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Sample records for profiler derived trajectory

  1. Numerical derivative techniques for trajectory optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Wayne P.

    1990-01-01

    The adoption of robust numerical optimization techniques in trajectory simulation programs has resulted in powerful design and analysis tools. These trajectory simulation/optimization programs are widely used, and a representative list includes the GTS system, the POST program, and newer collocation methods such as OTIS and FONPAC. All of these programs rely on optimization algorithms which require objective function and constraint gradient data during the iteration process. However, most trajectory optimization problems lack simple analytical expressions for these derivatives. In the general case a function evaluation involves integrating aerodynamic, propulsive, and gravity forces over multiple trajectory phases with complex control models. With the newer collocation methods, the integration is replaced by defect constraints and cubic approximations for the state. While analytic gradient expressions can sometimes be derived for trajectory optimization problems, the derivation is cumbersome, time consuming, and prone to mistakes. Fortunately, an alternate method exists for the gradient evaluation, namely finite difference approximations. In this paper some finite difference gradient techniques developed for use with the GTS system are presented. These techniques include methods for computing first and second partial derivatives of single and multiple sets of functions. A key feature of these methods is an error control mechanism which automatically adjusts the perturbation size to obtain accurate derivative values.

  2. Trajectory Generation Method with Convolution Operation on Velocity Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Geon [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Doik [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    The use of robots is no longer limited to the field of industrial robots and is now expanding into the fields of service and medical robots. In this light, a trajectory generation method that can respond instantaneously to the external environment is strongly required. Toward this end, this study proposes a method that enables a robot to change its trajectory in real-time using a convolution operation. The proposed method generates a trajectory in real time and satisfies the physical limits of the robot system such as acceleration and velocity limit. Moreover, a new way to improve the previous method, which generates inefficient trajectories in some cases owing to the characteristics of the trapezoidal shape of trajectories, is proposed by introducing a triangle shape. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed method is shown through a numerical simulation and a comparison with the previous convolution method.

  3. Variations in Academic Performance Trajectories during High School Transition: Exploring Change Profiles Via Multidimensional Scaling Growth Profile Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Cody S.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the baseline change profiles of academic performance (math and English) trajectories during the high school transition for the students who went from middle school to high school. Using multidimensional scaling growth profile analysis, we identified a no-change group plus 4 other groups with different change profile types: 1…

  4. Evaluation of altimetry‐derived surface current products using Lagrangian drifter trajectories in the eastern Gulf of Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Yonggang; Weisberg, Robert H; Vignudelli, Stefano; Mitchum, Gary T

    2014-01-01

    Lagrangian particle trajectory models based on several altimetry‐derived surface current products are used to hindcast the drifter trajectories observed in the eastern Gulf of Mexico during May to August 2010...

  5. Carbon monoxide climatology derived from the trajectory mapping of global MOZAIC-IAGOS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Mohammed K.; Tarasick, David W.; Liu, Jane; Moeini, Omid; Thouret, Valerie; Fioletov, Vitali E.; Parrington, Mark; Nédélec, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    A three-dimensional gridded climatology of carbon monoxide (CO) has been developed by trajectory mapping of global MOZAIC-IAGOS in situ measurements from commercial aircraft data. CO measurements made during aircraft ascent and descent, comprising nearly 41 200 profiles at 148 airports worldwide from December 2001 to December 2012, are used. Forward and backward trajectories are calculated from meteorological reanalysis data in order to map the CO measurements to other locations and so to fill in the spatial domain. This domain-filling technique employs 15 800 000 calculated trajectories to map otherwise sparse MOZAIC-IAGOS data into a quasi-global field. The resulting trajectory-mapped CO data set is archived monthly from 2001 to 2012 on a grid of 5° longitude × 5° latitude × 1 km altitude, from the surface to 14 km altitude.The mapping product has been carefully evaluated, firstly by comparing maps constructed using only forward trajectories and using only backward trajectories. The two methods show similar global CO distribution patterns. The magnitude of their differences is most commonly 10 % or less and found to be less than 30 % for almost all cases. Secondly, the method has been validated by comparing profiles for individual airports with those produced by the mapping method when data from that site are excluded. While there are larger differences below 2 km, the two methods agree very well between 2 and 10 km with the magnitude of biases within 20 %. Finally, the mapping product is compared with global MOZAIC-IAGOS cruise-level data, which were not included in the trajectory-mapped data set, and with independent data from the NOAA aircraft flask sampling program. The trajectory-mapped MOZAIC-IAGOS CO values show generally good agreement with both independent data sets.Maps are also compared with version 6 data from the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) satellite instrument. Both data sets clearly show major regional CO sources such

  6. Deriving average delay of traffic flow around intersections from vehicle trajectory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Minyue; Li, Xiang

    2013-03-01

    Advances of positioning and wireless communication technologies make it possible to collect a large number of trajectory data of moving vehicles in a fast and convenient fashion. The data can be applied to various fields such as traffic study. In this paper, we attempt to derive average delay of traffic flow around intersections and verify the results with changes of time. The intersection zone is delineated first. Positioning points geographically located within this zone are selected, and then outliers are removed. Turn trips are extracted from selected trajectory data. Each trip, physically consisting of time-series positioning points, is identified with entry road segment and turning direction, i.e. target road segment. Turn trips are grouped into different categories according to their time attributes. Then, delay of each trip during a turn is calculated with its recorded speed. Delays of all trips in the same period of time are plotted to observe the change pattern of traffic conditions. Compared to conventional approaches, the proposed method can be applied to those intersections without fixed data collection devices such as loop detectors since a large number of trajectory data can always provide a more complete spatio-temporal picture of a road network. With respect to data availability, taxi trajectory data and an intersection in Shanghai are employed to test the proposed methodology. Results demonstrate its applicability.

  7. Parent-Child Acculturation Profiles as Predictors of Chinese American Adolescents’ Academic Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Chen, Qi; Shen, Yishan; Hou, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Acculturation plays a critical role in the adjustment of Asian Americans, as a large proportion of them are immigrants in the U.S. However, little is known about how acculturation influences Asian American adolescents’ academic trajectories over time. Using a longitudinal sample of 444 Chinese American families (54% female children), the current study explored the effect of mothers’, fathers’, and adolescents’ individual acculturation profiles and parent-child acculturation dissonance on adolescents’ academic trajectories from 8th to 12th grade. Academic performance was measured by Grade Point Average (GPA), and by standardized test scores in English Language Arts (ELA) and Math every year. Latent growth modeling analyses showed that adolescents with a Chinese-oriented father showed faster decline in GPA, and Chinese-oriented adolescents had lower initial ELA scores. Adolescents whose parents had American-oriented acculturation profiles tended to have lower initial Math scores. These results suggest that Chinese and American profiles may be disadvantageous for certain aspects of academic performance, and bicultural adolescents and/or adolescents with bicultural parents are best positioned to achieve across multiple domains. In terms of the role of parent-child acculturation dissonance on academic trajectories, the current study highlighted the importance of distinguishing among different types of dissonance. Adolescents who were more Chinese-oriented than their parents tended to have the lowest initial ELA scores, and adolescents experiencing more normative acculturation dissonance (i.e., who were more American-oriented than their parents) had the highest initial ELA scores. No effects of parent-child acculturation dissonance were observed for GPAs or standardized Math scores. Altogether, the current findings add nuances to the current understanding of acculturation and adolescent adjustment. PMID:24820295

  8. Parent-child acculturation profiles as predictors of Chinese American adolescents' academic trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Chen, Qi; Shen, Yishan; Hou, Yang

    2015-06-01

    Acculturation plays a critical role in the adjustment of Asian Americans, as a large proportion of them are immigrants in the US. However, little is known about how acculturation influences Asian American adolescents' academic trajectories over time. Using a longitudinal sample of 444 Chinese American families (54% female children), the current study explored the effect of mothers', fathers', and adolescents' individual acculturation profiles and parent-child acculturation dissonance on adolescents' academic trajectories from 8th to 12th grade. Academic performance was measured by grade point average (GPA), and by standardized test scores in English language arts (ELA) and Math every year. Latent growth modeling analyses showed that adolescents with a Chinese-oriented father showed faster decline in GPA, and Chinese-oriented adolescents had lower initial ELA scores. Adolescents whose parents had American-oriented acculturation profiles tended to have lower initial Math scores. These results suggest that Chinese and American profiles may be disadvantageous for certain aspects of academic performance, and bicultural adolescents and/or adolescents with bicultural parents are best positioned to achieve across multiple domains. In terms of the role of parent-child acculturation dissonance on academic trajectories, the current study highlighted the importance of distinguishing among different types of dissonance. Adolescents who were more Chinese-oriented than their parents tended to have the lowest initial ELA scores, and adolescents experiencing more normative acculturation dissonance (i.e., who were more American-oriented than their parents) had the highest initial ELA scores. No effects of parent-child acculturation dissonance were observed for GPAs or standardized Math scores. Altogether, the current findings add nuances to the current understanding of acculturation and adolescent adjustment.

  9. Generalization of Orientation Trajectories and Force-Torque Profiles for Robotic Assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramberger, Aljaž; Gams, Andrej; Nemec, Bojan

    2017-01-01

    showed how positional control policies can be generalized to different task conditions. In this paper we propose a complete methodology to generalize also the orientational trajectories and the accompanying force-torque profiles to compute the necessary control policy for a given condition...... of the assembly task. Our method is based on statistical generalization of successfully recorded executions at different task. conditions, which are acquired by kinesthetic guiding. The parameters that describe the varying task conditions define queries into the recorded training data. To improve the execution...... of the skill after generalization, we combine the proposed approach with an adaptation method, thus enabling the refinement of the generalized assembly operation....

  10. Minimum-Cost Aircraft Descent Trajectories with a Constrained Altitude Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minghong G.; Sadovsky, Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    An analytical formula for solving the speed profile that accrues minimum cost during an aircraft descent with a constrained altitude profile is derived. The optimal speed profile first reaches a certain speed, called the minimum-cost speed, as quickly as possible using an appropriate extreme value of thrust. The speed profile then stays on the minimum-cost speed as long as possible, before switching to an extreme value of thrust for the rest of the descent. The formula is applied to an actual arrival route and its sensitivity to winds and airlines' business objectives is analyzed.

  11. The Association of Latino Children's Kindergarten School Readiness Profiles with Grade 2-5 Literacy Achievement Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Matthew; Grimm, Ryan; Furlong, Michael J.; Nylund-Gibson, Karen; Swami, Sruthi

    2016-01-01

    This study utilized latent class analysis (LCA) to identify 5 discernible profiles of Latino children's (N = 1,253) social-emotional, physical, and cognitive school readiness at the time of kindergarten entry. In addition, a growth mixture modeling (GMM) approach was used to identify 3 unique literacy achievement trajectories, across Grades 2-5,…

  12. Distinct evolutionary trajectories of primary high-grade serous ovarian cancers revealed through spatial mutational profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashashati, Ali; Ha, Gavin; Tone, Alicia; Ding, Jiarui; Prentice, Leah M; Roth, Andrew; Rosner, Jamie; Shumansky, Karey; Kalloger, Steve; Senz, Janine; Yang, Winnie; McConechy, Melissa; Melnyk, Nataliya; Anglesio, Michael; Luk, Margaret T Y; Tse, Kane; Zeng, Thomas; Moore, Richard; Zhao, Yongjun; Marra, Marco A; Gilks, Blake; Yip, Stephen; Huntsman, David G; McAlpine, Jessica N; Shah, Sohrab P

    2013-09-01

    High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) is characterized by poor outcome, often attributed to the emergence of treatment-resistant subclones. We sought to measure the degree of genomic diversity within primary, untreated HGSCs to examine the natural state of tumour evolution prior to therapy. We performed exome sequencing, copy number analysis, targeted amplicon deep sequencing and gene expression profiling on 31 spatially and temporally separated HGSC tumour specimens (six patients), including ovarian masses, distant metastases and fallopian tube lesions. We found widespread intratumoural variation in mutation, copy number and gene expression profiles, with key driver alterations in genes present in only a subset of samples (eg PIK3CA, CTNNB1, NF1). On average, only 51.5% of mutations were present in every sample of a given case (range 10.2-91.4%), with TP53 as the only somatic mutation consistently present in all samples. Complex segmental aneuploidies, such as whole-genome doubling, were present in a subset of samples from the same individual, with divergent copy number changes segregating independently of point mutation acquisition. Reconstruction of evolutionary histories showed one patient with mixed HGSC and endometrioid histology, with common aetiologic origin in the fallopian tube and subsequent selection of different driver mutations in the histologically distinct samples. In this patient, we observed mixed cell populations in the early fallopian tube lesion, indicating that diversity arises at early stages of tumourigenesis. Our results revealed that HGSCs exhibit highly individual evolutionary trajectories and diverse genomic tapestries prior to therapy, exposing an essential biological characteristic to inform future design of personalized therapeutic solutions and investigation of drug-resistance mechanisms. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  13. Cardiovascular regulation profile predicts developmental trajectory of BMI and pediatric obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Paulo A; Calkins, Susan D; Keane, Susan P; O'Brien, Marion

    2011-09-01

    The present study examined the role of cardiovascular regulation in predicting pediatric obesity. Participants for this study included 268 children (141 girls) obtained from a larger ongoing longitudinal study. To assess cardiac vagal regulation, resting measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and RSA change (vagal withdrawal) to three cognitively challenging tasks were derived when children were 5.5 years of age. Heart period (HP) and HP change (heart rate (HR) acceleration) were also examined. Height and weight measures were collected when children were 5.5, 7.5, and 10.5 years of age. Results indicated that physiological regulation at age 5.5 was predictive of both normal variations in BMI development and pediatric obesity at age 10.5. Specifically, children with a cardiovascular regulation profile characterized by lower levels of RSA suppression and HP change experienced significantly greater levels of BMI growth and were more likely to be classified as overweight/at-risk for overweight at age 10.5 compared to children with a cardiovascular regulation profile characterized by high levels of RSA suppression and HP change. However, a significant interaction with racial status was found suggesting that the association between cardiovascular regulation profile and BMI growth and pediatric obesity was only significant for African-American children. An autonomic cardiovascular regulation profile consisting of low parasympathetic activity represents a significant individual risk factor for the development of pediatric obesity, but only for African-American children. Mechanisms by which early physiological regulation difficulties may contribute to the development of pediatric obesity are discussed.

  14. Prediction of transposable element derived enhancers using chromatin modification profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Huda

    Full Text Available Experimentally characterized enhancer regions have previously been shown to display specific patterns of enrichment for several different histone modifications. We modelled these enhancer chromatin profiles in the human genome and used them to guide the search for novel enhancers derived from transposable element (TE sequences. To do this, a computational approach was taken to analyze the genome-wide histone modification landscape characterized by the ENCODE project in two human hematopoietic cell types, GM12878 and K562. We predicted the locations of 2,107 and 1,448 TE-derived enhancers in the GM12878 and K562 cell lines respectively. A vast majority of these putative enhancers are unique to each cell line; only 3.5% of the TE-derived enhancers are shared between the two. We evaluated the functional effect of TE-derived enhancers by associating them with the cell-type specific expression of nearby genes, and found that the number of TE-derived enhancers is strongly positively correlated with the expression of nearby genes in each cell line. Furthermore, genes that are differentially expressed between the two cell lines also possess a divergent number of TE-derived enhancers in their vicinity. As such, genes that are up-regulated in the GM12878 cell line and down-regulated in K562 have significantly more TE-derived enhancers in their vicinity in the GM12878 cell line and vice versa. These data indicate that human TE-derived sequences are likely to be involved in regulating cell-type specific gene expression on a broad scale and suggest that the enhancer activity of TE-derived sequences is mediated by epigenetic regulatory mechanisms.

  15. Epigenetic profiling of ADHD symptoms trajectories: A prospective, methylome-wide study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Esther; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Cecil, Charlotte AM; Gaunt, Tom R.; Relton, Caroline; Mill, Jonathan; Barker, Edward D.

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent developmental disorder, associated with a range of long-term impairments. Variation in DNA methylation, an epigenetic mechanism, is implicated in both neurobiological functioning and psychiatric health. However, the potential role of DNA methylation in ADHD symptoms is currently unclear. In this study, we examined data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) – specifically the subsample forming the Accessible Resource for Integrated Epigenomics Studies (ARIES) – which includes (i) peripheral measures of DNA methylation (Illumina 450k) at birth (n=817, 49% male) and age 7 (n=892, 50% male) and (ii) trajectories of ADHD symptoms (7-15 yrs). We first employed a genome-wide analysis to test whether DNA methylation at birth associates with later ADHD trajectories; and then followed up at age 7 to investigate the stability of associations across early childhood. We found that DNA methylation at birth differentiated ADHD trajectories across multiple genomic locations, including probes annotated to SKI (involved in neural tube development), ZNF544 (previously implicated in ADHD), ST3GAL3 (linked to intellectual disability) and PEX2 (related to perixosomal processes). None of these probes maintained an association with ADHD trajectories at age 7. Findings lend novel insights into the epigenetic landscape of ADHD symptoms, highlighting the potential importance of DNA methylation variation in genes related to neurodevelopmental and peroxisomal processes, which play a key role in the maturation and stability of cortical circuits. PMID:27217153

  16. Age-Related Differences in Profiles of Mood-Change Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jennifer Tehan; Isaacowitz, Derek M.

    2011-01-01

    As a group, older adults report positive affective lives. The extent to which there are subgroups of older adults whose moods are less positive, however, is unclear. Our aim in the present study was to identify and characterize different subgroups of adults who exhibit distinct trajectories of mood change across a relatively short time period.…

  17. Epigenetic profiling of ADHD symptoms trajectories: a prospective, methylome-wide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, E; Pingault, J-B; Cecil, C A M; Gaunt, T R; Relton, C L; Mill, J; Barker, E D

    2017-02-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent developmental disorder, associated with a range of long-term impairments. Variation in DNA methylation, an epigenetic mechanism, is implicated in both neurobiological functioning and psychiatric health. However, the potential role of DNA methylation in ADHD symptoms is currently unclear. In this study, we examined data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)-specifically the subsample forming the Accessible Resource for Integrated Epigenomics Studies (ARIES)-that includes (1) peripheral measures of DNA methylation (Illumina 450k) at birth (n=817, 49% male) and age 7 (n=892, 50% male) and (2) trajectories of ADHD symptoms (7-15 years). We first employed a genome-wide analysis to test whether DNA methylation at birth associates with later ADHD trajectories; and then followed up at age 7 to investigate the stability of associations across early childhood. We found that DNA methylation at birth differentiated ADHD trajectories across multiple genomic locations, including probes annotated to SKI (involved in neural tube development), ZNF544 (previously implicated in ADHD), ST3GAL3 (linked to intellectual disability) and PEX2 (related to perixosomal processes). None of these probes maintained an association with ADHD trajectories at age 7. Findings lend novel insights into the epigenetic landscape of ADHD symptoms, highlighting the potential importance of DNA methylation variation in genes related to neurodevelopmental and peroxisomal processes that play a key role in the maturation and stability of cortical circuits.

  18. Dopaminergic profile of new heterocyclic N-phenylpiperazine derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine constitutes about 80% of the content of central catecholamines and has a crucial role in the etiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease, depression and schizophrenia. Several dopaminergic drugs are used to treat these pathologies, but many problems are attributed to these therapies. Within this context, the search for new more efficient dopaminergic agents with less adverse effects represents a vast research field. The aim of the present study was to report the structural design of two N-phenylpiperazine derivatives, compound 4: 1-[1-(4-chlorophenyl-1H-4-pyrazolylmethyl]-4-phenylhexahydropyrazine and compound 5: 1-[1-(4-chlorophenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-ylmethyl]-4-phenylhexahydropyrazine, planned to be dopamine ligands, and their dopaminergic action profile. The two compounds were assayed (dose range of 15-40 mg/kg in three experimental models: 1 blockade of amphetamine (30 mg/kg, ip-induced stereotypy in rats; 2 the catalepsy test in mice, and 3 apomorphine (1 mg/kg, ip-induced hypothermia in mice. Both derivatives induced cataleptic behavior (40 mg/kg, ip and a hypothermic response (30 mg/kg, ip which was not prevented by haloperidol (0.5 mg/kg, ip. Compound 5 (30 mg/kg, ip also presented a synergistic hypothermic effect with apomorphine (1 mg/kg, ip. Only compound 4 (30 mg/kg, ip significantly blocked the amphetamine-induced stereotypy in rats. The N-phenylpiperazine derivatives 4 and 5 seem to have a peculiar profile of action on dopaminergic functions. On the basis of the results of catalepsy and amphetamine-induced stereotypy, the compounds demonstrated an inhibitory effect on dopaminergic behaviors. However, their hypothermic effect is compatible with the stimulation of dopaminergic function which seems not to be mediated by D2/D3 receptors.

  19. Ring-tool profiling - graphical method in CATIA based on Generating trajectories theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumuşanu, G.; Teodor, V.; Oancea, N.

    2016-11-01

    Machining of threads having high dimensions and multiple starts by turning is a challenging problem. An alternative possibility is to machine them by milling. The most productive milling solution is when using tools with inner active surface, namely ring tools. In the case of threads with multiple starts, the reciprocal enwrapped profile of the ring tool is considerably different to the shape of the thread axial (normal) section. In this paper, we suggest a methodology to profile the generator ring tool, based on a complementary theorem from enwrapped surfaces field. At the same time, a graphical algorithm aiming to find the ring tool profile, developed in CATIA graphical environment has been applied in the concrete case of a trapezoidal thread. The graphical profiling solution is presented in comparison to an analytical solution, in order to test the results precision. The graphical profiling method proves to be rigorous, easy to apply and highly intuitive.

  20. THE NONLINEAR TRAJECTORY OF CHANGE IN PLAY PROFILES OF THREE CHILDREN IN PSYCHODYNAMIC PLAY THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Halfon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Even though there is substantial evidence that play based therapies produce significant change, the specific play processes in treatment remain unexamined. For that purpose, processes of change in long-term psychodynamic play therapy are assessed through a repeated systematic assessment of three children’s Play Profiles, which reflect patterns of organization among play variables that contribute to play activity in therapy, indicative of the children’s coping strategies, and an expression of their internal world. The main aims of the study are to investigate the kinds of Play Profiles expressed in treatment, and to test whether there is emergence of new and more adaptive Play Profiles using dynamic systems theory as a methodological framework.Methods and Procedures: Each session from the long-term psychodynamic treatment (mean number of sessions = 55 of three 6 year old good outcome cases presenting with Separation Anxiety were recorded, transcribed and coded using items from the Children's Play Therapy Instrument, created to assess the play activity of children in psychotherapy, generating discrete and measurable units of play activity arranged along a continuum of four play profiles: Adaptive, Inhibited, Impulsive, and Disorganized. The play profiles were clustered through K-means Algorithm, generating 7 discrete states characterizing the course of treatment and the transitions between these states were analyzed by Markov Transition Matrix, Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA and odds ratios comparing the first and second halves of psychotherapy.Results: The Markov Transitions between the states scaled almost perfectly and also showed the ergodicity of the system meaning that the child can reach any state or shift to another one in play. The RQA and odds ratios showed two trends of change, first concerning the decrease in the use of less adaptive strategies, second regarding the reduction of play interruptions.Conclusions: The

  1. Latent Class Profiles of Anxiety Symptom Trajectories From Preschool Through School Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertz, Sarah J; Sylvester, Chad; Tillman, Rebecca; Luby, Joan L

    2017-03-20

    Anxiety typically arises early in childhood and decreases during school age. However, little is known about the earlier developmental course of anxiety in preschool, especially in at risk children, posing a clinically important problem. Given that anxiety in youth has a chronic course for some and also predicts later development of other mental health problems, it is important to identify factors early in development that may predict chronic anxiety symptoms. At-risk children (oversampled for depression) and caregivers completed 6 assessment waves beginning at preschool age (between 3-5.11 years of age) up through 6.5 years later. Growth mixture models revealed 4 distinct trajectories: 2 stable groups (high and moderate) and 2 decreasing groups (high and low). Important to note, the high stable anxiety group had greater baseline depression and social adversity/risk, higher average maternal depression over time, and poorer average social functioning over time compared to the high decreasing group. The high decreasing group also had greater externalizing/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder scores than the low decreasing group. Children with anxiety in early childhood who also experience high depression, social adversity/risk, maternal depression, and poor social functioning may be at risk for chronic symptoms over time.

  2. Investigating PAH relative reactivity using congener profiles, quinone measurements and back trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M. S.; Delgado-Saborit, J. M.; Stark, C.; Harrison, R. M.

    2014-03-01

    Vapour and particle-associated concentrations of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and 11 PAH quinones have been measured in winter and summer campaigns at the rural site, Weybourne in eastern England. Concentrations of individual PAH are relatively smaller than average concentrations measured previously at urban sites in the UK. The concentrations of PAH of the air masses originating from southern England and mainland UK are significantly larger than those from Eastern Europe and the North Atlantic, while quinone to parent PAH ratios show an inverse behaviour, being highest in the more aged North Atlantic polar air masses. While concentrations of 1,2-naphthoquinone decline from winter to summer, those of 1,4-naphthoquinone and anthraquinone increase suggesting a photochemical formation pathway. A comparison of congener concentration profiles measured at Weybourne with those from an urban source area (Birmingham) reveals differential losses at the rural site, especially evident in fluoranthene : pyrene ratios and consistent with the known rates of vapour phase reactions of 3 and 4 ring compounds with hydroxyl radical. The ratios of quinones to their parent PAH at Weybourne are greater than those in the urban source area indicating either more rapid loss processes for PAH, or formation of quinones during advection of the air mass, or probably both.

  3. Accurate Trajectory and Orientation of a Motorcycle derived from low-cost Satellite and Inertial Measurement Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Waegli, Adrian; Schorderet, Alain; Prongué, Christophe; Skaloud, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Inertially aided satellite positioning can bring its benefits to all disciplines in which detailed knowledge of the trajectory is a prerequisite for improving performance. In motorcycling for instance, the determination of slips of tires requires the determination of the precise trajectory and the orientation of the motorcycle’s chassis. The correct exploitation of torque or force sensors as well as studies of the vibratory behavior of pneumatics necessitate the knowledge of the orientation o...

  4. A total transcriptome profiling method for plasma-derived extracellular vesicles: applications for liquid biopsies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maria G Amorim; Renan Valieris; Rodrigo D Drummond; Melissa P Pizzi; Vanessa M Freitas; Rita Sinigaglia-Coimbra; George A Calin; Renata Pasqualini; Wadih Arap; Israel T Silva; Emmanuel Dias-Neto; Diana N Nunes

    2017-01-01

    .... However, the total transcriptional landscape of EVs is still largely unknown. Here we develop a new method for total transcriptome profiling of plasma-derived EVs by next generation sequencing (NGS...

