrin M; Singh, Prabhat K

    2018-01-05

    The inevitable importance of basic amino acids, arginine and lysine, in human health and metabolism demands construction of efficient sensor systems for them. However, there are only limited reports on the 'ratiometric' detection of basic amino acids which is further restricted by the use of chemically complex sensor molecules, which impedes their prospect for practical applications. Herein, we report a ratiometric sensor system build on simple mechanism of disassociation of novel emissive Thioflavin-T H-aggregates from heparin surface, when subjected to interaction with basic amino acids. The strong and selective electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interaction of basic amino acids with heparin leads to large alteration in photophysical attributes of heparin bound Thioflavin-T, which forms a highly sensitive sensor platform for detection of basic amino acids in aqueous solution. These selective interactions between basic amino acids and heparin allow our sensor system to discriminate arginine and lysine from other amino acids. This unique mechanism of dissociation of Thioflavin-T aggregates from heparin surface provides ratiometric response on both fluorimetric and colorimetric outputs for detection of arginine and lysine, and thus it holds a significant advantage over other developed sensor systems which are restricted to single wavelength detection. Apart from the sensitivity and selectivity, our system also provides the advantage of simplicity, dual mode of sensing, and more importantly, it employs an inexpensive commercially available probe molecule, which is a significant advantage over other developed sensor systems that uses tedious synthesis protocol for the employed probe in the detection scheme, an impediment for practical applications. Additionally, our sensor system also shows response in complex biological media of serum samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A molecular rotor based ratiometric sensor for basic amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettiwala, Aafrin M.; Singh, Prabhat K.

    2018-01-01

    The inevitable importance of basic amino acids, arginine and lysine, in human health and metabolism demands construction of efficient sensor systems for them. However, there are only limited reports on the 'ratiometric' detection of basic amino acids which is further restricted by the use of chemically complex sensor molecules, which impedes their prospect for practical applications. Herein, we report a ratiometric sensor system build on simple mechanism of disassociation of novel emissive Thioflavin-T H-aggregates from heparin surface, when subjected to interaction with basic amino acids. The strong and selective electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interaction of basic amino acids with heparin leads to large alteration in photophysical attributes of heparin bound Thioflavin-T, which forms a highly sensitive sensor platform for detection of basic amino acids in aqueous solution. These selective interactions between basic amino acids and heparin allow our sensor system to discriminate arginine and lysine from other amino acids. This unique mechanism of dissociation of Thioflavin-T aggregates from heparin surface provides ratiometric response on both fluorimetric and colorimetric outputs for detection of arginine and lysine, and thus it holds a significant advantage over other developed sensor systems which are restricted to single wavelength detection. Apart from the sensitivity and selectivity, our system also provides the advantage of simplicity, dual mode of sensing, and more importantly, it employs an inexpensive commercially available probe molecule, which is a significant advantage over other developed sensor systems that uses tedious synthesis protocol for the employed probe in the detection scheme, an impediment for practical applications. Additionally, our sensor system also shows response in complex biological media of serum samples.

  8. Amino acid quantification in bulk soybeans by transmission Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulmerich, Matthew V; Gelber, Matthew K; Azam, Hossain M; Harrison, Sandra K; McKinney, John; Thompson, Dennis; Owen, Bridget; Kull, Linda S; Bhargava, Rohit

    2013-12-03

    Soybeans are a commodity crop of significant economic and nutritional interest. As an important source of protein, buyers of soybeans are interested in not only the total protein content but also in the specific amino acids that comprise the total protein content. Raman spectroscopy has the chemical specificity to measure the twenty common amino acids as pure substances. An unsolved challenge, however, is to quantify varying levels of amino acids mixed together and bound in soybeans at relatively low concentrations. Here we report the use of transmission Raman spectroscopy as a secondary analytical approach to nondestructively measure specific amino acids in intact soybeans. With the employment of a transmission-based Raman instrument, built specifically for nondestructive measurements from bulk soybeans, spectra were collected from twenty-four samples to develop a calibration model using a partial least-squares approach with a random-subset cross validation. The calibration model was validated on an independent set of twenty-five samples for oil, protein, and amino acid predictions. After Raman measurements, the samples were reduced to a fine powder and conventional wet chemistry methods were used for quantifying reference values of protein, oil, and 18 amino acids. We found that the greater the concentrations (% by weight component of interest), the better the calibration model and prediction capabilities. Of the 18 amino acids analyzed, 13 had R(2) values greater than 0.75 with a standard error of prediction c.a. 3-4% by weight. Serine, histidine, cystine, tryptophan, and methionine showed poor predictions (R(2) soybeans.

