Sample records for profiler precipitation spectra

  1. Label-free peptide profiling of Orbitrap™ full mass spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.K. Titulaer (Mark); D. de Costa (Dominique); C. Stingl (Christoph); L.J.M. Dekker (Lennard); P.A.E. Sillevis Smitt (Peter); T.M. Luider (Theo)


    textabstractBackground. We developed a new version of the open source software package Peptrix that can yet compare large numbers of Orbitrap™ LC-MS data. The peptide profiling results for Peptrix on MS1 spectra were compared with those obtained from a small selection of open source and commercial

  2. Label-free peptide profiling of Orbitrap™ full mass spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titulaer Mark K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We developed a new version of the open source software package Peptrix that can yet compare large numbers of Orbitrap™ LC-MS data. The peptide profiling results for Peptrix on MS1 spectra were compared with those obtained from a small selection of open source and commercial software packages: msInspect, Sieve™ and Progenesis™. The properties compared in these packages were speed, total number of detected masses, redundancy of masses, reproducibility in numbers and CV of intensity, overlap of masses, and differences in peptide peak intensities. Reproducibility measurements were taken for the different MS1 software applications by measuring in triplicate a complex peptide mixture of immunoglobulin on the Orbitrap™ mass spectrometer. Values of peptide masses detected from the high intensity peaks of the MS1 spectra by peptide profiling were verified with values of the MS2 fragmented and sequenced masses that resulted in protein identifications with a significant score. Findings Peptrix finds about the same number of peptide features as the other packages, but peptide masses are in some cases approximately 5 to 10 times less redundant present in the peptide profile matrix. The Peptrix profile matrix displays the largest overlap when comparing the number of masses in a pair between two software applications. The overlap of peptide masses between software packages of low intensity peaks in the spectra is remarkably low with about 50% of the detected masses in the individual packages. Peptrix does not differ from the other packages in detecting 96% of the masses that relate to highly abundant sequenced proteins. MS1 peak intensities vary between the applications in a non linear way as they are not processed using the same method. Conclusions Peptrix is capable of peptide profiling using Orbitrap™ files and finding differential expressed peptides in body fluid and tissue samples. The number of peptide masses detected in

  3. Label-free peptide profiling of Orbitrap™ full mass spectra. (United States)

    Titulaer, Mark K; de Costa, Dominique; Stingl, Christoph; Dekker, Lennard J; Sillevis Smitt, Peter Ae; Luider, Theo M


    We developed a new version of the open source software package Peptrix that can yet compare large numbers of Orbitrap™ LC-MS data. The peptide profiling results for Peptrix on MS1 spectra were compared with those obtained from a small selection of open source and commercial software packages: msInspect, Sieve™ and Progenesis™. The properties compared in these packages were speed, total number of detected masses, redundancy of masses, reproducibility in numbers and CV of intensity, overlap of masses, and differences in peptide peak intensities. Reproducibility measurements were taken for the different MS1 software applications by measuring in triplicate a complex peptide mixture of immunoglobulin on the Orbitrap™ mass spectrometer. Values of peptide masses detected from the high intensity peaks of the MS1 spectra by peptide profiling were verified with values of the MS2 fragmented and sequenced masses that resulted in protein identifications with a significant score. Peptrix finds about the same number of peptide features as the other packages, but peptide masses are in some cases approximately 5 to 10 times less redundant present in the peptide profile matrix. The Peptrix profile matrix displays the largest overlap when comparing the number of masses in a pair between two software applications. The overlap of peptide masses between software packages of low intensity peaks in the spectra is remarkably low with about 50% of the detected masses in the individual packages. Peptrix does not differ from the other packages in detecting 96% of the masses that relate to highly abundant sequenced proteins. MS1 peak intensities vary between the applications in a non linear way as they are not processed using the same method. Peptrix is capable of peptide profiling using Orbitrap™ files and finding differential expressed peptides in body fluid and tissue samples. The number of peptide masses detected in Orbitrap™ files can be increased by using more MS1 peptide

  4. Mobile Three Frequency Radar as Research Platform for Precipitation Profiling (United States)

    Schmidt, Walter; Rautiainen, Kimmo; Harri, Ari-Matti


    Precipitation profiling at the frequency bands of Ku, Ka and W bands are becoming increasingly popular in the studies of atmospheric microphysics. Ever since the introduction of Ku / Ka pair of frequencies for the Global Precipitation Measurement mission (GPM) and the success of W band in Cloudsat, the interest in precipitation profiling using these frequencies has increased. The profiling observations will also serve as ground validation instruments for several space missions such as GPM and EarthCARE [1]. In order to get better information to retrieve ice microphysics as well as to enhance sensitivity, we need to move from the standard S- and C-band weather radars to higher frequencies [2]. As was recently shown, the use of multi- frequency profiling yields important additional information compared to single-frequency radar mapping [3]. During the past four years a consortium of research, academic and private industries in Finland has been developing a flexible low-cost mobile three-band radar system for precipitation profiling. The feasibility of the concept is being demonstrated by implementing the Ku- and Ka-band part of the system. The antenna structure with antennas for Ku-, Ka- and W-band is completed allowing the pointing of all three antenna systems into the same direction during an azimuth and elevation scan. Using a freely programmable digital waveform generator and decoding electronics for the received data, the implementation of different wave form generation, compression and decoding schemes and their influence on the radar performance in the different bands can be evaluated and optimized. The modular design allows the connection of different transmitter control and receiver decoding units to any of the three band front-end electronics to evaluate the performance of different approaches in the various bands simultaneously. A real-time analysis software supports the data interpretation and system optimization during field tests. Via mobile internet

  5. Orographic precipitation and vertical velocity characteristics from drop size and fall velocity spectra observed by disdrometers (United States)

    Lee, Dong-In; Kim, Dong-Kyun; Kim, Ji-Hyeon; Kang, Yunhee; Kim, Hyeonjoon


    During a summer monsoon season each year, severe weather phenomena caused by front, mesoscale convective systems, or typhoons often occur in the southern Korean Peninsula where is mostly comprised of complex high mountains. These areas play an important role in controlling formation, amount, and distribution of rainfall. As precipitation systems move over the mountains, they can develop rapidly and produce localized heavy rainfall. Thus observational analysis in the mountainous areas is required for studying terrain effects on the rapid rainfall development and its microphysics. We performed intensive field observations using two s-band operational weather radars around Mt. Jiri (1950 m ASL) during summertime on June and July in 2015-2016. Observation data of DSD (Drop Size Distribution) from Parsivel disdrometer and (w component) vertical velocity data from ultrasonic anemometers were analyzed for Typhoon Chanhom on 12 July 2015 and the heavy rain event on 1 July 2016. During the heavy rain event, a dual-Doppler radar analysis using Jindo radar and Gunsan radar was also conducted to examine 3-D wind fields and vertical structure of reflectivity in these areas. For examining up-/downdrafts in the windward or leeward side of Mt. Jiri, we developed a new scheme technique to estimate vertical velocities (w) from drop size and fall velocity spectra of Parsivel disdrometers at different stations. Their comparison with the w values observed by the 3D anemometer showed quite good agreement each other. The Z histogram with regard to the estimated w was similar to that with regard to R, indicating that Parsivel-estimated w is quite reasonable for classifying strong and weak rain, corresponding to updraft and downdraft, respectively. Mostly, positive w values (upward) were estimated in heavy rainfall at the windward side (D1 and D2). Negative w values (downward) were dominant even during large rainfall at the leeward side (D4). For D1 and D2, the upward w percentages were

  6. Biovolume-size spectra of epipelagic zooplankton using a multi-frequency acoustic profiling system (MAPS) (United States)

    Napp, J. M.; Ortner, P. B.; Pieper, R. E.; Holliday, D. V.


    Zooplankton biovolume data from a Multi-frequency Acoustic Profiling System were used to construct biovolume-size spectra for the Gulf Stream and the Southern California Bight. These spectra were linear through most, but not all, of the size range sampled (0.025-4.00 mm, ESR). Analysis of covariance was sometimes a useful tool to distinguish among spectra taken at different times and places. Difference spectra offered an alternative method of visualizing disparities between spectra. We compared our acoustically-derived spectra from the Gulf Stream with those obtained from other oceans with different samplers and those obtained in the same waters with a different sampler. The results indicate that differences attributable to sampler bias within the same system presently make it difficult, if not impossible, to interpret comparisons from different samplers in different ecosystems.

  7. Energy Spectra, Altitude Profiles and Charge Ratios of Atmospheric Muons

    CERN Document Server

    Coutu, S; Duvernois, M A; Barwick, S W; Schneider, E; Bhattacharya, A; Bower, C; Musser, J A; Labrador, A W; Müller, D; Swordy, S P; Torbet, E; Chaput, C; McKee, S; Tarle, G; Tomasch, A D; Nutter, S L; De Nolfo, G A


    We present a new measurement of air shower muons made during atmospheric ascent of the High Energy Antimatter Telescope balloon experiment. The muon charge ratio mu+ / mu- is presented as a function of atmospheric depth in the momentum interval 0.3-0.9 GeV/c. The differential mu- momentum spectra are presented between 0.3 and about 50 GeV/c at atmospheric depths between 13 and 960 g/cm^2. We compare our measurements with other recent data and with Monte Carlo calculations of the same type as those used in predicting atmospheric neutrino fluxes. We find that our measured mu- fluxes are smaller than the predictions by as much as 70% at shallow atmospheric depths, by about 20% at the depth of shower maximum, and are in good agreement with the predictions at greater depths. We explore the consequences of this on the question of atmospheric neutrino production.

  8. NbC precipitates EELS spectra in a very low carbon microalloyed steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mancilla, J. E.


    Full Text Available In this paper a characterization study by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS of NbC precipitates in microalloyed steel is presented. The steel was hot rolled in a laboratory scale two-high reversing mill. The shape, size, location, and number of particles per unit area in the steel microstructure are reported. The particles were semi quantitatively analyzed for the heavier alloying elements using EDS, while EELS was used for the lighter elements, e. g. carbon and nitrogen. The EELS study of the precipitates reveals that the carbon is present as a compound (NbC without nitrogen.

    En este trabajo se presenta un estudio de caracterización por espectroscopia de pérdida de energía de electrones (EPEE realizado en un microscopio electrónico de transmisión de los precipitados de NbC en un acero microaleado. El acero se laminó en caliente en un laminador dúo reversible escala laboratorio. Las partículas de precipitados se caracterizaron en tamaños, formas y distribución y se analizaron semicuantitativamente para los elementos de aleación del acero más pesados, empleando un detector por dispersión de energías de rayos X, mientras que la EPEE se empleó para los elementos más ligeros, es decir, el carbono y el nitrógeno. El estudio por EPEE de los precipitados muestra que el carbono está presente como un compuesto (NbC sin que se haya encontrado nitrógeno en los mismos.

  9. Consistency of time dilation in temporal profiles and spectra of gamma-ray bursts (United States)

    Noriss, J. P.; Nemiroff, R. J.; Bonnell, J. T.; Scargle, J. D.; Davis, S. P.; Kouveliotou, C.; Pendleton, G.; Fishman, G. J.; Meegan, C. A.; Paciesas, W. S.


    If gamma-ray bursters are at cosmological distances-a possibility suggested by their isotropic distribution and spatial inhomogeneity-then the temporal profiles and spectra of more distant sources will be time dilated compared to those of relatively nearby sources. Analyses of bright and dim Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) gamma-ray bursts yield a relative time-dilation factor of 2.3 on timescales of pulses and event durations. We redshift the spectra of time intervals near the intensity peaks of the bright sample on a trial grid and compare with spectra of the dim sample. A redshift factor of order two-with wide latitude permitted-brings the spectra of the two brightness groups into alignment. Thus there is coarse agreement with the time-dilation factor found in the temporal domain.

  10. Wind Profiles and Wave Spectra for Potential Wind Farms in South China Sea. Part I: Wind Speed Profile Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichao Liu


    Full Text Available With the setting of wind energy harvesting moving from coastal waters to deep waters, the South China Sea has been deemed to offer great potential for the construction of floating wind farms thanks to the abundance of wind energy resources. An engineering model describing the wind profiles and wave spectra specific to the South China Sea conditions, which is the precondition for offshore wind farm construction, has, however, not yet been proposed. In the present study, a series of numerical simulations have been conducted using the Weather Forecast and Research model. Through analyzing the wind and wave information extracted from the numerical simulation results, engineering models to calculate vertical profiles of wind speeds and wave spectra have been postulated. While the present paper focuses on the wind profile model, a companion paper articulates the wave spectrum model. For wind profiles under typhoon conditions, the power-law and log-law models have been found applicable under the condition that the Hellmann exponent α or the friction velocity u * are modified to vary with the wind strength. For wind profiles under non-typhoon conditions, the log-law model is revised to take into consideration the influence of the atmospheric stability.

  11. Towards automatic metabolomic profiling of high-resolution one-dimensional proton NMR spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercier, Pascal; Lewis, Michael J.; Chang, David, E-mail: [Chenomx Inc (Canada); Baker, David [Pfizer Inc (United States); Wishart, David S. [University of Alberta, Department of Computing Science and Biological Sciences (Canada)


    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Mass Spectroscopy (MS) are the two most common spectroscopic analytical techniques employed in metabolomics. The large spectral datasets generated by NMR and MS are often analyzed using data reduction techniques like Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Although rapid, these methods are susceptible to solvent and matrix effects, high rates of false positives, lack of reproducibility and limited data transferability from one platform to the next. Given these limitations, a growing trend in both NMR and MS-based metabolomics is towards targeted profiling or 'quantitative' metabolomics, wherein compounds are identified and quantified via spectral fitting prior to any statistical analysis. Despite the obvious advantages of this method, targeted profiling is hindered by the time required to perform manual or computer-assisted spectral fitting. In an effort to increase data analysis throughput for NMR-based metabolomics, we have developed an automatic method for identifying and quantifying metabolites in one-dimensional (1D) proton NMR spectra. This new algorithm is capable of using carefully constructed reference spectra and optimizing thousands of variables to reconstruct experimental NMR spectra of biofluids using rules and concepts derived from physical chemistry and NMR theory. The automated profiling program has been tested against spectra of synthetic mixtures as well as biological spectra of urine, serum and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). Our results indicate that the algorithm can correctly identify compounds with high fidelity in each biofluid sample (except for urine). Furthermore, the metabolite concentrations exhibit a very high correlation with both simulated and manually-detected values.

  12. Combined Radar and Radiometer Analysis of Precipitation Profiles for a Parametric Retrieval Algorithm (United States)

    Masunaga, Hirohiko; Kummerow, Christian D.


    A methodology to analyze precipitation profiles using the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) and precipitation radar (PR) is proposed. Rainfall profiles are retrieved from PR measurements, defined as the best-fit solution selected from precalculated profiles by cloud-resolving models (CRMs), under explicitly defined assumptions of drop size distribution (DSD) and ice hydrometeor models. The PR path-integrated attenuation (PIA), where available, is further used to adjust DSD in a manner that is similar to the PR operational algorithm. Combined with the TMI-retrieved nonraining geophysical parameters, the three-dimensional structure of the geophysical parameters is obtained across the satellite-observed domains. Microwave brightness temperatures are then computed for a comparison with TMI observations to examine if the radar-retrieved rainfall is consistent in the radiometric measurement space. The inconsistency in microwave brightness temperatures is reduced by iterating the retrieval procedure with updated assumptions of the DSD and ice-density models. The proposed methodology is expected to refine the a priori rain profile database and error models for use by parametric passive microwave algorithms, aimed at the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, as well as a future TRMM algorithms.

  13. Impact of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Thermodynamic Profiles on Regional Precipitation Forecasting (United States)

    Chou, S.-H.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Jedloved, G. J.


    In data sparse regions, remotely-sensed observations can be used to improve analyses and lead to better forecasts. One such source comes from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), which together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), provides temperature and moisture profiles in clear and cloudy regions with accuracy which approaches that of radiosondes. The purpose of this paper is to describe an approach to assimilate AIRS thermodynamic profile data into a regional configuration of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) model using WRF-Var. Quality indicators are used to select only the highest quality temperature and moisture profiles for assimilation in clear and partly cloudy regions, and uncontaminated portions of retrievals above clouds in overcast regions. Separate error characteristics for land and water profiles are also used in the assimilation process. Assimilation results indicate that AIRS profiles produce an analysis closer to in situ observations than the background field. Forecasts from a 37-day case study period in the winter of 2007 show that AIRS profile data can lead to improvements in 6-h cumulative precipitation forecasts resulting from improved thermodynamic fields. Additionally, in a convective heavy rainfall event from February 2007, assimilation of AIRS profiles produces a more unstable boundary layer resulting in enhanced updrafts in the model. These updrafts produce a squall line and precipitation totals that more closely reflect ground-based observations than a no AIRS control forecast. The location of available high-quality AIRS profiles ahead of approaching storm systems is found to be of paramount importance to the amount of impact the observations will have on the resulting forecasts.

  14. Edge profiles in K shell photoabsorption spectra of gaseous hydrides of 3p elements and homologues (United States)

    Hauko, R.; Gomilšek, J. Padežnik; Kodre, A.; Arčon, I.; Aquilanti, G.


    Photoabsorption spectra of gaseous hydrides of 3p elements (PH3, H2S, HCl) are measured in the energy region of photoexcitations pertaining to K edge. The analysis of the edge profile is extended to hydrides of 4p series (GeH4, AsH3, H2Se, HBr) from an earlier experiment, and to published spectra of 2p hydrides (CH4, NH3, H2O, HF) and noble gases Ar, Kr and Ne and SiH4. The edge profiles are modelled with a linear combination of lorentzian components, describing excitations to individual bound states and to continuum. Transition energies and probabilities are also calculated in the non-relativistic molecular model of the ORCA code, in good agreement with the experiment. Edge profiles in the heavier homologues are closely similar, the symmetry of the molecule governs the transitions to the lowest unoccupied orbitals. In 2p series the effect of the strong nuclear potential prevails. Transitions to higher, atomic-like levels remain very much the same as in free atoms.

  15. Uncertainty of Integrated Intensity Following Line Profile Fitting of Multiline Spectra. (United States)

    Surmick, David M; Boukari, Hacene; Woodward, Jonathan; Stowe, Ashley C; Melikechi, Noureddine


    A novel method of determining the total uncertainty in the integrated intensity of fitted emission lines in multipeaked emission spectra is presented. The proposed method does not require an assumption of the type of line profile to be specified. The absolute difference between a fit and measured spectrum defines the uncertainty of the integrated signal intensity and is subsequently decomposed to determine the uncertainty of each peak in multiline fits. Decomposition relies on tabulating a weighting factor, which describes how each peak contributes to the total integral uncertainty. Applications of this method to quantitative approaches in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis are described.

  16. Similarities and Improvements of GPM Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR upon TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR in Global Precipitation Rate Estimation, Type Classification and Vertical Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyu Gao


    Full Text Available Spaceborne precipitation radars are powerful tools used to acquire adequate and high-quality precipitation estimates with high spatial resolution for a variety of applications in hydrological research. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM mission, which deployed the first spaceborne Ka- and Ku-dual frequency radar (DPR, was launched in February 2014 as the upgraded successor of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM. This study matches the swath data of TRMM PR and GPM DPR Level 2 products during their overlapping periods at the global scale to investigate their similarities and DPR’s improvements concerning precipitation amount estimation and type classification of GPM DPR over TRMM PR. Results show that PR and DPR agree very well with each other in the global distribution of precipitation, while DPR improves the detectability of precipitation events significantly, particularly for light precipitation. The occurrences of total precipitation and the light precipitation (rain rates < 1 mm/h detected by GPM DPR are ~1.7 and ~2.53 times more than that of PR. With regard to type classification, the dual-frequency (Ka/Ku and single frequency (Ku methods performed similarly. In both inner (the central 25 beams and outer swaths (1–12 beams and 38–49 beams of DPR, the results are consistent. GPM DPR improves precipitation type classification remarkably, reducing the misclassification of clouds and noise signals as precipitation type “other” from 10.14% of TRMM PR to 0.5%. Generally, GPM DPR exhibits the same type division for around 82.89% (71.02% of stratiform (convective precipitation events recognized by TRMM PR. With regard to the freezing level height and bright band (BB height, both radars correspond with each other very well, contributing to the consistency in stratiform precipitation classification. Both heights show clear latitudinal dependence. Results in this study shall contribute to future development of spaceborne

  17. Cellular resolution expression profiling using confocal detection of NBT/BCIP precipitate by reflection microscopy. (United States)

    Jékely, Gáspár; Arendt, Detlev


    The determination of gene expression patterns in three dimensions with cellular resolution is an important goal in developmental biology. However the most sensitive, efficient, and widely used staining technique for whole-mount in situ hybridization (WMISH), nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT)/5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate (BCIP) precipitation by alkaline phosphatase, could not yet be combined with the most precise, high-resolution detection technique, confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM). Here we report the efficient visualization of the NBT/BCIP precipitate using confocal reflection microscopy for WMISH samples of Drosophila, zebrafish, and the marine annelid worm, Platynereis dumerilii. In our simple WMISH protocol for reflection CLSM, NBT/BCIP staining can be combined with fluorescent WMISH, immunostainings, or transgenic green fluorescent protein (GFP) marker lines, allowing double labeling of cell types or of embryological structures of interest. Whole-mount reflection CLSM will thus greatly facilitate large-scale cellular resolution expression profiling in vertebrate and invertebrate model organisms.

  18. Similarities and Improvements of GPM Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) upon TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) in Global Precipitation Rate Estimation, Type Classification and Vertical Profiling


    Jinyu Gao; Guoqiang Tang; Yang Hong


    Spaceborne precipitation radars are powerful tools used to acquire adequate and high-quality precipitation estimates with high spatial resolution for a variety of applications in hydrological research. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, which deployed the first spaceborne Ka- and Ku-dual frequency radar (DPR), was launched in February 2014 as the upgraded successor of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). This study matches the swath data of TRMM PR and GPM DPR Leve...

  19. Orbital momentum profiles and binding energy spectra for the complete valence shell of molecular fluorine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Y.; Brion, C.E. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; Brunger, M.J.; Zhao, K.; Grisogono, A.M.; Braidwood, S.; Weigold, E. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Adelaide, SA (Australia). Electronic Structure of Materials Centre; Chakravorty, S.J.; Davidson, E.R. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Sgamellotti, A. [Univ di Perugia (Italy). Dipartimento di Chimica; von Niessen, W. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst fuer Physikalische


    The first electronic structural study of the complete valence shell binding energy spectrum of molecular fluorine, encompassing both the outer and inner valence regions, is reported. These binding energy spectra as well as the individual orbital momentum profiles have been measured using an energy dispersive multichannel electron momentum spectrometer at a total energy of 1500 eV, with an energy resolution of 1.5 eV and a momentum resolution of 0.1 a.u. The measured binding energy spectra in the energy range of 14-60 eV are compared with the results of ADC(4) many-body Green`s function and also direct-Configuration Interaction (CI) and MRSD-CI calculations. The experimental orbital electron momentum profiles are compared with SCF theoretical profiles calculated using the target Hartree-Fock approximation with a range of basis sets and with Density Functional Theory predictions in the target Kohn-Sham approximation with non-local potentials. The truncated (aug-cc-pv5z) Dunning basis sets were used for the Density Functional Theory calculations which also include some treatment of correlation via the exchange and correlation potentials. Comparisons are also made with the full ion-neutral overlap amplitude calculated with MRSD-CI wave functions. Large, saturated basis sets (199-GTO) were employed for both the high level SCF near Hartree-Fock limit and MRSD-CI calculations to investigate the effects of electron correlation and relaxation. 66 refs., 9 tabs., 9 figs.

  20. Isotopic composition and pollen spectra of precipitation and ice at the edge part of Korumdu Glacier (North Chu ridge, Altai Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Papina


    Full Text Available The article presents results of study of the isotope composition and pollen spectra of atmospheric precipitation and ice taken from marginal parts of Korumdu Glacier (North-Chu Ridge, the Altai Mountains. The study was aimed at identification of sources and ways of precipitation into the nival-glacial region of Altai. Investigation of the isotope composition of ice taken from the tongue of the Korumdu Glacier and summer precipitation in its basin has shown that here the isotope concentrations are much smaller than similar ones of the cold Belukha Glacier. The last one is located near the Korumdu Glacier. This difference can be explained by the fact that main source of moisture forming layers of relatively warm Korumdu Glacier is precipitation of the cold season while accumulation on the cold Belukha Glacier proceeds during the whole year mainly due to the most heavy precipitation of warm (from March to November season. Analysis of the isotope composition and the air mass trajectories on the day of July 16, 2013 allowed conclusion that the air masses started their way in the Baltic Sea region and moved mainly along middle latitudes. On this way they underwent insignificant isotope fractionation. Synoptic analysis had shown that the main reason of precipitation on the area under investigation was a front of occlusion over the Altai. In addition, results of palynological analysis of precipitation allow identification sources of pollen in this region. With high probability we can assume that on that day the main sources of pollen in Altai precipitation are as follows: the Naryan-Mar area for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris pollen, tundra zones of the East European Plain for alder (Alnaster sp. pollen and the steppe regions of Kazakhstan, and the West Altai for pollen grains – the dominant component of the pollen spectrum.

  1. Retrieving moisture profiles from precipitable water measurements using a variational data assimilation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y.R.; Zou, X.; Kuo, Y.H. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)


    Atmospheric moisture distribution is directly related to the formation of clouds and precipitation and affects the atmospheric radiation and climate. Currently, several remote sensing systems can measure precipitable water (PW) with fairly high accuracy. As part of the development of an Integrated Data Assimilation and Sounding System in support of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program, retrieving the 3-D water vapor fields from PW measurements is an important problem. A new four dimensional variational (4DVAR) data assimilation system based on the Penn State/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) mesoscale model (MM5) has been developed by Zou et al. (1995) with the adjoint technique. In this study, we used this 4DVAR system to retrieve the moisture profiles. Because we do not have a set of real observed PW measurements now, the special soundings collected during the Severe Environmental Storm and Mesoscale Experiment (SESAME) in 1979 were used to simulate a set of PW measurements, which were then assimilated into the 4DVAR system. The accuracy of the derived water vapor fields was assessed by direct comparison with the detailed specific humidity soundings. The impact of PW assimilation on precipitation forecast was examined by conducting a series of model forecast experiments started from the different initial conditions with or without data assimilation.

  2. A LOFAR census of non-recycled pulsars: average profiles, dispersion measures, flux densities, and spectra (United States)

    Bilous, A. V.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kramer, M.; Keane, E. F.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Stappers, B. W.; Malofeev, V. M.; Sobey, C.; Breton, R. P.; Cooper, S.; Falcke, H.; Karastergiou, A.; Michilli, D.; Osłowski, S.; Sanidas, S.; ter Veen, S.; van Leeuwen, J.; Verbiest, J. P. W.; Weltevrede, P.; Zarka, P.; Grießmeier, J.-M.; Serylak, M.; Bell, M. E.; Broderick, J. W.; Eislöffel, J.; Markoff, S.; Rowlinson, A.


    We present first results from a LOFAR census of non-recycled pulsars. The census includes almost all such pulsars known (194 sources) at declinations Dec > 8° and Galactic latitudes |Gb| > 3°, regardless of their expected flux densities and scattering times. Each pulsar was observed for ≥20 min in the contiguous frequency range of 110-188 MHz. Full-Stokes data were recorded. We present the dispersion measures, flux densities, and calibrated total intensity profiles for the 158 pulsars detected in the sample. The median uncertainty in census dispersion measures (1.5 × 10-3 pc cm-3) is ten times smaller, on average, than in the ATNF pulsar catalogue. We combined census flux densities with those in the literature and fitted the resulting broadband spectra with single or broken power-law functions. For 48 census pulsars such fits are being published for the first time. Typically, thechoice between single and broken power-laws, as well as the location of the spectral break, were highly influenced by the spectral coverage of the available flux density measurements. In particular, the inclusion of measurements below 100 MHz appears essential for investigating the low-frequency turnover in the spectra for most of the census pulsars. For several pulsars, we compared the spectral indices from different works and found the typical spread of values to be within 0.5-1.5, suggesting a prevailing underestimation of spectral index errors in the literature. The census observations yielded some unexpected individual source results, as we describe in the paper. Lastly, we will provide this unique sample of wide-band, low-frequency pulse profiles via the European Pulsar Network Database. Tables B.1-B.4 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  3. Observed behaviours of precipitable water vapour and precipitation intensity in response to upper air profiles estimated from surface air temperature. (United States)

    Fujita, Mikiko; Sato, Tomonori


    Extremely heavy precipitation affects human society and the natural environment, and its behaviour under a warming climate needs to be elucidated. Recent studies have demonstrated that observed extreme precipitation increases with surface air temperature (SAT) at approximately the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) rate, suggesting that atmospheric water vapour content can explain the relationship between extreme precipitation and SAT. However, the relationship between atmospheric water vapour content and SAT is poorly understood due to the lack of reliable observations with sufficient spatial and temporal coverage for statistical analyses. Here, we analyse the relationship between atmospheric water vapour content and SAT using precipitable water vapour (PWV) derived from global positioning system satellites. A super-CC rate appears in hourly PWV when the SAT is below 16 °C, whereas the rate decreases at high SAT, which is different from the precipitation-SAT relationship. The effects of upper air temperature and water vapour can consistently explain the super-CC rate of PWV relative to SAT. The difference between moist and dry adiabatic lapse rates increases with SAT, in consequence of more ability to hold water vapour in the free atmosphere under higher SAT conditions; therefore, attainable PWV increases more rapidly than the CC rate as SAT increases.

  4. Precipitation Sensitivity to the Mean Radius of Drop Spectra: Comparison of Single- and Double-Moment Bulk Microphysical Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemanja Kovačević


    Full Text Available In this study, two bulk microphysical schemes were compared across mean radius values of the entire drop spectra. A cloud-resolving mesoscale model was used to analyze surface precipitation characteristics. The model included the following microphysical categories: water vapour, cloud droplets, raindrops, ice crystals, snow, graupel, frozen raindrops and hail. Two bulk schemes were used: a single-moment scheme in which the mean radius was specified as a parameter and a double-moment scheme in which the mean radius of drops was calculated diagnostically with a fixed value for the cloud droplet number concentration. Experiments were conducted out for three values of the mean radius (in the single-moment scheme and two cloud droplet number concentrations (in the double-moment scheme. There were large differences in the surface precipitation for the two schemes, the simulated precipitation generated by the double-moment scheme had a higher sensitivity. The single-moment scheme generated an unrealistic collection rate of cloud droplets by raindrops and hail as well as unrealistic evaporation of rain and melting of solid hydrometeors; these processes led to inaccurate timing and amounts of surface precipitation.

  5. Quantitative precipitation estimation in complex orography using quasi-vertical profiles of dual polarization radar variables (United States)

    Montopoli, Mario; Roberto, Nicoletta; Adirosi, Elisa; Gorgucci, Eugenio; Baldini, Luca


    Weather radars are nowadays a unique tool to estimate quantitatively the rain precipitation near the surface. This is an important task for a plenty of applications. For example, to feed hydrological models, mitigate the impact of severe storms at the ground using radar information in modern warning tools as well as aid the validation studies of satellite-based rain products. With respect to the latter application, several ground validation studies of the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) products have recently highlighted the importance of accurate QPE from ground-based weather radars. To date, a plenty of works analyzed the performance of various QPE algorithms making use of actual and synthetic experiments, possibly trained by measurement of particle size distributions and electromagnetic models. Most of these studies support the use of dual polarization variables not only to ensure a good level of radar data quality but also as a direct input in the rain estimation equations. Among others, one of the most important limiting factors in radar QPE accuracy is the vertical variability of particle size distribution that affects at different levels, all the radar variables acquired as well as rain rates. This is particularly impactful in mountainous areas where the altitudes of the radar sampling is likely several hundred of meters above the surface. In this work, we analyze the impact of the vertical profile variations of rain precipitation on several dual polarization radar QPE algorithms when they are tested a in complex orography scenario. So far, in weather radar studies, more emphasis has been given to the extrapolation strategies that make use of the signature of the vertical profiles in terms of radar co-polar reflectivity. This may limit the use of the radar vertical profiles when dual polarization QPE algorithms are considered because in that case all the radar variables used in the rain estimation process should be consistently extrapolated at the surface

  6. Permeability spectra of Co{sub 2}Z hexaferrite compacts produced via a modified aqueous co-precipitation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daigle, Andrew P., E-mail: [Metamagnetics Inc., Canton, MA 02021 (United States); Geiler, Michael; Geiler, Anton [Metamagnetics Inc., Canton, MA 02021 (United States); DuPre, Eric; Modest, Jacob; Chen, Yajie; Vittoria, Carmine [Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Harris, Vincent G. [Metamagnetics Inc., Canton, MA 02021 (United States); Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)


    Co{sub 2}Z hexaferrite materials possess intrinsically high permeability, zero field ferromagnetic resonance values ({approx}1 GHz), and have their magnetic orientation in the plane perpendicular to the c-axis. These characteristics make these materials practical for applications in low to mid ultra-high frequency and L-band microwave device designs. Due to the relatively large size of elements operating within these bands, it has become important to produce large amounts of Co{sub 2}Z type hexaferrite materials. A modified co-precipitation method has been proposed to produce scalable quantities of high quality Co{sub 2}Z hexaferrite particles, at {approx}24 g/L. These particles have been thoroughly characterized by vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) with regard to phase purity and magnetic properties. After formation and subsequent ball milling, to achieve single domain particles on the order of 0.5-2 um, particles were oriented and pressed into compacts inside a rotating field to ensure magnetization in plane. Samples then underwent VSM, XRD, and scanning electron microscopy to determine the orientation effect. In addition, the complex permittivity and permeability of these samples were measured as a function of applied field and processing conditions. The results show strong orientation in these compacts making them practical for a variety of device applications. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Development of a modified aqueous synthesis method for Co{sub 2}Z hexaferrites via single sintering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterization of the hexaferrites Prime morphologic, magnetic, and electric properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigation on the effect of magnetic orientation on the ferrites Prime permeability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of bias fields on {mu}{sub r} has been presented towards antenna applications in L and S-bands.

  7. Developing a Library Microcomputing Profile: 101 Spectra to Be Used in Analysis by Microcomputer Managers. (United States)

    Grass, Charlene


    Presents 101 variables for use in developing a microcomputing profile and determining the type of microcomputing management appropriate for a library. Variables are presented in 16 categories, including the larger institutional, library, and financial profiles; administration's stance on microcomputing; user profiles; training and support for…

  8. Frequency spectra and vertical profiles of wind fluctuations in the summer Antarctic mesosphere revealed by MST radar observations (United States)

    Sato, Kaoru; Kohma, Masashi; Tsutsumi, Masaki; Sato, Toru


    Continuous observations of polar mesosphere summer echoes at heights from 81-93 km were performed using the first Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere/Incoherent Scatter radar in the Antarctic over the three summer periods of 2013/2014, 2014/2015, and 2015/2016. Power spectra of horizontal and vertical wind fluctuations, and momentum flux spectra in a wide-frequency range from (8 min)-1 to (20 days) -1 were first estimated for the Antarctic summer mesosphere. The horizontal (vertical) wind power spectra obey a power law with an exponent of approximately -2 (-1) at frequencies higher than the inertial frequency of (13 h)-1 and have isolated peaks at about 1 day and a half day. In addition, an isolated peak of a quasi-2 day period is observed in the horizontal wind spectra but is absent from the vertical wind spectra, which is consistent with the characteristics of a normal-mode Rossby-gravity wave. Zonal (meridional) momentum flux spectra are mainly positive (negative), and large fluxes are observed in a relatively low-frequency range from (1 day)-1 to (1 h)-1. A case study was performed to investigate vertical profiles of momentum fluxes associated with gravity waves and time mean winds on and around 3 January 2015 when a minor stratospheric warming occurred in the Northern Hemisphere. A significant momentum flux convergence corresponding to an eastward acceleration of 200 m s-1 d-1 was observed before the warming and became stronger after the warming when mean zonal wind weakened. The strong wave forcing roughly accorded with the Coriolis force of mean meridional winds.

  9. Estimation of source infrared spectra profiles of acetylspiramycin active components from troches using kernel independent component analysis (United States)

    Wang, Guoqing; Ding, Qingzhu; Sun, Yu'an; He, Linghao; Sun, Xiaoli


    Kernel independent component analysis (KICA), a kind of independent component analysis (ICA) algorithms based on kernel, was preliminarily investigated for blind source separation (BSS) of source spectra profiles from troches. The robustness of different ICA algorithms (KICA, FastICA and Infomax) was first checked by using them in the retrieval of source infrared (IR), ultraviolet (UV) and mass spectra (MS) from synthetic mixtures. It was found that KICA is the most robust method for retrieval of source spectra profiles. KICA algorithm is subsequently adopted in the analysis of diffuse reflection IR of acetylspiramycin (ASPM) troches. It is observed that KICA is able to isolate the theoretically predicted spectral features corresponding to the ASPM active components, excipients and other minor components as different independent (spectral) component. A troche can be authenticated and semi-quantified using the estimated ICs. KICA is an useful method for estimation of source spectral features of molecules with different geometry and stoichiometry, while features belonging to very similar molecules remain grouped.

  10. Investigating the fermentation of cocoa by correlating denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles and near infrared spectra. (United States)

    Nielsen, Dennis S; Snitkjaer, Pia; van den Berg, Frans


    Raw cocoa has an astringent, unpleasant taste and flavour, and has to be fermented, dried and roasted in order to obtain the characteristic cocoa flavour and taste. During the fermentation microbial activity outside the cocoa beans induces biochemical and physical changes inside the beans. The process is complex involving activity of several different groups of microorganisms which bring about numerous biochemical and physical changes inside the beans. Due to the complexity of these processes no thorough investigations of the interactions between the microbial activities on the outside of the beans and the chemical processes inside the beans have been carried out previously. Recently it has been shown that Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) offers an efficient tool for monitoring the microbiological changes taking place during the fermentation of cocoa. Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has previously been used to determine various components in cocoa beans, offering a rapid alternative compared to traditional analytical methods for obtaining knowledge about changes in the chemical composition of the cocoa beans during fermentation. During a number of cocoa fermentations bean samples were taken with 24 h intervals to be dried and analysed by NIR. Cocoa pulp samples taken simultaneously during the same fermentations have previously been characterised using DGGE [Nielsen, D.S., Teniola, O.D., Ban-Koffi, L., Owusu, M., Andersson, T., Holzapfel, W.H. (2007). The microbiology of Ghanaian cocoa fermentations analysed using culture dependent and culture-independent methods. International Journal of Food Microbiology 114, 168-186.]. Here we report the first study where microbiological changes during the fermentation determined using DGGE are correlated to changes inside the beans determined by NIR using multivariate data analysis. Following data pre-processing (baseline correction followed by Co-shift correction or Correlation Optimised Warping) the DGGE spectra

  11. Rationalization of Altitudinal Precipitation Profiles in a Data-Scarce Glacierized Watershed Simulation in the Karakoram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Wang


    Full Text Available Due to the scarcity of field observations and geodetic measurements in catchments in the Karakoram Mountains in Western China, obtaining precipitation data for the high mountains involves large uncertainties and difficulties. In this study, we used a functional relationship between the annual glacier accumulation and summer temperature at the equilibrium line altitude (ELA to derive precipitation lapse rates (PLAPSs in a data-scarce watershed. These data were used in a modified Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model with a glacier module to simulate glacio-hydrological processes in the Yarkant River basin in the Karakoram. The PLAPS based on the widely-used grid datasets considerably underestimated precipitation, yielding an unreasonable watershed water balance and inaccurate glacier changes. However, the ELA-based PLAPS improved the simulation significantly. In the Yarkant River basin, the annual precipitation reached a peak of 800–1000 mm at approximately 5300 m a.s.l. The model simulations indicated that the contributions of glacier melt and ice melt to total runoff were 52% and 31%, respectively. Moreover, a significant precipitation increase and a non-significant temperature increase during the melt season may be the major reasons for the decreased ice melt and slower glacier shrinkage on the northern slope of the Karakoram during the period of 1968–2007.

  12. Impact of AIRS Thermodynamic Profiles on Precipitation Forecasts for Atmospheric River Cases Affecting the Western United States (United States)

    Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Blakenship, Clay B.; Wick, Gary A.; Neiman, Paul J.


    This project is a collaborative activity between the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center and the NOAA Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT) to evaluate a SPoRT Advanced Infrared Sounding Radiometer (AIRS: Aumann et al. 2003) enhanced moisture analysis product. We test the impact of assimilating AIRS temperature and humidity profiles above clouds and in partly cloudy regions, using the three-dimensional variational Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) data assimilation (DA) system (Developmental Testbed Center 2012) to produce a new analysis. Forecasts of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model initialized from the new analysis are compared to control forecasts without the additional AIRS data. We focus on some cases where atmospheric rivers caused heavy precipitation on the US West Coast. We verify the forecasts by comparison with dropsondes and the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) Blended Total Precipitable Water product.

  13. Short-range precipitation forecasts using assimilation of simulated satellite water vapor profiles and column cloud liquid water amounts (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Diak, George R.; Hayden, Cristopher M.; Young, John A.


    These observing system simulation experiments investigate the assimilation of satellite-observed water vapor and cloud liquid water data in the initialization of a limited-area primitive equations model with the goal of improving short-range precipitation forecasts. The assimilation procedure presented includes two aspects: specification of an initial cloud liquid water vertical distribution and diabatic initialization. The satellite data is simulated for the next generation of polar-orbiting satellite instruments, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and the High-Resolution Infrared Sounder (HIRS), which are scheduled to be launched on the NOAA-K satellite in the mid-1990s. Based on cloud-top height and total column cloud liquid water amounts simulated for satellite data a diagnostic method is used to specify an initial cloud water vertical distribution and to modify the initial moisture distribution in cloudy areas. Using a diabatic initialization procedure, the associated latent heating profiles are directly assimilated into the numerical model. The initial heating is estimated by time averaging the latent heat release from convective and large-scale condensation during the early forecast stage after insertion of satellite-observed temperature, water vapor, and cloud water formation. The assimilation of satellite-observed moisture and cloud water, together withy three-mode diabatic initialization, significantly alleviates the model precipitation spinup problem, especially in the first 3 h of the forecast. Experimental forecasts indicate that the impact of satellite-observed temperature and water vapor profiles and cloud water alone in the initialization procedure shortens the spinup time for precipitation rates by 1-2 h and for regeneration of the areal coverage by 3 h. The diabatic initialization further reduces the precipitation spinup time (compared to adiabatic initialization) by 1 h.

  14. HCl and ClO in activated Arctic air; first retrieved vertical profiles from TELIS submillimetre limb spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. de Lange


    Full Text Available The first profile retrieval results of the Terahertz and submillimeter Limb Sounder (TELIS balloon instrument are presented. The spectra are recorded during a 13-h balloon flight on 24 January 2010 from Kiruna, Sweden. The TELIS instrument was mounted on the MIPAS-B2 gondola and shared this platform with the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS and the mini-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (mini-DOAS instruments. The flight took place within the Arctic vortex at an altitude of ≈34 km in chlorine activated air, and both active (ClO and inactive chlorine (HCl were measured over an altitude range of respectively ≈16–32 km and ≈10–32 km. In this altitude range, the increase of ClO concentration levels during sunrise has been recorded with a temporal resolution of one minute. During the daytime equilibrium, a maximum ClO level of 2.1 ± 0.3 ppbv has been observed at an altitude of 23.5 km. This equilibrium profile is validated against the ClO profile by the satellite instrument Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS aboard EOS Aura. HCl profiles have been determined from two different isotopes – H35Cl and H37Cl – and are also validated against MLS. The precision of all profiles is well below 0.01 ppbv and the overall accuracy is therefore governed by systematic effects. The total uncertainty of these effects is estimated to be maximal 0.3 ppbv for ClO around its peak value at 23.5 km during the daytime equilibrium, and for HCl it ranges from 0.05 to 0.4 ppbv, depending on altitude. In both cases the main uncertainty stems from a largely unknown non-linear response in the detector.

  15. Evaluation of ozone profile and tropospheric ozone retrievals from GEMS and OMI spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bak


    Full Text Available South Korea is planning to launch the GEMS (Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer instrument into the GeoKOMPSAT (Geostationary Korea Multi-Purpose SATellite platform in 2018 to monitor tropospheric air pollutants on an hourly basis over East Asia. GEMS will measure backscattered UV radiances covering the 300–500 nm wavelength range with a spectral resolution of 0.6 nm. The main objective of this study is to evaluate ozone profiles and stratospheric column ozone amounts retrieved from simulated GEMS measurements. Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI Level 1B radiances, which have the spectral range 270–500 nm at spectral resolution of 0.42–0.63 nm, are used to simulate the GEMS radiances. An optimal estimation-based ozone profile algorithm is used to retrieve ozone profiles from simulated GEMS radiances. Firstly, we compare the retrieval characteristics (including averaging kernels, degrees of freedom for signal, and retrieval error derived from the 270–330 nm (OMI and 300–330 nm (GEMS wavelength ranges. This comparison shows that the effect of not using measurements below 300 nm on retrieval characteristics in the troposphere is insignificant. However, the stratospheric ozone information in terms of DFS decreases greatly from OMI to GEMS, by a factor of ∼2. The number of the independent pieces of information available from GEMS measurements is estimated to 3 on average in the stratosphere, with associated retrieval errors of ~1% in stratospheric column ozone. The difference between OMI and GEMS retrieval characteristics is apparent for retrieving ozone layers above ~20 km, with a reduction in the sensitivity and an increase in the retrieval errors for GEMS. We further investigate whether GEMS can resolve the stratospheric ozone variation observed from high vertical resolution Earth Observing System (EOS Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS. The differences in stratospheric ozone profiles between GEMS and MLS are comparable to those

  16. Spatially Resolved Spectra from a new X-ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Measurements of Ion and Electron Temperature Profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitter, M; Stratton, B; Roquemore, A; Mastrovito, D; Lee, S; Bak, J; Moon, M; Nam, U; Smith, G; Rice, J; Beiersdorfer, P; Fraenkel, B


    A new type of high-resolution X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer is being developed to measure ion and electron temperature profiles in tokamak plasmas. The instrument is particularly valuable for diagnosing plasmas with purely Ohmic heating and rf heating, since it does not require the injection of a neutral beam - although it can also be used for the diagnosis of neutral-beam heated plasmas. The spectrometer consists of a spherically bent quartz crystal and a two-dimensional position-sensitive detector. It records spectra of helium-like argon (or krypton) from multiple sightlines through the plasma and projects a de-magnified image of a large plasma cross-section onto the detector. The spatial resolution in the plasma is solely determined by the height of the crystal, its radius of curvature, and the Bragg angle. This new X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer may also be of interest for the diagnosis of ion temperature profiles in future large tokamaks, such as KSTAR and ITER, where the application of the presently used charge-exchange spectroscopy will be difficult, if the neutral beams do not penetrate to the plasma center. The paper presents the results from proof-of-principle experiments performed with a prototype instrument at Alcator C-Mod.

  17. Wind Profiles and Wave Spectra for Potential Wind Farms in South China Sea. Part II: Wave Spectrum Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichao Liu


    Full Text Available Along with the commercialization of offshore wind energy in China, the South China Sea has been identified as ideal for constructing offshore wind farms, especially for farms consisting of floating wind turbines over deep waters. Since the wind profiles and wave spectra are somewhat primitive for the design of an offshore wind turbine, engineering models describing the wind and wave characteristics in the South China Sea area are necessary for the offshore wind energy exploitation given the meteorological, hydrological, and geographical differences between the South China Sea and the North/Norwegian Sea, where the commonly used wind profile and wave spectrum models were designated. In the present study; a series of numerical simulations were conducted to reveal the wave characteristics in the South China Sea under both typhoon and non-typhoon conditions. By analyzing the simulation results; the applicability of the Joint North Sea Wave Project (JONSWAP spectrum model; in terms of characterizing the wind-induced wave fields in the South China Sea; was discussed. In detail; the key parameters of the JONSWAP spectrum model; such as the Phillips constant; spectral width parameter; peak-enhancement factor, and high frequency tail decay; were investigated in the context of finding suitable values.

  18. Mass-spectra-based peak alignment for automatic nontargeted metabolic profiling analysis for biomarker screening in plant samples. (United States)

    Fu, Hai-Yan; Hu, Ou; Zhang, Yue-Ming; Zhang, Li; Song, Jing-Jing; Lu, Peang; Zheng, Qing-Xia; Liu, Ping-Ping; Chen, Qian-Si; Wang, Bing; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Han, Lu; Yu, Yong-Jie


    Nontargeted metabolic profiling analysis is a difficult task in a routine investigation because hundreds of chromatographic peaks are eluted within a short time, and the time shift problem is severe across samples. To address these problems, the present work developed an automatic nontargeted metabolic profiling analysis (anTMPA) method. First, peaks from the total ion chromatogram were extracted using modified multiscale Gaussian smoothing method. Then, a novel peak alignment strategy was employed based on the mass spectra and retention times of the peaks in which the maximum mass spectral correlation coefficient path was extracted using a modified dynamic programming method. Moreover, an automatic landmark peak-searching strategy was employed for self-adapting time shift modification. Missing peaks across samples were grouped and registered into the aligned peak list table for final refinement. Finally, the aligned peaks across samples were analyzed using statistical methods to identify potential biomarkers. Mass spectral information on the screened biomarkers could be directly imported into the National Institute of Standards and Technology library to select the candidate compounds. The performance of the anTMPA method was evaluated using a complicated plant gas chromatography-mass spectrometry dataset with the aim of identifying biomarkers between the growth and maturation stages of the tested plant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Modeling of precipitation and Cr depletion profiles of Inconel 600 during heat treatments and LSM procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao Gang [Department of Mechanical System Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan); Shinozaki, Kenji [Department of Mechanical System Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan)]. E-mail:; Inkyo, Muneyuki [Department of Mechanical System Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan); Miyoshi, Tomohisa [Department of Mechanical System Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan); Yamamoto, Motomichi [Department of Mechanical System Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan); Mahara, Yoichi [Babcock-Hitachi K.K., 3-36 Takara-machi, Kure, Hiroshima (Japan); Watanabe, Hiroshi [Babcock-Hitachi K.K., 3-36 Takara-machi, Kure, Hiroshima (Japan)


    A model based on the thermodynamic and kinetic was conducted to simulate the Cr depletion profiles near the grain boundary in Inconel 600 during the heat treatments and laser surface melting (LSM) process using Thermo-Calc and Dictra code. Based on the good agreement of Cr concentration distribution during heat treatments measured by experiments, the microsegregation of Cr induced by cellular microstructure formed during the LSM process was also modeled. The Cr depletion profile was evaluated using the Cr depletion area below the critical Cr concentration for intergranular cracking/intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGC/IGSCC) susceptibility (8 mass%). Comparing with the result of Streicher test, the Cr depletion area calculated showed good coherence with the IGC/IGSCC susceptibility. The sample after SR + LTS treatment with the largest Cr depletion area showed the worst IGC/IGSCC resistance, while, the sample after LSM process with the smaller Cr depletion area showed the excellent IGC/IGSCC resistance.

  20. Time Variations of Observed Hα Line Profiles and Precipitation Depths of Nonthermal Electrons in a Solar Flare (United States)

    Falewicz, Robert; Radziszewski, Krzysztof; Rudawy, Paweł; Berlicki, Arkadiusz


    We compare time variations of the Hα and X-ray emissions observed during the pre-impulsive and impulsive phases of the C1.1-class solar flare on 2013 June 21 with those of plasma parameters and synthesized X-ray emission from a 1D hydrodynamic numerical model of the flare. The numerical model was calculated assuming that the external energy is delivered to the flaring loop by nonthermal electrons (NTEs). The Hα spectra and images were obtained using the Multi-channel Subtractive Double Pass spectrograph with a time resolution of 50 ms. The X-ray fluxes and spectra were recorded by RHESSI. Pre-flare geometric and thermodynamic parameters of the model and the delivered energy were estimated using RHESSI data. The time variations of the X-ray light curves in various energy bands and those of the Hα intensities and line profiles were well correlated. The timescales of the observed variations agree with the calculated variations of the plasma parameters in the flaring loop footpoints, reflecting the time variations of the vertical extent of the energy deposition layer. Our result shows that the fast time variations of the Hα emission of the flaring kernels can be explained by momentary changes of the deposited energy flux and the variations of the penetration depths of the NTEs.

  1. Data Assimilation of AIRS Water Vapor Profiles: Impact on Precipitation Forecasts for Atmospheric River Cases Affecting the Western of the United States (United States)

    Blankenship, Clay; Zavodsky, Bradley; Jedlovec, Gary; Wick, Gary; Neiman, Paul


    Atmospheric rivers are transient, narrow regions in the atmosphere responsible for the transport of large amounts of water vapor. These phenomena can have a large impact on precipitation. In particular, they can be responsible for intense rain events on the western coast of North America during the winter season. This paper focuses on attempts to improve forecasts of heavy precipitation events in the Western US due to atmospheric rivers. Profiles of water vapor derived from from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) observations are combined with GFS forecasts by a three-dimensional variational data assimilation in the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI). Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) forecasts initialized from the combined field are compared to forecasts initialized from the GFS forecast only for 3 test cases in the winter of 2011. Results will be presented showing the impact of the AIRS profile data on water vapor and temperature fields, and on the resultant precipitation forecasts.

  2. Duschinsky, Herzberg-Teller, and Multiple Electronic Resonance Interferential Effects in Resonance Raman Spectra and Excitation Profiles. The Case of Pyrene. (United States)

    Avila Ferrer, Francisco J; Barone, Vincenzo; Cappelli, Chiara; Santoro, Fabrizio


    We show that a recently developed time-independent approach for the calculation of vibrational resonance Raman (vRR) spectra is able to describe Duschinsky and Herzberg-Teller (HT) effects acting on a single resonant state, together with interferential contributions arising from multiple electronic resonances, allowing us to investigate in detail how their interplay determines both the vRR spectra at selected wavelengths and the Raman excitation profiles. We apply this methodology to the study of the spectra of pyrene in acetonitrile, an ideal system since it exhibits three close-lying electronic transitions that are bright but also subjected to HT effects. To single out the different contributions to vRR line shapes we adopted two different adiabatic models for resonant-state potential energy surfaces, namely, Adiabatic Shift (only accounting from equilibrium geometry displacements) and Adiabatic Hessian (AH, including also the Duschinsky effects), and Franck-Condon (FC) or HT approximations for the transition dipole. We show that, on balance, FC+HT calculations within the AH model provide the best agreement with experiment. Moreover, our methodology permits to individuate bands in the experimental spectra due to the simultaneous contribution of more than one resonant state and to point out and analyze interferential effects between the FC and HT terms in each resonance Raman process, together with FC-HT and HT-HT interferences between different electronic states.

  3. TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) Level 2 Rainfall Rate and Profile Product (TRMM Product 2A25) V6 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR), the first of its kind in space, is an electronically scanning radar, operating at 13.8 GHz that measures the 3-D rainfall...

  4. TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) Level 2 Rainfall Rate and Profile Product (TRMM Product 2A25) V7 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR), the first of its kind in space, is an electronically scanning radar, operating at 13.8 GHz that measures the 3-D rainfall...

  5. Effect of a progressive sound wave on the profiles of spectral lines. 2: Asymmetry of faint Fraunhofer lines. [absorption spectra (United States)

    Kostyk, R. I.


    The absorption coefficient profile was calculated for lines of different chemical elements in a medium with progressive sound waves. Calculations show that (1) the degree and direction of asymmetry depend on the atomic ionization potential and the potential of lower level excitation of the individual line; (2) the degree of asymmetry of a line decreases from the center toward the limb of the solar disc; and (3) turbulent motions 'suppress' the asymmetry.

  6. HST Multicolor (255-1042 nm) Photometry of Saturn's Main Rings. 1; Radial Profiles, Phase and Opening Angle Variations, and Regional Spectra (United States)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; French, Richard G.; Dones, Luke; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)


    The main rings of Saturn were observed with the Planetary Camera of the WFPC2 instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) from September 1996 to August 2000 as the'ring opening angle to Earth and Sun increased from 4 deg to 24 deg, with a spread of phase angles between 0.3 deg and 6 deg at each opening angle. The rings were routinely observed in the five HST wideband UBVRI filters (F336W, F439W, F555W, F675W, and F814W) and occasionally in the F255W, F785LP, and F1042M filters. The emphasis in this series of papers will be on radial color (implying compositional) variations. In this first paper we describe the analysis technique and calibration procedure, note revisions in a previously published Voyager ring color data analysis, and present new results based on over 100 HST images. In the 300-600 nm spectral range where the rings are red, the 555nm/336nm ratio increases by about 14% as the phase angle increases from 0.3 deg to 6 deg. This effect, never reported previously for the rings, is significantly larger than the phase reddening which characterizes other icy objects, primarily because of the redness of the rings. However, there is no discernible tendency for color to vary with ring opening angle at a given phase angle, and there is no phase variation of color where the spectrum is flat. We infer from this combination of facts that multiple intraparticle scattering, either in a regolith or between facets of an unusually rough surface, is important in these geometries, but that multiple interparticle scattering in a vertically extended layer is not. Voyager color ratios at a phase angle of 14 deg are compatible with this trend, but calibration uncertainties prevent their use in quantitative modeling. Overall ring-average spectra are compatible with those of earlier work within calibration uncertainties, but ring spectra vary noticeably with region. We refine and subdivide the regions previously defined by others. The variation seen between radial profiles of

  7. NMR profiling of biomolecules at natural abundance using 2D 1H-15N and 1H-13C multiplicity-separated (MS) HSQC spectra. (United States)

    Chen, Kang; Freedberg, Darón I; Keire, David A


    2D NMR (1)H-X (X=(15)N or (13)C) HSQC spectra contain cross-peaks for all XHn moieties. Multiplicity-edited(1)H-(13)C HSQC pulse sequences generate opposite signs between peaks of CH(2) and CH/CH(3) at a cost of lower signal-to-noise due to the (13)C T(2) relaxation during an additional 1/(1)JCH period. Such CHn-editing experiments are useful in assignment of chemical shifts and have been successfully applied to small molecules and small proteins (e.g. ubiquitin) dissolved in deuterated solvents where, generally, peak overlap is minimal. By contrast, for larger biomolecules, peak overlap in 2D HSQC spectra is unavoidable and peaks with opposite phases cancel each other out in the edited spectra. However, there is an increasing need for using NMR to profile biomolecules at natural abundance dissolved in water (e.g., protein therapeutics) where NMR experiments beyond 2D are impractical. Therefore, the existing 2D multiplicity-edited HSQC methods must be improved to acquire data on nuclei other than (13)C (i.e.(15)N), to resolve more peaks, to reduce T(2) losses and to accommodate water suppression approaches. To meet these needs, a multiplicity-separated(1)H-X HSQC (MS-HSQC) experiment was developed and tested on 500 and 700 MHz NMR spectrometers equipped with room temperature probes using RNase A (14 kDa) and retroviral capsid (26 kDa) proteins dissolved in 95% H(2)O/5% D(2)O. In this pulse sequence, the 1/(1)JXH editing-period is incorporated in to the semi-constant time (semi-CT) X resonance chemical shift evolution period, which increases sensitivity, and importantly, the sum and the difference of the interleaved (1)J(XH)-active and the (1)J(XH)-inactive HSQC experiments yield two separate spectra for XH(2) and XH/XH(3). Furthermore we demonstrate improved water suppression using triple xyz-gradients instead of the more widely used z-gradient only water-suppression approach. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. NMR profiling of biomolecules at natural abundance using 2D 1H-15N and 1H-13C multiplicity-separated (MS) HSQC spectra (United States)

    Chen, Kang; Freedberg, Darón I.; Keire, David A.