  5. Expression profiling and comparative sequence derived insights into lipid metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callow, Matthew J.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2001-12-19

    Expression profiling and genomic DNA sequence comparisons are increasingly being applied to the identification and analysis of the genes involved in lipid metabolism. Not only has genome-wide expression profiling aided in the identification of novel genes involved in important processes in lipid metabolism such as sterol efflux, but the utilization of information from these studies has added to our understanding of the regulation of pathways participating in the process. Coupled with these gene expression studies, cross species comparison, searching for sequences conserved through evolution, has proven to be a powerful tool to identify important non-coding regulatory sequences as well as the discovery of novel genes relevant to lipid biology. An example of the value of this approach was the recent chance discovery of a new apolipoprotein gene (apo AV) that has dramatic effects upon triglyceride metabolism in mice and humans.

  6. Molecular profiling of an interspecific rice population derived from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NERICA rices are interspecific inbred progeny derived from crosses between Oryza sativa x O. glaberrima. In this study, we evaluated 70 BC2 interspecific lines, developed by crossing a tropical japonica variety (WAB 56-104) as the recurrent parent to an O. glaberrima variety (CG 14) as the donor parent, followed by the ...

  7. Molecular profiling of interspecific lowland rice populations derived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several lowland NERICAs (New Rice for Africa) were derived from crosses between IR64 (an Oryza sativa subsp. indica variety) and Tog5681 (an Oryza glaberrima variety) that possess useful traits adapted to lowland conditions in West Africa. The proportion of parental genomic contribution and extent of genetic ...

  8. Market segment derivation and profiling via a finite mixture model framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedel, M; Desarbo, WS

    The Marketing literature has shown how difficult it is to profile market segments derived with finite mixture models. especially using traditional descriptor variables (e.g., demographics). Such profiling is critical for the proper implementation of segmentation strategy. we propose a new finite

  9. 1.6 μm DIAL Measurement and Back Trajectory Analysis of CO2 Concentration Profiles in the Lower-Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Y.; Nagasawa, C.; Abo, M.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the primary greenhouse gas emitted through human activities. In addition to the ground level CO2 network, vertical CO2 concentration profiles also play an important role for the estimation of the carbon budget and global warming in the inversion method. Especially, for the detailed analysis of forest carbon dynamics and CO2 fluxes of urban area, vertical CO2 concentration profiles with high spatial and temporal resolution in the lower atmosphere have been conducted by a differential absorption lidar (DIAL). We have observed several vertical profiles of CO2 concentrations for nighttime and daytime from 0.25 to 2.5 km altitude with range resolution of 300 m and integration time of 1 hour. In order to extract information on the origin of the CO2 masses, one day back trajectories were calculated by using a three dimensional (3-D) atmospheric transport model. In many cases, CO2 low concentration layers of over 1.5km altitude were flown by westerly winds from the forest. In another case, high concentration layers of CO2 were flown from the urban areas. As the spectra of absorption lines of any molecules are influenced basically by the temperature in the atmosphere, laser beams of three wavelengths around a CO2 absorption spectrum are transmitted alternately to the atmosphere for simultaneous measurements of CO2 concentration and temperature profiles. Moreover, a few processing algorithms of CO2-DIAL are also performed for improvement of measurement accuracy. For computation of trajectories and drawing their figures, the JRA-25 data provided by the cooperative research project for the JRA-25 long-term reanalysis of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) and the NIPR trajectory model (Tomikawa and Sato, 2005; http://firp-nitram.nipr.ac.jp) were used. This work was financially supported by the System Development Program for Advanced Measurement and Analysis of the Japan Science and

  10. The Developmental Trajectory of Parent-Report and Objective Sleep Profiles in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Associations with Anxiety and Bedtime Routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Fay E.; Foster-Owens, Mistral D.; Conduit, Russell; Rinehart, Nicole J.; Riby, Deborah M.; Cornish, Kim M.

    2017-01-01

    The present study compared the course of parent-report and actigraphy-derived sleep profiles over a 1-year period, in school-age children with autism spectrum disorder and typically developing children. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire and 14 nights of actigraphy were used to assess sleep profiles. Parents also completed the Spence…

  11. Using scale heights derived from bottomside ionograms for modelling the IRI topside profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. Reinisch

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundbased ionograms measure the Chapman scale height HT at the F2-layer peak that is used to construct the topside profile. After a brief review of the topside model extrapolation technique, comparisons are presented between the modeled profiles with incoherent scatter radar and satellite measurements for the mid latitude and equatorial ionosphere. The total electron content TEC, derived from measurements on satellite beacon signals, is compared with the height-integrated profiles ITEC from the ionograms. Good agreement is found with the ISR profiles and with results using the low altitude TOPEX satellite. The TEC values derived from GPS signal analysis are systematically larger than ITEC. It is suggested to use HT , routinely measured by a large number of Digisondes around the globe, for the construction of the IRI topside electron density profile.

  12. DNA reactivity profile of trans-platinum planar amine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musetti, Caterina; Nazarov, Alexey A; Farrell, Nicholas P; Sissi, Claudia

    2011-07-04

    New trans-platinum planar amines (TPAs) represent a family of platinum-based drugs with cytotoxicity equivalent to that of cisplatin, but with negligible cross-resistance. According to the substitution pattern around the metal center, distinct DNA adducts can be formed which yield various levels of cytotoxicity in cell lines. We compared the effects of leaving groups (Cl(-) versus formate or acetate) and amines (NH(3) versus aromatic heterocyclic planar systems) on the efficiency, kinetics, and mode of DNA platination. We show that the substitution of just a single amino group on the transplatin nucleus is optimal, with major effects on the kinetics of metal complex conversion into the reactive aquo species. Additionally, by monitoring TPA reactivity toward variable DNA structures, a lack of preference for double-stranded DNA in over single-stranded or G-quadruplex DNA was observed which is possibly related to steric effects of the planar amine groups. These properties can lead to a unique distribution of platination sites by TPA relative to the lead compound cisplatin, which may help to explain the unique cytotoxic profile of TPAs. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Electron number density profiles derived from radio occultation on the CASSIOPE spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shume, Esayas B.; Vergados, Panagiotis; Komjathy, Attila; Langley, Richard B.; Durgonics, Tibor

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents electron number density profiles derived from high-resolution Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) observations performed using the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe payload on the high inclination CAScade, Smallsat and IOnospheric Polar Explorer (CASSIOPE) spacecraft. We have developed and applied a novel inverse Abel transform algorithm on high rate RO total electron content measurements performed along GPS to CASSIOPE radio links to recover electron density profiles. The high-resolution density profiles inferred from the CASSIOPE RO are (1) in very good agreement with density profiles estimated from ionosonde data, measured over stations nearby to the latitude and longitude of the RO tangent points; (2) in good agreement with density profiles inferred from GPS RO measured by the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC); and (3) in general agreement with density profiles estimated using the International Reference Ionosphere climatological model. Using both CASSIOPE and COSMIC RO observations, we identify, for the first time, that there exist differences in the characteristics of the electron number density profiles retrieved over landmasses and oceans. The density profiles over oceans exhibit widespread values and scale heights compared to density profiles over landmasses. We provide an explanation for the ocean-landmass discrepancy in terms of the unique wave coupling mechanisms operating over oceans and landmasses.

  14. How well Can We Classify SWOT-derived Water Surface Profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasson, R. P. M.; Wei, R.; Picamilh, C.; Durand, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    The upcoming Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission will detect water bodies and measure water surface elevation throughout the globe. Within its continental high resolution mask, SWOT is expected to deliver measurements of river width, water elevation and slope of rivers wider than ~50 m. The definition of river reaches is an integral step of the computation of discharge based on SWOT's observables. As poorly defined reaches can negatively affect the accuracy of discharge estimations, we seek strategies to break up rivers into physically meaningful sections. In the present work, we investigate how accurately we can classify water surface profiles based on simulated SWOT observations. We assume that most river sections can be classified as either M1 (mild slope, with depth larger than the normal depth), or A1 (adverse slope with depth larger than the critical depth). This assumption allows the classification to be based solely on the second derivative of water surface profiles, with convex profiles being classified as A1 and concave profiles as M1. We consider a HEC-RAS model of the Sacramento River as a representation of the true state of the river. We employ the SWOT instrument simulator to generate a synthetic pass of the river, which includes our best estimates of height measurement noise and geolocation errors. We process the resulting point cloud of water surface heights with the RiverObs package, which delineates the river center line and draws the water surface profile. Next, we identify inflection points in the water surface profile and classify the sections between the inflection points. Finally, we compare our limited classification of simulated SWOT-derived water surface profile to the "exact" classification of the modeled Sacramento River. With this exercise, we expect to determine if SWOT observations can be used to find inflection points in water surface profiles, which would bring knowledge of flow regimes into the definition of river reaches.

  15. The Non-linear Trajectory of Change in Play Profiles of Three Children in Psychodynamic Play Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, Sibel; Çavdar, Alev; Orsucci, Franco; Schiepek, Gunter K.; Andreassi, Silvia; Giuliani, Alessandro; de Felice, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Even though there is substantial evidence that play based therapies produce significant change, the specific play processes in treatment remain unexamined. For that purpose, processes of change in long-term psychodynamic play therapy are assessed through a repeated systematic assessment of three children’s “play profiles,” which reflect patterns of organization among play variables that contribute to play activity in therapy, indicative of the children’s coping strategies, and an expression of their internal world. The main aims of the study are to investigate the kinds of play profiles expressed in treatment, and to test whether there is emergence of new and more adaptive play profiles using dynamic systems theory as a methodological framework. Methods and Procedures: Each session from the long-term psychodynamic treatment (mean number of sessions = 55) of three 6-year-old good outcome cases presenting with Separation Anxiety were recorded, transcribed and coded using items from the Children’s Play Therapy Instrument (CPTI), created to assess the play activity of children in psychotherapy, generating discrete and measurable units of play activity arranged along a continuum of four play profiles: “Adaptive,” “Inhibited,” “Impulsive,” and “Disorganized.” The play profiles were clustered through K-means Algorithm, generating seven discrete states characterizing the course of treatment and the transitions between these states were analyzed by Markov Transition Matrix, Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA) and odds ratios comparing the first and second halves of psychotherapy. Results: The Markov Transitions between the states scaled almost perfectly and also showed the ergodicity of the system, meaning that the child can reach any state or shift to another one in play. The RQA and odds ratios showed two trends of change, first concerning the decrease in the use of “less adaptive” strategies, second regarding the reduction of play

  16. ADME-Tox profiling of some low molecular weight water soluble chitosan derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Isvoran

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Within this study we use a few computational tools for predicting absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADME-Tox, pharmacokinetics profiles, toxic/adverse effects, carcinogenicity, cardiotoxicity and endocrine disruption of some of low molecular weight water soluble derivatives of chitosan that are used in wound healing. Investigated compounds do not possess drug-like properties, their pharmacokinetics profiles reveal poor gastrointestinal absorption and low skin penetration. Chitosan derivatives cannot pass the blood-brain barrier and they are not able to inhibit the enzymes of the cytochrome P450 that are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. They do not reflect carcinogenicity and cardiotoxicity and reveal only a low probability to be endocrine disruptors. The main side effects in humans of the investigated compounds are: weight loss, acidosis, gastrointestinal toxicity, respiratory failure. This information is especially important for professional exposure and accidental contamination with these compounds.

  17. Epigenetic and phenotypic profile of fibroblasts derived from induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle J Hewitt

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS cells offer a novel source of patient-specific cells for regenerative medicine. However, the biological potential of iPS-derived cells and their similarities to cells differentiated from human embryonic stem (hES cells remain unclear. We derived fibroblast-like cells from two hiPS cell lines and show that their phenotypic properties and patterns of DNA methylation were similar to that of mature fibroblasts and to fibroblasts derived from hES cells. iPS-derived fibroblasts (iPDK and their hES-derived counterparts (EDK showed similar cell morphology throughout differentiation, and patterns of gene expression and cell surface markers were characteristic of mature fibroblasts. Array-based methylation analysis was performed for EDK, iPDK and their parental hES and iPS cell lines, and hierarchical clustering revealed that EDK and iPDK had closely-related methylation profiles. DNA methylation analysis of promoter regions associated with extracellular matrix (ECM-production (COL1A1 by iPS- and hESC-derived fibroblasts and fibroblast lineage commitment (PDGFRβ, revealed promoter demethylation linked to their expression, and patterns of transcription and methylation of genes related to the functional properties of mature stromal cells were seen in both hiPS- and hES-derived fibroblasts. iPDK cells also showed functional properties analogous to those of hES-derived and mature fibroblasts, as seen by their capacity to direct the morphogenesis of engineered human skin equivalents. Characterization of the functional behavior of ES- and iPS-derived fibroblasts in engineered 3D tissues demonstrates the utility of this tissue platform to predict the capacity of iPS-derived cells before their therapeutic application.

  18. Epigenetic and phenotypic profile of fibroblasts derived from induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Kyle J; Shamis, Yulia; Hayman, Ryan B; Margvelashvili, Mariam; Dong, Shumin; Carlson, Mark W; Garlick, Jonathan A

    2011-02-28

    Human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells offer a novel source of patient-specific cells for regenerative medicine. However, the biological potential of iPS-derived cells and their similarities to cells differentiated from human embryonic stem (hES) cells remain unclear. We derived fibroblast-like cells from two hiPS cell lines and show that their phenotypic properties and patterns of DNA methylation were similar to that of mature fibroblasts and to fibroblasts derived from hES cells. iPS-derived fibroblasts (iPDK) and their hES-derived counterparts (EDK) showed similar cell morphology throughout differentiation, and patterns of gene expression and cell surface markers were characteristic of mature fibroblasts. Array-based methylation analysis was performed for EDK, iPDK and their parental hES and iPS cell lines, and hierarchical clustering revealed that EDK and iPDK had closely-related methylation profiles. DNA methylation analysis of promoter regions associated with extracellular matrix (ECM)-production (COL1A1) by iPS- and hESC-derived fibroblasts and fibroblast lineage commitment (PDGFRβ), revealed promoter demethylation linked to their expression, and patterns of transcription and methylation of genes related to the functional properties of mature stromal cells were seen in both hiPS- and hES-derived fibroblasts. iPDK cells also showed functional properties analogous to those of hES-derived and mature fibroblasts, as seen by their capacity to direct the morphogenesis of engineered human skin equivalents. Characterization of the functional behavior of ES- and iPS-derived fibroblasts in engineered 3D tissues demonstrates the utility of this tissue platform to predict the capacity of iPS-derived cells before their therapeutic application.

  19. The Non-linear Trajectory of Change in Play Profiles of Three Children in Psychodynamic Play Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Sibel Halfon; Alev Cavdar; Franco Orsucci; Guenter Karl Schiepek; Silvia Andreassi; Alessandro Giuliani; Giulio de Felice

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Even though there is substantial evidence that play based therapies produce significant change, the specific play processes in treatment remain unexamined. For that purpose, processes of change in long-term psychodynamic play therapy are assessed through a repeated systematic assessment of three children’s “play profiles,” which reflect patterns of organization among play variables that contribute to play activity in therapy, indicative of the children’s coping strategies, and an express...

  20. Use of first derivative of displacement vs. force profiles to determine deformation behavior of compressed powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaibeh, Shadi F; Aburub, Aktham

    2013-03-01

    Displacement (D) vs. force (F) profiles obtained during compaction of powders have been reported by several researchers. These profiles are usually used to obtain mechanical energies associated with the compaction of powders. In this work, we obtained displacement-force data associated with the compression of six powders; Avicel PH101, Avicel PH301, pregelatinized corn starch, anhydrous lactose, dicalcium phosphate, and mannitol. The first three powders are known to deform predominantly by plastic behavior while the later ones are known to deform predominantly by brittle fracture. Displacement-force data was utilized to perform in-die Heckel analysis and to calculate the first derivative (dD/dF) of displacement-force plots. First derivative results were then plotted against mean force (F') at each point and against 1/F' at compression forces between 1 and 20 kN. Results of the in-die Heckle analysis are in very good agreement with the known deformation behavior of the compressed materials. First derivative plots show that materials that deform predominantly by plastic behavior have first derivative values (0.0006-0.0016 mm/ N) larger than those of brittle materials (0.0004 mm/N). Moreover, when dD/dF is plotted against 1/F' for each powder, a linear correlation can be obtained (R2=>0.98). The slopes of the dD/dF vs. 1/F' plots for plastically deforming materials are relatively larger than those for materials that deform by brittle behavior. It is concluded that first derivative plots of displacement-force profiles can be used to determine deformation behavior of powders.

  1. Asthma trajectories in early childhood: identifying modifiable factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Panico

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are conflicting views as to whether childhood wheezing represents several discreet entities or a single but variable disease. Classification has centered on phenotypes often derived using subjective criteria, small samples, and/or with little data for young children. This is particularly problematic as asthmatic features appear to be entrenched by age 6/7. In this paper we aim to: identify longitudinal trajectories of wheeze and other atopic symptoms in early childhood; characterize the resulting trajectories by the socio-economic background of children; and identify potentially modifiable processes in infancy correlated with these trajectories. DATA AND METHODS: The Millennium Cohort Study is a large, representative birth cohort of British children born in 2000-2002. Our analytical sample includes 11,632 children with data on key variables (wheeze in the last year; ever hay-fever and/or eczema reported by the main carers at age 3, 5 and 7 using a validated tool, the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood module. We employ longitudinal Latent Class Analysis, a clustering methodology which identifies classes underlying the observed population heterogeneity. RESULTS: Our model distinguished four latent trajectories: a trajectory with both low levels of wheeze and other atopic symptoms (54% of the sample; a trajectory with low levels of wheeze but high prevalence of other atopic symptoms (29%; a trajectory with high prevalence of both wheeze and other atopic symptoms (9%; and a trajectory with high levels of wheeze but low levels of other atopic symptoms (8%. These groups differed in terms of socio-economic markers and potential intervenable factors, including household damp and breastfeeding initiation. CONCLUSION: Using data-driven techniques, we derived four trajectories of asthmatic symptoms in early childhood in a large, population based sample. These groups differ in terms of their socio-economic profiles

  2. Asthma trajectories in early childhood: identifying modifiable factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panico, Lidia; Stuart, Beth; Bartley, Mel; Kelly, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    There are conflicting views as to whether childhood wheezing represents several discreet entities or a single but variable disease. Classification has centered on phenotypes often derived using subjective criteria, small samples, and/or with little data for young children. This is particularly problematic as asthmatic features appear to be entrenched by age 6/7. In this paper we aim to: identify longitudinal trajectories of wheeze and other atopic symptoms in early childhood; characterize the resulting trajectories by the socio-economic background of children; and identify potentially modifiable processes in infancy correlated with these trajectories. The Millennium Cohort Study is a large, representative birth cohort of British children born in 2000-2002. Our analytical sample includes 11,632 children with data on key variables (wheeze in the last year; ever hay-fever and/or eczema) reported by the main carers at age 3, 5 and 7 using a validated tool, the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood module. We employ longitudinal Latent Class Analysis, a clustering methodology which identifies classes underlying the observed population heterogeneity. Our model distinguished four latent trajectories: a trajectory with both low levels of wheeze and other atopic symptoms (54% of the sample); a trajectory with low levels of wheeze but high prevalence of other atopic symptoms (29%); a trajectory with high prevalence of both wheeze and other atopic symptoms (9%); and a trajectory with high levels of wheeze but low levels of other atopic symptoms (8%). These groups differed in terms of socio-economic markers and potential intervenable factors, including household damp and breastfeeding initiation. Using data-driven techniques, we derived four trajectories of asthmatic symptoms in early childhood in a large, population based sample. These groups differ in terms of their socio-economic profiles. We identified correlated intervenable pathways in infancy

  3. Release profile of synthesized coumarin derivatives as a novel antibacterial agent from glass ionomer cement (GIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Fatimah Suhaily Abdul; Osman, Hasnah; Mohamad, Dasmawati

    2017-12-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GIC) are widely used as dental restorative materials due to their aesthetics features and fluoride content. However, a capability of fluoride content in GIC to inhibit bacteria growth in an oral environment was insufficient for a long term which may lead to secondary caries. Therefore, two types of synthesized coumarin derivatives were incorporated with GIC to act as new antibacterial agent. However prior to the antibacterial evaluation, this study investigated the release profile of GIC incorporated with 3-Acetylcoumarin (GIC-1) and hydrazinyl thiosemicarbazide of coumarin derivatives (GIC-2) at three different concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 wt% up to 30 days. At early incubation period, GIC-1 revealed a higher release profile at 0.5 % fabrication that reached almost 45 % of cumulative release for 8 hours observational. Meanwhile, a slightly different output was obtained for GIC-2 in which 1.0 % fabrication of coumarin gave a better release in the initial hour. However, the pattern was replaced by 0.5 % substitution after 4 hours incubation time. A substitution of 1.5 % coumarin seems to be low in releasing activity for all materials. Conversely, in a longer period 1.0 % fabrication was discovered to be the highest coumarin release among others fabrications for both materials. Filler particle size and porosity of the materials were considered to be the main factor that may affect the coumarin release. Nonetheless, both synthesized coumarin derivatives can be incorporated with GIC as their release profile look very promising. Ultimately, the coumarin derivatives could improve the properties of GIC.

  4. Representation and Estimation of Trajectories from Two-body Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Widl, Edmund

    2007-01-01

    A novel parametrization of the trajectories stemming from two-body decays is presented, based on the kinematics of the decay. The core component of this parametrization is a decay model which is derived using the relativistic energy-momentum conservation law and geometrical fundamentals. The estimation of the decay parameters, also including the beam profile and a mass constraint, is described. Some applications in realistics scenarios are presented. In addition, the representation of the trajectories for the use in track-based alignment algorithms is briefly discussed.

  5. Chemoproteomic profiling of targets of lipid-derived electrophiles by bioorthogonal aminooxy probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Redox imbalance in cells induces lipid peroxidation and generates a class of highly reactive metabolites known as lipid-derived electrophiles (LDEs that can modify proteins and affects their functions. Identifying targets of LDEs is critical to understand how such modifications are functionally implicated in oxidative-stress associated diseases. Here we report a quantitative chemoproteomic method to globally profile protein targets and sites modified by LDEs. In this strategy, we designed and synthesized an alkyne-functionalized aminooxy probe to react with LDE-modified proteins for imaging and proteomic profiling. Using this probe, we successfully quantified >4000 proteins modified by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE of high confidence in mammalian cell lysate and combined with a tandem-orthogonal proteolysis activity-based protein profiling (TOP-ABPP strategy, we identified ~400 residue sites targeted by HNE including reactive cysteines in peroxiredoxins, an important family of enzymes with anti-oxidant roles. Our method expands the toolbox to quantitatively profile protein targets of endogenous electrophiles and the enlarged inventory of LDE-modified proteins and sites will contribute to functional elucidation of cellular pathways affected by oxidative stress.

  6. Genomic and phenotypic profiles of two Brazilian breast cancer cell lines derived from primary human tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corrêa, Natássia C R; Kuasne, Hellen; Faria, Jerusa A Q A

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women worldwide. Research using breast cancer cell lines derived from primary tumors may provide valuable additional knowledge regarding this type of cancer. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the phenotypic profiles of MACL-1...... and MGSO-3, the only Brazilian breast cancer cell lines available for comparative studies. We evaluated the presence of hormone receptors, proliferation, differentiation and stem cell markers, using immunohistochemical staining of the primary tumor, cultured cells and xenografts implanted...

  7. MicroRNA profiling in kidney disease: Plasma versus plasma-derived exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jeffrey X; Fan, Xiaoming; Drummond, Christopher A; Majumder, Reetam; Xie, Yanmei; Chen, Tian; Liu, Lijun; Haller, Steven T; Brewster, Pamela S; Dworkin, Lance D; Cooper, Christopher J; Tian, Jiang

    2017-09-05

    Liquid biopsies have advanced rapidly in recent years for use in diagnostic and prognostic applications. One important aspect of this advancement is the growth in our understanding of microRNA (miRNA) biology. The measurement of miRNAs packaged within exosomes, which are constantly released into the blood stream, may reflect pathological changes within the body. The current study performed miRNA profiling using plasma and plasma-derived exosome samples from two animal models of kidney disease, the 5/6th partial nephrectomy (PNx) and two-kidney-one-clip (2K1C) models. The RT-qPCR-based profiling results revealed that the overall miRNA expression level was much higher in plasma than in plasma-derived exosomes. With 200μl of either plasma or exosomes derived from the same volume of plasma, 629 out of 665 total miRNAs analyzed were detectable in plasma samples from sham-operated rats, while only 403 were detectable in exosomes with a cutoff value set at 35cycles. Moreover, the average miRNA expression level in plasma was about 16-fold higher than that in exosomes. We also found a select subset of miRNAs that were enriched within exosomes. The number of detectable miRNAs from plasma-derived exosomes was increased in rats subjected to PNx or 2K1C surgery compared to sham-operated animals. Importantly, we found that the changes of individual miRNAs measured in plasma had very poor concordance with that measured in plasma-derived exosomes in both animal models, suggesting that miRNAs in plasma and plasma-derived exosomes are differentially regulated in these disease conditions. Interestingly, PNx and 2K1C surgeries induced similar changes in miRNA expression, implying that common pathways were activated in these two disease models. Pathway analyses using DIANA-miRPath v3.0 showed that significantly changed exosomal miRNAs were associated with extracellular matrix (ECM) receptor interaction and mucin type-O-glycan synthesis pathways, which are related with tissue fibrosis

  8. Gene Profiling of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Astrocyte Progenitors Following Spinal Cord Engraftment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidet-Phillips, Amanda M.; Roybon, Laurent; Gross, Sarah K.; Tuteja, Alisha; Donnelly, Christopher J.; Richard, Jean-Philippe; Ko, Myungsung; Sherman, Alex; Eggan, Kevin; Henderson, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    The generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) represents an exciting advancement with promise for stem cell transplantation therapies as well as for neurological disease modeling. Based on the emerging roles for astrocytes in neurological disorders, we investigated whether hiPSC-derived astrocyte progenitors could be engrafted to the rodent spinal cord and how the characteristics of these cells changed between in vitro culture and after transplantation to the in vivo spinal cord environment. Our results show that human embryonic stem cell- and hiPSC-derived astrocyte progenitors survive long-term after spinal cord engraftment and differentiate to astrocytes in vivo with few cells from other lineages present. Gene profiling of the transplanted cells demonstrates the astrocyte progenitors continue to mature in vivo and upregulate a variety of astrocyte-specific genes. Given this mature astrocyte gene profile, this work highlights hiPSCs as a tool to investigate disease-related astrocyte biology using in vivo disease modeling with significant implications for human neurological diseases currently lacking animal models. PMID:24604284

  9. Nucleation modeling of the Antarctic stratospheric CN layer and derivation of sulfuric acid profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münch, Steffen; Curtius, Joachim

    2017-06-01

    Recent analysis of long-term balloon-borne measurements of Antarctic stratospheric condensation nuclei (CN) between July and October showed the formation of a volatile CN layer at 21-27 km altitude in a background of existing particles. We use the nucleation model SAWNUC to simulate these CN in subsiding air parcels and study their nucleation and coagulation characteristics. Our simulations confirm recent analysis that the development of the CN layer can be explained with neutral sulfuric acid-water nucleation and we show that outside the CN layer the measured CN concentrations are well reproduced just considering coagulation and the subsidence of the air parcels. While ion-induced nucleation is expected as the dominating formation process at higher temperatures, it does not play a significant role during the CN layer formation as the charged clusters recombine too fast. Further, we derive sulfuric acid concentrations for the CN layer formation. Our concentrations are about 1 order of magnitude higher than previously presented concentrations as our simulations consider that nucleated clusters have to grow to CN size and can coagulate with preexisting particles. Finally, we calculate threshold sulfuric acid profiles that show which concentration of sulfuric acid is necessary for nucleation and growth to observable size. These threshold profiles should represent upper limits of the actual sulfuric acid outside the CN layer. According to our profiles, sulfuric acid concentrations seem to be below midlatitude average during Antarctic winter but above midlatitude average for the CN layer formation.