  9. Amino acid composition of cottage cheese and whey with bifidobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Rodionova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Breaking condition intestinal flora, the simplest way to create sensitive parts of the body microbiocenosis caused by various factors. Reasons for people microecology imbalances – antibiotics, preservatives, stress. The result is an imbalance – the number of gastrointestinal disorders, immune deficiency disorders metabolic processes in the body. Therapeutic effect of probiotic microorganisms is the result of exogenous and endometabolitov synthesis the character of the protein. Acid activity information probiotic microorganisms and the distribution of amino acids between the products and intermediates in biopotential evaluation process foods produced with probiotic microflora by fermentation. Test results from the amino acid composition of whey and quark are obtained by fermenting raw milk probiotics bifidobacterias. It was found that during the fermentation of the quark consortium, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium bifidum Y enriched curd 4 of leucine and glutamine. Rate of transfer amino acids in serum to 2–6% of essential amino acids is irrelevant 3–7%. The highest value observed transient threonine, isoleucyl, lysine, valine, alanine, glycine, proline, serine. The mean value of the prototype amino acid protein curd and whey protein biological value was 71.89 and 74.58. Preservation of active forms of probiotic microorganisms after heating the bunch to 53–55 °C, lg concentration of not less than 7 (in 1 g in cottage cheese and serum. The received data are actual for formation of an information data bank, necessary for the development of prescription-component solutions of eubiotic products.

  10. Valuable biomolecules from nine North Atlantic red macroalgae: Amino acids, fatty acids, carotenoids, minerals and metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; Bruhn, Annette; Eybye, Karin Loft

    2016-01-01

    , glutamic acid, and arginine, respectively. The amino acid score of the nine algae varied from 44% to 92%, the most commonly first limiting amino acid being histidine. Lutein, β-carotene, and zeaxanthin were the identified carotenoids. Contents of all macro and trace minerals, with the exception...

  11. Absolute quantitation of proteins by acid hydrolysis combined with amino acid detection by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirgorodskaya, Olga A; Körner, Roman; Kozmin, Yuri P; Roepstorff, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Amino acid analysis is among the most accurate methods for absolute quantification of proteins and peptides. Here, we combine acid hydrolysis with the addition of isotopically labeled standard amino acids and analysis by mass spectrometry for accurate and sensitive protein quantitation. Quantitation of less than 10 fmol of protein standards with errors below 10% has been demonstrated using this method.

  12. Absolute quantitation of proteins by Acid hydrolysis combined with amino Acid detection by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirgorodskaya, Olga A; Körner, Roman; Kozmin, Yuri P

    2012-01-01

    Amino acid analysis is among the most accurate methods for absolute quantification of proteins and peptides. Here, we combine acid hydrolysis with the addition of isotopically labeled standard amino acids and analysis by mass spectrometry for accurate and sensitive protein quantitation....... Quantitation of less than 10 fmol of protein standards with errors below 10% has been demonstrated using this method (1)....

  13. Fatty and amino acids composition of selected wild edible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For thousands of years, mushrooms have long been used for their health promoting properties. The aim of this study was to determine the fatty acids and amino acids contents in priority wild mushrooms: Termitomyces microcarpus, Termitomyces sp. (Bunyanaka), Termitomyces globulus, Termitomyces eurrhizus and ...

  14. Promiscuous Seven Transmembrane Receptors Sensing L-α-amino Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smajilovic, Sanela; Wellendorph, Petrine; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2014-01-01

    A number of nutrient sensing seven trans-membrane (7TM) receptors have been identified and characterized over the past few years. While the sensing mechanisms to carbohydrates and free fatty acids are well understood, the molecular basis of amino acid sensing has recently come to the limelight. T....... The present review describes the current status of promiscuous L-α-amino acid sensors, the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR), the GPRC6A receptor, the T1R1/T1R3 receptor and also their molecular pharmacology, expression pattern and physiological significance....

  15. Amino acid pool composition of the basidiomycete Coprinus cinereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Cynthia E; Gathman, Allen C; Lilly, Walt W

    2007-11-01

    The leaf-litter fungus Coprinus cinereus maintains a pool of free amino acid in its mycelium. When the organism is grown under conditions of high nitrogen availability with 13.2 mmol.L-1 L-asparagine as the nitrogen source, the primary constituents of this pool are glutamine, alanine, and glutamic acid. Together these 3 amino acids comprise approximately 70% of the pool. Nitrogen deprivation reduces the size of the free amino acid pool by 75%, and neither a high concentration of ammonium nor a protein nitrogen source support a similar pool size as L-asparagine. Nitrogen deprivation also reduces the concentration of glutamine to the pool while increasing glutamate. Concomitant with this shift is a marked increase in mycelial ammonium.

  16. Fungal Peptaibiotics: Assessing Potential Meteoritic Amino Acid Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Bruckner, H.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of non-protein alpha-dialkyl-amino acids such as alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-A1B) and isovaline (Iva), which are relatively rare in the terrestrial biosphere, has long been used as an indication of the indigeneity of meteoritic amino acids, however, the discovery of alpha-AIB in peptides producers by a widespread group of filamentous fungi indicates the possibility of a terrestrial biotic source for the alpha-AIB observed in some meteorites. The alpha-AIB-containing peptides produced by these fungi are dubbed peptaibiotics. We measured the molecular distribution and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios for amino acids found in the total hydrolysates of four biologically synthesized peptaibiotics. We compared these aneasurenetts with those from the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite Murchison and from three Antarctic CR2 carbonaceous chondrites in order to understand the peptaibiotics as a potential source of meteoritic contamination.