    2D NMR 1H-X (X = 15N or 13C) HSQC spectra contain cross-peaks for all XHn moieties. Multiplicity-edited1H-13C HSQC pulse sequences generate opposite signs between peaks of CH2 and CH/CH3 at a cost of lower signal-to-noise due to the 13C T2 relaxation during an additional 1/1JCH period. Such CHn-editing experiments are useful in assignment of chemical shifts and have been successfully applied to small molecules and small proteins (e.g. ubiquitin) dissolved in deuterated solvents where, generally, peak overlap is minimal. By contrast, for larger biomolecules, peak overlap in 2D HSQC spectra is unavoidable and peaks with opposite phases cancel each other out in the edited spectra. However, there is an increasing need for using NMR to profile biomolecules at natural abundance dissolved in water (e.g., protein therapeutics) where NMR experiments beyond 2D are impractical. Therefore, the existing 2D multiplicity-edited HSQC methods must be improved to acquire data on nuclei other than 13C (i.e.15N), to resolve more peaks, to reduce T2 losses and to accommodate water suppression approaches. To meet these needs, a multiplicity-separated1H-X HSQC (MS-HSQC) experiment was developed and tested on 500 and 700 MHz NMR spectrometers equipped with room temperature probes using RNase A (14 kDa) and retroviral capsid (26 kDa) proteins dissolved in 95% H2O/5% D2O. In this pulse sequence, the 1/1JXH editing-period is incorporated into the semi-constant time (semi-CT) X resonance chemical shift evolution period, which increases sensitivity, and importantly, the sum and the difference of the interleaved 1JXH-active and the 1JXH-inactive HSQC experiments yield two separate spectra for XH2 and XH/XH3. Furthermore we demonstrate improved water suppression using triple xyz-gradients instead of the more widely used z-gradient only water-suppression approach.

  9. TRMM Microwave Imager Precipitation Profile L3 1 month 0.5 degree x 0.5 degree V7 (TRMM_3A12) at GES DISC (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This product contains global monthly means of surface precipitation rate, rain rate, convective surface precipitation rate and 28 vertical layers of hydrometeor...

  10. CLIMABR parte II: geração do perfil de precipitação CLIMABR part II: generation of precipitation profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente de P. S. de Oliveira


    Full Text Available As pesquisas sobre precipitação no Brasil têm-se restringido à previsão da lâmina total máxima ou da intensidade máxima provável, esta feita com base em séries históricas. Poucos trabalhos, no entanto, consideram o perfil correspondente a essas precipitações. A falta de modelos representativos tem forçado o uso daqueles desenvolvidos no exterior; contudo, os resultados obtidos demonstram, muitas vezes, que eles não representam adequadamente as condições climáticas típicas do Brasil. Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, detalhar complementarmente o desenvolvimento do modelo denominado CLIMABR, descrito por Oliveira et al. (2003, e mostrar sua aplicação para a geração do perfil instantâneo associado às séries sintéticas de precipitação, para as condições climáticas encontradas no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Na série sintética gerada foram obtidos, para cada dia simulado, entre outros resultados, a duração dos eventos e os valores padronizados da intensidade máxima instantânea de precipitação e do tempo de sua ocorrência ao longo dos eventos. Os dois últimos valores obtidos no modelo foram utilizados para a obtenção do perfil de precipitação representado por uma função dupla exponencial, que foi ajustada a cada evento diário.The research about precipitation in Brazil has been restricted, most of time, to predict the maximum - total - or probable maximum intensity, this being done on the basis of historical series. Only few projects consider the corresponding profiles to these precipitations. The lack of representative models has forced the use of models developed abroad, despite the fact that the obtained results demonstrate, many times, was in inadequability to represent the typical climatic conditions in Brazil. The aim of the present work to detail complementarily to the development of the CLIMABR model, described by Oliveira et al. (2003, and show its application for instantaneous profile

  11. Global distribution of vertical wavenumber spectra in the lower stratosphere observed using high-vertical-resolution temperature profiles from COSMIC GPS radio occultation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available We retrieved temperature (T profiles with a high vertical resolution using the full spectrum inversion (FSI method from the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC GPS radio occultation (GPS-RO data from January 2007 to December 2009. We studied the characteristics of temperature perturbations in the stratosphere at 20–27 km altitude. This height range does not include a sharp jump in the background Brunt–Väisälä frequency squared (N2 near the tropopause, and it was reasonably stable regardless of season and latitude. We analyzed the vertical wavenumber spectra of gravity waves (GWs with vertical wavelengths ranging from 0.5 to 3.5 km, and we integrated the (total potential energy EpT. Another integration of the spectra from 0.5 to 1.75 km was defined as EpS for short vertical wavelength GWs, which was not studied with the conventional geometrical optics (GO retrievals. We also estimated the logarithmic spectral slope (p for the saturated portion of spectra with a linear regression fitting from 0.5 to 1.75 km.Latitude and time variations in the spectral parameters were investigated in two longitudinal regions: (a 90–150° E, where the topography was more complicated, and (b 170–230° E, which is dominated by oceans. We compared EpT, EpS, and p, with the mean zonal winds (U and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR. We also show a ratio of EpS to EpT and discuss the generation source of EpS. EpT and p clearly showed an annual cycle, with their maximum values in winter at 30–50° N in region (a, and 50–70° N in region (b, which was related to the topography. At 30–50° N in region (b, EpT and p exhibited some irregular variations in addition to an annual cycle. In the Southern Hemisphere, we also found an annual oscillation in EpT and p, but it showed a time lag of about 2 months relative to U. Characteristics of EpTand p in the tropical region seem to be related to

  12. Global distribution of vertical wavenumber spectra in the lower stratosphere observed using high-vertical-resolution temperature profiles from COSMIC GPS radio occultation (United States)

    Noersomadi; Tsuda, T.


    We retrieved temperature (T) profiles with a high vertical resolution using the full spectrum inversion (FSI) method from the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) GPS radio occultation (GPS-RO) data from January 2007 to December 2009. We studied the characteristics of temperature perturbations in the stratosphere at 20-27 km altitude. This height range does not include a sharp jump in the background Brunt-Väisälä frequency squared (N2) near the tropopause, and it was reasonably stable regardless of season and latitude. We analyzed the vertical wavenumber spectra of gravity waves (GWs) with vertical wavelengths ranging from 0.5 to 3.5 km, and we integrated the (total) potential energy EpT. Another integration of the spectra from 0.5 to 1.75 km was defined as EpS for short vertical wavelength GWs, which was not studied with the conventional geometrical optics (GO) retrievals. We also estimated the logarithmic spectral slope (p) for the saturated portion of spectra with a linear regression fitting from 0.5 to 1.75 km.Latitude and time variations in the spectral parameters were investigated in two longitudinal regions: (a) 90-150° E, where the topography was more complicated, and (b) 170-230° E, which is dominated by oceans. We compared EpT, EpS, and p, with the mean zonal winds (U) and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR). We also show a ratio of EpS to EpT and discuss the generation source of EpS. EpT and p clearly showed an annual cycle, with their maximum values in winter at 30-50° N in region (a), and 50-70° N in region (b), which was related to the topography. At 30-50° N in region (b), EpT and p exhibited some irregular variations in addition to an annual cycle. In the Southern Hemisphere, we also found an annual oscillation in EpT and p, but it showed a time lag of about 2 months relative to U. Characteristics of EpTand p in the tropical region seem to be related to convective activity. The ratio of EpT to the

  13. Energy spectra, angular spread, fluence profiles and dose distributions of 6 and 18 MV photon beams: results of Monte Carlo simulations for a Varian 2100EX accelerator (United States)

    Ding, George X.


    The purpose of this study is to provide detailed characteristics of incident photon beams for different field sizes and beam energies. This information is critical to the future development of accurate treatment planning systems. It also enhances our knowledge of radiotherapy photon beams. The EGS4 Monte Carlo code, BEAM, has been used to simulate 6 and 18 MV photon beams from a Varian Clinac-2100EX accelerator. A simulated realistic beam is stored in a phase space data file, which contains details of each particle's complete history including where it has been and where it has interacted. The phase space files are analysed to obtain energy spectra, angular distribution, fluence profile and mean energy profiles at the phantom surface for particles separated according to their charge and history. The accuracy of a simulated beam is validated by the excellent agreement between the Monte Carlo calculated and measured dose distributions. Measured depth-dose curves are obtained from depth-ionization curves by accounting for newly introduced chamber fluence corrections and the stopping-power ratios for realistic beams. The study presents calculated depth-dose components from different particles as well as calculated surface dose and contribution from different particles to surface dose across the field. It is shown that the increase of surface dose with the increase of the field size is mainly due to the increase of incident contaminant charged particles. At 6 MV, the incident charged particles contribute 7% to 21% of maximum dose at the surface when the field size increases from 10 × 10 to 40 × 40 cm2. At 18 MV, their contributions are up to 11% and 29% of maximum dose at the surface for 10 × 10 cm2 and 40 × 40 cm2 fields respectively. However, the fluence of these incident charged particles is less than 1% of incident photon fluence in all cases.

  14. Carbon Dioxide and Methane Column Abundances Retrieved from Ground-Based Near-Infrared Solar Spectra and Comparison with In Situ Aircraft Profiles (United States)

    Washenfelder, R. A.; Toon, G. C.; Blavier, J.; Wennberg, P. O.; Yang, Z.; Vay, S. A.; Sachse, G. W.; Blake, D. R.; Matross, D. M.; Gerbig, C.


    We have developed an automated observatory for measuring ground-based column abundances of CO2, CH4, CO, N2O, O2, H2O, and HF. Near-infrared spectra of the direct sun are measured between 3,900 - 15,600 cm-1 (0.67 - 2.56 μ m) by a Bruker 125HR Fourier Transform Spectrometer. This is the first laboratory in a proposed network of ground-based solar observatories that will be used for carbon cycle studies and validation of spaceborne column measurements of greenhouse gases. The laboratory was assembled in Pasadena, California and then permanently deployed to northern Wisconsin during May 2004. It is located in the heavily forested Chequamegon National Forest at the WLEF Tall Tower site, 14 km east of Park Falls, Wisconsin. This site was chosen because NOAA CMDL and other groups conduct intensive measurements in the area, including continuous monitoring of CO2 at six heights on the 447-m tall tower. CO2 and CH4 column abundances for May - November 2004 demonstrate ˜0.1% precision. The seasonal drawdown of CO2 is recognizable within the late-May column abundances. As part of the INTEX and COBRA campaigns, the DC-8 or King Air recorded in situ measurements during profiles over the WLEF site during five dates in July and August 2004. We will compare the column abundances of CO2, CH4, and CO with these in situ aircraft measurements.

  15. Inequality spectra (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo


    Inequality indices are widely applied in economics and in the social sciences as quantitative measures of the socioeconomic inequality of human societies. The application of inequality indices extends to size-distributions at large, where these indices can be used as general gauges of statistical heterogeneity. Moreover, as inequality indices are plentiful, arrays of such indices facilitate high-detail quantification of statistical heterogeneity. In this paper we elevate from arrays of inequality indices to inequality spectra: continuums of inequality indices that are parameterized by a single control parameter. We present a general methodology of constructing Lorenz-based inequality spectra, apply the general methodology to establish four sets of inequality spectra, investigate the properties of these sets, and show how these sets generalize known inequality gauges such as: the Gini index, the extended Gini index, the Rényi index, and hill curves.

  16. Precipitous Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Yee


    Full Text Available Audience: This scenario was developed to educate emergency medicine residents on the management of a precipitous birth in the emergency department (ED. The case is also appropriate for teaching of medical students and advanced practice providers, as well as reviewing the principles of crisis resource management, teamwork, and communication. Introduction: Patients with precipitous birth require providers to manage two patients simultaneously with limited time and resources. Crisis resource management skills will be tested once baby is delivered, and the neonate will require assessment for potential neonatal resuscitation. Objectives: At the conclusion of the simulation session, learners will be able to manage women who have precipitous deliveries, as well as perform neonatal assessment and management. Method: This session was conducted using high-fidelity simulation, followed by a debriefing session and lecture on precipitous birth management and neonatal evaluation.

  17. TCA precipitation. (United States)

    Koontz, Laura


    Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation of proteins is commonly used to concentrate protein samples or remove contaminants, including salts and detergents, prior to downstream applications such as SDS-PAGE or 2D-gels. TCA precipitation denatures the protein, so it should not be used if the protein must remain in its folded state (e.g., if you want to measure a biochemical activity of the protein). © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    McKenzie, T.R.


    A process is given for improving the precipitation of strontium from an aqueous phosphoric-acid-containing solution with nickel or cobalt ferrocyanide by simultaneously precipitating strontium or calcium phosphate. This is accomplished by adding to the ferrocyanide-containing solution calcium or strontium nitrate in a quantity to yield a concentration of from 0.004 to 0.03 and adjusting the pH of the solution to a value of above 8.

  19. Vertical profiles of Mars 1.27 μm O2 dayglow from MRO CRISM limb spectra: Seasonal/global behaviors, comparisons to LMDGCM simulations, and a global definition for Mars water vapor profiles (United States)

    Todd Clancy, R.; Smith, Michael D.; Lefèvre, Franck; McConnochie, Timothy H.; Sandor, Brad J.; Wolff, Michael J.; Lee, Steven W.; Murchie, Scott L.; Toigo, Anthony D.; Nair, Hari; Navarro, Thomas


    Since July of 2009, The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectral Mapper (CRISM) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has periodically obtained pole-to-pole observations (i.e., full MRO orbits) of limb scanned visible/near IR spectra (λ = 0.4 - 4.0 μ m, △λ ∼ 10 nm- Murchie et al., 2007). These CRISM limb observations support the first seasonally and spatially extensive set of Mars 1.27 μm O2(1△g) dayglow profile retrievals (∼ 1100) over ≥ 8-80 km altitudes. Their comparison to Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD) global climate model (GCM) simulated O2(1△g) volume emission rate (VER) profiles, as a function of altitude, latitude, and season (solar longitude, Ls), supports several key conclusions regarding Mars atmospheric water vapor (which is derived from O2(1△g) emission rates), Mars O3, and the collisional de-excitation of O2(1△g) in the Mars CO2 atmosphere. Current (Navarro et al., 2014) LMDGCM simulations of Mars atmospheric water vapor fall 2-3 times below CRISM derived water vapor abundances at 20-40 km altitudes over low-to-mid latitudes in northern spring (Ls = 30-60°), and northern mid-to-high latitudes over northern summer (Ls = 60-140°). In contrast, LMDGCM simulated water vapor is 2-5 times greater than CRISM derived values at all latitudes and seasons above 40 km, within the aphelion cloud belt (ACB), and over high-southern to mid-southern latitudes in southern summer (Ls = 190-340°) at 15-35 km altitudes. Overall, the solstitial summer-to-winter hemisphere gradients in water vapor are reversed between the LMDGCM modeled versus the CRISM derived water vapor abundances above 10-30 km altitudes. LMDGCM-CRISM differences in water vapor profiles correlate with LMDGCM-CRISM differences in cloud mixing profiles; and likely reflect limitations in simulating cloud microphysics and radiative forcing, both of which restrict meridional transport of water from summer-to-winter hemispheres on Mars (Clancy et al., 1996

  20. Toward an in Vivo Neurochemical Profile: Quantification of 18 Metabolites in Short-Echo-Time 1H NMR Spectra of the Rat Brain (United States)

    Pfeuffer, Josef; Tkáč , Ivan; Provencher, Stephen W.; Gruetter, Rolf


    Localized in vivo1H NMR spectroscopy was performed with 2-ms echo time in the rat brain at 9.4 T. Frequency domain analysis with LCModel showed that the in vivo spectra can be explained by 18 metabolite model solution spectra and a highly structured background, which was attributed to resonances with fivefold shorter in vivo T1 than metabolites. The high spectral resolution (full width at half maximum approximately 0.025 ppm) and sensitivity (signal-to-noise ratio approximately 45 from a 63-μL volume, 512 scans) was used for the simultaneous measurement of the concentrations of metabolites previously difficult to quantify in 1H spectra. The strongly represented signals of N-acetylaspartate, glutamate, taurine, myo-inositol, creatine, phosphocreatine, glutamine, and lactate were quantified with Cramér-Rao lower bounds below 4%. Choline groups, phosphorylethanolamine, glucose, glutathione, γ-aminobutyric acid, N-acetylaspartylglutamate, and alanine were below 13%, whereas aspartate and scyllo-inositol were below 22%. Intra-assay variation was assessed from a time series of 3-min spectra, and the coefficient of variation was similar to the calculated Cramér-Rao lower bounds. Interassay variation was determined from 31 pooled spectra, and the coefficient of variation for total creatine was 7%. Tissue concentrations were found to be in very good agreement with neurochemical data from the literature.

  1. GPM SAPHIR on MT1 (GPROF) Radiometer Precipitation Profiling L2A 1.5 hours 10 km V03 (GPM_2AGPROFMT1SAPHIR) at GES DISC (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2AGPROF (also known as, GPM GPROF (Level 2)) algorithm retrieves consistent precipitation and related science fields from the following GMI and partner passive...

  2. Quantitating metabolites in protein precipitated serum using NMR spectroscopy. (United States)

    Nagana Gowda, G A; Raftery, Daniel


    Quantitative NMR-based metabolite profiling is challenged by the deleterious effects of abundant proteins in the intact blood plasma/serum, which underscores the need for alternative approaches. Protein removal by ultrafiltration using low molecular weight cutoff filters thus represents an important step. However, protein precipitation, an alternative and simple approach for protein removal, lacks detailed quantitative assessment for use in NMR based metabolomics. In this study, we have comprehensively evaluated the performance of protein precipitation using methanol, acetonitrile, perchloric acid, and trichloroacetic acid and ultrafiltration approaches using 1D and 2D NMR, based on the identification and absolute quantitation of 44 human blood metabolites, including a few identified for the first time in the NMR spectra of human serum. We also investigated the use of a "smart isotope tag," (15)N-cholamine for further resolution enhancement, which resulted in the detection of a number of additional metabolites. (1)H NMR of both protein precipitated and ultrafiltered serum detected all 44 metabolites with comparable reproducibility (average CV, 3.7% for precipitation; 3.6% for filtration). However, nearly half of the quantified metabolites in ultrafiltered serum exhibited 10-74% lower concentrations; specifically, tryptophan, benzoate, and 2-oxoisocaproate showed much lower concentrations compared to protein precipitated serum. These results indicate that protein precipitation using methanol offers a reliable approach for routine NMR-based metabolomics of human blood serum/plasma and should be considered as an alternative to ultrafiltration. Importantly, protein precipitation, which is commonly used by mass spectrometry (MS), promises avenues for direct comparison and correlation of metabolite data obtained from the two analytical platforms to exploit their combined strength in the metabolomics of blood.

  3. Amino acid, fatty acid, and mineral profiles of materials recovered from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) processing by-products using isoelectric solubilization/precipitation. (United States)

    Chen, Y-C; Tou, J C; Jaczynski, J


    Protein, lipid, and insolubles (bones, skin, scales, fins, insoluble protein, and more) were recovered from rainbow trout processing by-products by means of isoelectric solubilization/precipitation at basic pH and acidic pH. Isoelectric solubilization/precipitation of the trout processing by-products resulted in the recovery of protein that was higher (P acids (EAAs), non-EAAs, and total EAA/total AA ratio when compared to the processing by-products. Basic pH treatments yielded a higher (P acidic pH treatments. Nutritional quality of the recovered protein was high based on EAAs meeting the FAO/WHO/UNU recommendations for adults. The presence of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids (omega-3, omega-6 FAs) and the omega-3/omega-6 ratio in the recovered lipids were similar to the trout processing by-products, indicating that the pH treatments had no effect on these FAs. Ca and P contents of the processing by-products exceeded the recommended dietary allowances (RDA), but Fe and Mg did not. Basic pH treatments yielded protein with the lowest (P acidic pH. The isoelectric solubilization/precipitation of the processing by-products effectively removed minerals from the recovered protein without removal of the bones, skin, scales, fins, and so on, prior to processing. The results indicated that isoelectric solubilization/precipitation, particularly at basic pH, permitted recovery of high-quality protein and lipids from fish processing by-products for human food uses; also, the recovered insolubles may be used in animal feeds as a source of minerals.

  4. GPM MHS on METOP-A (GPROF) Radiometer Precipitation Profiling L2A 1.5 hours 17 km V05 (GPM_2AGPROFMETOPAMHS) at GES DISC (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Version 5 is the current version of the data set. Version 4 is no longer available and has been superseded by Version 5. The 2AGPROF (Goddard Profiling) algorithm...

  5. GPM SSMIS on F18 (GPROF) Radiometer Precipitation Profiling L2 1.5 hours 12 km V05 (GPM_2AGPROFF18SSMIS) at GES DISC (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Version 5 is the current version of the data set. Version 4 is no longer available and has been superseded by Version 5. The 2AGPROF (Goddard Profiling) algorithm...

  6. Characteristics of flux-time profiles, temporal evolution, and spatial distribution of radiation-belt electron precipitation bursts in the upper ionosphere before great and giant earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Pulinets


    Full Text Available

    The analysis of energetic electron observations made by the DEMETER satellite reveals that radiation belt electron precipitation (RBEP bursts are observed in general several (~1-6 days before a large (M > 6.5 earthquake (EQ in the presence of broad band (~1-20 kHz VLF waves. The EBs show in general a relative peak-to-background flux increase usually < 100, they have a time duration of ~0.5 – 3 min, and their energy spectrum reach up to energies <~500 keV. The RBEP activity is observed as one, two or three EBs throughout a semi-orbit, depended on the magnetic field structure above the EQ epicenter. A statistical analysis has been made for earthquakes in Japan, which reveals a standard temporal variation of the number of EBs, which begins with an incremental rate several days before major earthquakes, and after a maximum, decreases so that the electron precipitation ceases above the epicenter. Some earthquake induced EBs were observed not only in the nightside ionosphere, but also in the dayside ionosphere.


  7. Cation profiling of passive films on stainless steel formed in sulphuric and acetic acid by deconvolution of angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Högström, Jonas, E-mail:; Fredriksson, Wendy, E-mail:; Edstrom, Kristina, E-mail:; Björefors, Fredrik, E-mail:; Nyholm, Leif, E-mail:; Olsson, Claes-Olof A., E-mail:


    An approach for determining depth gradients of metal-ion concentrations in passive films on stainless steel using angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) is described. The iterative method, which is based on analyses of the oxidised metal peaks, provides increased precision and hence allows faster ARXPS measurements to be carried out. The method was used to determine the concentration depth profiles for molybdenum, iron and chromium in passive films on 316L/EN 1.4432 stainless steel samples oxidised in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and acetic acid diluted with 0.02 M Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} · 10H{sub 2}O and 1 M H{sub 2}O, respectively. The molybdenum concentration in the film is pin-pointed to the oxide/metal interface and the films also contained an iron-ion-enriched surface layer and a chromium-ion-dominated middle layer. Although films of similar composition and thickness (i.e., about 2 nm) were formed in the two electrolytes, the corrosion currents were found to be three orders of magnitude larger in the acetic acid solution. The differences in the layer composition, found for the two electrolytes as well as different oxidation conditions, can be explained based on the oxidation potentials of the metals and the dissolution rates of the different metal ions.

  8. Satellite mapping the CCN and cloud vertical microphysical and precipitation profiles in and outside the Manaus plume by using clouds as CCN chambers (United States)

    Rosenfeld, D.; Krüger, M. L.; Andreae, M. O.; Kraemer, M.; Braga, R. C.; Machado, L.; Artaxo, P.


    The newly acquired possibility of retrieving from the SUOMI/NPP satellite the cloud base drop concentrations and updrafts made it possible to calculate cloud base vapor super saturation (S) and thus the CCN(S) over the GOAmazon domain, and validate it against surface and aircraft measurements. This was used to map the Manaus air pollution plume and observe its impact on cloud drop effective radius, precipitation forming processes and glaciation temperatures. These observations allow completing and extending the patchy picture obtained by the aircraft measurements over the full domain of interest. The methodology will be shown, as well as the main findings. By the time of the writing of this abstract we have already documented that during pristine conditions the CCN(S) is nearly double in the Manaus plume with respect to the background of ~200 cm-3 at S = 0.25 to 0.3%. The S of cloud base in the Manaus pollution plume is lower by about 0.05 to 0.1%. The cloud depth for initiation of warm rain increases by more than one km due to the decrease in cloud drop effective radius, as indicated by the increase in the isotherm level where it reaches the threshold of 14 micrometer. During smoky conditions, caused by distant biomass burning, the background CCN overwhelms the Manaus plume; CCN can exceed 1000 cm-3 at S Manaus pollution plume.

  9. Validation of water vapour profiles (version 13 retrieved by the IMK/IAA scientific retrieval processor based on full resolution spectra measured by MIPAS on board Envisat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Milz


    Full Text Available Vertical profiles of stratospheric water vapour measured by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS with the full resolution mode between September 2002 and March 2004 and retrieved with the IMK/IAA scientific retrieval processor were compared to a number of independent measurements in order to estimate the bias and to validate the existing precision estimates of the MIPAS data. The estimated precision for MIPAS is 5 to 10% in the stratosphere, depending on altitude, latitude, and season. The independent instruments were: the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE, the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS, the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer-II (ILAS-II, the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM III instrument, the Middle Atmospheric Water Vapour Radiometer (MIAWARA, the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding, balloon-borne version (MIPAS-B, the Airborne Microwave Stratospheric Observing System (AMSOS, the Fluorescent Stratospheric Hygrometer for Balloon (FLASH-B, the NOAA frostpoint hygrometer, and the Fast In Situ Hygrometer (FISH. For the in-situ measurements and the ground based, air- and balloon borne remote sensing instruments, the measurements are restricted to central and northern Europe. The comparisons to satellite-borne instruments are predominantly at mid- to high latitudes on both hemispheres. In the stratosphere there is no clear indication of a bias in MIPAS data, because the independent measurements in some cases are drier and in some cases are moister than the MIPAS measurements. Compared to the infrared measurements of MIPAS, measurements in the ultraviolet and visible have a tendency to be high, whereas microwave measurements have a tendency to be low. The results of χ2-based precision validation are somewhat controversial among the comparison estimates. However, for comparison instruments whose error budget also includes

  10. High resolution measurements and modeling of auroral hydrogen emission line profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Lanchester


    Full Text Available Measurements in the visible wavelength range at high spectral resolution (1.3 Å have been made at Longyearbyen, Svalbard (15.8 E,78.2 N during an interval of intense proton precipitation. The shape and Doppler shift of hydrogen Balmer beta line profiles have been compared with model line profiles, using as input ion energy spectra from almost coincident passes of the FAST and DMSP spacecraft. The comparison shows that the simulation contains the important physical processes that produce the profiles, and confirms that measured changes in the shape and peak wave-length of the hydrogen profiles are the result of changing energy input. This combination of high resolution measurements with modeling provides a method of estimating the incoming energy and changes in flux of precipitating protons over Svalbard, for given energy and pitch-angle distributions. Whereas for electron precipitation, information on the incident particles is derived from brightness and brightness ratios which require at least two spectral windows, for proton precipitation the Doppler profile of resulting hydrogen emission is directly related to the energy and energy flux of the incident energetic protons and can be used to gather information about the source region. As well as the expected Doppler shift to shorter wavelengths, the measured profiles have a significant red-shifted component, the result of upward flowing emitting hydrogen atoms.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; particle precipitation – Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena

  11. Fingerprints of a riming event on cloud radar Doppler spectra: observations and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kalesse


    Full Text Available Radar Doppler spectra measurements are exploited to study a riming event when precipitating ice from a seeder cloud sediment through a supercooled liquid water (SLW layer. The focus is on the "golden sample" case study for this type of analysis based on observations collected during the deployment of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's (ARM mobile facility AMF2 at Hyytiälä, Finland, during the Biogenic Aerosols – Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC field campaign. The presented analysis of the height evolution of the radar Doppler spectra is a state-of-the-art retrieval with profiling cloud radars in SLW layers beyond the traditional use of spectral moments. Dynamical effects are considered by following the particle population evolution along slanted tracks that are caused by horizontal advection of the cloud under wind shear conditions. In the SLW layer, the identified liquid peak is used as an air motion tracer to correct the Doppler spectra for vertical air motion and the ice peak is used to study the radar profiles of rimed particles. A 1-D steady-state bin microphysical model is constrained using the SLW and air motion profiles and cloud top radar observations. The observed radar moment profiles of the rimed snow can be simulated reasonably well by the model, but not without making several assumptions about the ice particle concentration and the relative role of deposition and aggregation. This suggests that in situ observations of key ice properties are needed to complement the profiling radar observations before process-oriented studies can effectively evaluate ice microphysical parameterizations.

  12. Energetic Proton Spectra Measured by the Van Allen Probes (United States)

    Summers, Danny; Shi, Run; Engebretson, Mark J.; Oksavik, Kjellmar; Manweiler, Jerry W.; Mitchell, Donald G.


    We test the hypothesis that pitch angle scattering by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves can limit ring current proton fluxes. For two chosen magnetic storms, during 17-20 March 2013 and 17-20 March 2015, we measure proton energy spectra in the region 3 ≤ L ≤ 6 using the RBSPICE-B instrument on the Van Allen Probes. The most intense proton spectra are observed to occur during the recovery periods of the respective storms. Using proton precipitation data from the POES (NOAA and MetOp) spacecraft, we deduce that EMIC wave action was prevalent at the times and L-shell locations of the most intense proton spectra. We calculate limiting ring current proton energy spectra from recently developed theory. Comparisons between the observed proton energy spectra and the theoretical limiting spectra show reasonable agreement. We conclude that the measurements of the most intense proton spectra are consistent with self-limiting by EMIC wave scattering.

  13. Radar-Derived Quantitative Precipitation Estimation Based on Precipitation Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Yang


    Full Text Available A method for improving radar-derived quantitative precipitation estimation is proposed. Tropical vertical profiles of reflectivity (VPRs are first determined from multiple VPRs. Upon identifying a tropical VPR, the event can be further classified as either tropical-stratiform or tropical-convective rainfall by a fuzzy logic (FL algorithm. Based on the precipitation-type fields, the reflectivity values are converted into rainfall rate using a Z-R relationship. In order to evaluate the performance of this rainfall classification scheme, three experiments were conducted using three months of data and two study cases. In Experiment I, the Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D default Z-R relationship was applied. In Experiment II, the precipitation regime was separated into convective and stratiform rainfall using the FL algorithm, and corresponding Z-R relationships were used. In Experiment III, the precipitation regime was separated into convective, stratiform, and tropical rainfall, and the corresponding Z-R relationships were applied. The results show that the rainfall rates obtained from all three experiments match closely with the gauge observations, although Experiment II could solve the underestimation, when compared to Experiment I. Experiment III significantly reduced this underestimation and generated the most accurate radar estimates of rain rate among the three experiments.

  14. Modelled Precipitation Over Greenland (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes the annual total precipitation from 1985 to 1999 and monthly total precipitation from January 1985 to December 1999. The data is derived from...

  15. Resolution enhancement in second-derivative spectra. (United States)

    Czarnecki, Mirosław A


    Derivative spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the resolution enhancement in infrared, near-infrared, Raman, ultraviolet-visible, nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Despite its great significance in analytical chemistry, not all aspects of the applications of this method have been explored as yet. This is the first systematic study of the parameters that influence the resolution enhancement in the second derivative spectra. The derivative spectra were calculated with the Savitzky-Golay method with different window size (5, 15, 25) and polynomial order (2, 4). The results obtained in this work show that the resolution enhancement in the second derivative spectra strongly depends on the data spacing in the original spectra, window size, polynomial order, and peak profile. As shown, the resolution enhancement is related to variations in the width of the peaks upon the differentiation. The present study reveals that in order to maximize the separation of the peaks in the second derivative spectra, the original spectra should be recorded at high resolution and differentiated using a small window size and high polynomial order. However, working with the real spectra one has to compromise between the noise reduction and optimization of the resolution enhancement in the second derivative spectra.

  16. Spectra of stable sonoluminescence (United States)

    Lewis, Stephen D.


    The continuous emission of picosecond pulses of light has been observed to originate from a bubble trapped at the pressure antinode of a resonant sound field in water and in water/glycerin mixtures. The spectra of this light in several solutions has been measured with a scanning monochrometer/photomultiplier detector system. The spectra are broadband and show strong emission in the UV region. A comparison of this measurement to two other independently produced spectra is made. The spectra are also modeled by a blackbody radiation distribution to determine an effective blackbody temperature and a size is deduced as if Sonoluminescence were characterized by blackbody radiation.

  17. Precipitation Recycling and the Vertical Distribution of Local and Remote Sources of Water for Precipitation (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)


    Precipitation recycling is defined as the amount of water that evaporates from a region that precipitates within the same region. This is also interpreted as the local source of water for precipitation. In this study, the local and remote sources of water for precipitation have been diagnosed through the use of passive constituent tracers that represent regional evaporative sources along with their transport and precipitation. We will discuss the differences between this method and the simpler bulk diagnostic approach to precipitation recycling. A summer seasonal simulation has been analyzed for the regional sources of the United States Great Plains precipitation. While the tropical Atlantic Ocean (including the Gulf of Mexico) and the local continental sources of precipitation are most dominant, the vertically integrated column of water contains substantial water content originating from the Northern Pacific Ocean, which is not precipitated. The vertical profiles of regional water sources indicate that local Great Plains source of water dominates the lower troposphere, predominantly in the PBL. However, the Pacific Ocean source is dominant over a large portion of the middle to upper troposphere. The influence of the tropical Atlantic Ocean is reasonably uniform throughout the column. While the results are not unexpected given the formulation of the model's convective parameterization, the analysis provides a quantitative assessment of the impact of local evaporation on the occurrence of convective precipitation in the GCM. Further, these results suggest that local source of water is not well mixed throughout the vertical column.

  18. Discriminating Dysarthria Type from Envelope Modulation Spectra (United States)

    Liss, Julie M.; LeGendre, Sue; Lotto, Andrew J.


    Purpose: Previous research demonstrated the ability of temporally based rhythm metrics to distinguish among dysarthrias with different prosodic deficit profiles (J. M. Liss et al., 2009). The authors examined whether comparable results could be obtained by an automated analysis of speech envelope modulation spectra (EMS), which quantifies the…

  19. Precipitation in a lead calcium tin anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Gonzalez, Francisco A., E-mail: [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Camurri, Carlos G., E-mail: [Departamento de Ingenieria de Materiales, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); Carrasco, Claudia A., E-mail: [Departamento de Ingenieria de Materiales, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); Colas, Rafael, E-mail: [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico)


    Samples from a hot rolled sheet of a tin and calcium bearing lead alloy were solution heat treated at 300 Degree-Sign C and cooled down to room temperature at different rates; these samples were left at room temperature to study natural precipitation of CaSn{sub 3} particles. The samples were aged for 45 days before analysing their microstructure, which was carried out in a scanning electron microscope using secondary and backscattered electron detectors. Selected X-ray spectra analyses were conducted to verify the nature of the precipitates. Images were taken at different magnifications in both modes of observation to locate the precipitates and record their position within the images and calculate the distance between them. Differential scanning calorimeter analyses were conducted on selected samples. It was found that the mechanical properties of the material correlate with the minimum average distance between precipitates, which is related to the average cooling rate from solution heat treatment. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The distance between precipitates in a lead alloy is recorded. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The relationship between the distance and the cooling rate is established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is found that the strengthening of the alloy depends on the distance between precipitates.

  20. Microphysical retrievals from simultaneous polarimetric and profiling radar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Morris


    Full Text Available The character of precipitation detected at the surface is the final product of many microphysical interactions in the cloud above, the combined effects of which may be characterized by the observed drop size distribution (DSD. This necessitates accurate retrieval of the DSD from remote sensing data, especially radar as it offers large areal coverage, high spatial resolution, and rigorous quality control and testing. Combined instrument observations with a UHF wind profiler, an S-band polarimetric weather radar, and a video disdrometer are analyzed for two squall line events occuring during the calendar year 2007. UHF profiler Doppler velocity spectra are used to estimate the DSD aloft, and are complemented by DSDs retrieved from an exponential model applied to polarimetric data. Ground truth is provided by the disdrometer. A complicating factor in the retrieval from UHF profiler spectra is the presence of ambient air motion, which can be corrected using the method proposed by Teshiba et al. (2009, in which a comparison between idealized Doppler spectra calculated from the DSDs retrieved from KOUN and those retrieved from contaminated wind profiler spectra is performed. It is found that DSDs measured using the distrometer at the surface and estimated using the wind profiler and polarimetric weather radar generally showed good agreement. The DSD retrievals using the wind profiler were improved when the estimates of the vertical wind were included into the analysis, thus supporting the method of Teshiba et al. (2009. Furthermore, the the study presents a method of investigating the time and height structure of DSDs.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains 94 optical asteroid spectra obtained by Scott Sawyer as part of his Ph.D. dissertation at the University of Texas at Austin. Observational...

  2. Global Precipitation Measurement Poster (United States)

    Azarbarzin, Art


    This poster presents an overview of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) constellation of satellites which are designed to measure the Earth's precipitation. It includes the schedule of launches for the various satellites in the constellation, and the coverage of the constellation, It also reviews the mission capabilities, and the mission science objectives.

  3. Computer simulation of backscattering spectra from paint (United States)

    Mayer, M.; Silva, T. F.


    To study the role of lateral non-homogeneity on backscattering analysis of paintings, a simplified model of paint consisting of randomly distributed spherical pigment particles embedded in oil/binder has been developed. Backscattering spectra for lead white pigment particles in linseed oil have been calculated for 3 MeV H+ at a scattering angle of 165° for pigment volume concentrations ranging from 30 vol.% to 70 vol.% using the program STRUCTNRA. For identical pigment volume concentrations the heights and shapes of the backscattering spectra depend on the diameter of the pigment particles: This is a structural ambiguity for identical mean atomic concentrations but different lateral arrangement of materials. Only for very small pigment particles the resulting spectra are close to spectra calculated supposing atomic mixing and assuming identical concentrations of all elements. Generally, a good fit can be achieved when evaluating spectra from structured materials assuming atomic mixing of all elements and laterally homogeneous depth distributions. However, the derived depth profiles are inaccurate by a factor of up to 3. The depth range affected by this structural ambiguity ranges from the surface to a depth of roughly 0.5-1 pigment particle diameters. Accurate quantitative evaluation of backscattering spectra from paintings therefore requires taking the correct microstructure of the paint layer into account.

  4. Catalyzed precipitation in aluminum (United States)

    Mitlin, David

    The work reported in Chapter 1 concerned the influence of Si on the precipitation of theta' (metastable Al2Cu) during the isothermal aging of Al-2Cu-1Si (wt. %). The binary alloys Al-2Cu and Al-1Si were studied for comparison. Only two precipitate phases were detected: pure Si in Al-Si and Al-Cu-Si, and theta' (metastable Al 2Cu) in Al-Cu and Al-Cu-Si. On aging the ternary, Si precipitates first, and provides heterogeneous sites to nucleate theta'. As a consequence, the density of theta' precipitates in Al-Cu-Si is much higher than in the binary Al-Cu. Also, the theta ' precipitates in the ternary alloy have lower aspect ratio (at given particle size) and lose coherence on their broad faces at a slower rate. The principal focus of Chapter 2 is to explain precipitation in Al-lat.%Si-lat%Ge. The microstructure is characterized using conventional and high resolution transmission electron microscopy, as well as energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The first precipitates to come out of solid solution have a cube-cube orientation relationship with the matrix. High resolution TEM demonstrated that all the precipitates start out, and remain multiply twinned throughout the aging treatment. There is a variation in the stoichiometry of the precipitates, with the mean composition being Si-44.5at%Ge. It is also shown that in Al-Si-Ge it is not possible to achieve satisfactory hardness through a conventional heat treatment. This result is explained in terms of sluggish precipitation of the diamond-cubic Si-Ge phase coupled with particle coarsening. The purpose of Chapters 3 and 4 is to explain these properties in terms of the role that the Si-Ge additions have on modifying the conventional Al-Cu aging sequence. In both AlCu and AlCuSiGe the room temperature microstructure consists of both GP zones and theta″ precipitates. Upon aging at 190°C Al-Cu displays the well known precipitation sequence; the slow dissolution of GP zones and theta″ and the gradual formation of theta

  5. Modeling Dissolution and Precipitation Dynamics During Dedolomitization (United States)

    Edery, Y.; Scher, H.; Berkowitz, B.


    We simulate the process of dedolomitization and the precipitation of calcium carbonate using particle tracking. The study is stimulated by the results of a laboratory experiment of reactive transport of injected CaCl2/HCl in a constant flow field in a column of sucrosic dolomite particles. The injected fluid basically supplied Ca2+ and H+ and the dedolomitization is a protonation reaction yielding carbonic acid, which in a deprotonation reaction yields CO32-, and reacting with the abundant Ca2+ forms the precipitate CaCO3. The novelty of the simulation is to treat the dynamics of the rate limiting reactants with particle tracking. At each time step the local concentration of H+ determines the probability (assuming local carbonate equilibria) of precipitation and dissolution. The precipitation changes the porosity which in turn changes the local flow field. The particle tracking is governed by spatial and temporal distributions within a continuous time random walk framework. This includes the option of either advective-dispersive (Fickian) transport or the effects of disorder of heterogeneous media --- non-Fickian behavior. The dynamics of dedolomitization are examined for different flow conditions and for different spectra of velocity tails of the reactants. The fluctuations in the local velocity distributions, due to porosity changes, create conditions for positive feedbacks leading to preferential pathways and large-scale nonlinearity and precipitation banding. This feature has been observed in the laboratory experiments and is now accounted for by the simulation results at similar time frames, velocities and pH levels.

  6. WPA Precipitation Tabulations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly precipitation data tabulated under the Work Projects Administration (WPA), a New Deal program created to reduce unemployment during the Great Depression....

  7. Is extreme precipitation changing? (United States)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael


    For most of the scientists climate change is a fact. Climate change implies changes not only on the behavior of the temperature but also on other climatic variables like the precipitation. The question raised in this study is whether or not the annual daily maximum precipitation has changed. In order to evaluate if this question can be answered, several thousands of precipitation records are analyzed from all over the globe. Initially the annual daily maxima time series are carefully formed and sequentially all possible trends are estimated in a moving window framework and for several interannual periods, e.g., from 10 years to 100 years. The aim is to estimate the difference between the percentage of increasing and decreasing trends in the annual daily maximum precipitation and assess if this difference indicates any specific pattern.

  8. Storage Gage Precipitation Observations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A storage gage is a precipitation gage that requires reading and maintenance only monthly or seasonal intervals. This library includes reports from such gages,...

  9. Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) (United States)

    SRD 78 NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) (Web, free access)   This database provides access and search capability for NIST critically evaluated data on atomic energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities that are reasonably up-to-date. The NIST Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center has carried out these critical compilations.

  10. Program Spectra Analysis with Theory of Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattikorn Hewett


    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to automatically analyzing program spectra, an execution profile of program testing results for fault localization. Using a mathematical theory of evidence for uncertainty reasoning, the proposed approach estimates the likelihood of faulty locations based on evidence from program spectra. Our approach is theoretically grounded and can be computed online. Therefore, we can predict fault locations immediately after each test execution is completed. We evaluate the approach by comparing its performance with the top three performing fault localizers using a benchmark set of real-world programs. The results show that our approach is at least as effective as others with an average effectiveness (the reduction of the amount of code examined to locate a fault of 85.6% over 119 versions of the programs. We also study the quantity and quality impacts of program spectra on our approach where the quality refers to the spectra support in identifying that a certain unit is faulty. The results show that the effectiveness of our approach slightly improves with a larger number of failed runs but not with a larger number of passed runs. Program spectra with support quality increases from 1% to 100% improves the approach's effectiveness by 3.29%.

  11. Carbon monoxide mixing ratios over Oklahoma between 2002 and 2009 retrieved from Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yurganov


    Full Text Available CO mixing ratios for the lowermost 2-km atmospheric layer were retrieved from downwelling infrared (IR radiance spectra of the clear sky measured between 2002 and 2009 by a zenith-viewing Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI deployed at the Southern Great Plains (SGP observatory of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM Program near Lamont, Oklahoma. A version of a published earlier retrieval algorithm was improved and validated. Archived temperature and water vapor profiles retrieved from the same AERI spectra through automated ARM processing were used as input data for the CO retrievals. We found the archived water vapor profiles required additional constraint using SGP Microwave Radiometer retrievals of total precipitable water vapor. A correction for scattered solar light was developed as well. The retrieved CO was validated using simultaneous independently measured CO profiles from an aircraft. These tropospheric CO profiles were measured from the surface to altitudes of 4572 m a.s.l. once or twice a week between March 2006 and December 2008. The aircraft measurements were supplemented with ground-based CO measurements using a non-dispersive infrared gas correlation instrument at the SGP and retrievals from the Atmospheric IR Sounder (AIRS above 5 km to create full tropospheric CO profiles. Comparison of the profiles convolved with averaging kernels to the AERI CO retrievals found a squared correlation coefficient of 0.57, a standard deviation of ±11.7 ppbv, a bias of -16 ppbv, and a slope of 0.92. Averaged seasonal and diurnal cycles measured by the AERI are compared with those measured continuously in situ at the SGP in the boundary layer. Monthly mean CO values measured by the AERI between 2002 and 2009 are compared with those measured by the AIRS over North America, the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and over the tropics.

  12. Spectra, Winter 2014 (United States)


    additional copies or more information, please email LEADINGEDGE 1 Contents 30 Navy Launches UAV from Submerged Submarine 31...the splash, Test Sub submerged and started moving underwater. Flying WANDA With the success of Test Sub, the Flimmer team applied the lessons to...coated for corrosion- proofing against the acidic environ- ment in the fuel cell and then welded together. Looking at the complexity of developing

  13. Pattern recognition in spectra (United States)

    Gebran, M.; Paletou, F.


    We present a new automated procedure that simultaneously derives the effective temperature Teff, surface gravity log g, metallicity [Fe/H], and equatorial projected rotational velocity ve sin i for stars. The procedure is inspired by the well-known PCA-based inversion of spectropolarimetric full-Stokes solar data, which was used both for Zeeman and Hanle effects. The efficiency and accuracy of this procedure have been proven for FGK, A, and late type dwarf stars of K and M spectral types. Learning databases are generated from the Elodie stellar spectra library using observed spectra for which fundamental parameters were already evaluated or with synthetic data. The synthetic spectra are calculated using ATLAS9 model atmospheres. This technique helped us to detect many peculiar stars such as Am, Ap, HgMn, SiEuCr and binaries. This fast and efficient technique could be used every time a pattern recognition is needed. One important application is the understanding of the physical properties of planetary surfaces by comparing aboard instrument data to synthetic ones.

  14. Estimating Spectra from Photometry (United States)

    Bryce Kalmbach, J.; Connolly, Andrew J.


    Measuring the physical properties of galaxies such as redshift frequently requires the use of spectral energy distributions (SEDs). SED template sets are, however, often small in number and cover limited portions of photometric color space. Here we present a new method to estimate SEDs as a function of color from a small training set of template SEDs. We first cover the mathematical background behind the technique before demonstrating our ability to reconstruct spectra based upon colors and then compare our results to other common interpolation and extrapolation methods. When the photometric filters and spectra overlap, we show that the error in the estimated spectra is reduced by more than 65% compared to the more commonly used techniques. We also show an expansion of the method to wavelengths beyond the range of the photometric filters. Finally, we demonstrate the usefulness of our technique by generating 50 additional SED templates from an original set of 10 and by applying the new set to photometric redshift estimation. We are able to reduce the photometric redshifts standard deviation by at least 22.0% and the outlier rejected bias by over 86.2% compared to original set for z ≤ 3.

  15. The Jovian aurora: Electron or ion precipitation (United States)

    Waite, J. H., Jr.; Clarke, J. T.; Cravens, T. E.


    High signal-to-noise spectra of the Jovian aurora at UV wavelengths obtained using the International Ultraviolet Explorer Observatory (including the brightest Jovian aurora observed to date) set strigent upper limits for sulfur and oxygen emissions, which would be associated with the precipitation of energetic heavy ions in the upper Jovian atmosphere if they were solely responsible for Jovian auroral processes. Model calculations of heavy ion precipitation and corresponding estimates of the associated sulfur and oxygen UV emissions previously carried out suggest emission values for 1304 A OI emission that are at least 30 times larger than the upper limit values set by the IUE observations reported. On the other hand the observed (feature of SII at 1256 A of 2 kR) is quite comparable to the theoretically predicted emission intensity. Taken together these observations and calculations suggest that electron as well as ion precipitation play a role in Jovian auroral processes. In light of earlier X-ray observations and in-situ plasma observations that suggest energetic heavy ion precipitation in the Jovian auroral zone, a scenario is suggested where heavy ion auroral energy deposition is concentrated at altitudes below the homopause. Electrons with energies of 10 to 30 keV are responsible for the bulk of the observable UV and EUV emissions since they deposit their energy above the methane absorbing layer defined by the homopause.

  16. Jovian aurora: electron or ion precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waite, J.H. Jr.; Clarke, J.T.; Cravens, T.E.


    High signal-to-noise spectra of the Jovian aurora at UV wavelengths obtained using the International Ultraviolet Explorer Observatory (including the brightest Jovian aurora observed to date) set strigent upper limits for sulfur and oxygen emissions, which would be associated with the precipitation of energetic heavy ions in the upper Jovian atmosphere if they were solely responsible for Jovian auroral processes. Model calculations of heavy ion precipitation and corresponding estimates of the associated sulfur and oxygen UV emissions previously carried out suggest emission values for 1304 A OI emission that are at least 30 times larger than the upper limit values set by the IUE observations reported. On the other hand the observed (feature of SII at 1256 A of 2 kR) is quite comparable to the theoretically predicted emission intensity. Taken together these observations and calculations suggest that electron as well as ion precipitation play a role in Jovian auroral processes. In light of earlier X-ray observations and in-situ plasma observations that suggest energetic heavy ion precipitation in the Jovian auroral zone, a scenario is suggested where heavy ion auroral energy deposition is concentrated at altitudes below the homopause. Electrons with energies of 10 to 30 keV are responsible for the bulk of the observable UV and EUV emissions since they deposit their energy above the methane absorbing layer defined by the homopause.

  17. Links between two different types of spectra of charged nanometer aerosol particles (United States)

    Luts, A.; Komsaare, K.; Parts, T.-E.; Hõrrak, U.


    We have, since 2007, continuously measured the electrical mobility distribution of small (classes of the spectra which are associated with the intermediate ion (1.6-7.4 nm in diameter) nucleation burst events and rain-type events. The spectra within these classes are characterized by special shapes and they are called "event-like spectra". The first class demonstrates the strongest increase in the concentration of all ions with the mobilities below 0.8 cm 2V -1 s -1 (above 1.25 nm in diameter), it mainly contains spring and early summer spectra, recorded around midday. In the second class, the events are weaker; it contains a large number of late spring morning time spectra, when relative humidity (RH) tends to decrease. The third and the fourth classes contain many spectra, which resemble to short isolated events. These spectra are excluded from the further analysis. In the first class, the precipitation spectra make about 34% of all the event-like spectra, in the other classes about 10%. In the case of the BSMA positive ions, only the first and second classes were present. The precipitation spectra make about 20% of all event-like classes. About 45% of the event-like spectra are without precipitation, but with RH > 90%, and these spectra are excluded from the further analysis. The spectra with RH classes. The established links with the concurrent KAIS classes imply that especially the BSMA positive ion burst events are often connected with some extra trace gases, which can override the dependence on the meteorological conditions. All the ions within the BSMA ion burst spectra are definitely older than about 1 s.

  18. Jovian X-Ray Aurora and Energetic Oxygen Ion Precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Weihong; Schultz, D. R.


    The X-ray line spectra of highly charged oxygen ions excited by charge transfer interaction with the molecular hydrogen in the auroral atmosphere of Jupiter are calculated. The calculations utilize our calculated cross sections of state-selective charge transfer and the available cross-section data of ionization and stripping. Comparison of these spectra with high-resolution spectral observations may provide a sensitive probe of the characteristics of the heavy ions precipitating into the Jovian auroral atmosphere. On the basis of the much higher X-ray efficiency of heavy ions than of electrons, it is concluded that the Jovian aurora may be accounted for by a combination of energetic heavy-ion precipitation and energetic electron precipitation, which produces the auroral X-ray and ultraviolet emissions, respectively. (c) (c) 1999. The American Astronomical Society.

  19. The Global Precipitation Mission (United States)

    Braun, Scott; Kummerow, Christian


    The Global Precipitation Mission (GPM), expected to begin around 2006, is a follow-up to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Unlike TRMM, which primarily samples the tropics, GPM will sample both the tropics and mid-latitudes. The primary, or core, satellite will be a single, enhanced TRMM satellite that can quantify the 3-D spatial distributions of precipitation and its associated latent heat release. The core satellite will be complemented by a constellation of very small and inexpensive drones with passive microwave instruments that will sample the rainfall with sufficient frequency to be not only of climate interest, but also have local, short-term impacts by providing global rainfall coverage at approx. 3 h intervals. The data is expected to have substantial impact upon quantitative precipitation estimation/forecasting and data assimilation into global and mesoscale numerical models. Based upon previous studies of rainfall data assimilation, GPM is expected to lead to significant improvements in forecasts of extratropical and tropical cyclones. For example, GPM rainfall data can provide improved initialization of frontal systems over the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. The purpose of this talk is to provide information about GPM to the USWRP (U.S. Weather Research Program) community and to discuss impacts on quantitative precipitation estimation/forecasting and data assimilation.

  20. Precipitation Reconstruction (PREC) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The PREC data set is an analysis of monthly precipitation constructed on a 2.5(o)lat/lon grid over the global for the period from 1948 to the present. The land...

  1. Comparison of the characteristic energy of precipitating electrons derived from ground-based and DMSP satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ashrafi


    Full Text Available Energy maps are important for ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling studies, because quantitative determination of field-aligned currents requires knowledge of the conductances and their spatial gradients. By combining imaging riometer absorption and all-sky auroral optical data it is possible to produce high temporal and spatial resolution maps of the Maxwellian characteristic energy of precipitating electrons within a 240240 common field of view. These data have been calibrated by inverting EISCAT electron density profiles into equivalent energy spectra. In this paper energy maps produced by ground-based instruments (optical and riometer are compared with DMSP satellite data during geomagnetic conjunctions. For the period 1995-2002, twelve satellite passes over the ground-based instruments' field of view for the cloud-free conditions have been considered. Four of the satellite conjunctions occurred during moderate geomagnetic, steady-state conditions and without any ion precipitation. In these cases with Maxwellian satellite spectra, there is 71% agreement between the characteristic energies derived from the satellite and the ground-based energy map method.

  2. Control spectra for Quito (United States)

    Aguiar, Roberto; Rivas-Medina, Alicia; Caiza, Pablo; Quizanga, Diego


    The Metropolitan District of Quito is located on or very close to segments of reverse blind faults, Puengasí, Ilumbisí-La Bota, Carcelen-El Inca, Bellavista-Catequilla and Tangahuilla, making it one of the most seismically dangerous cities in the world. The city is divided into five areas: south, south-central, central, north-central and north. For each of the urban areas, elastic response spectra are presented in this paper, which are determined by utilizing some of the new models of the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) NGA-West2 program. These spectra are calculated considering the maximum magnitude that could be generated by the rupture of each fault segment, and taking into account the soil type that exists at different points of the city according to the Norma Ecuatoriana de la Construcción (2015). Subsequently, the recurrence period of earthquakes of high magnitude in each fault segment is determined from the physical parameters of the fault segments (size of the fault plane and slip rate) and the pattern of recurrence of type Gutenberg-Richter earthquakes with double truncation magnitude (Mmin and Mmax) is used.

  3. Microwave Observations of Precipitation and the Atmosphere (United States)

    Staelin, David H.; Rosenkranz, Philip W.


    This research effort had three elements devoted to improving satellite-derived passive microwave retrievals of precipitation rate: morphological rain-rate retrievals, warm rain retrievals, and extension of a study of geostationary satellite options. The morphological precipitation-rate retrieval method uses for the first time the morphological character of the observed storm microwave spectra. The basic concept involves: 1) retrieval of point rainfall rates using current algorithms, 2) using spatial feature vectors of the observations over segmented multi-pixel storms to estimate the integrated rainfall rate for that storm (cu m/s), and 3) normalization of the point rain-rate retrievals to ensure consistency with the storm-wide retrieval. This work is ongoing, but two key steps have been completed: development of a segmentation algorithm for defining spatial regions corresponding to single storms for purposes of estimation, and reduction of some of the data from NAST-M that will be used to support this research going forward. The warm rain retrieval method involved extension of Aquai/AIRS/AMSU/HSB algorithmic work on cloud water retrievals. The central concept involves the fact that passive microwave cloud water retrievals over approx. 0.4 mm are very likely associated with precipitation. Since glaciated precipitation is generally detected quite successfully using scattering signatures evident in the surface-blind 54- and 183-GHz bands, this new method complements the first by permitting precipitation retrievals of non-glaciated events. The method is most successful over ocean, but has detected non-glaciated convective cells over land, perhaps in their early formative stages. This work will require additional exploration and validation prior to publication. Passive microwave instrument configurations for use in geostationary orbit were studied. They employ parabolic reflectors between 2 and 4 meters in diameter, and frequencies up to approx.430 GHz; this

  4. LSD-based analysis of high-resolution stellar spectra (United States)

    Tsymbal, V.; Tkachenko, A.; Van, Reeth T.


    We present a generalization of the method of least-squares deconvolution (LSD), a powerful tool for extracting high S/N average line profiles from stellar spectra. The generalization of the method is effected by extending it towards the multiprofile LSD and by introducing the possibility to correct the line strengths from the initial mask. We illustrate the new approach by two examples: (a) the detection of astroseismic signatures from low S/N spectra of single stars, and (b) disentangling spectra of multiple stellar objects. The analysis is applied to spectra obtained with 2-m class telescopes in the course of spectroscopic ground-based support for space missions such as CoRoT and Kepler. Usually, rather high S/N is required, so smaller telescopes can only compete successfully with more advanced ones when one can apply a technique that enables a remarkable increase in the S/N of the spectra which they observe. Since the LSD profiles have a potential for reconstruction what is common in all the spectral profiles, it should have a particular practical application to faint stars observed with 2-m class telescopes and whose spectra show remarkable LPVs.

  5. Hourly Precipitation Data (HPD) Publication (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly Precipitation Data (HPD) Publication is archived and available from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). This publication contains hourly precipitation...

  6. The Jovian aurora: Electron or ion precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waite, J.H., Jr. (NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL (USA)); Clarke, J.T. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (USA)); Cravens, T.E. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (USA)); Hammond, C.M. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))


    High signal-to-noise spectra of the Jovian aurora at UV wavelengths obtained using the International Ultraviolet Explorer Observatory (including the brightest Jovian aurora observed to date) are used to study the existence of sulfur and oxygen emissions which would be associated with the precipitation of energetic heavy ions in the upper Jovian atmosphere. Model calculations of heavy ion precipitation and corresponding estimates of the associated sulfur and oxygen UV emissions carried out in the preceding companion paper of Horanyi et al. suggest emission values for 1,304-{angstrom} O I emission that are at least 50 times larger than the upper limit values set by the IUE observations reported here. On the other hand a possible emission feature of S II at 1,256 {angstrom} is comparable to the theoretically predicted emission intensity. Earlier X ray observations and in situ plasma observations have indicated the existence of energetic heavy ion precipitation in the Jovian auroral zone. Based on the IUE observations reported here, the authors suggest a scenario where heavy ion auroral energy deposition is concentrated at altitudes below the homopause (i.e. > 300 keV/nucleon) and electrons with energies of 10 to 30 keV are responsible for the bulk of the observable UV and EUV emissions since they deposit their energy above the methane-absorbing layer defined by the homopause.