  10. Nucleation modeling of the Antarctic stratospheric CN layer and derivation of sulfuric acid profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Münch

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent analysis of long-term balloon-borne measurements of Antarctic stratospheric condensation nuclei (CN between July and October showed the formation of a volatile CN layer at 21–27 km altitude in a background of existing particles. We use the nucleation model SAWNUC to simulate these CN in subsiding air parcels and study their nucleation and coagulation characteristics. Our simulations confirm recent analysis that the development of the CN layer can be explained with neutral sulfuric acid–water nucleation and we show that outside the CN layer the measured CN concentrations are well reproduced just considering coagulation and the subsidence of the air parcels. While ion-induced nucleation is expected as the dominating formation process at higher temperatures, it does not play a significant role during the CN layer formation as the charged clusters recombine too fast. Further, we derive sulfuric acid concentrations for the CN layer formation. Our concentrations are about 1 order of magnitude higher than previously presented concentrations as our simulations consider that nucleated clusters have to grow to CN size and can coagulate with preexisting particles. Finally, we calculate threshold sulfuric acid profiles that show which concentration of sulfuric acid is necessary for nucleation and growth to observable size. These threshold profiles should represent upper limits of the actual sulfuric acid outside the CN layer. According to our profiles, sulfuric acid concentrations seem to be below midlatitude average during Antarctic winter but above midlatitude average for the CN layer formation.

  11. A total transcriptome profiling method for plasma-derived extracellular vesicles: applications for liquid biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Maria G; Valieris, Renan; Drummond, Rodrigo D; Pizzi, Melissa P; Freitas, Vanessa M; Sinigaglia-Coimbra, Rita; Calin, George A; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih; Silva, Israel T; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel; Nunes, Diana N

    2017-10-31

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are key mediators of intercellular communication. Part of their biological effects can be attributed to the transfer of cargos of diverse types of RNAs, which are promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. EVs found in human biofluids are a valuable source for the development of minimally invasive assays. However, the total transcriptional landscape of EVs is still largely unknown. Here we develop a new method for total transcriptome profiling of plasma-derived EVs by next generation sequencing (NGS) from limited quantities of patient-derived clinical samples, which enables the unbiased characterization of the complete RNA cargo, including both small- and long-RNAs, in a single library preparation step. This approach was applied to RNA extracted from EVs isolated by ultracentrifugation from the plasma of five healthy volunteers. Among the most abundant RNAs identified we found small RNAs such as tRNAs, miRNAs and miscellaneous RNAs, which have largely unknown functions. We also identified protein-coding and long noncoding transcripts, as well as circular RNA species that were also experimentally validated. This method enables, for the first time, the full spectrum of transcriptome data to be obtained from minute patient-derived samples, and will therefore potentially allow the identification of cell-to-cell communication mechanisms and biomarkers.

  12. Quantum trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Chattaraj, Pratim Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The application of quantum mechanics to many-particle systems has been an active area of research in recent years as researchers have looked for ways to tackle difficult problems in this area. The quantum trajectory method provides an efficient computational technique for solving both stationary and time-evolving states, encompassing a large area of quantum mechanics. Quantum Trajectories brings the expertise of an international panel of experts who focus on the epistemological significance of quantum mechanics through the quantum theory of motion.Emphasizing a classical interpretation of quan

  13. Long-term validation of ESA operational retrieval (version 6.0) of MIPAS Envisat vertical profiles of methane, nitrous oxide, CFC11, and CFC12 using balloon-borne observations and trajectory matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Andreas; Bönisch, Harald; Schwarzenberger, Tim; Haase, Hans-Peter; Grunow, Katja; Abalichin, Jana; Sala, Stephan

    2016-03-01

    MIPAS-Envisat is a satellite-borne sensor which measured vertical profiles of a wide range of trace gases from 2002 to 2012 using IR emission spectroscopy. We present geophysical validation of the MIPAS-Envisat operational retrieval (version 6.0) of N2O, CH4, CFC-12, and CFC-11 by the European Space Agency (ESA). The geophysical validation data are derived from measurements of samples collected by a cryogenic whole air sampler flown to altitudes of up to 34 km by means of large scientific balloons. In order to increase the number of coincidences between the satellite and the balloon observations, we applied a trajectory matching technique. The results are presented for different time periods due to a change in the spectroscopic resolution of MIPAS in early 2005. Retrieval results for N2O, CH4, and CFC-12 show partly good agreement for some altitude regions, which differs for the periods with different spectroscopic resolution. The more recent low spectroscopic resolution data above 20 km altitude show agreement with the combined uncertainties, while there is a tendency of the earlier high spectral resolution data set to underestimate these species above 25 km. The earlier high spectral resolution data show a significant overestimation of the mixing ratios for N2O, CH4, and CFC-12 below 20 km. These differences need to be considered when using these data. The CFC-11 results from the operation retrieval version 6.0 cannot be recommended for scientific studies due to a systematic overestimation of the CFC-11 mixing ratios at all altitudes.

  14. Antioxidant capacity and chemical profiles of Satureja montana L. Honey: hotrienol and syringyl derivatives as biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerković, Igor; Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Kranjac, Marina; Malenica-Staver, M

    2015-07-01

    The present study is focused on the antioxidant capacity and chemical profiling of eight Croatian Satureja montana L. honey samples. Among the 20 compounds obtained by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and identified by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses, hotrienol was predominant (75.9-81.7%). The honey matrix volatile/semivolatile profile was investigated by ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE) followed by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The major compounds identified by this latter method were the sinapic-acid derivatives methyl syringate (36.2-72.8%) and syringaldehyde (2.2-43.1%). Direct, targeted HPLC-DAD analyses of the native honey samples revealed the presence of methyl syringate (7.10-39.60 mg/kg) and syringic acid (0.10-1.70 mg/kg). In addition, the total phenolic content of the samples was determined by the FolinCiocalteu assay (311.0-465.9 mg GAE/kg), and the antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the DPPH radical-scavenging activity (0.5-1.0 mmol TEAC/kg) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (2.5-5.1 mmol Fe(2+) /kg). Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  15. Profiling of the Molecular Weight and Structural Isomer Abundance of Macroalgae-Derived Phlorotannins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Heffernan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phlorotannins are a group of complex polymers of phloroglucinol (1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene unique to macroalgae. These phenolic compounds are integral structural components of the cell wall in brown algae, but also play many secondary ecological roles such as protection from UV radiation and defense against grazing. This study employed Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC with tandem mass spectrometry to investigate isomeric complexity and observed differences in phlorotannins derived from macroalgae harvested off the Irish coast (Fucus serratus, Fucus vesiculosus, Himanthalia elongata and Cystoseira nodicaulis. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content assays were used as an index for producing phlorotannin fractions, enriched using molecular weight cut-off dialysis with subsequent flash chromatography to profile phlorotannin isomers in these macroalgae. These fractions were profiled using UPLC-MS with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM and the level of isomerization for specific molecular weight phlorotannins between 3 and 16 monomers were determined. The majority of the low molecular weight (LMW phlorotannins were found to have a molecular weight range equivalent to 4–12 monomers of phloroglucinol. The level of isomerization within the individual macroalgal species differed, resulting in substantially different numbers of phlorotannin isomers for particular molecular weights. F. vesiculosus had the highest number of isomers of 61 at one specific molecular mass, corresponding to 12 phloroglucinol units (PGUs. These results highlight the complex nature of these extracts and emphasize the challenges involved in structural elucidation of these compounds.

  16. Lignin-derived phenolic compounds in different types of peat profiles in Hokkaido, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsuki, K.; Kondo, R. [Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    How is the composition of organic matter of peat related to the environment of the peatland? How does it change with the process of peat formation? How does it change when the peatland is affected by the lowering of the ground water table? What are the relationships between the organic matter composition of peat and peatland plants? These are problems which we attempted to address in this study. Peat samples were collected layer-wise from four different peat profiles formed under different environments in Hokkaido, Japan. The basic properties of the peat profiles, i.e. major peat-forming plants, contents of carbon and nitrogen, C/N ratio, pH, degree of humidification analyzed by several methods, are described and compared. As one of the keys to answering the above-mentioned questions, we selected lignin-derived phenolic compounds that are released by CuO-NaOH oxidation. The composition of the phenolic compounds varied remarkably among the peat layers differing in peat-forming plants and in the mode of accumulation. The classification into high-moor, transitional moor, and low-moor peat was not sufficient to explain the composition of the phenolic compounds of peat. Differences in major peat-forming plants, i.e. sphagnum moss or sedges in high-moor peat, and Phragmites or Alnus in low-moor peat exerted significant effects on the phenolic composition.

  17. Pharmacological and neuroprotective profile of an essential oil derived from leaves of Aloysia citrodora Palau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhamdah, Sawsan; Abuhamdah, Rushdie; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R; Al-Olimat, Suleiman; Ennaceur, Abdel; Chazot, Paul L

    2015-09-01

    The Jordanian 'Melissa', (Aloysia citrodora) has been poorly studied both pharmacologically and in the clinic. Essential oils (EO) derived from leaves of A. citrodora were obtained by hydrodistillation, analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and were investigated for a range of neurobiological and pharmacological properties, as a basis for potential future use in drug discovery. A selection of central nervous system (CNS) receptor-binding profiles was carried out. Antioxidant activity and ferrous iron-chelating assays were adopted, and the neuroprotective properties of A. citrodora EO assessed using hydrogen peroxide-induced and β-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity with the CAD (Cath.-a-differentiated) neuroblastoma cell line. The major chemical components detected in the A. citrodora EOs, derived from dried and fresh leaves, included limonene, geranial, neral, 1, 8-cineole, curcumene, spathulenol and caryophyllene oxide, respectively. A. citrodora leaf EO inhibited [(3) H] nicotine binding to well washed rat forebrain membranes, and increased iron-chelation in vitro. A. citrodora EO displays effective antioxidant, radical-scavenging activities and significant protective properties vs both hydrogen peroxide- and β-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity. A. citrodora EO displays a range of pharmacological properties worthy of further investigation to isolate the compounds responsible for the observed neuroactivities, to further analyse their mode of action and determine their clinical potential in neurodegenerative diseases. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. Despite differential gene expression profiles pediatric MDS derived mesenchymal stromal cells display functionality in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkoen, F G J; Vervat, C; van Pel, M; de Haas, V; Vijfhuizen, L S; Eising, E; Kroes, W G M; 't Hoen, P A C; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M M; Egeler, R M; van Tol, M J D; Ball, L M

    2015-03-01

    Pediatric myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a heterogeneous disease covering a spectrum ranging from aplasia (RCC) to myeloproliferation (RAEB(t)). In adult-type MDS there is increasing evidence for abnormal function of the bone-marrow microenvironment. Here, we extensively studied the mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) derived from children with MDS. MSCs were expanded from the bone-marrow of 17 MDS patients (RCC: n=10 and advanced MDS: n=7) and pediatric controls (n=10). No differences were observed with respect to phenotype, differentiation capacity, immunomodulatory capacity or hematopoietic support. mRNA expression analysis by Deep-SAGE revealed increased IL-6 expression in RCC- and RAEB(t)-MDS. RCC-MDS MSC expressed increased levels of DKK3, a protein associated with decreased apoptosis. RAEB(t)-MDS revealed increased CRLF1 and decreased DAPK1 expressions. This pattern has been associated with transformation in hematopoietic malignancies. Genes reported to be differentially expressed in adult MDS-MSC did not differ between MSC of pediatric MDS and controls. An altered mRNA expression profile, associated with cell survival and malignant transformation, of MSC derived from children with MDS strengthens the hypothesis that the micro-environment is of importance in this disease. Our data support the understanding that pediatric and adult MDS are two different diseases. Further evaluation of the pathways involved might reveal additional therapy targets. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Deriving the slit functions from OMI solar observations and its implications for ozone-profile retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kang; Liu, Xiong; Huang, Guanyu; González Abad, Gonzalo; Cai, Zhaonan; Chance, Kelly; Yang, Kai

    2017-10-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) has been successfully measuring the Earth's atmospheric composition since 2004, but the on-orbit behavior of its slit functions has not been thoroughly characterized. Preflight measurements of slit functions have been used as a static input in many OMI retrieval algorithms. This study derives on-orbit slit functions from the OMI irradiance spectra assuming various function forms, including standard and super-Gaussian functions and a stretch to the preflight slit functions. The on-orbit slit functions in the UV bands show U-shaped cross-track dependences that cannot be fully represented by the preflight ones. The full widths at half maximum (FWHM) of the stretched preflight slit functions for detector pixels at large viewing angles are up to 30 % larger than the nadir pixels for the UV1 band, 5 % larger for the UV2 band, and practically flat in the VIS band. Nonetheless, the on-orbit changes of OMI slit functions are found to be insignificant over time after accounting for the solar activity, despite of the decaying of detectors and the occurrence of OMI row anomaly. Applying the derived on-orbit slit functions to ozone-profile retrieval shows substantial improvements over the preflight slit functions based on comparisons with ozonesonde validations.

  20. Derivative-free neural network for optimizing the scoring functions associated with dynamic programming of pairwise-profile alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kazunori D

    2018-01-01

    A profile-comparison method with position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM) is among the most accurate alignment methods. Currently, cosine similarity and correlation coefficients are used as scoring functions of dynamic programming to calculate similarity between PSSMs. However, it is unclear whether these functions are optimal for profile alignment methods. By definition, these functions cannot capture nonlinear relationships between profiles. Therefore, we attempted to discover a novel scoring function, which was more suitable for the profile-comparison method than existing functions, using neural networks. Although neural networks required derivative-of-cost functions, the problem being addressed in this study lacked them. Therefore, we implemented a novel derivative-free neural network by combining a conventional neural network with an evolutionary strategy optimization method used as a solver. Using this novel neural network system, we optimized the scoring function to align remote sequence pairs. Our results showed that the pairwise-profile aligner using the novel scoring function significantly improved both alignment sensitivity and precision relative to aligners using existing functions. We developed and implemented a novel derivative-free neural network and aligner (Nepal) for optimizing sequence alignments. Nepal improved alignment quality by adapting to remote sequence alignments and increasing the expressiveness of similarity scores. Additionally, this novel scoring function can be realized using a simple matrix operation and easily incorporated into other aligners. Moreover our scoring function could potentially improve the performance of homology detection and/or multiple-sequence alignment of remote homologous sequences. The goal of the study was to provide a novel scoring function for profile alignment method and develop a novel learning system capable of addressing derivative-free problems. Our system is capable of optimizing the performance of other

  1. Efficacy of single-component MTV to measure turbulent wall-flow velocity derivative profiles at high resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsnab, John R.; Monty, Jason P.; White, Christopher M.; Koochesfahani, Manoochehr M.; Klewicki, Joseph C.

    2017-09-01

    Physical interpretations and especially analytical considerations benefit from the ability to accurately estimate derivatives of experimentally measured statistical profiles. Toward this aim, experiments were conducted to investigate the efficacy of single-component molecular tagging velocimetry (1c-MTV) to measure mean velocity profiles that can be differentiated multiple times. Critical effects here pertain to finite measurement uncertainty in the presence of high spatial resolution. Measurements acquired in fully developed turbulent channel flow over a friction Reynolds number range from 390 to 1800 are used to investigate these issues. Each measured profile contains about 880 equally spaced data points that span from near the edge of the viscous sublayer to the channel centreline. As a result of the high spatial resolution, even very small levels of uncertainty in the data adversely affect the capacity to produce smooth velocity derivative profiles. It is demonstrated that the present 1c-MTV measurements can be differentiated twice, with the resulting profile remaining smooth and accurate. The experimental mean velocity profiles and their wall-normal derivatives up to second order are shown to convincingly agree with existing DNS data, including the apparent variations with Reynolds number.

  2. Transcriptome profiling of spinal muscular atrophy motor neurons derived from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho Maeda

    Full Text Available Proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is an early onset, autosomal recessive motor neuron disease caused by loss of or mutation in SMN1 (survival motor neuron 1. Despite understanding the genetic basis underlying this disease, it is still not known why motor neurons (MNs are selectively affected by the loss of the ubiquitously expressed SMN protein. Using a mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC model for severe SMA, the RNA transcript profiles (transcriptomes between control and severe SMA (SMN2+/+;mSmn-/- mESC-derived MNs were compared in this study using massively parallel RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq. The MN differentiation efficiencies between control and severe SMA mESCs were similar. RNA-Seq analysis identified 3,094 upregulated and 6,964 downregulated transcripts in SMA mESC-derived MNs when compared against control cells. Pathway and network analysis of the differentially expressed RNA transcripts showed that pluripotency and cell proliferation transcripts were significantly increased in SMA MNs while transcripts related to neuronal development and activity were reduced. The differential expression of selected transcripts such as Crabp1, Crabp2 and Nkx2.2 was validated in a second mESC model for SMA as well as in the spinal cords of low copy SMN2 severe SMA mice. Furthermore, the levels of these selected transcripts were restored in high copy SMN2 rescue mouse spinal cords when compared against low copy SMN2 severe SMA mice. These findings suggest that SMN deficiency affects processes critical for normal development and maintenance of MNs.

  3. RNA expression profiling of human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes in a cardiac hypertrophy model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praful Aggarwal

    Full Text Available Cardiac hypertrophy is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and heart failure. There is increasing evidence that microRNAs (miRNAs play an important role in the regulation of messenger RNA (mRNA and the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases. However, the ability to comprehensively study cardiac hypertrophy on a gene regulatory level is impacted by the limited availability of human cardiomyocytes. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs offer the opportunity for disease modeling. Here we utilize a previously established in vitro model of cardiac hypertrophy to interrogate the regulatory mechanism associated with the cardiac disease process. We perform miRNA sequencing and mRNA expression analysis on endothelin 1 (ET-1 stimulated hiPSC-CMs to describe associated RNA expression profiles. MicroRNA sequencing revealed over 250 known and 34 predicted novel miRNAs to be differentially expressed between ET-1 stimulated and unstimulated control hiPSC-CMs. Messenger RNA expression analysis identified 731 probe sets with significant differential expression. Computational target prediction on significant differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs identified nearly 2000 target pairs. A principal component analysis approach comparing the in vitro data with human myocardial biopsies detected overlapping expression changes between the in vitro samples and myocardial biopsies with Left Ventricular Hypertrophy. These results provide further insights into the complex RNA regulatory mechanism associated with cardiac hypertrophy.

  4. Transcriptional and functional profiling of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Cao

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs can serve as a potentially limitless source of cells that may enable regeneration of diseased tissue and organs. Here we investigate the use of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs in promoting recovery from cardiac ischemia reperfusion injury in a mouse model. Using microarrays, we have described the hESC-CM transcriptome within the spectrum of changes that occur between undifferentiated hESCs and fetal heart cells. The hESC-CMs expressed cardiomyocyte genes at levels similar to those found in 20-week fetal heart cells, making this population a good source of potential replacement cells in vivo. Echocardiographic studies showed significant improvement in heart function by 8 weeks after transplantation. Finally, we demonstrate long-term engraftment of hESC-CMs by using molecular imaging to track cellular localization, survival, and proliferation in vivo. Taken together, global gene expression profiling of hESC differentiation enables a systems-based analysis of the biological processes, networks, and genes that drive hESC fate decisions, and studies such as this will serve as the foundation for future clinical applications of stem cell therapies.

  5. Characterization and molecular profiling of PSEN1 familial Alzheimer's disease iPSC-derived neural progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A Sproul

    Full Text Available Presenilin 1 (PSEN1 encodes the catalytic subunit of γ-secretase, and PSEN1 mutations are the most common cause of early onset familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD. In order to elucidate pathways downstream of PSEN1, we characterized neural progenitor cells (NPCs derived from FAD mutant PSEN1 subjects. Thus, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs from affected and unaffected individuals from two families carrying PSEN1 mutations. PSEN1 mutant fibroblasts, and NPCs produced greater ratios of Aβ42 to Aβ40 relative to their control counterparts, with the elevated ratio even more apparent in PSEN1 NPCs than in fibroblasts. Molecular profiling identified 14 genes differentially-regulated in PSEN1 NPCs relative to control NPCs. Five of these targets showed differential expression in late onset AD/Intermediate AD pathology brains. Therefore, in our PSEN1 iPSC model, we have reconstituted an essential feature in the molecular pathogenesis of FAD, increased generation of Aβ42/40, and have characterized novel expression changes.

  6. Quantitative gene expression profiling of CD45+ and CD45- skeletal muscle-derived side population cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditte Caroline Andersen, Ditte Caroline; Kristiansen, Gitte Qvist; Jensen, Line

    2012-01-01

    The skeletal muscle-derived side population (mSP) which highly excludes Hoechst 33342 is composed of CD45(+) and CD45(-) subpopulations; yet, rareness of mSP cells in general has complicated extensive quantitative analysis of gene expression profiles in primarily isolated mSP cells. Here, we...

  7. Quantitative gene expression profiling of CD45(+) and CD45(-) skeletal muscle-derived side population cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ditte Caroline; Kristiansen, Gitte Qvistgaard; Jensen, Line

    2011-01-01

    The skeletal muscle-derived side population (mSP) which highly excludes Hoechst 33342 is composed of CD45(+) and CD45(-) subpopulations; yet, rareness of mSP cells in general has complicated extensive quantitative analysis of gene expression profiles in primarily isolated mSP cells. Here, we...

  8. Alternative Transfers to the NEOs 99942 Apophis, 1994 WR12, and 2007 UW1 via Derived Trajectories from Periodic Orbits of Family G

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. de Melo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Swing-by techniques are extensively used in interplanetary missions to minimize fuel consumption and to raise payloads of spacecrafts. The effectiveness of this type of maneuver has been proven since the beginning of space exploration. According to this premise, we have explored the existence of a natural and direct link between low Earth orbits and the lunar sphere of influence to get low-energy transfer trajectories to the Near Earth Objects (NEOs 99942 Apophis, 1994 WR12, and 2007 UW1 through swing-bys with the Moon. The existence of this link is related to a family of retrograde periodic orbits around the Lagrangian equilibrium point L1 predicted for the circular, planar, restricted three-body Earth-Moon-particle problem. The trajectories in this link are sensitive to small disturbances. This enables them to be conveniently diverted reducing so the cost of the swing-by maneuver. These maneuvers allow a gain in energy sufficient for the trajectories to escape from the Earth-Moon system and to stabilize in heliocentric orbits between the Earth and Venus or Earth and Mars. Therefore, the trajectories have sufficient reach to intercept the NEOs' orbits.

  9. Different cytokine profiles of skin-derived T cell cultures from patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martel, Britta Cathrina; Dyring-Andersen, Beatrice; Skov, Lone

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate differences in expression of surface markers, cytokine profiles, and presence of CD4(+)CD8(+) T cells in skin-derived T cell cultures from patients with extrinsic atopic dermatitis (AD), intrinsic AD, and psoriasis expanded in the presence of IL-2 and IL-4. MATERIAL: Skin...... biopsies from patients with extrinsic AD (n = 6), intrinsic AD (n = 9) and psoriasis (n = 9). METHODS: Skin-derived T cell cultures were analyzed for expression of six surface markers, 11 intracellular cytokines, and three T cell subtype signature transcription factors by flow cytometry, and secreted...... cytokines by multiplex. RESULTS: A different IFN-γ profile emerged between the extrinsic AD and psoriatic T cell cultures; however, there was no difference in IL-17 profile. No differences with regard to cytokine expression were found between extrinsic AD and intrinsic AD cultures; however, cutaneous...

  10. Profile Curvature Derivative Surface used to characterize the complexity of the seafloor around St. John, USVI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Profile curvature was calculated from the bathymetry surface for each raster cell using the ArcGIS 3D Analyst "Curvature" Tool. Profile curvature describes the rate...

  11. Electron number density profiles derived from radio occultation on the CASSIOPE spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shume, E. B.; Vergados, P.; Komjathy, A.

    2017-01-01

    good agreement with density profiles estimated from ionosonde data, measured over nearby stations to the latitude and longitude of the RO tangent points, (2) in good agreement with density profiles inferred from GPS RO measured by the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere...... number density profiles retrieved over landmasses and oceans. The density profiles over oceans exhibit wide-spread values and scale heights compared to density profiles over landmasses. We provide an explanation for the ocean-landmass discrepancy in terms of the unique wave coupling mechanisms operating...