  17. Free amino acids in the Arctic snow and ice core samples: Potential markers for paleoclimatic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Elena; Spolaor, Andrea; Karroca, Ornela; Park, Ki-Tae; Martma, Tõnu; Isaksson, Elisabeth; Kohler, Jack; Gallet, Jean Charles; Bjorkman, Mats P; Cappelletti, David; Spreen, Gunnar; Zangrando, Roberta; Barbante, Carlo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2017-12-31

    The role of oceanic primary production on climate variability has long been debated. Defining changes in past oceanic primary production can help understanding of the important role that marine algae have in climate variability. In ice core research methanesulfonic acid is the chemical marker commonly used for assessing changes in past primary production. However, other organic compounds such as amino acids, can be produced and emitted into the atmosphere during a phytoplankton bloom. These species can be transported and deposited onto the ice cap in polar regions. Here we investigate the correlation between the concentration of chlorophyll-a, marker of marine primary production, and amino acids present in an ice core. For the first time, free l- and d-amino acids in Arctic snow and firn samples were determined by a sensitive and selective analytical method based on liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The new method for the determination of free amino acids concentrations was applied to firn core samples collected on April 2015 from the summit of the Holtedahlfonna glacier, Svalbard (N 79'08.424, E 13'23.639, 1120m a.s.l.). The main results of this work are summarized as follows: (1) glycine, alanine and proline, were detected and quantified in the firn core samples; (2) their concentration profiles, compared with that of the stable isotope δ18O ratio, show a seasonal cycling with the highest concentrations during the spring and summer time; (3) back-trajectories and Greenland Sea chlorophyll-a concentrations obtained by satellite measurements were compared with the amino acids profile obtained from ice core samples, this provided further insights into the present results. This study suggests that the amino acid concentrations in the ice samples collected from the Holtedahlfonna glaciers could reflect changes in oceanic phytoplankton abundance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Amino acid containing glass-ionomer cement for orthopedic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei

    Amino acid containing glass-ionomer cements were synthesized, formulated, and evaluated for orthopedic application. The formulation of different amino acid containing glass-ionomer bone cements was optimized, and conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer bone cements were compared. Properties of interest included handling characteristics, physical and chemical properties, and mechanical strength of the bone cement. The study was based on the synthesis of different vinyl containing amino acids, different polyelectrolytes containing these amino acid residues, and different resin-modified polyelectrolytes, as well as formulation and evaluation of conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer bone cements using these polyelectrolytes. Systematic preparation of polyelectrolytes and formulation of glass-ionomer bone cements were essential features of this work, since we anticipated that the mechanical properties of the glass-ionomer bone cements could be strongly affected by the nature of the polyelectrolytes and formulation. Mechanical properties were evaluated in a screw driven mechanical testing machine, and structure-property relationships were determined by scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation of the fracture surface of the specimens. How the structure of polyelectrolytes, such as different amino acid residues, molecular weight, different modifying resin, and formulation of glass-ionomer bone cement, affected the mechanical properties was also studied.

  19. 2-Aminoimidazole Amino Acids as Inhibitors of the Binuclear Manganese Metalloenzyme Human Arginase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilies, M.; Di Costanzo, L; North, M; Scott, J; Christianson, D

    2010-01-01

    Arginase, a key metalloenzyme of the urea cycle that converts L-arginine into L-ornithine and urea, is presently considered a pharmaceutical target for the management of diseases associated with aberrant L-arginine homeostasis, such as asthma, cardiovascular diseases, and erectile dysfunction. We now report the design, synthesis, and evaluation of a series of 2-aminoimidazole amino acid inhibitors in which the 2-aminoimidazole moiety serves as a guanidine mimetic. These compounds represent a new class of arginase inhibitors. The most potent inhibitor identified in this study, 2-(S)-amino-5-(2-aminoimidazol-1-yl)pentanoic acid (A1P, 10), binds to human arginase I with K{sub d} = 2 {micro}M and significantly attenuates airways hyperresponsiveness in a murine model of allergic airways inflammation. These findings suggest that 2-aminoimidazole amino acids represent new leads for the development of arginase inhibitors with promising pharmacological profiles.

  20. Volumetric studies of some amino acids in binary aqueous solutions ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    L-alanine, and L-valine in aqueous magnesium chlo- ride solutions (0⋅1–0⋅8 mol kg–1), at 288⋅15 and. 308⋅15 K. These results are expected to highlight the role of amino acids in presence of aqueous mag- nesium chloride solutions and the influence of tem- perature on them. 2.1 Experimental. 2.1 Materials. The amino ...