  7. Preliminary microphysical characterization of precipitation at ground over Antarctica coast (United States)

    Roberto, Nicoletta; Adirosi, Elisa; Montopoli, Mario; Baldini, Luca; Dietrich, Stefano; Porcù, Federico


    processing PSD spectra. Software provided by disdrometer manufacturer assumes spherical shape to compute the size and the fall velocity of the particle. In the case of solid precipitation, this assumption can be unrealistic. However, averaging over a long time the influence of irregular shape of the particles can be reduced. Despite this limit, the Parsivel disdrometer has been used in several study to measure falling snow. In this work, some preliminary measurements from OTT Parsivel at MSZ are presented. In particular, the PSD collected during summer season 2016-2017 are analyzed in order to infer microphysical characteristics of snows in Antarctica. A specific methodology to estimate the reflectivity factor and the snow rate from snow size spectra collected by Parsivel is investigated. Microphysical properties of Antarctica precipitating clouds, in particular PSD, are compared to measurements collected by disdrometer during snow events in other regions, such as the data collected during the GPM Cold-season Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx) in Ontario, Canada.

  8. Investigating radiation belt losses though numerical modelling of precipitating fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger


    Full Text Available It has been suggested that whistler-induced electron precipitation (WEP may be the most significant inner radiation belt loss process for some electron energy ranges. One area of uncertainty lies in identifying a typical estimate of the precipitating fluxes from the examples given in the literature to date. Here we aim to solve this difficulty through modelling satellite and ground-based observations of onset and decay of the precipitation and its effects in the ionosphere by examining WEP-produced Trimpi perturbations in subionospheric VLF transmissions. In this study we find that typical Trimpi are well described by the effects of WEP spectra derived from the AE-5 inner radiation belt model for typical precipitating energy fluxes. This confirms the validity of the radiation belt lifetimes determined in previous studies using these flux parameters. We find that the large variation in observed Trimpi perturbation size occurring over time scales of minutes to hours is primarily due to differing precipitation flux levels rather than changing WEP spectra. Finally, we show that high-time resolution measurements during the onset of Trimpi perturbations should provide a useful signature for discriminating WEP Trimpi from non-WEP Trimpi, due to the pulsed nature of the WEP arrival.

  9. Precipitation Indices Low Countries (United States)

    van Engelen, A. F. V.; Ynsen, F.; Buisman, J.; van der Schrier, G.


    Since 1995, KNMI published a series of books(1), presenting an annual reconstruction of weather and climate in the Low Countries, covering the period AD 763-present, or roughly, the last millennium. The reconstructions are based on the interpretation of documentary sources predominantly and comparison with other proxies and instrumental observations. The series also comprises a number of classifications. Amongst them annual classifications for winter and summer temperature and for winter and summer dryness-wetness. The classification of temperature have been reworked into peer reviewed (2) series (AD 1000-present) of seasonal temperatures and temperature indices, the so called LCT (Low Countries Temperature) series, now incorporated in the Millennium databases. Recently we started a study to convert the dryness-wetness classifications into a series of precipitation; the so called LCP (Low Countries Precipitation) series. A brief outline is given here of the applied methodology and preliminary results. The WMO definition for meteorological drought has been followed being that a period is called wet respectively dry when the amount of precipitation is considerable more respectively less than usual (normal). To gain a more quantitative insight for four locations, geographically spread over the Low Countries area (De Bilt, Vlissingen, Maastricht and Uccle), we analysed the statistics of daily precipitation series, covering the period 1900-present. This brought us to the following definition, valid for the Low Countries: A period is considered as (very) dry respectively (very) wet if over a continuous period of at least 60 days (~two months) cq 90 days (~three months) on at least two out of the four locations 50% less resp. 50% more than the normal amount for the location (based on the 1961-1990 normal period) has been measured. This results into the following classification into five drought classes hat could be applied to non instrumental observations: Very wet period

  10. Sequencing BPS spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gukov, Sergei [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Max-Planck-Institut für Mathematik,Vivatsgasse 7, D-53111 Bonn (Germany); Nawata, Satoshi [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Centre for Quantum Geometry of Moduli Spaces, University of Aarhus,Nordre Ringgade 1, DK-8000 (Denmark); Saberi, Ingmar [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stošić, Marko [CAMGSD, Departamento de Matemática, Instituto Superior Técnico,Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Mathematical Institute SANU,Knez Mihajlova 36, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Sułkowski, Piotr [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,ul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland)


    This paper provides both a detailed study of color-dependence of link homologies, as realized in physics as certain spaces of BPS states, and a broad study of the behavior of BPS states in general. We consider how the spectrum of BPS states varies as continuous parameters of a theory are perturbed. This question can be posed in a wide variety of physical contexts, and we answer it by proposing that the relationship between unperturbed and perturbed BPS spectra is described by a spectral sequence. These general considerations unify previous applications of spectral sequence techniques to physics, and explain from a physical standpoint the appearance of many spectral sequences relating various link homology theories to one another. We also study structural properties of colored HOMFLY homology for links and evaluate Poincaré polynomials in numerous examples. Among these structural properties is a novel “sliding” property, which can be explained by using (refined) modular S-matrix. This leads to the identification of modular transformations in Chern-Simons theory and 3d N=2 theory via the 3d/3d correspondence. Lastly, we introduce the notion of associated varieties as classical limits of recursion relations of colored superpolynomials of links, and study their properties.

  11. Assessment of phosphopeptide enrichment/precipitation method for LC-MS/MS based phosphoproteomic analysis of plant tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Juanying; Rudashevskaya, Elena; Hansen, Thomas Aarup

    stardand sample preparation protocols. Here, we combine 3 phosphpeptide enrichment methods (IMAC, TiO2 and Calcium Phosphate Precipitation (CPP)), and apply them to phosphoproteomic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana plasma membrane preparation. Method Plant plasma membranes were isolated from Arabidopsis...... the phosphopeptides with IMAC, TiO2 enrichment methods prior to LTQ-Orbitrap MS analysis. 100 ug plant plasma membrane protein was used for each enrichment experiment. The data was searched against NCBI database on MASCOT server, and the results were validated by in home bioinformatic software using the A...... (MSA) method was used for phosphopeptide fragmentation. The resulting fragment ion spectra were processed with Proteome Discoverer software (Thermo Electron, Bremen, Germany). Results We first investigated the global phosphorylation profile of plant plasma membrane proteins by enriching...


    Fries, B.A.


    A plutonium separatory ore concentration procedure involving the use of a fluoride type of carrier is presented. An improvement is given in the derivation step in the process for plutonium recovery by carrier precipitation of plutonium values from solution with a lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitate and subsequent derivation from the resulting plutonium bearing carrier precipitate of an aqueous acidic plutonium-containing solution. The carrier precipitate is contacted with a concentrated aqueous solution of potassium carbonate to effect dissolution therein of at least a part of the precipitate, including the plutonium values. Any remaining precipitate is separated from the resulting solution and dissolves in an aqueous solution containing at least 20% by weight of potassium carbonate. The reacting solutions are combined, and an alkali metal hydroxide added to a concentration of at least 2N to precipitate lanthanum hydroxide concomitantly carrying plutonium values.

  13. Clinical significance of precipitous labor. (United States)

    Suzuki, Shunji


    Precipitous labor is defined as expulsion of the fetus within less than 3 hours of commencement of regular contractions. We retrospectively examined our cases of precipitous labor to identify the clinical significance and perinatal outcomes following precipitous labor in singleton vertex deliveries. A retrospective population-based study was conducted comparing women with singleton precipitous labor and those with labor of normal duration. We examined the clinical characteristics and outcomes by comparing patients with precipitous labor and those with labor of normal duration in 0 and two-parous singleton pregnant women. Using a multivariate analysis, precipitous labor in nulliparous women was independently associated with teenagers (adjusted OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 0.99 - 2.95, P = 0.049), preterm delivery (adjusted OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.16 - 2.70, P precipitous labor was associated with hypertensive disorders in singleton vertex deliveries, it was not associated with maternal or neonatal outcomes.

  14. The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Combined Precipitation Dataset (United States)

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Arkin, Philip; Chang, Alfred; Ferraro, Ralph; Gruber, Arnold; Janowiak, John; McNab, Alan; Rudolf, Bruno; Schneider, Udo


    The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) has released the GPCP Version 1 Combined Precipitation Data Set, a global, monthly precipitation dataset covering the period July 1987 through December 1995. The primary product in the dataset is a merged analysis incorporating precipitation estimates from low-orbit-satellite microwave data, geosynchronous-orbit -satellite infrared data, and rain gauge observations. The dataset also contains the individual input fields, a combination of the microwave and infrared satellite estimates, and error estimates for each field. The data are provided on 2.5 deg x 2.5 deg latitude-longitude global grids. Preliminary analyses show general agreement with prior studies of global precipitation and extends prior studies of El Nino-Southern Oscillation precipitation patterns. At the regional scale there are systematic differences with standard climatologies.

  15. ISLSCP II Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) Monthly Precipitation (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC), which is operated by the Deutscher Wetterdienst (National Meteorological Service of Germany), is a...

  16. ISLSCP II Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) Monthly Precipitation (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC), which is operated by the Deutscher Wetterdienst (National Meteorological Service of Germany), is a component of...

  17. Optical transmission spectra in quasiperiodic multilayered photonic structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, F F de [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal-RN (Brazil); Albuquerque, E L [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal-RN (Brazil); Vasconcelos, M S [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Maranhao, 65025-001 Sao LuIs-MA (Brazil)


    Optical transmission spectra in quasiperiodic multilayered photonic structures, composed of both positive (SiO{sub 2}) and negative refractive index materials, are calculated by using a theoretical model based on the transfer matrix approach for normal incidence geometry. The quasiperiodic structures are substitutional sequences, characterized by the nature of their Fourier spectrum, which can be dense pure point (e.g. Fibonacci sequence) or singular continuous (e.g. Thue-Morse and double-period sequences). The transmission spectra for the case where both refractive indices can be approximated by a different constant show a unique mirror symmetrical profile, with no counterpart for the positive refractive index case, as well as a striking self-similar behaviour related to the Fibonacci sequence. For a more realistic frequency-dependent refractive index, the transmission spectra are characterized by a rich transmission profile of Bragg peaks with no more self-similarity or mirror symmetry.

  18. Identification of Swell in Nearshore Surface Wave Energy Spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Work


    Full Text Available An approach for routine identification of swell and sea in nominally fully developed, omnidirectional, surface water wave energy spectra measured in arbitrary water depth is developed, applied, and discussed. The methodology is an extension of earlier work with deepwater spectra and involves identifying the frequency at which wave steepness is maximized and relating this to the swell separation frequency. The TMA parameterized spectrum is employed to establish a relationship between the two frequencies so that the methodology can be used when wind data are unavailable. The methodology is developed for finite water depth and tested using a dataset that includes both acoustic Doppler current profiler and wave buoy data, recorded simultaneously at the same location. For cases where the sea and swell are clearly, visually distinguishable in the omnidirectional spectra, the new method accurately distinguishes between the two, but it can also be used to identify sea and swell in unimodal spectra.

  19. Precipitation-Based ENSO Indices (United States)

    Adler, Robert; Curtis, Scott


    In this study gridded observed precipitation data sets are used to construct rainfall-based ENSO indices. The monthly El Nino and La Nina Indices (EI and LI) measure the steepest zonal gradient of precipitation anomalies between the equatorial Pacific and the Maritime Continent. This is accomplished by spatially averaging precipitation anomalies using a spatial boxcar filter, finding the maximum and minimum averages within a Pacific and Maritime Continent domain for each month, and taking differences. EI and LI can be examined separately or combined to produce one ENSO Precipitation Index (ESPI). ESPI is well correlated with traditional sea surface temperature and pressure indices, leading Nino 3.4. One advantage precipitation indices have over more conventional indices, is describing the strength and position of the Walker circulation. Examples are given of tracking the impact of ENSO events on the tropical precipitation fields.

  20. Arsenic Precipitation in the Bioleaching of Realgar Using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Chen


    Full Text Available The current study investigates the characteristics of arsenic precipitation during the bioleaching of realgar. The bioleaching performance of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans BY-3 (A. ferrooxidans was investigated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectrophotometry. SEM and XRD analyses revealed that the arsenic-adapted strain of A. ferrooxidans was more hydrophobic and showed higher attachment efficiency to realgar compared with the wild strain. The arsenic precipitation using A. ferrooxidans resulted in the precipitation of an arsenic-rich compound on the surface of the bacterial cell, as shown in the TEM images. The FT-IR spectra suggested that the −OH and −NH groups were closely involved in the biosorption process. The observations above strongly suggest that the cell surface of A. ferrooxidans plays a role in the induction of arsenic tolerance during the bioleaching of realgar.

  1. Ultraviolet Emission from Oxygen Precipitating into Jovian Aurora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Weihong; Schultz, D. R.


    The ultraviolet emission-line spectra of precipitating oxygen atoms and ions excited by charge transfer interaction with the molecular hydrogen in the auroral atmosphere of Jupiter are calculated using our computed cross sections of state-selective charge transfer. The charge transfer processes preferentially populate the ground states of neutral oxygen and low-charge ions and the highly excited states of high-charge ions, yielding low UV and high X-ray efficiencies, respectively. Much weaker than the underlying emission spectrum of H2 excited by energetic electron precipitation, the UV emission from oxygen is not expected to be discernible in the Jovian auroral spectrum. This reconciles the absence of UV emission with the presence of X-ray emission from the heavy ions precipitating in the Jovian aurora. (c) (c) 2000. The American Astronomical Society.

  2. Precipitation and microphysical studies with a low cost high resolution X-band radar: an innovative project prospective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Van Baelen


    Full Text Available This paper describes an innovative project which has just been launched at the "Laboratoire de Météorologie Physique" (LaMP in Clermont-Ferrand in collaboration with the "Meteorologische Institut" in Hamburg, where a low cost X-band high resolution precipitation radar is combined with supporting measurements and a bin microphysical cloud resolving model in order to develop adapted Z–R relationships for accurate rain rate estimates over a local area such as a small catchment basin, an urban complex or even an agriculture domain.

    In particular, the use of K-band micro rain radars which can retrieve vertical profiles of drop size distribution and the associated reflectivity will be used to perform direct comparisons with X-band radar volume samples while a network of rain-gauges provides ground truth to which our rain estimates will be compared. Thus, the experimental suite of instrumentation should provide a detailed characterization of the various rain regimes and their associated Z–R relationship. Furthermore, we will make use of the hilly environment of the radar to test the use of novel attenuation methods in order to estimate rainfall rates.

    A second important aspect of this work is to use the detailed cloud modeling available at LaMP. Simulations of precipitating clouds in highly resolved 3-D dynamics model allow predicting the spectra of rain drops and precipitating ice particles. Radar reflectivity determined from these model studies will be compared with the observations in order to better understand which raindrop size spectrum shape factor should be applied to the radar algorithms as a function of the type of precipitating cloud. Likewise, these comparisons between the modeled and the observed reflectivity will also give us the opportunity to further improve our model microphysics and the parameterizations for meso-scale models.

  3. Electrical operation of electrostatic precipitators

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Ken


    The electrostatic precipitator remains on of the most cost effective means of controlling the emission of particulates from most industrial processes. This book will be of interest to both users and suppliers of electrostatic precipitators as well as advanced students on environmental based courses. The author identifies the physical and engineering basis for the development of electrical equipment for electrostatic precipitators and thoroughly explores the technological factors which optimize the efficiency of the precipitator and hence minimize emissions, as well as future developments in th

  4. Precipitation Measurement Missions Data Access (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data products are currently available from 1998 to the present. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission data...

  5. Measuring precipitation with a geolysimeter (United States)

    Smith, Craig D.; van der Kamp, Garth; Arnold, Lauren; Schmidt, Randy


    Using the relationship between measured groundwater pressures in deep observation wells and total surface loading, a geological weighing lysimeter (geolysimeter) has the capability of measuring precipitation event totals independently of conventional precipitation gauge observations. Correlations between groundwater pressure change and event precipitation were observed at a co-located site near Duck Lake, SK, over a multi-year and multi-season period. Correlation coefficients (r2) varied from 0.99 for rainfall to 0.94 for snowfall. The geolysimeter was shown to underestimate rainfall by 7 % while overestimating snowfall by 9 % as compared to the unadjusted gauge precipitation. It is speculated that the underestimation of rainfall is due to unmeasured run-off and evapotranspiration within the response area of the geolysimeter during larger rainfall events, while the overestimation of snow is at least partially due to the systematic undercatch common to most precipitation gauges due to wind. Using recently developed transfer functions from the World Meteorological Organization's (WMO) Solid Precipitation Intercomparison Experiment (SPICE), bias adjustments were applied to the Alter-shielded, Geonor T-200B precipitation gauge measurements of snowfall to mitigate wind-induced errors. The bias between the gauge and geolysimeter measurements was reduced to 3 %. This suggests that the geolysimeter is capable of accurately measuring solid precipitation and can be used as an independent and representative reference of true precipitation.

  6. Measuring precipitation with a geolysimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Smith


    Full Text Available Using the relationship between measured groundwater pressures in deep observation wells and total surface loading, a geological weighing lysimeter (geolysimeter has the capability of measuring precipitation event totals independently of conventional precipitation gauge observations. Correlations between groundwater pressure change and event precipitation were observed at a co-located site near Duck Lake, SK, over a multi-year and multi-season period. Correlation coefficients (r2 varied from 0.99 for rainfall to 0.94 for snowfall. The geolysimeter was shown to underestimate rainfall by 7 % while overestimating snowfall by 9 % as compared to the unadjusted gauge precipitation. It is speculated that the underestimation of rainfall is due to unmeasured run-off and evapotranspiration within the response area of the geolysimeter during larger rainfall events, while the overestimation of snow is at least partially due to the systematic undercatch common to most precipitation gauges due to wind. Using recently developed transfer functions from the World Meteorological Organization's (WMO Solid Precipitation Intercomparison Experiment (SPICE, bias adjustments were applied to the Alter-shielded, Geonor T-200B precipitation gauge measurements of snowfall to mitigate wind-induced errors. The bias between the gauge and geolysimeter measurements was reduced to 3 %. This suggests that the geolysimeter is capable of accurately measuring solid precipitation and can be used as an independent and representative reference of true precipitation.

  7. Raman spectra of lithium compounds (United States)

    Gorelik, V. S.; Bi, Dongxue; Voinov, Y. P.; Vodchits, A. I.; Gorshunov, B. P.; Yurasov, N. I.; Yurasova, I. I.


    The paper is devoted to the results of investigating the spontaneous Raman scattering spectra in the lithium compounds crystals in a wide spectral range by the fibre-optic spectroscopy method. We also present the stimulated Raman scattering spectra in the lithium hydroxide and lithium deuteride crystals obtained with the use of powerful laser source. The symmetry properties of the lithium hydroxide, lithium hydroxide monohydrate and lithium deuteride crystals optical modes were analyzed by means of the irreducible representations of the point symmetry groups. We have established the selection rules in the Raman and infrared absorption spectra of LiOH, LiOH·H2O and LiD crystals.

  8. Rising Precipitation Extremes across Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramchandra Karki


    Full Text Available As a mountainous country, Nepal is most susceptible to precipitation extremes and related hazards, including severe floods, landslides and droughts that cause huge losses of life and property, impact the Himalayan environment, and hinder the socioeconomic development of the country. Given that the countrywide assessment of such extremes is still lacking, we present a comprehensive picture of prevailing precipitation extremes observed across Nepal. First, we present the spatial distribution of daily extreme precipitation indices as defined by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection, Monitoring and Indices (ETCCDMI from 210 stations over the period of 1981–2010. Then, we analyze the temporal changes in the computed extremes from 76 stations, featuring long-term continuous records for the period of 1970–2012, by applying a non-parametric Mann−Kendall test to identify the existence of a trend and Sen’s slope method to calculate the true magnitude of this trend. Further, the local trends in precipitation extremes have been tested for their field significance over the distinct physio-geographical regions of Nepal, such as the lowlands, middle mountains and hills and high mountains in the west (WL, WM and WH, respectively, and likewise, in central (CL, CM and CH and eastern (EL, EM and EH Nepal. Our results suggest that the spatial patterns of high-intensity precipitation extremes are quite different to that of annual or monsoonal precipitation. Lowlands (Terai and Siwaliks that feature relatively low precipitation and less wet days (rainy days are exposed to high-intensity precipitation extremes. Our trend analysis suggests that the pre-monsoonal precipitation is significantly increasing over the lowlands and CH, while monsoonal precipitation is increasing in WM and CH and decreasing in CM, CL and EL. On the other hand, post-monsoonal precipitation is significantly decreasing across all of Nepal while winter precipitation is decreasing

  9. Interpretation of wave energy spectra

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, E.F


    Guidelines for interpreting nondirectional wave energy spectra and presented. A simple method is given for using the spectrum to estimate a significant height and period for each major wave train in most sea states...

  10. Infrared spectra of mineral species

    CERN Document Server

    Chukanov, Nikita V


    This book details more than 3,000 IR spectra of more than 2,000 mineral species collected during last 30 years. It features full descriptions and analytical data of each sample for which IR spectrum was obtained.

  11. Pileup correction of microdosimetric spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Langen, K M; Lennox, A J; Kroc, T K; De Luca, P M


    Microdosimetric spectra were measured at the Fermilab neutron therapy facility using low pressure proportional counters operated in pulse mode. The neutron beam has a very low duty cycle (<0.1%) and consequently a high instantaneous dose rate which causes distortions of the microdosimetric spectra due to pulse pileup. The determination of undistorted spectra at this facility necessitated (i) the modified operation of the proton accelerator to reduce the instantaneous dose rate and (ii) the establishment of a computational procedure to correct the measured spectra for remaining pileup distortions. In support of the latter effort, two different pileup simulation algorithms using analytical and Monte-Carlo-based approaches were developed. While the analytical algorithm allows a detailed analysis of pileup processes it only treats two-pulse and three-pulse pileup and its validity is hence restricted. A Monte-Carlo-based pileup algorithm was developed that inherently treats all degrees of pileup. This algorithm...

  12. Photon spectra from WIMP annihilation


    Ruiz Cembranos, José Alberto; Cruz Dombriz, Álvaro de la; Dobado González, Antonio; Lineros, R. A.; López Maroto, Antonio


    If the present dark matter in the Universe annihilates into standard model particles, it must contribute to the fluxes of cosmic rays that are detected on the Earth and, in particular, to the observed gamma-ray fluxes. The magnitude of such a contribution depends on the particular dark matter candidate, but certain features of the produced photon spectra may be analyzed in a rather model-independent fashion. In this work we provide the complete photon spectra coming from WIMP annihilation int...

  13. Resistivity Problems in Electrostatic Precipitation (United States)

    White, Harry J.


    The process of electrostatic precipitation has ever-increasing application in more efficient collection of fine particles from industrial air emissions. This article details a large number of new developments in the field. The emphasis is on high resistivity particles which are a common cause of poor precipitator performance. (LS)

  14. Acid precipitation and forest soils (United States)

    C. O. Tamm


    Many soil processes and properties may be affected by a change in chemical climate such as that caused by acidification of precipitation. The effect of additions of acid precipitation depends at first on the extent to which this acid is really absorbed by the soil and on the changes in substances with actual or potential acidity leaving the soil. There is for instance...

  15. Precipitation in the Solar System (United States)

    McIntosh, Gordon


    As an astronomy instructor, I am always looking for commonly observed Earthly experiences to help my students and me understand and appreciate similar occurrences elsewhere in the solar system. Recently I wrote a short TPT article on frost. This paper is on the related phenomena of precipitation. Precipitation, so common on most of the Earth's…

  16. Modeling solid-state precipitation

    CERN Document Server

    Nebylov, AlexanderKozeschnik, Ernst


    Over recent decades, modeling and simulation of solid-state precipitation has attracted increased attention in academia and industry due to their important contributions in designing properties of advanced structural materials and in increasing productivity and decreasing costs for expensive alloying. In particular, precipitation of second phases is an important means for controlling the mechanical-technological properties of structural materials. However, profound physical modeling of precipitation is not a trivial task. This book introduces you to the classical methods of precipitation modeling and to recently-developed advanced, computationally-efficient techniques. If you're a research professional, academic, or student, you'll learn: nucleation theory, precipitate growth, calculation of interfacial energies. advanced techniques for technologically relevant multicomponent systems and complex thermo-mechanical treatments. numerical approaches using evolution equations and discrete particle size distribu...

  17. Linear discriminant analysis of brain tumour (1)H MR spectra: a comparison of classification using whole spectra versus metabolite quantification. (United States)

    Opstad, K S; Ladroue, C; Bell, B A; Griffiths, J R; Howe, F A


    (1)H MRS is an attractive choice for non-invasively diagnosing brain tumours. Many studies have been performed to create an objective decision support system, but there is not yet a consensus as to the best techniques of MRS acquisition or data processing to be used for optimum classification. In this study, we investigate whether LCModel analysis of short-TE (30 ms), single-voxel tumour spectra provide a better input for classification than the use of the original spectra. A total of 145 histologically diagnosed brain tumour spectra were acquired [14 astrocytoma grade II (AS2), 15 astrocytoma grade III (AS3), 42 glioblastoma (GBM), 41 metastases (MET) and 33 meningioma (MNG)], and linear discriminant analyses (LDA) were performed on the LCModel analysis of the spectra and the original spectra. The results consistently suggest improvement in classification when the LCModel concentrations are used. LDA of AS2, MNG and high-grade tumours (HG, comprising GBM and MET) correctly classified 94% using the LCModel dataset compared with 93% using the spectral dataset. The inclusion of AS3 reduced the accuracy to 82% and 78% for LCModel analysis and the original spectra, respectively, and further separating HG into GBM and MET gave 70% compared with 60%. Generally MNG spectra have profiles that are visually distinct from those of the other tumour types, but the classification accuracy was typically about 80%, with MNG with substantial lipid/macromolecule signals being classified as HG. Omission of the lipid/macromolecule concentrations in the LCModel dataset provided an improvement in classification of MNG (91% compared with 76%). In conclusion, there appears to be an advantage to performing pattern recognition on the quantitative analysis of tumour spectra rather than using the whole spectra. However, the results suggest that a two-step LDA process may help in classifying the five tumour groups to provide optimum classification of MNG with high lipid

  18. Use of co-precipitates of Brachystegia Eurycoma gum and egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    precipitates of Brachystegia gum and egg albumin as binder, and testing the stability of the metronidazole tablets with regard to moisture uptake and also the effect of moisture sorption on disintegration and dissolution profiles of the tablets.

  19. VHF signal power suppression in stratiform and convective precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. McDonald


    Full Text Available Previous studies have indicated that VHF clear-air radar return strengths are reduced during periods of precipitation. This study aims to examine whether the type of precipitation, stratiform and convective precipitation types are identified, has any impact on the relationships previously observed and to examine the possible mechanisms which produce this phenomenon. This study uses a combination of UHF and VHF wind-profiler data to define periods associated with stratiform and convective precipitation. This identification is achieved using an algorithm which examines the range squared corrected signal to noise ratio of the UHF returns for a bright band signature for stratiform precipitation. Regions associated with convective rainfall have been defined by identifying regions of enhanced range corrected signal to noise ratio that do not display a bright band structure and that are relatively uniform until a region above the melting layer.

    This study uses a total of 68 days, which incorporated significant periods of surface rainfall, between 31 August 2000 and 28 February 2002 inclusive from Aberystwyth (52.4° N, 4.1° W. Examination suggests that both precipitation types produce similar magnitude reductions in VHF signal power on average. However, the frequency of occurrence of statistically significant reductions in VHF signal power are very different. In the altitude range 2-4 km stratiform precipitation is related to VHF signal suppression approximately 50% of the time while in convective precipitation suppression is observed only 27% of the time. This statistical result suggests that evaporation, which occurs more often in stratiform precipitation, is important in reducing the small-scale irregularities in humidity and thereby the radio refractive index. A detailed case study presented also suggests that evaporation reducing small-scale irregularities in humidity may contribute to the observed VHF signal

  20. VHF signal power suppression in stratiform and convective precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. McDonald


    Full Text Available Previous studies have indicated that VHF clear-air radar return strengths are reduced during periods of precipitation. This study aims to examine whether the type of precipitation, stratiform and convective precipitation types are identified, has any impact on the relationships previously observed and to examine the possible mechanisms which produce this phenomenon. This study uses a combination of UHF and VHF wind-profiler data to define periods associated with stratiform and convective precipitation. This identification is achieved using an algorithm which examines the range squared corrected signal to noise ratio of the UHF returns for a bright band signature for stratiform precipitation. Regions associated with convective rainfall have been defined by identifying regions of enhanced range corrected signal to noise ratio that do not display a bright band structure and that are relatively uniform until a region above the melting layer. This study uses a total of 68 days, which incorporated significant periods of surface rainfall, between 31 August 2000 and 28 February 2002 inclusive from Aberystwyth (52.4° N, 4.1° W. Examination suggests that both precipitation types produce similar magnitude reductions in VHF signal power on average. However, the frequency of occurrence of statistically significant reductions in VHF signal power are very different. In the altitude range 2-4 km stratiform precipitation is related to VHF signal suppression approximately 50% of the time while in convective precipitation suppression is observed only 27% of the time. This statistical result suggests that evaporation, which occurs more often in stratiform precipitation, is important in reducing the small-scale irregularities in humidity and thereby the radio refractive index. A detailed case study presented also suggests that evaporation reducing small-scale irregularities in humidity may contribute to the observed VHF signal suppression.

  1. Spectra as windows into exoplanet atmospheres. (United States)

    Burrows, Adam S


    Understanding a planet's atmosphere is a necessary condition for understanding not only the planet itself, but also its formation, structure, evolution, and habitability. This requirement puts a premium on obtaining spectra and developing credible interpretative tools with which to retrieve vital planetary information. However, for exoplanets, these twin goals are far from being realized. In this paper, I provide a personal perspective on exoplanet theory and remote sensing via photometry and low-resolution spectroscopy. Although not a review in any sense, this paper highlights the limitations in our knowledge of compositions, thermal profiles, and the effects of stellar irradiation, focusing on, but not restricted to, transiting giant planets. I suggest that the true function of the recent past of exoplanet atmospheric research has been not to constrain planet properties for all time, but to train a new generation of scientists who, by rapid trial and error, are fast establishing a solid future foundation for a robust science of exoplanets.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Almeida, J.; Morales-Luis, A. B. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Terlevich, R.; Terlevich, E. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Cid Fernandes, R., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica-CFM, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)


    We describe a simple step-by-step guide to qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra. Rather than an alternative to existing automated tools, it is put forward as an instrument for quick-look analysis and for gaining physical insight when interpreting the outputs provided by automated tools. Though the recipe is for general application, it was developed for understanding the nature of the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means-based (ASK) template spectra. They resulted from the classification of all the galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, thus being a comprehensive representation of the galaxy spectra in the local universe. Using the recipe, we give a description of the properties of the gas and the stars that characterize the ASK classes, from those corresponding to passively evolving galaxies, to H II galaxies undergoing a galaxy-wide starburst. The qualitative analysis is found to be in excellent agreement with quantitative analyses of the same spectra. We compare the mean ages of the stellar populations with those inferred using the code STARLIGHT. We also examine the estimated gas-phase metallicity with the metallicities obtained using electron-temperature-based methods. A number of byproducts follow from the analysis. There is a tight correlation between the age of the stellar population and the metallicity of the gas, which is stronger than the correlations between galaxy mass and stellar age, and galaxy mass and gas metallicity. The galaxy spectra are known to follow a one-dimensional sequence, and we identify the luminosity-weighted mean stellar age as the affine parameter that describes the sequence. All ASK classes happen to have a significant fraction of old stars, although spectrum-wise they are outshined by the youngest populations. Old stars are metal-rich or metal-poor depending on whether they reside in passive galaxies or in star-forming galaxies.

  3. Mass Transfer and Kinetics Study of Heterogeneous Semi-Batch Precipitation of Magnesium Carbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, B.; Qu, H. Y.; Niemi, H.


    Precipitation kinetics and mass transfer of magnesium carbonate (MgCO3) hydrates from a reaction of magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)(2)) and CO2 were analyzed. The effect of CO2 flow rate and mixing intensity on precipitation was investigated under ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. Raman...... spectroscopy was used to determine the composition of the solids during semi-batch crystallization. The obtained spectra revealed the dissolution of Mg(OH)(2) and the formation of MgCO3. The precipitation rate increased with higher gas flow rate. The rotation speed of the stirrer had a significant effect...

  4. Chemical analysis of precipitates in metallic alloys using coincidence Doppler broadening of positron annihilation radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Nagai, Y; Hasegawa, M


    Two-detector coincidence Doppler broadening (CDB) method of positron annihilation radiation is applied to the study of precipitates in metals. As the first step, the CDB spectra for many kinds of elements are measured to obtain the 'fingerprint' of each element for the chemical analysis of the precipitates in metals. Utilizing the fingerprint of Cu, we made chemical analysis of nano-particles formed in the initial stage of thermal aging in a Fe-Cu alloy, and found that the particles are consisting of Cu only and free from vacancies, which demonstrates the usefulness of this method in the study of the precipitates.

  5. Hourly and Daily Precipitation Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Precipitation reports submitted on many form types, including tabular and autographic charts. Reports are almost exclusively from the US Cooperative Observer Network.

  6. Electrostatic precipitators for industrial applications

    CERN Document Server

    Francis, Steve L; Bradburn, Keith M


    This Guidebook provides basic knowledge of the physics and power supplies of electrostatic precipitators. It also deals with practical aspects of ESP design and gives examples of typical applications of ESPs.

  7. Atrial Ectopics Precipitating Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Francis


    Full Text Available Holter monitor tracing showing blocked atrial ectopics and atrial ectopic precipitating atrial fibrillation is being demonstrated. Initially it was coarse atrial fibrillation, which rapidly degenerated into fine atrial fibrillation.

  8. Environmental Radioactivity, Temperature, and Precipitation. (United States)

    Riland, Carson A.


    Reports that environmental radioactivity levels vary with temperature and precipitation and these effects are due to radon. Discusses the measurement of this environmental radioactivity and the theory behind it. (JRH)

  9. Identifying Anomality in Precipitation Processes (United States)

    Jiang, P.; Zhang, Y.


    Safety, risk and economic analyses of engineering constructions such as storm sewer, street and urban drainage, and channel design are sensitive to precipitation storm properties. Whether the precipitation storm properties exhibit normal or anomalous characteristics remains obscure. In this study, we will decompose a precipitation time series as sequences of average storm intensity, storm duration and interstorm period to examine whether these sequences could be treated as a realization of a continuous time random walk with both "waiting times" (interstorm period) and "jump sizes" (average storm intensity and storm duration). Starting from this viewpoint, we will analyze the statistics of storm duration, interstorm period, and average storm intensity in four regions in southwestern United States. We will examine whether the probability distribution is temporal and spatial dependent. Finally, we will use fractional engine to capture the randomness in precipitation storms.

  10. Fluorescence Spectra of Highlighter Inks (United States)

    Birriel, Jennifer J.; King, Damon


    Fluorescence spectra excited by laser pointers have been the subject of several papers in "TPT". These papers all describe a fluorescence phenomenon in which the reflected laser light undergoes a change in color: this color change results from the combination of some partially reflected laser light and additional colors generated by…

  11. Correlation Functions and Power Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan


    The present lecture note is a supplement to the textbook Digital Signal Processing by J. Proakis and D.G. Manolakis used in the IMM/DTU course 02451 Digital Signal Processing and provides an extended discussion of correlation functions and power spectra. The definitions of correlation functions...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    characterized by melting point, molar conductivity, magnetic moment, elemental analysis, infrared spectra and thermal analyses. ... methyl-quinazolinone and the final products of the thermogravimetric analysis were recorded on a Perkin-Elmer FT-IR type ..... [Cu(CH3COO)(L)3]. CuO + 5C +12C2H2 + 4NO + NH3 + 0.5N2.

  13. The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (United States)

    Jackson, Gail


    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission's Core satellite, scheduled for launch at the end of February 2014, is well designed estimate precipitation from 0.2 to 110 mm/hr and to detect falling snow. Knowing where and how much rain and snow falls globally is vital to understanding how weather and climate impact both our environment and Earth's water and energy cycles, including effects on agriculture, fresh water availability, and responses to natural disasters. The design of the GPM Core Observatory is an advancement of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)'s highly successful rain-sensing package [3]. The cornerstone of the GPM mission is the deployment of a Core Observatory in a unique 65o non-Sun-synchronous orbit to serve as a physics observatory and a calibration reference to improve precipitation measurements by a constellation of 8 or more dedicated and operational, U.S. and international passive microwave sensors. The Core Observatory will carry a Ku/Ka-band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and a multi-channel (10-183 GHz) GPM Microwave Radiometer (GMI). The DPR will provide measurements of 3-D precipitation structures and microphysical properties, which are key to achieving a better understanding of precipitation processes and improving retrieval algorithms for passive microwave radiometers. The combined use of DPR and GMI measurements will place greater constraints on possible solutions to radiometer retrievals to improve the accuracy and consistency of precipitation retrievals from all constellation radiometers. Furthermore, since light rain and falling snow account for a significant fraction of precipitation occurrence in middle and high latitudes, the GPM instruments extend the capabilities of the TRMM sensors to detect falling snow, measure light rain, and provide, for the first time, quantitative estimates of microphysical properties of precipitation particles. The GPM Core Observatory was developed and tested at NASA

  14. Biaxial shear/tension failure criteria of spectra single fibers (United States)

    Sun, Jianzhuo

    An experimental study was conducted to develop the biaxial failure surface criteria of single Spectra 130d and 100d filaments in a torsion-tension environment. The cross-sectional profiles of single Spectra fibers were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray computed tomography. A pin-gripping method to fix the ends of a polyethylene single fiber was developed. Effects of pin diameter on failure stress for both Spectra 130d and 100d were characterized. It was found that the perturbed stress field effect can be neglected when the pin diameter is larger than 0.8 mm. Additionally, the effect of the sample's gage length on fiber tensile strength was investigated. The gage length of 5.5 mm was determined as an appropriate length for single fiber samples under stress-wave loading. A twisting apparatus was built for a single fiber to achieve specific degrees of shear strains. Quasi-static experiments were conducted using an MTS servo-hydraulic system to apply tensile loads on pre-twisted Spectra fibers. A tension Kolsky bar was employed to study the biaxial shear/tensile behavior of Spectra fibers at high strain rates. A decreasing trend of tensile strength, with increasing torsional strain, for Spectra fibers was observed. Furthermore, a torsional pendulum apparatus was developed to determine the torsional shear stresses in fibers at various levels of axial loading. The relationship between apparent shear stress and axial stress was discovered. Finally, a biaxial shear/tension failure criterion envelope of each of the Spectra fibers was established. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed the specific feature on the surface of twisted fibers and fracture surface of failure fibers.

  15. Space-charge electrostatic precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middleton, C.E.


    An improved electrostatic precipitator called a space charge precipitator was tested and studied. A space charge precipitator differs from a conventional model in that the fields necessary to move the particles from the gas to the collecting surfaces are provided by a cloud of charged innocuous drops, such as glycerine or water, rather than by a charged electrode system. The flow conditions, electrical equipment, and physical dimensions of the test precipitator are typical of industrial applications. Experiments using water fog at a velocity of 10 ft/sec and a residence time of 0.6 sec, for a system charged at 25 kV, show a removal of iron oxide particles of approximately 52 percent. Theoretical calculations, assuming 2 micron particles, predict a removal of 50 percent. The results with glycerine fog are comparable. Experiments at various flowrates for both water fog and glycerine fog show a trend of decreasing particle removal for increasing flowrate. An identical trend is predicted by the space charge theory. Electron micrographs verify that only particles smaller than two microns are present in the laboratory precipitator.

  16. Ultraviolet Fluorescence Spectra of Fingerprints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Saitoh


    Full Text Available We have studied inherent fluorescence spectra and imaging of fingerprints in the deep ultraviolet (UV region with a nanosecond-pulsed Nd-YAG laser system that consists of a tunable laser, a cooled CCD camera, and a grating spectrometer. In this paper, we have studied UV fluorescence spectra of fingerprints under 266-nm illumination. Fluorescence spectra of fingerprints have two main peaks, around 330 nm (peak A and 440 nm (peak B. At first, when a fingerprint has just been pressed, peak A is dominant. However, its intensity reduces as the total illumination time increases. On the other hand, peak B is weak at first. It appears after enough 266-nm illumination and its intensity increases as time elapses. After 3 h of illumination, peak A almost diminishes and peak B becomes dominant. By leaving the fingerprint under a fluorescent lamp in a room without laser illumination, peak A can be restored partly, while the intensity of peak B still increases.Time-resolved fluorescence spectra were also measured for these two peaks. The lifetime of each peak is 2.0 nsec (peak A and 6.2 nsec (peak B on average. Both peaks seem to consist of several components with different lifetimes. In the case of peak A, the 330-nm peak decays fast and a new component at 360 nm becomes dominant when the delay time exceeds 20 nsec. In the case of peak B, unlike peak A, no clear peak separation is observed, but the peak position seems to move from 440 to 460 nm when the delay time becomes larger.

  17. Catalogue of representative meteor spectra (United States)

    Vojáček, V.; Borovička, J.; Koten, P.; Spurný, P.; Štork, R.


    Aims: We present a library of low-resolution meteor spectra that includes sporadic meteors, members of minor meteor showers, and major meteor showers. These meteors are in the magnitude range from +2 to -3, corresponding to meteoroid sizes from 1 mm to 10 mm. Methods: Parallel double-station video observations allowed us to compute heliocentric orbits for all meteors. Most observations were performed during the periods of activity of major meteor showers in the years between 2006 and 2012. Spectra are classified according to relative intensities of the low-temperature emission lines of Mg, Na, and Fe. Results: Shower meteors were found to be of normal composition, except for Southern δ Aquariids and some members of the Geminid shower, neither of which have Na in the meteor spectra. Variations in Na content are typical for the Geminid shower. Three populations of Na-free mereoroids were identified. The first population are iron meteorites, which have an asteroidal-chondritic origin, but one meteoroid with low perihelion (0.11 AU) was found among the iron meteorites. The second population were Sun-approaching meteoroids in which sodium is depleted by thermal desorption. The third population were Na-free meteoroids of cometary origin. Long exposure to cosmic rays on the surface of comets in the Oort cloud and disintegration of this crust might be the origin of this population of meteoroids. Spectra (Figs. 17-30) are only, Tables 4-6 are also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  18. The spatial distribution of precipitation and topography in the Qilian Shan Mountains, northeastern Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Geng, Haopeng; Pan, Baotian; Huang, Bo; Cao, Bo; Gao, Hongshan


    The mutual interrelation of orographic precipitation pattern and topography is key to understanding the competing role of tectonics and climate in landscape evolution. However, the relationship between precipitation and topography across arid to semiarid orogens has received little attention because of limited data availability. As a global successor to Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) extends precipitation measurements to mid- and high latitudes since 2014. In this study, we process one year of GPM precipitation with a spatial resolution of 0.1° × 0.1° across the arid to semiarid Qilian Shan Mountains to examine the spatial correlation between topography and precipitation. Though short, this data set provides reasonable precipitation when compared with other weather station relevant estimates. We then use nine orogen-perpendicular swath profiles to examine the influence of topography on precipitation distribution through the range. The results show that precipitation variation displays a significant elevation control with precipitation peaks in the high elevation mountain interior. We further compare the GPM precipitation with elevation and local relief within each swath extent. The results show that precipitation uniformly increases with increasing elevation for nine swaths, which is consistent with the elevation-controlled precipitation pattern. We find precipitation and local relief are positively correlated for five swaths but not for the remaining four swaths. Based on published data for uplift and erosion, we suggest that the presence or absence of such a correlation indicates whether mountains are in topographic steady state or in a transient state of relief production.

  19. Energy Harvest Predictions for a Spectrally Tuned Multiple Quantum Well Device Utilising Measured and Modelled Solar Spectra (United States)

    Dobbin, Alison; Norton, Matthew; Georghiou, George E.; Lumb, Matthew; Tibbits, Tom N. D.


    We present a comparison between modelled and measured solar spectra in Nicosia, Cyprus. The modelled spectra were generated using the SMARTS model, driven by various sources of measured atmospheric data, updated every 30 minutes or less. A comparison with measured spectra reveals the most reliable source of data for that location and period. The spectral simulations demonstrate that both aerosol optical depth and precipitable water content must be accurately known at the location of interest in order to realistically recreate the shape and power of measured spectra accurately. Energy harvest calculations of four triple junction (3J) solar cell designs were performed using the simulated spectra. The model predicts a 5.7% increase in energy harvest when multiple quantum wells are included in a standard 3J device. Simple modifications made to the quantum well device to `tune' the cell to the incident spectra result in a 6.3% increase in predicted energy production over the standard 3J device.

  20. Skewness as measure of the invariance of instantaneous renormalized drop diameter distributions – Part 2: Orographic precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ignaccolo


    Full Text Available Here we use the skewness parameter, and the procedure developed in the companion paper (Ignaccolo and De Michele, 2012, to investigate the variability of instantaneous renormalized spectra of rain drop diameter in presence of orographic precipitation. Disdrometer data, available at Bodega Bay and Cazadero, California, are analyzed either as a whole, or as divided (using the bright band echo in precipitation intervals weakly and strongly influenced by orography, and compared to results obtained at Darwin, Australia. We find that also at Bodega Bay and Cazadero exists a most common distribution of the skewness values of instantaneous spectra of drop diameter, but peaked at values greater than 0.64, found at Darwin. No appreciable differences are found in the skewness distributions of precipitation weakly and strongly influenced by orography. However the renormalized drop diameter spectra of precipitation with strong orographic component have fatter right tail than precipitation with a weaker orographic component. The differences between orographic and non-orographic precipitation are investigated within the parametric space represented by number of drops, mean value and standard deviation of drop diameter. A filter is developed which is able to identify 1 min time intervals during which precipitation is mostly of orographic origin.

  1. Complexing-precipitating geochemical barriers (United States)

    Savenko, A. V.


    New types of geochemical barriers on which chemical elements are immobilized as a result of combined complex formation and precipitation of barely soluble mineral phases are examined. A significant concentration of major components (Fe, Al) forming more stable complexes than an immobilized component X in the material is a necessary condition for this type of geochemical barriers. Filtration of the solution through a geochemical barrier is accompanied by substitution of X in the complex with a major component. As a result, the activity of X in the free state increases, and one barely soluble mineral phase or another of the component X precipitates when the state of saturation is achieved.

  2. Curved Radio Spectra of Weak Cluster Shocks (United States)

    Kang, Hyesung; Ryu, Dongsu


    In order to understand certain observed features of arc-like giant radio relics such as the rareness, uniform surface brightness, and curved integrated spectra, we explore a diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) model for radio relics in which a spherical shock impinges on a magnetized cloud containing fossil relativistic electrons. Toward this end, we perform DSA simulations of spherical shocks with the parameters relevant for the Sausage radio relic in cluster CIZA J2242.8+5301, and calculate the ensuing radio synchrotron emission from re-accelerated electrons. Three types of fossil electron populations are considered: a delta-function like population with the shock injection momentum, a power-law distribution, and a power law with an exponential cutoff. The surface brightness profile of the radio-emitting postshock region and the volume-integrated radio spectrum are calculated and compared with observations. We find that the observed width of the Sausage relic can be explained reasonably well by shocks with speed {u}{{s}}˜ 3× {10}3 {km} {{{s}}}-1 and sonic Mach number {M}{{s}}˜ 3. These shocks produce curved radio spectra that steepen gradually over (0.1-10){ν }{br} with a break frequency {ν }{br}˜ 1 GHz if the duration of electron acceleration is ˜60-80 Myr. However, the abrupt increase in the spectral index above ˜1.5 GHz observed in the Sausage relic seems to indicate that additional physical processes, other than radiative losses, operate for electrons with {γ }{{e}}≳ {10}4.

  3. Precipitation extreme changes exceeding moisture content increases in MIROC and IPCC climate models. (United States)

    Sugiyama, Masahiro; Shiogama, Hideo; Emori, Seita


    Precipitation extreme changes are often assumed to scale with, or are constrained by, the change in atmospheric moisture content. Studies have generally confirmed the scaling based on moisture content for the midlatitudes but identified deviations for the tropics. In fact half of the twelve selected Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) models exhibit increases faster than the climatological-mean precipitable water change for high percentiles of tropical daily precipitation, albeit with significant intermodel scatter. Decomposition of the precipitation extreme changes reveals that the variations among models can be attributed primarily to the differences in the upward velocity. Both the amplitude and vertical profile of vertical motion are found to affect precipitation extremes. A recently proposed scaling that incorporates these dynamical effects can capture the basic features of precipitation changes in both the tropics and midlatitudes. In particular, the increases in tropical precipitation extremes significantly exceed the precipitable water change in Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC), a coupled general circulation model with the highest resolution among IPCC climate models whose precipitation characteristics have been shown to reasonably match those of observations. The expected intensification of tropical disturbances points to the possibility of precipitation extreme increases beyond the moisture content increase as is found in MIROC and some of IPCC models.

  4. Forecasting gastrointestinal precipitation and oral pharmacokinetics of dantrolene in dogs using an in vitro precipitation testing coupled with in silico modeling and simulation. (United States)

    Kambayashi, Atsushi; Dressman, Jennifer B


    The aim of the current research was to determine the precipitation kinetics of dantrolene sodium using canine biorelevant in vitro testing and to model the precipitation kinetics by appropriately coupling the data with an in silico tool adapted for dogs. The precipitation profiles of dantrolene sodium solutions were obtained with the in vitro paddle apparatus at a revolution rate of 50rpm. The in silico prediction tool was designed using STELLA software and the predicted plasma concentration profiles of dantrolene using the in vitro precipitation data were compared with the observed in vivo pharmacokinetics in beagle dogs. The plasma profiles of dantrolene, which served as a model weakly acidic drug which precipitates in the upper gastrointestinal tract, was successfully predicted using the in vitro precipitation testing coupled with the in silico modeling and simulation approach. The approach was subsequently used to forecast the effect of pharmaceutical excipients (HPMC/PG) on the ability of the drug to supersaturate in the gut and the resulting pharmacokinetics. The agreement of the simulated pharmacokinetics with the observed values confirms the ability of canine biorelevant media to predict oral performance of enhanced dosage forms in dogs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Jovian Aurora - Electron or ion precipitation? (United States)

    Waite, J. H., Jr.; Clarke, J. T.; Cravens, T. E.; Hammond, C. M.


    High signal-to-noise spectra of the Jovian aurora obtained at 1200 to 1500 A by the IUE Observatory were examined for the existence of sulfur and oxygen emissions that would be expected if the UV emissions were produced by precipitating heavy ions. The results of these measurements and subsequent spectral modeling, using a model of heavy aurora constructed by Horanyi et al. (1988), showed mixed evidence of the oxygen and sulfur emissions. It was noted that only the UV emissions which are produced above the UV absorbing hydrocarbon layer were observed by the IUE and Voyager UV spectrometers. This fact, combined with the recent observations of the longitudinal distribution of the Jovian UV aurora, indicates that electrons as well as ions play a role in Jovian auroral processes. Based on the observations, it is suggested that heavy-ion auroral energy deposition is concentrated at altitudes below the homopause, while electrons with energies of 10 to 30 keV are responsible for the bulk of the observable UV and EUV emissions.

  6. Utilizing the Vertical Variability of Precipitation to Improve Radar QPE (United States)

    Gatlin, Patrick N.; Petersen, Walter A.


    Characteristics of the melting layer and raindrop size distribution can be exploited to further improve radar quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE). Using dual-polarimetric radar and disdrometers, we found that the characteristic size of raindrops reaching the ground in stratiform precipitation often varies linearly with the depth of the melting layer. As a result, a radar rainfall estimator was formulated using D(sub m) that can be employed by polarimetric as well as dual-frequency radars (e.g., space-based radars such as the GPM DPR), to lower the bias and uncertainty of conventional single radar parameter rainfall estimates by as much as 20%. Polarimetric radar also suffers from issues associated with sampling the vertical distribution of precipitation. Hence, we characterized the vertical profile of polarimetric parameters (VP3)-a radar manifestation of the evolving size and shape of hydrometeors as they fall to the ground-on dual-polarimetric rainfall estimation. The VP3 revealed that the profile of ZDR in stratiform rainfall can bias dual-polarimetric rainfall estimators by as much as 50%, even after correction for the vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR). The VP3 correction technique that we developed can improve operational dual-polarimetric rainfall estimates by 13% beyond that offered by a VPR correction alone.

  7. Stair-Step Particle Flux Spectra on the Lunar Surface: Evidence for Nonmonotonic Potentials? (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Newheart, Anastasia; Poppe, Andrew R.; Hills, H. Kent; Farrell, William M.


    We present examples of unusual "stair-step" differential flux spectra observed by the Apollo 14 Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment on the lunar dayside surface in Earth's magnetotail. These spectra exhibit a relatively constant differential flux below some cutoff energy and then drop off precipitously, by about an order of magnitude or more, at higher energies. We propose that these spectra result from photoions accelerated on the lunar dayside by nonmonotonic potentials (i.e.,potentials that do not decay to zero monotonically) and present a model for the expected differential flux. The energy of the cutoff and the magnitude of the differential flux are related to the properties of the local space environment and are consistent with the observed flux spectra. If this interpretation is correct, these surface-based ion observations provide a unique perspective that both complements and enhances the conclusions obtained by remote-sensing orbiter observations on the Moon's exospheric and electrostatic properties.

  8. Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) TRAINING MANUAL (United States)

    The manual assists engineers in using a computer program, the ESPVI 4.0W, that models all elements of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The program is a product of the Electric Power Research Institute and runs in the Windows environment. Once an ESP is accurately modeled, the...

  9. Acid Precipitation: Causes and Consequences. (United States)

    Babich, Harvey; And Others


    This article is the first of three articles in a series on the acid rain problem in recent years. Discussed are the causes of acid precipitation and its consequences for the abiotic and biotic components of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and for man-made materials. (Author/SA)

  10. Waste and Simulant Precipitation Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, W.V.


    As Savannah River Site (SRS) personnel have studied methods of preparing high-level waste for vitrification in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), questions have arisen with regard to the formation of insoluble waste precipitates at inopportune times. One option for decontamination of the SRS waste streams employs the use of an engineered form of crystalline silicotitanate (CST). Testing of the process during FY 1999 identified problems associated with the formation of precipitates during cesium sorption tests using CST. These precipitates may, under some circumstances, obstruct the pores of the CST particles and, hence, interfere with the sorption process. In addition, earlier results from the DWPF recycle stream compatibility testing have shown that leaching occurs from the CST when it is stored at 80 C in a high-pH environment. Evidence was established that some level of components of the CST, such as silica, was leached from the CST. This report describes the results of equilibrium modeling and precipitation studies associated with the overall stability of the waste streams, CST component leaching, and the presence of minor components in the waste streams.

  11. [Analysis of three-dimensional fluorescence overlapping spectra using differential spectra and independent component analysis]. (United States)

    Yu, Shao-Hui; Zhang, Yu-Jun; Zhao, Nan-Jing; Xiao, Xue; Wang, Huan-Bo; Yin, Gao-Fang


    The analysis of multi-component three-dimensional fluorescence overlapping spectra is always very difficult. In view of the advantage of differential spectra and based on the calculation principle of two-dimensional differential spectra, the three-dimensional fluorescence spectra with both excitation and emission spectra is fully utilized. Firstly, the excitation differential spectra and emission differential spectra are respectively computed after unfolding the three-dimensional fluorescence spectra. Then the excitation differential spectra and emission differential spectra of the single component are obtained by analyzing the multicomponent differential spectra using independent component analysis. In this process, the use of cubic spline increases the data points of excitation spectra, and the roughness penalty smoothing reduces the noise of emission spectra which is beneficial for the computation of differential spectra. The similarity indices between the standard spectra and recovered spectra show that independent component analysis based on differential spectra is more suitable for the component recognition of three-dimensional fluorescence overlapping spectra.

  12. Impact of AIRS Thermodynamic Profile on Regional Weather Forecast (United States)

    Chou, Shih-Hung; Zavodsky, Brad; Jedlovee, Gary


    Prudent assimilation of AIRS thermodynamic profiles and quality indicators can improve initial conditions for regional weather models. AIRS-enhanced analysis has warmer and moister PBL. Forecasts with AIRS profiles are generally closer to NAM analyses than CNTL. Assimilation of AIRS leads to an overall QPF improvement in 6-h accumulated precipitation forecasts. Including AIRS profiles in assimilation process enhances the moist instability and produces stronger updrafts and a better precipitation forecast than the CNTL run.

  13. Infrared Spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) (United States)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Bakes, E. L. O.


    We have computed the synthetic infrared spectra of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons containing up to 54 carbon atoms. The species studied include ovalene, circumcoronene, dicoronylene, and hexabenzocoronene. We report spectra for anions, neutrals, cations, and multiply charged cations.

  14. BPS spectra from BPS graphs


    Gabella, Maxime


    I present a simple graphical method to find the BPS spectra of $A_1$ theories of class S. BPS graphs provide a bridge between spectral networks and BPS quivers, the two main frameworks for the study of BPS states. Here I show how to essentially read off from a BPS graph the quantum spectrum generator (or BPS monodromy), expressed as a product of quantum dilogarithms. Thanks to the framed wall-crossing phenomenon for line defects, the determination of the BPS spectrum reduces to the computatio...

  15. Soil Profiles and Seismic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janotka, V.


    Full Text Available The contribution estimates different geotechnical profiles of site condition change and their influences on the computed seismic response spectra and time histories final values and forms applying on the seismic structures loading. The mentioned problems methodics attitude solution is based on the computed seismic motion parameters.

  16. Electron-phonon interaction spectra in beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najdyuk, Yu.G.; Shklyarevskij, O.I. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kharkov. Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst. Nizkikh Temperatur)


    Micro-contact (MC) method was used to investigate spectra of electron-phonon interaction (EPI) in berillium. MC spectra and the known dependences of phonon state density in this metal have been compared in detail. It is shown that the MC spectra can be used for refining the berillium phonon spectrum. The EPI integral parameter has been determined in the free electron model.

  17. Hierarchical resolution of power spectra (United States)

    Badii, R.; Finardi, M.; Broggi, G.; Sepúlveda, M. A.


    We identify the basic ingredients determining the structure of the power spectra of non-linear dynamical systems in a hierarchical order of importance. The analysis, performed with the help of symbolic methods, shows that dynamical invariants such as topological and metric properties of the symbolic orbits explain the main qualitative features of the spectra, whereas the coordinate-dependent values of the observable itself represent a less relevant contribution. Consideration of simple dynamical models with increasing number of topological transition rules evidences the formation of coherent structures (peaks) and explains their position and size. By constructing the parse tree of the allowed symbolic itineraries, it is possible to estimate conditional probabilities by considering orbits belonging to adjacent tree levels. Accordingly, a Markov transition matrix is obtained for each level l and is used to generate signals with statistical properties which approximate those of the actual one increasingly better for l → ∞. A considerable improvement is achieved by recoding the original signal in terms of variable-length words and by re-applying the above procedure to the transformed signal, which is equivalent to a renormalization operation of the associated dynamical map. The accuracy of the estimates is directly related to the convergence of the scaling function for the conditional probabilities. Analytic results are presented for the simplest five Markov models arising from piecewise-linear, continuous, one-dimensional maps. Numerical studies have been performed for the logistic and Hénon maps and for the Lorenz system.

  18. Multiscale climate emulator of multimodal wave spectra: MUSCLE-spectra (United States)

    Rueda, Ana; Hegermiller, Christie A.; Antolinez, Jose A. A.; Camus, Paula; Vitousek, Sean; Ruggiero, Peter; Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Tomás, Antonio; Mendez, Fernando J.