  12. Peripheral blood-derived cytokine gene polymorphisms and metabolic profile in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sóter, Mirelle O; Ferreira, Cláudia N; Sales, Mariana F; Candido, Ana L; Reis, Fernando M; Milagres, Kátia S; Ronda, Carla; Silva, Ieda O; Sousa, Marinez O; Gomes, Karina B

    2015-12-01

    The imbalance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory pathways plays a role in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) etiology. We aimed to investigate the relationship between polymorphisms of genes encoding inflammation-associated cytokines and the metabolic profile of Brazilian women with PCOS. Case-control study. The study included 196 women - 97 with PCOS (diagnosed based on Rotterdam criteria, 2003) and 99 age-matched, healthy women (controls). It was investigated polymorphisms in cytokines genes from peripheral blood-derived DNA by using PCR. The frequencies of alleles, genotypes, and phenotypes were similar between women with PCOS and controls. The GG genotype of the -179C/G polymorphism (IL6) was associated with higher glucose levels, while the GA and AA genotypes of the -1082A/G polymorphism (IL10), CT and TT genotypes of the -819A/T polymorphism (IL10), CA and AA genotypes of the -522A/G (IL10) polymorphism, and TA genotype of the +874T/A polymorphism (IFN-γ) were associated with lower total cholesterol and triglycerides levels. The GA genotype of the -1082A/G polymorphism (IL10) and the CC genotype of the 10T/C polymorphism (TGF-β1) were associated with lower and higher Ferriman indices, respectively, in women with PCOS. The AA genotype of the -1082A/G polymorphism (IL10) was associated with lower glucose levels, while the TC genotype of the 10T/C polymorphism (TGF-β1) was associated with a lower lipid accumulation product index and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the PCOS group. The genetic polymorphisms of cytokines are not associated with PCOS development, but may contribute to common metabolic disorders associated with PCOS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Metabolomic profiling reveals mitochondrial-derived lipid biomarkers that drive obesity-associated inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampey, Brante P; Freemerman, Alex J; Zhang, Jimmy; Kuan, Pei-Fen; Galanko, Joseph A; O'Connell, Thomas M; Ilkayeva, Olga R; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Stevens, Robert D; Newgard, Christopher B; Brauer, Heather A; Troester, Melissa A; Makowski, Liza

    2012-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Several animal models of obesity exist, but studies are lacking that compare traditional lard-based high fat diets (HFD) to "Cafeteria diets" (CAF) consisting of nutrient poor human junk food. Our previous work demonstrated the rapid and severe obesogenic and inflammatory consequences of CAF compared to HFD including rapid weight gain, markers of Metabolic Syndrome, multi-tissue lipid accumulation, and dramatic inflammation. To identify potential mediators of CAF-induced obesity and Metabolic Syndrome, we used metabolomic analysis to profile serum, muscle, and white adipose from rats fed CAF, HFD, or standard control diets. Principle component analysis identified elevations in clusters of fatty acids and acylcarnitines. These increases in metabolites were associated with systemic mitochondrial dysfunction that paralleled weight gain, physiologic measures of Metabolic Syndrome, and tissue inflammation in CAF-fed rats. Spearman pairwise correlations between metabolites, physiologic, and histologic findings revealed strong correlations between elevated markers of inflammation in CAF-fed animals, measured as crown like structures in adipose, and specifically the pro-inflammatory saturated fatty acids and oxidation intermediates laurate and lauroyl carnitine. Treatment of bone marrow-derived macrophages with lauroyl carnitine polarized macrophages towards the M1 pro-inflammatory phenotype through downregulation of AMPK and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Results presented herein demonstrate that compared to a traditional HFD model, the CAF diet provides a robust model for diet-induced human obesity, which models Metabolic Syndrome-related mitochondrial dysfunction in serum, muscle, and adipose, along with pro-inflammatory metabolite alterations. These data also suggest that modifying the availability or metabolism of saturated fatty acids may limit the inflammation associated with obesity leading to Metabolic

  14. Metabolomic profiling reveals mitochondrial-derived lipid biomarkers that drive obesity-associated inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brante P Sampey

    Full Text Available Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Several animal models of obesity exist, but studies are lacking that compare traditional lard-based high fat diets (HFD to "Cafeteria diets" (CAF consisting of nutrient poor human junk food. Our previous work demonstrated the rapid and severe obesogenic and inflammatory consequences of CAF compared to HFD including rapid weight gain, markers of Metabolic Syndrome, multi-tissue lipid accumulation, and dramatic inflammation. To identify potential mediators of CAF-induced obesity and Metabolic Syndrome, we used metabolomic analysis to profile serum, muscle, and white adipose from rats fed CAF, HFD, or standard control diets. Principle component analysis identified elevations in clusters of fatty acids and acylcarnitines. These increases in metabolites were associated with systemic mitochondrial dysfunction that paralleled weight gain, physiologic measures of Metabolic Syndrome, and tissue inflammation in CAF-fed rats. Spearman pairwise correlations between metabolites, physiologic, and histologic findings revealed strong correlations between elevated markers of inflammation in CAF-fed animals, measured as crown like structures in adipose, and specifically the pro-inflammatory saturated fatty acids and oxidation intermediates laurate and lauroyl carnitine. Treatment of bone marrow-derived macrophages with lauroyl carnitine polarized macrophages towards the M1 pro-inflammatory phenotype through downregulation of AMPK and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Results presented herein demonstrate that compared to a traditional HFD model, the CAF diet provides a robust model for diet-induced human obesity, which models Metabolic Syndrome-related mitochondrial dysfunction in serum, muscle, and adipose, along with pro-inflammatory metabolite alterations. These data also suggest that modifying the availability or metabolism of saturated fatty acids may limit the inflammation associated with obesity

  15. Gene profiling analysis of ALVAC infected human monocyte derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harenberg, Anke; Guillaume, Florine; Ryan, Elizabeth J; Burdin, Nicolas; Spada, Franca

    2008-09-15

    The recombinant canarypox virus ALVAC is being extensively studied as vaccine vector for the development of new vaccine strategies against chronic infectious diseases and cancer. However, the mechanisms by which ALVAC initiates the immune response have not been completely elucidated. In order to determine the type of innate immunity triggered by ALVAC, we characterized the gene expression profile of human monocyte derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) upon ALVAC infection. These cells are permissive to poxvirus infection and play a key role in the initiation of immune responses. The majority of the genes that were up-regulated by ALVAC belong to the type I interferon signaling pathway including IRF7, STAT1, RIG-1, and MDA-5. Genes involved in the NF-kappaB pathway were not up-regulated. The gene encoding for the chemokine CXCL10, a direct target of the transcription factor IRF3 was among those up-regulated and DC secretion of CXCL10 following exposure to ALVAC was confirmed by ELISA. Many downstream type I interferon activated genes with anti-viral activity (PKR, Mx, ISG15 and OAS among others) were also up-regulated in response to ALVAC. Among these, ISG15 expression in its unconjugated form by Western blot analysis was demonstrated. In view of these results we propose that ALVAC induces type I interferon anti-viral innate immunity via a cytosolic pattern-recognition-receptor (PRR) sensing double-stranded DNA, through activation of IRF3 and IRF7. These findings may aid in the design of more effective ALVAC-vectored vaccines.

  16. Transcriptome Profile of the Response of Paracoccidioides spp. to a Camphene Thiosemicarbazide Derivative.

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    Lívia do Carmo Silva

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is a systemic granulomatous human mycosis caused by fungi of the genus Paracoccidioides, which is geographically restricted to Latin America. Inhalation of spores, the infectious particles of the fungus, is a common route of infection. The PCM treatment of choice is azoles such as itraconazole, but sulfonamides and amphotericin B are used in some cases despite their toxicity to mammalian cells. The current availability of treatments highlights the need to identify and characterize novel targets for antifungal treatment of PCM as well as the need to search for new antifungal compounds obtained from natural sources or by chemical synthesis. To this end, we evaluated the antifungal activity of a camphene thiosemicarbazide derivative (TSC-C compound on Paracoccidioides yeast. To determine the response of Paracoccidioides spp. to TSC-C, we analyzed the transcriptional profile of the fungus after 8 h of contact with the compound. The results demonstrate that Paracoccidioides lutzii induced the expression of genes related to metabolism; cell cycle and DNA processing; biogenesis of cellular components; cell transduction/signal; cell rescue, defense and virulence; cellular transport, transport facilities and transport routes; energy; protein synthesis; protein fate; transcription; and other proteins without classification. Additionally, we observed intensely inhibited genes related to protein synthesis. Analysis by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry revealed that the compound induced the production of reactive oxygen species. Using an isolate with down-regulated SOD1 gene expression (SOD1-aRNA, we sought to determine the function of this gene in the defense of Paracoccidioides yeast cells against the compound. Mutant cells were more susceptible to TSC-C, demonstrating the importance of this gene in response to the compound. The results presented herein suggest that TSC-C is a promising candidate for PCM treatment.

  17. Optimization of multiple flyby trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damario, L. A.; Sackett, L. L.; Stanford, R. H.; Byrnes, D. V.

    1979-01-01

    A procedure has been developed which minimizes total delta-V (instantaneous velocity change) for a multiple flyby trajectory with constraints on flyby altitude and orientation. The solution is found by varying the locations of maneuver points between each flyby to minimize the delta-Vs at the maneuver points. Each trajectory segment connecting consecutive maneuver points is found by solving an N-body analog to Lambert's problem. Multiconic techniques are used for trajectory propagation and for computation of the state transition matrix. The constrained parameter optimization problem is converted to an unconstrained problem by means of penalty functions and then solved with a quasi-Newton algorithm utilizing analytic first derivatives. This procedure has been successfully applied to Galileo satellite tour trajectories.

  18. Gene expression profiling of shoot-derived calli from adult radiata pine and zygotic embryo-derived embryonal masses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Garcia-Mendiguren

    Full Text Available Although somatic embryogenesis has an unprecedented potential for large-scale clonal propagation of conifers, the ability to efficiently induce the embryonal cultures required for somatic embryo production has long been a challenge. Furthermore, because early stage zygotic embryos remain the only responsive explants for pines, it is not possible to clone individual trees from vegetative explants at a commercial scale. This is of particular interest for adult trees because many elite characteristics only become apparent following sexual maturation.Shoot explants collected from adult radiata pine trees were cultured on four induction media differing in plant growth regulator composition, either directly after collection or from in vitro-generated axillary shoots. Six callus lines were selected for microscopic examination, which failed to reveal any embryonal masses (EM. qPCR expression profiling of five of these lines indicated that explant type influenced the absolute level of gene expression, but not the type of genes that were expressed. The analysis, which also included three EM lines induced from immature zygotic embryos, encompassed five categories of genes reflective of metabolic, mitotic and meristematic activity, along with putative markers of embryogenicity. Culture medium was found to have no significant impact on gene expression, although differences specific to the explant's origin were apparent. Expression of transcriptional factors associated with vegetative meristems further suggested that all of the callus lines possessed a substantive vegetative character. Most notable, however, was that they all also expressed a putative embryogenic marker (LEC1.While limited in scope, these results illustrate the utility of expression profiling for characterizing tissues in culture. For example, although the biological significance of LEC1 expression is unclear, it does present the possibility that these callus lines possess some level of

  19. Human eye-head gaze shifts preserve their accuracy and spatiotemporal trajectory profiles despite long-duration torque perturbations that assist or oppose head motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, Mathieu; Galiana, Henrietta L; Guitton, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    Humans routinely use coordinated eye-head gaze saccades to rapidly and accurately redirect the line of sight (Land MF. Vis Neurosci 26: 51-62, 2009). With a fixed body, the gaze control system combines visual, vestibular, and neck proprioceptive sensory information and coordinates two moving platforms, the eyes and head. Classic engineering tools have investigated the structure of motor systems by testing their ability to compensate for perturbations. When a reaching movement of the hand is subjected to an unexpected force field of random direction and strength, the trajectory is deviated and its final position is inaccurate. Here, we found that the gaze control system behaves differently. We perturbed horizontal gaze shifts with long-duration torques applied to the head that unpredictably either assisted or opposed head motion and very significantly altered the intended head trajectory. We found, as others have with brief head perturbations, that gaze accuracy was preserved. Unexpectedly, we found also that the eye compensated well--with saccadic and rollback movements--for long-duration head perturbations such that resulting gaze trajectories remained close to that when the head was not perturbed. However, the ocular compensation was best when torques assisted, compared with opposed, head motion. If the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) is suppressed during gaze shifts, as currently thought, what caused invariant gaze trajectories and accuracy, early eye-direction reversals, and asymmetric compensations? We propose three mechanisms: a gaze feedback loop that generates a gaze-position error signal; a vestibular-to-oculomotor signal that dissociates self-generated from passively imposed head motion; and a saturation element that limits orbital eye excursion.

  20. Impact of interferometer optical path difference speed profile on the Fourier-transform-spectrometry-derived spectrum of a telecommunications signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Katie M; Genest, Jerome

    2006-07-01

    The impact of the interferometer optical path difference (OPD) speed profile on the spectrum, derived through the use of Fourier-transform spectrometry (FTS), of a synchronous optical network (SONET) signal is found. The SONET signal carries high-speed data traffic. It also may be modulated by low-frequency intensity or frequency modulation. It is found that the SONET header, high-speed data traffic and low-frequency modulation all manifest themselves as artifacts in the FTS-derived spectrum of the SONET signal. It is shown that a nonconstant OPD speed profile can smooth out these artifacts, making it unlikely that they will be mistaken for carrier signal peaks. However, it is found that smoothing out these artifacts lessens the achievable dynamic range of the FTS instrument in the frequency range of interest, the International Telecommunications Union common (C) and long (L) bands.

  1. Adiabatic states derived from a spin-coupled diabatic transformation: semiclassical trajectory study of photodissociation of HBr and the construction of potential curves for LiBr+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Rosendo; Truhlar, Donald G; Jasper, Ahren W

    2008-06-26

    The development of spin-coupled diabatic representations for theoretical semiclassical treatments of photodissociation dynamics is an important practical goal, and some of the assumptions required to carry this out may be validated by applications to simple systems. With this objective, we report here a study of the photodissociation dynamics of the prototypical HBr system using semiclassical trajectory methods. The valence (spin-free) potential energy curves and the permanent and transition dipole moments were computed using high-level ab initio methods and were transformed to a spin-coupled diabatic representation. The spin-orbit coupling used in the transformation was taken as that of atomic bromine at all internuclear distances. Adiabatic potential energy curves, nonadiabatic couplings and transition dipole moments were then obtained from the diabatic ones and were used in all the dynamics calculations. Nonadiabatic photodissociation probabilities were computed using three semiclassical trajectory methods, namely, coherent switching with decay of mixing (CSDM), fewest switches with time uncertainty (FSTU), and its recently developed variant with stochastic decoherence (FTSU/SD), each combined with semiclassical sampling of the initial vibrational state. The calculated branching fraction to the higher fine-structure level of the bromine atom is in good agreement with experiment and with more complete theoretical treatments. The present study, by comparing our new calculations to wave packet calculations with distance-dependent ab initio spin-orbit coupling, validates the semiclassical trajectory methods, the semiclassical initial state sample scheme, and the use of a distance-independent spin-orbit coupling for future applications to polyatomic photodissociation. Finally, using LiBr(+) as a model system, it is shown that accurate spin-coupled potential curves can also be constructed for odd-electron systems using the same strategy as for HBr.

  2. Minimum jerk trajectory planning for robotic manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakopoulos, K. J.; Saridis, G. N.

    1991-01-01

    It has been experimentally verified that the jerk of the desired trajectory adversely affects the performance of the tracking control algorithms for robotic manipulators. In this paper, the reasons behind this effect are investigated, and an optimization problem that minimizes joint jerk over a prespecified Cartesian space trajectory is stated. The necessary conditions are derived, and a numerical algorithm is presented.

  3. Trajectory Optimization of Electrostatic Spray Painting Robots on Curved Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new practical electrostatic rotating bell (ESRB cumulative rate model of painting is derived, and an experimental study on painting is carried out. First, the experimental method is used to obtain the radial thickness profile function of the spatial paint distribution of static spray. Then, a spatial trajectory-planning scheme for a spray-painting robot based on a rectangular model is presented. This method designs the spatial path of the spray-painting robot by using the cuboid model method after the optimal value is taken as the width d of the overlapping area of the two spray-painting strokes in the plane. The experimental results illustrate that the paint thickness basically meets the requirements, and the experimental results verify the effectiveness of the trajectory optimization method.

  4. Rapid near-optimal aerospace plane trajectory generation and guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corban, J. E.; Calise, A. J.; Flandro, G. A.

    1991-01-01

    Problems associated with onboard trajectory optimization, propulsion system cycle selection, and the synthesis of guidance laws are addressed for ascent to low earth orbit of an airbreathing, single-stage-to-orbit vehicle. A multicycle propulsion system is assumed that incorporates turbojet, ramjet, scramjet, and rocket engines. An energy state approximation is applied to a singularly perturbed, four-state dynamic model for flight of a point mass over a spherical nonrotating earth. An algorithm is then derived for generating both the fuel-optimal climb profile and the guidance commands required to follow that profile. In particular, analytic switching conditions are derived that, under appropriate assumptions, efficiently govern optimal transition from one propulsion cycle to another. The algorithm proves to be computationally efficient and suitable for real-time implementation. The paper concludes with the presentation of representative numerical results that illustrate the nature of the fuel-optimal climb paths and the tracking performance of the guidance algorithm.

  5. Suspended sediment profiles derived from spectral attenuation coefficients measurements using neural network method

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, G.; Suresh, T.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Desa, E.; Kamath, S.S.

    total suspended matter values from water samples obtained at discrete depths at the same location. An artificial neural network (ANN) model has been used to derive suspended matter from the spectral values of beam attenuation coefficients measured using...

  6. Validation of refractivity profiles derived from GRAS raw-sampling data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Results from GRAS (GNSS Receiver for Atmospheric Sounding RO (Radio Occultation data recorded in RS (Raw Sampling mode processed at the GFZ (German Research Centre for Geoscience Potsdam are presented. The experimental processing software POCS-X includes FSI (Full Spectrum Inversion in order to cope with multi-path regions and enables in connection with RS data to retrieve atmospheric refractivity profiles down to the Earths surface. Radio occultation events observed between 30 September and 30 October 2007 are processed and the retrievals are validated against co-located ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts profiles. The intercomparison indicates good quality of the retrieved profiles. In the altitude range 8 to 25 km the standard deviation is below 1 %. The mean deviation in this altitude range tends to be negative. At 30 km the negative bias reaches about −0.4 %. Below 8 km the standard deviation increases, reaching 2.5 % at 2 km. Below 2 km the mean deviation tends to be negative, reaching −1.9 % close to the ground. The negative bias mainly stems from the tropical lower troposphere; there, the negative bias reaches −3 %. The tropospheric penetration depth obtained from RS data shows a vast improvement compared to the tropospheric penetration depth typically obtained from CL (Closed Loop data; 50 % of all retrieved profiles reach 720 m.

  7. Mesavage and Girard form class taper functions derived from profile equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas g. Matney; Emily B. Schultz

    2007-01-01

    The Mesavage and Girard (1946) average upper-log taper tables remain a favorite way of estimating tree bole volume because they only require the measurement of merchantable (useable) height to an indefinite top diameter limit. For the direct application of profile equations, height must be measured to a definite top diameter limit, and this makes the collection of data...

  8. Clues to pathogenesis of spondyloarthropathy derived from synovial fluid mononuclear cell gene expression profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Jieruo; Rihl, Markus; Märker-Hermann, Elisabeth; Baeten, Dominique; Kuipers, Jens G.; Song, Yeong Wook; Maksymowych, Walter P.; Burgos-Vargas, Ruben; Veys, Eric M.; de Keyser, Filip; Deister, Helmuth; Xiong, Momiao; Huang, Feng; Tsai, Wen Chan; Yu, David Tak Yan

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To use gene expression profiles of spondyloarthropathy (SpA) synovial fluid mononuclear cells (SFMC) to determine if there are transcripts that support the unfolded protein response (UPR) hypothesis, and to identify which cytokines/chemokines are being expressed and which cell fractions

  9. DNA methylation profiles of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene as a potent diagnostic biomarker in major depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Fuchikami

    Full Text Available Major depression, because of its recurring and life-threatening nature, is one of the top 10 diseases for global disease burden. Major depression is still diagnosed on the basis of clinical symptoms in patients. The search for specific biological markers is of great importance to advance the method of diagnosis for depression. We examined the methylation profile of 2 CpG islands (I and IV at the promoters of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene, which is well known to be involved in the pathophysiology of depression. We analyzed genomic DNA from peripheral blood of 20 Japanese patients with major depression and 18 healthy controls to identify an appropriate epigenetic biomarker to aid in the establishment of an objective system for the diagnosis of depression. Methylation rates at each CpG unit was measured using a MassArray® system (SEQUENOM, and 2-dimensional hierarchical clustering analyses were undertaken to determine the validity of these methylation profiles as a diagnostic biomarker. Analyses of the dendrogram from methylation profiles of CpG I, but not IV, demonstrated that classification of healthy controls and patients at the first branch completely matched the clinical diagnosis. Despite the small number of subjects, our results indicate that classification based on the DNA methylation profiles of CpG I of the BDNF gene may be a valuable diagnostic biomarker for major depression.

  10. Criminal Trajectories of White-collar Offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Onna, J.; van der Geest, V.R.; Huisman, W.; Denkers, A.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives:This article analyzes the criminal development and sociodemographic and criminal profile of a sample of prosecuted white-collar offenders. It identifies trajectory groups and describes their profiles based on crime, sociodemographic, and selection offence characteristics.Methods:The

  11. Quantitative sensomics profiling of hop-derived bitter compounds throughout a full-scale beer manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseleu, Gesa; Lagemann, Annika; Stephan, Andreas; Intelmann, Daniel; Dunkel, Andreas; Hofmann, Thomas

    2010-07-14

    Although the complex taste profile of beer is well accepted to be reflected by the molecular blueprint of its sensometabolites, the knowledge available on the process-induced transformation of hop-derived phytochemicals into key sensometabolites during beer manufacturing is far from comprehensive. The objective of the present investigation was, therefore, to develop and apply a suitable HPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous and comprehensive quantitative monitoring of a total of 69 hop-derived sensometabolites in selected intermediary products throughout a full-scale beer manufacturing process. After data normalization, the individual sensometabolites were arranged into different clusters by means of agglomerative hierarchical analysis and visualized using a sensomics heatmap to verify the structure-specific reaction routes proposed for their formation during the beer brewing process.

  12. Multilineage potential and proteomic profiling of human dental stem cells derived from a single donor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Rajreddy; Kumar, B. Mohana; Lee, Won-Jae; Jeon, Ryoung-Hoon; Jang, Si-Jung; Lee, Yeon-Mi [Department of Theriogenology and Biotechnology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Bong-Wook; Byun, June-Ho [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Medicine and Institute of Health Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-702 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Chun-Seob; Kim, Jae-Won [Department of Microbiology, Division of Life Sciences, Research Institute of Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Rho, Gyu-Jin, E-mail: jinrho@gnu.ac.kr [Department of Theriogenology and Biotechnology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Life Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-01

    Dental tissues provide an alternative autologous source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for regenerative medicine. In this study, we isolated human dental MSCs of follicle, pulp and papilla tissue from a single donor tooth after impacted third molar extraction by excluding the individual differences. We then compared the morphology, proliferation rate, expression of MSC-specific and pluripotency markers, and in vitro differentiation ability into osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes and functional hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs). Finally, we analyzed the protein expression profiles of undifferentiated dental MSCs using 2DE coupled with MALDI-TOF-MS. Three types of dental MSCs largely shared similar morphology, proliferation potential, expression of surface markers and pluripotent transcription factors, and differentiation ability into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. Upon hepatogenic induction, all MSCs were transdifferentiated into functional HLCs, and acquired hepatocyte functions by showing their ability for glycogen storage and urea production. Based on the proteome profiling results, we identified nineteen proteins either found commonly or differentially expressed among the three types of dental MSCs. In conclusion, three kinds of dental MSCs from a single donor tooth possessed largely similar cellular properties and multilineage potential. Further, these dental MSCs had similar proteomic profiles, suggesting their interchangeable applications for basic research and call therapy. - Highlights: • Isolated and characterized three types of human dental MSCs from a single donor. • MSCs of dental follicle, pulp and papilla had largely similar biological properties. • All MSCs were capable of transdifferentiating into functional hepatocyte-like cells. • 2DE proteomics with MALDI-TOF/MS identified 19 proteins in three types of MSCs. • Similar proteomic profiles suggest interchangeable applications of dental MSCs.

  13. Classification of follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer by global RNA profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Maria

    2013-01-01

    classification will not only contribute to our biological insight but also improve clinical and pathological examinations, thus advancing thyroid tumour diagnosis and ultimately preventing superfluous surgery. This review evaluates the status of classification and biological insights gained from molecular...... classifiers that may differentiate malignant from benign thyroid nodules. Molecular classification models based on global RNA profiles from fine-needle aspirations are currently being evaluated; results are preliminary and lack validation in prospective clinical trials. There is no doubt that molecular...

  14. Lipid profile of platelets and platelet-derived microparticles in ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianghua Hu

    2016-12-01

    General significance: As far as we are aware, our study is the first study on platelet lipidomics in ovarian cancer. The importance of our findings for the future studies are: 1 a similar change in lipid profile of platelets and PMP may be responsible for hypercoagulability in other cancers, and 2 plasma level of high-risk lipids for venous thrombosis may be useful biomarkers.

  15. Management by Trajectory: Trajectory Management Study Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiden, Kenneth; Atkins, Stephen; Fernandes, Alicia D.; Kaler, Curt; Bell, Alan; Kilbourne, Todd; Evans, Mark

    2017-01-01

    In order to realize the full potential of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), improved management along planned trajectories between air navigation service providers (ANSPs) and system users (e.g., pilots and airline dispatchers) is needed. Future automation improvements and increased data communications between aircraft and ground automation would make the concept of Management by Trajectory (MBT) possible.

  16. Toxicity Profile of a Nutraceutical Formulation Derived from Green Mussel Perna viridis

    OpenAIRE

    Kajal Chakraborty; Deepu Joseph; Selsa J. Chakkalakal

    2014-01-01

    The short-term (acute) and long-term (subchronic) toxicity profile, mean lethal dose 50 (LD50), and no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of a nutraceutical formulation developed from green mussel Perna viridis, which showed in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory properties, were evaluated in the present study. The formulation was administered to the male and female Wistar rats at graded doses (0.5, 1.0, and 2.5 g/kg body weight) for two weeks of acute toxicity study and 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 ...

  17. Ultrahigh-resolution Cn2 profiles derived from an FM-CW radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jim R.; McLaughlin, Scott

    1992-08-01

    The U.S. Army Atmospheric Science Laboratory operates a frequency modulated-continuous wave (FM-CW) radar at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. This 10 cm wavelength radar has the unique capability of measuring 2 m resolution Cn2 profiles to 2 km above ground level. At this short wavelength, scattering from point targets, presumably insects, seriously contaminates the turbulence measurements. The ability of the FM-CW radar to resolve individual insects even at two km allows the insect signature to be removed from the turbulent backscatter. Radar calibration, data, and a technique for removing insect contamination are presented.

  18. Thermal Band Atmospheric Correction Using Atmospheric Profiles Derived from Global Positioning System Radio Occultation and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Holekamp, Kara; Stewart, Randy; Vaughan, Ronald D.

    2006-01-01

    This Rapid Prototyping Capability study explores the potential to use atmospheric profiles derived from GPS (Global Positioning System) radio occultation measurements and by AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) onboard the Aqua satellite to improve surface temperature retrieval from remotely sensed thermal imagery. This study demonstrates an example of a cross-cutting decision support technology whereby NASA data or models are shown to improve a wide number of observation systems or models. The ability to use one data source to improve others will be critical to the GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems) where a large number of potentially useful systems will require auxiliary datasets as input for decision support. Atmospheric correction of thermal imagery decouples TOA radiance and separates surface emission from atmospheric emission and absorption. Surface temperature can then be estimated from the surface emission with knowledge of its emissivity. Traditionally, radiosonde sounders or atmospheric models based on radiosonde sounders, such as the NOAA (National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration) ARL (Air Resources Laboratory) READY (Real-time Environmental Application and Display sYstem), provide the atmospheric profiles required to perform atmospheric correction. Unfortunately, these types of data are too spatially sparse and too infrequently taken. The advent of high accuracy, global coverage, atmospheric data using GPS radio occultation and AIRS may provide a new avenue for filling data input gaps. In this study, AIRS and GPS radio occultation derived atmospheric profiles from the German Aerospace Center CHAMP (CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload), the Argentinean Commission on Space Activities SAC-C (Satellite de Aplicaciones Cientificas-C), and the pair of NASA GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites are used as input data in atmospheric radiative transport modeling based on the MODTRAN (MODerate resolution atmospheric

  19. Pharmacological and neuroprotective profile of an essential oil derived from leaves of Aloysia citrodora Palau

    OpenAIRE

    Abuhamdah, S; Abuhamdah, Rushdie; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R.; Al-Olimat, Suleiman; Ennaceur, Abdelkader; Chazot, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives\\ud The Jordanian ‘Melissa’, (Aloysia citrodora) has been poorly studied both pharmacologically and in the clinic. Essential oils (EO) derived from leaves of A. citrodora were obtained by hydrodistillation, analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and were investigated for a range of neurobiological and pharmacological properties, as a basis for potential future use in drug discovery.\\ud \\ud Methods \\ud A selection of central nervous system (CNS) receptor-binding pro...

  20. Gene expression profiles of vitrified in vitro- and in vivo-derived bovine blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksu, Digdem Aktoprakligil; Agca, Cansu; Aksu, Soner; Bagis, Haydar; Akkoc, Tolga; Caputcu, Arzu Tas; Arat, Sezen; Taskin, Ali Cihan; Kizil, Sedat H; Karasahin, Tahir; Akyol, Numan; Satilmis, Muharrem; Sagirkaya, Hakan; Ustuner, Burcu; Nur, Zekeriya; Agca, Yuksel

    2012-09-01

    Vitrification is becoming a preferred method for pre-implantation embryo cryopreservation. The objective of this study was to determine the differentially expressed genes of in vivo- and in vitro-produced bovine embryos after vitrification. In vitro- (IVF) and in vivo-derived (IVV) bovine blastocysts were identified as follows: in vitro-produced fresh (IVF-F), in vitro-produced vitrified (IVF-V), in vivo-derived fresh (IVV-F), in vivo-derived vitrified (IVV-V). The microarray results showed that 53 genes were differentially regulated between IVF and IVV, and 121 genes were differentially regulated between fresh and vitrified blastocysts (P vitro bovine blastocyst production protocols used in this study caused no major gene expression differences compared to those of in vivo-produced blastocysts. After vitrification, however, in vitro-produced blastocysts showed major gene expression differences compared to in vivo blastocysts. This study suggests that in vitro-produced embryos are of comparable quality to their in vivo counterparts. Vitrification of in vitro blastocysts, on the other hand, causes significant up-regulation of genes that are involved in stress responses. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Characterization of the Proinflammatory Profile of Synovial Fluid-Derived Exosomes of Patients with Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Domenis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to characterize synovial fluid- (SF- derived exosomes of patients with gonarthrosis comparing two methods of isolation and to investigate their immune regulatory properties. Extracellular vesicles (EVs have been isolated from inflamed SF by polymer precipitation method and quantified by Exocet kit and by nanoparticle tracking analysis. Vesicles expressed all the specific exosomal markers by immunoblot and FACS. After isolation with Exoquick, a relevant contamination by immune complexes was detected, which required further magnetic bead-based purification to remove. SF-derived exosomes significantly stimulated the release of several inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and metalloproteinases by M1 macrophages but did not influence the expression of CD80 and CD86 costimulatory molecules. In conclusion, we characterized purified exosomes isolated from inflamed SF and demonstrate that purified exosomes are functionally active in their ability to stimulate the release of proinflammatory factors from M1 macrophages. Our data indicate that SF-derived exosomes from gonarthrosis patients play a role in disease progression.

  2. 4-Year Cost Trajectories in Real-World Patients Matched to the Metabolic Profiles of Trial Subjects Before/After Treatment with Phentermine-Topiramate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, James; Reaven, Nancy L; Funk, Susan E; McGaughey, Karen; Neovius, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Our objective was to estimate 4-year healthcare costs associated with the metabolic profile of patients before and after 1 year of treatment with phentermine (15 mg) and topiramate extended-release (92 mg) [phentermine-topiramate ER]. Using a medical records database, we created two patient cohorts reflecting metabolic profiles of subjects before and after phentermine-topiramate ER therapy during the 1-year CONQUER trial. We matched database patients with trial subjects by age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and hypertension, glycemic, and triglyceride status. We collected real-world data on emergency department and outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and drug prescriptions over 4 years, linking them to reimbursements to estimate US private insurance costs for post-trial (n = 2295) versus pre-trial intention-to-treat (ITT) patients (n = 2295). Secondary analysis assessed responders (completers losing ≥5 % body weight [n = 1285]). Over 4 years, the mean cost per patient in the post- versus pre-trial ITT-group was $US32,432 versus $US34,725 (mean difference -2292; 95 % confidence interval [CI] -4776 to 209). In responders, corresponding costs were $US30,558 versus $US33,936 (mean difference -3378; 95 % CI -6496 to -464). Costs for post- versus pre-trial responders were lower for outpatient visits, emergency visits, and medications (all P < 0.05). Excluding treatment cost and potential side effects, patients matched to profiles of phentermine-topiramate ER responders had lower costs than patients matched to pre-treatment profiles.

  3. Quantitative high-throughput gene expression profiling of human striatal development to screen stem cell–derived medium spiny neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Straccia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic characterization of the spatio-temporal gene expression during human neurodevelopment is essential to understand brain function in both physiological and pathological conditions. In recent years, stem cell technology has provided an in vitro tool to recapitulate human development, permitting also the generation of human models for many diseases. The correct differentiation of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC into specific cell types should be evaluated by comparison with specific cells/tissue profiles from the equivalent adult in vivo organ. Here, we define by a quantitative high-throughput gene expression analysis the subset of specific genes of the whole ganglionic eminence (WGE and adult human striatum. Our results demonstrate that not only the number of specific genes is crucial but also their relative expression levels between brain areas. We next used these gene profiles to characterize the differentiation of hPSCs. Our findings demonstrate a temporal progression of gene expression during striatal differentiation of hPSCs from a WGE toward an adult striatum identity. Present results establish a gene expression profile to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the telencephalic hPSC-derived progenitors eventually used for transplantation and mature striatal neurons for disease modeling and drug-screening.

  4. Microalgal Species Selection for Biodiesel Production Based on Fuel Properties Derived from Fatty Acid Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nurun Nabi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Physical and chemical properties of biodiesel are influenced by structural features of the fatty acids, such as chain length, degree of unsaturation and branching of the carbon chain. This study investigated if microalgal fatty acid profiles are suitable for biodiesel characterization and species selection through Preference Ranking Organisation Method for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE and Graphical Analysis for Interactive Assistance (GAIA analysis. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME profiles were used to calculate the likely key chemical and physical properties of the biodiesel [cetane number (CN, iodine value (IV, cold filter plugging point, density, kinematic viscosity, higher heating value] of nine microalgal species (this study and twelve species from the literature, selected for their suitability for cultivation in subtropical climates. An equal-parameter weighted (PROMETHEE-GAIA ranked Nannochloropsis oculata, Extubocellulus sp. and Biddulphia sp. highest; the only species meeting the EN14214 and ASTM D6751-02 biodiesel standards, except for the double bond limit in the EN14214. Chlorella vulgaris outranked N. oculata when the twelve microalgae were included. Culture growth phase (stationary and, to a lesser extent, nutrient provision affected CN and IV values of N. oculata due to lower eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA contents. Application of a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA weighting to saturation led to a lower ranking of species exceeding the double bond EN14214 thresholds. In summary, CN, IV, C18:3 and double bond limits were the strongest drivers in equal biodiesel parameter-weighted PROMETHEE analysis.

  5. Path Profiles of Cn2 Derived from Radiometer Temperature Measurements and Geometrical Ray Tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyhnalek, Brian E.

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric turbulence has significant impairments on the operation of Free-Space Optical (FSO) communication systems, in particular temporal and spatial intensity fluctuations at the receiving aperture resulting in power surges and fades, changes in angle of arrival, spatial coherence degradation, etc. The refractive index structure parameter Cn2 is a statistical measure of the strength of turbulence in the atmosphere and is highly dependent upon vertical height. Therefore to understand atmospheric turbulence effects on vertical FSO communication links such as space-to-ground links, it is necessary to specify Cn2 profiles along the atmospheric propagation path. To avoid the limitations on the applicability of classical approaches, propagation simulation through geometrical ray tracing is applied. This is achieved by considering the atmosphere along the optical propagation path as a spatial distribution of spherical bubbles with varying relative refractive index deviations representing turbulent eddies. The relative deviations of the refractive index are statistically determined from altitude-dependent and time-varying temperature fluctuations, as measured by a microwave profiling radiometer. For each representative atmosphere ray paths are analyzed using geometrical optics, which is particularly advantageous in situations of strong turbulence where there is severe wavefront distortion and discontinuity. The refractive index structure parameter is then determined as a function of height and time.

  6. Gene expression profiling identifies platelet-derived growth factor as a diagnostic molecular marker for papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Yukiko; Uematsu, Naoya; Yashiro, Tohru; Hara, Hisato; Ueno, Ei; Miwa, Masanao; Tsujimoto, Gozoh; Aiyoshi, Yuji; Uchida, Kazuhiko

    2004-03-15

    Cancer diagnostics and therapeutics are often based on clinically relevant markers that are expressed specifically in a malignant tissue at levels higher than in normal tissue. We examined potential markers for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) by monitoring PTC-specific gene expression using cDNA microarray. Gene expression profiles for PTC tissue, normal thyroid tissue, and healthy peripheral blood cells were compared by use of a human 4000-gene cDNA microarray. Protein expressions of the up-regulated genes in PTC were examined in thyroid tissues by immunohistochemistry. Sixty-four genes were overexpressed in PTC tissue relative to normal thyroid tissue and healthy peripheral blood cells. The genes that were up-regulated in PTC were involved in cell cycle regulation, DNA damage response, angiogenesis, and oncogenesis. Among these genes, basic fibroblast growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor were identified by immunochemical methods as proteins that are specifically expressed at high levels in thyroid neoplasms. Basic fibroblast growth factor, which has been identified as a biomarker for PTC, was overexpressed in 54% of PTC cases, 67% of follicular thyroid carcinomas, and 36% of benign thyroid neoplasms. Platelet-derived growth factor was overexpressed in 81% of PTC cases and 100% of follicular carcinomas, but was immunonegative in normal thyroid tissues and benign thyroid neoplasms. Platelet-derived growth factor may be a potential biomarker for PTC and follicular carcinoma. Expression profile analysis using a microarray followed by immunohistochemical study can be used to facilitate the development of molecular biomarkers for cancer.

  7. Lipidomic profiling of patient-specific iPSC-derived hepatocyte-like cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Kiamehr

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs offer an alternative model to primary human hepatocytes to study lipid aberrations. However, the detailed lipid profile of HLCs is yet unknown. In the current study, functional HLCs were differentiated from iPSCs generated from dermal fibroblasts of three individuals by a three-step protocol through the definitive endoderm (DE stage. In parallel, detailed lipidomic analyses as well as gene expression profiling of a set of lipid-metabolism-related genes were performed during the entire differentiation process from iPSCs to HLCs. Additionally, fatty acid (FA composition of the cell culture media at different stages was determined. Our results show that major alterations in the molecular species of lipids occurring during DE and early hepatic differentiation stages mainly mirror the quality and quantity of the FAs supplied in culture medium at each stage. Polyunsaturated phospholipids and sphingolipids with a very long FA were produced in the cells at a later stage of differentiation. This work uncovers the previously unknown lipid composition of iPSC-HLCs and its alterations during the differentiation in conjunction with the expression of key lipid-associated genes. Together with biochemical, functional and gene expression measurements, the lipidomic analyses allowed us to improve our understanding of the concerted influence of the exogenous metabolite supply and cellular biosynthesis essential for iPSC-HLC differentiation and function. Importantly, the study describes in detail a cell model that can be applied in exploring, for example, the lipid metabolism involved in the development of fatty liver disease or atherosclerosis.

  8. microRNA expression profile in human coronary smooth muscle cell-derived microparticles is a source of biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gonzalo-Calvo, David; Cenarro, Ana; Civeira, Fernando; Llorente-Cortes, Vicenta

    2016-01-01

    microRNA (miRNA) expression profile of extracellular vesicles is a potential tool for clinical practice. Despite the key role of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in cardiovascular pathology, there is limited information about the presence of miRNAs in microparticles secreted by this cell type, including human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMC). Here, we tested whether HCASMC-derived microparticles contain miRNAs and the value of these miRNAs as biomarkers. HCASMC and explants from atherosclerotic or non-atherosclerotic areas were obtained from coronary arteries of patients undergoing heart transplant. Plasma samples were collected from: normocholesterolemic controls (N=12) and familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients (N=12). Both groups were strictly matched for age, sex and cardiovascular risk factors. Microparticle (0.1-1μm) isolation and characterization was performed using standard techniques. VSMC-enriched miRNAs expression (miR-21-5p, -143-3p, -145-5p, -221-3p and -222-3p) was analyzed using RT-qPCR. Total RNA isolated from HCASMC-derived microparticles contained small RNAs, including VSMC-enriched miRNAs. Exposition of HCASMC to pathophysiological conditions, such as hypercholesterolemia, induced a decrease in the expression level of miR-143-3p and miR-222-3p in microparticles, not in cells. Expression levels of miR-222-3p were lower in circulating microparticles from FH patients compared to normocholesterolemic controls. Microparticles derived from atherosclerotic plaque areas showed a decreased level of miR-143-3p and miR-222-3p compared to non-atherosclerotic areas. We demonstrated for the first time that microparticles secreted by HCASMC contain microRNAs. Hypercholesterolemia alters the microRNA profile of HCASMC-derived microparticles. The miRNA signature of HCASMC-derived microparticles is a source of cardiovascular biomarkers. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights

  9. Computing with spatial trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Covers the fundamentals and the state-of-the-art research inspired by the spatial trajectory data Readers are provided with tutorial-style chapters, case studies and references to other relevant research work This is the first book that presents the foundation dealing with spatial trajectories and state-of-the-art research and practices enabled by trajectories

  10. Gene expression profiling in multipotent DFAT cells derived from mature adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Hiromasa [Laboratory of Cell and Tissue Biology, College of Bioresource Sciences, Nihon University, 1866 Kameino, Fujisawa, Kanagawa 252-8510 (Japan); Database Center for Life Science (DBCLS), Research Organization of Information and Systems (ROIS), Faculty of Engineering Bldg.12 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Oki, Yoshinao [Laboratory of Cell and Tissue Biology, College of Bioresource Sciences, Nihon University, 1866 Kameino, Fujisawa, Kanagawa 252-8510 (Japan); Bono, Hidemasa [Database Center for Life Science (DBCLS), Research Organization of Information and Systems (ROIS), Faculty of Engineering Bldg.12 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Kano, Koichiro, E-mail: kkano@brs.nihon-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Cell and Tissue Biology, College of Bioresource Sciences, Nihon University, 1866 Kameino, Fujisawa, Kanagawa 252-8510 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    Highlights: {yields} Adipocyte dedifferentiation is evident in a significant decrease in typical genes. {yields} Cell proliferation is strongly related to adipocyte dedifferentiation. {yields} Dedifferentiated adipocytes express several lineage-specific genes. {yields} Comparative analyses using publicly available datasets boost the interpretation. -- Abstract: Cellular dedifferentiation signifies the withdrawal of cells from a specific differentiated state to a stem cell-like undifferentiated state. However, the mechanism of dedifferentiation remains obscure. Here we performed comparative transcriptome analyses during dedifferentiation in mature adipocytes (MAs) to identify the transcriptional signatures of multipotent dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells derived from MAs. Using microarray systems, we explored similarly expressed as well as significantly differentially expressed genes in MAs during dedifferentiation. This analysis revealed significant changes in gene expression during this process, including a significant reduction in expression of genes for lipid metabolism concomitantly with a significant increase in expression of genes for cell movement, cell migration, tissue developmental processes, cell growth, cell proliferation, cell morphogenesis, altered cell shape, and cell differentiation. Our observations indicate that the transcriptional signatures of DFAT cells derived from MAs are summarized in terms of a significant decrease in functional phenotype-related genes and a parallel increase in cell proliferation, altered cell morphology, and regulation of the differentiation of related genes. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in dedifferentiation may enable scientists to control and possibly alter the plasticity of the differentiated state, which may lead to benefits not only in stem cell research but also in regenerative medicine.

  11. Glycoalkaloid profile in potato haploids derived from solanum tuberosum-S. bulbocastanum somatic hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carputo, Domenico; Savarese, Salvatore; Andolfi, Anna; Aversano, Riccardo; Cimmino, Alessio; Frusciante, Luigi; Evidente, Antonio

    2010-08-01

    Cultivated and wild potato species synthesize a wide variety of steroidal glycoalkaloids (GA) that may affect either human health or biotic stress resistance. Therefore, GA composition must be a major criterion in the evaluation of breeding products when species genomes are merged and/or manipulated. This work reports the results of GA analysis performed on unique haploid (2n=2x=24) plants obtained from tetraploid (2n=4x=48) Solanum bulbocastanum-S. tuberosum hybrids through in vitro anther culture. Glycoalkaloids were extracted from tubers and analyzed by HPLC. Haploids generally showed the occurrence of parental GA. However, in several cases loss of parental GA and gain of new GA lacking in the parents was observed. It may be hypothesized that new GA profiles of our haploids is the result of either genetic recombination or combinatorial biochemistry events. To highlight differences between haploids and parents, soluble proteins and antioxidant activities were also determined. Both were always higher in haploids compared to their parents. The nature of the newly formed GAs will be further investigated, because they may represent new metabolites that can be used against pest and diseases, or are useful for human health.

  12. Analysis of the endogenous peptide profile of milk: identification of 248 mainly casein-derived peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Florian; Fedorova, Maria; Ebner, Jennifer; Hoffmann, Ralf; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2013-12-06

    Milk is an excellent source of bioactive peptides. However, the composition of the native milk peptidome has only been partially elucidated. The present study applied matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) directly or after prefractionation of the milk peptides by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) or OFFGEL fractionation for the comprehensive analysis of the peptide profile of raw milk. The peptide sequences were determined by MALDI-TOF/TOF or nano-ultra-performance liquid chromatography-nanoelectrospray ionization-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS. Direct MALDI-TOF-MS analysis led to the assignment of 57 peptides. Prefractionation by both complementary methods led to the assignment of another 191 peptides. Most peptides originate from α(S1)-casein, followed by β-casein, and α(S2)-casein. κ-Casein and whey proteins seem to play only a minor role as peptide precursors. The formation of many, but not all, peptides could be explained by the activity of the endogenous peptidases, plasmin or cathepsin D, B, and G. Database searches revealed the presence of 22 peptides with established physiological function, including those with angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitory, immunomodulating, or antimicrobial activity.

  13. Toxicity Profile of a Nutraceutical Formulation Derived from Green Mussel Perna viridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajal Chakraborty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The short-term (acute and long-term (subchronic toxicity profile, mean lethal dose 50 (LD50, and no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL of a nutraceutical formulation developed from green mussel Perna viridis, which showed in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory properties, were evaluated in the present study. The formulation was administered to the male and female Wistar rats at graded doses (0.5, 1.0, and 2.5 g/kg body weight for two weeks of acute toxicity study and 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/kg body weight for 90 days in subchronic toxicity study. The LD50, variations in clinical signs, changes in body weight, body weight, food/water consumption, organ weight (liver, kidney, spleen, and brain, hematology, serum chemistry, and histopathological changes were evaluated. The LD50 of the formulation was 5,000 mg/kg BW. No test article related mortalities as well as change in body weight, and food and water consumption were observed. No toxicity related significant changes were noted in renal/hepatic function, hematological indices, and serum biochemical parameters between the control and treated groups. Histopathological alterations were not observed in the vital organs of rats. The subchronic NOAEL for the formulation in rats is greater than 2000 mg/kg. This study demonstrated that the green mussel formulation is safe to consume without any adverse effects in the body.

  14. Shift of microRNA profile upon glioma cell migration using patient-derived spheroids and serum-free conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munthe, Sune; Halle, Bo; Boldt, Henning B

    2017-01-01

    cells using serum-free stem cell conditions. We used patient-derived GBM spheroid cultures for a novel serum-free migration assay. MiRNA expression of migrating tumor cells isolated at maximum migration speed was compared with corresponding spheroids using an OpenArray Real-Time PCR System. The mi......RNA profiling revealed 30 miRNAs to be differentially expressed. In total 13 miRNAs were upregulated and 17 downregulated in migrating cells compared to corresponding spheroids. The three most deregulated miRNAs, miR-1227 (up-regulated), miR-32 (down-regulated) and miR-222 (down-regulated), were experimentally...

  15. Tracking Virtual Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Leland S.; Beutter, Brent R.; Lorenceau, Jean D.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Current models of smooth pursuit eye movements assume that it is largely driven by retinal image motion. We tested this hypothesis by measuring pursuit of elliptical motion (3.2s, 0.9 Hz, 1.4 deg x 1.6 deg, 4 randomly interleaved phases) of either a small spot ("real" motion) or of a line-figure diamond viewed through apertures such that only the motion of four isolated oblique line segments was visible ("virtual" motion). Each segment moved sinusoidally along a linear trajectory yet subjects perceived a diamond moving along an elliptical path behind the aperture. We found, as expected, that real motion produced accurate tracking (N = 2) with mean gain (over horizontal and vertical) of 0.9, mean phase of -6 deg (lag), mean relative phase (H vs V) of 90 +/- 8 deg (RMS error). Virtual motion behind an X-shaped aperture (N= 4 with one naive) yielded a mean gain of 0.7, mean phase of -11 deg, mean relative phase of 87 +/- 15 deg. We also measured pursuit with the X-shaped aperture using a higher segment luminance which prevents the segments from being grouped into a coherently moving diamond while keeping the motion otherwise identical. In this incoherent case, the same four subjects no longer showed consistent elliptical tracking (RMS error in relative phase rose to 60 deg) suggesting that perceptual coherence is critical. Furthermore, to rule out tracking of the centroid, we also used vertical apertures so that all segment motion was vertical (N = 3). This stimulus still produced elliptical tracking (mean relative phase of 84 +/- 19 deg), albeit with a lower gain (0.6). These data show that humans can track moving objects reasonably accurately even when the trajectory can only be derived by spatial integration of motion signals. Models that merely seek to minimize retinal or local stimulus motion cannot explain these results.

  16. Global transcriptional profiles of beating clusters derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells are highly similar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Manoj K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional and molecular integrity of cardiomyocytes (CMs derived from induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells is essential for their use in tissue repair, disease modelling and drug screening. In this study we compared global transcriptomes of beating clusters (BCs microdissected from differentiating human iPS cells and embryonic stem (ES cells. Results Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis revealed that iPS-BCs and ES-BCs cluster together, are similarly enriched for cardiospecific genes and differ in expression of only 1.9% of present transcripts. Similarly, sarcomeric organization, electrophysiological properties and calcium handling of iPS-CMs were indistinguishable from those of ES-CMs. Gene ontology analysis revealed that among 204 genes that were upregulated in iPS-BCs vs ES-BCs the processes related to extracellular matrix, cell adhesion and tissue development were overrepresented. Interestingly, 47 of 106 genes that were upregulated in undifferentiated iPS vs ES cells remained enriched in iPS-BCs vs ES-BCs. Most of these genes were found to be highly expressed in fibroblasts used for reprogramming and 34% overlapped with the recently reported iPS cell-enriched genes. Conclusions These data suggest that iPS-BCs are transcriptionally highly similar to ES-BCs. However, iPS-BCs appear to share some somatic cell signature with undifferentiated iPS cells. Thus, iPS-BCs may not be perfectly identical to ES-BCs. These minor differences in the expression profiles may occur due to differential cellular composition of iPS-BCs and ES-BCs, due to retention of some genetic profile of somatic cells in differentiated iPS cell-derivatives, or both.

  17. Profiling the microRNA Expression in Human iPS and iPS-derived Retinal Pigment Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heuy-Ching; Greene, Whitney A; Kaini, Ramesh R; Shen-Gunther, Jane; Chen, Hung-I H; Cai, Hong; Wang, Yufeng

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS-RPE). MiRNAs have been demonstrated to play critical roles in both maintaining pluripotency and facilitating differentiation. Gene expression networks accountable for maintenance and induction of pluripotency are linked and share components with those networks implicated in oncogenesis. Therefore, we hypothesize that miRNA expression profiling will distinguish iPS cells from their iPS-RPE progeny. To identify and analyze differentially expressed miRNAs, RPE was derived from iPS using a spontaneous differentiation method. MiRNA microarray analysis identified 155 probes that were statistically differentially expressed between iPS and iPS-RPE cells. Up-regulated miRNAs including miR-181c and miR-129-5p may play a role in promoting differentiation, while down-regulated miRNAs such as miR-367, miR-18b, and miR-20b are implicated in cell proliferation. Subsequent miRNA-target and network analysis revealed that these miRNAs are involved in cellular development, cell cycle progression, cell death, and survival. A systematic interrogation of temporal and spatial expression of iPS-RPE miRNAs and their associated target mRNAs will provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis, eye differentiation and development.