    Characterization of multimodal directional wave spectra is important for many offshore and coastal applications, such as marine forecasting, coastal hazard assessment, and design of offshore wave energy farms and coastal structures. However, the multivariate and multiscale nature of wave climate variability makes this complex problem tractable using computationally expensive numerical models. So far, the skill of statistical-downscaling model-based parametric (unimodal) wave conditions is limited in large ocean basins such as the Pacific. The recent availability of long-term directional spectral data from buoys and wave hindcast models allows for development of stochastic models that include multimodal sea-state parameters. This work introduces a statistical downscaling framework based on weather types to predict multimodal wave spectra (e.g., significant wave height, mean wave period, and mean wave direction from different storm systems, including sea and swells) from large-scale atmospheric pressure fields. For each weather type, variables of interest are modeled using the categorical distribution for the sea-state type, the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution for wave height and wave period, a multivariate Gaussian copula for the interdependence between variables, and a Markov chain model for the chronology of daily weather types. We apply the model to the southern California coast, where local seas and swells from both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres contribute to the multimodal wave spectrum. This work allows attribution of particular extreme multimodal wave events to specific atmospheric conditions, expanding knowledge of time-dependent, climate-driven offshore and coastal sea-state conditions that have a significant influence on local nearshore processes, coastal morphology, and flood hazards.


    Fries, B.A.


    A method is given for separating plutonium from lanthanum in a lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitation process for the recovery of plutonium values from an aqueous solution. The carrier precipitation process includes the steps of forming a lanthanum fluoride precipi- . tate, thereby carrying plutonium out of solution, metathesizing the fluoride precipitate to a hydroxide precipitate, and then dissolving the hydroxide precipitate in nitric acid. In accordance with the invention, the nitric acid solution, which contains plutonium and lanthanum, is made 0.05 to 0.15 molar in potassium iodate. thereby precipitating plutonium as plutonous iodate and the plutonous iodate is separated from the lanthanum- containing supernatant solution.

  20. System of pattern analysis of PIXE spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murozono, K.; Iwasaki, S.; Inoue, J.; Ishii, K.; Kitamura, M. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S.


    We have developed an analysis system based on the pattern analysis method. By testing the system, several difficulties of the present method have been identified. We found the following solutions for them: pre-selection of candidate elements in a sample and the use of a proper absorber. The pre-selection of the candidate elements will not be a serious drawback in the industrial PIXE, because it will be easy to pre-process the spectra for a few samples in the beginning of the mass processing of samples of the same kind. On the other hand, reduction of the efficiency due to the use of funny filter is significant only in the lower energy region, where we usually do not suffer from insufficient yields of lighter elements in common samples. The selection of the most suitable filter requires PIXE user to be deeply experienced. In particular, it is not easy to choose the best filter to suppress the yield of peak of an abundant element as the absorption edge filter. It will be important task to find a set of suitable combination of representative samples and corresponding filters. Furthermore, the peak profile model should be improved from the simple Gaussian approximation to more realistic ones with exponential tail, flat component below the peak and escape peaks, etc. It is also necessary to develop a theoretical approach for the background shape of the bremsstrahlung. (J.P.N.)

  1. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission: Overview and Status (United States)

    Hou, Arthur Y.


    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is an international satellite mission specifically designed to unify and advance precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational microwave sensors. NASA and JAXA will deploy a Core Observatory in 2014 to serve as a reference satellite to unify precipitation measurements from the constellation of sensors. The GPM Core Observatory will carry a Ku/Ka-band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and a conical-scanning multi-channel (10-183 GHz) GPM Microwave Radiometer (GMI). The DPR will be the first dual-frequency radar in space to provide not only measurements of 3-D precipitation structures but also quantitative information on microphysical properties of precipitating particles. The DPR and GMI measurements will together provide a database that relates vertical hydrometeor profiles to multi-frequency microwave radiances over a variety of environmental conditions across the globe. This combined database will be used as a common transfer standard for improving the accuracy and consistency of precipitation retrievals from all constellation radiometers. For global coverage, GPM relies on existing satellite programs and new mission opportunities from a consortium of partners through bilateral agreements with either NASA or JAXA. Each constellation member may have its unique scientific or operational objectives but contributes microwave observations to GPM for the generation and dissemination of unified global precipitation data products. In addition to the DPR and GMI on the Core Observatory, the baseline GPM constellation consists of the following sensors: (1) Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) instruments on the U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites, (2) the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-2 (AMSR-2) on the GCOM-W1 satellite of JAXA, (3) the Multi-Frequency Microwave Scanning Radiometer (MADRAS) and the multi-channel microwave humidity sounder

  2. Scikit-spectra: Explorative Spectroscopy in Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Hughes


    Full Text Available Scikit-spectra is an intuitive framework for explorative spectroscopy in Python. Scikit-spectra leverages the Pandas library for powerful data processing to provide datastructures and an API designed for spectroscopy. Utilizing the new IPython Notebook widget system, scikit-spectra is headed towards a GUI when you want it, API when you need it approach to spectral analysis. As an application, analysis is presented of the surface-plasmon resonance shift in a solution of gold nanoparticles induced by proteins binding to the gold’s surface. Please refer to the scikit-spectra website for full documentation and support:

  3. Protein purification by affinity precipitation. (United States)

    Hilbrig, Frank; Freitag, Ruth


    Developing the most efficient strategy for the purification of a (recombinant) protein especially at large scale remains a challenge. A typical problem of the downstream process of mammalian cell products is, for instance, the early capture of the highly diluted product from the complex process stream. Affinity precipitation has been suggested in this context. The technique is known for over 20 years, but has recently received more attention due to the development of new materials for its implementation, but also because it seems ideally suited to specific product capture at large scale. The present review gives a comprehensive overview over this technique. Besides an introduction to the basic principle and a brief summary of the historical development, the main focus is on the current state-of-art of the technique, the available materials, important recent applications, as well as process design strategies and operating procedures. Special consideration is given to affinity precipitation for product recovery at large scale.

  4. Precipitation patterns during channel flow (United States)

    Jamtveit, B.; Hawkins, C.; Benning, L. G.; Meier, D.; Hammer, O.; Angheluta, L.


    Mineral precipitation during channelized fluid flow is widespread in a wide variety of geological systems. It is also a common and costly phenomenon in many industrial processes that involve fluid flow in pipelines. It is often referred to as scale formation and encountered in a large number of industries, including paper production, chemical manufacturing, cement operations, food processing, as well as non-renewable (i.e. oil and gas) and renewable (i.e. geothermal) energy production. We have studied the incipient stages of growth of amorphous silica on steel plates emplaced into the central areas of the ca. 1 meter in diameter sized pipelines used at the hydrothermal power plant at Hellisheidi, Iceland (with a capacity of ca 300 MW electricity and 100 MW hot water). Silica precipitation takes place over a period of ca. 2 months at approximately 120°C and a flow rate around 1 m/s. The growth produces asymmetric ca. 1mm high dendritic structures ';leaning' towards the incoming fluid flow. A novel phase-field model combined with the lattice Boltzmann method is introduced to study how the growth morphologies vary under different hydrodynamic conditions, including non-laminar systems with turbulent mixing. The model accurately predicts the observed morphologies and is directly relevant for understanding the more general problem of precipitation influenced by turbulent mixing during flow in channels with rough walls and even for porous flow. Reference: Hawkins, C., Angheluta, L., Hammer, Ø., and Jamtveit, B., Precipitation dendrites in channel flow. Europhysics Letters, 102, 54001

  5. Assessment of WRF microphysics schemes to simulate extreme precipitation events from the perspective of GMI radiative signatures (United States)

    Choi, Y.; Shin, D. B.; Joh, M.


    Numerical simulations of precipitation depend to a large degree on the assumed cloud microphysics schemes representing the formation, growth and fallout of cloud droplets and ice crystals. Recent studies show that assumed cloud microphysics play a major role not only in forecasting precipitation, especially in cases of extreme precipitation events, but also in the quality of the passive microwave rainfall estimation. Evaluations of the various Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model microphysics schemes in this study are based on a method that was originally developed to construct the a-priori databases of precipitation profiles and associated brightness temperatures (TBs) for precipitation retrievals. This methodology generates three-dimensional (3D) precipitation fields by matching the GPM dual frequency radar (DPR) reflectivity profiles with those calculated from cloud resolving model (CRM)-derived hydrometeor profiles. The method eventually provides 3D simulated precipitation fields over the DPR scan swaths. That is, atmospheric and hydrometeor profiles can be generated at each DPR pixel based on CRM and DPR reflectivity profiles. The generated raining systems over DPR observation fields can be applied to any radiometers that are unaccompanied with a radar for microwave radiative calculation with consideration of each sensor's channel and field of view. Assessment of the WRF model microphysics schemes for several typhoon cases in terms of emission and scattering signals of GMI will be discussed.

  6. Characteristics of summer and winter precipitation over northern China (United States)

    Wen, Guang; Xiao, Hui; Yang, Huiling; Bi, Yongheng; Xu, Wenjing


    In this paper, the statistical properties of summer and winter precipitation over the northern China plain are investigated by using a two-dimensional video disdrometer (2DVD) and a micro-rain radar (MRR). The properties of summer precipitation presented herein are bulk properties (radar reflectivity, reflectivity-weighted fall velocity, liquid water content, and rainfall rate), raindrop fall velocity, axis ratio, and particle size distribution. Well correlations can be found among the diurnal cycles of radar reflectivity, liquid water content, and rainfall rate, whereas reflectivity-weighted fall velocity is poorly related to other bulk properties. The vertical profiles exhibit that radar reflectivity for stratiform rain is increasing with the altitude decreasing, in contrast, liquid water content and rainfall rate are reducing during the falling. These facts are useful for the radar-based rainfall rate retrieval algorithm. Axis ratio measurements are, for the first time, obtained and analyzed in northern China, which are particularly important for improving microphysical scheme in the climate models. In the constraint gamma model, the μ - Λ relation is adapted to the particle size distribution of stratiform rain, while the normalized gamma distributions for convective rain are separated to maritime-like and continental categories following the orientations and mechanisms of the storms. A new bulk-property-based algorithm is developed for the classification of convective and stratiform precipitation. For winter precipitation, radar reflectivity and snowfall rate for aggregates are calculated from the disdrometer data. The relationship of radar reflectivity and snowfall rate is obtained and validated with MRR data. The characteristics of summer and winter precipitation will be used to improve the microphysical scheme and evaluate the representation of precipitation in the climate models.

  7. Predictibility in Nowcasting of Precipitation (United States)

    Zawadzki, I.; Sourcel, M.; Berenguer, M.


    Present short term precipitation forecasting is based on two methods: Lagrangian persistence (nowcasting) and numerical weather prediction (NWP). An improvement over these methods is obtained by the combination of the two. The obvious shortcoming of nowcasting is its severe limitation in capturing new development or dissipation of precipitation. NWP has the ability to predict both but very imprecisely. An attempt to correct model errors by post-processing leads to some improvement in the skill of NWP, but the improvement, although significative, is not very impressive. The goal of our effort is to take a step back and to describe, in a quantitative manner, a) the nature of the uncertainties affecting Lagrangian persistence and NWP forecasts, as well as to determineb) the physical causes of the uncertainties. We quantify the uncertainties in short term forecasting due to limitation of nowcasting algorithms and NWP to capture correctly some of the physical phenomena that determine the predictability of precipitation. The first factor considered is the diurnal cycle that appears as the one physically determined factors that limit the precision of short term prediction. We study the cycle in radar mosaics over US and compare this to nowcasts and model outputs. The seasonal and geographical dependence of the diurnal cycle is quantitatively evaluated.

  8. Reflectance spectra of primitive chondrites (United States)

    Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.; Moyano-Cambero, C. E.; Llorca, J.


    We are studying a wide sample of pristine carbonaceous chondrites from the NASA Antarctic collection in order to get clues on the physico-chemical processes occurred in the parent bodies of these meteorites. We are obtaining laboratory reflectance spectra of different groups of carbonaceous chondrites, but here we focus in CM and CI chondrites. We discuss the main spectral features that can be used to identify primitive carbonaceous asteroids by remote sensing techniques. Two different spectrometers were used covering the entire 0.3 to 30 μm electromagnetic window. Only a handful of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) exhibit bands or features clearly associated with aqueous alteration. Among them are the target asteroids of Osiris Rex and Marco Polo-R missions.

  9. Graviton spectra in string cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galluccio, Massimo [Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma (Roma-IT); Litterio, Marco [Istituto Astronomico dell' Universita (Roma-IT); Occhionero, Franco [Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma (Roma-IT)


    We propose to uncover the signature of a stringy era in the primordial Universe by searching for a prominent peak in the relic graviton spectrum. This feature, which in our specific model terminates an ω³ increase and initiates an ω⁻⁷ decrease, is induced during the so far overlooked bounce of the scale factor between the collapsing deflationary era (or pre-Big Bang) and the expanding inflationary era (or post-Big Bang). We evaluate both analytically and numerically the frequency and the intensity of the peak and we show that they may likely fall in the realm of the new generation of interferometric detectors. The existence of a peak is at variance with ordinarily monotonic (either increasing or decreasing) graviton spectra of canonical cosmologies; its detection would therefore offer strong support to string cosmology.

  10. European climate change experiments on precipitation change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Claus

    Presentation of European activities and networks related to experiments and databases within precipitation change......Presentation of European activities and networks related to experiments and databases within precipitation change...

  11. River Forecasting Center Quantitative Precipitation Estimate Archive (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Radar indicated-rain gage verified and corrected hourly precipitation estimate on a corrected ~4km HRAP grid. This archive contains hourly estimates of precipitation...

  12. U.S. 15 Minute Precipitation Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — U.S. 15 Minute Precipitation Data is digital data set DSI-3260, archived at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). This is precipitation data. The primary source...

  13. Amazon River Basin Precipitation, 1972-1992 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The precipitation data is 0.2 degree gridded monthly precipitation data based upon monthly rain data from Peru and Bolivia and daily rain data from Brazil....

  14. Amazon River Basin Precipitation, 1972-1992 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The precipitation data is 0.2 degree gridded monthly precipitation data based upon monthly rain data from Peru and Bolivia and daily rain data from Brazil. The...

  15. Changes in the Martian atmosphere induced by auroral electron precipitation (United States)

    Shematovich, V. I.; Bisikalo, D. V.; Gérard, J.-C.; Hubert, B.


    Typical auroral events in the Martian atmosphere, such as discrete and diffuse auroral emissions detected by UV spectrometers onboard ESA Mars Express and NASA MAVEN, are investigated. Auroral electron kinetic energy distribution functions and energy spectra of the upward and downward electron fluxes are obtained by electron transport calculations using the kinetic Monte Carlo model. These characteristics of auroral electron fluxes make it possible to calculate both the precipitation-induced changes in the atmosphere and the observed manifestations of auroral events on Mars. In particular, intensities of discrete and diffuse auroral emissions in the UV and visible wavelength ranges (Soret et al., 2016; Bisikalo et al., 2017; Gérard et al., 2017). For these conditions of auroral events, the analysis is carried out, and the contribution of the fluxes of precipitating electrons to the heating and ionization of the Martian atmosphere is estimated. Numerical calculations show that in the case of discrete auroral events the effect of the residual crustal magnetic field leads to a significant increase in the upward fluxes of electrons, which causes a decrease in the rates of heating and ionization of the atmospheric gas in comparison with the calculations without taking into account the residual magnetic field. It is shown that all the above-mentioned impact factors of auroral electron precipitation processes should be taken into account both in the photochemical models of the Martian atmosphere and in the interpretation of observations of the chemical composition and its variations using the ACS instrument onboard ExoMars.

  16. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission: NASA Precipitation Processing System (PPS) (United States)

    Stocker, Erich Franz


    NASA is contributing the precipitation measurement data system PPS to support the GPM mission. PPS will distribute all GPM data products including NASA s GMI data products freely and quickly. PPS is implementing no system mechanisms for restricting access to GPM data. PPS is implementing no system mechanisms for charging for GPM data products. PPS will provide a number of geographical and parameter subsetting features available to its users. The first implementation of PPS (called PPS--) will assume processing of TRMM data effective 1 June 2008. TRMM realtime data will be available via PPS- to all users requesting access

  17. Climate change projections for precipitation in Portugal (United States)

    Andrade, C.; Santos, J. A.


    The strong irregularity of precipitation in Portugal, which may e.g. trigger severe/extreme droughts and floods, results in a high vulnerability of the country to precipitation inter-annual variability and to its extremes. Furthermore, dryer future climates are projected for Portugal, though there has also been some growing evidence for a strengthening of precipitation extremes. Due to the central role played byprecipitation on many socio-economic sectors and environmental systems, regional climate change assessments for precipitation in Portugal are necessary. This study is focused on analyzing climate change projections for seasonal (3-month) precipitation totals and their corresponding extremes over mainland Portugal. Taking into account the strong seasonality of the precipitation regimes in Portugal, winter (DJF) and summer (JJA) are considered separately. Precipitation datasets generated by a 16-member ensemble of regional climate model experiments from the ENSEMBLES project are used. Percentile-based indices of precipitation are computed and analyzed for a recent past period (1961-2000) and for a near future period (2041-2070). Results for the R5p, R50p and R95p indices highlight significant projected changes in precipitation, with a clear distinction between northwestern Portugal and the rest of the country in both seasons. Overall, precipitation is projected to decrease in both seasons, particularly over northwestern Portugal in winter, despite some significant regional differences. Although precipitation is projected to decrease in most cases, extremely high seasonal precipitations (above the 95th percentile)areexpected to increase in winter.

  18. Acid Precipitation and the Forest Ecosystem (United States)

    Dochinger, Leon S.; Seliga, Thomas A.


    The First International Symposium on Acid Precipitation and the Forest Ecosystem dealt with the potential magnitude of the global effects of acid precipitation on aquatic ecosystems, forest soils, and forest vegetation. The problem is discussed in the light of atmospheric chemistry, transport, and precipitation. (Author/BT)

  19. The weak acid nature of precipitation (United States)

    John O. Frohliger; Robert L. Kane


    Recent measurements of the pH of precipitation leave no doubt that rainfall is acidic. Evidence will be presented that precipitation is a weak acid system. The results of this research indicate the need to establish standard sampling procedures to provide uniform sampling of precipitation

  20. Soil water dynamics during precipitation in genetic horizons of Retisol (United States)

    Zaleski, Tomasz; Klimek, Mariusz; Kajdas, Bartłomiej


    Retisols derived from silty deposits dominate in the soil cover of the Carpathian Foothills. The hydrophysical properties of these are determined by the grain-size distribution of the parent material and the soil's "primary" properties shaped in the deposition process. The other contributing factors are the soil-forming processes, such as lessivage (leaching of clay particles), and the morphogenetic processes that presently shape the relief. These factors are responsible for the "secondary" differentiation of hydrophysical properties across the soil profile. Both the primary and secondary hydrophysical properties of soils (the rates of water retention, filtration and infiltration, and the moisture distribution over the soil profile) determine their ability to take in rainfall, the amount of rainwater taken in, and the ways of its redistribution. The aims of the study, carried out during 2015, were to investigate the dynamics of soil moisture in genetic horizons of Retisol derived from silty deposits and to recognize how fast and how deep water from precipitation gets into soil horizons. Data of soil moisture were measured using 5TM moisture and temperature sensor and collected by logger Em50 (Decagon Devices USA). Data were captured every 10 minutes from 6 sensors at depths: - 10 cm, 20 cm, 40 cm, 60 cm and 80 cm. Precipitation data come from meteorological station situated 50 m away from the soil profile. Two zones differing in the type of water regime were distinguished in Retisol: an upper zone comprising humic and eluvial horizons, and a lower zone consisting of illuvial and parent material horizons. The upper zone shows smaller retention of water available for plants, and relatively wide fluctuations in moisture content, compared to the lower zone. The lower zone has stable moisture content during the vegetation season, with values around the water field capacity. Large changes in soil moisture were observed while rainfall. These changes depend on the volume

  1. A Global Model for Circumgalactic and Cluster-core Precipitation (United States)

    Voit, G. Mark; Meece, Greg; Li, Yuan; O'Shea, Brian W.; Bryan, Greg L.; Donahue, Megan


    We provide an analytic framework for interpreting observations of multiphase circumgalactic gas that is heavily informed by recent numerical simulations of thermal instability and precipitation in cool-core galaxy clusters. We start by considering the local conditions required for the formation of multiphase gas via two different modes: (1) uplift of ambient gas by galactic outflows, and (2) condensation in a stratified stationary medium in which thermal balance is explicitly maintained. Analytic exploration of these two modes provides insights into the relationships between the local ratio of the cooling and freefall timescales (I.e., {t}{cool}/{t}{ff}), the large-scale gradient of specific entropy, and the development of precipitation and multiphase media in circumgalactic gas. We then use these analytic findings to interpret recent simulations of circumgalactic gas in which global thermal balance is maintained. We show that long-lasting configurations of gas with 5≲ \\min ({t}{cool}/{t}{ff})≲ 20 and radial entropy profiles similar to observations of cool cores in galaxy clusters are a natural outcome of precipitation-regulated feedback. We conclude with some observational predictions that follow from these models. This work focuses primarily on precipitation and AGN feedback in galaxy-cluster cores, because that is where the observations of multiphase gas around galaxies are most complete. However, many of the physical principles that govern condensation in those environments apply to circumgalactic gas around galaxies of all masses.

  2. Estimation of the characteristic energy of electron precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. del Pozo


    Full Text Available Data from simultaneous observations (on 13 February 1996, 9 November 1998, and 12 February 1999 with the IRIS, DASI and EISCAT systems are employed in the study of the energy distribution of the electron precipitation during substorm activity. The estimation of the characteristic energy of the electron precipitation over the common field of view of IRIS and DASI is discussed. In particular, we look closely at the physical basis of the correspondence between the characteristic energy, the flux-averaged energy, as defined below, and the logarithm of the ratio of the green-light intensity to the square of absorption. This study expands and corrects results presented in the paper by Kosch et al. (2001. It is noticed, moreover, that acceleration associated with diffusion processes in the magnetosphere long before precipitation may be controlling the shape of the energy spectrum. We propose and test a "mixed" distribution for the energy-flux spectrum, exponential at the lower energies and Maxwellian or modified power-law at the higher energies, with a threshold energy separating these two regimes. The energy-flux spectrum at Tromsø, in the 1–320 keV range, is derived from EISCAT electron density profiles in the 70–140 km altitude range and is applied in the "calibration" of the optical intensity and absorption distributions, in order to extrapolate the flux and characteristic energy maps.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; particle precipitation; particle acceleration

  3. Precipitation of kidney myosin IIA and IIB by freezing. (United States)

    Dias, Decivaldo dos Santos; da Cruz, Grabriel Costa Nunes; de Sousa, Marcelo Valle; Coelho, Milton Vieira


    Actomyosin precipitation is a critical step in the purification of myosins. In this work, the objective was to precipitate rat kidney actomyosin and isolate myosin by freezing and thawing the soluble fraction. Kidney was homogenized in imidazole buffer, centrifuged at 45000 g for 30 min, and the supernatant was frozen at -20°C for 48 h. The supernatant was thawed at 4°C, centrifuged at 45000 g for 30 min and the precipitate washed twice with imidazole buffer pH 7.0 (with and without Triton X-100, respectively). The resulting precipitate presented a polypeptide profile in SDS/PAGE characteristic of actomyosin and expressed Mg- and K/EDTA-ATPase activity. The actomyosin complex was solubilized with ATP and Mg, and the main polypeptide, p200, was purified in a DEAE-Sepharose column. p200 was marked with anti-myosin II, co-sedimented with F-actin in the absence, but not in the presence, of ATP and was identified by MS/MS with a high Mascot score for myosin IIA. The analysis identified peptides exclusive of myosin IIB, but detected no peptides exclusive of myosin IIC.

  4. Retrieval of exoplanet emission spectra with HyDRA (United States)

    Gandhi, Siddharth; Madhusudhan, Nikku


    Thermal emission spectra of exoplanets provide constraints on the chemical compositions, pressure-temperature (P-T) profiles, and energy transport in exoplanetary atmospheres. Accurate inferences of these properties rely on the robustness of the atmospheric retrieval methods employed. While extant retrieval codes have provided significant constraints on molecular abundances and temperature profiles in several exoplanetary atmospheres, the constraints on their deviations from thermal and chemical equilibria have yet to be fully explored. Our present work is a step in this direction. We report HyDRA, a disequilibrium retrieval framework for thermal emission spectra of exoplanetary atmospheres. The retrieval code uses the standard architecture of a parametric atmospheric model coupled with Bayesian statistical inference using the Nested Sampling algorithm. For a given dataset, the retrieved compositions and P-T profiles are used in tandem with the GENESIS self-consistent atmospheric model to constrain layer-by-layer deviations from chemical and radiative-convective equilibrium in the observable atmosphere. We demonstrate HyDRA on the Hot Jupiter WASP-43b with a high-precision emission spectrum. We retrieve an H2O mixing ratio of log(H2O) = -3.54^{+0.82}_{-0.52}, consistent with previous studies. We detect H2O and a combined CO/CO2 at 8-sigma significance. We find the dayside P-T profile to be consistent with radiative-convective equilibrium within the 1-sigma limits and with low day-night redistribution, consistent with previous studies. The derived compositions are also consistent with thermochemical equilibrium for the corresponding distribution of P-T profiles. In the era of high precision and high resolution emission spectroscopy, HyDRA provides a path to retrieve disequilibrium phenomena in exoplanetary atmospheres.

  5. The Diurnal Cycle of Diabatic Heating and TRMM Precipitation Estimates in West Africa (United States)

    Davis, A. J.


    Numerous investigations have examined the diurnal cycle of convective activity in West Africa based exclusively on satellite observations. However, a unique opportunity exists to study this problem using combined in situ and satellite data thanks to the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA)/NASA AMMA (NAMMA) field campaign that took place in 2006. In particular, a network of radiosonde launch sites was set up from June through September 2006, with the most intensive observations collected over parts of Niger, Nigeria, Benin, Togo, and Ghana. In the present study, composite vertical profiles of diabatic heating through the diurnal cycle are computed within this region of West Africa, based on the AMMA sounding data. Then, these heating profiles are placed within the context of precipitation estimates derived from several TRMM products for the same time period. In particular, the structures and timing of the heating profiles are compared with precipitation feature information provided by the TRMM database of the University of Utah Tropical Meteorology Group. This dataset includes precipitation features based on applying thresholds to data from several different instruments, including the PR, TMI, and VIRS. Differences in the composite diurnal timing of rainfall as detected by these various types of precipitation features are explored and compared with the signatures of convective and stratiform precipitation suggested by the observed diabatic heating. Alignment between the timing of the diabatic profiles and more-processed satellite products, such as 3B42 rain estimates, is also assessed.

  6. Effective assimilation of global precipitation: simulation experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Yuan Lien


    Full Text Available Past attempts to assimilate precipitation by nudging or variational methods have succeeded in forcing the model precipitation to be close to the observed values. However, the model forecasts tend to lose their additional skill after a few forecast hours. In this study, a local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF is used to effectively assimilate precipitation by allowing ensemble members with better precipitation to receive higher weights in the analysis. In addition, two other changes in the precipitation assimilation process are found to alleviate the problems related to the non-Gaussianity of the precipitation variable: (a transform the precipitation variable into a Gaussian distribution based on its climatological distribution (an approach that could also be used in the assimilation of other non-Gaussian observations and (b only assimilate precipitation at the location where at least some ensemble members have precipitation. Unlike many current approaches, both positive and zero rain observations are assimilated effectively. Observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs are conducted using the Simplified Parametrisations, primitivE-Equation DYnamics (SPEEDY model, a simplified but realistic general circulation model. When uniformly and globally distributed observations of precipitation are assimilated in addition to rawinsonde observations, both the analyses and the medium-range forecasts of all model variables, including precipitation, are significantly improved as compared to only assimilating rawinsonde observations. The effect of precipitation assimilation on the analyses is retained on the medium-range forecasts and is larger in the Southern Hemisphere (SH than that in the Northern Hemisphere (NH because the NH analyses are already made more accurate by the denser rawinsonde stations. These improvements are much reduced when only the moisture field is modified by the precipitation observations. Both the Gaussian transformation and

  7. Skill assessment of precipitation nowcasting in Mediterranean Heavy Precipitation Events (United States)

    Bech, Joan; Berenguer, Marc


    Very short-term precipitation forecasting (i.e nowcasting) systems may provide valuable support in the weather surveillance process as they allow to issue automated early warnings for heavy precipitation events (HPE) as reviewed recently by Pierce et al. (2012). The need for warnings is essential in densely populated regions of small catchments, such as those typically found in Mediterranean coastal areas, prone to flash-floods. Several HPEs that occurred in NE Spain are analyzed using a nowcasting system based on the extrapolation of rainfall fields observed with weather radar following a Lagrangian approach developed and tested successfully in previous studies (Berenguer et al. 2005, 2011). Radar-based nowcasts, with lead times up to 3 h, are verified here against quality-controlled weather radar quantitative precipitation estimates and also against a dense network of raingauges. The basic questions studied are the dependence of forecast quality with lead time and rainfall amounts in several high-impact HPEs such as the 7 September 2005 Llobregat Delta river tornado outbreak (Bech et al. 2007) or the 2 November 2008 supercell tornadic thunderstorms (Bech et al. 2011) - both cases had intense rainfall rates (30' amounts exceeding 38.2 and 12.3 mm respectively) and daily values above 100 mm. Verification scores indicated that forecasts of 30' precipitation amounts provided useful guidance for lead times up to 60' for moderate intensities (up to 1 mm in 30') and up to 2.5h for lower rates (above 0.1 mm). On the other hand correlations of radar estimates and forecasts exceeded Eulerian persistence of precipitation estimates for lead times of 1.5 h for moderate intensities (up to 0.8 mm/h). We complete the analysis with a discussion on the reliability of threshold to lead time dependence based on the event-to-event variability found. This work has been done in the framework of the ProFEWS project (CGL2010-15892). References Bech J, N Pineda, T Rigo, M Aran, J Amaro, M

  8. Limnological aspects of acid precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrey, G.R. (ed.)


    Lakes and streams in parts of Norway, Sweden, Canada, and the United States are being severely impacted by acidic precipitation. Scientists meeting at Sagamore, New York, agreed that this is the most serious limnological problem today. The factor responsible for determining the sensitivity of surface waters to acidification is alkalinity derived by weathering of soils and bedrock in the watershed. Acidification, defined as a reduction in alkalinity, can be quantified if preacidification alkalinity data exist, but often they do not. Data on pH and Ca from surface waters in areas not affected by acid precipitation were compared to similar data from areas which receive precipitation with a weighted average hydrogen ion concentration of pH < 4.6. A semiquantitative estimation of surface water acidification can be made for lakes and streams, where earlier chemistry data are lacking, based on this analysis of pH and Ca data. Biological responses to acidification range from a reduction in numbers of species of algae and zooplankton to complete elimination of all fish life. Major biological processes such as primary production and decomposition may be altered leading to an accumulation of plant material and organic debris within lakes and streams. Increased concentrations of aluminum from the to mg/l range have been found at levels shown to be toxic to fish. These elevated levels apparently result from the exchange of H/sup +/ and Al in the watershed. There also appears to be a relationship between lake acidification and the accumulation of mercury in fish. Problems of aluminum analysis received detailed attention, and watershed mass balances, comparative watershed studies, whole lake manipulations, synoptic surveys, and the liming of acidified waters were discussed. A priority-rated list of recommendations for research was presented.

  9. Changing precipitation extremes in Europe (United States)

    van den Besselaar, E. J. M.; Klein Tank, A. M. G.; van der Schrier, G.


    A growing number of studies indicate trends in precipitation extremes over Europe during recent decades. These results are generally based on descriptive indices of extremes which occur on average once (or several times) each year (or season). An example is the maximum one-day precipitation amount per year. Extreme value theory complements the descriptive indices, in order to evaluate the intensity and frequency of more rare events. Trends in more rare extremes are difficult to detect, because per definition only few events exist in the observational series. Although single extreme events cannot be simply and directly attributed to anthropogenic climate change, as there is always a finite chance that the event in question might have occurred naturally, the odds may have shifted to make some of them more likely than in an unchanging climate (IPCC, 2007). In this study we focus on climate extremes defined as rare events within the statistical reference distribution of rainfall that is monitored daily at a particular place. We examine the daily precipitation series from the European Climate Assessment and Dataset (ECA&D) project. Comparisons will be made between the trends in modest extremes detected using the descriptive indices and the trends in more rare extremes determined by fitting an extreme value distribution to the data in consecutive 20-yr periods of the record. The trends in multi-year return levels are determined for groups of stations in several subregions of Europe. Because the typical record length is about 50 yr, we will assess the trends in events that occur on average up to once in 50 yr.

  10. Recent Developments on Discontinuous Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zięba P.


    Full Text Available The discontinuous precipitation (DP belongs to a group of diffusive solid state phase transformations during which the formation of a new phase is heterogeneous and limited to a migrating reaction front (RF. The use of analytical electron microscopy provided reliable information that there is no differences in the diffusion rate at the stationary grain boundary and moving RF of DP reaction. On the other hand, the use of “in situ” transmission electron microscopy observations indicated the importance of stop-go motion or oscillatory movement of the RF.

  11. Precipitating antibodies in mycoplasma infection. (United States)

    Menonna, J; Chmel, H; Menegus, M; Dowling, P; Cook, S


    The effectiveness of counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) for detecting human precipitating antibodies to mcyoplasma antigen was compared with the conventional complement fixation (CF) method in a double-blind experiment. Fifty-one sera from patients suspected of having acute mycoplasma infection were tested by both techniques. Dense precipitin lines to mycoplasma antigen developed in 28 sera with CIEP. Twenty-six of 28 had elevated CF titers to this antigen. No precipitin bands were observed in sera with low antibody titers to mycoplasma. These findings indicate that the CIEP test is a specific method for reliably detecting elevated serum CF antibody levels in patients with acute or recent mycoplasma infection. PMID:328527

  12. GPM Ground Validation Pluvio Precipitation Gauges OLYMPEX V1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Pluvio Precipitation Gauges OLYMPEX dataset contains one-minute precipitation rate and precipitation accumulation measurements, as well as...

  13. Structure of high-resolution NMR spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Corio, PL


    Structure of High-Resolution NMR Spectra provides the principles, theories, and mathematical and physical concepts of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra.The book presents the elementary theory of magnetic resonance; the quantum mechanical theory of angular momentum; the general theory of steady state spectra; and multiple quantum transitions, double resonance and spin echo experiments.Physicists, chemists, and researchers will find the book a valuable reference text.

  14. Calculation of reactor antineutrino spectra in TEXONO

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Dong Liang; Mao Ze Pu; Wong, T H


    In the low energy reactor antineutrino physics experiments, either for the researches of antineutrino oscillation and antineutrino reactions, or for the measurement of abnormal magnetic moment of antineutrino, the flux and the spectra of reactor antineutrino must be described accurately. The method of calculation of reactor antineutrino spectra was discussed in detail. Furthermore, based on the actual circumstances of NP2 reactors and the arrangement of detectors, the flux and the spectra of reactor antineutrino in TEXONO were worked out

  15. On the Mass Balance of Asphaltene Precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Ivar; Lira-Galeana, C.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan


    In the evaluation of experimental data as well as in calculation of phase equilibria the necessity of the application of mass balances is obvious. In the case of asphaltenes the colloidal nature of these compounds may highly affect the mass balance. In the present paper several experiments...... are performed in order to check the consistency of mass balances within asphaltene precipitation. Asphaltenes are precipitated in two step processes either by changing temperature or by changes in precipitant with increasing precipitation power. This has been performed for three different oils. The data...... indicates that in temperature experiments as well as in solvent series experiments the precipitation of heavy asphaltenes affects the following precipitation of lighter asphaltenes. In both cases the mass balance using standard separation techniques cannot be closed, as less material is precipitated...

  16. Identifying Precipitation Types Using Dual-Polarization-Based Radar and Numerical Weather Prediction Model Data (United States)

    Seo, B. C.; Bradley, A.; Krajewski, W. F.


    The recent upgrade of dual-polarization with NEXRAD radars has assisted in improving the characterization of microphysical processes in precipitation and thus has enabled precipitation estimation based on the identified precipitation types. While this polarimetric capability promises the potential for the enhanced accuracy in quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE), recent studies show that the polarimetric estimates are still affected by uncertainties arising from the radar beam geometry/sampling space associated with the vertical variability of precipitation. The authors, first of all, focus on evaluating the NEXRAD hydrometeor classification product using ground reference data (e.g., ASOS) that provide simple categories of the observed precipitation types (e.g., rain, snow, and freezing rain). They also investigate classification uncertainty features caused by the variability of precipitation between the ground and the altitudes where radar samples. Since this variability is closely related to the atmospheric conditions (e.g., temperature) at near surface, useful information (e.g., critical thickness and temperature profile) that is not available in radar observations is retrieved from the numerical weather prediction (NWP) model data such as Rapid Refresh (RAP)/High Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR). The NWP retrieved information and polarimetric radar data are used together to improve the accuracy of precipitation type identification at near surface. The authors highlight major improvements and discuss limitations in the real-time application.

  17. Influence of magnetospheric processes on winter HF radar spectra characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. André


    Full Text Available This study investigates further the relationship between regions of the magnetosphere and the characteristics of HF radar Doppler spectra recorded in the ionospheric projection of those regions. It builds on earlier work, which has reported a relationship between the Doppler spectral width and the ionospheric projection of the magnetospheric cusp region, by introducing novel techniques for classifying the Doppler spectra recorded by the SuperDARN radars. We first review the geophysical factors that can condition the characteristics of the autocorrelation function (ACF data produced by the radars. This leads to a classification scheme of the ACF data which is then applied to a large database compiled from winter data taken by the Northern Hemisphere Super-DARN radars. This statistical study shows that the ACF characteristics are not randomly distributed in space, but rather are spatially organized in the ionosphere. This paper suggests that these regions are ordered primarily by the low energy ( 1 keV electron precipitation region and the presence of intense ULF wave activity.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions; plasma convection

  18. Data Profiling


    Hladíková, Radka


    Title: Data Profiling Author: Radka Hladíková Department: Department of Software Engineering Supervisor: Ing. Vladimír Kyjonka Supervisor's e-mail address: Abstract: This thesis puts mind on problems with data quality and data profiling. This Work analyses and summarizes problems of data quality, data defects, process of data quality, data quality assessment and data profiling. The main topic is data profiling as a process of researching data available in existing...

  19. Sensitivity of the simulated precipitation to changes in convective relaxation time scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Mishra


    Full Text Available The paper describes the sensitivity of the simulated precipitation to changes in convective relaxation time scale (TAU of Zhang and McFarlane (ZM cumulus parameterization, in NCAR-Community Atmosphere Model version 3 (CAM3. In the default configuration of the model, the prescribed value of TAU, a characteristic time scale with which convective available potential energy (CAPE is removed at an exponential rate by convection, is assumed to be 1 h. However, some recent observational findings suggest that, it is larger by around one order of magnitude. In order to explore the sensitivity of the model simulation to TAU, two model frameworks have been used, namely, aqua-planet and actual-planet configurations. Numerical integrations have been carried out by using different values of TAU, and its effect on simulated precipitation has been analyzed. The aqua-planet simulations reveal that when TAU increases, rate of deep convective precipitation (DCP decreases and this leads to an accumulation of convective instability in the atmosphere. Consequently, the moisture content in the lower- and mid- troposphere increases. On the other hand, the shallow convective precipitation (SCP and large-scale precipitation (LSP intensify, predominantly the SCP, and thus capping the accumulation of convective instability in the atmosphere. The total precipitation (TP remains approximately constant, but the proportion of the three components changes significantly, which in turn alters the vertical distribution of total precipitation production. The vertical structure of moist heating changes from a vertically extended profile to a bottom heavy profile, with the increase of TAU. Altitude of the maximum vertical velocity shifts from upper troposphere to lower troposphere. Similar response was seen in the actual-planet simulations. With an increase in TAU from 1 h to 8 h, there was a significant improvement in the simulation of the seasonal mean precipitation. The fraction

  20. Sulfate removal from waste chemicals by precipitation. (United States)

    Benatti, Cláudia Telles; Tavares, Célia Regina Granhen; Lenzi, Ervim


    Chemical oxidation using Fenton's reagent has proven to be a viable alternative to the oxidative destruction of organic pollutants in mixed waste chemicals, but the sulfate concentration in the treated liquor was still above the acceptable limits for effluent discharge. In this paper, the feasibility of sulfate removal from complex laboratory wastewaters using barium and calcium precipitation was investigated. The process was applied to different wastewater cases (two composite samples generated in different periods) in order to study the effect of the wastewater composition on the sulfate precipitation. The experiments were performed with raw and oxidized wastewater samples, and carried out according to the following steps: (1) evaluate the pH effect upon sulfate precipitation on raw wastewaters at pH range of 2-8; (2) conduct sulfate precipitation experiments on raw and oxidized wastewaters; and (3) characterize the precipitate yielded. At a concentration of 80 g L(-1), barium precipitation achieved a sulfate removal up to 61.4% while calcium precipitation provided over 99% sulfate removal in raw and oxidized wastewaters and for both samples. Calcium precipitation was chosen to be performed after Fenton's oxidation; hence this process configuration favors the production of higher quality precipitates. The results showed that, when dried at 105 degrees C, the precipitate is composed of hemidrate and anhydrous calcium sulfate ( approximately 99.8%) and trace metals ( approximately 0.2%: Fe, Cr, Mn, Co, Ag, Mg, K, Na), what makes it suitable for reuse in innumerous processes.

  1. Mass Spectra of Tetraselenafulvalenes, Diselenadithiafulvalenes and Tetrathiafulvalenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan Rud; Egsgaard, Helge; Larsen, Elfinn


    The mass spectra of 13 heterofulvalenes are reported. The spectra show great similarities within the selenium and within the sulphur series. The main difference between the selenium and the sulphur compounds results from the more facile loss of selenium compared with sulphur, and from the first...

  2. Spectra of Velocity components over Complex Terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panofsky, H. A.; Larko, D.; Lipschut, R.


    Spectra have been measured over a variety of types of complex terrain: on tops of hills and escarpments, over land downstream of a water surface, and over rolling terrain. Differences between spectra over many types of complex terrain, and over uniform terrain, can be explained by these hypotheses...

  3. Aircraft Measurements of Atmospheric Kinetic Energy Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Lilly, D. K.


    Wind velocity data obtained from a jet airliner are used to construct kinetic energy spectra over the range of wavelengths from 2.5 to 2500 km. The spectra exhibit an approximate -5/3 slope for wavelengths of less than about 150 km, steepening to about -2.2 at larger scales. These results support...

  4. Development and application of new methods to retrieve vertical structure of precipitation above the ARM CART sites from MMCR measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matrosov, Sergey


    The main objective of this project was to develop, validate and apply remote sensing methods to retrieve vertical profiles of precipitation over the DOE ARM CART sites using currently available remote sensors. While the ARM Program invested very heavily into developments of remote sensing methods and instruments for water vapor and non-precipitating cloud parameter retrievals, precipitation retrievals and studies lagged behind. Precipitation, however, is a crucial part of the water cycle, and without detailed information on rainfall and snowfall, significant improvements in the atmospheric models of different scales (i.e., one of the ARM Program's main goals) is difficult to achieve. Characterization of the vertical atmospheric column above the CART sites is also incomplete without detailed precipitation information, so developments of remote sensing methods for retrievals of parameters in precipitating cloud condition was essential. Providing modelers with retrieval results was also one of the key objectives of this research project.

  5. Decomposition of spectra using maximum autocorrelation factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus


    This paper addresses the problem of generating a low dimensional representation of the variation present in a set of spectra, e.g. reflection spectra recorded from a series of objects. The resulting low dimensional description may subseque ntly be input through variable selection schemes into cla......This paper addresses the problem of generating a low dimensional representation of the variation present in a set of spectra, e.g. reflection spectra recorded from a series of objects. The resulting low dimensional description may subseque ntly be input through variable selection schemes...... Fourier decomposition these new variables are located in frequency as well as well wavelength. The proposed algorithm is tested on 100 samples of NIR spectra of wheat....

  6. General Notes on Processes and Their Spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Cepciansky


    Full Text Available The frequency spectrum performs one of the main characteristics of a process. The aim of the paper is to show the coherence between the process and its own spectrum and how the behaviour and properties of a process itself can be deduced from its spectrum. Processes are categorized and general principles of their spectra calculation and recognition are given. The main stress is put on power spectra of electric and optic signals, as they also perform a kind of processes. These spectra can be directly measured, observed and examined by means of spectral analyzers and they are very important characteristics which can not be omitted at transmission techniques in telecommunication technologies. Further, the paper also deals with non electric processes, mainly with processes and spectra at mass servicing and how these spectra can be utilised in praxis.

  7. Optical absorption spectra of Ag-11 isomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jose Ignacio; Fernandez, E. M.


    The optical absorption spectra of the three most; stable structural isomers of the Ag-11 cluster were calculated using the time-dependent, density functional theory within the Casida formalism. The slightly different, spectra, of the isomers may permit the identification of the ground-stale confi......The optical absorption spectra of the three most; stable structural isomers of the Ag-11 cluster were calculated using the time-dependent, density functional theory within the Casida formalism. The slightly different, spectra, of the isomers may permit the identification of the ground......-stale configuration predominantly present in the laboratory beams based on a direct comparison between the calculated photoabsorptiou response for the Ag-11 isomers and the measured spectra of medium-size silver clusters trapped in noble gas Ar and Ne matrices at different, temperatures. This assignment is confirmed...

  8. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) launch, commissioning, and early operations (United States)

    Neeck, Steven P.; Kakar, Ramesh K.; Azarbarzin, Ardeshir A.; Hou, Arthur Y.


    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is an international partnership co-led by NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The mission centers on the GPM Core Observatory and consists of an international network, or constellation, of additional satellites that together will provide next-generation global observations of precipitation from space. The GPM constellation will provide measurements of the intensity and variability of precipitation, three-dimensional structure of cloud and storm systems, the microphysics of ice and liquid particles within clouds, and the amount of water falling to Earth's surface. Observations from the GPM constellation, combined with land surface data, will improve weather forecast models; climate models; integrated hydrologic models of watersheds; and forecasts of hurricanes/typhoons/cylcones, landslides, floods and droughts. The GPM Core Observatory carries an advanced radar/radiometer system and serves as a reference standard to unify precipitation measurements from all satellites that fly within the constellation. The GPM Core Observatory improves upon the capabilities of its predecessor, the NASA-JAXA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), with advanced science instruments and expanded coverage of Earth's surface. The GPM Core Observatory carries two instruments, the NASA-supplied GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and the JAXA-supplied Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR). The GMI measures the amount, size, intensity and type of precipitation, from heavy-tomoderate rain to light rain and snowfall. The DPR provides three-dimensional profiles and intensities of liquid and solid precipitation. The French Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES), the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), and the U.S. Department of Defense are partners with NASA and

  9. Electrostatic precipitator for air cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertsson, P.; Eriksson, R.; Vlastos, A.


    An electrostatic precipitator is disclosed for air cleaning wherein the air passes through in two steps: first passing through a charging portion and next through a separation portion. The charging portion includes wires positioned parallel to and between parallel metal sheets, the wires having an electric potential other than that of the metal sheets. The separation portion includes plural parallel metal sheets, each of which has an electric potential other than that of adjacent metal sheets. The charging portion includes two or more wires between each pair of metal sheets, and the metal sheets of the charging portion extend through and constitute some of the metal sheets of the separation portion, between which are disposed addition metal sheets of an odd number.

  10. Calcium precipitate induced aerobic granulation. (United States)

    Wan, Chunli; Lee, Duu-Jong; Yang, Xue; Wang, Yayi; Wang, Xingzu; Liu, Xiang


    Aerobic granulation is a novel biotechnology for wastewater treatment. This study refined existing aerobic granulation mechanisms as a sequencing process including formation of calcium precipitate under alkaline pH to form inorganic cores, followed by bacterial attachment and growth on these cores to form the exopolysaccharide matrix. Mature granules comprised an inner core and a matrix layer and a rim layer with enriched microbial strains. The inorganic core was a mix of different crystals of calcium and phosphates. Functional strains including Sphingomonas sp., Paracoccus sp. Sinorhizobium americanum strain and Flavobacterium sp. attached onto the cores. These functional strains promote c-di-GMP production and the expression by Psl and Alg genes for exopolysaccharide production to enhance formation of mature granules. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Resonance Raman spectra of. cap alpha. -copper phthalocyanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovill, A.J.; McConnell, A.A.; Nimmo, J.A.; Smith, W.E.


    Raman spectra of ..cap alpha..-copper phthalocyanine (..cap alpha..-CuPc) were recorded at room temperature and at 10 K with excitation wavelengths between 457 and 714 nm. Resonance enhancement was greatest for modes for which the largest displacements were on either the inner five-membered ring of the isoindole groups or the inner macrocycle and consequently assignment of the bands to modes of the entire molecule was possible by comparison with nickel octaethylporphyrin. Four out of five bands resonant in the Q band region and preresonant near the B band absorption region are totally symmetric modes. B band preresonance occurs more strongly with high-frequency modes. At low temperatures, multimode interactions are reduced and profiles were obtained which can be compared with solution profiles of porphyrins. Both Q/sub x/ and Q/sub y/ 0-0 scattering can be identified and a helper mode is evident. A term enhancement predominates, with B/sub 1g/ and B/sub 2g/ modes enhanced because of a Jahn-Teller distortion of the excited state. The resonance studies, together with electronic absorption spectra and published theoretical studies, confirm that the Q band in ..cap alpha..-CuPc is largely due to an allowed ..pi..-..pi..* transition associated mainly with the macrocycle and inner five-membered rings of the isoindole groups. 25 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  12. GPM Satellite Radar Measurements of Precipitation and Freezing Level in Atmospheric Rivers: Comparison With Ground-Based Radars and Reanalyses (United States)

    Cannon, Forest; Ralph, F. Martin; Wilson, Anna M.; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.


    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) account for more than 90% of the total meridional water vapor flux in midlatitudes, and 25-50% of the annual precipitation in the coastal western United States. In this study, reflectivity profiles from the Global Precipitation Measurement Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (GPM-DPR) are used to evaluate precipitation and temperature characteristics of ARs over the western coast of North America and the eastern North Pacific Ocean. Evaluation of GPM-DPR bright-band height using a network of ground-based vertically pointing radars along the West Coast demonstrated exceptional agreement, and comparison with freezing level height from reanalyses over the eastern North Pacific Ocean also consistently agreed, indicating that GPM-DPR can be used to independently validate freezing level in models. However, precipitation comparison with gridded observations across the western United States indicated deficiencies in GPM-DPR's ability to reproduce the spatial distribution of winter precipitation, likely related to sampling frequency. Over the geographically homogeneous oceanic portion of the domain, sampling frequency was not problematic, and significant differences in the frequency and intensity of precipitation between GPM-DPR and reanalyses highlighted biases in both satellite-observed and modeled AR precipitation. Reanalyses precipitation rates below the minimum sensitivity of GPM-DPR accounted for a 20% increase in total precipitation, and 25% of radar-derived precipitation rates were greater than the 99th percentile precipitation rate in reanalyses. Due to differences in the proportions of precipitation in convective, stratiform bright-band, and non-bright-band conditions, AR conditions contributed nearly 10% more to total precipitation in GPM-DPR than reanalyses.

  13. Threshold of auroral intensification reduced by electron precipitation effect

    CERN Document Server

    Hiraki, Yasutaka


    It has been known that discrete aurora suddenly intensifies and deforms from an arc-like to a variety of wavy/vortex structures, especially during a substorm period. The instability of Alfv$\\acute{\\rm e}$n waves reflected from the ionosphere has been analyzed in order to comprehend the ignition process of auroral intensification. It was presented that the prime key is an enhancement of plasma convection, and the convection electric field has a threshold. This study examined effects of auroral electron precipitation, causing the ionization of neutral atmosphere, on the linear instability of Alfv$\\acute{\\rm e}$n waves. It was found that the threshold of convection electric fields is significantly reduced by increasing the ionization rate, the realistic range of which could be estimated from observed electron energy spectra.

  14. Predicting accurate fluorescent spectra for high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using density functional theory (United States)

    Powell, Jacob; Heider, Emily C.; Campiglia, Andres; Harper, James K.


    The ability of density functional theory (DFT) methods to predict accurate fluorescence spectra for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is explored. Two methods, PBE0 and CAM-B3LYP, are evaluated both in the gas phase and in solution. Spectra for several of the most toxic PAHs are predicted and compared to experiment, including three isomers of C24H14 and a PAH containing heteroatoms. Unusually high-resolution experimental spectra are obtained for comparison by analyzing each PAH at 4.2 K in an n-alkane matrix. All theoretical spectra visually conform to the profiles of the experimental data but are systematically offset by a small amount. Specifically, when solvent is included the PBE0 functional overestimates peaks by 16.1 ± 6.6 nm while CAM-B3LYP underestimates the same transitions by 14.5 ± 7.6 nm. These calculated spectra can be empirically corrected to decrease the uncertainties to 6.5 ± 5.1 and 5.7 ± 5.1 nm for the PBE0 and CAM-B3LYP methods, respectively. A comparison of computed spectra in the gas phase indicates that the inclusion of n-octane shifts peaks by +11 nm on average and this change is roughly equivalent for PBE0 and CAM-B3LYP. An automated approach for comparing spectra is also described that minimizes residuals between a given theoretical spectrum and all available experimental spectra. This approach identifies the correct spectrum in all cases and excludes approximately 80% of the incorrect spectra, demonstrating that an automated search of theoretical libraries of spectra may eventually become feasible.

  15. Improved Electronic Control for Electrostatic Precipitators (United States)

    Johnston, D. F.


    Electrostatic precipitators remove particulate matter from smoke created by burning refuse. Smoke exposed to electrostatic field, and particles become electrically charged and migrate to electrically charged collecting surfaces. New microprocessor-based electronic control maintains precipitator power at maximum particulate-collection level. Control automatically senses changes in smoke composition due to variations in fuel or combustion and adjusts precipitator voltage and current accordingly. Also, sensitive yet stable fault detection provided.

  16. Influence of hydrogen on hydrogenated cadmium telluride optical spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pociask, M.; Polit, J.; Sheregii, E.; Cebulski, J. [Institute of Physics, University of Rzeszow (Poland); Kisiel, A. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland); Mycielski, A. [Institute of Physics, PAS, Warszawa (Poland); Morgiel, J. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Sciences, Krakow (Poland); Piccinini, M. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Dipartimento Scienze Geologiche, Universita Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Marcelli, A.; Robouch, B.; Guidi, M.C. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Savchyn, V. [Ivan Franko Lviv National University (Ukraine); Izhnin, I.I. [Institute for Materials SRC ' ' Carat' ' , Lviv (Ukraine); Zajdel, P. [Institute of Fizyki, University of Silesia, 4 Uniwersytecka Str., 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Nucara, A. [Universita' di Roma La Sapienza, P. le Aldo Moro 1, Rome (Italy)


    The presence of oxygen impurity in semiconducting materials affects the electrical properties of crystals and significantly limits their application. To remove oxygen impurity, ultra-pure hydrogen is used while growing Te-containing crystals such as CdTe, CdZnTe, and ZnTe. The hydrogenation of CdTe crystals is a technological process that purifies the basic material from oxygen, mainly cadmium and tellurium oxide compounds incorporated in CdTe crystalline lattice. In the present work we analyses the deformations induced by hydrogen and oxygen atoms in CdTe crystals looking at their influence on the near fundamental band (NFB), middle infrared (MIR) and far infrared (FIR) reflectivity spectra as well as on cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra. Comparison of the hydrogenated CdTe phonon structure profiles confirms the presence of hydrogen atoms bounded inside the lattice. The possible localization of hydrogen and oxygen ions within the tetrahedron coordinated lattice is discussed in the framework of a model that shows a good agreement with recent NFB, MIR and FIR experiments carried out on hydrogenated CdTe crystals. Measured reflection spectra in the wavelength range 190-1400 nm (NFB) indicate the appearance in CdTe(H{sub M}) and CdTe(H{sub L}) of additional maxima at 966 nm related to the electron transitions from level about 0.2 eV above the valence band. The CL spectra confirmed existence of this electron level. We present a possible H{sub 2} alignment similar to the single H model i.e., over the face (at about 0.38 Aa). For this model the angle from the central atom to the H atoms is equal to 64 which is also close to the bonding angle of CdH{sub 2} (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Development Status (United States)

    Azarbarzin, Ardeshir Art


    Mission Objective: (1) Improve scientific understanding of the global water cycle and fresh water availability (2) Improve the accuracy of precipitation forecasts (3) Provide frequent and complete sampling of the Earth s precipitation Mission Description (Class B, Category I): (1) Constellation of spacecraft provide global precipitation measurement coverage (2) NASA/JAXA Core spacecraft: Provides a microwave radiometer (GMI) and dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) to cross-calibrate entire constellation (3) 65 deg inclination, 400 km altitude (4) Launch July 2013 on HII-A (5) 3 year mission (5 year propellant) (6) Partner constellation spacecraft.

  18. Inter-comparison of the EUMETSAT H-SAF and NASA PPS precipitation products over Western Europe. (United States)

    Kidd, Chris; Panegrossi, Giulia; Ringerud, Sarah; Stocker, Erich


    The development of precipitation retrieval techniques utilising passive microwave satellite observations has achieved a good degree of maturity through the use of physically-based schemes. The DMSP Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) has been the mainstay of passive microwave observations over the last 13 years forming the basis of many satellite precipitation products, including NASA's Precipitation Processing System (PPS) and EUMETSAT's Hydrological Satellite Application Facility (H-SAF). The NASA PPS product utilises the Goddard Profiling (GPROF; currently 2014v2-0) retrieval scheme that provides a physically consistent retrieval scheme through the use of coincident active/passive microwave retrievals from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission core satellite. The GPM combined algorithm retrieves hydrometeor profiles optimized for consistency with both Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and GPM Microwave Imager (GMI); these profiles form the basis of the GPROF database which can be utilized for any constellation radiometer within the framework a Bayesian retrieval scheme. The H-SAF product (PR-OBS-1 v1.7) is based on a physically-based Bayesian technique where the a priori information is provided by a Cloud Dynamic Radiation Database (CDRD). Meteorological parameter constraints, derived from synthetic dynamical-thermodynamical-hydrological meteorological profile variables, are used in conjunction with multi-hydrometeor microphysical profiles and multispectral PMW brightness temperature vectors into a specialized a priori knowledge database underpinning and guiding the algorithm's Bayesian retrieval solver. This paper will present the results of an inter-comparison of the NASA PPS GPROF and EUMETSAT H-SAF PR-OBS-1 products over Western Europe for the period from 1 January 2015 through 31 December 2016. Surface radar is derived from the UKMO-derived Nimrod European radar product, available at 15 minute/5 km resolution. Initial results

  19. Asymmetric responses of primary productivity to precipitation extremes: A synthesis of grassland precipitation manipulation experiments. (United States)

    Wilcox, Kevin R; Shi, Zheng; Gherardi, Laureano A; Lemoine, Nathan P; Koerner, Sally E; Hoover, David L; Bork, Edward; Byrne, Kerry M; Cahill, James; Collins, Scott L; Evans, Sarah; Gilgen, Anna K; Holub, Petr; Jiang, Lifen; Knapp, Alan K; LeCain, Daniel; Liang, Junyi; Garcia-Palacios, Pablo; Peñuelas, Josep; Pockman, William T; Smith, Melinda D; Sun, Shanghua; White, Shannon R; Yahdjian, Laura; Zhu, Kai; Luo, Yiqi


    Climatic changes are altering Earth's hydrological cycle, resulting in altered precipitation amounts, increased interannual variability of precipitation, and more frequent extreme precipitation events. These trends will likely continue into the future, having substantial impacts on net primary productivity (NPP) and associated ecosystem services such as food production and carbon sequestration. Frequently, experimental manipulations of precipitation have linked altered precipitation regimes to changes in NPP. Yet, findings have been diverse and substantial uncertainty still surrounds generalities describing patterns of ecosystem sensitivity to altered precipitation. Additionally, we do not know whether previously observed correlations between NPP and precipitation remain accurate when precipitation changes become extreme. We synthesized results from 83 case studies of experimental precipitation manipulations in grasslands worldwide. We used meta-analytical techniques to search for generalities and asymmetries of aboveground NPP (ANPP) and belowground NPP (BNPP) responses to both the direction and magnitude of precipitation change. Sensitivity (i.e., productivity response standardized by the amount of precipitation change) of BNPP was similar under precipitation additions and reductions, but ANPP was more sensitive to precipitation additions than reductions; this was especially evident in drier ecosystems. Additionally, overall relationships between the magnitude of productivity responses and the magnitude of precipitation change were saturating in form. The saturating form of this relationship was likely driven by ANPP responses to very extreme precipitation increases, although there were limited studies imposing extreme precipitation change, and there was considerable variation among experiments. This highlights the importance of incorporating gradients of manipulations, ranging from extreme drought to extreme precipitation increases into future climate change

  20. Spectra of conformal sigma models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tlapak, Vaclav


    In this thesis the spectra of conformal sigma models defined on (generalized) symmetric spaces are analysed. The spaces where sigma models are conformal without the addition of a Wess-Zumino term are supermanifolds, in other words spaces that include fermionic directions. After a brief review of the general construction of vertex operators and the background field expansion, we compute the diagonal terms of the one-loop anomalous dimensions of sigma models on semi-symmetric spaces. We find that the results are formally identical to the symmetric case. However, unlike for sigma models on symmetric spaces, off diagonal terms that lead to operator mixing are also present. These are not computed here. We then present a detailed analysis of the one-loop spectrum of the supersphere S{sup 3} {sup vertical} {sup stroke} {sup 2} sigma model as one of the simplest examples. The analysis illustrates the power and simplicity of the construction. We use this data to revisit a duality with the OSP(4 vertical stroke 2) Gross-Neveu model that was proposed by Candu and Saleur. With the help of a recent all-loop result for the anomalous dimension of (1)/(2)BPS operators of Gross-Neveu models, we are able to recover the entire zero-mode spectrum of the supersphere model. We also argue that the sigma model constraints and its equations of motion are implemented correctly in the Gross-Neveu model, including the one-loop data. The duality is further supported by a new all-loop result for the anomalous dimension of the ground states of the sigma model. However, higher-gradient operators cannot be completely recovered. It is possible that this discrepancy is related to a known instability of the sigma model. The instability of sigma models is due to symmetry preserving high-gradient operators that become relevant at arbitrarily small values of the coupling. This feature has been observed long ago in one-loop calculations of the O(N)-vector model and soon been realized to be a generic

  1. Statistical properties of Fermi GBM GRBs' spectra (United States)

    Rácz, István I.; Balázs, Lajos G.; Horvath, Istvan; Tóth, L. Viktor; Bagoly, Zsolt


    Statistical studies of gamma-ray burst (GRB) spectra may result in important information on the physics of GRBs. The Fermi GBM catalogue contains GRB parameters (peak energy, spectral indices, and intensity) estimated fitting the gamma-ray spectral energy distribution of the total emission (fluence, flnc), and during the time of the peak flux (pflx). Using contingency tables, we studied the relationship of the models best-fitting pflx and flnc time intervals. Our analysis revealed an ordering of the spectra into a power law - Comptonized - smoothly broken power law - Band series. This result was further supported by a correspondence analysis of the pflx and flnc spectra categorical variables. We performed a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to find a relationship between categorical (spectral) and model independent physical data. LDA resulted in highly significant physical differences among the spectral types, that is more pronounced in the case of the pflx spectra, than for the flnc spectra. We interpreted this difference as caused by the temporal variation of the spectrum during the outburst. This spectral variability is confirmed by the differences in the low-energy spectral index and peak energy, between the pflx and flnc spectra. We found that the synchrotron radiation is significant in GBM spectra. The mean low-energy spectral index is close to the canonical value of α = -2/3 during the peak flux. However, α is ˜ -0.9 for the spectra of the fluences. We interpret this difference as showing that the effect of cooling is important only for the fluence spectra.

  2. Enhanced diffusion of boron by oxygen precipitation in heavily boron-doped silicon (United States)

    Torigoe, Kazuhisa; Ono, Toshiaki


    The enhanced diffusion of boron has been investigated by analyzing out-diffusion profiles in the vicinity of the interface between a lightly boron-doped silicon epitaxial layer and a heavily boron-doped silicon substrate with a resistivity of 8.2 mΩ cm and an oxide precipitate (O.P.) density of 108-1010 cm-3. It is found that the boron diffusion during annealing at 850-1000 °C is enhanced with the increase of the oxide precipitate density. On the basis of a model for boron diffusion mediated by silicon self-interstitials, we reveal that the enhanced diffusion is attributed to self-interstitials supersaturated as a result of the emission from oxide precipitates and the absorption by punched-out dislocations. In addition, the temperature dependence of the fraction of the self-interstitial emission obtained analyzing the diffusion enhancement well explains the morphology changes of oxide precipitates reported in literature.

  3. Estimating the vertical structure of intense Mediterranean precipitation using two X-band weather radar systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berne, A.D.; Delrieu, G.; Andrieu, H.


    The present study aims at a preliminary approach of multiradar compositing applied to the estimation of the vertical structure of precipitation¿an important issue for radar rainfall measurement and prediction. During the HYDROMET Integrated Radar Experiment (HIRE¿98), the vertical profile of

  4. Magnetospheric particle precipitation at Titan (United States)

    Royer, Emilie; Esposito, Larry; Crary, Frank; Wahlund, Jan-Erik


    Although solar XUV radiation is known to be the main source of ionization in Titan's upper atmosphere around 1100 km of altitude, magnetospheric particle precipitation can also account for about 10% of the ionization process. Magnetospheric particle precipitation is expected to be the most intense on the nightside of the satelllite and when Titan's orbital position around Saturn is the closest to Noon Saturn Local Time (SLT). In addition, on several occasion throughout the Cassini mission, Titan has been observed while in the magnetosheath. We are reporting here Ultraviolet (UV) observations of Titan airglow enhancements correlated to these magnetospheric changing conditions occurring while the spacecraft, and thus Titan, are known to have crossed Saturn's magnetopause and have been exposed to the magnetosheath environnment. Using Cassini-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) observations of Titan around 12PM SLT as our primary set of data, we present evidence of Titan's upper atmosphere response to a fluctuating magnetospheric environment. Pattern recognition software based on 2D UVIS detector images has been used to retrieve observations of interest, looking for airglow enhancement of a factor of 2. A 2D UVIS detector image, created for each UVIS observation of Titan, displays the spatial dimension of the UVIS slit on the x-axis and the time on the y-axis. In addition, data from the T32 flyby and from April 17, 2005 from in-situ Cassini instruments are used. Correlations with data from simultaneous observations of in-situ Cassini instruments (CAPS, RPWS and MIMI) has been possible on few occasions and events such as electron burst and reconnections can be associated with unusual behaviors of the Titan airglow. CAPS in-situ measurements acquired during the T32 flyby are consistent with an electron burst observed at the spacecraft as the cause of the UV emission. Moreover, on April 17, 2005 the UVIS observation displays feature similar to what could be a

  5. Reconstruction of March-June precipitation from tree rings in central Liaoning, China (United States)

    Wang, Yanchao; Liu, Yu


    A dendrochronological profile was generated from Chinese pines (Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.) in the Qianshan Mountains in northeastern China. Based on correlation analyses, the pattern of precipitation from March to June (P 36 ) was reconstructed using a simple linear model, which explained 42.7% of the total variance in observed precipitation from 1951 to 2012. The reconstructed P 36 series revealed a consistently increasing trend in precipitation during the twentieth century in the Qianshan Mountains. The reconstructed data showed trends that were similar to those in the variation in trends for March-June precipitation observed at the Shenyang station, the reconstructed January-May precipitation trends in Shenyang City, and the reconstructed average June-September relative humidity for Yiwulü Mountain. The reconstructed data also showed good agreement with the droughts reported in historical documents and recorded by meteorological stations in Liaoning. Spatial correlation analyses show that the reconstructed data reflect the variability in precipitation that occurs over much of northeastern China. In addition, our reconstruction showed a significant periodicity. The significant correlations between the reconstructed P 36 and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and sunspot numbers indicate that precipitation variability in the Qianshan Mountain region is probably driven by extensive atmosphere-sea interactions and solar activities.

  6. Tropical echo-top height for precipitating clouds observed by multiple active instruments aboard satellites (United States)

    Chen, Yilun; Fu, Yunfei


    The echo-top height observed by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) has been used by some studies as an approximate calculation of the precipitating-cloud-top height to simulate radiative forcing or to identify overshooting convection. However, due to the low sensitivity ( 17 dBZ) of PR, the PR-echo-top height is lower than the actual precipitating-cloud-top height. Here, the echo-top heights of the tropical precipitating cloud detected by PR, the Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR), and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) were investigated to evaluate the underestimation of the PR-echo-top height to the actual precipitating-cloud-top height. The results show that there were significant spatial variations in the underestimates of precipitating-cloud-top height by PR. The model simulation showed that these underestimates led to an underestimation of the radiative forcing of the Earth system, the relative error of which was 10% with 1-km underestimation and 20% to 80% with 7-km underestimation when the cloud optical thickness was fixed to 10. Therefore, the underestimates of precipitating-cloud-top height by PR should be taken into consideration when using PR-echo-top height.

  7. Reconstruction of March-June precipitation from tree rings in central Liaoning, China (United States)

    Wang, Yanchao; Liu, Yu


    A dendrochronological profile was generated from Chinese pines ( Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.) in the Qianshan Mountains in northeastern China. Based on correlation analyses, the pattern of precipitation from March to June ( P 36 ) was reconstructed using a simple linear model, which explained 42.7% of the total variance in observed precipitation from 1951 to 2012. The reconstructed P 36 series revealed a consistently increasing trend in precipitation during the twentieth century in the Qianshan Mountains. The reconstructed data showed trends that were similar to those in the variation in trends for March-June precipitation observed at the Shenyang station, the reconstructed January-May precipitation trends in Shenyang City, and the reconstructed average June-September relative humidity for Yiwulü Mountain. The reconstructed data also showed good agreement with the droughts reported in historical documents and recorded by meteorological stations in Liaoning. Spatial correlation analyses show that the reconstructed data reflect the variability in precipitation that occurs over much of northeastern China. In addition, our reconstruction showed a significant periodicity. The significant correlations between the reconstructed P 36 and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and sunspot numbers indicate that precipitation variability in the Qianshan Mountain region is probably driven by extensive atmosphere-sea interactions and solar activities.

  8. On the effects of vertical air velocity on winter precipitation types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Thériault


    Full Text Available The various precipitation types formed within winter storms (such as snow, wet snow and freezing rain often lead to very hazardous weather conditions. These types of precipitation often occur during the passage of a warm front as a warm air mass ascends over a cold air mass. To address this issue further, we used a one-dimensional kinematic cloud model to simulate this gentle ascent (≤10 cm/s of warm air. The initial temperature profile has an above 0°C inversion, a lower subfreezing layer, and precipitation falls from above the temperature inversion. The cloud model is coupled to a double-moment microphysics scheme that simulates the production of various types of winter precipitation. The results are compared with those from a previous study carried out in still air. Based on the temporal evolution of surface precipitation, snow reaches the surface significantly faster than in still air whereas other precipitation types including freezing rain and ice pellets have a shorter duration. Overall, even weak background vertical ascent has an important impact on the precipitation reaching the surface, the time of the elimination of the melting layer, and also the evolution of the lower subfreezing layer.

  9. Circulation factors affecting precipitation over Bulgaria (United States)

    Nojarov, Peter


    The objective of this paper is to determine the influence of circulation factors on precipitation in Bulgaria. The study succeeds investigation on the influence of circulation factors on air temperatures in Bulgaria, as the focus here is directed toward precipitation amounts. Circulation factors are represented through two circulation indices, showing west-east or south-north transport of air masses over Bulgaria and four teleconnection indices (patterns)—North Atlantic Oscillation, East Atlantic, East Atlantic/Western Russia, and Scandinavian. Omega values at 700-hPa level show vertical motions in the atmosphere. Annual precipitation trends are mixed and not statistically significant. A significant decrease of precipitation in Bulgaria is observed in November due to the strengthening of the eastward transport of air masses (strengthening of EA teleconnection pattern) and anticyclonal weather (increase of descending motions in the atmosphere). There is also a precipitation decrease in May and June due to the growing influence of the Azores High. An increase of precipitation happens in September. All this leads to a redistribution of annual precipitation course, but annual precipitation amounts remain the same. However, this redistribution has a negative impact on agriculture and winter ski tourism. Zonal circulation has a larger influence on precipitation in Bulgaria compared to meridional. Eastward transport throughout the year leads to lower than the normal precipitation, and vice versa. With regard to the four teleconnection patterns, winter precipitation in Bulgaria is determined mainly by EA/WR teleconnection pattern, spring and autumn by EA teleconnection pattern, and summer by SCAND teleconnection pattern.

  10. Synthesis and properties of precipitated cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (United States)

    Ristic, Mira; Krehula, Stjepko; Reissner, Michael; Jean, Malick; Hannoyer, Beatrice; Musić, Svetozar


    The formation and properties of cobalt ferrite were investigated with XRD, FT-IR, FE-SEM, Mössbauer and magnetometry. Cobalt ferrite samples were prepared (a) by combining coprecipitation Co(OH)2/2Fe(OH)3, using NaOH between pH 5.2 and 11.4 and autoclaving, and (b) by autoclaving the Co(OH)2/2Fe(OH)3 coprecipitate in a very strong alkaline medium. XRD and FE SEM showed that both CoFe2O4 crystallites and particles were in the nanosize range. The FT-IR spectra were typical of spinel ferrites. Cobalt ferrite precipitated at pH 7.2 and at 11.4 contained a small fraction of α-Fe2O3, whereas in the sample precipitated at pH 11.4 a very small amount (traces) of α-FeOOH were detected by FT-IR, additionally. Parameters obtained by Mössbauer spectroscopy suggested a structural migration of cobalt and iron ions in prepared cobalt ferrite spinels with the prolonged time of autoclaving. Magnetic measurements showed the magnetic behaviour typical of spinel ferrite nanoparticles.

  11. Arsenate removal using a combination treatment of precipitation and nanofiltration. (United States)

    Chang, F F; Liu, W J


    A combination treatment of Ca-precipitation and nanofiltration membrane was studied to remove arsenate from water. The selected nanofiltration membrane was an amphoteric charged membrane, proved by the results of ATR-FTIR spectra and zeta potential. The arsenate and calcium removal efficiencies had the lowest values at the isoelectric point of the nanofiltration membrane, attributed to the loosest steric hindrance and the weakest electrostatic repulsion. Above the isoelectric point, arsenate precipitated with calcium ion to form the low solubility compound calcium arsenate, while steric hindrance was the main mechanism of arsenate removal. In contrast, below the isoelectric point, the nanofiltration membrane with positive charges rejected calcium ion by electrostatic repulsion. The high electrostatic shielding of calcium ion prevented arsenate from coming close to the NF membrane. Either high feed arsenate concentration or high calcium oxide dose improved the removal amount of arsenate during the nanofiltration membrane separation process. In addition, the arsenate removal efficiency approached the highest value at 200 μg/L of feed arsenate concentration. The optimal transmembrane pressure was in a range of 0.5-0.7 MPa to restrict the formation of fouling cake on the nanofiltration membrane surface.

  12. Short-duration Electron Precipitation Studied by Test Particle Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaejin Lee


    Full Text Available Energy spectra of electron microbursts from 170 keV to 340 keV have been measured by the solid-state detectors aboard the low-altitude (680 km polar-orbiting Korean STSAT-1 (Science and Technology SATellite. These measurements have revealed two important characteristics unique to the microbursts: (1 They are produced by a fast-loss cone-filling process in which the interaction time for pitch-angle scattering is less than 50 ms and (2 The e-folding energy of the perpendicular component is larger than that of the parallel component, and the loss cone is not completely filled by electrons. To understand how wave-particle interactions could generate microbursts, we performed a test particle simulation and investigated how the waves scattered electron pitch angles within the timescale required for microburst precipitation. The application of rising-frequency whistler-mode waves to electrons of different energies moving in a dipole magnetic field showed that chorus magnetic wave fields, rather than electric fields, were the main cause of microburst events, which implied that microbursts could be produced by a quasi-adiabatic process. In addition, the simulation results showed that high-energy electrons could resonate with chorus waves at high magnetic latitudes where the loss cone was larger, which might explain the decreased e-folding energy of precipitated microbursts compared to that of trapped electrons.

  13. Aluminosilicate Precipitation Impact on Uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Experiments have been conducted to examine the fate of uranium during the formation of sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) when wastes containing high aluminate concentrations are mixed with wastes of high silicate concentration. Testing was conducted at varying degrees of uranium saturation. Testing examined typical tank conditions, e.g., stagnant, slightly elevated temperature (50 C). The results showed that under sub-saturated conditions uranium is not removed from solution to any large extent in both simulant testing and actual tank waste testing. This aspect was not thoroughly understood prior to this work and was necessary to avoid criticality issues when actual tank wastes were aggregated. There are data supporting a small removal due to sorption of uranium on sites in the NAS. Above the solubility limit the data are clear that a reduction in uranium concentration occurs concomitant with the formation of aluminosilicate. This uranium precipitation is fairly rapid and ceases when uranium reaches its solubility limit. At the solubility limit, it appears that uranium is not affected, but further testing might be warranted.

  14. Improved peak shape fitting in alpha spectra. (United States)

    Pommé, S; Caro Marroyo, B


    Peak overlap is a recurrent issue in alpha-particle spectrometry, not only in routine analyses but also in the high-resolution spectra from which reference values for alpha emission probabilities are derived. In this work, improved peak shape formulae are presented for the deconvolution of alpha-particle spectra. They have been implemented as fit functions in a spreadsheet application and optimum fit parameters were searched with built-in optimisation routines. Deconvolution results are shown for a few challenging spectra with high statistical precision. The algorithm outperforms the best available routines for high-resolution spectrometry, which may facilitate a more reliable determination of alpha emission probabilities in the future. It is also applicable to alpha spectra with inferior energy resolution. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Power spectra of currents off Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Current measurements were carried out using a recording current meter across the continental shelf off Bombay, Maharashtra, India at 4 stations from an anchored ship. Power spectra were computed for selected lengths of records. Spectral energy...

  16. LARSON FTS SPECTRA V1.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains 107 asteroid spectra obtained between the years 1975 and 1982 inclusive, with the infrared fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) of H. P....

  17. VILAS ASTEROID SPECTRA V1.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains 85 published spectra of asteroids obtained by Faith Vilas during the years 1982 - 1992. These appeared in the following papers:...

  18. Discontinuous precipitation in copper base alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. Discontinuous precipitation (DP) is associated with grain boundary migration in the wake of which alternate plates of the precipitate and the depleted matrix form. Some copper base alloys show DP while others do not. In this paper the misfit strain parameter, η, has been calculated and predicted that if.

  19. Meteorological features associated with unprecedented precipitation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unprecedented precipitation along with heavy falls occurred over many parts of India from 28th February to 2nd March 2015. Many of the stations of northwest and central India received an all time high 24 hr cumulative precipitation of March during this period. Even the national capital, New Delhi, broke all the previous ...

  20. Asphaltene precipitates in oil production wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinitz, W,; Andersen, Simon Ivar


    At the beginning of production in a southern German oil field, flow blockage was observed during file initial stage of production from the oil wells. The hindrance was caused by the precipitation of asphaltenes in the proximity of the borehole and in the tubings. The precipitates were of solid...

  1. Calcium carbonate precipitation by different bacterial strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteria are capable of performing metabolic activities which thereby promote precipitation of calcium carbonate in the form of calcite. In this study, it is shown that microbial mineral precipitation was a result of metabolic activities of some specific microorganisms. Concrete microorganisms were used to improve the overall ...

  2. Discontinuous precipitation in copper base alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Discontinuous precipitation (DP) is associated with grain boundary migration in the wake of which alternate plates of the precipitate and the depleted matrix form. Some copper base alloys show DP while others do not. In this paper the misfit strain parameter, , has been calculated and predicted that if 100 > ± 0.1, DP is ...

  3. Study of asphaltene precipitation by Calorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdier, Sylvain Charles Roland; Plantier, Frédéric; Bessières, David


    of experiments showed that weak forces determine precipitation. Indeed, isothermal titration calorimetry could not detect any clear signal although this technique can detect low-energy transitions such as liquid-liquid equilibrium and rnicellization. The second series of tests proved that precipitation caused...

  4. Precipitation variability assessment of northeast China: Songhua ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Variability in precipitation is critical for the management of water resources. In this study, the research entropy base concept was applied to investigate spatial and temporal variability of the precipitation during 1964–2013 in the Songhua River basin of Heilongjiang Province in China. Sample entropy was applied on ...

  5. Isotope fingerprinting of precipitation associated with western ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Precipitation at Jammu seems to have undergone intense evaporation while that from Uttarakhand suggest normal Rayleigh fractionation/distillation of the air mass as it moves from the source region to the precipitation site and/or orographic lifting. The d-excess of rainfall in Kashmir has a distinctly higher median value of ...

  6. Measurement of acid precipitation in Norway (United States)

    Arne Semb


    Since January 1972, chemical analysis of daily precipitation samples from about 20 background stations in Norway has been carried out on a routine basis. Air monitoring is carried out at six stations. The chemical analysis programme is: sulphate, pH and acidity in precipitation, sulphates and sulphur dioxide in air. In addition, more detailed chemical analysis of...

  7. Meteorological features associated with unprecedented precipitation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Naresh Kumar


    Jun 29, 2017 ... unprecedented precipitation event over India. It occurred due to the presence of an ... westerlies and easterlies caused unprecedented precipitation over India during the 1st week of March 2015. Keywords. Meteorological ... ies related to WDs that caused extreme weather over the Himalayan region and ...

  8. Improved peak shape fitting in alpha spectra




    Peak overlap is a recurrent issue ina lpha-particle spectrometry, not only in routine analyses but also in the high-resolution spectra from which reference values for alpha emission probabilities are derived. In this work, improved peak shape formulae are presented for the deconvolution of alpha-particle spectra. They have been implemented as fit functions in a spreadsheet application and optimum fit parameters were searched with built-in optimisation routines. Deconvolution results are shown...

  9. Quantum twin spectra in nanocrystalline silicon (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takahiro; Ohhara, Takashi; Sugimoto, Hidehiko; Bennington, Stephen M.; Ikeda, Susumu


    Using inelastic neutron-scattering spectroscopy, we have identified twin-split scattering spectra in hydrogen-terminated nanocrystalline silicon. We show that this duality originates from the cooperative motion of hydrogen and silicon. Our formalism for the inelastic neutron-scattering spectrum, which is derived from the Hermite orthogonal wave functions in terms of the normal coordinates, elucidates the physical origin of the observed quantum twin spectra and predicts the possible occurrence of this behavior in other materials such as metal hydrides.

  10. Baryon spectra with instanton induced forces


    Semay, Claude; Brau, Fabian; Silvestre-Brac, B.


    Except the vibrational excitations of $K$ and $K^*$ mesons, the main features of spectra of mesons composed of quarks $u$, $d$, and $s$ can be quite well described by a semirelativistic potential model including instanton induced forces. The spectra of baryons composed of the same quarks is studied using the same model. The results and the limitations of this approach are described. Some possible improvements are suggested.

  11. Selection and Characterization of Interesting Grism Spectra


    Meurer, G. R.


    Observations with the ACS Wide Field Camera and G800L grism can produce thousands of spectra within a single WFC field producing a potentially rich treasure trove of information. However, the data are complicated to deal with. Here we describe algorithms to find and characterize spectra of emission line galaxies and supernovae using tools we have developed in conjunction with off the shelf software.

  12. Investigation of Asphaltene Precipitation at Elevated Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Ivar; Lindeloff, Niels; Stenby, Erling Halfdan


    In order to obtain quantitative data on the asphaltene precipitation induced by the addition of n-alkane (heptane) at temperatures above the normal boiling point of the precipitant, a high temperature/high pressure filtration apparatus has been constructed. Oil and alkane are mixed at the appropr......In order to obtain quantitative data on the asphaltene precipitation induced by the addition of n-alkane (heptane) at temperatures above the normal boiling point of the precipitant, a high temperature/high pressure filtration apparatus has been constructed. Oil and alkane are mixed...... in the extracted fraction, hence there is no room for stirring. The equipment as well as solutions to some of the problems are presented along with precipitation data from 40 to 200 degrees C. The asphaltenes separated are analyzed using FT-ir. The filtrate containing the maltenes was cooled to room temperature...

  13. Identifying Broadband Rotational Spectra with Neural Networks (United States)

    Zaleski, Daniel P.; Prozument, Kirill


    A typical broadband rotational spectrum may contain several thousand observable transitions, spanning many species. Identifying the individual spectra, particularly when the dynamic range reaches 1,000:1 or even 10,000:1, can be challenging. One approach is to apply automated fitting routines. In this approach, combinations of 3 transitions can be created to form a "triple", which allows fitting of the A, B, and C rotational constants in a Watson-type Hamiltonian. On a standard desktop computer, with a target molecule of interest, a typical AUTOFIT routine takes 2-12 hours depending on the spectral density. A new approach is to utilize machine learning to train a computer to recognize the patterns (frequency spacing and relative intensities) inherit in rotational spectra and to identify the individual spectra in a raw broadband rotational spectrum. Here, recurrent neural networks have been trained to identify different types of rotational spectra and classify them accordingly. Furthermore, early results in applying convolutional neural networks for spectral object recognition in broadband rotational spectra appear promising. Perez et al. "Broadband Fourier transform rotational spectroscopy for structure determination: The water heptamer." Chem. Phys. Lett., 2013, 571, 1-15. Seifert et al. "AUTOFIT, an Automated Fitting Tool for Broadband Rotational Spectra, and Applications to 1-Hexanal." J. Mol. Spectrosc., 2015, 312, 13-21. Bishop. "Neural networks for pattern recognition." Oxford university press, 1995.

  14. Probabilistic Precipitation Estimation with a Satellite Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Y. Krakauer


    Full Text Available Satellite-based precipitation products have been shown to represent precipitation well over Nepal at monthly resolution, compared to ground-based stations. Here, we extend our analysis to the daily and subdaily timescales, which are relevant for mapping the hazards caused by storms as well as drought. We compared the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA 3B42RT product with individual stations and with the gridded APHRODITE product to evaluate its ability to retrieve different precipitation intensities. We find that 3B42RT, which is freely available in near real time, has reasonable correspondence with ground-based precipitation products on a daily timescale; rank correlation coefficients approach 0.6, almost as high as the retrospectively calibrated TMPA 3B42 product. We also find that higher-quality ground and satellite precipitation observations improve the correspondence between the two on the daily timescale, suggesting opportunities for improvement in satellite-based monitoring technology. Correlation of 3B42RT and 3B42 with station observations is lower on subdaily timescales, although the mean diurnal cycle of precipitation is roughly correct. We develop a probabilistic precipitation monitoring methodology that uses previous observations (climatology as well as 3B42RT as input to generate daily precipitation accumulation probability distributions at each 0.25° x 0.25° grid cell in Nepal and surrounding areas. We quantify the information gain associated with using 3B42RT in the probabilistic model instead of relying only on climatology and show that the quantitative precipitation estimates produced by this model are well calibrated compared to APHRODITE.

  15. Uncertainty in determining extreme precipitation thresholds (United States)

    Liu, Bingjun; Chen, Junfan; Chen, Xiaohong; Lian, Yanqing; Wu, Lili


    Extreme precipitation events are rare and occur mostly on a relatively small and local scale, which makes it difficult to set the thresholds for extreme precipitations in a large basin. Based on the long term daily precipitation data from 62 observation stations in the Pearl River Basin, this study has assessed the applicability of the non-parametric, parametric, and the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) methods in determining extreme precipitation threshold (EPT) and the certainty to EPTs from each method. Analyses from this study show the non-parametric absolute critical value method is easy to use, but unable to reflect the difference of spatial rainfall distribution. The non-parametric percentile method can account for the spatial distribution feature of precipitation, but the problem with this method is that the threshold value is sensitive to the size of rainfall data series and is subjected to the selection of a percentile thus make it difficult to determine reasonable threshold values for a large basin. The parametric method can provide the most apt description of extreme precipitations by fitting extreme precipitation distributions with probability distribution functions; however, selections of probability distribution functions, the goodness-of-fit tests, and the size of the rainfall data series can greatly affect the fitting accuracy. In contrast to the non-parametric and the parametric methods which are unable to provide information for EPTs with certainty, the DFA method although involving complicated computational processes has proven to be the most appropriate method that is able to provide a unique set of EPTs for a large basin with uneven spatio-temporal precipitation distribution. The consistency between the spatial distribution of DFA-based thresholds with the annual average precipitation, the coefficient of variation (CV), and the coefficient of skewness (CS) for the daily precipitation further proves that EPTs determined by the DFA method

  16. Enhancing metabolomic data analysis with Progressive Consensus Alignment of NMR Spectra (PCANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Connell Thomas M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is one of the primary tools in metabolomics analyses, where it is used to track and quantify changes in metabolite concentrations or profiles in response to perturbation through disease, toxicants or drugs. The spectra generated through such analyses are typically confounded by noise of various types, obscuring the signals and hindering downstream statistical analysis. Such issues are becoming increasingly significant as greater numbers of large-scale systems or longitudinal studies are being performed, in which many spectra from different conditions need to be compared simultaneously. Results We describe a novel approach, termed Progressive Consensus Alignment of Nmr Spectra (PCANS, for the alignment of NMR spectra. Through the progressive integration of many pairwise comparisons, this approach generates a single consensus spectrum as an output that is then used to adjust the chemical shift positions of the peaks from the original input spectra to their final aligned positions. We characterize the performance of PCANS by aligning simulated NMR spectra, which have been provided with user-defined amounts of chemical shift variation as well as inter-group differences as would be observed in control-treatment applications. Moreover, we demonstrate how our method provides better performance than either template-based alignment or binning. Finally, we further evaluate this approach in the alignment of real mouse urine spectra and demonstrate its ability to improve downstream PCA and PLS analyses. Conclusions By avoiding the use of a template or reference spectrum, PCANS allows for the creation of a consensus spectrum that enhances the signals within the spectra while maintaining sample-specific features. This approach is of greatest benefit when complex samples are being analyzed and where it is expected that there will be spectral features unique and/or strongly different between subgroups

  17. Database-Driven Analyses of Astronomical Spectra (United States)

    Cami, Jan


    Spectroscopy is one of the most powerful tools to study the physical properties and chemical composition of very diverse astrophysical environments. In principle, each nuclide has a unique set of spectral features; thus, establishing the presence of a specific material at astronomical distances requires no more than finding a laboratory spectrum of the right material that perfectly matches the astronomical observations. Once the presence of a substance is established, a careful analysis of the observational characteristics (wavelengths or frequencies, intensities, and line profiles) allows one to determine many physical parameters of the environment in which the substance resides, such as temperature, density, velocity, and so on. Because of this great diagnostic potential, ground-based and space-borne astronomical observatories often include instruments to carry out spectroscopic analyses of various celestial objects and events. Of particular interest is molecular spectroscopy at infrared wavelengths. From the spectroscopic point of view, molecules differ from atoms in their ability to vibrate and rotate, and quantum physics inevitably causes those motions to be quantized. The energies required to excite vibrations or rotations are such that vibrational transitions generally occur at infrared wavelengths, whereas pure rotational transitions typically occur at sub-mm wavelengths. Molecular vibration and rotation are coupled though, and thus at infrared wavelengths, one commonly observes a multitude of ro-vibrational transitions (see Figure 13.1). At lower spectral resolution, all transitions blend into one broad ro-vibrational molecular band. The isotope. Molecular spectroscopy thus allows us to see a difference of one neutron in an atomic nucleus that is located at astronomical distances! Since the detection of the first interstellar molecules (the CH [21] and CN [14] radicals), more than 150 species have been detected in space, ranging in size from diatomic

  18. The regional and diurnal variability of the vertical structure of precipitation systems in Africa, based on TRMM precipitation radar data (United States)

    Demissie, Yonas; Dejene Demissie, Teferi; D'Odorico, Paolo; Sharma, Rishi


    Five years of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 2A25 radar reflectivity profiles and derived surface rain rates are used to describe the vertical structure of precipitation systems in boreal and austral summer rainy seasons in Africa. The continent is divided into several climatologically rather homogenous regions and those regions are characterized and contrasted. To place the composite reflectivity profiles in context, they are also contrasted against TRMM 2A25 observations over the Amazon. Precipitation systems tend to be deeper and more intense in all of tropical Africa than in the Amazon, and shallow warm-rain events are less common. Storms, in all African regions, are characterized by high echo tops, high hydro-meteor loading aloft, little indication of a radar bright band maximum at the freezing level, and evidence for low-level evaporation. The diurnal modulation is regionally variable. The amplitude of the diurnal cycle of the mean echo top height decreases from the arid margins of the zenithal rain region toward the equatorial region, and is smallest in the Amazon. A secondary predawn (0000-0600 LT) maximum occurs in the Congo, in terms of rainfall frequency, rainfall intensity, and echo tops. The difference between all African regions and the Amazon, and the relatively smaller differences between regions in Africa, can be understood in terms of the climatological humidity, CAPE, and low-level shear values.

  19. A Consistent Treatment of Microwave Emissivity and Radar Backscatter for Retrieval of Precipitation over Water Surfaces (United States)

    Munchak, S. Joseph; Meneghini, Robert; Grecu, Mircea; Olson, William S.


    The Global Precipitation Measurement satellite's Microwave Imager (GMI) and Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) are designed to provide the most accurate instantaneous precipitation estimates currently available from space. The GPM Combined Algorithm (CORRA) plays a key role in this process by retrieving precipitation profiles that are consistent with GMI and DPR measurements; therefore, it is desirable that the forward models in CORRA use the same geophysical input parameters. This study explores the feasibility of using internally consistent emissivity and surface backscatter cross-sectional (sigma(sub 0)) models for water surfaces in CORRA. An empirical model for DPR Ku and Ka sigma(sub 0) as a function of 10m wind speed and incidence angle is derived from GMI-only wind retrievals under clear-sky conditions. This allows for the sigma(sub 0) measurements, which are also influenced by path-integrated attenuation (PIA) from precipitation, to be used as input to CORRA and for wind speed to be retrieved as output. Comparisons to buoy data give a wind rmse of 3.7 m/s for Ku+GMI and 3.2 m/s for Ku+Ka+GMI retrievals under precipitation (compared to 1.3 m/s for clear-sky GMI-only), and there is a reduction in bias from GANAL background data (-10%) to the Ku+GMI (-3%) and Ku+Ka+GMI (-5%) retrievals. Ku+GMI retrievals of precipitation increase slightly in light (less than 1 mm/h) and decrease in moderate to heavy precipitation (greater than 1 mm/h). The Ku+Ka+GMI retrievals, being additionally constrained by the Ka reflectivity, increase only slightly in moderate and heavy precipitation at low wind speeds (less than 5 m/s) relative to retrievals using the surface reference estimate of PIA as input.

  20. Precipitation isoscapes for New Zealand: enhanced temporal detail using precipitation-weighted daily climatology. (United States)

    Baisden, W Troy; Keller, Elizabeth D; Van Hale, Robert; Frew, Russell D; Wassenaar, Leonard I


    Predictive understanding of precipitation δ(2)H and δ(18)O in New Zealand faces unique challenges, including high spatial variability in precipitation amounts, alternation between subtropical and sub-Antarctic precipitation sources, and a compressed latitudinal range of 34 to 47 °S. To map the precipitation isotope ratios across New Zealand, three years of integrated monthly precipitation samples were acquired from >50 stations. Conventional mean-annual precipitation δ(2)H and δ(18)O maps were produced by regressions using geographic and annual climate variables. Incomplete data and short-term variation in climate and precipitation sources limited the utility of this approach. We overcome these difficulties by calculating precipitation-weighted monthly climate parameters using national 5-km-gridded daily climate data. This data plus geographic variables were regressed to predict δ(2)H, δ(18)O, and d-excess at all sites. The procedure yields statistically-valid predictions of the isotope composition of precipitation (long-term average root mean square error (RMSE) for δ(18)O = 0.6 ‰; δ(2)H = 5.5 ‰); and monthly RMSE δ(18)O = 1.9 ‰, δ(2)H = 16 ‰. This approach has substantial benefits for studies that require the isotope composition of precipitation during specific time intervals, and may be further improved by comparison to daily and event-based precipitation samples as well as the use of back-trajectory calculations.

  1. Precipitation Intensity and Events Distribution Changes in the Extratropics (United States)

    Knight, R.; Groisman, P. Y.; Zolina, O. G.; Bulygina, O.


    More than ten years ago, Groisman et al. (1999) first reported large-scale changes in spectra of precipitation distribution intensity. At the tails of this distribution the frequencies in heavy and very heavy precipitation events have increased over many parts of the extratropics. These increases were disproportionally high in the regions where the precipitation totals increased and were observed even in the regions where the mean rainfall remained unchanged or decreased. Thereafter, this peculiarity of the contemporary precipitation distribution change was substantiated in many regional studies summarized by Groisman and Knight (2013) and will be reported in our presentation. Increases in the frequency of very heavy and extreme precipitation events (with return period of several years and decades respectively) are important for impact studies (assessment of soil erosion, potential of flood) but these events represent a small fraction in annual rainfall totals. Therefore, we analyzed the changes in the mean daily rainfall intensity over the northern extratropics in the regions well elucidated with dense gauge networks (southern Canada, contiguous U.S., Europe, Russia, and Japan). Nearly everywhere, we found systematic increases in daily rainfall totals per day with rain. While increases in very heavy and extreme rainfall intensity are an independent characteristic of the ongoing climatic change, the observed changes in mean precipitation intensity are in line with the ongoing global and regional warming. Duration of the sequences of wet days (prolonged rain events) increased in Europe and Northern Asia, and the duration of the sequences of dry days (prolonged no-rain events) increased over large parts of Northern Eurasia and North America (Zolina et al. 2010; Groisman and Knight 2007; 2013). To describe this feature of the rain events distribution, Zolina et al. (2012) suggested a visual interpretation of wet days as beads on the necklace of the seasonal cycle time

  2. Parameterizing Stellar Spectra Using Deep Neural Networks (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Ru; Pan, Ru-Yang; Duan, Fu-Qing


    Large-scale sky surveys are observing massive amounts of stellar spectra. The large number of stellar spectra makes it necessary to automatically parameterize spectral data, which in turn helps in statistically exploring properties related to the atmospheric parameters. This work focuses on designing an automatic scheme to estimate effective temperature ({T}{eff}), surface gravity ({log}g) and metallicity [Fe/H] from stellar spectra. A scheme based on three deep neural networks (DNNs) is proposed. This scheme consists of the following three procedures: first, the configuration of a DNN is initialized using a series of autoencoder neural networks; second, the DNN is fine-tuned using a gradient descent scheme; third, three atmospheric parameters {T}{eff}, {log}g and [Fe/H] are estimated using the computed DNNs. The constructed DNN is a neural network with six layers (one input layer, one output layer and four hidden layers), for which the number of nodes in the six layers are 3821, 1000, 500, 100, 30 and 1, respectively. This proposed scheme was tested on both real spectra and theoretical spectra from Kurucz’s new opacity distribution function models. Test errors are measured with mean absolute errors (MAEs). The errors on real spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) are 0.1477, 0.0048 and 0.1129 dex for {log}g, {log}{T}{eff} and [Fe/H] (64.85 K for {T}{eff}), respectively. Regarding theoretical spectra from Kurucz’s new opacity distribution function models, the MAE of the test errors are 0.0182, 0.0011 and 0.0112 dex for {log}g, {log}{T}{eff} and [Fe/H] (14.90 K for {T}{eff}), respectively.

  3. Strong increase in convective precipitation in response to higher temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, P.; Moseley, C.; Härter, Jan Olaf Mirko


    and stratiform precipitation events by cloud observations. We find that for stratiform precipitation, extremes increase with temperature at approximately the Clausius-Clapeyron rate, without characteristic scales. In contrast, convective precipitation exhibits characteristic spatial and temporal scales, and its...... intensity in response to warming exceeds the Clausius-Clapeyron rate. We conclude that convective precipitation responds much more sensitively to temperature increases than stratiform precipitation, and increasingly dominates events of extreme precipitation.......Precipitation changes can affect society more directly than variations in most other meteorological observables, but precipitation is difficult to characterize because of fluctuations on nearly all temporal and spatial scales. In addition, the intensity of extreme precipitation rises markedly...

  4. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Project (United States)

    Azarbarzin, Ardeshir; Carlisle, Candace


    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GP!v1) mission is an international cooperative effort to advance the understanding of the physics of the Earth's water and energy cycle. Accurate and timely knowledge of global precipitation is essential for understanding the weather/climate/ecological system, for improving our ability to manage freshwater resources, and for predicting high-impact natural hazard events including floods, droughts, extreme weather events, and landslides. The GPM Core Observatory will be a reference standard to uniformly calibrate data from a constellation of spacecraft with passive microwave sensors. GPM is being developed under a partnership between the United States (US) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Japanese Aerospace and Exploration Agency (JAXA). NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), in Greenbelt, MD is developing the Core Observatory, two GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) instruments, Ground Validation System and Precipitation Processing System for the GPM mission. JAXA will provide a Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) for installation on the Core satellite and launch services for the Core Observatory. The second GMI instrument will be flown on a partner-provided spacecraft. Other US agencies and international partners contribute to the GPM mission by providing precipitation measurements obtained from their own spacecraft and/or providing ground-based precipitation measurements to support ground validation activities. The Precipitation Processing System will provide standard data products for the mission.

  5. Precipitation Climatology on Titan-like Exomoons. (United States)

    Tokano, Tetsuya


    The availability of liquid water on the surface on Earth's continents in part relies on the precipitation of water. This implies that the habitability of exomoons has to consider not only the surface temperature and atmospheric pressure for the presence of liquid water, but also the global precipitation climatology. This study explores the sensitivity of the precipitation climatology of Titan-like exomoons to these moons' orbital configuration using a global climate model. The precipitation rate primarily depends on latitude and is sensitive to the planet's obliquity and the moon's rotation rate. On slowly rotating moons the precipitation shifts to higher latitudes as obliquity is increased, whereas on quickly rotating moons the latitudinal distribution does not strongly depend on obliquity. Stellar eclipse can cause a longitudinal variation in the mean surface temperature and surface pressure between the subplanetary and antiplanetary side if the planet's obliquity and the moon's orbital distance are small. In this particular condition the antiplanetary side generally receives more precipitation than the subplanetary side. However, precipitation on exomoons with dense atmospheres generally occurs at any longitude in contrast to tidally locked exoplanets.

  6. A substorm in midnight auroral precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Vorobjev


    Full Text Available DMSP F7 spacecraft observations for the whole of 1986 were used to construct the empirical model of the midnight auroral precipitation during a substorm. The model includes the dynamics of different auroral precipitation boundaries and simultaneous changes in average electron precipitation energy and energy flux in different precipitation regions during all substorm phases, as well as the IMF and solar wind plasma signatures during a substorm. The analysis of the model shows a few important features of precipitation. (1 During the magnetic quietness and just before the beginning of the substorm expansive phase the latitudinal width of the auroral precipitation in the nightside sector is about 5 – 6° CGL, while that of the auroral oval is about 2 – 3° CGL during such periods. (2 For about 5 min before the substorm onset a decrease in the average precipitating electron energy in the equatorward part of auroral zone was observed simultaneously, with an increase in both the average electron energy and energy flux of electron precipitation in the poleward part of the auroral zone. (3 The isotropy boundary position in the beginning of the substorm expansive phase coincides well with the inner edge of the central plasma sheet. The analysis of interplanetary medium parameters shows that, on average, during the substorm development, the solar wind dynamic pressure was about 1.5 times that of the magnetic quietness period. Substorms occurred predominantly during the southward IMF orientation, suggesting that substorm onset often was not associated with the northern turn or decrease in the southward interplanetary Bz . The Northern Hemisphere’s substorms occurred generally during the positive interplanetary By in winter, and they were observed when the interplanetary By was negative in summer.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; particle precipitation – Magnetospheric physics (storm and substorm; magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction

  7. Note: A modified optics based technique for suppressing spurious signals in photoreflectance spectra (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Wang, Xing-Jun


    A modified optics based technique was developed to effectively suppress spurious background signals encountered in the photoreflectance (PR) spectra obtained from bulk semiconductors and semiconductor microstructures. Based on a traditional PR setup, the novel PR approach utilized an achromatic beam reduction system to narrow the profile of a probe beam, which was subsequently collected by a focus lens coupled with an iris. The new setup guarantees high collection efficiency for probe signals and strong suppression of background signals. Compared with existing PR methods for background minimization, the proposed PR technique is simpler to accomplish, more cost effective, and provides a higher signal-to-noise ratio for the PR spectra.

  8. KOALA: A program for the processing and decomposition of transient spectra (United States)

    Grubb, Michael P.; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J.; Ashfold, Michael N. R.


    Extracting meaningful kinetic traces from time-resolved absorption spectra is a non-trivial task, particularly for solution phase spectra where solvent interactions can substantially broaden and shift the transition frequencies. Typically, each spectrum is composed of signal from a number of molecular species (e.g., excited states, intermediate complexes, product species) with overlapping spectral features. Additionally, the profiles of these spectral features may evolve in time (i.e., signal nonlinearity), further complicating the decomposition process. Here, we present a new program for decomposing mixed transient spectra into their individual component spectra and extracting the corresponding kinetic traces: KOALA (Kinetics Observed After Light Absorption). The software combines spectral target analysis with brute-force linear least squares fitting, which is computationally efficient because of the small nonlinear parameter space of most spectral features. Within, we demonstrate the application of KOALA to two sets of experimental transient absorption spectra with multiple mixed spectral components. Although designed for decomposing solution-phase transient absorption data, KOALA may in principle be applied to any time-evolving spectra with multiple components.

  9. Background noise spectra of global seismic stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, M.M.; Claassen, J.P.


    Over an extended period of time station noise spectra were collected from various sources for use in estimating the detection and location performance of global networks of seismic stations. As the database of noise spectra enlarged and duplicate entries became available, an effort was mounted to more carefully select station noise spectra while discarding others. This report discusses the methodology and criteria by which the noise spectra were selected. It also identifies and illustrates the station noise spectra which survived the selection process and which currently contribute to the modeling efforts. The resulting catalog of noise statistics not only benefits those who model network performance but also those who wish to select stations on the basis of their noise level as may occur in designing networks or in selecting seismological data for analysis on the basis of station noise level. In view of the various ways by which station noise were estimated by the different contributors, it is advisable that future efforts which predict network performance have available station noise data and spectral estimation methods which are compatible with the statistics underlying seismic noise. This appropriately requires (1) averaging noise over seasonal and/or diurnal cycles, (2) averaging noise over time intervals comparable to those employed by actual detectors, and (3) using logarithmic measures of the noise.

  10. Cloud supersaturations from CCN spectra Hoppel minima (United States)

    Hudson, James G.; Noble, Stephen; Tabor, Samantha


    High-resolution cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) spectral measurements in two aircraft field projects, Marine Stratus/Stratocumulus Experiment (MASE) and Ice in Clouds Experiment-Tropical (ICE-T), often showed bimodality that had previously been observed in submicrometer aerosol size distributions obtained by differential mobility analyzers. However, a great deal of spectral shape variability from very bimodal to very monomodal was observed in close proximity. Cloud supersaturation (S) estimates based on critical S, Sc, at minimal CCN concentrations between two modes (Hoppel minima) were ascertained for 63% of 325 measured spectra. These cloud S were lower than effective S (Seff) determined by comparing ambient CCN spectra with nearby cloud droplet concentrations (Nc). Averages for the polluted MASE stratus were 0.15 and 0.23% and for the cumulus clouds of ICE-T 0.44 and 1.03%. This cloud S disagreement between the two methods might in part be due to the fact that Hoppel minima include the effects of cloud processing, which push CCN spectra toward lower S. Furthermore, there is less cloud processing by the smaller cloud droplets, which might be related to smaller droplets evaporating more readily. Significantly lower concentrations within the more bimodal spectra compared with the monomodal spectra indicated active physical processes: Brownian capture of interstitial CCN and droplet coalescence. Chemical cloud processing also contributed to bimodality, especially in MASE.

  11. Artificial intelligence analysis of paraspinal power spectra. (United States)

    Oliver, C W; Atsma, W J


    OBJECTIVE: As an aid to discrimination of sufferers with back pain an artificial intelligence neural network was constructed to differentiate paraspinal power spectra. DESIGN: Clinical investigation using surface electromyography. METHOD: The surface electromyogram power spectra from 60 subjects, 33 non-back-pain sufferers and 27 chronic back pain sufferers were used to construct a back propagation neural network that was then tested. Subjects were placed on a test frame in 30 degrees of lumbar forward flexion. An isometric load of two-thirds maximum voluntary contraction was held constant for 30 s whilst surface electromyograms were recorded at the level of the L(4-5). Paraspinal power spectra were calculated and loaded into the input layer of a three-layer back propagation network. The neural network classified the spectra into normal or back pain type. RESULTS: The back propagation neural was shown to have satisfactory convergence with a specificity of 79% and a sensitivity of 80%. CONCLUSIONS: Artificial intelligence neural networks appear to be a useful method of differentiating paraspinal power spectra in back-pain sufferers.

  12. Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars. (United States)

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Meadows, Victoria S; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Snively, Heather


    The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and European Space Agency's Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earthsized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of a Mars-like planet to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra. We explore the detectability as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPFC) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model. This model uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions and viewing geometries. The model was validated against spectra recorded by the Mars Global Surveyor-Thermal Emission Spectrometer and the Mariner 9-Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer. Results presented here include disk-averaged synthetic spectra, light curves, and the spectral variability at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, and season. We also considered the differences in the spectral appearance of an increasingly ice-covered Mars, as a function of spectral resolution, signal-to-noise and integration time for both TPF-C and TPFI/ Darwin.

  13. Chilean coastal orographic precipitation experiment: A tale of two rain regimes (United States)

    Massmann, Adam K.

    The Chilean Coastal Orographic Precipitation Experiment Pilot Project (CCOPE-2015) was an exploratory field campaign to better understand the mechanisms of orographic precipitation enhancement in the Nahuelbuta Mountains of Southern Chile (38 deg. S.). Observations collected include: (1) surface rainfall from a network of 10 data logging rain gauges, (2) vertical precipitation profiles from a pair of K-band Micro Rain Radars, (3) rain drop size distributions from an optical disdrometer, (4) upstream wind and thermodynamic profiles from radiosonde launches, and (5) aerosol number concentration and size distribution measurements from a condensation particle counter and an ultra-high sensitivity aerosol spectrometer. An overview of observations collected during CCOPE-2015 is presented. The character of precipitation over the Nahuelbuta is contrasted between periods of ice-initiated and warm rain. Thirty-four percent of rainfall fell during warm rain periods, while fifty-two percent of rainfall fell during ice-initiated periods. Warm rain drop size distributions are characterized by many more and relatively smaller drops than ice-initiated drop size distributions. Both the portion and properties of ice-initiated and warm rainfall compare favorably with observations of coastal mountain rainfall at a similar latitude in California. Observations suggest that enhancement is stronger during warm rain periods, but uncertainty precludes declarations of significance. Additionally, the skill of satellite-based quantitative precipitation estimation is assessed for each rain regime. A cutting-edge NASA Global Precipitation Measurement mission algorithm severely underestimates orographic enhancement of precipitation in the Nahuelbuta mountains, but performs better in the lee and upwind of the mountains. Much of the error in estimating orographic rain is during warm rain periods, while performance is much improved during ice-initiated rain periods.

  14. Biophysical Profile (United States)

    ... and pregnancy High-risk pregnancy Biophysical profile About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  15. Global Precipitation Estimates from Cross-Track Passive Microwave Observations Using a Physically-Based Retrieval Scheme (United States)

    Kidd, Chris; Matsui, Toshi; Chern, Jiundar; Mohr, Karen; Kummerow, Christian; Randel, Dave


    The estimation of precipitation across the globe from satellite sensors provides a key resource in the observation and understanding of our climate system. Estimates from all pertinent satellite observations are critical in providing the necessary temporal sampling. However, consistency in these estimates from instruments with different frequencies and resolutions is critical. This paper details the physically based retrieval scheme to estimate precipitation from cross-track (XT) passive microwave (PM) sensors on board the constellation satellites of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission. Here the Goddard profiling algorithm (GPROF), a physically based Bayesian scheme developed for conically scanning (CS) sensors, is adapted for use with XT PM sensors. The present XT GPROF scheme utilizes a model-generated database to overcome issues encountered with an observational database as used by the CS scheme. The model database ensures greater consistency across meteorological regimes and surface types by providing a more comprehensive set of precipitation profiles. The database is corrected for bias against the CS database to ensure consistency in the final product. Statistical comparisons over western Europe and the United States show that the XT GPROF estimates are comparable with those from the CS scheme. Indeed, the XT estimates have higher correlations against surface radar data, while maintaining similar root-mean-square errors. Latitudinal profiles of precipitation show the XT estimates are generally comparable with the CS estimates, although in the southern midlatitudes the peak precipitation is shifted equatorward while over the Arctic large differences are seen between the XT and the CS retrievals.

  16. Profiling cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciro, Marco; Bracken, Adrian P; Helin, Kristian


    In the past couple of years, several very exciting studies have demonstrated the enormous power of gene-expression profiling for cancer classification and prediction of patient survival. In addition to promising a more accurate classification of cancer and therefore better treatment of patients......, gene-expression profiling can result in the identification of novel potential targets for cancer therapy and a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cancer....

  17. Characterizing Transiting Planets with JWST Spectra: Simulations and Retrievals (United States)

    Greene, Tom; Line, Michael; Fortney, Jonathan


    There are now well over a thousand confirmed exoplanets, ranging from hot to cold and large to small worlds. JWST spectra will provide much more detailed information on the molecular constituents, chemical compositions, and thermal properties of the atmospheres of transiting planets than is now known. We explore this by modeling clear, cloudy,and high mean molecular weight atmospheres of typical hot Jupiter, warm Neptune, warm sub-Neptune, and cool super-Earth planets and then simulating their JWST transmission and emission spectra. These simulations were performed for several JWST instrument modes over 1 - 11 microns and incorporate realistic signal and noise components. We then performed state-of the art retrievals to determine how well temperatures and abundances (CO, CO2, H2O, NH3) will be constrained and over what pressures for these different planet types. Using these results, we appraise what instrument modes will be most useful for determining what properties of the different planets, and we assess how well we can constrain their compositions, CO ratios, and temperature profiles.

  18. Opacity spectra of silicon and carbon in ICF plasmas (United States)

    Benredjem, D.; Calisti, A.; Ferri, S.; Gilleron, F.; Mondet, G.; Pain, J.-C.


    The knowledge of opacity is very important when one investigates the radiative properties of ICF and astrophysical plasmas. Germanium and silicon are good candidates as dopants in the ablator of some ICF schemes (LMJ in France, NIF at Livermore). In this work we calculate the opacity spectra of silicon and carbon mixtures. Two competitive methods were used. The first one is based on a detailed line calculation in which the atomic database is provided by the MCDF code. A lineshape code based on a fast algorithm was then adapted to the calculation of opacity profiles. All major line broadening mechanisms, including Zeeman splitting and Stark effect, are taken into account. This approach provides accurate opacity spectra but becomes rapidly prohibitive when the number of lines is large. To account for systems involving many ionic stages and thousands of lines, a second approach combines detailed line calculations and statistical calculations. This approach necessitates much smaller calculation times than the first one and is then more appropriate for extensive calculations. The monochromatic opacity and the Rosseland and Planck mean opacities are calculated for relevant densities and temperatures.

  19. Evaluation of precipitation trends from high-resolution satellite precipitation products over Mainland China (United States)

    Chen, Fengrui; Gao, Yongqi


    Many studies have reported the excellent ability of high-resolution satellite precipitation products (0.25° or finer) to capture the spatial distribution of precipitation. However, it is not known whether the precipitation trends derived from them are reliable. For the first time, we have evaluated the annual and seasonal precipitation trends from two typical sources of high-resolution satellite-gauge products, TRMM 3B43 and PERSIANN-CDR, using rain gauge observations over China, and they were also compared with those from gauge-only products (0.25° and 0.5° precipitation products, hereafter called CN25 and CN50). The evaluation focused mainly on the magnitude, significance, sign, and relative order of the precipitation trends, and was conducted at gridded and regional scales. The following results were obtained: (1) at the gridded scale, neither satellite-gauge products precisely measure the magnitude of precipitation trends but they do reproduce their sign and relative order; regarding capturing the significance of trends, they exhibit relatively acceptable performance only over regions with a sufficient amount of significant precipitation trends; (2) at the regional scale, both satellite-gauge products generally provide reliable precipitation trends, although they do not reproduce the magnitude of trends in winter precipitation; and (3) overall, CN50 and TRMM 3B43 outperform others in reproducing all four aspects of the precipitation trends. Compared with CN25, PERSIANN-CDR performs better in determining the magnitude of precipitation trends but marginally worse in reproducing their sign and relative order; moreover, both of them are at a level in capturing the significance of precipitation trends.

  20. The impacts of precipitation on land- atmosphere interaction over the semi-arid Loess Plateau region (United States)

    WANG, G.; Huang, J.


    To understand the impacts of precipitation on land-atmosphere interactions over semi-arid regions, 6-year continuous measurements data in situ were analyzed to investigate the influence of precipitation on soil moisture, evapotranspiration, energy partitioning and plant growing over Loess Plateau in northwest China. Results show that annual precipitation had obvious inter-annual variability, and the variation of soil moisture; evaporation and CO2 flux were very consistently with the annual cycle and intensity of precipitation. Soil moisture is the key participant in land-atmosphere interaction. However, as the water shortage and disconnected from water table over the semi-arid region, it is much more sensitive with precipitation compensation and evaporation feedbacks. Soil water can cooling the near surface air temperature by evaporation (latent heat flux), and also as the main energy partitioning consumer of net radiation in humid area or pluvial period in arid area, yet it was water limited in arid and semi-arid region, sensible heat flux predominated net radiation for enhancing the surface air temperature. We also found that soil moisture profile significantly affected the plant physiology, which was also consistent with the annual cycle and intensity of precipitation.

  1. Power spectra of the angular fractals (United States)

    Zhong, Xihua; Zhu, Yafen; Zhou, Yueming


    Based on the angular backbone taken from the triangular Sierpinski gasket, several seLf-similar structures are disigned, corresponding diffraction screens are made, and the Fraunhofer patterns as power spectra of them are given. Based upon a viewpoint of generative production and by means of the ui-branched displacement operation, we have found the recurrence formulae of spectral structure factor for these angular fractals. As a example, the recurrence formulae of power spectra for a coherent point group is given, corresponding a series of curves as well as an isogram are plotted. The analysis of result shows that the power spectra of this fractal point group has a rotation symmetry and a mirror symmetry, and appears a period doubling phenomenon which follows the process of generative production.

  2. Tunneling spectra of graphene on copper unraveled

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xin; Stradi, Daniele; Liu, Lei


    mechanisms, etc. The interpretation of the spectra can be complicated, however. Specifically for graphene grown on copper, there have been conflicting reports of tunneling spectra. A clear understanding of the mechanisms behind the variability is desired. In this work, we have revealed that the root cause...... of the variability in tunneling spectra is the variation in graphene-substrate coupling under various experimental conditions, providing a salutary perspective on the important role of 2D material-substrate interactions. The conclusions are drawn from measured data and theoretical calculations for monolayer, AB......-stacked bilayer, and twisted bilayer graphene coexisting on the same substrates in areas with and without intercalated oxygen, demonstrating a high degree of consistency. The Van Hove singularities of the twisted graphene unambiguously indicate the Dirac energy between them, lending strong evidence to our...


    Faris, B.F.


    This patent relates to an improvement in the bismuth phosphate process for separating and recovering plutonium from neutron irradiated uranium, resulting in improved decontamination even without the use of scavenging precipitates in the by-product precipitation step and subsequently more complete recovery of the plutonium in the product precipitation step. This improvement is achieved by addition of fluomolybdic acid, or a water soluble fluomolybdate, such as the ammonium, sodium, or potassium salt thereof, to the aqueous nitric acid solution containing tetravalent plutonium ions and contaminating fission products, so as to establish a fluomolybdate ion concentration of about 0.05 M. The solution is then treated to form the bismuth phosphate plutonium carrying precipitate.