  18. Differing Psychologically Derived Clusters in People With Chronic Low Back Pain are Associated With Different Multidimensional Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabey, Martin; Smith, Anne; Beales, Darren; Slater, Helen; O'Sullivan, Peter

    2016-12-01

    To explore the existence of subgroups in a cohort with chronic low back pain (n=294) based upon data from multiple psychological questionnaires, and profile subgroups on data from multiple dimensions. Psychological questionnaires considered as indicator variables entered into latent class analysis included: Depression, Anxiety, Stress scales, Thought Suppression and Behavioural Endurance subscales (Avoidance Endurance questionnaire), Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (short-form), Pain Catastrophising Scale, Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, and Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire. Multidimensional profiling of derived clusters included: demographics, pain characteristics, pain responses to movement, behaviors associated with pain, body perception, pain sensitivity, and health and lifestyle factors. Three clusters were derived. Cluster 1 (23.5%) was characterized by low Cognitive and Affective Questionnaire scores, with the exception of fear-avoidance beliefs. Cluster 2 (58.8%) was characterized by relatively elevated thought suppression, catastrophizing, and fear-avoidance beliefs, but lower pain self-efficacy, depression, anxiety, and stress. Cluster 3 (17.7%) had the highest scores across cognitive and affective questionnaires.Cluster 1 reported significantly lower pain intensity and bothersomeness than other clusters. Disability, stressful life events, and low back region perceptual distortion increased progressively from cluster 1 to cluster 3, whereas mindfulness progressively decreased. Clusters 2 and 3 had more people with an increase in pain following repeated forward and backward spinal bending, and more people with increasing pain following bending, than cluster 1. Cluster 3 had significantly greater lumbar pressure pain sensitivity, more undiagnosed comorbid symptoms, and more widespread pain than other clusters. Clinical implications relating to presentations of each cluster are postulated.

  19. Vertical profiles of bacterial-sewage derived biomarkers in marine sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiruddin, N. F.; Ali, M. M.

    2013-11-01

    Bacterial-sewage derived biomarkers in sediment core from the Muar River, Malaysia were extracted and analyzed using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). It was analyzed in order to understand and elucidate changes in organic matters due to the diagenetic process In this study, a set of fatty alcohol data which contained C15, C15-branched chain, C17 and C17-branched chain together with a couple of sewage sterol, coprostanol and its epimer epi-coprostanol were chosen to be interpreted. The analyzed result showed that sterol concentration is higher compared to fatty alcohol, which varied from 6.62 to 11.60 ng/g dry weight while fatty alcohol concentration ranged from 0.00 to 4.92 ng/g. All these data were used to run a multivariate statistical analysis (Principal Component Analysis-PCA) in order to get a better approach in distinguishing microbial communities. The PCA showed that there are two types of microbial communities present in the sediment core.

  20. Deriving principal channel metrics from bank and long-profile geometry with the R package cmgo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golly, Antonius; Turowski, Jens M.

    2017-09-01

    Landscape patterns result from landscape forming processes. This link can be exploited in geomorphological research by reversely analyzing the geometrical content of landscapes to develop or confirm theories of the underlying processes. Since rivers represent a dominant control on landscape formation, there is a particular interest in examining channel metrics in a quantitative and objective manner. For example, river cross-section geometry is required to model local flow hydraulics, which in turn determine erosion and thus channel dynamics. Similarly, channel geometry is crucial for engineering purposes, water resource management, and ecological restoration efforts. These applications require a framework to capture and derive the data. In this paper we present an open-source software tool that performs the calculation of several channel metrics (length, slope, width, bank retreat, knickpoints, etc.) in an objective and reproducible way based on principal bank geometry that can be measured in the field or in a GIS. Furthermore, the software provides a framework to integrate spatial features, for example the abundance of species or the occurrence of knickpoints. The program is available at https://github.com/AntoniusGolly/cmgo and is free to use, modify, and redistribute under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 3 as published by the Free Software Foundation.

  1. Proteomic profiling of patient-derived glioblastoma xenografts identifies a subset with activated EGFR: Implications for drug development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kristine E.; Chagoya, Gustavo; Kwatra, Shawn G.; Yen, Timothy; Keir, Stephen T.; Cooter, Mary; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Rasheed, Ahmed; Lipp, Eric S.; Mclendon, Roger; Ali-Osman, Francis; Bigner, Darell D.; Sampson, John H.; Kwatra, Madan M.

    2015-01-01

    The development of drugs to inhibit glioblastoma (GBM) growth requires reliable preclinical models. To date, proteomic level validation of widely used patient-derived glioblastoma xenografts (PDGX) has not been performed. In the present study, we characterized 20 PDGX models according to subtype classification based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) criteria, TP53, PTEN, IDH 1/2 and TERT promoter genetic analysis, EGFR amplification status, and examined their proteomic profiles against those of their parent tumors. The 20 PDGXs belonged to three of four TCGA subtypes: 8 classical, 8 mesenchymal, and 4 proneural; none neural. Amplification of EGFR gene was observed in 9 out of 20 xenografts, and of these, 3 harbored the EGFRvIII mutation. We then performed proteomic profiling of PDGX, analyzing expression/activity of several proteins including EGFR. Levels of EGFR phosphorylated at Y1068 vary considerably between PDGX samples, and this pattern was also seen in primary GBM. Partitioning of 20 PDGX into high (n=5) and low (n=15) groups identified a panel of proteins associated with high EGFR activity. Thus, PDGX with high EGFR activity represent an excellent preclinical model to develop therapies for a subset of GBM patients whose tumors are characterized by high EGFR activity. Further, the proteins found to be associated with high EGFR activity can be monitored to assess the effectiveness of targeting EGFR. PMID:25598002

  2. Rapid Species-level Identification of Salvias by Chemometric Processing of Ambient Ionisation Mass Spectrometry-derived Chemical Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffen, Justine E; Lesiak, Ashton D; Dane, A John; Cody, Robert B; Musah, Rabi A

    2017-01-01

    The Salvia genus contains numerous economically important plants that have horticultural, culinary and nutraceutical uses. They are often similar in appearance, making species determination difficult. Species identification of dried Salvia products is also challenging since distinguishing plant morphological features are no longer present. The development of a simple high-throughput method of analysis of fresh and dried Salvia leaves that would permit rapid species-level identification and detection of diagnostic biomarkers. Plant leaves were analysed in their native form by DART-MS without the need for any sample preparation steps. This furnished chemical fingerprints characteristic of each species. In the same experiment, in-source collision-induced dissociation was used to identify biomarkers. Biomarker presence was also independently confirmed by GC-MS. Chemometric processing of DART-MS profiles was performed by kernel discriminant analysis (KDA) and soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) to classify the fingerprints according to species. The approach was successful despite the occurrence of diurnal cycle and plant-age related chemical profile variations within species. In a single rapid experiment, the presence of essential oil biomarkers such as 3-carene, α-pinene, β-pinene, β-thujone, β-caryophyllene, camphor and borneol could be confirmed. The method was applied to rapid identification and differentiation of Salvia apiana, S. dominica, S. elegans, S. officinalis, S. farinacea and S. patens. Species-level identification of Salvia plant material could be accomplished by chemometric processing of DART-HRMS-derived chemical profiles of both fresh and dried Salvia material. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Shift of microRNA profile upon glioma cell migration using patient-derived spheroids and serum-free conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthe, Sune; Halle, Bo; Boldt, Henning B; Christiansen, Helle; Schmidt, Steffen; Kaimal, Vivek; Xu, Jessica; Zabludoff, Sonya; Mollenhauer, Jan; Poulsen, Frantz R; Kristensen, Bjarne W

    2017-03-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most frequent malignant primary brain tumor. A major reason for the overall median survival being only 14.6 months is migrating tumor cells left behind after surgery. Another major reason is tumor cells having a so-called cancer stem cell phenotype being therefore resistant towards traditional chemo- and radiotherapy. A group of novel molecular targets are microRNAs (miRNAs). MiRNAs are small non-coding RNAs exerting post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in migrating GBM cells using serum-free stem cell conditions. We used patient-derived GBM spheroid cultures for a novel serum-free migration assay. MiRNA expression of migrating tumor cells isolated at maximum migration speed was compared with corresponding spheroids using an OpenArray Real-Time PCR System. The miRNA profiling revealed 30 miRNAs to be differentially expressed. In total 13 miRNAs were upregulated and 17 downregulated in migrating cells compared to corresponding spheroids. The three most deregulated miRNAs, miR-1227 (up-regulated), miR-32 (down-regulated) and miR-222 (down-regulated), were experimentally overexpressed. A non-significantly increased migration rate was observed after miR-1227 overexpression. A significantly reduced migration rate was observed after miR-32 and miR-222 overexpression. In conclusion a shift in microRNA profile upon glioma cell migration was identified using an assay avoiding serum-induced migration. Both the miRNA profiling and the functional validation suggested that miR-1227 may be associated with increased migration and miR-32 and miR-222 with decreased migration. These miRNAs may represent potential novel targets in migrating glioma cells.

  4. Sea ice algae chlorophyll a concentrations derived from under-ice spectral radiation profiling platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Benjamin A.; Katlein, Christian; Nicolaus, Marcel; Peeken, Ilka; Flores, Hauke

    2016-12-01

    Multiscale sea ice algae observations are fundamentally important for projecting changes to sea ice ecosystems, as the physical environment continues to change. In this study, we developed upon previously established methodologies for deriving sea ice-algal chlorophyll a concentrations (chl a) from spectral radiation measurements, and applied these to larger-scale spectral surveys. We conducted four different under-ice spectral measurements: irradiance, radiance, transmittance, and transflectance, and applied three statistical approaches: Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF), Normalized Difference Indices (NDI), and multi-NDI. We developed models based on ice core chl a and coincident spectral irradiance/transmittance (N = 49) and radiance/transflectance (N = 50) measurements conducted during two cruises to the central Arctic Ocean in 2011 and 2012. These reference models were ranked based on two criteria: mean robustness R2 and true prediction error estimates. For estimating the biomass of a large-scale data set, the EOF approach performed better than the NDI, due to its ability to account for the high variability of environmental properties experienced over large areas. Based on robustness and true prediction error, the three most reliable models, EOF-transmittance, EOF-transflectance, and NDI-transmittance, were applied to two remotely operated vehicle (ROV) and two Surface and Under-Ice Trawl (SUIT) spectral radiation surveys. In these larger-scale chl a estimates, EOF-transmittance showed the best fit to ice core chl a. Application of our most reliable model, EOF-transmittance, to an 85 m horizontal ROV transect revealed large differences compared to published biomass estimates from the same site with important implications for projections of Arctic-wide ice-algal biomass and primary production.

  5. Characterization of microRNAs expression profiles in human dental-derived pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Tan

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs technology provides a powerful means to generate and regenerate unlimited pluripotent stem cells directly from body tissue cells. Stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP and Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs are present in 'cell-rich zones' within the dental pulp region, which are capable of regenerating pulp and dentin tissues in vivo. In this study, we investigated the difference of miRNAs expression in SCAPs and DPSCs before and after the reprogramming. Using miRNA microarray, 134 and 265 differentially expressed miRNAs in DPSCs- and SCAP-iPSCs were up-regulated compared to these before reprogramming. 117 specific miRNAs with enhanced more than 2-fold were identified in both DPSCs- and SCAP-iPSCs. Among the co-regulated miRNAs, miR-19a-3p, miR-92b-3p and miR-130b-3p showed the maximum difference, which had involvement in the cell cycle, TGF beta signaling pathway and epithelial mesenchymal transition. Using qRT-PCR analysis, the expression of miR-19a-3p, miR-92b-3p and miR-130b-3p indicated substantial increases in DPSCs-iPSCs and SCAP-iPSCs. The findings suggest that miRNAs play a part in the difference between DPSCs-iPSCs and DPSCs, as well as between SCAP-iPSCs and SCAP. The variation of miRNA expression in reprogrammed dental-derived pluripotent stem cells revealed different characteristics induced by iPSC generation.

  6. Characterization of microRNAs expression profiles in human dental-derived pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaobing; Dai, Qingyuan

    2017-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) technology provides a powerful means to generate and regenerate unlimited pluripotent stem cells directly from body tissue cells. Stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP) and Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are present in 'cell-rich zones' within the dental pulp region, which are capable of regenerating pulp and dentin tissues in vivo. In this study, we investigated the difference of miRNAs expression in SCAPs and DPSCs before and after the reprogramming. Using miRNA microarray, 134 and 265 differentially expressed miRNAs in DPSCs- and SCAP-iPSCs were up-regulated compared to these before reprogramming. 117 specific miRNAs with enhanced more than 2-fold were identified in both DPSCs- and SCAP-iPSCs. Among the co-regulated miRNAs, miR-19a-3p, miR-92b-3p and miR-130b-3p showed the maximum difference, which had involvement in the cell cycle, TGF beta signaling pathway and epithelial mesenchymal transition. Using qRT-PCR analysis, the expression of miR-19a-3p, miR-92b-3p and miR-130b-3p indicated substantial increases in DPSCs-iPSCs and SCAP-iPSCs. The findings suggest that miRNAs play a part in the difference between DPSCs-iPSCs and DPSCs, as well as between SCAP-iPSCs and SCAP. The variation of miRNA expression in reprogrammed dental-derived pluripotent stem cells revealed different characteristics induced by iPSC generation.

  7. Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, elastase, and cytokine profile in effusion from eosinophilic otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchimizu, Hirotaka; Matsuwaki, Yoshinori; Kato, Masahiko; Otori, Nobuyosi; Kojima, Hiromi

    2015-09-01

    Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) is an intractable disease characterized by a remarkably viscous effusion and accumulation of numerous eosinophils in both the middle ear effusion and the mucosa. The key factors in EOM pathogenesis remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to identify the important factors involved in EOM pathogenesis. Middle ear effusion samples were collected from 12 patients with EOM and 9 patients with secretory otitis media (SOM), as controls. Multiple cytokines in the effusion were measured using a Bio-Plex™ Human Cytokine 27-Plex panel. Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) and elastase were measured by ELISA. The concentrations of EDN, elastase, and each cytokine were compared between the EOM and SOM groups. Furthermore, in the EOM group, each cytokine was examined for correlation with EDN and elastase. EDN and elastase concentrations were significantly higher in the EOM group than in the SOM group (p < 0.05). IL-5, IL-1β, MIP-1α, G-CSF, IL-1ra, IL-4, IFN-γ, MIP-1β, IL-10, TNF-α, VEGF, and IL-2 concentration was significantly higher in the EOM group than in the SOM group (p < 0.05). Significant positive correlations were found between EDN and IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, eotaxin, MIP-1α, PDGF-BB, and RANTES in the EOM group (p < 0.05). Our study showed that IL-5, IL-2, MIP-1α, and IL-1ra are the important factors involved in EOM pathogenesis. Furthermore, not only eosinophil, but also neutrophil are involved in middle ear inflammation of EOM. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel Pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine Derivatives: Synthesis, Characterization, Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Marwa Sayed; Ali, Mohamed Ahmed Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Three novel series of pyridine derivatives, namely Schiff's bases, 4-thiazolidinones and azetidin-2-ones bearing pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine moiety, have been synthesized. The chemical structures of the synthesized compounds were characterized. The compounds were tested for their antimicrobial activity using the agar well diffusion and broth macrodilution methods. The compounds were also evaluated for their antiproliferative activity using the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. The majority of the tested compounds exhibited slight to high antimicrobial activity against the test microorganisms with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.12-62.5 µg/mL when compared to that of 3 standard antimicrobial agents (Ampicillin, 0.007-0.03 µg/mL; Gentamicin; 0.015-0.24 µg/mL; and Amphotericin B, 0.03-0.98 µg/mL). Compound (7b) was found to be nearly as active as the standard antimicrobial drug Amphotericin B against Fusarium oxysporum fungal strain with MIC of 0.98 µg/mL. Some of the test compounds showed remarkable cytotoxic activities against Hep G2 (hepatocellular carcinoma) cells (IC50=0.0158-71.3 µM) in comparison to the standard anticancer drug doxorubicin (IC50=0.008 µM). Among the compounds tested, (5), (6a), (6b), (7b), and (10) exhibited antiproliferative potency (IC50=0.0001-0.0211 µM) that was found to be better than that of doxorubicin (IC50=0.099 µM) against MCF7 (breast adenocarcinoma) cells. In particular, (7b) displayed the highest significant antiproliferative efficacy against both Hep G2 and MCF7 cell lines showing IC50 values of 0.0158 µM and 0.0001 µM, respectively. Our findings suggest that the synthesized compounds may be promising candidates as novel antimicrobial and antiproliferative agents.

  9. Global Gene Expression Profiling and Alternative Splicing Events during the Chondrogenic Differentiation of Human Cartilage Endplate-Derived Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Shang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Low back pain (LBP is a very prevalent disease and degenerative disc diseases (DDDs usually account for the LBP. However, the pathogenesis of DDDs is complicated and difficult to elucidate. Alternative splicing is a sophisticated regulatory process which greatly increases cellular complexity and phenotypic diversity of eukaryotic organisms. In addition, the cartilage endplate-derived stem cells have been discovered and identified by our research group. In this paper, we continue to investigate gene expression profiling and alternative splicing events during chondrogenic differentiation of cartilage endplate-derived stem cells. We adopted Affymetrix Human Transcriptome Array 2.0 (HTA 2.0 to compare the transcriptional and splicing changes between the control and differentiated samples. RT-PCR and quantitative PCR are used to validate the microarray results. The GO and KEGG pathway analysis was also performed. After bioinformatics analysis of the data, we detected 1953 differentially expressed genes. In terms of alternative splicing, the Splicing Index algorithm was used to select alternatively spliced genes. We detected 4411 alternatively spliced genes. GO and KEGG pathway analysis also revealed several functionally involved biological processes and signaling pathways. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the alternative splicing mechanisms in chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells on a genome-wide scale.

  10. Improved Propulsion Modeling for Low-Thrust Trajectory Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knittel, Jeremy M.; Englander, Jacob A.; Ozimek, Martin T.; Atchison, Justin A.; Gould, Julian J.

    2017-01-01

    Low-thrust trajectory design is tightly coupled with spacecraft systems design. In particular, the propulsion and power characteristics of a low-thrust spacecraft are major drivers in the design of the optimal trajectory. Accurate modeling of the power and propulsion behavior is essential for meaningful low-thrust trajectory optimization. In this work, we discuss new techniques to improve the accuracy of propulsion modeling in low-thrust trajectory optimization while maintaining the smooth derivatives that are necessary for a gradient-based optimizer. The resulting model is significantly more realistic than the industry standard and performs well inside an optimizer. A variety of deep-space trajectory examples are presented.

  11. Functional Analysis and Transcriptomic Profiling of iPSC-derived Macrophages and Their Application in Modeling Mendelian Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanrui; Xue, Chenyi; Shah, Rhia; Bermingham, Kate; Hinkle, Christine C.; Li, Wenjun; Rodrigues, Amrith; Tabita-Martinez, Jennifer; Millar, John S.; Cuchel, Marina; Pashos, Evanthia E.; Liu, Ying; Yan, Ruilan; Yang, Wenli; Gosai, Sager J.; VanDorn, Daniel; Chou, Stella T.; Gregory, Brian D.; Morrisey, Edward E.; Li, Mingyao; Rader, Daniel J.; Reilly, Muredach P.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale An efficient and reproducible source of genotype-specific human macrophages is essential for study of human macrophage biology and related diseases. Objective To perform integrated functional and transcriptome analyses of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived macrophages (IPSDM) and their isogenic PBMC-derived macrophages (HMDM) counterparts and assess the application of IPSDM in modeling macrophage polarization and Mendelian disease. Methods and Results We developed an efficient protocol for differentiation of IPSDM, which expressed macrophage-specific markers and took up modified lipoproteins in a similar manner to HMDM. Like HMDM, IPSDM revealed reduction in phagocytosis, increase in cholesterol efflux capacity and characteristic secretion of inflammatory cytokines in response to M1 (LPS+IFN-γ) activation. RNA-Seq revealed that non-polarized (M0) as well as M1 or M2 (IL-4) polarized IPSDM shared transcriptomic profiles with their isogenic HMDM counterparts while also revealing novel markers of macrophage polarization. Relative to IPSDM and HMDM of control individuals, patterns of defective cholesterol efflux to apoA-I and HDL3 were qualitatively and quantitatively similar in IPSDM and HMDM of patients with Tangier disease (TD), an autosomal recessive disorder due to mutations in ATP-binding cassette transporter A1. TD-IPSDM also revealed novel defects of enhanced pro-inflammatory response to LPS stimulus. Conclusions Our protocol-derived IPSDM are comparable to HMDM at phenotypic, functional and transcriptomic levels. TD-IPSDM recapitulated hallmark features observed in HMDM and reveal novel inflammatory phenotypes. IPSDM provide a powerful tool for study of macrophage-specific function in human genetic disorders as well as molecular studies of human macrophage activation and polarization. PMID:25904599

  12. Trajectories of complicated grief

    OpenAIRE

    Ilsung Nam

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: In the discussion of apparent similarities between symptoms of grief and depression, research and theory have often confounded these two constructs because, as a construct, grief is distinct from depression and because these two constructs may have distinct trajectories. This study examines the trajectories of complicated grief and associated risks and the relationship between trajectories of complicated grief and depression. Design: Longitudinal. Setting: Intervent...

  13. Lunar and interplanetary trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Biesbroek, Robin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides readers with a clear description of the types of lunar and interplanetary trajectories, and how they influence satellite-system design. The description follows an engineering rather than a mathematical approach and includes many examples of lunar trajectories, based on real missions. It helps readers gain an understanding of the driving subsystems of interplanetary and lunar satellites. The tables and graphs showing features of trajectories make the book easy to understand. .

  14. Separable and Inseparable Quantum Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, J.; Walmsley, I. A.

    2017-10-01

    The dynamical behavior of interacting systems plays a fundamental role for determining quantum correlations, such as entanglement. In this Letter, we describe temporal quantum effects of the inseparable evolution of composite quantum states by comparing the trajectories to their classically correlated counterparts. For this reason, we introduce equations of motions describing the separable propagation of any interacting quantum system, which are derived by requiring separability for all times. The resulting Schrödinger-type equations allow for comparing the trajectories in a separable configuration with the actual behavior of the system and, thereby, identifying inseparable and time-dependent quantum properties. As an example, we study bipartite discrete- and continuous-variable interacting systems. The generalization of our developed technique to multipartite scenarios is also provided.

  15. Evaluation of an X-Ray Dose Profile Derived from an Optically Stimulated Luminescent Dosimeter during Computed Tomographic Fluoroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Hasegawa

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate scatter radiation dose to the subject surface during X-ray computed tomography (CT fluoroscopy using the integrated dose ratio (IDR of an X-ray dose profile derived from an optically stimulated luminescent (OSL dosimeter. We aimed to obtain quantitative evidence supporting the radiation protection methods used during previous CT fluoroscopy. A multislice CT scanner was used to perform this study. OSL dosimeters were placed on the top and the lateral side of the chest phantom so that the longitudinal direction of dosimeters was parallel to the orthogonal axis-to-slice plane for measurement of dose profiles in CT fluoroscopy. Measurement of fluoroscopic conditions was performed at 120 kVp and 80 kVp. Scatter radiation dose was evaluated by calculating the integrated dose determined by OSL dosimetry. The overall percent difference of the integrated doses between OSL dosimeters and ionization chamber was 5.92%. The ratio of the integrated dose of a 100-mm length area to its tails (-50 to -6 mm, 50 to 6 mm was the lowest on the lateral side at 80 kVp and the highest on the top at 120 kVp. The IDRs for different measurement positions were larger at 120 kVp than at 80 kVp. Similarly, the IDRs for the tube voltage between the primary X-ray beam and scatter radiation was larger on the lateral side than on the top of the phantom. IDR evaluation suggested that the scatter radiation dose has a high dependence on the position and a low dependence on tube voltage relative to the primary X-ray beam for constant dose rate fluoroscopic conditions. These results provided quantitative evidence supporting the radiation protection methods used during CT fluoroscopy in previous studies.

  16. The volatile profiles of a rare apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) honey: shikimic acid-pathway derivatives, terpenes, and others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuś, Piotr Marek; Jerković, Igor; Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Šarolić, Mladenka

    2013-09-01

    The volatile profiles of rare Malus domestica Borkh. honey were investigated for the first time. Two representative samples from Poland (sample I) and Spain (sample II) were selected by pollen analysis (44-45% of Malus spp. pollen) and investigated by GC/FID/MS after headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE). The apple honey is characterized by high percentage of shikimic acid-pathway derivatives, as well as terpenes, norisoprenoids, and some other compounds such as coumaran and methyl 1H-indole-3-acetate. The main compounds of the honey headspace were (sample I; sample II): benzaldehyde (9.4%; 32.1%), benzyl alcohol (0.3%; 14.4%), hotrienol (26.0%, 6.2%), and lilac aldehyde isomers (26.3%; 1.7%), but only Spanish sample contained car-2-en-4-one (10.2%). CH2 Cl2 and pentane/Et2 O 1 : 2 (v/v) were used for USE. The most relevant compounds identified in the extracts were: benzaldehyde (0.9-3.9%), benzoic acid (2.0-11.2%), terpendiol I (0.3-7.4%), coumaran (0.0-2.8%), 2-phenylacetic acid (2.0-26.4%), methyl syringate (3.9-13.1%), vomifoliol (5.0-31.8%), and methyl 1H-indole-3-acetate (1.9-10.2%). Apple honey contained also benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, (E)-cinnamyl alcohol, eugenol, vanillin, and linalool that have been found previously in apple flowers, thus disclosing similarity of both volatile profiles. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  17. Effects of dietary plant-derived phytonutrients on the genome-wide profiles and coccidiosis resistance in the broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lillehoj Hyun S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary plant-derived phytonutrients, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and Capsicum oleoresin, on the translational regulation of genes associated with immunology, physiology and metabolism using high-throughput microarray analysis and in vivo disease challenge model of avian coccidiosis. Methods In this study, we used nutrigenomics technology to investigate the molecular and genetic mechanisms of dietary modulation of host innate immunity and metabolism by three phytonutrients. To validate their immunomodulatory effects in a disease model, young broiler chickens fed a standard diet supplemented with three phytochemicals (carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin from one day post-hatch were orally challenged with E. acervulina. The body weight gain and fecal oocyst production were used to evaluate coccidiosis disease parameters. Results Analysis of global gene expression profiles of intestinal tissues from phytonutrient-fed birds indicated that Capsicum oleoresin induced the most gene changes compared to the control group where many of these genes were associated with those of metabolism and immunity. The most reliable network induced by dietary cinnamaldehyde treatment was related with the functions of antigen presentation, humoral immune response, and inflammatory disease. Furthermore, dietary supplementation with these phytonutrients significantly protected broiler chickens against live coccidiosis challenge infection based on body weight and parasite fecundity. Conclusions The results of this study provide clear evidence to support the idea that plant-derived phytochemicals possess immune-enhancing properties in chickens and these new findings create a new possibility to develop effective drug-free alternative strategies for disease control for poultry infectious diseases.