  4. U.S. Hourly Precipitation Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly Precipitation Data (HPD) is digital data set DSI-3240, archived at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). The primary source of data for this file is...

  5. Precipitation Reconstruction over Land (PREC/L) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The monthly data set consists files of 3 resolutions of monthly averaged precipitation totals. The global analyses are defined by interpolation of gauge observations...

  6. U.S. Hourly Precipitation Data Publication (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This publication contains hourly precipitation amounts obtained from recording rain gages located at National Weather Service, Federal Aviation Administration, and...

  7. Average Annual Precipitation (PRISM model) 1961 - 1990 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows polygons of average annual precipitation in the contiguous United States, for the climatological period 1961-1990. Parameter-elevation...

  8. VT Mean Winter Precipitation - 1971-2000 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) ClimatePrecip_PRECIPW7100 includes mean winter precipitation data (October through March) for Vermont (1971-2000). It's a raster dataset derived...

  9. Monitoring by Control Technique - Electrostatic Precipitators (United States)

    Stationary source emissions monitoring is required to demonstrate that a source is meeting the requirements in Federal or state rules. This page is about electrostatic precipitator control techniques used to reduce pollutant emissions.

  10. Identifying external influences on global precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvel, K.; Bonfils, C.


    Changes in global (ocean and land) precipitation are among the most important and least well-understood consequences of climate change. Increasing greenhouse gas concentrations are thought to affect the zonal-mean distribution of precipitation through two basic mechanisms. First, increasing temperatures will lead to an intensification of the hydrological cycle (“thermodynamic” changes). Second, changes in atmospheric circulation patterns will lead to poleward displacement of the storm tracks and subtropical dry zones and to a widening of the tropical belt (“dynamic” changes). We demonstrate that both these changes are occurring simultaneously in global precipitation, that this behavior cannot be explained by internal variability alone, and that external influences are responsible for the observed precipitation changes. Whereas existing model experiments are not of sufficient length to differentiate between natural and anthropogenic forcing terms at the 95% confidence level, we present evidence that the observed trends result from human activities.

  11. NESDIS Blended Total Precipitable Water (TPW) Products (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The blended Total Precipitable Water (TPW) product is derived from multiple sensors/satellites. The Percentage of TPW normal (PCT), or TPW anomaly, shows the...

  12. VT Mean Annual Precipitation - 1971-2000 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) ClimatePrecip_PRECIPA7100 includes mean annual precipitation data (in inches) for Vermont (1971-2000). It's a raster dataset derived from...

  13. BETA SPECTRA. I. Negatrons spectra; ESPECTROS BETA. I. Espectros simples de negatrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Malonda, A.; Garcia-Torano, E.


    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 62 negatrons emitters have been computed introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. These spectra are plotted vs. energy, once normal i sed, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (Author)

  14. Determining the spectra of radiation belt electron losses: Fitting DEMETER electron flux observations for typical and storm times


    Whittaker, Ian C.; Gamble, Rory J.; Rodger, Craig J.; Clilverd, Mark A.; Sauvaud, Jean-André


    The energy spectra of energetic electron precipitation from the radiation belts are studied in order to improve our understanding of the influence of radiation belt processes. The Detection of Electromagnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions (DEMETER) microsatellite electron flux instrument is comparatively unusual in that it has very high energy resolution (128 channels with 17.9 keV widths in normal survey mode), which lends itself to this type of spectral analysis. Here electr...

  15. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Global Precipitation Time Series (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The global precipitation time series provides time series charts showing observations of daily precipitation as well as accumulated precipitation compared to normal...

  16. Monitoring of Calcite Precipitation in Hardwater Lakes with Multi-Spectral Remote Sensing Archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Heine


    Full Text Available Calcite precipitation is a common phenomenon in calcium-rich hardwater lakes during spring and summer, but the number and spatial distribution of lakes with calcite precipitation is unknown. This paper presents a remote sensing based method to observe calcite precipitation over large areas, which are an important prerequisite for a systematic monitoring and evaluation of restoration measurements. We use globally archived satellite remote sensing data for a retrospective systematic assessment of past multi-temporal calcite precipitation events. The database of this study consists of 205 data sets that comprise freely available Landsat and Sentinel 2 data acquired between 1998 and 2015 covering the Northeast German Plain. Calcite precipitation is automatically identified using the green spectra and the metric BGR area, the triangular area between the blue, green and red reflectance value. The validation is based on field measurements of CaCO3 concentrations at three selected lakes, Feldberger Haussee, Breiter Luzin and Schmaler Luzin. The classification accuracy (0.88 is highest for calcite concentrations ≥0.7 mg/L. False negative results are caused by the choice of a conservative classification threshold. False positive results can be explained by already increased calcite concentrations. We successfully transferred the developed method to 21 other hardwater lakes in Northeast Germany. The average duration of lakes with regular calcite precipitation is 37 days. The frequency of calcite precipitation reaches from single time detections up to detections nearly every year. False negative classification results and gaps in Landsat time series reduce the accuracy of frequency and duration monitoring, but in future the image density will increase by acquisitions of Sentinel-2a (and 2b. Our study tested successfully the transfer of the classification approach to Sentinel-2 images. Our study shows that 15 of the 24 lakes have at least one phase of

  17. Statistical distribution of EMIC wave spectra: Observations from Van Allen Probes (United States)

    Zhang, X.-J.; Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.; Angelopoulos, V.; Bortnik, J.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.


    It has been known that electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves can precipitate ultrarelativistic electrons through cyclotron resonant scattering. However, the overall effectiveness of this mechanism has yet to be quantified, because it is difficult to obtain the global distribution of EMIC waves that usually exhibit limited spatial presence. We construct a statistical distribution of EMIC wave frequency spectra and their intensities based on Van Allen Probes measurements from September 2012 to December 2015. Our results show that as the ratio of plasma frequency over electron gyrofrequency increases, EMIC wave power becomes progressively dominated by the helium band. There is a pronounced dawn-dusk asymmetry in the wave amplitude and the frequency spectrum. The frequency spectrum does not follow the commonly used single-peak Gaussian function. Incorporating these realistic EMIC wave frequency spectra into radiation belt models is expected to improve the quantification of EMIC wave scattering effects in ultrarelativistic electron dynamics.

  18. Aspects of precipitation in alloy Inconel 718


    Azadian, Saied


    A study was made of the microstructure of the Ni-base alloy Inconel 718 with emphasis on the precipitation and stability of intermetallic phases as affected by heat treatments. In addition the effect of the precipitation on selected mechanical properties namely hardness, creep notch sensitivity and hot ductlity were investigated. The materials studied were a spray-formed version and three wrought versions of the alloy. The spray-formed version of the alloy was of interest since it exhibited a...

  19. Histochemical analysis of bandage contact lens precipitates. (United States)

    Nessim, Maged; Pandey, Suresh K; Werner, Liliana; Mohammed, Musadiq; Kumar, Vinod


    Contact lens deposits have been reported previously with extended wear of soft contact lenses, with proteins, lipids, mucous, and various salts such as chloride, potassium and calcium being deposited on the lens surface [1]. We report an unusual case of precipitates on the surface of a bandage contact lens (BCL) following intensive treatment with topical preservative free artificial tears. Evaluation included microscopic and histochemical analysis of the BCL. We have also reviewed the literature for previous reports of contact lens precipitates.

  20. Precipitation Nowcast using Deep Recurrent Neural Network (United States)

    Akbari Asanjan, A.; Yang, T.; Gao, X.; Hsu, K. L.; Sorooshian, S.


    An accurate precipitation nowcast (0-6 hours) with a fine temporal and spatial resolution has always been an important prerequisite for flood warning, streamflow prediction and risk management. Most of the popular approaches used for forecasting precipitation can be categorized into two groups. One type of precipitation forecast relies on numerical modeling of the physical dynamics of atmosphere and another is based on empirical and statistical regression models derived by local hydrologists or meteorologists. Given the recent advances in artificial intelligence, in this study a powerful Deep Recurrent Neural Network, termed as Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) model, is creatively used to extract the patterns and forecast the spatial and temporal variability of Cloud Top Brightness Temperature (CTBT) observed from GOES satellite. Then, a 0-6 hours precipitation nowcast is produced using a Precipitation Estimation from Remote Sensing Information using Artificial Neural Network (PERSIANN) algorithm, in which the CTBT nowcast is used as the PERSIANN algorithm's raw inputs. Two case studies over the continental U.S. have been conducted that demonstrate the improvement of proposed approach as compared to a classical Feed Forward Neural Network and a couple simple regression models. The advantages and disadvantages of the proposed method are summarized with regard to its capability of pattern recognition through time, handling of vanishing gradient during model learning, and working with sparse data. The studies show that the LSTM model performs better than other methods, and it is able to learn the temporal evolution of the precipitation events through over 1000 time lags. The uniqueness of PERSIANN's algorithm enables an alternative precipitation nowcast approach as demonstrated in this study, in which the CTBT prediction is produced and used as the inputs for generating precipitation nowcast.

  1. Scaling behaviors of precipitation over China (United States)

    Jiang, Lei; Li, Nana; Zhao, Xia


    Scaling behaviors in the precipitation time series derived from 1951 to 2009 over China are investigated by detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method. The results show that there exists long-term memory for the precipitation time series in some stations, where the values of the scaling exponent α are less than 0.62, implying weak persistence characteristics. The values of scaling exponent in other stations indicate random behaviors. In addition, the scaling exponent α in precipitation records varies from station to station over China. A numerical test is made to verify the significance in DFA exponents by shuffling the data records many times. We think it is significant when the values of scaling exponent before shuffled precipitation records are larger than the interval threshold for 95 % confidence level after shuffling precipitation records many times. By comparison, the daily precipitation records exhibit weak positively long-range correlation in a power law fashion mainly at the stations taking on zonal distributions in south China, upper and middle reaches of the Yellow River, northern part of northeast China. This may be related to the subtropical high. Furthermore, the values of scaling exponent which cannot pass the significance test do not show a clear distribution pattern. It seems that the stations are mainly distributed in coastal areas, southwest China, and southern part of north China. In fact, many complicated factors may affect the scaling behaviors of precipitation such as the system of the east and south Asian monsoon, the interaction between sea and land, and the big landform of the Tibetan Plateau. These results may provide a better prerequisite to long-term predictor of precipitation time series for different regions over China.

  2. A multiscale approach for precipitation verification applied to the FORALPS case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lanciani


    Full Text Available Multiscale methods, such as the power spectrum, are suitable diagnostic tools for studying the second order statistics of a gridded field. For instance, in the case of Numerical Weather Prediction models, a drop in the power spectrum for a given scale indicates the inability of the model to reproduce the variance of the phenomenon below the correspondent spatial scale. Hence, these statistics provide an insight into the real resolution of a gridded field and must be accurately known for interpolation and downscaling purposes. In this work, belonging to the EU INTERREG IIIB Alpine Space FORALPS project, the power spectra of the precipitation fields for two intense rain events, which occurred over the north-eastern alpine region, have been studied in detail. A drop in the power spectrum at the shortest scales (about 30 km has been found, as well as a strong matching between the precipitation spectrum and the spectrum of the orography. Furthermore, it has also been shown how the spectra help understand the behavior of the skill scores traditionally used in Quantitative Precipitation Forecast verification, as these are sensitive to the amount of small scale detail present in the fields.

  3. On Thom spectra, orientability, and cobordism

    CERN Document Server

    Rudyak, Yu B


    For many years, algebraic topology rests on three legs: 'ordinary' cohomology, K-theory, and cobordism. This book is the first guide on the subject of cobordism since R. Stong's encyclopaedic and influential notes of a generation ago. It concentrates on Thom spaces (spectra), orientability theory and (co)bordism theory (including (co)bordism with singularities and, in particular, Morava K-theories), framed by (co)homology theories and spectra. From the Foreword by Haynes Miller The author has also performed a service to the history of science in this book, giving detailed attributions. This sa

  4. Energy spectra of geomagnetically trapped oxygen ions

    CERN Document Server

    Leicher, M; Enge, W


    In a series of COSMOS satellite flights plastic nuclear track detectors have been exposed in low-earth orbits to monitor anomalous cosmic rays (ACR) at energies below 25 MeV/nuc. The analysis of energy spectra has now been extended to energies up to 40 MeV/nuc for two exposures aboard COSMOS 2260 in 1993 and COSMOS 2311 in 1995. Our data on trapped ACR (TACR) oxygen energy spectra might indicate the influence of energy-dependent stripping probabilities and the presence of multiply charged ACR oxygen at high energies as reported by latest SAMPEX observations.

  5. Nonlinear FMR spectra in yttrium iron garnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Bunkov, P.M. Vetoshko, I.G. Motygullin, T.R. Safin, M.S. Tagirov, N.A. Tukmakova


    Full Text Available Results of demagnetizing effect studies in yttrium iron garnet Y3Fe5O12 thin films are reported. Experiments were performed on X-Band of electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer at room temperature. The ferromagnetic resonance (FMR spectra were obtained for one-layer single crystal YIG films for different values of the applied microwave power. Nonlinear FMR spectra transformation by the microwave power increasing in various directions of magnetic field sweep was observed. It is explained by the influence of the demagnetization action of nonequilibrium magnons.

  6. RM-CLEAN: RM spectra cleaner (United States)

    Heald, George


    RM-CLEAN reads in dirty Q and U cubes, generates rmtf based on the frequencies given in an ASCII file, and cleans the RM spectra following the algorithm given by Brentjens (2007). The output cubes contain the clean model components and the CLEANed RM spectra. The input cubes must be reordered with mode=312, and the output cubes will have the same ordering and thus must be reordered after being written to disk. RM-CLEAN runs as a MIRIAD (ascl:1106.007) task and a Python wrapper is included with the code.

  7. Algorithms for classification of astronomical object spectra (United States)

    Wasiewicz, P.; Szuppe, J.; Hryniewicz, K.


    Obtaining interesting celestial objects from tens of thousands or even millions of recorded optical-ultraviolet spectra depends not only on the data quality but also on the accuracy of spectra decomposition. Additionally rapidly growing data volumes demands higher computing power and/or more efficient algorithms implementations. In this paper we speed up the process of substracting iron transitions and fitting Gaussian functions to emission peaks utilising C++ and OpenCL methods together with the NOSQL database. In this paper we implemented typical astronomical methods of detecting peaks in comparison to our previous hybrid methods implemented with CUDA.

  8. Spectra of KeV Protons Related to Ion-Cyclotron Wave Packets (United States)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Sibeck, D. G.; Tel'Nikhin, A. A.; Kronberg, T. K.


    We use the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation to study the statistical aspects of stochastic dynamics of the radiation belt (RB) protons driven by nonlinear electromagnetic ion-cyclotron (EMIC) wave packets. We obtain the spectra of keV protons scattered by these waves that showsteeping near the gyroresonance, the signature of resonant wave-particle interaction that cannot be described by a simple power law. The most likely mechanism for proton precipitation events in RBs is shown to be nonlinear wave-particle interaction, namely, the scattering of RB protons into the loss cone by EMIC waves.

  9. Effect of Molar Concentration on Optical Absorption Spectra of ZnS:Mn Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Sharma


    Full Text Available The present paper reports the synthesis and characterization of luminescent nanocrystals of manganese doped zinc sulphide. Nanocrystals of zinc sulphide were prepared by chemical precipitation method using the solution of zinc chloride, sodium sulphide, manganese chloride and mercaptoethanol was used as the capping agent. It was found that change in the molar concentration changes the particle size. The particle size of such nanocrystals was measured using XRD pattern and it is found to be in between 3 nm – 5 nm. The blue-shift in absorption spectra was found with reducing size of the nanoparticles

  10. Bacterially mediated precipitation in marine stromatolites. (United States)

    Paerl, H W; Steppe, T F; Reid, R P


    Stromatolites are laminated, lithified (CaCO3) sedimentary deposits formed by precipitation and/or sediment accretion by cyanobacterial-bacterial mat communities. Stromatolites have been associated with these communities as far back as the Precambrian era some 2+ billion years ago. The means by which microbial communities mediate the precipitation processes have remained unclear, and are the subject of considerable debate and speculation. Two alternative explanations for microbially mediated precipitation include: (i) cyanobacterial photosynthesis increases pH in a system supersaturated in respect of CaCO3, resulting in CaCO3 precipitation and then laminated lithification, and (ii) decomposition of cyanobacterial extracellular organic matter (e.g. sheaths, mucilage and organic acids) by microheterotrophs leads to release of organic-bound Ca2+ ions and CaCO3 precipitation. We evaluated these explanations by examining metabolically active, lithifying stromatolitic mat communities from Highborne Cay, Bahamas, using microautoradiography. Microautoradiographic detection of 14CO2 fixation and 3H organic matter (D-glucose and an amino acid mixture) utilization by photosynthetically active cyanobacteria and microheterotrophs, combined with community-level uptake experiments, indicate that bacteria, rather than cyanobacteria are the dominant sites of CaCO3 deposition. In the oligotrophic waters in which stromatolites exist, microheterotrophs are reliant on the photosynthetic community as a main source of organic matter. Therefore, autotrophic production indirectly controls microbially mediated precipitation and stromatolite formation in these shallow marine environments.

  11. Multi-scale Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting Using ... (United States)

    Global sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies can affect terrestrial precipitation via ocean-atmosphere interaction known as climate teleconnection. Non-stationary and non-linear characteristics of the ocean-atmosphere system make the identification of the teleconnection signals difficult to be detected at a local scale as it could cause large uncertainties when using linear correlation analysis only. This paper explores the relationship between global SST and terrestrial precipitation with respect to long-term non-stationary teleconnection signals during 1981-2010 over three regions in North America and one in Central America. Empirical mode decomposition as well as wavelet analysis is utilized to extract the intrinsic trend and the dominant oscillation of the SST and precipitation time series in sequence. After finding possible associations between the dominant oscillation of seasonal precipitation and global SST through lagged correlation analysis, the statistically significant SST regions are extracted based on the correlation coefficient. With these characterized associations, individual contribution of these SST forcing regions linked to the related precipitation responses are further quantified through nonlinear modeling with the aid of extreme learning machine. Results indicate that the non-leading SST regions also contribute a salient portion to the terrestrial precipitation variability compared to some known leading SST regions. In some cases, these

  12. Statistical analysis of the time and space characteristic scales for large precipitating systems in the equatorial, tropical, sahelian and mid-latitude regions. (United States)

    Duroure, Christophe; Sy, Abdoulaye; Baray, Jean luc; Van baelen, Joel; Diop, Bouya


    Precipitation plays a key role in the management of sustainable water resources and flood risk analyses. Changes in rainfall will be a critical factor determining the overall impact of climate change. We propose to analyse long series (10 years) of daily precipitation at different regions. We present the Fourier densities energy spectra and morphological spectra (i.e. probability repartition functions of the duration and the horizontal scale) of large precipitating systems. Satellite data from the Global precipitation climatology project (GPCP) and local pluviometers long time series in Senegal and France are used and compared in this work. For mid-latitude and Sahelian regions (North of 12°N), the morphological spectra are close to exponential decreasing distribution. This fact allows to define two characteristic scales (duration and space extension) for the precipitating region embedded into the large meso-scale convective system (MCS). For tropical and equatorial regions (South of 12°N) the morphological spectra are close to a Levy-stable distribution (power law decrease) which does not allow to define a characteristic scale (scaling range). When the time and space characteristic scales are defined, a "statistical velocity" of precipitating MCS can be defined, and compared to observed zonal advection. Maps of the characteristic scales and Levy-stable exponent over West Africa and south Europe are presented. The 12° latitude transition between exponential and Levy-stable behaviors of precipitating MCS is compared with the result of ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis for the same period. This morphological sharp transition could be used to test the different parameterizations of deep convection in forecast models.

  13. Precipitation from Space: Advancing Earth System Science (United States)

    Kucera, Paul A.; Ebert, Elizabeth E.; Turk, F. Joseph; Levizzani, Vicenzo; Kirschbaum, Dalia; Tapiador, Francisco J.; Loew, Alexander; Borsche, M.


    Of the three primary sources of spatially contiguous precipitation observations (surface networks, ground-based radar, and satellite-based radar/radiometers), only the last is a viable source over ocean and much of the Earth's land. As recently as 15 years ago, users needing quantitative detail of precipitation on anything under a monthly time scale relied upon products derived from geostationary satellite thermal infrared (IR) indices. The Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) passive microwave (PMW) imagers originated in 1987 and continue today with the SSMI sounder (SSMIS) sensor. The fortunate longevity of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is providing the environmental science community a nearly unbroken data record (as of April 2012, over 14 years) of tropical and sub-tropical precipitation processes. TRMM was originally conceived in the mid-1980s as a climate mission with relatively modest goals, including monthly averaged precipitation. TRMM data were quickly exploited for model data assimilation and, beginning in 1999 with the availability of near real time data, for tropical cyclone warnings. To overcome the intermittently spaced revisit from these and other low Earth-orbiting satellites, many methods to merge PMW-based precipitation data and geostationary satellite observations have been developed, such as the TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Product and the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) morphing method (CMORPH. The purpose of this article is not to provide a survey or assessment of these and other satellite-based precipitation datasets, which are well summarized in several recent articles. Rather, the intent is to demonstrate how the availability and continuity of satellite-based precipitation data records is transforming the ways that scientific and societal issues related to precipitation are addressed, in ways that would not be


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Precipitation Video Imager (PVI) GCPEx dataset collected precipitation particle images and drop size distribution data from November 2011...

  15. Climate Change Impacts on Probable Maximum Precipitation (United States)

    Kunkel, K.; Easterling, D. R.


    The estimation of the potential impacts of anthropogenic forcing of the climate system on extreme weather events relies heavily on the direct output of global and regional climate models, combined perhaps with extreme value statistical techniques. In this study, we use these tools along with physical and theoretical considerations to examine the potential impacts on Probable Maximum Precipitation estimates. Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) is the theoretically greatest depth of precipitation for a given duration that is physically possible over a particular drainage basin at a particular time of year. PMP values are used in the design of long-lived structures with lifetimes of many decades, such as dams. Climate change is an unavoidable consideration on those time scales. Many studies have documented an upward temporal trend in the frequency and intensity of extreme precipitation events. As the globe warms in response to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, there is the potential for further changes in precipitation extremes. There are reasons why warming could lead to increased PMP values. One, the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship indicates that the saturation water vapor pressure increases with temperature; thus, precipitation-producing systems could have more "fuel" to precipitate. Two, warming may lead to an increase in the length of the convective season, when most of the extreme precipitation events occur. The methodology for estimation of PMP values has changed little over the last 30-40 years. The basic approach is to consider the factors that contribute to heavy precipitation and then consider the potential precipitation rates if all of those factors were simultaneously maximized. Convergence and vertical motion is one factor. Past work has assumed that there no empirical or satisfactory theoretical basis for assigning maximum values to this factor. The approach has been to use observed rainfall in notable storms as an indirect measure of maximum

  16. Linking Precipitation Patterns to Stream Nitrogen Fluxes (United States)

    Reid, J. P.; Finlay, J. C.


    Precipitation is becoming less-frequent but more-intense across most of the world. These changes to the timing and intensity of precipitation should affect ecological processes - such as primary productivity, soil decomposition, nitrification, and watershed nitrogen (N) retention - that are functions of soil moisture. Drying and rewetting cycles are known to reduce plant uptake and microbial immobilization of N, while temporarily increasing nitrification rates, thus reducing the effectiveness of N retention mechanisms. Because the timing of intense rainfall events is more likely to align with reduced nitrogen retention capacity, watershed N losses should increase. We hypothesized that the lag between precipitation and nitrate flux is shortest for low-frequency, high-intensity rainfall, and shortest in watersheds with high hydraulic conductivity. We used long-term records of precipitation, stream discharge and nitrate concentrations to analyze the relationship between precipitation and stream nitrate flux using wavelet decomposition, cross-wavelet transforms and wavelet coherence. The analyzed streams are located across an urban to rural gradient in the Baltimore area. We found little or no synchronization between precipitation and stream nitrate flux in the forested reference watershed at annual time scales. However, annual precipitation and nitrate flux in urban and suburban watersheds were significantly synchronized. Furthermore, nitrate flux consistently lagged behind precipitation in these urbanized watersheds. The differences between forested and suburban/urban watersheds could be a consequence of differences in impervious surface area and drainage mechanisms including storm drains. These results suggest that urbanization changes the scales of precipitation patterns that nitrate export is sensitive to. For example, annual nitrate export consistently lags behind precipitation at Baisman's Run, with just 20% suburban land cover in an otherwise forested watershed

  17. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission: Precipitation Processing System (PPS) GPM Mission Gridded Text Products Provide Surface Precipitation Retrievals (United States)

    Stocker, Erich Franz; Kelley, O.; Kummerow, C.; Huffman, G.; Olson, W.; Kwiatkowski, J.


    In February 2015, the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission core satellite will complete its first year in space. The core satellite carries a conically scanning microwave imager called the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI), which also has 166 GHz and 183 GHz frequency channels. The GPM core satellite also carries a dual frequency radar (DPR) which operates at Ku frequency, similar to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar, and a new Ka frequency. The precipitation processing system (PPS) is producing swath-based instantaneous precipitation retrievals from GMI, both radars including a dual-frequency product, and a combined GMIDPR precipitation retrieval. These level 2 products are written in the HDF5 format and have many additional parameters beyond surface precipitation that are organized into appropriate groups. While these retrieval algorithms were developed prior to launch and are not optimal, these algorithms are producing very creditable retrievals. It is appropriate for a wide group of users to have access to the GPM retrievals. However, for researchers requiring only surface precipitation, these L2 swath products can appear to be very intimidating and they certainly do contain many more variables than the average researcher needs. Some researchers desire only surface retrievals stored in a simple easily accessible format. In response, PPS has begun to produce gridded text based products that contain just the most widely used variables for each instrument (surface rainfall rate, fraction liquid, fraction convective) in a single line for each grid box that contains one or more observations.This paper will describe the gridded data products that are being produced and provide an overview of their content. Currently two types of gridded products are being produced: (1) surface precipitation retrievals from the core satellite instruments GMI, DPR, and combined GMIDPR (2) surface precipitation retrievals for the partner constellation

  18. The far-ultraviolet main auroral emission at Jupiter – Part 2: Vertical emission profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bonfond


    Full Text Available The aurorae at Jupiter are made up of many different features associated with a variety of generation mechanisms. The main auroral emission, also known as the main oval, is the most prominent of them as it accounts for approximately half of the total power emitted by the aurorae in the ultraviolet range. The energy of the precipitating electrons is a crucial parameter to characterize the processes at play which give rise to these auroral emissions, and the altitude of the emissions directly depends on this energy. Here we make use of far-UV (FUV images acquired with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope and spectra acquired with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph to measure the vertical profile of the main emissions. The altitude of the brightness peak as seen above the limb is ~ 400 km, which is significantly higher than the 250 km measured in the post-dusk sector by Galileo in the visible domain. However, a detailed analysis of the effect of hydrocarbon absorption, including both simulations and FUV spectral observations, indicates that FUV apparent vertical profiles should be considered with caution, as these observations are not incompatible with an emission peak located at 250 km. The analysis also calls for spectral observations to be carried out with an optimized geometry in order to remove observational ambiguities.

  19. The far-ultraviolet main auroral emission at Jupiter. Pt. 2. Vertical emission profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfond, B.; Gustin, J.; Gerard, J.C.; Grodent, D.; Radioti, A. [Liege Univ. (Belgium). Lab. de Physique Atmospherique et Planetaire; Palmaerts, B. [Liege Univ. (Belgium). Lab. de Physique Atmospherique et Planetaire; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Sonnensystemforschung, Goettingen (Germany); Badman, S.V. [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Khurana, K.K. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States); Tao, C. [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse (France)


    The aurorae at Jupiter are made up of many different features associated with a variety of generation mechanisms. The main auroral emission, also known as the main oval, is the most prominent of them as it accounts for approximately half of the total power emitted by the aurorae in the ultraviolet range. The energy of the precipitating electrons is a crucial parameter to characterize the processes at play which give rise to these auroral emissions, and the altitude of the emissions directly depends on this energy. Here we make use of far-UV (FUV) images acquired with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope and spectra acquired with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph to measure the vertical profile of the main emissions. The altitude of the brightness peak as seen above the limb is ∝ 400 km, which is significantly higher than the 250 km measured in the post-dusk sector by Galileo in the visible domain. However, a detailed analysis of the effect of hydrocarbon absorption, including both simulations and FUV spectral observations, indicates that FUV apparent vertical profiles should be considered with caution, as these observations are not incompatible with an emission peak located at 250 km. The analysis also calls for spectral observations to be carried out with an optimized geometry in order to remove observational ambiguities.

  20. [Characteristics analysis of human tongue reflectance spectra]. (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Liu, Ming; Lu, Xiao-zuo; Li, Gang


    The present paper presents the spectroscopic analysis method. Eighty samples of spectra data of tongue parts with coating and without coating were collected by Usb4000 spectrometer of Ocean Optics, then comparing the spectra data of the different parts of tongue we found that there was a relation between the spectra characteristics and tongue coating, and further analysis of the spectra data showed that there was a big difference between the two parts within the wavelength range between 500 and 600 nm. It was also found that the biggest differences appear when the wavelength is 579.39 nm, and at the same time, different colors of tongue coating were also compared, and the spectrum was also quite different because of different color and thickness of the tongue coating. The experiment results show that different color, thickness, and dryness of the human tongue coating lead to different spectral characteristics, and compared with the current colorimetric method of tongue characterization, spectral reflectance can reflect more physiological and pathological information. The experiment results also indicated that the different spectral characteristics of tongue property and tongue coating will be used for further separation of these two parts, and to provide an objective analysis index for tongue coating qualitative and quantitative analysis, so as to promote the objectivity of the TCM.

  1. Computer program package for PIXE spectra evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajfosz, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)


    The computer programs described here were developed for calculating the concentrations of elements in samples analysed by the PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission) method from the X-ray spectra obtained in those analyses. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs.

  2. [Fluorescence spectra of ponceau-4R]. (United States)

    Shi, Ai-Min; Zhu, Tuo; Gu, En-Dong; Liu, Zhou-Yi; Xu, Hui


    The fluorescence spectra of ponceau 4R induced by 220-400 nm light were studied in the present paper. The result shows that ponceau 4R has four obvious fluorescence spectral peaks respectively located at 420, 530, 635 and 687 nm, each of these fluorescence spectral peaks has different best induced light, and the corresponding fluorescence spectra were listed. It was considered that this fluorescence comes from the transition n --> pi* of n electrons in the -OH and pi* --> pi of pi electrons in the naphthalene. The fluorescence spectral peaks at 420 nm come from the transition n --> pi* and the other three fluorescence spectral peaks come from pi* --> pi. But the intensity of the four fluorescence spectral peaks changes differently with the excited wavelength This paper attempted to give the expression of the four fluorescence spectral peaks based on the microcosmic mechanism. The reason for that ponceau 4R has complex fluorescence characteristic is that ponceau 4R not only has big and conjugate structure such as naphthalene and provides electron group -OH which can intensify its ability to emit fluorescence, but also absorbs electron group such as N=N which can depress its ability to emit fluorescence. Investigation on the fluorescence spectra and its characteristics will contribute to the study on the fluorescence spectra of other azo pigment and help find a new way for checking food safety.

  3. Generalized pattern spectra sensitive to spatial information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, MHF; Kasturi, R; Laurendeau, D; Suen, C


    Morphological pattern spectra computed from granulometrics are frequently used to classify the size classes of details in textures and images. An extension of this technique, which retains information on the spatial distribution of the details in each size class is developed. Algorithms for

  4. Polarization Spectra of Extrasolar Giant Planets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, D.M.


    We present simulated spectra of the flux and degree of polarization of starlight that is reflected by extrasolar giant planets (EGPs). In particular the polarization depends strongly on the structure of the planetary atmosphere, and appears to be a valuable tool for the characterization of EGPs.

  5. Spectra of turbulent flow in cumulus cloud (United States)

    Gotoh, Toshiyuki; Saito, Izumi; Watanabe, Takeshi


    We have seamlessly simulated evolution of droplets and turbulence for about ten minutes in a small box which is ascending inside the maritime cumulus cloud. Under the prescribed vertical structure of the mean temperature and water vapor mixing ratio and the periodic boundary condition, the turbulence is computed by the DNS and the particles evolve obeying the condensation-evaporation, collision-coalescence with the hydrodynamic interaction, the Reynolds number dependent drag, and the gravitational sedimentation. It is found that the kinetic energy spectrum obeys nearly Kolmogorov spectrum k - 5 / 3 while the spectra of the temperature and water vapor mixing ratio are much shallower than k - 5 / 3. An explanation of modification of the spectra is explored by examining the droplet number density spectrum En(k , t) and the condensation rate spectrum ECd(k , t) . Two spectra are very similar to each other, nearly k1 at low wavenumber range and k-α , 1 droplets and temperature and water vapor mixing ratio through the condensation-evaporation yields the shallow spectra. Comparison with the data observed at mountain top is also made. JSPS Kakenhi 15H02218, HPCI hp160085 and hp170189, JHPCN jh170013.

  6. Exploring the Morphology of RAVE Stellar Spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matijevic, G.; Zwitter, T.; Bienayme, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Boeche, C.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G.; Siebert, A.; Siviero, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Watson, F. G.; Williams, M.; Wyse, R. F. G.

    The RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) is a medium-resolution (R similar to 7500) spectroscopic survey of the Milky Way that has already obtained over half a million stellar spectra. They present a randomly selected magnitude-limited sample, so it is important to use a reliable and automated


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Raman spectra of human dental calculus have been observed for the first time by use of micro-Raman spectroscopy. The spectral features of calculus were influenced easily by heating caused by laser irradiation. Therefore, the measurements were carried out at relatively low power (5 mW, 1-mu m spot

  8. Infrared spectra, thermogravimetric analysis and antifungal studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    O, FeCl3.6H2O and Cu(CH3COO)2.2H2O in a mixture of an ethanol-bidistilled water (1:1), at 60 °C. They were characterized by melting point, molar conductivity, magnetic moment, elemental analysis, infrared spectra and thermal analyses.

  9. Students' Mental Models of Atomic Spectra (United States)

    Körhasan, Nilüfer Didis; Wang, Lu


    Mental modeling, which is a theory about knowledge organization, has been recently studied by science educators to examine students' understanding of scientific concepts. This qualitative study investigates undergraduate students' mental models of atomic spectra. Nine second-year physics students, who have already taken the basic chemistry and…

  10. Comparative Analysis and Variability of the Jovian X-Ray Spectra Detected by the Chandra and XMM-Newton Observatories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, Yawei [ORNL; Schultz, David Robert [ORNL; Kharchenko, Vasili A [ORNL; Bhardwaj, Anil [Vikram Sarabhai Space Center, Trivandrum, India; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella [University College, London; Stancil, Phillip C. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Cravens, Thomas E. E. [University of Kansas; Lisse, Carey M. [Johns Hopkins University; Dalgarno, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics


    Expanding upon recent work, a more comprehensive spectral model based on charge exchange induced X-ray emission by ions precipitating into the Jovian atmosphere is used to provide new understanding of the polar auroras. In conjunction with the Xspec spectral fitting software, the model is applied to analyze observations from both Chandra and XMM-Newton by systematically varying the initial precipitating ion parameters to obtain the best fit model for the observed spectra. In addition to the oxygen and sulfur ions considered previously, carbon is included to discriminate between solar wind and Jovian magnetospheric ion origins, enabled by the use of extensive databases of both atomic collision cross sections and radiative transitions. On the basis of fits to all the Chandra observations, we find that carbon contributes negligibly to the observed polar X-ray emission suggesting that the highly accelerated precipitating ions are of magnetospheric origin. Most of the XMM-Newton fits also favor this conclusion with one exception that implies a possible carbon contribution. Comparison among all the spectra from these two observatories in light of the inferred initial energies and relative abundances of precipitating ions from the modeling show that they are significantly variable in time (observation date) and space (north and south polar X-ray auroras).

  11. Mid-infrared spectra of comet nuclei (United States)

    Kelley, Michael S. P.; Woodward, Charles E.; Gehrz, Robert D.; Reach, William T.; Harker, David E.


    Comet nuclei and D-type asteroids have several similarities at optical and near-IR wavelengths, including near-featureless red reflectance spectra, and low albedos. Mineral identifications based on these characteristics are fraught with degeneracies, although some general trends can be identified. In contrast, spectral emissivity features in the mid-infrared provide important compositional information that might not otherwise be achievable. Jovian Trojan D-type asteroids have emissivity features strikingly similar to comet comae, suggesting that they have the same compositions and that the surfaces of the Trojans are highly porous. However, a direct comparison between a comet and asteroid surface has not been possible due to the paucity of spectra of comet nuclei at mid-infrared wavelengths. We present 5-35 μm thermal emission spectra of comets 10P/Tempel 2, and 49P/Arend-Rigaux observed with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. Our analysis reveals no evidence for a coma or tail at the time of observation, suggesting the spectra are dominated by the comet nucleus. We fit each spectrum with the near-Earth asteroid thermal model (NEATM) and find sizes in agreement with previous values. However, the NEATM beaming parameters of the nuclei, 0.74-0.83, are systematically lower than the Jupiter-family comet population mean of 1.03 ± 0.11, derived from 16- and 22-μm photometry. We suggest this may be either an artifact of the spectral reduction, or the consequence of an emissivity low near 16 μm. When the spectra are normalized by the NEATM model, a weak 10-μm silicate plateau is evident, with a shape similar to those seen in mid-infrared spectra of D-type asteroids. A silicate plateau is also evident in previously published Spitzer spectra of the nucleus of comet 9P/Tempel 1. We compare, in detail, these comet nucleus emission features to those seen in spectra of the Jovian Trojan D-types (624) Hektor, (911) Agamemnon, and (1172) Aneas, as well

  12. An Interactive Gallery of Planetary Nebula Spectra (United States)

    Kwitter, K. B.; Henry, R. B. C.


    We have created a website containing high-quality moderate-resolution spectra of 88 planetary nebulae (PNe) from 3600 to 9600 Å, obtained at KPNO and CTIO. Spectra are displayed in a zoomable window, and there are templates available that show wavelength and ion identifications. In addition to the spectra themselves, the website also contains a brief discussion of PNe as astronomical objects and as contributors to our understanding of stellar evolution, and a table with atlas information for each object along with a link to an image. This table can be re-ordered by object name, galactic or equatorial coordinates, distance from the sun, the galactic center, or the galactic plane. We envision that this website, which concentrates a large amount of data in one place, will be of interest to a variety of users. PN researchers might need to check the spectrum of a particular object of interest; the non-specialist astronomer might simply be interested in perusing such a collection of spectra; and finally, teachers of introductory astronomy can use this database to illustrate basic principles of atomic physics and radiation. To encourage such use, we have written two simple exercises at a basic level to introduce beginning astronomy students to the wealth of information that PN spectra contain. We are grateful to Adam Wang of the Williams College OIT and to his summer student teams who worked on various apects of the implementation of this website. This work has been supported by NSF grant AST-9819123 and by Williams College and the University of Oklahoma.

  13. Improving interpretation of infrared spectra for OM characterization by subtraction of spectra from incinerated samples (United States)

    Ellerbrock, Ruth H.; Gerke, Horst H.; Leue, Martin


    Non-destructive methods such as diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT) have been applied to characterize organic matter (OM) at intact structural surfaces among others. However, it is often difficult to distinguish effects of organic components on DRIFT signal intensities from those of mineral components. The objective of this study was to re-evaluate DRIFT spectra from intact earthworm burrow walls and coated cracks to improve the interpretation of C-H and C=O bands. We compared DRIFT and transmission Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of entire samples that were from the same pedogenetic soil horizon, but different in mineral composition and texture (i.e., glacial till versus loess). Spectra of incinerated samples were subtracted from the original spectra. Transmission FTIR and DRIFT spectra were almost identical for entire soil samples. However, the DRIFT spectra were affected by the bulk mode bands (i.e., wavenumbers 2000 to 1700 cm-1) that affected spectral resolution and reproducibility. The ratios between C-H and C=O band intensities as indicator for OM quality obtained with DRIFT were smaller than those obtained from transmission FTIR. A spectral subtraction procedure was found to reduce effects of mineral absorption bands on DRIFT spectra allowing an improved interpretation. DRIFT spectroscopy as a non-destructive method for analyzing OM composition at intact surfaces in structured soils could be calibrated with information obtained with the more detailed transmission FTIR and complementary methods.

  14. Evaluating the New Automatic Method for the Analysis of Absorption Spectra Using Synthetic Spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B. Bainbridge


    Full Text Available We recently presented a new “artificial intelligence” method for the analysis of high-resolution absorption spectra (Bainbridge and Webb, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 2017, doi:10.1093/mnras/stx179. This new method unifies three established numerical methods: a genetic algorithm (GVPFIT; non-linear least-squares optimisation with parameter constraints (VPFIT; and Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA. In this work, we investigate the performance of GVPFIT and BMA over a broad range of velocity structures using synthetic spectra. We found that this new method recovers the velocity structures of the absorption systems and accurately estimates variation in the fine structure constant. Studies such as this one are required to evaluate this new method before it can be applied to the analysis of large sets of absorption spectra. This is the first time that a sample of synthetic spectra has been utilised to investigate the analysis of absorption spectra. Probing the variation of nature’s fundamental constants (such as the fine structure constant, through the analysis of absorption spectra, is one of the most direct ways of testing the universality of physical laws. This “artificial intelligence” method provides a way to avoid the main limiting factor, i.e., human interaction, in the analysis of absorption spectra.

  15. The 2010 and 2014 floods in India and Pakistan: dynamical influences on vertical motion and precipitation

    CERN Document Server

    Shaevitz, Daniel A; Sobel, Adam H


    Devastating floods in northeast Pakistan and northern India occurred in July 2010 and September 2014 as a consequence of extreme precipitation events. The 2010 and 2014 flood events had similar synoptic flow patterns that led to an anomalously high moisture content in the flood region. The quasi-geostrophic omega equation is inverted in order to attribute components of the large-scale vertical motion profile to synoptic forcing, diabatic heating, and mechanically forced orographic ascent. The results show that diabatic heating is the dominant contributor to the large-scale vertical motion, and suggest that the orographic forcing by flow over the Himalayas is the dominant mechanism by which the convection that produces the heating is forced. Analysis of a longer data record shows that instances of extreme precipitation in this region over the last eleven years are closely associated with simultaneously large values of orographic forcing and column-total precipitable water vapor.

  16. Impact of Plant Functional Types on Coherence Between Precipitation and Soil Moisture: A Wavelet Analysis (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Hao, Yonghong; Stebler, Elaine; Tanaka, Nobuaki; Zou, Chris B.


    Mapping the spatiotemporal patterns of soil moisture within heterogeneous landscapes is important for resource management and for the understanding of hydrological processes. A critical challenge in this mapping is comparing remotely sensed or in situ observations from areas with different vegetation cover but subject to the same precipitation regime. We address this challenge by wavelet analysis of multiyear observations of soil moisture profiles from adjacent areas with contrasting plant functional types (grassland, woodland, and encroached) and precipitation. The analysis reveals the differing soil moisture patterns and dynamics between plant functional types. The coherence at high-frequency periodicities between precipitation and soil moisture generally decreases with depth but this is much more pronounced under woodland compared to grassland. Wavelet analysis provides new insights on soil moisture dynamics across plant functional types and is useful for assessing differences and similarities in landscapes with heterogeneous vegetation cover.

  17. Catalyzed precipitation in Al-Cu-Si (United States)

    Mitlin, D.; Morris, J. W.; Radmilovic, V.


    The work reported here concerns the effect of Si on the precipitation of θ' phase (metastable Al2Cu) during the isothermal aging of Al-2Cu-1 Si (wt pct). The binary alloys Al-2Cu and Al-1 Si were studied for comparison. Only two precipitate phases were detected: essentially pure Si in Al-1 Si and Al-2Cu-1 Si, and θ' (metastable Al2Cu) in Al-2Cu and Al-2Cu-1Si. On aging the ternary alloy at 225 °C, Si precipitates first and catalyzes the θ' phase. The precipitates in the ternary alloy are smaller, are more densely distributed, have lower aspect ratios, and coarsen more slowly than those in the binary Al-2Cu aged at the same temperature. While the shapes of individual θ' precipitates in binary Al-2Cu are strongly affected by the kinetic problem of nucleating growth ledges, which produces a significant scatter in the aspect ratio for samples of given thickness, the overall evolution of particle shape with size follows the predictions of the Khachaturyan-Hairapetyan (KH) thermoelastic theory, which reduces to κ= L/d ∞ √ L at large sizes. The KH theory provides an estimate for the interfacial tension of the broad Al- θ' interface of 85 to 96 mJ/m2, which is near the values for other low-energy interfaces in Al, such as the twin boundary energy (100 mJ/m2) and the antiphase boundary energy in δ' Al3Li (70 mJ/m2). Si and θ' precipitates in Al-2Cu-1 Si have a strong elastic interaction because of their compensating strain fields. This elastic interaction promotes the nucleation of θ' precipitates on Si, decreases the expected aspect ratio of θ', and inhibits coarsening. Finally, Si precipitation in ternary Al-2Cu-1 Si differs from that in binary Al-1 Si in that the Si precipitates are coarser, more equiaxed, and more extensively twinned. These changes appear to be effects of Cu, which increases the solubility of Si in Al and adsorbs on the Si-Al interface, promoting twinning by a “step-poisoning” effect at the interface.

  18. Homogeneous Precipitation of Nickel Hydroxide Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavis, Bora [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Precipitation and characterization of nickel hydroxide powders were investigated. A comprehensive precipitation model incorporating the metal ion hydrolysis, complexation and precipitation reactions was developed for the production of the powders with urea precipitation method. Model predictions on Ni2+ precipitation rate were confirmed with precipitation experiments carried out at 90 C. Experimental data and model predictions were in remarkable agreement. Uncertainty in the solubility product data of nickel hydroxides was found to be the large contributor to the error. There were demonstrable compositional variations across the particle cross-sections and the growth mechanism was determined to be the aggregation of primary crystallites. This implied that there is a change in the intercalate chemistry of the primary crystallites with digestion time. Predicted changes in the concentrations of simple and complex ions in the solution support the proposed mechanism. The comprehensive set of hydrolysis reactions used in the model described above allows the investigation of other systems provided that accurate reaction constants are available. the fact that transition metal ions like Ni2+ form strong complexes with ammonia presents a challenge in the full recovery of the Ni2+. On the other hand, presence of Al3+ facilitates the complete precipitation of Ni2+ in about 3 hours of digestion. A challenge in their predictive modeling studies had been the fact that simultaneous incorporation of more than one metal ion necessitates a different approach than just using the equilibrium constants of hydrolysis, complexation and precipitation reactions. Another limitation of using equilibrium constants is that the nucleation stage of digestion, which is controlled mainly by kinetics, is not fully justified. A new program released by IBM Almaden Research Center (Chemical Kinetics Simulator™, Version 1.01) lets the user change

  19. Acid neutralization of precipitation in Northern China. (United States)

    Wang, Yuesi; Yu, Wenpeng; Pan, Yuepeng; Wu, Dan


    There is an increasing concern over the impact of human-related emissions on the acid precipitation in China. However, few measurements have been conducted so far to clarify the acid-neutralization of precipitation on a regional scale. Under a network of 10 sites across Northern China operated during a 3-year period from December 2007 to November 2010, a total of 1118 rain and snow samples were collected. Of this total, 28% was acid precipitation with pH acid samples, 53% were found heavily acidic with pH value below 5.0, indicating significantly high levels of acidification of precipitation. Most of the acidity of precipitation was caused by H2SO4 and HNO3, their relative contribution being 72% and 28%, respectively. However; the contribution of HNO3 to precipitation acidity will be enhanced due to the increasing NO(x) and stable SO2 emissions in future. Neutralization factors for K+, NH4+, Ca2+, Na+, and Mg2+ were estimated as 0.06, 0.71, 0.72, 0.15, and 0.13, respectively. The application of multiple regression analysis further quantified higher NH4+ and Ca2+ contribution to the neutralization process, but the dominant neutralizing agent varied from site to site. The neutralization was less pronounced in the rural than urban areas, probably due to different levels of alkaline species, which strongly buffered the acidity. Presence of high concentrations of basic ions was mainly responsible for high pH of precipitation with annual volume-weighted mean (VWM) values larger than 5.6 at several sites. It was estimated that in the absence of buffering ions, for the given concentration of SO4(2-) and NO3-, the annual VWM pH of precipitation would have been recorded around 3.5 across Northern China. This feature suggested that emissions of particles and gaseous NH3 played very important role in controlling the spatial variations of pH of precipitation in the target areas.

  20. Kaolinite dissolution and precipitation kinetics at 22oC and pH 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steefel, Carl; Yang, L.; Steefel, C.I.


    {Omega}]. Further analysis using Synchrotron Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM) in Total Electron Yield (TEY) mode of the material from the precipitation experiments showed spectra for newly precipitated material compatible with kaolinite. An idealized set of reactive transport simulations of the chemical weathering of albite to kaolinite using rate laws from HELLMANN and TISSERAND (2006) and this study respectively indicate that while pore waters are likely to be close to equilibrium with respect to kaolinite at pH 4, significant kaolinite supersaturation may occur at higher pH if its precipitation rate is pH dependent.

  1. Atmospheric rivers and extreme precipitation in Norway (United States)

    Whan, Kirien; Haarsma, Rein; Sillmann, Jana


    'Atmospheric rivers' are long, narrow regions of high water vapour content that are responsible for the horizontal transport of moisture to higher latitudes. They are associated with the majority of extreme precipitation events in Norway throughout the observational record. These extreme precipitation events can be associated with flooding that has large impacts on society, such as the October 2014 event in Flåm. We examined changes in extreme precipitation between the current and future climates in the coupled global climate model, EC-EARTH, using high-resolution simulations ( 25 km) that can resolve extratropical storms and atmospheric rivers. We use the r-largest method (r=3) to fit stationary (no covariates) and non-stationary (with an index of atmospheric rivers as a covariate) generalised extreme value distributions to the block maxima of annual precipitation. The value of a regional 'index flood' type approach is explored and future changes in the largest precipitation events of the year that are associated with atmospheric rivers are presented.

  2. A dielectric relaxation study of precipitation and curing of Furrial crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Y. Sheu; Socrates Acevedo [Vanton Research Laboratory, Incorporated, Lafayette, CA (United States)


    Low frequency dielectric spectroscopy was applied to investigate the properties of Furrial crude oil that is infamous for asphaltene precipitation during production. An experiment was conducted at ambient temperature by mixing Furrial crude oil with hexane to induce flocculation and subsequent precipitation. A drastic change in dielectric response was observed near the critical point when flocculation occured. Evolution of the dielectric loss spectra as a function of time was observed and found to closely mimic epoxy-curing process. The curing process lasted for approximately 44 h with an induction period of at least 26 h. During the induction period, the conductivity contribution to the dielectric response remains dominant. Following the induction period a structural arrest occurs signaling the onset of deposition. 16 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. High-Resolution Raindrop Size Distribution Retrieval Based on the Doppler Spectrum in the Case of Slant Profiling Radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unal, C.M.H.


    Doppler spectra from vertically profiling radars are usually considered to retrieve the raindrop size distribution (DSD). However, to exploit both fall velocity spectrum and polarimetric measurements, Doppler spectra acquired in slant profiling mode should be explored. Rain DSD samples are obtained

  4. Fellow Profile

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fellow Profile. Elected: 1971 Section: Chemistry. Narasimhan, Prof. Palliakaranai Thirumalai Ph.D. (Madras), FNA, FNASc. Date of birth: 28 July 1928. Date of death: 3 May 2013. Specialization: Theoretical Chemistry and Magnetic Resonance Last known address: 1013, Lupine Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94086, USA. YouTube ...

  5. Evaluation of extreme precipitation derived from long-term global satellite Quantitative Precipitation Estimates (QPEs) (United States)

    Prat, Olivier; Nelson, Brian


    This study evaluates the ability of different satellite-based precipitation products to capture daily precipitation extremes over the entire globe. The satellite products considered are datasets belonging or in transition to the Reference Environmental Data Records (REDRs) program. Those products include PERSIANN-CDR, GPCP, CMORPH, and AMSU-A,B, Hydrologic bundle. PERSIANN-CDR is a 30-year record of daily-adjusted global precipitation. GPCP is an approximately 30-year record of monthly and pentad adjusted global precipitation and 17-year record of daily-adjusted global precipitation. CMORPH is a 17-year record of daily and sub-daily adjusted global precipitation. AMSU-A,B, Hydro-bundle is an 11-year record of a bundle of perceptible water, cloud water, and ice water among others. Other satellite QPE products such those from the PMM/GPM suite of products (TMPA, TMPA-RT, IMERG) are also included in the analysis. The evaluation of the satellite products will be performed against in-situ from the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) gridded full data daily product (conditional analysis, false alarm rate, probability of detection, threat score). The analysis will focus on seasonal patterns and trends and precipitation extremes in relation with cyclonic activity around the globe.

  6. The effect of precipitation collector design on the measured acid content of precipitation (United States)

    H. A. Weibe


    In order to evaluate the effect of different types of collectors on the measured chemical constituents of monthly precipitation collections, an array of fourteen precipitation samplers of five different designs has been in operation at Woodbridge, Ontario since March 1974. The collectors are located in an open field near the city of Toronto in an area of approximately...

  7. An in vitro spectroscopic analysis to determine the chemical composition of the precipitate formed by mixing sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine. (United States)

    Nowicki, James B; Sem, Daniel S


    The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the chemical composition of the precipitate formed by mixing sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine (CHX) and the relative molecular weight of the components. Using commercially available CHX gluconate, a 2% solution was formed and mixed in a 1:1 ratio with commercially available NaOCl producing a brown precipitate. The precipitate as well as a mixture of precipitate and pure CHX diacetate was then analyzed using one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. The one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR spectra were fully assigned in terms of chemical shifts of all proton and carbon atoms in intact CHX. This permitted identification of two major CHX breakdown products, neither of which are parachloroaniline (PCA). Both products are related to PCA in that they are parasubstituted benzene compounds. Based on NMR data and a proposed mechanism of CHX breakdown, the products appear to be parachlorophenylurea (PCU) and parachlorophenylguanidyl-1,6-diguanidyl-hexane (PCGH). Based on this in vitro study, the precipitate formed by NaOCl and CHX is composed of at least two separate molecules, all of which are smaller in size than CHX. Along with native CHX, the precipitate contains two chemical fragments derived from CHX (PCU and PCGH), neither of which are PCA. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of physical and chemical parameters on the hydroxyapatite nanopowder synthesized by chemical precipitation method (United States)

    Thu Trang Pham, Thi; Phuong Nguyen, Thu; Pham, Thi Nam; Phuong Vu, Thi; Tran, Dai Lam; Thai, Hoang; Thanh Dinh, Thi Mai


    In this paper, the synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanopowder was studied by chemical precipitation method at different values of reaction temperature, settling time, Ca/P ratio, calcination temperature, (NH4)2HPO4 addition rate, initial concentration of Ca(NO3)2 and (NH4)2HPO4. Analysis results of properties, morphology, structure of HAp powder from infrared (IR) spectra, x-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectra and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the synthesized HAp powder had cylinder crystal shape with size less than 100 nm, single-phase structure. The variation of the synthesis conditions did not affect the morphology but affected the size of HAp crystals.

  9. [Application of fluorescence spectra and parallel factor analysis in the classification of edible vegetable oils]. (United States)

    Wu, Xi-jun; Pan, Zhao; Zhao, Yan-peng; Liu, Hai-long; Zheng, Long-jiang


    The fluorescence spectra of 22 samples of 8 kinds of edible vegetable oils (soybean oil, maize oil, olive oil, rice oil, peanut oil, walnut oil, sunflower oil and sesame oil) were measured with FS920 fluorescence spectrometer and the fluorescence matrixs (EEMs) were analyzed with parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis model. To synthesize the capabilities of material characterization and component identification, fluorescence spectra combined with PARAFAC fulfill the classification of vegetable oils. The map feature (peak position, peak value and peak number) was obtained by analyzing three dimensional spectra and con tour maps in the range of emission wavelength from 260 to 750 nm, and excitation wavelengths from 250 to 550 nm. The fluorescent substances (unsaturated fatty acids, vitamin E and its derivatives, chlorophyll and carotenoid) corresponding to spectrum peaks were determined. The factor-number was selected and the components (vitamin E and its derivatives, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, fatty acid oxidation products, vegetable oil oxidation products) corresponding to each factor were ascertained. The four-factor excitation and emission profiles and projection score plots of PARAFAC model were plotted. Different vegetable oils can be characterized and distinguished with the map features of fluorescence spectra and sample projection plots of PARAFAC model. The results demonstrate the capability of the combination of fluorescence spectra technology and four-factor PARAFAC model for differentiating and characterizing vegetable oils.

  10. A new index quantifying the precipitation extremes (United States)

    Busuioc, Aristita; Baciu, Madalina; Stoica, Cerasela


    Events of extreme precipitation have a great impact on society. They are associated with flooding, erosion and landslides.Various indices have been proposed to quantify these extreme events and they are mainly related to daily precipitation amount, which are usually available for long periods in many places over the world. The climate signal related to changes in the characteristics of precipitation extremes is different over various regions and it is dependent on the season and the index used to quantify the precipitation extremes. The climate model simulations and empirical evidence suggest that warmer climates, due to increased water vapour, lead to more intense precipitation events, even when the total annual precipitation is slightly reduced. It was suggested that there is a shift in the nature of precipitation events towards more intense and less frequent rains and increases in heavy rains are expected to occur in most places, even when the mean precipitation is not increasing. This conclusion was also proved for the Romanian territory in a recent study, showing a significant increasing trend of the rain shower frequency in the warm season over the entire country, despite no significant changes in the seasonal amount and the daily extremes. The shower events counted in that paper refer to all convective rains, including torrential ones giving high rainfall amount in very short time. The problem is to find an appropriate index to quantify such events in terms of their highest intensity in order to extract the maximum climate signal. In the present paper, a new index is proposed to quantify the maximum precipitation intensity in an extreme precipitation event, which could be directly related to the torrential rain intensity. This index is tested at nine Romanian stations (representing various physical-geographical conditions) and it is based on the continuous rainfall records derived from the graphical registrations (pluviograms) available at National

  11. Daily precipitation statistics in regional climate models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frei, Christoph; Christensen, Jens Hesselbjerg; Déqué, Michel


    for other statistics. In summer, all models underestimate precipitation intensity (by 16-42%) and there is a too low frequency of heavy events. This bias reflects too dry summer mean conditions in three of the models, while it is partly compensated by too many low-intensity events in the other two models......An evaluation is undertaken of the statistics of daily precipitation as simulated by five regional climate models using comprehensive observations in the region of the European Alps. Four limited area models and one variable-resolution global model are considered, all with a grid spacing of 50 km....... The 15-year integrations were forced from reanalyses and observed sea surface temperature and sea ice (global model from sea surface only). The observational reference is based on 6400 rain gauge records (10-50 stations per grid box). Evaluation statistics encompass mean precipitation, wet-day frequency...

  12. Solute mixing regulates heterogeneity of mineral precipitation in porous media: Effect of Solute Mixing on Precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cil, Mehmet B.; Xie, Minwei; Packman, Aaron I.; Buscarnera, Giuseppe (NWU); (HKUST-- China)


    Synchrotron X-ray microtomography was used to track the spatiotemporal evolution of mineral precipitation and the consequent alteration of the pore structure. Column experiments were conducted by injecting CaCl2 and NaHCO3 solutions into granular porous media either as a premixed supersaturated solution (external mixing) or as separate solutions that mixed within the specimen (internal mixing). The two mixing modes produced distinct mineral growth patterns. While internal mixing promoted transverse heterogeneity with precipitation at the mixing zone, external mixing favored relatively homogeneous precipitation along the flow direction. The impact of precipitation on pore water flow and permeability was assessed via 3-D flow simulations, which indicated anisotropic permeability evolution for both mixing modes. Under both mixing modes, precipitation decreased the median pore size and increased the skewness of the pore size distribution. Such similar pore-scale evolution patterns suggest that the clogging of individual pores depends primarily on local supersaturation state and pore geometry.