  18. PANTHER. Trajectory Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rintoul, Mark Daniel [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wilson, Andrew T. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Valicka, Christopher G. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kegelmeyer, W. Philip [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shead, Timothy M. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Newton, Benjamin D. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Czuchlewski, Kristina Rodriguez [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    We want to organize a body of trajectories in order to identify, search for, classify and predict behavior among objects such as aircraft and ships. Existing compari- son functions such as the Fr'echet distance are computationally expensive and yield counterintuitive results in some cases. We propose an approach using feature vectors whose components represent succinctly the salient information in trajectories. These features incorporate basic information such as total distance traveled and distance be- tween start/stop points as well as geometric features related to the properties of the convex hull, trajectory curvature and general distance geometry. Additionally, these features can generally be mapped easily to behaviors of interest to humans that are searching large databases. Most of these geometric features are invariant under rigid transformation. We demonstrate the use of different subsets of these features to iden- tify trajectories similar to an exemplar, cluster a database of several hundred thousand trajectories, predict destination and apply unsupervised machine learning algorithms.

  19. Conservation strategy for Pelargonium sidoides DC: phenolic profile and pharmacological activity of acclimatized plants derived from tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Mack; Aremu, Adeyemi O; Gruz, Jiri; Subrtová, Michaela; Szüčová, Lucie; Doležal, Karel; Van Staden, Johannes

    2013-09-16

    Pelargonium sidoides DC (Geraniaceae), a popular medicinal plant used in folk medicine in the treatment of respiratory-related infections has gained international prominence due to its usage in several herbal formulations. This has led to high demand and the subsequent decimation of wild populations. Using plant tissue culture techniques, Pelargonium sidoides plants were cloned in vitro, acclimatized under greenhouse conditions and evaluated for their phytochemical content and pharmacological activity. Phenolic content in extracts of in vitro-derived, greenhouse-acclimatized and wild Pelargonium sidoides plants were analyzed using UPLC-MS/MS. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts against bacterial and fungal strains were evaluated. Similarities in phenolic profiles were identified confirming the chemical signatures that characterize Pelargonium sidoides plants. Extracts of greenhouse-acclimatized and wild plants exhibited comparable antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Overall, the study highlights the potential of integrating plant tissue culture technologies in conservation strategies of medicinal plants. In particular, the results strongly suggest the feasibility of both large-scale cultivation and plant part substitution as alternative solutions to the current destructive overharvesting practices of wild Pelargonium sidoides populations. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Altered microRNA expression profile in exosomes during osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Feng Xu

    Full Text Available The physiological role of microRNAs (miRNAs in osteoblast differentiation remains elusive. Exosomal miRNAs isolated from human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs culture were profiled using miRNA arrays containing probes for 894 human matured miRNAs. Seventy-nine miRNAs (∼8.84% could be detected in exosomes isolated from BMSC culture supernatants when normalized to endogenous control genes RNU44. Among them, nine exosomal miRNAs were up regulated and 4 miRNAs were under regulated significantly (Relative fold>2, p<0.05 when compared with the values at 0 day with maximum changes at 1 to 7 days. Five miRNAs (miR-199b, miR-218, miR-148a, miR-135b, and miR-221 were further validated and differentially expressed in the individual exosomal samples from hBMSCs cultured at different time points. Bioinformatic analysis by DIANA-mirPath demonstrated that RNA degradation, mRNA surveillance pathway, Wnt signaling pathway, RNA transport were the most prominent pathways enriched in quantiles with differential exosomal miRNA patterns related to osteogenic differentiation. These data demonstrated exosomal miRNA is a regulator of osteoblast differentiation.

  1. Synthesis and pharmacokinetic profile of a quaternary ammonium derivative of chlorambucil, a potential anticancer drug for the chemotherapy of chondrosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Maryse; Giraud, Isabelle; Maurizis, Jean Claude; Madelmont, Jean Claude

    2003-11-17

    As a part of our targeting program based on the affinity of the quaternary ammonium moiety for cartilage, our objective was to develop more selective anticancer drugs towards chondrosarcoma that would concentrate in this malignant cartilaginous tissue and so improve the therapeutic index through a reduction of side effects. For this purpose we have synthesized and labeled with 14C a quaternary ammonium (QA) derivative of chlorambucil. Biological studies performed in rats showed that [14C]-CQA and [14C]-chlorambucil exhibited different pharmacokinetic profiles. The blood elimination of [14C]-CQA was faster than that of parent compound. [14C]-CQA was principally excreted by the fecal way. However, until 15 min after administration, levels of radioactivity were measured in cartilaginous tissues of rats given [14C]-CQA which was not the case for the rats which had received [14C]-chlorambucil. Although rates of radioactivity were quantified only during 15 min, these results prove that the functionalization of chlorambucil by a quaternary ammonium group allows the molecule to be carried selectively to cartilaginous tissues.

  2. The effect of enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain®) on gene expression profiles of human primary alveolar bone cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X Z; Rathe, F; Gilissen, C; van der Zande, M; Veltman, J; Junker, R; Yang, F; Jansen, J A; Walboomers, X F

    2014-06-01

    Emdogain® is frequently used in regenerative periodontal treatment. Understanding its effect on gene expression of bone cells would enable new products and pathways promoting bone formation to be established. The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of Emdogain® on expression profiles of human-derived bone cells with the help of the micro-array, and subsequent validation. Bone was harvested from non-smoking patients during dental implant surgery. After outgrowth, cells were cultured until subconfluence, treated for 24 h with either Emdogain® (100 µg/ml) or control medium, and subsequently RNA was isolated and micro-array was performed. The most important genes demonstrated by micro-array data were confirmed by qPCR and ELISA tests. Emdogain tipped the balance between genes expressed for bone formation and bone resorption towards a more anabolic effect, by interaction of the PGE2 pathway and inhibition of IL-7 production. In addition the results of the present study indicate that Emdogain possibly has an effect on gene expression for extracellular matrix formation of human bone cells, in particular on bone matrix formation and on proliferation and differentiation. With the micro-array and the subsequent validation, the genes possibly involved in Emdogain action on bone cells were identified. These results can contribute to establishing new products and pathways promoting bone formation. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Lifecourse childhood adiposity trajectories associated with adolescent insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rae-Chi; de Klerk, Nicholas H; Smith, Anne; Kendall, Garth E; Landau, Louis I; Mori, Trevor A; Newnham, John P; Stanley, Fiona J; Oddy, Wendy H; Hands, Beth; Beilin, Lawrence J

    2011-04-01

    In light of the obesity epidemic, we aimed to characterize novel childhood adiposity trajectories from birth to age 14 years and to determine their relation to adolescent insulin resistance. A total of 1,197 Australian children with cardiovascular/metabolic profiling at age 14 years were studied serially from birth to age 14 years. Semiparametric mixture modeling was applied to anthropometric data over eight time points to generate adiposity trajectories of z scores (weight-for-height and BMI). Fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were compared at age 14 years between adiposity trajectories. Seven adiposity trajectories were identified. Three (two rising and one chronic high adiposity) trajectories comprised 32% of the population and were associated with significantly higher fasting insulin and HOMA-IR compared with a reference trajectory group (with longitudinal adiposity z scores of approximately zero). There was a significant sex by trajectory group interaction (P rising trajectory from low to moderate adiposity did not show increased insulin resistance. Maternal obesity, excessive weight gain during pregnancy, and gestational diabetes were more prevalent in the chronic high adiposity trajectory. A range of childhood adiposity trajectories exist. The greatest insulin resistance at age 14 years is seen in those with increasing trajectories regardless of birth weight and in high birth weight infants whose adiposity remains high. Public health professionals should urgently target both excessive weight gain in early childhood across all birth weights and maternal obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy.

  4. Trajectory tracking for robot manipulators using differential flatness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkin Veslin Diaz

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available  This paper proposes applying differential flatness to robot manipulator trajectory tracking. The trajectories for each generalised coordinate are proposed as a function and the corresponding input must be found to guarantee tracking. It is shown that the position in the generalised coordinates and their derivatives are flat inputs which, together with a PD controller, could determine (with some restrictions manipulator movement having minimal deviation throughout its trajectory in both plane movements and in space. 

  5. Trajectory Browser Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Cyrus; Jaroux, Belgacem A.

    2012-01-01

    The Trajectory Browser is a web-based tool developed at the NASA Ames Research Center to be used for the preliminary assessment of trajectories to small-bodies and planets and for providing relevant launch date, time-of-flight and V requirements. The site hosts a database of transfer trajectories from Earth to asteroids and planets for various types of missions such as rendezvous, sample return or flybys. A search engine allows the user to find trajectories meeting desired constraints on the launch window, mission duration and delta V capability, while a trajectory viewer tool allows the visualization of the heliocentric trajectory and the detailed mission itinerary. The anticipated user base of this tool consists primarily of scientists and engineers designing interplanetary missions in the context of pre-phase A studies, particularly for performing accessibility surveys to large populations of small-bodies. The educational potential of the website is also recognized for academia and the public with regards to trajectory design, a field that has generally been poorly understood by the public. The website is currently hosted on NASA-internal URL http://trajbrowser.arc.nasa.gov/ with plans for a public release as soon as development is complete.

  6. Profile and functional analysis of small RNAs derived from Aspergillus fumigatus infected with double-stranded RNA mycoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Selin; Mohorianu, Irina; Xu, Ping; Dalmay, Tamas; Coutts, Robert H A

    2017-05-30

    Mycoviruses are viruses that naturally infect and replicate in fungi. Aspergillus fumigatus, an opportunistic pathogen causing fungal lung diseases in humans and animals, was recently shown to harbour several different types of mycoviruses. A well-characterised defence against virus infection is RNA silencing. The A. fumigatus genome encodes essential components of the RNA silencing machinery, including Dicer, Argonaute and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) homologues. Active silencing of double-stranded (ds)RNA and the generation of small RNAs (sRNAs) has been shown for several mycoviruses and it is anticipated that a similar mechanism will be activated in A. fumigatus isolates infected with mycoviruses. To investigate the existence and nature of A. fumigatus sRNAs, sRNA-seq libraries of virus-free and virus-infected isolates were created using Scriptminer adapters and compared. Three dsRNA viruses were investigated: Aspergillus fumigatus partitivirus-1 (AfuPV-1, PV), Aspergillus fumigatus chrysovirus (AfuCV, CV) and Aspergillus fumigatus tetramycovirus-1 (AfuTmV-1, NK) which were selected because they induce phenotypic changes such as coloration and sectoring. The dsRNAs of all three viruses, which included two conventionally encapsidated ones PV and CV and one unencapsidated example NK, were silenced and yielded characteristic vsiRNAs together with co-incidental silencing of host fungal genes which shared sequence homology with the viral genomes. Virus-derived sRNAs were detected and characterised in the presence of virus infection. Differentially expressed A. fumigatus microRNA-like (miRNA-like) sRNAs and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were detected and validated. Host sRNA loci which were differentially expressed as a result of virus infection were also identified. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the sRNA profiles of A. fumigatus isolates.

  7. Quadrotor Intercept Trajectory Planning and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Diagram ....................................................................29  Figure 12.  3D Visualizer Virtual World...east down PG pursuit guidance PID proportional-integral-derivative PN proportional navigation UAV unmanned aerial vehicle VR virtual reality...represent the interceptor to produce an on-line command trajectory. The point mass model is manipulated with a single input that controls the turn

  8. Going Ballistic: Bullet Trajectories

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amanda Wade

    2011-01-01

    ...? We begin by modeling the bullet's trajectory using Euler's method with the help of a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet solver, and then systematically search for the angle corresponding to the center of the target...

  9. Ornithopter transition trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietl, John M.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2010-04-01

    The design of stable trim conditions for forward flight and for hover has been achieved. In forward flight, an ornithopter is configured like a conventional airplane or large bird. Its fuselage is essentially horizontal and the wings heave in a vertical plane. In hover, however, the body pitches vertically so that the wing stroke in the horizontal plane. Thrust directed downward, the vehicle remains aloft while the downdraft envelops the tail to provide enough flow for vehicle control and stabilization. To connect these trajectories dynamically is the goal. The naïve approach-to choose two stable trajectories and switch between them-has been accomplished. A new approach is to establish an open-loop trajectory through a trajectory optimization algorithm-optimized for shortest altitude drop, shortest stopping distance, or lowest energy consumption.

  10. Multiple Satellite Trajectory Optimization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mendy Jr, Paul B

    2004-01-01

    This thesis develops and validates a satellite trajectory optimization model. A summary is given of the general mathematical principles of dynamic optimal control to minimize fuel consumed or transfer time...

  11. Automated Cooperative Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Curt; Pahle, Joseph; Brown, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is an overview of the Automated Cooperative Trajectories project. An introduction to the phenomena of wake vortices is given, along with a summary of past research into the possibility of extracting energy from the wake by flying close parallel trajectories. Challenges and barriers to adoption of civilian automatic wake surfing technology are identified. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation is described that will support future research. Finally, a roadmap for future research and technology transition is proposed.

  12. Impact to Space Shuttle Vehicle Trajectory on Day of Launch from change in Low Frequency Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Ryan K.; Puperi, Daniel; Leach, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Shuttle utilizes atmospheric winds on day of launch to develop throttle and steering commands to best optimize vehicle performance while keeping structural loading on the vehicle within limits. The steering commands and resultant trajectory are influenced by both the high and low frequency component of the wind. However, the low frequency component has a greater effect on the ascent design. Change in the low frequency wind content from the time of trajectory design until launch can induce excessive loading on the vehicle. Wind change limits have been derived to protect from launching in an environment where these temporal changes occur. Process of developing wind change limits are discussed followed by an observational study of temporal wind change in low frequency wind profiles at the NASA's Kennedy Space Center area are presented.

  13. Compressing spatio-temporal trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Joachim; Katajainen, Jyrki; Merrick, Damian

    2009-01-01

    A trajectory is a sequence of locations, each associated with a timestamp, describing the movement of a point. Trajectory data is becoming increasingly available and the size of recorded trajectories is getting larger. In this paper we study the problem of compressing planar trajectories such tha...

  14. Optimal Formation Trajectory-Planning Using Parameter Optimization Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Chul Lim

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Some methods have been presented to get optimal formation trajectories in the step of configuration or reconfiguration, which subject to constraints of collision avoidance and final configuration. In this study, a method for optimal formation trajectory-planning is introduced in view of fuel/time minimization using parameter optimization technique which has not been applied to optimal trajectory-planning for satellite formation flying. New constraints of nonlinear equality are derived for final configuration and constraints of nonlinear inequality are used for collision avoidance. The final configuration constraints are that three or more satellites should be placed in an equilateral polygon of the circular horizontal plane orbit. Several examples are given to get optimal trajectories based on the parameter optimization problem which subjects to constraints of collision avoidance and final configuration. They show that the introduced method for trajectory-planning is well suited to trajectory design problems of formation flying missions.

  15. An Efficient Universal Trajectory Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, George E.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Butler, Ricky W.

    2017-01-01

    The Efficient Universal Trajectory Language (EUTL) is a language for specifying and representing trajectories for Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts such as Trajectory-Based Operations (TBO). In these concepts, the communication of a trajectory between an aircraft and ground automation is fundamental. Historically, this trajectory exchange has not been done, leading to trajectory definitions that have been centered around particular application domains and, therefore, are not well suited for TBO applications. The EUTL trajectory language has been defined in the Prototype Verification System (PVS) formal specification language, which provides an operational semantics for the EUTL language. The hope is that EUTL will provide a foundation for mathematically verified algorithms that manipulate trajectories. Additionally, the EUTL language provides well-defined methods to unambiguously determine position and velocity information between the reported trajectory points. In this paper, we present the EUTL trajectory language in mathematical detail.

  16. Mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells turn activated macrophages into a regulatory-like profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Maggini

    Full Text Available In recent years it has become clear that the therapeutic properties of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC are related not only to their ability to differentiate into different lineages but also to their capacity to suppress the immune response. We here studied the influence of MSC on macrophage function. Using mouse thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages (M stimulated with LPS, we found that MSC markedly suppressed the production of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-12p70 and interferon-gamma while increased the production of IL-10 and IL-12p40. Similar results were observed using supernatants from MSC suggesting that factor(s constitutively released by MSC are involved. Supporting a role for PGE(2 we observed that acetylsalicylic acid impaired the ability of MSC to inhibit the production of inflammatory cytokines and to stimulate the production of IL-10 by LPS-stimulated M. Moreover, we found that MSC constitutively produce PGE2 at levels able to inhibit the production of TNF-alpha and IL-6 by activated M. MSC also inhibited the up-regulation of CD86 and MHC class II in LPS-stimulated M impairing their ability to activate antigen-specific T CD4+ cells. On the other hand, they stimulated the uptake of apoptotic thymocytes by M. Of note, MSC turned M into cells highly susceptible to infection with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi increasing more than 5-fold the rate of M infection. Using a model of inflammation triggered by s.c. implantation of glass cylinders, we found that MSC stimulated the recruitment of macrophages which showed a low expression of CD86 and the MHC class II molecule Ia(b and a high ability to produce IL-10 and IL-12p40, but not IL-12 p70. In summary, our results suggest that MSC switch M into a regulatory profile characterized by a low ability to produce inflammatory cytokines, a high ability to phagocyte apoptotic cells, and a marked increase in their susceptibility to infection by

  17. Gene expression profiling and secretome analysis differentiate adult-derived human liver stem/progenitor cells and human hepatic stellate cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Berardis

    Full Text Available Adult-derived human liver stem/progenitor cells (ADHLSC are obtained after primary culture of the liver parenchymal fraction. The cells are of fibroblastic morphology and exhibit a hepato-mesenchymal phenotype. Hepatic stellate cells (HSC derived from the liver non-parenchymal fraction, present a comparable morphology as ADHLSC. Because both ADHLSC and HSC are described as liver stem/progenitor cells, we strived to extensively compare both cell populations at different levels and to propose tools demonstrating their singularity. ADHLSC and HSC were isolated from the liver of four different donors, expanded in vitro and followed from passage 5 until passage 11. Cell characterization was performed using immunocytochemistry, western blotting, flow cytometry, and gene microarray analyses. The secretion profile of the cells was evaluated using Elisa and multiplex Luminex assays. Both cell types expressed α-smooth muscle actin, vimentin, fibronectin, CD73 and CD90 in accordance with their mesenchymal origin. Microarray analysis revealed significant differences in gene expression profiles. HSC present high expression levels of neuronal markers as well as cytokeratins. Such differences were confirmed using immunocytochemistry and western blotting assays. Furthermore, both cell types displayed distinct secretion profiles as ADHLSC highly secreted cytokines of therapeutic and immuno-modulatory importance, like HGF, interferon-γ and IL-10. Our study demonstrates that ADHLSC and HSC are distinct liver fibroblastic cell populations exhibiting significant different expression and secretion profiles.

  18. Micro-RNA Profiling of Exosomes from Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Implications in Leukemogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Ramirez, Juliana; Lavoie, Jessie R; Maganti, Harinad B; Stanford, William L; Ito, Caryn; Sabloff, Mitchell; Brand, Marjorie; Rosu-Myles, Michael; Le, Yevgeniya; Allan, David S

    2017-09-16

    Gene regulatory networks in AML may be influenced by microRNAs (miRs) contained in exosomes derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). We sequenced miRs from exosomes isolated from marrow-derived MSCs from patients with AML (n = 3) and from healthy controls (n = 3; not age-matched). Known targets of mIRs that were significantly different in AML-derived MSC exosomes compared to controls were identified. Of the five candidate miRs identified by differential packaging in exosomes, only miR-26a-5p and miR-101-3p were significantly increased in AML-derived samples while miR-23b-5p, miR-339-3p and miR-425-5p were significantly decreased. Validation of the predicted change in gene expression of the potential targets was investigated by interrogating gene expression levels from public datasets of marrow-derived CD34-selected cells from patients with AML (n = 69) and healthy donors (n = 40). Two molecules with decreased gene expression in AML (EZH2 and GSK3β) were predicted by the miR profiling and have been previously implicated in AML while three molecules were increased in AML-derived cells and have not been previously associated with leukemogenesis (KRBA2, RRBP1 and HIST2H 2BE). In summary, profiling miRs in exosomes from AML-derived MSCs allowed us to identify candidate miRs with potential relevance in AML that could yield new insights regarding leukemogenesis or new treatment strategies.

  19. Singular perturbation analysis of AOTV-related trajectory optimization problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calise, Anthony J.; Bae, Gyoung H.

    1990-01-01

    The problem of real time guidance and optimal control of Aeroassisted Orbit Transfer Vehicles (AOTV's) was addressed using singular perturbation theory as an underlying method of analysis. Trajectories were optimized with the objective of minimum energy expenditure in the atmospheric phase of the maneuver. Two major problem areas were addressed: optimal reentry, and synergetic plane change with aeroglide. For the reentry problem, several reduced order models were analyzed with the objective of optimal changes in heading with minimum energy loss. It was demonstrated that a further model order reduction to a single state model is possible through the application of singular perturbation theory. The optimal solution for the reduced problem defines an optimal altitude profile dependent on the current energy level of the vehicle. A separate boundary layer analysis is used to account for altitude and flight path angle dynamics, and to obtain lift and bank angle control solutions. By considering alternative approximations to solve the boundary layer problem, three guidance laws were derived, each having an analytic feedback form. The guidance laws were evaluated using a Maneuvering Reentry Research Vehicle model and all three laws were found to be near optimal. For the problem of synergetic plane change with aeroglide, a difficult terminal boundary layer control problem arises which to date is found to be analytically intractable. Thus a predictive/corrective solution was developed to satisfy the terminal constraints on altitude and flight path angle. A composite guidance solution was obtained by combining the optimal reentry solution with the predictive/corrective guidance method. Numerical comparisons with the corresponding optimal trajectory solutions show that the resulting performance is very close to optimal. An attempt was made to obtain numerically optimized trajectories for the case where heating rate is constrained. A first order state variable inequality

  20. A Novel Semantic Matching Method for Indoor Trajectory Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Guo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of smartphone sensors has provided rich indoor pedestrian trajectory data for indoor location-based applications. To improve the quality of these collected trajectory data, map matching methods are widely used to correct trajectories. However, these existing matching methods usually cannot achieve satisfactory accuracy and efficiency and have difficulty in exploiting the rich information contained in the obtained trajectory data. In this study, we proposed a novel semantic matching method for indoor pedestrian trajectory tracking. Similar to our previous work, pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR and human activity recognition (HAR are used to obtain the raw user trajectory data and the corresponding semantic information involved in the trajectory, respectively. To improve the accuracy and efficiency for user trajectory tracking, a semantic-rich indoor link-node model is then constructed based on the input floor plan, in which navigation-related semantics are extracted and formalized for the following trajectory matching. PDR and HAR are further utilized to segment the trajectory and infer the semantics (e.g., “Turn left”, “Turn right”, and “Go straight”. Finally, the inferred semantic information is matched with the semantic-rich indoor link-node model to derive the correct user trajectory. To accelerate the matching process, the semantics inferred from the trajectory are also assigned weights according to their relative importance. The experiments confirm that the proposed method achieves accurate trajectory tracking results while guaranteeing a high matching efficiency. In addition, the resulting semantic information has great application potential in further indoor location-based services.

  1. Trajectory Evaluation of Rotor-Flying Robots Using Accurate Inverse Computation Based on Algorithm Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqing He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous maneuvering flight control of rotor-flying robots (RFR is a challenging problem due to the highly complicated structure of its model and significant uncertainties regarding many aspects of the field. As a consequence, it is difficult in many cases to decide whether or not a flight maneuver trajectory is feasible. It is necessary to conduct an analysis of the flight maneuvering ability of an RFR prior to test flight. Our aim in this paper is to use a numerical method called algorithm differentiation (AD to solve this problem. The basic idea is to compute the internal state (i.e., attitude angles and angular rates and input profiles based on predetermined maneuvering trajectory information denoted by the outputs (i.e., positions and yaw angle and their higher-order derivatives. For this purpose, we first present a model of the RFR system and show that it is flat. We then cast the procedure for obtaining the required state/input based on the desired outputs as a static optimization problem, which is solved using AD and a derivative based optimization algorithm. Finally, we test our proposed method using a flight maneuver trajectory to verify its performance.

  2. Adaptive Trajectory Prediction Algorithm for Climbing Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Charles Alexander; Thipphavong, David P.; Erzberger, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Aircraft climb trajectories are difficult to predict, and large errors in these predictions reduce the potential operational benefits of some advanced features for NextGen. The algorithm described in this paper improves climb trajectory prediction accuracy by adjusting trajectory predictions based on observed track data. It utilizes rate-of-climb and airspeed measurements derived from position data to dynamically adjust the aircraft weight modeled for trajectory predictions. In simulations with weight uncertainty, the algorithm is able to adapt to within 3 percent of the actual gross weight within two minutes of the initial adaptation. The root-mean-square of altitude errors for five-minute predictions was reduced by 73 percent. Conflict detection performance also improved, with a 15 percent reduction in missed alerts and a 10 percent reduction in false alerts. In a simulation with climb speed capture intent and weight uncertainty, the algorithm improved climb trajectory prediction accuracy by up to 30 percent and conflict detection performance, reducing missed and false alerts by up to 10 percent.