  13. Precipitation Reactions in Age-Hardenable Alloys During Laser Additive Manufacturing (United States)

    Jägle, Eric A.; Sheng, Zhendong; Wu, Liang; Lu, Lin; Risse, Jeroen; Weisheit, Andreas; Raabe, Dierk


    We describe and study the thermal profiles experienced by various age-hardenable alloys during laser additive manufacturing (LAM), employing two different manufacturing techniques: selective laser melting and laser metal deposition. Using scanning electron microscopy and atom probe tomography, we reveal at which stages during the manufacturing process desired and undesired precipitation reactions can occur in age-hardenable alloys. Using examples from a maraging steel, a nickel-base superalloy and a scandium-containing aluminium alloy, we demonstrate that precipitation can already occur during the production of the powders used as starting material, during the deposition of material (i.e. during solidification and subsequent cooling), during the intrinsic heat treatment effected by LAM (i.e. in the heat affected zones) and, naturally, during an ageing post-heat treatment. These examples demonstrate the importance of understanding and controlling the thermal profile during the entire additive manufacturing cycle of age-hardenable materials including powder synthesis.

  14. Downscaling Precipitation via Meiyu-like pattern (United States)

    Simon, Thorsten; Hense, Andreas; Jiang, Tong; Simmer, Clemens; Ohlwein, Christian


    This study identifies daily Meiyu-like East Asian Summer Monsoon patterns that are linked to precipitation observations in the Poyang lake catchment. This analysis provides insight into the dynamics of strong, local precipitation events and has the potential to improve projections of precipitation from coarse-grid numerical simulations. Precipitation observations between 1960 and 1999 are taken from 13 rain gauges located in the Poyang lake catchment, which is a sub-catchment of the Yangtze River. The analysis shows, that the observations are linked to daily patterns of relative vorticity at 850 hPa (Vo850) and vertical velocity at 500 hPa (W500) taken from the ERA-40 reanalysis data set. The patterns are derived by two approaches: (a) empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis and (b) rotated EOF analysis. Vo850 and W500 refer to geostrophic and ageostrophic processes, respectively. A logistic regression connects the large-scale dynamics to the local observations, whereby a forward regression selects the patterns best suited as predictors for the probability of exceeding thresholds of 24h accumulated rainfall at the gauges. The regression model is verified by cross-validation. The spatial structure of the detected patterns can be interpreted in terms of well-known meso-α-scale disturbances called Southwest vortices. Overall, the proposed EOF and rotated EOF patterns are both related to physical processes and have the potential to work as predictors for exceedance rates of local precipitation in the Poyang catchment. References T. Simon, A. Hense, B. Su, T. Jiang, C. Simmer, and C. Ohlwein, 2013: Pattern-based statistical downscaling of East Asian Summer Monsoon precipitation. Tellus A. 65.

  15. Gamma-ray Spectra of Starburst Galaxies (United States)

    Moncada, Roberto Jose; Paglione, Timothy


    Starburst galaxies offer a unique window into the nature of star formation, its driving forces, and the energetic interactions within the galaxy. Their supernovae enrich the surrounding environment with cosmic rays that interact with the interstellar medium and galactic magnetic fields producing gamma-rays and non-thermal radio emission. We generated gamma-ray spectra for the 7 brightest starburst galaxies using 8.6 years of Pass 8 Large Area Telescope (LAT) data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. In addition to new detections, we will report on the results of simultaneously modeling the gamma-ray and radio spectra. These results confirm prior studies favoring high magnetic field strengths in the starburst regions.

  16. Strategies for Interpreting Two Dimensional Microwave Spectra (United States)

    Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; Crabtree, Kyle N.; Buchanan, Zachary


    Microwave spectroscopy can uniquely identify molecules because their rotational energy levels are sensitive to the three principal moments of inertia. However, a priori predictions of a molecule's structure have traditionally been required to enable efficient assignment of the rotational spectrum. Recently, automated microwave double resonance spectroscopy (AMDOR) has been employed to rapidly generate two dimensional spectra based on transitions that share a common rotational level, which may enable automated extraction of rotational constants without any prior estimates of molecular structure. Algorithms used to date for AMDOR have relied on making several initial assumptions about the nature of a subset of the linked transitions, followed by testing possible assignments by "brute force." In this talk, we will discuss new strategies for interpreting AMDOR spectra, using eugenol as a test case, as well as prospects for library-free, automated identification of the molecules in a volatile mixture.

  17. Cathodoluminescence spectra of gallium nitride nanorods. (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Chang; Li, Guan-Hua; Lin, Yuan-Ting; Chang, Ching-Wen; Wadekar, Paritosh; Chen, Quark Yung-Sung; Rigutti, Lorenzo; Tchernycheva, Maria; Julien, François Henri; Tu, Li-Wei


    Gallium nitride [GaN] nanorods grown on a Si(111) substrate at 720°C via plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy were studied by field-emission electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence [CL]. The surface topography and optical properties of the GaN nanorod cluster and single GaN nanorod were measured and discussed. The defect-related CL spectra of GaN nanorods and their dependence on temperature were investigated. The CL spectra along the length of the individual GaN nanorod were also studied. The results reveal that the 3.2-eV peak comes from the structural defect at the interface between the GaN nanorod and Si substrate. The surface state emission of the single GaN nanorod is stronger as the diameter of the GaN nanorod becomes smaller due to an increased surface-to-volume ratio.

  18. The New NIST Atomic Spectra Database (United States)

    Kelleher, D. E.; Martin, W. C.; Wiese, W. L.; Sugar, J.; Fuhr, J. R.; Olsen, K.; Musgrove, A.; Mohr, P. J.; Reader, J.; Dalton, G. R.

    The new Atomic Spectra Database (ASD), Version 2.0, of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) contains significantly more data and covers a wider range of atomic and ionic transitions and energy levels than earlier versions. All data are integrated. It also has a new user interface and search engine. ASD contains spectral reference data which have been critically evaluated and compiled by NIST. Version 2.0 contains data on 900 spectra, with about 70000 energy levels and 91000 lines ranging from about 1 Ångström to 200 micrometers, roughly half of which have transition probabilities with estimated uncertainties. References to the NIST compilations and original data sources are listed in the ASD bibliography. A detailed “Help” file serves as a user's manual, and full search and filter capabilities are provided.

  19. Polarization in astronomical spectra - Theoretical evidence (United States)

    Fymat, A. L.


    Theoretical evidence for the existence and behavior of polarization in astronomical spectra is provided. The theory for the study of spectral multiple scattering of arbitrarily polarized light is first developed, and the detailed and integrated spectropolarimetry of a planetary atmosphere is then studied for cases in which the spectra are formed in the presence of either very small nonspherical particles (Rayleigh-Cabannes scattering) or large polydisperse spherical particles (Mie scattering). It is shown in both cases that polarization is indeed present; it increases with the line strength but decreases afterwards as the line becomes very strong and tends to saturation. A polarization reversal is also predicted during latitudinal (pole-to-equator) scan and possibly also during longitudinal (terminator-to-limb) scan of the planet. The reversal happened at all phase angles considered. Our companion article (Forbes and Fymat) will provide observational substantiation to these theoretical predictions.

  20. Homogenization of precipitation data in Pannonian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medić Nenad Đ.


    Full Text Available Testing the homogeneity of data of meteorological occurrences is very important for ensuring the reliability and accuracy of the data that will later be used in a variety of research related to the assessment and prediction of future trends of climate changes. This paper presents the verification of homogeneity of data on average annual precipitations from 19 meteorological stations in the Pannonian region. For this purpose, it has been used four different statistical tests that are applied on each meteorological station individually. It was found that 4 out of 19 meteorological stations or in 21% of the cases there are in homogeneities of precipitation data.

  1. Plate electrode arrangement for an electrostatic precipitator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooldridge, J.E.


    An electrode plate arrangement for an electrostatic precipitator including a plurality of essentially identical plate assemblies secured in an opposing fashion to the opposite sides of a gridlike mounting frame extending across the interior of the precipitator. The plate assemblies on the upstream side of the frame include an ionizing zone for the dirty gas stream which feeds into serially aligned collecting zones in the opposing assemblies which in turn feed into a deionizing zone in the plate assemblies on the downstream side of the frame.

  2. Electrostatic Precipitation in Nearly Pure Gaseous Nitrogen (United States)

    Buhler, Charles; Calle, Carlos; Clements, Sid; Cox, Bobby; Ritz, Mindy


    Electrostatic precipitation was performed in a nearly pure gaseous nitrogen system as a possible remedy for black dust contaminant from high pressure 6000 psi lines at the NASA Kennedy Space Center. The results of a prototype electrostatic precipitator that was built and tested using nitrogen gas at standard atmospheric pressures is presented. High voltage pulsed waveforms are generated using a rotating spark gap system at 30 Hz. A unique dust delivery system utilizing the Venturi effect was devised that supplies a given amount of dust per unit time for testing purposes.

  3. Dynamical analysis of highly excited molecular spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellman, M.E. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene (United States)


    The goal of this program is new methods for analysis of spectra and dynamics of highly excited vibrational states of molecules. In these systems, strong mode coupling and anharmonicity give rise to complicated classical dynamics, and make the simple normal modes analysis unsatisfactory. New methods of spectral analysis, pattern recognition, and assignment are sought using techniques of nonlinear dynamics including bifurcation theory, phase space classification, and quantization of phase space structures. The emphasis is chaotic systems and systems with many degrees of freedom.

  4. High Resolution Spectra of HE Detonations (United States)


    region. We shall assume for present purposes that the emissivity of the detonation products of a 50 to 100 lb HE explosion is also in the viciity of... speed . Incorporated in the emulsion layers are dye forming coup- lers which react simultaneously during I , developmentto produce a separate dye S...Best Available Cop 1~EV~ AFTAC-TR-80-24 HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTRA OF HE DETONATIONS HSS Inc 2 Alfred Circle Bedford, MA 01730 7 JULY 1980 AUG 4 9D

  5. Understanding the baryon and meson spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, Michael R. [JLAB


    A brief overview is given of what we know of the baryon and meson spectra, with a focus on what are the key internal degrees of freedom and how these relate to strong coupling QCD. The challenges, experimental, theoretical and phenomenological, for the future are outlined, with particular reference to a program at Jefferson Lab to extract hadronic states in which glue unambiguously contributes to their quantum numbers.

  6. Molecular Dynamics and Spectra. II. Diatomic Raman. (United States)


    a degeneracy factor g is introduced which depends on the symmetry of the molecule For our IT- homonuclear diatomic, z is gj, the nuclear spin...classi~a mechanical viewpoint. with some caveats for features In which anharmonicity is important, such as the de- tailed shape of Q branches. it compute the Spectra of coa- plex molecular systems, for example of large molecules , clusters, liquids, solutions, and solids. Second, this

  7. Janus spectra in two-dimensional flows

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chien-Chia; Chakraborty, Pinaki


    In theory, large-scale atmospheric flows, soap-film flows and other two-dimensional flows may host two distinct types of turbulent energy spectra---in one, $\\alpha$, the spectral exponent of velocity fluctuations, equals $3$ and the fluctuations are dissipated at the small scales, and in the other, $\\alpha=5/3$ and the fluctuations are dissipated at the large scales---but measurements downstream of obstacles have invariably revealed $\\alpha = 3$. Here we report experiments on soap-film flows where downstream of obstacles there exists a sizable interval in which $\\alpha$ has transitioned from $3$ to $5/3$ for the streamwise fluctuations but remains equal to $3$ for the transverse fluctuations, as if two mutually independent turbulent fields of disparate dynamics were concurrently active within the flow. This species of turbulent energy spectra, which we term the Janus spectra, has never been observed or predicted theoretically. Our results may open up new vistas in the study of turbulence and geophysical flows...

  8. Analysis of positron lifetime spectra in polymers (United States)

    Singh, Jag J.; Mall, Gerald H.; Sprinkle, Danny R.


    A new procedure for analyzing multicomponent positron lifetime spectra in polymers was developed. It requires initial estimates of the lifetimes and the intensities of various components, which are readily obtainable by a standard spectrum stripping process. These initial estimates, after convolution with the timing system resolution function, are then used as the inputs for a nonlinear least squares analysis to compute the estimates that conform to a global error minimization criterion. The convolution integral uses the full experimental resolution function, in contrast to the previous studies where analytical approximations of it were utilized. These concepts were incorporated into a generalized Computer Program for Analyzing Positron Lifetime Spectra (PAPLS) in polymers. Its validity was tested using several artificially generated data sets. These data sets were also analyzed using the widely used POSITRONFIT program. In almost all cases, the PAPLS program gives closer fit to the input values. The new procedure was applied to the analysis of several lifetime spectra measured in metal ion containing Epon-828 samples. The results are described.

  9. The ultraviolet spectra of the Jovian aurora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.; Dalgarno, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)


    The ultraviolet spectra of molecular hydrogen H{sub 2} due to electron impact excitation are calculated and compared with the high-resolution (0.56 A) spectra of the Jovian aurora obtained with the {ital Hubble} {ital Space} {ital Telescope} Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph. All the observed features are reproduced by electron impact excitation emissions of H{sub 2}, and the predicted intensities agree well with the observed intensities. Accurate molecular parameters are used, and effects of secondary electrons are included. The auroral emissions are reproduced by energetic electron impact excitation of H{sub 2} with a temperature of 400{endash}600 K. Large temperature gradients occur with respect to altitude within the auroral emission regions. The auroral spectra contain a cascade contribution to the Lyman band emission from high-lying {ital E} and {ital F} states that are populated by the low-energy secondary electrons produced as the energetic auroral electrons slow down. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Astronomical Society.}

  10. Synthetic high-resolution near-IR spectra of the Sun for planetary data reductions made from ATMOS/Spacelab-3 and Atlas-3 data (United States)

    Seo, Haingja; Kim, Sang J.; Hwang, Sungwon; Jung, Aeran; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Joo Hyeon; Kim, Kap-Sung; Lee, Jinny; Jang, Minhwan


    We have constructed synthetic solar spectra for the 2302-4800 cm -1 (2.08-4.34 μm) range, a spectral range where planetary objects mainly emit reflected sunlight, using ATMOS (Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy)/Spacelab-3 and Atlas-3 spectra, of which resolution is 0.01 cm -1. We adopted Voigt line profiles for the modeling of line shapes based on an atlas of line identifications compiled by Geller [Geller, M., 1992. Key to Identification of Solar Features. A High-Resolution Atlas of the Infrared Spectrum of the Sun and the Earth Atmosphere from Space. NASA Reference Publ. 1224, vol. III. NASA, Washington, DC, pp. 1-22], who derived solar line positions and intensities from contaminated high-resolution solar spectra obtained by ATMOS/Spacelab-3. Because the ATMOS spectra in these wavelength ranges are compromised by absorption lines of molecules existing in Earth's high-altitude atmosphere and in the compartment of the spacecraft, the direct use of these high-resolution solar spectra has been inconvenient for the data reductions of planetary spectra. We compared the synthetic solar spectra with the ATMOS spectra, and obtained satisfactory fits for the majority of the solar lines with the exception of abnormal lines, which do not fit with Voigt line profiles. From the model fits, we were able to determine Voigt line parameters for the majority of solar lines; and we made a list of the abnormal lines. We also constructed telluric-line-free solar spectra by manually eliminating telluric lines from the ATMOS spectra and filling the gaps with adjacent continua. These synthetic solar spectra will be useful to eliminate solar continua from spectra of planetary objects to extract their own intrinsic spectral features.

  11. Assessing potential reasons for different precipitation patterns on Mount Kenya and Kilimanjaro (United States)

    Covi, Federico; Gohm, Alexander; Kaser, Georg


    Mount Kilimanjaro and Mount Kenya in tropical East Africa are often considered as typically influenced by the same air mass. Yet, both precipitation patterns and glacier behavior differ considerably on these neighboring mountains. This indicates that either different air masses are at play or that precipitation processes are considerably different. The present study aims to investigate the most relevant driving mechanism of precipitation over the two neighboring mountains. First, ERA-Interim reanalysis data are used to characterize the atmospheric background conditions of days with precipitation simultaneously recorded on both Kersten Glacier (Kilimanjaro) and Lewis Glacier (Mt Kenya). From this analysis idealized vertical profiles are constructed and used as an atmospheric reference state for simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The semi-realistic model topography is constructed from a high-resolution digital elevation dataset (SRTM). A series of sensitivity simulations is carried out with modified topography, vertical sounding and surface sensible heat flux to asses the dominant factors governing precipitation over the two mountains. With this, we aim to enhance the climate information from the differently behaving glaciers on the two East African mountains.

  12. Multi-sensor observation of precipitation in a coastal region of Antarctica (United States)

    Berne, Alexis; Grazioli, Jacopo; Genthon, Christophe; DelGuasta, Massimo


    In the framework of a Italian-French-Swiss collaboration, a suite of instruments dedicated to the observation of solid precipitation was deployed at the French Antarctic station Dumont d'Urville on the coast of Adélie Land in Antarctica during (southern) summer 2015-2016. On the remote sensing side, a depolarization lidar (531 nm), a 24-GHz vertical Doppler profiler (MRR from Metek) and a scanning X-band polarimetric radar (called MXPol) were nearly collocated. For measurement at the ground level, a weather station (for local meteorological conditions), a weighing gauge (Pluvio2 from OTT, with wind shield), an optical disdrometer (Biral) and a multi-angle snowflake camera (MASC) were complementing the remote sensing instruments. In addition, daily radiosounding records collected by MeteoFrance were available. This experimental set up was built in order to investigate the added value of remote sensing for the monitoring and understanding of Antarctic precipitation (variability, microphysics), as well as to collect reference data for the evaluation of satellite precipitation products derived from CloudSat and simulated from numerical prediction weather models. Moreover, the potential of radar measurement to distinguish blowing snow from precipitation, an acute problem in the windy coastal regions of Antarctica, was also investigated. This contribution presents the motivation, the set-up and a first analysis of this unprecedented data set about Antarctic precipitation.

  13. Multi-beam raindrop size distributions retrievals on the Doppler spectra : Influence of averaging and mean horizontal wind correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unal, C.M.H.


    Acquiring the raindrop size distribution (DSD) from radar data is still a challenge. For profiling radar, this distribution can be estimated from the Doppler spectra. However the Doppler spectrum is not a direct measure of the DSD. The radial component of the wind shifts the Doppler spectrum related


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocchetto, M.; Waldmann, I. P.; Tinetti, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, WC1E6BT London (United Kingdom); Venot, O. [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Lagage, P.-O., E-mail: [Irfu, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-9119 Gif-sur Yvette (France)


    With a scheduled launch in 2018 October, the James Webb Space Telescope ( JWST ) is expected to revolutionize the field of atmospheric characterization of exoplanets. The broad wavelength coverage and high sensitivity of its instruments will allow us to extract far more information from exoplanet spectra than what has been possible with current observations. In this paper, we investigate whether current retrieval methods will still be valid in the era of JWST , exploring common approximations used when retrieving transmission spectra of hot Jupiters. To assess biases, we use 1D photochemical models to simulate typical hot Jupiter cloud-free atmospheres and generate synthetic observations for a range of carbon-to-oxygen ratios. Then, we retrieve these spectra using TauREx, a Bayesian retrieval tool, using two methodologies: one assuming an isothermal atmosphere, and one assuming a parameterized temperature profile. Both methods assume constant-with-altitude abundances. We found that the isothermal approximation biases the retrieved parameters considerably, overestimating the abundances by about one order of magnitude. The retrieved abundances using the parameterized profile are usually within 1 σ of the true state, and we found the retrieved uncertainties to be generally larger compared to the isothermal approximation. Interestingly, we found that by using the parameterized temperature profile we could place tight constraints on the temperature structure. This opens the possibility of characterizing the temperature profile of the terminator region of hot Jupiters. Lastly, we found that assuming a constant-with-altitude mixing ratio profile is a good approximation for most of the atmospheres under study.

  15. Spectral atlas for amateur astronomers a guide to the spectra of astronomical objects and terrestrial light sources

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Richard


    Featuring detailed commented spectral profiles of more than one hundred astronomical objects, in colour, this spectral guide documents most of the important and spectroscopically observable objects accessible using typical amateur equipment. It allows you to read and interpret the recorded spectra of the main stellar classes, as well as most of the steps from protostars through to the final stages of stellar evolution as planetary nebulae, white dwarfs or the different types of supernovae. It also presents integrated spectra of stellar clusters, galaxies and quasars, and the reference spectra of some terrestrial light sources, for calibration purposes. Whether used as the principal reference for comparing with your recorded spectra or for inspiring independent observing projects, this atlas provides a breathtaking view into our Universe's past. The atlas is accompanied and supplemented by Spectroscopy for Amateur Astronomers, which explains in detail the methods for recording, processing, analysing and interp...

  16. GENESIS: new self-consistent models of exoplanetary spectra (United States)

    Gandhi, Siddharth; Madhusudhan, Nikku


    We are entering the era of high-precision and high-resolution spectroscopy of exoplanets. Such observations herald the need for robust self-consistent spectral models of exoplanetary atmospheres to investigate intricate atmospheric processes and to make observable predictions. Spectral models of plane-parallel exoplanetary atmospheres exist, mostly adapted from other astrophysical applications, with different levels of sophistication and accuracy. There is a growing need for a new generation of models custom-built for exoplanets and incorporating state-of-the-art numerical methods and opacities. The present work is a step in this direction. Here we introduce GENESIS, a plane-parallel, self-consistent, line-by-line exoplanetary atmospheric modelling code that includes (a) formal solution of radiative transfer using the Feautrier method, (b) radiative-convective equilibrium with temperature correction based on the Rybicki linearization scheme, (c) latest absorption cross-sections, and (d) internal flux and external irradiation, under the assumptions of hydrostatic equilibrium, local thermodynamic equilibrium and thermochemical equilibrium. We demonstrate the code here with cloud-free models of giant exoplanetary atmospheres over a range of equilibrium temperatures, metallicities, C/O ratios and spanning non-irradiated and irradiated planets, with and without thermal inversions. We provide the community with theoretical emergent spectra and pressure-temperature profiles over this range, along with those for several known hot Jupiters. The code can generate self-consistent spectra at high resolution and has the potential to be integrated into general circulation and non-equilibrium chemistry models as it is optimized for efficiency and convergence. GENESIS paves the way for high-fidelity remote sensing of exoplanetary atmospheres at high resolution with current and upcoming observations.

  17. Effect of Co2+ and Ni2+-doped zinc borate nano crystalline powders by co-precipitation method (United States)

    Shim, Jaesool; Venkata Reddy, Ch.; Sarma, G. V. S. S.; Narayana Murthy, P.; Ravikumar, R. V. S. S. N.


    A simple co-precipitation method has been used for the synthesis of Co2+ and Ni2+-doped zinc borate nanopowders. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), UV/Vis absorption, Scanning electron microscope (SEM) with EDS and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies techniques has been employed for their characterization. Powder X-ray diffraction data reveals that the crystal structure belongs to monoclinic for both as-prepared samples. SEM images showed surface morphology of the prepared samples. Optical absorption spectra showed the characteristic bands of doped ions in octahedral site symmetry. From the optical absorption data crystal field and inter-electronic repulsion parameters are evaluated. The FT-IR spectra showed the characteristic vibrational bands related to ZnO, BO3 and BO4 molecules. Photoluminescence spectra exhibited the emission bands in ultraviolet and blue regions.

  18. Effect of Co(2+) and Ni(2+)-doped zinc borate nano crystalline powders by co-precipitation method. (United States)

    Shim, Jaesool; Venkata Reddy, Ch; Sarma, G V S S; Narayana Murthy, P; Ravikumar, R V S S N


    A simple co-precipitation method has been used for the synthesis of Co(2+) and Ni(2+)-doped zinc borate nanopowders. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), UV/Vis absorption, Scanning electron microscope (SEM) with EDS and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies techniques has been employed for their characterization. Powder X-ray diffraction data reveals that the crystal structure belongs to monoclinic for both as-prepared samples. SEM images showed surface morphology of the prepared samples. Optical absorption spectra showed the characteristic bands of doped ions in octahedral site symmetry. From the optical absorption data crystal field and inter-electronic repulsion parameters are evaluated. The FT-IR spectra showed the characteristic vibrational bands related to ZnO, BO3 and BO4 molecules. Photoluminescence spectra exhibited the emission bands in ultraviolet and blue regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A test for Improvement of high resolution Quantitative Precipitation Estimation for localized heavy precipitation events (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hoon; Roh, Joon-Woo; Park, Jeong-Gyun


    Accurate estimation of precipitation is one of the most difficult and significant tasks in the area of weather diagnostic and forecasting. In the Korean Peninsula, heavy precipitations are caused by various physical mechanisms, which are affected by shortwave trough, quasi-stationary moisture convergence zone among varying air masses, and a direct/indirect effect of tropical cyclone. In addition to, various geographical and topographical elements make production of temporal and spatial distribution of precipitation is very complicated. Especially, localized heavy rainfall events in South Korea generally arise from mesoscale convective systems embedded in these synoptic scale disturbances. In weather radar data with high temporal and spatial resolution, accurate estimation of rain rate from radar reflectivity data is too difficult. Z-R relationship (Marshal and Palmer 1948) have adapted representatively. In addition to, several methods such as support vector machine (SVM), neural network, Fuzzy logic, Kriging were utilized in order to improve the accuracy of rain rate. These methods show the different quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) and the performances of accuracy are different for heavy precipitation cases. In this study, in order to improve the accuracy of QPE for localized heavy precipitation, ensemble method for Z-R relationship and various techniques was tested. This QPE ensemble method was developed by a concept based on utilizing each advantage of precipitation calibration methods. The ensemble members were produced for a combination of different Z-R coefficient and calibration method.

  20. Ethanol precipitation analysis of thymus histone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijvoet, P.


    An analytical ethanol precipitation technique, similar to 's salting-out procedure, was used for the characterisation of whole thymus histone and the products obtained by preparative ethanol fractionation. The analysis was carried out at —5° C and pH 6.5. Whole histone prepared according to et al.,

  1. Short Resistant Collecting Cells for Electrostatic Precipitators. (United States)


    Precipitator Designs 5. Trion, Inc. Invention Disclosure No. 49 dated May 17, 1982 " Smoke Control Electronic Air Cleaner" 6. Trion, Inc. Invention...development work was to be provided including recommendations for future efforts to develop a I commercially practicable shipboard smoke control system. 2

  2. Recovery of Plutonium by Carrier Precipitation (United States)

    Goeckermann, R. H.


    The recovery of plutonium from an aqueous nitric acid Zr-containing solution of 0.2 to 1N acidity is accomplished by adding fluoride anions (1.5 to 5 mg/l), and precipitating the Pu with an excess of H/sub 2/0/sub 2/ at 53 to 65 deg C. (AEC)

  3. Projections of precipitation, air temperature and potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    climate change on this sector is a prerequisite. Climate change due to global warming might impact the agriculture development plans in this small country by imposing increased air temperature, seasonal variation of precipitation, flooding and drought, soil erosion, spread of water borne diseases (e.g. Malaria), etc.

  4. Validating quantitative precipitation forecast for the Flood ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In tropical regions like India, weather forecasting by using statistical and numerical methods is quite useful for operational purpose. In view of this, quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) might be done by adopting conventional synoptic analysis method since it can serve as a potential tool for operational flood forecasting ...

  5. Recent changes in precipitation extremes in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina-Eliza CROITORU


    Full Text Available Changes in daily extreme precipitations have been identified in many studies conducted at local, regional or global scales. In Romania, only little research on this issue has been done so far. The present study is focused on the analysis of the trends in daily extreme precipitations indices over a period of 53 years (1961-2013. Data sets of daily precipitation recorded in 34 weather stations were analyzed. Among them, three are located in the Carpathian Mountains area and four are located on the Black Sea Coast. The main goal was to find changes in extreme daily precipitation using a set of 13 indices adopted from the core indices developed by ETCCDMI with appropriate modifications to suit to the studied area. The series of the indices as well as their trends were generated using RClimDex software. The trends have been calculated using the linear mean square method. The findings are similar to those obtained at the global and European continental scales and the most noteworthy are: increasing trends dominate for the most of the indices, but only about 25% of them are statistically significant at α=0.05; decreasing trends are more specific to southern area of the country; decreasing trends of  R0.1, CDD and CWD dominate for the great majority of locations; the spatial distribution of the significant slopes in the area is extremely irregular.

  6. Clinical presentation and precipitating factors of diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sciences, Mwanza, Tanzania. 3Department of Microbiology/Immunology, Weill Bugando School of Medicine, Catholic University of Health and. Allied Sciences, Mwanza, Tanzania. Abstract ... clinic to reduce morbidity and mortality in these patients. Keywords: diabetic ketoacidosis, clinical presentation, precipitating factors, ...

  7. Precipitable Water Comparisons Over Ghana using PPP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akwasi Afrifa Acheampong

    System (CSRS) and Automatic Precise Positioning Service (APPS) online PPP services were the approaches used ... There is an added advantage that retrieved precipitable water or integrated water vapour can be directly .... APPS gave the highest correlation for all the three reanalysis models followed by CSRS and gLAB.

  8. Diabetic ketoacidosis: clinical presentation and precipitating factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the clinico-laboratory features and precipitating factors of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). Design: Prospective cross-sectional study. Setting: Inpatient medical and surgical wards of KNH. Subjects: Adult patients aged 12 years and above with known or previously ...

  9. Diabetic Ketoacidosis: Pattern of Precipitating Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Uddin Ahmed


    Full Text Available Background: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA is one of the most common acute complications of diabetes mellitus (DM. DKA is a recognised presenting feature of type 1 DM, but it commonly complicates previously diagnosed diabetic patients of all types, specially if they get infection or discontinue treatment. Objective: To describe the precipitating causes of DKA. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done from September to November, 2010 in Bangladesh Institute of Research & Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM. Diagnosed DKA cases were evaluated clinically and by laboratory investigations for identification of precipitating causes. Results: Out of 50 patients, 28 were female. Mean age was 38.3 years. Forty patients (80% were known diabetics and 10 (20% were detected diabetic first time during this admission. Severe DKA cases were less common. Infection (20, 40% was the commonest precipitating cause followed by noncompliance (14, 28%. In 7 (14% cases no cause could be identified. Other less common causes included acute myocardial infarction, acute pancreatitis, stroke and surgery. Conclusion: Infection and noncompliance were the major precipitants of DKA. So, it is assumed that many DKA cases might be prevented by proper counselling regarding adherence to medication and sick days’ management.

  10. Projections of precipitation, air temperature and potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential evapotranspiration has an increasing trend and exceeds the precipitation in the months of June to September. Climate projections indicate trend towards a warmer and wetter climate. Increases in mean temperature are projected under all models and scenarios, while all models also indicate increases in ...

  11. Clinical presentation and precipitating factors of diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    13.8%), 3(10.3%) and 1(3.4%) presented with vomiting, abdominal pain, Kussmaul's breathing and coma, respectively. Nausea, weight loss and polyphagia each were presented by 2(6.9%) patients. The precipitating factors were infection 15 ...


    The manual focuses on the operation and maintenance (O/M) of typical electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). It summarizes available information on theory and design in sufficient detail to provide a basic background O/M portions of the manual. Although O/M-related air pollution prob...

  13. Precipitation variability assessment of northeast China: Songhua ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Variability in precipitation is critical for the management of water resources. In this study, the researchentropy base concept was applied to investigate spatial and temporal variability of the precipitationduring 1964–2013 in the Songhua River basin of Heilongjiang Province in China. Sample entropy wasapplied on ...

  14. Precipitation of humic acid with divalent ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Peder Raj; Mikkelsen, Lene Haugaard; Keiding, Kristian


    The aim of this study is to investigate precipitation proper-ties of humic acid (HA). This is done by studying a commercial available humic acid salt (HA) from which a phase diagram is established by adding various amounts of BaCl2 to different concentrations of HA at pH 5.5. The phase diagram...... shows tree characteristic regions with markedly different precipitation courses: region I at HA concentration below 0.15g/l, region H at HA concentration between 0.15 and similar to2g/l and rgeion IV at HA concentration above 3.5g/l. Furthermore, a forth intermediate region M is observed between similar...... to2 and 3.5g/l. In order to understand these measurements and precipitation behaviour a phase diagram model is constructed using a simple thermodynamic approach. The result of this analysis shows that precipitation in region I and U can be explained by a simple equilibrium reaction between the HA...

  15. Geochemical and lithological factors in acid precipitation (United States)

    James R. Kramer


    Acid precipitation is altered by interaction with rocks, sediment and soil. A calcareous region buffers even the most intense loading at pH ~8; an alumino silicate region with unconsolidated sediment buffers acid loadings at pH ~6.5; alumino silicate outcrops are generally acidified. Either FeOOH or alumino silicates are probable H+...

  16. Dissolution and precipitation dynamics during dedolomitization (United States)

    Edery, Yaniv; Scher, Harvey; Berkowitz, Brian


    We simulate the processes of dedolomitization and calcium carbonate precipitation using particle tracking. The study is stimulated by the results of a laboratory experiment that examined reactive transport of injected CaCl2/HCl, into a column of sucrosic dolomite particles, with a constant flow field. The injected fluid supplies Ca2+ and H+. Dedolomitization is a protonation reaction yielding carbonic acid; a subsequent deprotonation reaction yields ?, and reaction with the abundant Ca2+ forms the precipitate CaCO3. The dedolomitization and precipitation processes involve multistep, multispecies chemical reactions, with both irreversible and reversible stages. The particle tracking is governed by spatial and temporal distributions within a continuous time random walk framework. This accounts for the effects of disorder of heterogeneous media (leading to non-Fickian transport) and includes the option of treating purely advective-dispersive (Fickian) transport. The dynamics of dedolomitization are examined for different flow conditions and reaction rates. The fluctuations in the local velocity distributions, due to porosity changes, create conditions for positive feedbacks leading to development of preferential pathways, large-scale nonlinearity, and precipitation banding. These features have been observed in the laboratory experiments and are now accounted for by the simulation results at similar time frames, velocities, and pH levels.

  17. Seasonal precipitation forecast skill over Iran

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shirvani, A


    Full Text Available This paper examines the skill of seasonal precipitation forecasts over Iran using one two-tiered model, three National Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) models, and two coupled ocean–atmosphere or one-tiered models. These models are, respectively...

  18. The FTS atomic spectrum tool (FAST) for rapid analysis of line spectra (United States)

    Ruffoni, M. P.


    The FTS Atomic Spectrum Tool (FAST) is an interactive graphical program designed to simplify the analysis of atomic emission line spectra obtained from Fourier transform spectrometers. Calculated, predicted and/or known experimental line parameters are loaded alongside experimentally observed spectral line profiles for easy comparison between new experimental data and existing results. Many such line profiles, which could span numerous spectra, may be viewed simultaneously to help the user detect problems from line blending or self-absorption. Once the user has determined that their experimental line profile fits are good, a key feature of FAST is the ability to calculate atomic branching fractions, transition probabilities, and oscillator strengths-and their uncertainties-which is not provided by existing analysis packages. Program SummaryProgram title: FAST: The FTS Atomic Spectrum Tool Catalogue identifier: AEOW_v1_0 Program summary URL: Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 293058 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 13809509 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++. Computer: Intel x86-based systems. Operating system: Linux/Unix/Windows. RAM: 8 MB minimum. About 50-200 MB for a typical analysis. Classification: 2.2, 2.3, 21.2. Nature of problem: Visualisation of atomic line spectra including the comparison of theoretical line parameters with experimental atomic line profiles. Accurate intensity calibration of experimental spectra, and the determination of observed relative line intensities that are needed for calculating atomic branching fractions and oscillator strengths. Solution method: FAST is centred around a graphical interface, where a user may view sets of experimental line profiles and compare

  19. Spectra-structure correlations from the infrared spectra of some transition metal complexes of 8-hydroxyquinoline (United States)

    Engelter, Carola; Jackson, Graham E.; Knight, Cheryl L.; Thornton, David A.


    The IR spectra of twenty-one transition metal complexes of 8-hydroxyquinoline over the range 700-50 cm -1 are discussed in relation to their known or inferred structures. The complexes are of three types: (a) the bis(aquo) complexes of the 3 d metal(II) ions trans-[M(ox) 2(H 2O) 2] (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn); (b) the corresponding anhydrous complexes, [M(ox) 2] (M = Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn); and (c) the complexes of the metal(III) ions, [M(ox) 3] (M = Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ga). 8-Hydroxyquinoline- d7 has been synthesized and used to assist in the metal-ligand assignments which are further based on 64,68Zn labelling of the bis(aquo) zinc complex and on the effects of metal ion substitution in relation to expectations based on crystal field theory. The effects of Jahn-Teller distortion on the spectra of the complexes of Cu(II) and Mn(III) are discussed. The spectra of the bis(aquo) adducts support the previously proposed trans-octahedral structure. The spectra of the anhydrous complexes are consistent with tetrahedral Mn, Ni and Zn but suggest that the Co complex has polymeric octahedral coordination rather than the previously-proposed tetrahedral structure. The six-coordinate α-Cu complex and five-coordinate β-Cu complex exhibit distinctive differences in their spectra which support the elongated axial Cu-O bonds observed in crystal structure determinations. The spectra of the metal(III) tris(oxinates) are consistent with the facial ( cis-cis) coordination previously proposed. The spectra of these complexes are discussed in relation to bonding considerations based on crystal field theory.

  20. Improving Precipitation Forecast for Canadian Catchments (United States)

    Jha, S. K.; Shrestha, D. L.; Walford, C.; Leong, D. N. S.; Friesenhan, E.; Campbell, D.; Rasmussen, P. F.


    In Canada, floods occur frequently along large river systems, causing devastation to lives and infrastructure. Flooding in Canada is often caused by heavy rainfall during the snowmelt period. The flood forecast centres are responsible for providing advanced flood warnings and rely heavily on forecasted precipitation from numerical weather prediction (NWP) model outputs produced by Environment Canada and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The uncertainties in NWP model output are enhanced by physiography and orographic effects over diverse landscapes, particularly in the western catchments of Canada. Therefore, post-processing of NWP model output is necessary to obtain better forecasts of rainfall amount, location, timing, and intensity; and to reliably quantify forecast uncertainty. The Rainfall Post Processing (RPP) approach (Robertson et al., 2013) has been successfully applied recently to remove rainfall forecast bias and quantify forecast uncertainty from NWP models in Australian catchments (Shrestha et al., 2015). In principle, the RPP method can be applied to other regions (e.g. cold regions) but has not been tested yet. In this study we will evaluate the performance of the RPP for improving the precipitation forecast in southern catchments in Alberta and British Columbia. The RPP relates raw quantitative precipitation forecasts and observed precipitation using a Bayesian joint probability (BJP) modeling approach, followed by the Schaake shuffle. Precipitation forecasts were analysed from two NWP models, Global Ensemble Forecasting System and Global Deterministic Prediction System. Observed data was collected from the provincial river forecast centres. The study period from Jan 2012 to Dec 2015 covered major flood events in Calgary, Alberta, and floods in coastal watersheds in British Columbia. Rain-gauge observations and forecast grid points were interpolated to obtain an aerial average precipitation in subareas to force the hydrological

  1. Experimental observations of boric acid precipitation scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaghetto, R., E-mail:; Childs, M., E-mail:; Jones, P., E-mail:; Lee, S., E-mail:; Kee, E., E-mail:; Hassan, Y.A., E-mail:


    During a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in Light Water Reactors (LWR), borated water is injected into the core through the safety injection system. The continuous vaporization of the water from the core may increase the concentration of boric acid in the core that, under certain conditions may reach the solubility limit and precipitate. This includes scenarios where the liquid water supply to the core is affected by possible blockages due to debris accumulation. Questions have been raised on the effects of the precipitate in the core on the flow behavior, including the possibility of additional blockages produced by precipitate accumulation. A simple experimental facility was constructed to perform experimental observations of the behavior of borated water under the combined effects of the boiling and the boric acid precipitation (BAP). The facility consists of a transparent polycarbonate vertical pipe where forty-five heated rods have been installed to supply the power to the water to reach the saturation temperature, and maintain a desired boil-off rate. The layout and geometry of the experimental apparatus were conceived to emulate a simplified core of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). Experimental observations have been conducted under two different conditions. Preliminary tests were conducted to observe the behavior of the water and the boric acid precipitate during a boil-off scenario without borated water addition (decreasing water level). During the main test runs, borated water was constantly injected from the top of the test section to maintain a constant mixture level in the test section. Both tests assumed no flow from the bottom of the test section which may be the case of PWR LOCA scenarios in presence of debris-generated core blockage. The observations performed with a set of cameras installed around the test section showed interesting effects of the vapor bubbles on the boric acid precipitate migration and accumulation in the test section. The

  2. in situ Calcite Precipitation for Contaminant Immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshiko Fujita; Robert W. Smith


    in situ Calcite Precipitation for Contaminant Immobilization Yoshiko Fujita ( (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA) Robert W. Smith (University of Idaho-Idaho Falls, Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA) Subsurface radionuclide and trace metal contaminants throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex pose one of DOE’s greatest challenges for long-term stewardship. One promising stabilization mechanism for divalent trace ions, such as the short-lived radionuclide strontium-90, is co-precipitation in calcite. Calcite, a common mineral in the arid western U.S., can form solid solutions with trace metals. The rate of trace metal incorporation is susceptible to manipulation using either abiotic or biotic means. We have previously demonstrated that increasing the calcite precipitation rate by stimulating the activity of urea hydrolyzing microorganisms can result in significantly enhanced Sr uptake. Urea hydrolysis causes the acceleration of calcium carbonate precipitation (and trace metal co-precipitation) by increasing pH and alkalinity, and also by liberating the reactive cations from the aquifer matrix via exchange reactions involving the ammonium ion derived from urea: H2NCONH2 + 3H2O ? 2NH4+ + HCO3- + OH- urea hydrolysis >X:2Ca + 2NH4+ ? 2>X:NH4 + Ca2+ ion exchange Ca2+ + HCO3- + OH- ? CaCO3(s) + H2O calcite precipitation where >X: is a cation exchange site on the aquifer matrix. This contaminant immobilization approach has several attractive features. Urea hydrolysis is catalyzed by the urease enzyme, which is produced by many indigenous subsurface microorganisms. Addition of foreign microbes is unnecessary. In turn the involvement of the native microbes and the consequent in situ generation of reactive components in the aqueous phase (e.g., carbonate and Ca or Sr) can allow dissemination of the reaction over a larger volume and/or farther away from an amendment injection point, as compared to direct addition of the reactants at

  3. "Parallel factor analysis of multi-excitation ultraviolet resonance Raman spectra for protein secondary structure determination". (United States)

    Oshokoya, Olayinka O; JiJi, Renee D


    Protein secondary structural analysis is important for understanding the relationship between protein structure and function, or more importantly how changes in structure relate to loss of function. The structurally sensitive protein vibrational modes (amide I, II, III and S) in deep-ultraviolet resonance Raman (DUVRR) spectra resulting from the backbone C-O and N-H vibrations make DUVRR a potentially powerful tool for studying secondary structure changes. Experimental studies reveal that the position and intensity of the four amide modes in DUVRR spectra of proteins are largely correlated with the varying fractions of α-helix, β-sheet and disordered structural content of proteins. Employing multivariate calibration methods and DUVRR spectra of globular proteins with varying structural compositions, the secondary structure of a protein with unknown structure can be predicted. A disadvantage of multivariate calibration methods is the requirement of known concentration or spectral profiles. Second-order curve resolution methods, such as parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), do not have such a requirement due to the "second-order advantage." An exceptional feature of DUVRR spectroscopy is that DUVRR spectra are linearly dependent on both excitation wavelength and secondary structure composition. Thus, higher order data can be created by combining protein DUVRR spectra of several proteins collected at multiple excitation wavelengths to give multi-excitation ultraviolet resonance Raman data (ME-UVRR). PARAFAC has been used to analyze ME-UVRR data of nine proteins to resolve the pure spectral, excitation and compositional profiles. A three factor model with non-negativity constraints produced three unique factors that were correlated with the relative abundance of helical, β-sheet and poly-proline II dihedral angles. This is the first empirical evidence that the typically resolved "disordered" spectrum represents the better defined poly-proline II type structure

  4. A global satellite assisted precipitation climatology (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Verdin, Andrew P.; Michaelsen, Joel C.; Pedreros, Diego; Husak, Gregory J.; Peterson, P.


    Accurate representations of mean climate conditions, especially in areas of complex terrain, are an important part of environmental monitoring systems. As high-resolution satellite monitoring information accumulates with the passage of time, it can be increasingly useful in efforts to better characterize the earth's mean climatology. Current state-of-the-science products rely on complex and sometimes unreliable relationships between elevation and station-based precipitation records, which can result in poor performance in food and water insecure regions with sparse observation networks. These vulnerable areas (like Ethiopia, Afghanistan, or Haiti) are often the critical regions for humanitarian drought monitoring. Here, we show that long period of record geo-synchronous and polar-orbiting satellite observations provide a unique new resource for producing high resolution (0.05°) global precipitation climatologies that perform reasonably well in data sparse regions. Traditionally, global climatologies have been produced by combining station observations and physiographic predictors like latitude, longitude, elevation, and slope. While such approaches can work well, especially in areas with reasonably dense observation networks, the fundamental relationship between physiographic variables and the target climate variables can often be indirect and spatially complex. Infrared and microwave satellite observations, on the other hand, directly monitor the earth's energy emissions. These emissions often correspond physically with the location and intensity of precipitation. We show that these relationships provide a good basis for building global climatologies. We also introduce a new geospatial modeling approach based on moving window regressions and inverse distance weighting interpolation. This approach combines satellite fields, gridded physiographic indicators, and in situ climate normals. The resulting global 0.05° monthly precipitation climatology, the Climate

  5. From precipitation to ice cores: an isotopic comparison at Summit, Greenland (United States)

    Kopec, B. G.; Feng, X.; Adolph, A. C.; Virginia, R. A.; Posmentier, E. S.


    The observed deuterium excess (d-excess) in ice cores from Summit, Greenland has high summer values and low winter values, which is opposite of the seasonal variations of most northern hemisphere locations. The interpretation of this d-excess seasonality in the context of moisture source changes is made more complicated by possible post-depositional modifications. We investigate potential post-depositional modifications within 3-4 years after precipitation events by collecting precipitation samples and comparing them with snow pit profiles at Summit. Precipitation was sampled on a storm-by-storm basis from July 2011 to September 2014. To assess the effect of wind blown snow on cross-storm contamination, we sampled at three heights (1, 2, and 4 m). Snow pits were sampled in the summers of 2013 and 2015 to span the entirety of our precipitation record. All samples were analyzed for δD and δ18O and d-excess was calculated. Mixing of snow between different storms was identified only for samples collected at the lowest height. We thus use the samples collected at the top height for interpretation. The annual cycle of precipitation isotopes follow the established seasonal relationship with the average summer enrichment of -217 and -29‰, and winter depletion of -317 and -40‰ for δD and δ18O, respectively. The d-excess shows an average summer maximum of 16‰ and winter minimum of 3‰. In the snow pit, the seasonal amplitude and phase of both oxygen and hydrogen isotopic ratios as well as the d-excess compare remarkably well with those of the precipitation. The profile appeared to be devoid of major post depositional effects except for a thin layer that changed during a melt event in 2012. However, this type of event is extremely rare at Summit, and should not significantly compromise the interpretation of precipitation isotopes in ice cores, except perhaps during climatic warm period summers. The precipitation d-excess seasonality is typically interpreted as

  6. A pratical deconvolution algorithm in multi-fiber spectra extraction (United States)

    Zhang, Haotong; Li, Guangwei; Bai, Zhongrui


    Deconvolution algorithm is a very promising method in multi-fiber spectroscopy data reduction, the method can extract spectra to the photo noise level as well as improve the spectral resolution, but as mentioned in Bolton & Schlegel (2010), it is limited by its huge computation requirement and thus can not be implemented directly in actual data reduction. We develop a practical algorithm to solve the computation problem. The new algorithm can deconvolve a 2D fiber spectral image of any size with actual PSFs, which may vary with positions. We further consider the influence of noise, which is thought to be an intrinsic ill-posed problem in deconvolution algorithms. We modify our method with a Tikhonov regularization item to depress the method induced noise. A series of simulations based on LAMOST data are carried out to test our method under more real situations with poisson noise and extreme cross talk, i.e., the fiber-to-fiber distance is comparable to the FWHM of the fiber profile. Compared with the results of traditional extraction methods, i.e., the Aperture Extraction Method and the Profile Fitting Method, our method shows both higher S/N and spectral resolution. The computaion time for a noise added image with 250 fibers and 4k pixels in wavelength direction, is about 2 hours when the fiber cross talk is not in the extreme case and 3.5 hours for the extreme fiber cross talk. We finally apply our method to real LAMOST data. We find that the 1D spectrum extracted by our method has both higher SNR and resolution than the traditional methods, but there are still some suspicious weak features possibly caused by the noise sensitivity of the method around the strong emission lines. How to further attenuate the noise influence will be the topic of our future work. As we have demonstrated, multi-fiber spectra extracted by our method will have higher resolution and signal to noise ratio thus will provide more accurate information (such as higher radial velocity and

  7. Co-precipitation synthesis and upconversion luminescence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ZrO2:Yb3+-Ho3+ phosphors with different Yb3+ doping concentration have been prepared by coprecipitation method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and photoluminescence spectra were used to characterize the properties of ZrO2:Yb3+-Ho3+ phosphors. Different phases of ZrO2 can be ...

  8. Classification of specialty seed meals from NIR reflectance spectra (United States)

    Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy was used to identify alternative seed meals proposed for food and feed formulations. Spectra were collected from cold pressed Camelina (Camelina sativa), Coriander (Coriandrum sativum), and Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) meals. Additional spectra were collected ...

  9. Evaluation of secondary and prompt fission neutron spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porodzinskij, Yu.V.; Sukhovitskij, E.Sh. [Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Inst., Minsk-Sosny (Belarus)


    A simple model allowing to split neutron emission spectra into reaction partials is suggested. Predicted spectra of (n,n`{gamma}), (n,n`f), etc appear to be much harder than usually evaluated. (author)

  10. Photon and photoneutron spectra produced in radiotherapy Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Martinez O, S. A. [Universidad Pedagogica y Tecnologica de Colombia, Grupo de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada y Simulacion, Av. Central del Norte Km. 1, Via Paipa Tunja, Boyaca (Colombia); Benites R, J. L. [Universidad Autonoma de Nayarit, Postgrado CBAP, Carretera Tepic Compostela Km. 9, Xalisco, Nayarit (Mexico); Lallena, A. M., E-mail: [Universida de Granada, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, E-18071 Granada (Spain)


    A Monte Carlo calculation, using the MCNPX code, was carried out in order to estimate the photon and neutron spectra in two locations of two linacs operating at 15 and 18 MV. Detailed models of both linac heads were used in the calculations. Spectra were estimated below the flattening filter and at the isocenter. Neutron spectra show two components due to evaporation and knock-on neutrons. Lethargy spectra under the filter were compared to the spectra calculated from the function quoted by Tosi et al. that describes reasonably well neutron spectra beyond 1 MeV, though tends to underestimate the energy region between 10{sup -6} and 1 MeV. Neutron and Bremsstrahlung spectra show the same features regardless of the linac voltage. The amount of photons and neutrons produced by the 15 MV linac is smaller than that found for the 18 MV linac. As expected, Bremsstrahlung spectra ends according to the voltage used to accelerate the electrons. (Author)

  11. MPI Profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, D K; Jones, T R


    The Message Passing Interface (MPI) is the de facto message-passing standard for massively parallel programs. It is often the case that application performance is a crucial factor, especially for solving grand challenge problems. While there have been many studies on the scalability of applications, there have not been many focusing on the specific types of MPI calls being made and their impact on application performance. Using a profiling tool called mpiP, a large spectrum of parallel scientific applications were surveyed and their performance results analyzed.

  12. QSFIT: automatic analysis of optical AGN spectra (United States)

    Calderone, G.; Nicastro, L.; Ghisellini, G.; Dotti, M.; Sbarrato, T.; Shankar, F.; Colpi, M.


    We present QSFIT (Quasar Spectral Fitting package), a new software package to automatically perform the analysis of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) optical spectra. The software provides luminosity estimates for the AGN continuum, the Balmer continuum, both optical and ultraviolet iron blended complex, host galaxy and emission lines, as well as width, velocity offset and equivalent width of 20 emission lines. Improving on a number of previous studies on AGN spectral analysis, QSFIT fits all the components simultaneously, using an AGN continuum model which extends over the entire available spectrum, and is thus a probe of the actual AGN continuum whose estimates are scarcely influenced by localized features (e.g. emission lines) in the spectrum. We used QSFIT to analyse 71 251 optical spectra of Type 1 AGN at z < 2 (obtained by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, SDSS) and to produce a publicly available catalogue of AGN spectral properties. Such catalogue allowed us (for the first time) to estimate the AGN continuum slope and the Balmer continuum luminosity on a very large sample, and to show that there is no evident correlation between these quantities the redshift. All data in the catalogue, the plots with best-fitting model and residuals, and the IDL code we used to perform the analysis, are available on a dedicated website. The whole fitting process is customizable for specific needs, and can be extended to analyse spectra from other data sources. The ultimate purpose of QSFIT is to allow astronomers to run standardized recipes to analyse the AGN data, in a simple, replicable and shareable way.

  13. Characterizing Sky Spectra Using SDSS BOSS Data (United States)

    Florez, Lina Maria; Strauss, Michael A.


    In the optical/near-infrared spectra gathered by a ground-based telescope observing very faint sources, the strengths of the emission lines due to the Earth’s atmosphere can be many times larger than the fluxes of the sources we are interested in. Thus the limiting factor in faint-object spectroscopy is the degree to which systematics in the sky subtraction can be minimized. Longwards of 6000 Angstroms, the night-sky spectrum is dominated by multiple vibrational/rotational transitions of the OH radical from our upper atmosphere. While the wavelengths of these lines are the same in each sky spectrum, their relative strengths vary considerably as a function of time and position on the sky. The better we can model their strengths, the better we can hope to subtract them off. We expect that the strength of lines from common upper energy levels will be correlated with one another. We used flux-calibrated sky spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (SDSS BOSS) to explore these correlations. Our aim is to use these correlations for creating improved sky subtraction algorithms for the Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) on the 8.2-meter Subaru Telescope. When PFS starts gathering data in 2019, it will be the most powerful multi-object spectrograph in the world. Since PFS will be gathering data on sources as faint as 24th magnitude and fainter, it's of upmost importance to be able to accurately measure and subtract sky spectra from the data that we receive.

  14. The spectra and dynamics of diatomic molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Lefebvre-Brion, Helene


    This book is written for graduate students just beginning research, for theorists curious about what experimentalists actually can and do measure, and for experimentalists bewildered by theory. It is a guide for potential users of spectroscopic data, and uses language and concepts that bridge the frequency-and time-domain spectroscopic communities. Key topics, concepts, and techniques include: the assignment of simple spectra, basic experimental techniques, definition of Born-Oppenheimer and angular momentum basis sets and the associated spectroscopic energy level patterns (Hund's ca

  15. Spaces of orderings and abstract real spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Murray A


    This book is of interest to students as well as experts in the area of real algebraic geometry, quadratic forms, orderings, valuations, lattice ordered groups and rings, and in model theory. The original motivation comes from orderings on fields and commutative rings. This is explained as is the important application to minimal generation of semi-algebraic sets. Many results in the new theory of abstract real spectra (also called spaces of signs) appear here for the first time. The reader needs elementary knowledge of commutative rings, ordered fields and real closed fields and valuations.

  16. Interactive computer analysis of nuclear backscattering spectra (United States)

    Saunders, Philip A.; Ziegler, J. F.


    A review will be made of a computer-based interactive nuclear backscattering analysis system. Users without computer experience can develop moderate competence with the system after only brief instruction because of the menu-driven organization. Publishable quality figures can be obtained without any computer expertise. Among the quantities which can be displayed over the data are depth scales for any element, element identification, relative concentrations and theoretical spectra. Captions and titling can made from a selection of 30 font styles. Lettering is put on the graphs under joy-stick control such that placement is exact without needing complicated commands.

  17. Beamstrahlung spectra in next generation linear colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barklow, T.; Chen, P. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)); Kozanecki, W. (DAPNIA-SPP, CEN-Saclay (France))


    For the next generation of linear colliders, the energy loss due to beamstrahlung during the collision of the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} beams is expected to substantially influence the effective center-of-mass energy distribution of the colliding particles. In this paper, we first derive analytical formulae for the electron and photon energy spectra under multiple beamstrahlung processes, and for the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} and {gamma}{gamma} differential luminosities. We then apply our formulation to various classes of 500 GeV e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear collider designs currently under study.

  18. Interpreting peptide mass spectra by VEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Rune; Lundsgaard, M.; Welinder, Karen G.


    of peptide MS/MS spectra imported in text file format. Peaks are annotated, the monoisotopic peaks retained, and the b-and y-ion series identified in an interactive manner. The called peptide sequence is searched against a local protein database for sequence identity and peptide mass. The report compares...... the calculated and the experimental mass spectrum of the called peptide. The program package includes four accessory programs. VEMStrans creates protein databases in FASTA format from EST or cDNA sequence files. VEMSdata creates a virtual peptide database from FASTA files. VEMSdist displays the distribution...

  19. Quark Spectra, Topology, and Random Matrix Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, R.G.; Heller, U.M. [SCRI, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306-4130 (United States); Kiskis, J. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Narayanan, R. [Department of Physics, Building 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, P.O. Box 5000, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)


    Quark spectra in QCD are linked to fundamental properties of the theory including the identification of pions as the Goldstone bosons of spontaneously broken chiral symmetry. The lattice overlap Dirac operator provides a nonperturbative, ultraviolet-regularized description of quarks with the correct chiral symmetry. Properties of the spectrum of this operator and their relation to random matrix theory are studied here. In particular, the predictions from chiral random matrix theory in topologically nontrivial gauge field sectors are tested for the first time. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Boundary layer heights derived from velocity spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoejstrup, J.; Barthelmie, R.J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Kaellstrand, B. [Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden)


    It is a well-known fact that the height of the mixed layer determines the size of the largest and most energetic eddies that can be observed in the unstable boundary layer, and consequently a peak can be observed in the power spectra of the along-wind velocity component at scales comparable to the mixed layer depth. We will now show how the mixed layer depth can be derived from the u-specta and the results will be compared with direct measurements using pibal and tethersonde measurements. (au)

  1. Symmetry in bonding and spectra an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Douglas, Bodie E


    Many courses dealing with the material in this text are called ""Applications of Group Theory."" Emphasizing the central role and primary importance of symmetry in the applications, Symmetry in Bonding and Spectra enables students to handle applications, particularly applications to chemical bonding and spectroscopy. It contains the essential background in vectors and matrices for the applications, along with concise reviews of simple molecular orbital theory, ligand field theory, and treatments of molecular shapes, as well as some quantum mechanics. Solved examples in the text illustra

  2. Conductance Spectra in Graphene-Superconductor Junctions (United States)

    Tian, Jie; Zhou, Shi-Ping; Deng, Zhen-Yan


    The conductance spectra of a graphene ribbon and graphene-superconductor (G-S) junctions are investigated, using the tight-binding model and non-equilibrium Green' function formalism. It is found that the quantized conductance related to graphene' edge-states is robust against perturbations in the model parameters for a graphene monolayer ribbon with the zigzag boundary. With appropriate model parameter of the spin-orbit interaction strength, a new bound state with odd-frequency symmetry is found in the G-S junction. An enhancement in the zero-energy conductance amplitude is followed.

  3. Removing The Instrument Function From Fluorescence Spectra (United States)

    Childs, Andrew F.


    The spectrum acquired at the sample phototnultiplier tube of a fluorescence spectrophotometer is a product of the sample spectrum and the instrument function. The determination of the instrument function and its removal from the acquired spectrum is often critical to the accurate determination of the physical properties of the sample. Methods are discussed for the determination and removal of the instrument function from excitation and emission spectra. Methods considered include quantum counters and ratio circuits for excitation correction, and emission correction against calibrated excitation systems, calibrated tungsten lamps, and NBS standard quinine sulfate.

  4. Wave spectra of strongly coupled magnetized plasmas (United States)

    Kaehlert, Hanno; Reynolds, Alexi; Ott, Torben; Bonitz, Michael


    Results are presented for the wave propagation in a strongly coupled, magnetized one-component plasma. For different angles of the wave vector with respect to the external magnetic field we discuss the dispersion and polarization based on the quasi-localized charge approximation (QLCA). Further, the results of the QLCA are compared with molecular dynamics simulations, extending previous results for two-dimensional systems, e.g.,. The dependence of the wave spectra on the coupling parameter and the magnetic field strength is examined. Support by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft via SFB-TR 24 and DAAD via the RISE program is acknowledged.

  5. Chemistry of United States precipitation. Final report on the national precipitation sampling network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodge, J.P. Jr.; Pate, J.B.; Basbergill, W.; Swanson, G.S.; Hill, K.C.; Lorange, E.; Lazrus, A.L.


    Atmospheric precipitation washes large quantities of particulate and gaseous materials from air, and thus provides a means of studying contamination of the atmosphere. The relationships between the concentration of constituents in air and their concentrations in precipitation are not known with quantitative certainty. However, it is believed that the concentration patterns of contaminants in precipitation reflect their patterns in air. Moreover, though analysis of precipitation water does not reveal absolute values for air contamination, it does provide a means of monitoring changes in contamination with time. The purposes of the project are: (1) to determine mean benchmark values of contaminants throughout the country; (2) to detect possible trends in these values over long periods of time; (3) to observe seasonal fluctuations and geographical distributions which may reveal the sources of these atmospheric contaminants. 48 references, 27 figures, 5 tables.


    Sho, Kenjiro; Taniguchi, Kenji; Tominaga, Akihiro

    Precipitation analysis for heavy rainfalls in Tokai district on September 11-12, 2000 and August 28-29, 2008 was performed based on 10-minute precipitation data. Rainfall distribution analyses showed that a rain band in the direction of the prevailing wind at middle levels slowly moved eastward on the western Aichi Prefecture throughout the both events. The rain band consisted of aligned heavy-rain cells of about 5-10 km diameter that traveled successively along the rain band. The band lay 10-20 km toward the cold sector of a meso-scale convergence line. Moreover, an analysis of 10-minute precipitation data for the past 22 years revealed that the areas including the northern Chita Peninsula and Nagoya City have a maximum frequency of heavy rain of short duration despite having the lowest annual total precipitation in Aichi Prefecture. Thus, these areas seem to have topographic characters favoring concentrated heavy rainfall only under specific meteorological conditions.

  7. Correlating GRACE with Standardized Precipitation Indices and Precipitation Gauges for the High Plains Aquifer (United States)

    Miller, K. A.; Clancy, K.


    The NASA and German Aerospace Center Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) detects monthly changes in the gravity of the earth assumed to be water storage using the distance between two satellites, GRACE A and GRACE B, as a phase change. We will use level 3 GRACE Tellus data from the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC). The data have a resolution of 9 km2 and are available for 2002 to 2015. We examine GRACE data for the High Plains aquifer (Texas, Oklahoma, Wyoming, Nebraska, Kansas, New Mexico, Colorado and South Dakota) and compare changes to monthly averaged precipitation gauges, standardized precipitation indices for one, three, six, and twelve-months. We hypothesize that GRACE data will correlate best with 1) three-month standardized precipitation indices; 2) regions with natural land cover; 3) and in years where precipitation is at or above average.

  8. Q Conversion Factor Models for Estimating Precipitable Water Vapor for Turkey (United States)

    Deniz, Ilke; Mekik, Cetin; Gurbuz, Gokhan


    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) have recently proved to be one of the crucial tools for determining continuous and precise precipitable water vapor (GNSS-MET networks). GNSS, especially CORS networks such as CORS-TR (the Turkish Network-RTK), provide high temporal and spatial accuracy for the wet tropospheric zenith delays which are then converted to the precipitable water vapor due to the fact that they can operate in all weather conditions continuously and economically. The accuracy of wet tropospheric zenith delay highly depends on the accuracy of precipitable water vapor content in the troposphere. Therefore, the precipitable water vapor is an important element of the tropospheric zenith delay. A number of studies can be found in the literature on the determination of the precipitable water vapor from the tropospheric zenith delay. Studies of Hogg showed that when the precipitable water vapor is known, the tropospheric zenith delay can be computed. Askne and Nodius have developed fundamental equations between the wet tropospheric zenith delay and the precipitable water vapor from the equation of the index of refraction in the troposphere. Furthermore, Bevis have developed a linear regression model to determine the weighted mean temperature (Tm) depending on the surface temperature (Ts) in Askne and Nodius studies. For this reason, nearly 9000 radiosonde profiles in USA were analyzed and the coefficients calculated. Similarly, there are other studies on the calculation of those coefficients for different regions: Solbrig for Germany, Liou for Taiwan, Jihyun for South Korea, Dongseob for North Korea, Suresh Raju for India, Boutiouta and Lahcene for Algeria, Bokoye for Canada, Baltink for Netherlands and Baltic, Bock for Africa. It is stated that the weighted mean temperature can be found with a root mean square error of ±2-5 K. In addition, there are studies on the calculation of the coefficients globally. Another model for the determination of

  9. The use of synthetic spectra to test the preparedness to evaluate and analyze complex gamma spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikkinen, M [Doletom OY (Finland)


    This is the report of two exercises that were run under the NKS BOK-1.1 sub-project. In these exercises synthetic gamma spectra were developed to exercise the analysis of difficult spectra typically seen after a severe nuclear accident. The spectra were analyzed twice; first, participants were given short time to give results to resemble an actual emergency preparedness situation, then a longer period of time was allowed to tune the laboratory analysis results for quality assurance purposes. The exercise did prove that it is possible to move measurement data from one laboratory to another if second opinion of the analysis is needed. It was also felt that this kind of exercise would enhance the experience the laboratories have in analyzing accident data. Participants expressed the need for additional exercises of this type, this is inexpensive and an easy way to exercise quick emergency response situations not normally seen in daily laboratory routines. (au)

  10. Acidic weathering of basalt and basaltic glass: 1. Near-infrared spectra, thermal infrared spectra, and implications for Mars (United States)

    Horgan, Briony H. N.; Smith, Rebecca J.; Cloutis, Edward A.; Mann, Paul; Christensen, Philip R.


    Acid-leached rinds and coatings occur in volcanic environments on Earth and have been identified using orbital spectroscopy on Mars, but their development is poorly understood. We simulated long-term open-system acidic weathering in a laboratory by repeatedly rinsing and submerging crystalline and glassy basalts in pH 1 and pH 3 acidic solutions for 213 days and compared their visible/near-infrared (0.3-2.5 µm) and thermal infrared (5-50 µm) spectral characteristics to their microscopic physical and chemical properties from scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We find that while alteration at moderately low pH ( 3) can produce mineral precipitates from solution, it has very little spectral or physical effect on the underlying parent material. In contrast, alteration at very low pH ( 1) results in clear silica spectral signatures for all crystalline samples while glasses exhibit strong blue concave-up near-infrared slopes. SEM indicates that these spectral differences correspond to different modes of alteration. In glass, alteration occurs only at the surface and produces a silica-enriched leached rind, while in more crystalline samples, alteration penetrates the interior to cause dissolution and replacement by silica. We confirm that glass is more stable than crystalline basalt under long-term acidic leaching, suggesting that glass could be enriched and common in terrains on Mars that have been exposed to acidic weathering. Leached glasses are consistent with both OMEGA and Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) spectra of the Martian northern lowlands and may contribute to the high-silica phases detected globally in TES Surface Type 2. Thus, both glass-rich deposits and acidic weathering may have been widespread on Mars.

  11. Extreme Precipitation and High-Impact Landslides (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia; Adler, Robert; Huffman, George; Peters-Lidard, Christa


    It is well known that extreme or prolonged rainfall is the dominant trigger of landslides; however, there remain large uncertainties in characterizing the distribution of these hazards and meteorological triggers at the global scale. Researchers have evaluated the spatiotemporal distribution of extreme rainfall and landslides at local and regional scale primarily using in situ data, yet few studies have mapped rainfall-triggered landslide distribution globally due to the dearth of landslide data and consistent precipitation information. This research uses a newly developed Global Landslide Catalog (GLC) and a 13-year satellite-based precipitation record from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data. For the first time, these two unique products provide the foundation to quantitatively evaluate the co-occurence of precipitation and rainfall-triggered landslides globally. The GLC, available from 2007 to the present, contains information on reported rainfall-triggered landslide events around the world using online media reports, disaster databases, etc. When evaluating this database, we observed that 2010 had a large number of high-impact landslide events relative to previous years. This study considers how variations in extreme and prolonged satellite-based rainfall are related to the distribution of landslides over the same time scales for three active landslide areas: Central America, the Himalayan Arc, and central-eastern China. Several test statistics confirm that TRMM rainfall generally scales with the observed increase in landslide reports and fatal events for 2010 and previous years over each region. These findings suggest that the co-occurrence of satellite precipitation and landslide reports may serve as a valuable indicator for characterizing the spatiotemporal distribution of landslide-prone areas in order to establish a global rainfall-triggered landslide climatology. This research also considers the sources for this extreme rainfall, citing

  12. Development of spray-dried co-precipitate of amorphous celecoxib containing storage and compression stabilizers. (United States)

    Dhumal, Ravindra S; Shimpi, Shamkant L; Paradkar, Anant R


    The purpose of this study was to obtain an amorphous system with minimum unit operations that will prevent recrystallization of amorphous drugs since preparation, during processing (compression) and further storage. Amorphous celecoxib, solid dispersion (SD) of celecoxib with polyvinyl pyrrollidone (PVP) and co-precipitate with PVP and carrageenan (CAR) in different ratios were prepared by the spray drying technique and compressed into tablets. Saturation solubility and dissolution studies were performed to differentiate performance after processing. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder difraction revealed the amorphous form of celecoxib, whereas infrared spectroscopy revealed hydrogen bonding between celecoxib and PVP. The dissolution profile of the solid dispersion and co-precipitate improved compared to celecoxib and amorphous celecoxib. Amorphous celecoxib was not stable on storage whereas the solid dispersion and co-precipitate powders were stable for 3 months. Tablets of the solid dispersion of celecoxib with PVP and physical mixture with PVP and carrageenan showed better resistance to recrystallization than amorphous celecoxib during compression but recrystallized on storage. However, tablets of co-precipitate with PVP and carageenan showed no evidence of crystallinity during stability studies with comparable dissolution profiles. This extraordinary stability of spray-dried co-precipitate tablets may be attributed to the cushioning action provided by the viscoelastic polymer CAR and hydrogen bonding interaction between celecoxib and PVP. The present study demonstrates the synergistic effect of combining two types of stabilizers, PVP and CAR, on the stability of amorphous drug during compression and storage as compared to their effect when used alone.

  13. Measurement of turbulence spectra using scanning pulsed wind lidars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sathe, A.; Mann, J.


    Turbulent velocity spectra, as measured by a scanning pulsed wind lidar (WindCube), are analyzed. The relationship between ordinary velocity spectra and lidar derived spectra is mathematically very complex, and deployment of the three-dimensional spectral velocity tensor is necessary. The resulting

  14. Publicly Released Prompt Radiation Spectra Suitable for Nuclear Detonation Simulations (United States)


    Publicly Released Prompt Radiation Spectra Suitable for Nuclear Detonation Simulations DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release; distribution is...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Publicly Released Prompt Radiation Spectra Suitable for Nuclear Detonation Simulations HDTRA1-14-D...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This technical report describes unclassified source leakage spectra that can be used to simulate a nuclear device or weapon

  15. Evidence of mineral dust altering cloud microphysics and precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q.-L. Min


    Full Text Available Multi-platform and multi-sensor observations are employed to investigate the impact of mineral dust on cloud microphysical and precipitation processes in mesoscale convective systems. For a given convective strength, small hydrometeors were more prevalent in the stratiform rain regions with dust than in those regions that were dust free. Evidence of abundant cloud ice particles in the dust sector, particularly at altitudes where heterogeneous nucleation of mineral dust prevails, further supports the observed changes of precipitation. The consequences of the microphysical effects of the dust aerosols were to shift the precipitation size spectrum from heavy precipitation to light precipitation and ultimately suppressing precipitation.

  16. Jupiter's auroral-related stratospheric heating and chemistry II: Analysis of IRTF-TEXES spectra measured in December 2014 (United States)

    Sinclair, J. A.; Orton, G. S.; Greathouse, T. K.; Fletcher, L. N.; Moses, J. I.; Hue, V.; Irwin, P. G. J.


    We present a retrieval analysis of TEXES (Texas Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph (Lacy et al., 2002)) spectra of Jupiter's high latitudes obtained on NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility on December 10 and 11th 2014. The vertical temperature profile and vertical profiles of C2H2, C2H4 and C2H6 were retrieved at both high-northern and high-southern latitudes and results were compared in 'quiescent' regions and regions known to be affected by Jupiter's aurora in order to highlight how auroral processes modify the thermal structure and hydrocarbon chemistry of the stratosphere. In qualitative agreement with Sinclair et al. (2017a), we find temperatures in auroral regions to be elevated with respect to quiescent regions at two discrete pressures levels at approximately 1 mbar and 0.01 mbar. For example, in comparing retrieved temperatures at 70°N, 60°W (a representative quiescent region) and 70°N, 180°W (centred on the northern auroral oval), temperatures increase by 19.0 ± 4.2 K at 0.98 mbar, 20.8 ± 3.9 K at 0.01 mbar but only by 8.3 ± 4.9 K at the intermediate level of 0.1 mbar. We conclude that elevated temperatures at 0.01 mbar result from heating by joule resistance of the atmosphere and the energy imparted by electron and ion precipitation. However, temperatures at 1 mbar are considered to result either from heating by shortwave radiation of aurorally-produced haze particulates or precipitation of higher energy population of charged particles. Our former conclusion would be consistent with results of auroral-chemistry models, that predict the highest number densities of aurorally-produced haze particles at this pressure level (Wong et al., 2000, 2003). C2H2 and C2H4 exhibit enrichments but C2H6 remains constant within uncertainty when comparing retrieved concentrations in the northern auroral region with quiescent longitudes in the same latitude band. At 1 mbar, C2H2 increases from 278.4 ± 40.3 ppbv at 70°N, 60°W to 564.4 ± 72.0 ppbv at 70°N, 180

  17. Mapping SOC in a river catchment by integrating laboratory spectra wavelength with remote sensing spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Yi; Xiong, Xiong; Knadel, Maria

    soil spectral features indicative of SOC from laboratory visible near-infrared reflectance (vis-NlR) spectra and incorporate them with remote sensing (RS) images to improve predictions of top SOC in the Skjem river catchment, Denmark. The secondary objective was to improve prediction results...... by separately calibrating samples from upland and wetland. We hypbthesize that final prediction accuracy is significantly improved by incorporatin1 laboratory vis-NlR images upscaled from point-based spectra to catchment scale and RS data for topsoil SOC spatial modeling....

  18. Perfil radial e uniformidade de precipitação do aspersor NaanDanJain 427, em função da regulagem do defletor Radial profile and precipitation uniformity of sprinkler NaanDanJain 427, depending on the setting of the deflector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo E. S. Martins


    Full Text Available Neste trabalho o objetivo foi avaliar o perfil radial e a uniformidade de distribuição de água do aspersor fabricado pela empresa NaanDanJain, modelo 427 1/2"M e bocal de 2,8 mm de diâmetro interno, operando com pressões de 150, 200, 300 e 400 kPa em cinco posições do defletor de ajuste (0, 20, 50, 80 e 100%. Para a determinação dos parâmetros avaliados utilizou-se o método da malha e, com o auxílio do aplicativo computacional CATCH 3D, calculou-se a sobreposição das lâminas de água com dez espaçamentos. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que o defletor de ajuste influencia o raio de molhamento e o perfil de distribuição enquanto a uniformidade de aplicação de água se mostrou como mecanismo importante, visto que permite comportamento diferenciado para o aspersor, garantindo ampla faixa de utilização do equipamento.The study aimed to evaluate the radial profile and the uniformity of water distribution of sprinkler manufactured by the company NaanDanJain, model 427 1/2"M and nozzle with 2.8 mm of internal diameter, operating at pressures of 150, 200, 300 and 400 kPa and five positions of the deflector (0, 20, 50, 80 and 100%. For the determination of the parameters evaluated, the grid method was used and with the help of computer application CATCH 3D, overlapping layers of water depths was calculated with ten spacing. The results show that the deflector adjustment influences the radius of wetness and the distribution profile while the uniformity of water application showed as an important mechanism, since it permits different behavior for the sprinkler, ensuring wide track of utilization of the equipment.

  19. Lightning spectra at 100,000 fps (United States)

    McHarg, M. G.; Harley, J.; Haaland, R. K.; Edens, H. E.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H.


    A fundamental understanding of lightning can be inferred from the spectral emissions resulting from the leader and return stroke channel. We examine an event recorded at 00:58:07 on 19 July 2015 at Langmuir Laboratory. We recorded lightning spectra using a 100 line per mm grating in front of a Phantom V2010 camera with an 85mm Nikon lens recording at 100,000 frames per second. Coarse resolution spectra (approximately 5nm resolution) are produced from approximately 400 nm to 800 nm for each frame. Electric field data from the Langmuir Electric Field Array for the 03:19:19 event show 10 V/m changes in the electric field associated with multiple return strokes visible in the spectral data. We used the spectral data to compare temperatures at the top, middle and bottom of the lightning channel. Lightning Mapping Array data at Langmuir for the 00:58:07 event show a complex flash extending 10 km in the East-West plane and 6 km in the North-South plane. The imagery data imply that this is a bolt-from-the-blue event.

  20. Non-yrast quadrupole-octupole spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenske H.


    Full Text Available A model of strongly coupled quadrupole and octupole vibrations and rotations is applied to describe non-yrast alternating-parity sequences in even-even nuclei and split parity-doublet spectra in odd-mass nuclei. In even-even nuclei the yrast alternating-parity sequence includes the ground-state band and the lowest negative-parity levels with odd angular momenta, while the non-yrast sequences include excited β-bands and higher negative-parity levels. In odd-mass nuclei the yrast levels are described as low-energy rotation-vibration modes coupled to the ground single-particle (s.p. state, while the non-yrast parity-doublets are obtained as higher-energy rotation-vibration modes coupled to excited s.p. configurations. We show that the extended model scheme describes the yrast and non-yrast quadrupole-octupole spectra in both even-even and odd-A nuclei. The involvement of the reflection-asymmetric deformed shell model to explain the single-particle motion and the Coriolis interaction in odd nuclei is discussed.

  1. Intrinsic Spectra of Hyperluminous Infrared Galaxies (United States)

    Rieke, George; Hines, Dean


    We will use the low and high spectral resolution capabilities of the IRS aboard SIRTF to obtain high signal-to-noise mid-infrared spectra of a small sample of the most luminous Active Galactic Nuclei, which are characterized by their "warm" far-infrared spectral energy distributions as obtained by IRAS (the so called Hyperluminous Infrared Galaxies or HIGs). The sample consists of both Type 2 and Type 1 AGNs. The Type 1 objects present a relatively unobscured view of the central engine, and also have a polarized (scattered) component that is completely unobscured. The Type 2 objects have Type 1 polarized spectra, but this scattered light is highly extinguished indicating some obscuration even along the line of sight to the scattering region. The sample will allow us to compare the properties of the Type 1s and Type 2s, thus providing a check on the orientation and providing strong constraints on the geometry and internal structure of all four objects.

  2. Vibration spectra of single atomic nanocontacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourahla, B [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Mouloud Mammeri de Tizi-Ouzou, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Khater, A [Laboratoire de Physique de l' Etat Condense UMR 6087, Universite du Maine, 72085 Le Mans (France); Rafil, O [Laboratoire de Physique de l' Etat Condense UMR 6087, Universite du Maine, 72085 Le Mans (France); Tigrine, R [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Mouloud Mammeri de Tizi-Ouzou, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria)


    This paper introduces a simple model for an atomic nanocontact, where its mechanical properties are analysed by calculating numerically the local spectral properties at the contact atom and the nearby atoms. The standard methodology for calculating phonon spectral densities is extended to enable the calculation of localized contact modes and local density of states (DOS). The model system considered for the nanocontact consists of two sets of triple parallel semi-infinite atomic chains joined by a single atom in between. The matching method is used, in the harmonic approximation, to calculate the local Green's functions for the irreducible set of sites that constitute the inhomogeneous nanocontact domain. The Green's functions yield the vibration spectra and the DOS for the atomic sites. These are numerically calculated for different cases of elastic hardening and softening of the nanocontact domain. The purpose is to investigate how the local dynamics respond to local changes in the elastic environment. The analysis of the spectra and of the DOS identifies characteristic features and demonstrates the central role of a core subset of these sites for the dynamics of the nanocontact. The system models a situation which may be appropriate for contact atomic force microscopy.

  3. Damping modification factors for acceleration response spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Li


    Full Text Available DMF (Damping modification factors are used to modify elastic response spectral values corresponding to damping ratio 5% to other damping levels. The influence of seismological parameters (magnitude, epicentral distances and site conditions on DMF for acceleration spectra was analysed. The results show that for a given period as the magnitude or distance increase, the effect of damping on the seismic response will also increase, which indicates the response reduction from the structural damping will become more efficient. In the near-field of small earthquakes, the influence of site conditions on DMF is obvious, but it does not show a consistent rule. Furthermore, the DMF corresponding to different site conditions gradually close to unity with increasing magnitude and distance. The influence of the above mentioned parameters is related to the relative attenuation of the frequency components of the ground motion. The attenuation index alone is sufficient to take into account the influence. Based on these features, this paper proposes a formula of DMF for acceleration response spectra.

  4. A study of aerosol indirect effects and feedbacks on convective precipitation (United States)

    Da Silva, Nicolas; Mailler, Sylvain; Drobinski, Philippe


    precipitations when the concentrations of cloud-condensation nuclei are increased. We diagnosed a complex feedback chain beginning from the reduction of mean droplet radii, yielding an increase of atmospheric stability and also lowering the humidity available in the planetary boundary layer for the formation of convective clouds and precipitations. These results suggest that the microphysical effect of aerosols may contribute to a reduction of convective precipitation mostly through modifications in thermodynamic vertical profiles. References [1] G. Rea, S. Turquety, L. Menut, R. Briant, S. Mailler, and G. Siour. Source contributions to 2012 summertime aerosols in the euro-mediterranean region. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15(14):8013-8036, 2015. [2] F. Giorgi. Climate change hot-spots. Geophysical Research Letters, 33(8): L08707, 2006.

  5. Supporting Hydrometeorological Research and Applications with Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Products and Services (United States)

    Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, D.; Vollmer, B.; Deshong, B.; MacRitchie, K.; Greene, M.; Kempler, S.


    Precipitation is an important dataset in hydrometeorological research and applications such as flood modeling, drought monitoring, etc. On February 27, 2014, the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission was launched to provide the next-generation global observations of rain and snow (http:pmm.nasa.govGPM). The GPM mission consists of an international network of satellites in which a GPM Core Observatory satellite carries both active and passive microwave instruments to measure precipitation and serve as a reference standard, to unify precipitation measurements from a constellation of other research and operational satellites. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) hosts and distributes GPM data. The GES DISC is home to the data archive for the GPM predecessor, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). GPM products currently available include the following:1. Level-1 GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and partner radiometer products2. Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF) GMI and partner products (Level-2 and Level-3)3. GPM dual-frequency precipitation radar and their combined products (Level-2 and Level-3)4. Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) products (early, late, and final run)GPM data can be accessed through a number of data services (e.g., Simple Subset Wizard, OPeNDAP, WMS, WCS, ftp, etc.). A newly released Unified User Interface or UUI is a single interface to provide users seamless access to data, information and services. For example, a search for precipitation products will not only return TRMM and GPM products, but also other global precipitation products such as MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications), GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation Systems), etc.New features and capabilities have been recently added in GIOVANNI to allow exploring and inter-comparing GPM IMERG (Integrated Multi-satelliE Retrievals for GPM) half-hourly and monthly precipitation

  6. Twentieth century ENSO-related precipitation mean states in twentieth century reanalysis, reconstructed precipitation and CMIP5 models (United States)

    Dai, Ni; Arkin, Phillip A.


    El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-related precipitation during the entire twentieth century is compared among the twentieth century reanalysis (20CR), a statistically reconstructed precipitation dataset (REC) and 30 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models. Empirical orthogonal functions, ENSO-related precipitation composites based on sea surface temperature (SST)-constructed ENSO index and singular value decomposition (SVD) are employed to extract ENSO-related precipitation/SST signals in each dataset. With the background trend being removed in all of the data, our results show that the REC and the 20CR resemble both in their precipitation climatology and ENSO-related precipitation results. The biases in the CMIP5 models precipitation climatology such as dry equator over the Pacific Ocean, "double-intertropical convergence zones (ITCZs)" and overly zonal Southern Pacific convergence zone (SPCZ) are major reasons for lowering spatial correlations with the REC and the 20CR precipitation climatology. Two groups of CMIP5 models are built based on severity of these biases in their precipitation background and the spatial correlations of ENSO-related precipitation with the observations. Compared with the group with more severe biases in its precipitation climatology, the group with smaller biases tends to produce more ENSO-like precipitation patterns, simulate more realistic mean magnitude and seasonal variability of ENSO precipitation signals, as well as generating better ENSO-related SST/precipitation correlation patterns produced in its SVD analysis. The ENSO-related precipitation biases in the CMIP5 models over the western Pacific and Indian Ocean, as well as the equatorial Pacific, are strongly related with their precipitation climatology biases over these regions. The ENSO-related precipitation biases over the off-equator eastern Pacific Ocean are associated with both the "double-ITCZs" biases in the precipitation climatology and the ENSO

  7. Deciphering pore-level precipitation mechanisms. (United States)

    Prasianakis, N I; Curti, E; Kosakowski, G; Poonoosamy, J; Churakov, S V


    Mineral precipitation and dissolution in aqueous solutions has a significant effect on solute transport and structural properties of porous media. The understanding of the involved physical mechanisms, which cover a large range of spatial and temporal scales, plays a key role in several geochemical and industrial processes. Here, by coupling pore scale reactive transport simulations with classical nucleation theory, we demonstrate how the interplay between homogeneous and heterogeneous precipitation kinetics along with the non-linear dependence on solute concentration affects the evolution of the system. Such phenomena are usually neglected in pure macroscopic modelling. Comprehensive parametric analysis and comparison with laboratory experiments confirm that incorporation of detailed microscale physical processes in the models is compulsory. This sheds light on the inherent coupling mechanisms and bridges the gap between atomistic processes and macroscopic observations.

  8. Mars water-ice clouds and precipitation. (United States)

    Whiteway, J A; Komguem, L; Dickinson, C; Cook, C; Illnicki, M; Seabrook, J; Popovici, V; Duck, T J; Davy, R; Taylor, P A; Pathak, J; Fisher, D; Carswell, A I; Daly, M; Hipkin, V; Zent, A P; Hecht, M H; Wood, S E; Tamppari, L K; Renno, N; Moores, J E; Lemmon, M T; Daerden, F; Smith, P H


    The light detection and ranging instrument on the Phoenix mission observed water-ice clouds in the atmosphere of Mars that were similar to cirrus clouds on Earth. Fall streaks in the cloud structure traced the precipitation of ice crystals toward the ground. Measurements of atmospheric dust indicated that the planetary boundary layer (PBL) on Mars was well mixed, up to heights of around 4 kilometers, by the summer daytime turbulence and convection. The water-ice clouds were detected at the top of the PBL and near the ground each night in late summer after the air temperature started decreasing. The interpretation is that water vapor mixed upward by daytime turbulence and convection forms ice crystal clouds at night that precipitate back toward the surface.

  9. Seasonal Cycle in German Daily Precipitation Extremes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madlen Fischer


    Full Text Available The seasonal cycle of extreme precipitation in Germany is investigated by fitting statistical models to monthly maxima of daily precipitation sums for 2,865 rain gauges. The basis is a non-stationary generalized extreme value (GEV distribution variation of location and scale parameters. The negative log-likelihood serves as the forecast error for a cross validation to select adequate orders of the harmonic functions for each station. For nearly all gauges considered, the seasonal model is more appropriate to estimate return levels on a monthly scale than a stationary GEV used for individual months. The 100-year return-levels show the influence of cyclones in the western, and convective events in the eastern part of Germany. In addition to resolving the seasonality, we use a simulation study to show that annual return levels can be estimated more precisely from a monthly-resolved seasonal model than from a stationary model based on annual maxima.

  10. A New Approach to the Internal Calibration of Reverberation-Mapping Spectra (United States)

    Fausnaugh, M. M.


    We present a new procedure for the internal (night-to-night) calibration of timeseries spectra, with specific applications to optical AGN reverberation mapping data. The traditional calibration technique assumes that the narrow [O iii] λ5007 emission-line profile is constant in time; given a reference [O iii] λ5007 line profile, nightly spectra are aligned by fitting for a wavelength shift, a flux rescaling factor, and a change in the spectroscopic resolution. We propose the following modifications to this procedure: (1) we stipulate a constant spectral resolution for the final calibrated spectra, (2) we employ a more flexible model for changes in the spectral resolution, and (3) we use a Bayesian modeling framework to assess uncertainties in the calibration. In a test case using data for MCG+08-11-011, these modifications result in a calibration precision of ˜1 millimagnitude, which is approximately a factor of five improvement over the traditional technique. At this level, other systematic issues (e.g., the nightly sensitivity functions and Feii contamination) limit the final precision of the observed light curves. We implement this procedure as a python package (mapspec), which we make available to the community.

  11. The resonance Raman excitation profile of lutein (United States)

    Hoskins, L. C.

    The resonance Raman excitation profiles for the ν 1, ν 2 and ν 3 vibrations of lutein in acetone, toluene and carbon disulfide solvents have been measured. The results are interpreted in terms of a three-mode vibrational theory which includes both homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadening effects. Excellent agreement between calculated and observed excitation profiles and visible spectra was found in acetone and toluene, but the results in carbon disulfide indicate a possible breakdown in the three-mode model. The major broadening mechanism is homogeneous, with about a 25% contribution from inhomogeneous broadening.

  12. Precipitation Kinetics in a Nb-stabilized Ferritic Stainless Steel (United States)

    Labonne, M.; Graux, A.; Cazottes, S.; Danoix, F.; Cuvilly, F.; Chassagne, F.; Perez, M.; Massardier, V.


    The precipitation occurring in a Nb-stabilized ferritic stainless steel, containing initially Nb(C, N) carbonitrides and Fe3Nb3X precipitates, was investigated during aging treatments performed between 923 K and 1163 K (650 °C and 890 °C) by combining different techniques, (thermoelectric power (TEP), scanning/transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM), and atom probe tomography (APT)), in order to determine the precipitation kinetics, the nature and morphology of the newly formed precipitates as well as the chemistry of the initial Fe3Nb3X precipitates, where X stands for C or N. The following composition was proposed for these precipitates: (Fe0.81 Cr0.19)3 (Nb0.85 Si0.08 Mo0.07)3 (N0.8 C0.2), highlighting the simultaneous presence of N and C in the precipitates. With regard to the precipitation in the investigated temperature range, two main phenomena, associated with a hardness decrease, were clearly identified: (i) the precipitation of Fe2Nb precipitates from the niobium initially present in solution or coming from the progressive dissolution of the Fe3Nb3X precipitates and (ii) the precipitation of the χ-phase at grain boundaries for longer aging times. From the TEP kinetics, a time-temperature-precipitation diagram has been proposed.

  13. Risk assessment of precipitation extremes in northern Xinjiang, China (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Pei, Ying; Zhang, Yanwei; Ge, Quansheng


    This study was conducted using daily precipitation records gathered at 37 meteorological stations in northern Xinjiang, China, from 1961 to 2010. We used the extreme value theory model, generalized extreme value (GEV) and generalized Pareto distribution (GPD), statistical distribution function to fit outputs of precipitation extremes with different return periods to estimate risks of precipitation extremes and diagnose aridity-humidity environmental variation and corresponding spatial patterns in northern Xinjiang. Spatiotemporal patterns of daily maximum precipitation showed that aridity-humidity conditions of northern Xinjiang could be well represented by the return periods of the precipitation data. Indices of daily maximum precipitation were effective in the prediction of floods in the study area. By analyzing future projections of daily maximum precipitation (2, 5, 10, 30, 50, and 100 years), we conclude that the flood risk will gradually increase in northern Xinjiang. GEV extreme value modeling yielded the best results, proving to be extremely valuable. Through example analysis for extreme precipitation models, the GEV statistical model was superior in terms of favorable analog extreme precipitation. The GPD model calculation results reflect annual precipitation. For most of the estimated sites' 2 and 5-year T for precipitation levels, GPD results were slightly greater than GEV results. The study found that extreme precipitation reaching a certain limit value level will cause a flood disaster. Therefore, predicting future extreme precipitation may aid warnings of flood disaster. A suitable policy concerning effective water resource management is thus urgently required.

  14. Soil microbial community response to precipitation change (United States)

    Classen, A. T.; Cregger, M. A.


    Microbial communities regulate many belowground carbon cycling processes, thus the impact of climate change on the structure and function of soil communities could in turn impact the release or storage of carbon in soils. Here we used a large-scale precipitation manipulation (+18%, -50%, or ambient) in a piñon-juniper woodland (Pinus edulis-Juniperus monosperma) to investigate how changes in precipitation amounts altered soil microbial communities as well as what role seasonal variation in rainfall and plant composition played in the microbial community response. Seasonal variability in precipitation had a larger role in determining the composition of soil communities than the direct effect of the experimental precipitation treatments. Bacterial and fungal communities in the dry, relatively moisture limited pre-monsoon season were compositionally distinct relative to communities in the monsoon season, when soil moisture levels and periodicity varied more widely across treatments. Fungal abundance in the drought plots during the dry pre-monsoon season was particularly low, and was 4.7 × greater upon soil wet up in the monsoon season suggesting that soil fungi were water limited in the driest plots which may result in a decrease in fungal degradation of carbon substrates. Additionally, we found both bacterial and fungal communities beneath piñon pine versus juniper were distinct; suggesting that microbial function beneath these trees is different. We conclude that predicting the response of microbial communities to climate change is highly dependent on seasonal dynamics, underlying environmental variability, and the composition of the associated aboveground community.



    Rotunno, Richard; Houze, Robert A.


    Abstract: Although moisture-laden airflow towards a mountain is a necessary ingredient, the results from MAP taught us that detailed knowledge of the orographically modified flow is crucial for predicting the intensity, location and duration of orographic precipitation. Understanding the orographically modified flow as it occurs in the Alps was difficult since it depends on the static stability of the flow, which is heavily influenced by the complex effects of latent heating, and the mountain...

  16. Airborne particle monitoring by electrostatic precipitation (United States)

    Robinson, J. C.; Stoneback, I. T.


    For qualitative analysis of atmospheric particulates by microscopy, the sampling device should preserve the particles in the state existing at the moment of capture. A collector is described that uses electrostatic precipitation to capture and disperse specimens on various substrates for direct insertion into microscopes. Sampling runs in various atmospheres are described. Micrographs are presented to show particle morphology and distribution on the substrates. Chemical identification by X-ray energy probe and electron diffraction is illustrated.

  17. Protein-Mediated Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate


    Izabela Polowczyk; Anna Bastrzyk; Marta Fiedot


    Calcium carbonate is an important component in exoskeletons of many organisms. The synthesis of calcium carbonate was performed by mixing dimethyl carbonate and an aqueous solution of calcium chloride dihydrate. The precipitation product was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements. In addition, the turbidity of the reaction solution was acquire...

  18. Optical emission spectra of chromium doped nanocrystalline zinc gallate (United States)

    Dhak, P.; Gayen, U. K.; Mishra, S.; Pramanik, P.; Roy, A.


    Optical emission spectra of nanocrystalline zinc gallate (ZnGa2O4) and trivalent chromium ion doped zinc gallate (ZnGa2O4:Cr3+) are reported for different concentrations of the dopant ion. The measurements have been carried out over the temperature range between 77 and 296 K. The emission spectrum of nanocrystalline ZnGa2O4 shows two broad peaks. The intensity variation in these peaks, with temperature, is indicative of the effect of symmetry breaking in the electronic band structure of ZnGa2O4 in nanocrystalline samples. In addition, we find that the relative intensities of the sharp spectral lines of Cr3+ in nanocrystalline ZnGa2O4:Cr3+ are quite different from those reported for corresponding bulk samples. The spectral profiles of the so-called R1, R2, N1, and N2 lines have also been studied. The data are analyzed using crystal field theory, which includes an exchange interaction between the nearest neighbor Cr3+ pairs in ZnGa2O4. We estimate the exchange parameters for Cr3+ in nanocrystalline ZnGa2O4:Cr3+. Though, in the literature, there exist reports on optical properties of the corresponding bulk spinel, our approach and consequent results on nanocrystalline ZnGa2O4:Cr3+ are not only interesting from the physics point of view but also can be of use in nanotechnology.

  19. Absorption spectra of a chromophore in highly scattering media (United States)

    Fantini, Sergio; Franceschini, Maria-Angela; Fishkin, Joshua B.; Mantulin, William W.; Gratton, Enrico


    Frequency domain spectroscopy provides a quantitative measure of the optical properties, namely (mu) a and (mu) s' coefficient spectra, of multiply scattering, macroscopically homogeneous media or tissue. The diffusion model for photon transport provides the theoretical framework for the analytical expressions of the optical properties. Experimentally, we intensity modulated (60 MHz) a light emitting diode, which emits between 620 - 700 nm. From data sets of relative phase shifts and average intensity at different source- detector separations, we calculated on the basis of the analytical expressions a wavelength resolved absorption (mu) a ((lambda) ) and scattering (mu) s' ((lambda) ) coefficient spectrum. The test material was methylene blue, whose absorption spectrum (maximum 656 nm) closely matches the wavelength profile of the diode source. The multiply scattering, macroscopically homogeneous medium for dissolving the methylene blue was provided by a diluted fat emulsion, Liposyn III. The concentrations of both the absorbing and scattering materials were adjusted to correspond to ranges typical of (mu) a and (mu) s' in tissues. We obtained quantitative agreement between the measured (mu) a ((lambda) ) in the scattering medium and a control solution measured in a spectrophotometer under non-scattering conditions.

  20. Quantifying discrepancies in opinion spectra from online and offline networks. (United States)

    Lee, Deokjae; Hahn, Kyu S; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Park, Juyong


    Online social media such as Twitter are widely used for mining public opinions and sentiments on various issues and topics. The sheer volume of the data generated and the eager adoption by the online-savvy public are helping to raise the profile of online media as a convenient source of news and public opinions on social and political issues as well. Due to the uncontrollable biases in the population who heavily use the media, however, it is often difficult to measure how accurately the online sphere reflects the offline world at large, undermining the usefulness of online media. One way of identifying and overcoming the online-offline discrepancies is to apply a common analytical and modeling framework to comparable data sets from online and offline sources and cross-analyzing the patterns found therein. In this paper we study the political spectra constructed from Twitter and from legislators' voting records as an example to demonstrate the potential limits of online media as the source for accurate public opinion mining, and how to overcome the limits by using offline data simultaneously.

  1. Line broadening in the neutral and ionized mercury spectra (United States)

    Gavrilov, M.; Skočić, M.; Burger, M.; Bukvić, S.; Djeniže, S.


    The neutral, singly, doubly and triply ionized mercury (Hg I-IV, respectively) spectral line shapes and line center positions have been investigated in the laboratory helium plasma at electron densities ranging between 9.3 × 1022 m-3 and 1.93 × 1023 m-3 and electron temperatures around 19,500 K, both interesting for astrophysics. The mercury (natural isotope composition) atoms were sputtered from the cylindrical amalgamated gold plates located in the homogenous part of the pulsed helium discharge operating at a pressure of 665 Pa in a flowing regime. The mercury spectral line profiles were recorded using the McPherson model 209 spectrograph and the Andor ICCD camera as the detection system. This research presents Stark broadening parameters, the width (W) and the shift (d), of one Hg I, 19 Hg II, 6 Hg III and 4 Hg IV lines, not investigated so far. Our experimental W values were compared with the data calculated applying various approaches. The shape and intensity of astrophysically important 398.4 nm Hg II spectral line was discussed taking into account the isotope shift, hyperfine structure and Penning effects. At the mentioned plasma parameters the Stark broadening is found to be a main line broadening mechanism of the lines (λ > 200 nm) in the Hg I-IV spectra.

  2. Spectra of heliumlike krypton from tokamak fusion test reactor plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitter, M.; Hsuan, H.; Bush, C.; Cohen, S.; Cummings, C.J.; Grek, B.; Hill, K.W.; Schivell, J.; Zarnstorff, M. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.); Beiersdorfer, P.; Osterheld, A. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Smith, A. (Lock Haven Univ., Lock Haven, PA (United States)); Fraenkel, B. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel))


    Krypton has been injected into ohmically-heated TFTR plasmas with peak electron temperatures of 6 key to study the effects of krypton on the plasma performance and to investigate the emitted krypton line radiation, which is of interest for future-generation tokamaks such as ITER, both as a diagnostic of the central ion temperature and for the control of energy release from the plasma by radiative cooling. The emitted radiation was monitored with a bolometer array, an X-ray pulse height analysis system, and a high-resolution Johann-type crystal spectrometer; and it was found to depend very sensitively on the electron temperature profile. Satellite spectra of heliumlike krypton, KrXXXV, near 0.95 [Angstrom] including lithiumlike, berylliumlike and boronlike features were recorded in second order Bragg reflection. Radiative cooling and reduced particle recycling at the plasma edge region were observed as a result of the krypton injection for all investigated discharges. The observations are in reasonable agreement with modeling calculations of the krypton ion charge state distribution including radial transport.

  3. Spectra of heliumlike krypton from tokamak fusion test reactor plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitter, M.; Hsuan, H.; Bush, C.; Cohen, S.; Cummings, C.J.; Grek, B.; Hill, K.W.; Schivell, J.; Zarnstorff, M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Osterheld, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Smith, A. [Lock Haven Univ., Lock Haven, PA (United States); Fraenkel, B. [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel)


    Krypton has been injected into ohmically-heated TFTR plasmas with peak electron temperatures of 6 key to study the effects of krypton on the plasma performance and to investigate the emitted krypton line radiation, which is of interest for future-generation tokamaks such as ITER, both as a diagnostic of the central ion temperature and for the control of energy release from the plasma by radiative cooling. The emitted radiation was monitored with a bolometer array, an X-ray pulse height analysis system, and a high-resolution Johann-type crystal spectrometer; and it was found to depend very sensitively on the electron temperature profile. Satellite spectra of heliumlike krypton, KrXXXV, near 0.95 {Angstrom} including lithiumlike, berylliumlike and boronlike features were recorded in second order Bragg reflection. Radiative cooling and reduced particle recycling at the plasma edge region were observed as a result of the krypton injection for all investigated discharges. The observations are in reasonable agreement with modeling calculations of the krypton ion charge state distribution including radial transport.

  4. An atlas of Calcium triplet spectra of active galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Rissmann, A; Asari, N V; Fernandes, R C; Schmitt, H; González-Delgado, R M; Storchi-Bergmann, T


    We present a spectroscopic atlas of active galactic nuclei covering the region around the 8498, 8542, 8662 Calcium triplet (CaT) lines. The sample comprises 78 objects, divided into 43 Seyfert 2s, 26 Seyfert 1s, 3 Starburst and 6 normal galaxies. The spectra pertain to the inner ~300 pc in radius, and thus sample the central kinematics and stellar populations of active galaxies. The data are used to measure stellar velocity dispersions (sigma_star) both with cross-correlation and direct fitting methods. These measurements are found to be in good agreement with each-other and with those in previous studies for objects in common. The CaT equivalent width is also measured. We find average values and sample dispersions of W_CaT of 4.6+/-2.0, 7.0 and 7.7+/-1.0 angstrons for Seyfert 1s, Seyfert 2s and normal galaxies, respectively. We further present an atlas of [SIII]\\lambda 9069 emission line profiles for a subset of 40 galaxies. These data are analyzed in a companion paper which addresses the connection between ...

  5. Some Complex Pressure Effects on Spectra from Simple Classical Mechanics (United States)

    Hartmann, Jean-Michel


    I will first recall how [the two Newton's equations, 1rst year of university] one can very easily compute the rotational and translational classical dynamics of an ensemble of linear molecules interacting through an (input) pair-wise intermolecular potential. These Classical Molecular Dynamics Simulations (CMDS), which provide the time dependence of the positions and axis-orientations of gas phase molecules, are then used to calculate a number of pressure effects manifesting in absorption and scattering spectra. The cases of CO2, O2 and N2 will be considered, systems for which fully quantum approaches are intractable, and comparisons with measured data will be made, free of any adjusted parameter. I will show that, with a few input ingredients from literature (molecule geometry, electric multipoles, polarizabilities, ...) an no adjusted parameter, excellent agreements with various measurements are obtained. Examples will be given for: (1) Collision induced absorption (due to the interaction induced dipole) ; (2) The far wings of absorption (due to the dipole) and light scattering (due to polarizability) bands ; (3) The broadening and shapes (with their deviations from the Voigt profile) of individual absorption lines for both "free" and spatially tightly confined gases. If times allows, additional demonstrations of the interest of CMDS will be given by considering line-mixing effects and the relaxation of laser-kicked molecules.

  6. Quantifying discrepancies in opinion spectra from online and offline networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deokjae Lee

    Full Text Available Online social media such as Twitter are widely used for mining public opinions and sentiments on various issues and topics. The sheer volume of the data generated and the eager adoption by the online-savvy public are helping to raise the profile of online media as a convenient source of news and public opinions on social and political issues as well. Due to the uncontrollable biases in the population who heavily use the media, however, it is often difficult to measure how accurately the online sphere reflects the offline world at large, undermining the usefulness of online media. One way of identifying and overcoming the online-offline discrepancies is to apply a common analytical and modeling framework to comparable data sets from online and offline sources and cross-analyzing the patterns found therein. In this paper we study the political spectra constructed from Twitter and from legislators' voting records as an example to demonstrate the potential limits of online media as the source for accurate public opinion mining, and how to overcome the limits by using offline data simultaneously.

  7. The role of localised Ultra-Low Frequency waves in energetic electron precipitation (United States)

    Rae, J.; Murphy, K. R.; Watt, C.; Mann, I. R.; Ozeke, L.; Halford, A. J.; Sibeck, D. G.; Clilverd, M. A.; Rodger, C. J.; Degeling, A. W.; Singer, H. J.


    Electromagnetic waves play pivotal roles in radiation belt dynamics through a variety of different means. Typically, Ultra-Low Frequency (ULF) waves have historically been invoked for radial diffusive transport leading to both acceleration and loss of outer radiation belt electrons. Very-Low Frequency (VLF) and Extremely-Low Frequency (ELF) waves are generally thought to provide a mechanism for localized acceleration and loss through precipitation into the ionosphere. In this study we present a new mechanism for electron loss through precipitation into the ionosphere due to direct modulation of the loss cone via localized compressional ULF waves. Observational evidence is presented demonstrating that modulation of the equatorial loss cone can occur via localized compressional wave activity. We then perform statistical computations of the probability distribution to determine how likely a given magnetic perturbation would produce a given percentage change in the bounce loss-cone (BLC). We discuss the ramifications of the action of coherent, localized compressional ULF waves on drifting electron populations; their precipitation response can be a complex interplay between electron energy, the shape of the phase space density profile at pitch angles close to the loss cone, ionospheric decay timescales, and the time-dependence of the electron source. We present a case study of compressional wave activity in tandem with riometer and balloon-borne electron precipitation across keV-MeV energies to demonstrate that the experimental measurements can be explained by our new enhanced loss cone mechanism. We determine that the two pivotal components not usually considered are localized ULF wave fields and ionospheric decay timescales. We conclude that ULF wave modulation of the loss cone is a viable candidate for direct precipitation of radiation belt electrons without any additional requirement for gyroresonant wave-particle interaction. Additional mechanisms would be

  8. Satellite-Enhanced Regional Downscaling for Applied Studies: Extreme Precipitation Events in Southeastern South America (United States)

    Nunes, A.; Gomes, G.; Ivanov, V. Y.


    Frequently found in southeastern South America during the warm season from October through May, strong and localized precipitation maxima are usually associated with the presence of mesoscale convective complexes (MCCs) travelling across the region. Flashfloods and landslides can be caused by these extremes in precipitation, with damages to the local communities. Heavily populated, southeastern South America hosts many agricultural activities and hydroelectric production. It encompasses one of the most important river basins in South America, the La Plata River Basin. Therefore, insufficient precipitation is equally prejudicial to the region socio-economic activities. MCCs are originated in the warm season of many regions of the world, however South American MCCs are related to the most severe thunderstorms, and have significantly contributed to the precipitation regime. We used the hourly outputs of Satellite-enhanced Regional Downscaling for Applied Studies (SRDAS), developed at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, in the analysis of the dynamics and physical characteristics of MCCs in South America. SRDAS is the 25-km resolution downscaling of a global reanalysis available from January 1998 through December 2010. The Regional Spectral Model is the SRDAS atmospheric component and assimilates satellite-based precipitation estimates from the NOAA/Climate Prediction Center MORPHing technique global precipitation analyses. In this study, the SRDAS atmospheric and land-surface variables, global reanalysis products, infrared satellite imagery, and the physical retrievals from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), on board of the NASA's Aqua satellite, were used in the evaluation of the MCCs developed in southeastern South America from 2008 and 2010. Low-level circulations and vertical profiles were analyzed together to establish the relevance of the moisture transport in connection with the upper-troposphere dynamics to the development of those MCCs.

  9. How Well do we Measure Precipitation? 'Wind-Induced Undercatch' Revisited (United States)

    Pollock, M.; Colli, M.; Dutton, M.; O'Donnell, G. M.; Wilkinson, M.; Black, A.; Kilsby, C. G.; Quinn, P. F.; Lanza, L. G.; Stagnaro, M.; O'Connell, P. E.


    Data from precipitation gauges are critical for flood forecasting and flood risk management; radar calibration and numerical weather prediction models; and water resource management and hydrological modelling. They are often considered to provide the most accurate practicable measure of precipitation at a point in space and time, but remain subject to considerable errors. Inaccuracies in measurements are compounded in modelling applications by producing potentially misleading or incorrect results; it is therefore of utmost importance to understand uncertainty in observations. All precipitation gauges mounted above the ground surface present an obstruction to the prevailing wind. This causes an acceleration of wind above the orifice of a gauge resulting in what is commonly referred to as `wind-induced undercatch'. This is where precipitation is deflected away from the orifice and lands 'downstream' of the area represented by the gauge measurement, which reduces its collection efficiency (CE). The physical shape of a gauge bears a significant impact on its CE. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations are used to investigate how different shapes of precipitation gauge are affected by the wind. The CFD modelling is supported by high-resolution field measurements at several exposed `Hydro-Met' research stations in the UK. These sites are occupied by a range of precipitation gauges, scrutinised in the CFD analysis, which have different shapes and are mounted at varying heights. The wind-induced undercatch present within a number of large UK storms, which is not captured by operational gauge networks in the UK, is quantified and presented in this study. The combination of results from CFD modelling and the field studies show that gauge shape and mounting height significantly affect the extent of the `undercatching'. `Aerodynamic' gauges following a `champagne flute' or a `funnel' profile were demonstrated by both to have significant advantages over conventional gauge

  10. A subgrid parameterization scheme for precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Turner


    Full Text Available With increasing computing power, the horizontal resolution of numerical weather prediction (NWP models is improving and today reaches 1 to 5 km. Nevertheless, clouds and precipitation formation are still subgrid scale processes for most cloud types, such as cumulus and stratocumulus. Subgrid scale parameterizations for water vapor condensation have been in use for many years and are based on a prescribed probability density function (PDF of relative humidity spatial variability within the model grid box, thus providing a diagnosis of the cloud fraction. A similar scheme is developed and tested here. It is based on a prescribed PDF of cloud water variability and a threshold value of liquid water content for droplet collection to derive a rain fraction within the model grid. Precipitation of rainwater raises additional concerns relative to the overlap of cloud and rain fractions, however. The scheme is developed following an analysis of data collected during field campaigns in stratocumulus (DYCOMS-II and fair weather cumulus (RICO and tested in a 1-D framework against large eddy simulations of these observed cases. The new parameterization is then implemented in a 3-D NWP model with a horizontal resolution of 2.5 km to simulate real cases of precipitating cloud systems over France.

  11. Global warming without global mean precipitation increase? (United States)

    Salzmann, Marc


    Global climate models simulate a robust increase of global mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per kelvin surface warming in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K(-1) decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol because the water vapor radiative feedback lowers the hydrological sensitivity to anthropogenic forcings. When GHG and aerosol forcings are combined, the climate models with a realistic 20th century warming indicate that the global mean precipitation increase due to GHG warming has, until recently, been completely masked by aerosol drying. This explains the apparent lack of sensitivity of the global mean precipitation to the net global warming recently found in observations. As the importance of GHG warming increases in the future, a clear signal will emerge.

  12. Preventing Precipitation in the ISS Urine Processor (United States)

    Muirhead, Dean; Carter, Layne; Williamson, Jill; Chambers, Antja


    The ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) was initially designed to achieve 85% recovery of water from pretreated urine on ISS. Pretreated urine is comprised of crew urine treated with flush water, an oxidant (chromium trioxide), and an inorganic acid (sulfuric acid) to control microbial growth and inhibit precipitation. Unfortunately, initial operation of the UPA on ISS resulted in the precipitation of calcium sulfate at 85% recovery. This occurred because the calcium concentration in the crew urine was elevated in microgravity due to bone loss. The higher calcium concentration precipitated with sulfate from the pretreatment acid, resulting in a failure of the UPA due to the accumulation of solids in the Distillation Assembly. Since this failure, the UPA has been limited to a reduced recovery of water from urine to prevent calcium sulfate from reaching the solubility limit. NASA personnel have worked to identify a solution that would allow the UPA to return to a nominal recovery rate of 85%. This effort has culminated with the development of a pretreatment based on phosphoric acid instead of sulfuric acid. By eliminating the sulfate associated with the pretreatment, the brine can be concentrated to a much higher concentration before calcium sulfate reach the solubility limit. This paper summarizes the development of this pretreatment and the testing performed to verify its implementation on ISS.

  13. Thermodynamic modeling for organic solid precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, T.H.


    A generalized predictive model which is based on thermodynamic principle for solid-liquid phase equilibrium has been developed for organic solid precipitation. The model takes into account the effects of temperature, composition, and activity coefficient on the solubility of wax and asphaltenes in organic solutions. The solid-liquid equilibrium K-value is expressed as a function of the heat of melting, melting point temperature, solubility parameter, and the molar volume of each component in the solution. All these parameters have been correlated with molecular weight. Thus, the model can be applied to crude oil systems. The model has been tested with experimental data for wax formation and asphaltene precipitation. The predicted wax appearance temperature is very close to the measured temperature. The model not only can match the measured asphaltene solubility data but also can be used to predict the solubility of asphaltene in organic solvents or crude oils. The model assumes that asphaltenes are dissolved in oil in a true liquid state, not in colloidal suspension, and the precipitation-dissolution process is reversible by changing thermodynamic conditions. The model is thermodynamically consistent and has no ambiguous assumptions.

  14. Global precipitation measurements for validating climate models (United States)

    Tapiador, F. J.; Navarro, A.; Levizzani, V.; García-Ortega, E.; Huffman, G. J.; Kidd, C.; Kucera, P. A.; Kummerow, C. D.; Masunaga, H.; Petersen, W. A.; Roca, R.; Sánchez, J.-L.; Tao, W.-K.; Turk, F. J.


    The advent of global precipitation data sets with increasing temporal span has made it possible to use them for validating climate models. In order to fulfill the requirement of global coverage, existing products integrate satellite-derived retrievals from many sensors with direct ground observations (gauges, disdrometers, radars), which are used as reference for the satellites. While the resulting product can be deemed as the best-available source of quality validation data, awareness of the limitations of such data sets is important to avoid extracting wrong or unsubstantiated conclusions when assessing climate model abilities. This paper provides guidance on the use of precipitation data sets for climate research, including model validation and verification for improving physical parameterizations. The strengths and limitations of the data sets for climate modeling applications are presented, and a protocol for quality assurance of both observational databases and models is discussed. The paper helps elaborating the recent IPCC AR5 acknowledgment of large observational uncertainties in precipitation observations for climate model validation.

  15. Robust automated mass spectra interpretation and chemical formula calculation using mixed integer linear programming. (United States)

    Baran, Richard; Northen, Trent R


    Untargeted metabolite profiling using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry coupled via electrospray ionization is a powerful tool for the discovery of novel natural products, metabolic capabilities, and biomarkers. However, the elucidation of the identities of uncharacterized metabolites from spectral features remains challenging. A critical step in the metabolite identification workflow is the assignment of redundant spectral features (adducts, fragments, multimers) and calculation of the underlying chemical formula. Inspection of the data by experts using computational tools solving partial problems (e.g., chemical formula calculation for individual ions) can be performed to disambiguate alternative solutions and provide reliable results. However, manual curation is tedious and not readily scalable or standardized. Here we describe an automated procedure for the robust automated mass spectra interpretation and chemical formula calculation using mixed integer linear programming optimization (RAMSI). Chemical rules among related ions are expressed as linear constraints and both the spectra interpretation and chemical formula calculation are performed in a single optimization step. This approach is unbiased in that it does not require predefined sets of neutral losses and positive and negative polarity spectra can be combined in a single optimization. The procedure was evaluated with 30 experimental mass spectra and was found to effectively identify the protonated or deprotonated molecule ([M + H](+) or [M - H](-)) while being robust to the presence of background ions. RAMSI provides a much-needed standardized tool for interpreting ions for subsequent identification in untargeted metabolomics workflows.

  16. Optical coherence tomography with pre-calculated reference spectra (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Chen, Xiaodong; Liang, Haitao; Yu, Daoyin


    The resample of spectra which is essential for high-precision spectral-domain OCT data processing is sophisticated, and its precision is dependent on the method and equipment. In this paper, we proposed an OCT without inverse FFT. A series of reference spectra corresponding to different optical path length difference was used to convolve with spectra gotten by OCT to acquire time-domain tomography instead of inverse FFT, thus eliminating the resample of spectra. The reference spectra were calculated before imaging and corrected with correction spectrum from sample arm to compensate the influence of sample arm. Experiment was done with a mirror as sample and validated our setup.

  17. The production of precipitated calcium carbonate from industrial gypsum wastes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris


    Full Text Available The production of precipitated calcium carbonate from industrial gypsum wastes M. de Beer Thesis submitted for the degree Doctor Philosophiae in Chemical Engineering at the Potchefstroom Campus of the North-West University Abstract Precipitated...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Total Precipitation Sensor (HotPlate) GCPEx dataset provides a measure of the liquid precipitation rate and accumulation for snow....


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP Airborne Second Generation Precipitation Radar (APR-2) dataset was collected from the Second Generation Airborne Precipitation Radar (APR-2), which is a...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NAMMA Second Generation Airborne Precipitation Radar (APR-2) dataset was collected by using the Second Generation Airborne Precipitation Radar (APR-2), which is...