  3. Heterocyclic acetamide and benzamide derivatives as potent and selective beta3-adrenergic receptor agonists with improved rodent pharmacokinetic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Stephen D; Wang, Liping; Howell, K Lulu; Bansal, Alka; Berger, Richard; Brockunier, Linda; DiSalvo, Jerry; Feighner, Scott; Harper, Bart; He, Jiafang; Hurley, Amanda; Hreniuk, Donna; Parmee, Emma; Robbins, Michael; Salituro, Gino; Sanfiz, Anthony; Streckfuss, Eric; Watkins, Eloisa; Weber, Ann E; Struthers, Mary; Edmondson, Scott D

    2010-03-15

    A series of amide derived beta(3)-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists is described. The discovery and optimization of several series of compounds derived from 1, is used to lay the SAR foundation for second generation beta(3)-AR agonists for the treatment of overactive bladder. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Different virus-derived siRNAs profiles between leaves and fruits in Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus-infected Lagenaria siceraria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junmin Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available RNA silencing is an evolutionarily conserved antiviral mechanism, through which virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs playing roles in host antiviral defence are produced in virus-infected plant. Deep sequencing technology has revolutionized the study on the interaction between virus and plant host through the analysis of vsiRNAs profile. However, comparison of vsiRNA profiles in different tissues from a same host plant has been rarely reported. In this study, the profiles of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs from leaves and fruits of Lagenaria siceraria plants infected with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV were comprehensively characterized and compared. Many more vsiRNAs were present in infected leaves than in fruits. vsiRNAs from both leaves and fruits were mostly 21- and 22-nt in size as previously described in other virus-infected plants. Interestingly, vsiRNAs were predominantly produced from the viral positive strand RNAs in infected leaves, whereas in infected fruits they were derived equally from the positive and negative strands. Many leaf-specific positive vsiRNAs with lengths of 21-nt (2,058 or 22-nt (3,996 were identified but only six (21-nt and one (22-nt positive vsiRNAs were found to be specific to fruits. vsiRNAs hotspots were only present in the 5’-terminal and 3’-terminal of viral positive strand in fruits, while multiple hotspots were identified in leaves. Differences in GC content and 5'-terminal nucleotide of vsiRNAs were also observed in the two organs. To our knowledge, this provides the first high-resolution comparison of vsiRNA profiles between different tissues of the same host plant.

  5. Dangers resulting from DNA profiling of biological materials derived from patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT with regard to forensic genetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Jacewicz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study documents the risk that comes with DNA analysis of materials derived from patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT in forensic genetics. DNA chimerism was studied in 30 patients after allo-HSCT, based on techniques applied in contemporary forensic genetics, i.e. real-time PCR and multiplex PCR-STR with the use of autosomal DNA as well as Y-DNA markers. The results revealed that the DNA profile of the recipient’s blood was identical with the donor’s in the majority of cases. Therefore, blood analysis can lead to false conclusions in personal identification as well as kinship analysis. An investigation of buccal swabs revealed a mixture of DNA in the majority of recipients. Consequently, personal identification on the basis of stain analysis of the same origin may be impossible. The safest (but not ideal material turned out to be the hair root. Its analysis based on autosomal DNA revealed 100% of the recipient’s profile. However, an analysis based on Y-chromosome markers performed in female allo-HSCT recipients with male donors demonstrated the presence of donor DNA in hair cells – similarly to the blood and buccal swabs. In the light of potential risks arising from DNA profiling of biological materials derived from persons after allotransplantation in judicial aspects, certain procedures were proposed to eliminate such dangers. The basic procedures include abandoning the approach based exclusively on blood collection, both for kinship analysis and personal identification; asking persons who are to be tested about their history of allo-HSCT before sample collection and profile entry in the DNA database, and verification of DNA profiling based on hair follicles in uncertain cases.

  6. Dangers resulting from DNA profiling of biological materials derived from patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) with regard to forensic genetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacewicz, R; Lewandowski, K; Rupa-Matysek, J; Jędrzejczyk, M; Berent, J

    The study documents the risk that comes with DNA analysis of materials derived from patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in forensic genetics. DNA chimerism was studied in 30 patients after allo-HSCT, based on techniques applied in contemporary forensic genetics, i.e. real-time PCR and multiplex PCR-STR with the use of autosomal DNA as well as Y-DNA markers. The results revealed that the DNA profile of the recipient's blood was identical with the donor's in the majority of cases. Therefore, blood analysis can lead to false conclusions in personal identification as well as kinship analysis. An investigation of buccal swabs revealed a mixture of DNA in the majority of recipients. Consequently, personal identification on the basis of stain analysis of the same origin may be impossible. The safest (but not ideal) material turned out to be the hair root. Its analysis based on autosomal DNA revealed 100% of the recipient's profile. However, an analysis based on Y-chromosome markers performed in female allo-HSCT recipients with male donors demonstrated the presence of donor DNA in hair cells - similarly to the blood and buccal swabs. In the light of potential risks arising from DNA profiling of biological materials derived from persons after allotransplantation in judicial aspects, certain procedures were proposed to eliminate such dangers. The basic procedures include abandoning the approach based exclusively on blood collection, both for kinship analysis and personal identification; asking persons who are to be tested about their history of allo-HSCT before sample collection and profile entry in the DNA database, and verification of DNA profiling based on hair follicles in uncertain cases.

  7. Error in Radar-Derived Soil Moisture due to Roughness Parameterization: An Analysis Based on Synthetical Surface Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, Hans; Vernieuwe, Hilde; Alvarez-Mozos, Jesús; De Baets, Bernard; Verhoest, Niko E C

    2009-01-01

    In the past decades, many studies on soil moisture retrieval from SAR demonstrated a poor correlation between the top layer soil moisture content and observed backscatter coefficients, which mainly has been attributed to difficulties involved in the parameterization of surface roughness. The present paper describes a theoretical study, performed on synthetical surface profiles, which investigates how errors on roughness parameters are introduced by standard measurement techniques, and how they will propagate through the commonly used Integral Equation Model (IEM) into a corresponding soil moisture retrieval error for some of the currently most used SAR configurations. Key aspects influencing the error on the roughness parameterization and consequently on soil moisture retrieval are: the length of the surface profile, the number of profile measurements, the horizontal and vertical accuracy of profile measurements and the removal of trends along profiles. Moreover, it is found that soil moisture retrieval with C-band configuration generally is less sensitive to inaccuracies in roughness parameterization than retrieval with L-band configuration.

  8. Error in Radar-Derived Soil Moisture due to Roughness Parameterization: An Analysis Based on Synthetical Surface Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard De Baets

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, many studies on soil moisture retrieval from SAR demonstrated a poor correlation between the top layer soil moisture content and observed backscatter coefficients, which mainly has been attributed to difficulties involved in the parameterization of surface roughness. The present paper describes a theoretical study, performed on synthetical surface profiles, which investigates how errors on roughness parameters are introduced by standard measurement techniques, and how they will propagate through the commonly used Integral Equation Model (IEM into a corresponding soil moisture retrieval error for some of the currently most used SAR configurations. Key aspects influencing the error on the roughness parameterization and consequently on soil moisture retrieval are: the length of the surface profile, the number of profile measurements, the horizontal and vertical accuracy of profile measurements and the removal of trends along profiles. Moreover, it is found that soil moisture retrieval with C-band configuration generally is less sensitive to inaccuracies in roughness parameterization than retrieval with L-band configuration.

  9. Molecular and stimulus-response profiles illustrate heterogeneity between peripheral and cord blood-derived human mast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina M; Frandsen, Pernille; Raaby, Ellen Margrethe Nedergaard

    2014-01-01

    functionality. Mast cells were obtained from three culture protocols using two types of PBdMCs (CD34(+) PBdMC or CD133(+) PBdMC) and one type of CBdMC (CD133(+) CBdMC). We analyzed resting cells for specific mast cell markers at protein and mRNA levels, thereby creating a molecular profile. To characterize...... the SR profile, we stimulated cells with anti-IgE, C3a, C5a, Substance P, or Compound 48/80 and measured the release of histamine and cytokines (IL-10, IL-13, GM-CSF, TNF-α). Molecular profiling revealed that CD133(+) CBdMC expressed less chymase, FcεRIα, and CD203c but more CD117 compared with CD34...

  10. Atmospheric temperature profiles derived through the inversion of a system of first order differential equations. [radiance data from satellite sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatlin, J. A.; Englar, T. S.

    1976-01-01

    Generation of vertical temperatures profiles from remotely sensed atmospheric radiance data is described as an analogous communications system. The radiative transport characteristics of the atmosphere encodes the continuous temperature profile into an 'n' element vector where 'n' is the number of channels in the satellite instrument. The temperature profile is a message transmitted from station A to station B and the link is the satellite instrument. At station B the decoder reproduces a continuous function which is the best estimate of the message encoded at station A. It is shown that the decoder must operate in a tuned mode where the parameters used in the encoder precisely determine the decoder parameters, and that the characteristics of the total message block must be given by a set of decoder constraints

  11. Cell Line Derived 5-FU and Irinotecan Drug-Sensitivity Profiles Evaluated in Adjuvant Colon Cancer Trial Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Ida Kappel; Gerster, Sarah; Delorenzi, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    patients enrolled in the PETACC-3 prospective randomized clinical trial. A 5-FU profile developed similarly was assessed by comparing the PETACC-3 cohort with a cohort of 359 stage II colon cancer patients who underwent surgery but received no adjuvant therapy. RESULTS: There was no statistically...... patients who benefitted from the addition of irinotecan to 5-FU, we used gene expression profiles based on cell lines and clinical tumor material. These profiles were applied to expression data obtained from pretreatment formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tumor tissue from 636 stage III colon cancer...... to identify colon cancer patients who may benefit from 5-FU, however, any biomarker predicting benefit for adjuvant 5-FU must be rigorously evaluated in independent cohorts. Given differences between the two study cohorts, the present results should be further validated....

  12. Tracing developmental trajectories of oppositional defiant behaviors in preschool children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Ezpeleta

    Full Text Available Previous studies on developmental trajectories have used ad hoc definitions of oppositional defiant behaviors (ODB, which makes it difficult to compare results. This article defines developmental trajectories of ODB from ages 3-5 based on five different standard measurements derived from three separate instruments.A sample of 622 three-year-old preschoolers, followed up at ages 4, 5, and 6, was assessed with the five measures of oppositionality answered by parents and teachers. Growth-Mixture-Modeling (GMM estimated separate developmental trajectories for each ODB measure for ages 3 to 5.The number of classes-trajectories obtained in each GMM depended on the ODB measure, but two clear patterns emerged: four trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers, persistent moderate/persistent high or three trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers. Persistent high trajectories accounted for 4.4%-9.5% of the children. The trajectories emerging from the different ODB measures at ages 3 to 5 discriminated disruptive disorders, comorbidity, use of services, and impairment at age 6, and globally showed a similar pattern, summarizing longitudinal information on oppositionality in preschool children in a similar way.Trajectories resulting from standard scales of the questionnaires have predictive validity for identifying relevant clinical outcomes, but are measure-specific. The results contribute to knowledge about the development of ODB in preschool children.

  13. Tracing developmental trajectories of oppositional defiant behaviors in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Núria; Navarro, José Blas; Penelo, Eva; Domènech, Josep M

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on developmental trajectories have used ad hoc definitions of oppositional defiant behaviors (ODB), which makes it difficult to compare results. This article defines developmental trajectories of ODB from ages 3-5 based on five different standard measurements derived from three separate instruments. A sample of 622 three-year-old preschoolers, followed up at ages 4, 5, and 6, was assessed with the five measures of oppositionality answered by parents and teachers. Growth-Mixture-Modeling (GMM) estimated separate developmental trajectories for each ODB measure for ages 3 to 5. The number of classes-trajectories obtained in each GMM depended on the ODB measure, but two clear patterns emerged: four trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers, persistent moderate/persistent high) or three trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers). Persistent high trajectories accounted for 4.4%-9.5% of the children. The trajectories emerging from the different ODB measures at ages 3 to 5 discriminated disruptive disorders, comorbidity, use of services, and impairment at age 6, and globally showed a similar pattern, summarizing longitudinal information on oppositionality in preschool children in a similar way. Trajectories resulting from standard scales of the questionnaires have predictive validity for identifying relevant clinical outcomes, but are measure-specific. The results contribute to knowledge about the development of ODB in preschool children.

  14. Adjustment of Cell-Type Composition Minimizes Systematic Bias in Blood DNA Methylation Profiles Derived by DNA Collection Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiwa, Yuh; Hachiya, Tsuyoshi; Furukawa, Ryohei; Ohmomo, Hideki; Ono, Kanako; Kudo, Hisaaki; Hata, Jun; Hozawa, Atsushi; Iwasaki, Motoki; Matsuda, Koichi; Minegishi, Naoko; Satoh, Mamoru; Tanno, Kozo; Yamaji, Taiki; Wakai, Kenji; Hitomi, Jiro; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Sobue, Kenji; Shimizu, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Differences in DNA collection protocols may be a potential confounder in epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) using a large number of blood specimens from multiple biobanks and/or cohorts. Here we show that pre-analytical procedures involved in DNA collection can induce systematic bias in the DNA methylation profiles of blood cells that can be adjusted by cell-type composition variables. In Experiment 1, whole blood from 16 volunteers was collected to examine the effect of a 24 h storage period at 4°C on DNA methylation profiles as measured using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Our statistical analysis showed that the P-value distribution of more than 450,000 CpG sites was similar to the theoretical distribution (in quantile-quantile plot, λ = 1.03) when comparing two control replicates, which was remarkably deviated from the theoretical distribution (λ = 1.50) when comparing control and storage conditions. We then considered cell-type composition as a possible cause of the observed bias in DNA methylation profiles and found that the bias associated with the cold storage condition was largely decreased (λ adjusted = 1.14) by taking into account a cell-type composition variable. As such, we compared four respective sample collection protocols used in large-scale Japanese biobanks or cohorts as well as two control replicates. Systematic biases in DNA methylation profiles were observed between control and three of four protocols without adjustment of cell-type composition (λ = 1.12-1.45) and no remarkable biases were seen after adjusting for cell-type composition in all four protocols (λ adjusted = 1.00-1.17). These results revealed important implications for comparing DNA methylation profiles between blood specimens from different sources and may lead to discovery of disease-associated DNA methylation markers and the development of DNA methylation profile-based predictive risk models.

  15. Trajectory grouping structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike Buchin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The collective motion of a set of moving entities like people, birds, or other animals, is characterized by groups arising, merging, splitting, and ending. Given the trajectories of these entities, we define and model a structure that captures all of such changes using the Reeb graph, a concept from topology. The trajectory grouping structure has three natural parameters that allow more global views of the data in group size, group duration, and entity inter-distance. We prove complexity bounds on the maximum number of maximal groups that can be present, and give algorithms to compute the grouping structure efficiently. We also study how the trajectory grouping structure can be made robust, that is, how brief interruptions of groups can be disregarded in the global structure, adding a notion of persistence to the structure. Furthermore, we showcase the results of experiments using data generated by the NetLogo flocking model and from the Starkey project. The Starkey data describe the movement of elk, deer, and cattle. Although there is no ground truth for the grouping structure in this data, the experiments show that the trajectory grouping structure is plausible and has the desired effects when changing the essential parameters. Our research provides the first complete study of trajectory group evolvement, including combinatorial,algorithmic, and experimental results.

  16. Clustering vessel trajectories with alignment kernels under trajectory compression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, G.; van Someren, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we apply a selection of alignment measures, such as dynamic time warping and edit distance, to the problem of clustering vessel trajectories. Vessel trajectories are an example of moving object trajectories, which have recently become an important research topic. The alignment measures

  17. Proteome profiling of neuroblastoma-derived exosomes reveal the expression of proteins potentially involved in tumor progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Marimpietri

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma (NB is the most common extracranial solid tumor in childhood, with grim prognosis in a half of patients. Exosomes are nanometer-sized membrane vesicles derived from the multivesicular bodies (MVBs of the endocytic pathway and released by normal and neoplastic cells. Tumor-derived exosomes have been shown in different model systems to carry molecules that promote cancer growth and dissemination. In this respect, we have here performed the first characterization and proteomic analysis of exosomes isolated from human NB cell lines by filtration and ultracentrifugation. Electron microscopy demonstrated that NB-derived exosomes exhibited the characteristic cup-shaped morphology. Dynamic light scattering studies showed a bell-shaped curve and a polydispersity factor consistent with those of exosomes. Zeta potential values suggested a good nanoparticle stability. We performed proteomic analysis of NB-derived exosomes by two dimension liquid chromatography separation and mass spectrometry analyses using the multidimensional protein identification technology strategy. We found that the large majority of the proteins identified in NB derived exosomes are present in Exocarta database including tetraspanins, fibronectin, heat shock proteins, MVB proteins, cytoskeleton-related proteins, prominin-1 (CD133, basigin (CD147 and B7-H3 (CD276. Expression of the CD9, CD63 and CD81 tetraspanins, fibronectin, CD133, CD147 and CD276 was validated by flow cytometry. Noteworthy, flow cytometric analysis showed that NB-derived exosomes expressed the GD2 disialoganglioside, the most specific marker of NB. In conclusion, this study shows that NB-derived exosomes express a discrete set of molecules involved in defense response, cell differentiation, cell proliferation and regulation of other important biological process. Thus, NB-derived exosomes may play an important role in the modulation of tumor microenvironment and represent potential tumor biomarkers.

  18. Latent Heating Profiles Derived from ARM Radar Observations in MC3E and GoAmazon Field Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Q.; Li, R.; Mu, Z.; Giangrande, S. E.; Wang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Atmosphere latent heating (LH) is released through water phase change processes in the atmosphere. There is a physical connection between LH rate and updraft velocity (ω) inside clouds. In this study, we develop a new LH algorithm based on a quantified LH-ω relationship found in cloud resolving model (CRM) simulations. The self-consistency check with CRM simulations shows that the retrievals correctly replicate the main features of LH profiles, including their total and individual components (i.e. condensation-evaporation heating rate, deposition-sublimation heating rate, and freezing-melting heating rate). Further, the algorithm is applied to real cases from the DOE-ARM MC3E and GoAmazon2014/6 Field Campaigns using available UHF (915 and 1290 MHz) zenith radar retrievals of vertical velocity and rain rate as input. The retrieved LH profiles in the deep convective rains show positive heating throughout the column, the LH profiles in the stratiform rains with well-defined bright-band showing clear dipole patterns with positive heating above and negative cooling below the freezing level. The altitudes of maximum heating in the widespread stratiform regimes are clearly higher than those found within deep convective regions. Overall, these Latent heating rate profiles, as an important geophysical quantity of interest, can provide useful climate diagnostic data, and ultimately, constraints for model-based analyses of large-scale heating distributions.

  19. The effect of enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain(R)) on gene expression profiles of human primary alveolar bone cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, X.Z.; Rathe, F.; Gilissen, C.; Zande, M. van der; Veltman, J.; Junker, R.; Yang, F.; Jansen, J.A.; Walboomers, X.F.

    2014-01-01

    Emdogain(R) is frequently used in regenerative periodontal treatment. Understanding its effect on gene expression of bone cells would enable new products and pathways promoting bone formation to be established. The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of Emdogain(R) on expression profiles of

  20. MicroRNA expression profiles of human iPS cells, retinal pigment epithelium derived from iPS, and fetal retinal pigment epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Whitney A; Muñiz, Alberto; Plamper, Mark L; Kaini, Ramesh R; Wang, Heuy-Ching

    2014-06-24

    The objective of this report is to describe the protocols for comparing the microRNA (miRNA) profiles of human induced-pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) derived from human iPS cells (iPS-RPE), and fetal RPE. The protocols include collection of RNA for analysis by microarray, and the analysis of microarray data to identify miRNAs that are differentially expressed among three cell types. The methods for culture of iPS cells and fetal RPE are explained. The protocol used for differentiation of RPE from human iPS is also described. The RNA extraction technique we describe was selected to allow maximal recovery of very small RNA for use in a miRNA microarray. Finally, cellular pathway and network analysis of microarray data is explained. These techniques will facilitate the comparison of the miRNA profiles of three different cell types.

  1. Analysis of trajectory entropy for continuous stochastic processes at equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Kevin R; Yang, Haw; Chu, Jhih-Wei

    2014-07-17

    The analytical expression for the trajectory entropy of the overdamped Langevin equation is derived via two approaches. The first route goes through the Fokker-Planck equation that governs the propagation of the conditional probability density, while the second method goes through the path integral of the Onsager-Machlup action. The agreement of these two approaches in the continuum limit underscores the equivalence between the partial differential equation and the path integral formulations for stochastic processes in the context of trajectory entropy. The values obtained using the analytical expression are also compared with those calculated with numerical solutions for arbitrary time resolutions of the trajectory. Quantitative agreement is clearly observed consistently across different models as the time interval between snapshots in the trajectories decreases. Furthermore, analysis of different scenarios illustrates how the deterministic and stochastic forces in the Langevin equation contribute to the variation in dynamics measured by the trajectory entropy.

  2. Modified ribosome profiling reveals high abundance of ribosome protected mRNA fragments derived from 3' untranslated regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Teemu P; Björklund, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Ribosome profiling identifies ribosome positions on translated mRNAs. A prominent feature of published datasets is the near complete absence of ribosomes in 3' untranslated regions (3'UTR) although substantial ribosome density can be observed on non-coding RNAs. Here we perform ribosome profiling in cultured Drosophila and human cells and show that different features of translation are revealed depending on the nuclease and the digestion conditions used. Most importantly, we observe high abundance of ribosome protected fragments in 3'UTRs of thousands of genes without manipulation of translation termination. Affinity purification of ribosomes indicates that the 3'UTR reads originate from ribosome protected fragments. Association of ribosomes with the 3'UTR may be due to ribosome migration through the stop codon or 3'UTR mRNA binding to ribosomes on the coding sequence. This association depends primarily on the relative length of the 3'UTR and may be related to translational regulation or ribosome recycling, for which the efficiency is known to inversely correlate with 3'UTR length. Together our results indicate that ribosome profiling is highly dependent on digestion conditions and that ribosomes commonly associate with the 3'UTR, which may have a role in translational regulation. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. Modified ribosome profiling reveals high abundance of ribosome protected mRNA fragments derived from 3′ untranslated regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Teemu P.; Björklund, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Ribosome profiling identifies ribosome positions on translated mRNAs. A prominent feature of published datasets is the near complete absence of ribosomes in 3′ untranslated regions (3′UTR) although substantial ribosome density can be observed on non-coding RNAs. Here we perform ribosome profiling in cultured Drosophila and human cells and show that different features of translation are revealed depending on the nuclease and the digestion conditions used. Most importantly, we observe high abundance of ribosome protected fragments in 3′UTRs of thousands of genes without manipulation of translation termination. Affinity purification of ribosomes indicates that the 3′UTR reads originate from ribosome protected fragments. Association of ribosomes with the 3′UTR may be due to ribosome migration through the stop codon or 3′UTR mRNA binding to ribosomes on the coding sequence. This association depends primarily on the relative length of the 3′UTR and may be related to translational regulation or ribosome recycling, for which the efficiency is known to inversely correlate with 3′UTR length. Together our results indicate that ribosome profiling is highly dependent on digestion conditions and that ribosomes commonly associate with the 3′UTR, which may have a role in translational regulation. PMID:25550424

  4. Molecular and behavioral profiling of Dbx1-derived neurons in the arcuate, lateral and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Katie; Tran, Tuyen; Esumi, Shigeyuki; Kamal, Yasmin; Oboti, Livio; Lischinsky, Julieta; Goodrich, Meredith; Lam, Andrew; Carter, Margaret; Nakagawa, Yasushi; Corbin, Joshua G

    2016-05-21

    Neurons in the hypothalamus function to regulate the state of the animal during both learned and innate behaviors, and alterations in hypothalamic development may contribute to pathological conditions such as anxiety, depression or obesity. Despite many studies of hypothalamic development and function, the link between embryonic development and innate behaviors remains unexplored. Here, focusing on the embryonically expressed homeodomain-containing gene Developing Brain Homeobox 1 (Dbx1), we explored the relationship between embryonic lineage, post-natal neuronal identity and lineage-specific responses to innate cues. We found that Dbx1 is widely expressed across multiple developing hypothalamic subdomains. Using standard and inducible fate-mapping to trace the Dbx1-derived neurons, we identified their contribution to specific neuronal subtypes across hypothalamic nuclei and further mapped their activation patterns in response to a series of well-defined innate behaviors. Dbx1-derived neurons occupy multiple postnatal hypothalamic nuclei including the lateral hypothalamus (LH), arcuate nucleus (Arc) and the ventral medial hypothalamus (VMH). Within these nuclei, Dbx1 (+) progenitors generate a large proportion of the Pmch-, Nesfatin-, Cart-, Hcrt-, Agrp- and ERα-expressing neuronal populations, and to a lesser extent the Pomc-, TH- and Aromatase-expressing populations. Inducible fate-mapping reveals distinct temporal windows for development of the Dbx1-derived LH and Arc populations, with Agrp(+) and Cart(+) populations in the Arc arising early (E7.5-E9.5), while Pmch(+) and Hcrt(+) populations in the LH derived from progenitors expressing Dbx1 later (E9.5-E11.5). Moreover, as revealed by c-Fos labeling, Dbx1-derived cells in male and female LH, Arc and VMH are responsive during mating and aggression. In contrast, Dbx1-lineage cells in the Arc and LH have a broader behavioral tuning, which includes responding to fasting and predator odor cues. We define a novel

  5. Comparison of microRNA expression profiles in K562-cells-derived microvesicles and parental cells, and analysis of their roles in leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaomei; Xiong, Wei; Li, Huiyu

    2016-12-01

    Microvesicles (MVs) are 30-1,000-nm extracellular vesicles that are released from a multitude of cell types and perform diverse cellular functions, including intercellular communication, antigen presentation, and transfer of proteins, messenger RNA and microRNA (also known as miR). MicroRNAs have been demonstrated to be aberrantly expressed in leukemia, and the overall microRNA expression profile may differentiate normal blood cells vs. leukemia cells. MVs containing microRNAs may enable intercellular cross-talk in vivo. This prompted us to investigate specific variations of microRNA expression patterns in MVs derived from leukemia cells. The present study examined the microRNA expression profile of MVs from chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells and that of MVs from normal human volunteers' peripheral blood cells. The potential targets of the differentially expressed microRNAs were predicted using computational searches. Bioinformatic analyses of the predicted target genes were performed for further evaluation. The present study analyzed microRNAs of MVs derived from leukemia and normal cells, and characterized specific microRNAs expression. The results revealed that MVs derived from K562 cells expressed 181 microRNAs of the 888 microRNAs assessed. Further analysis revealed that 16 microRNAs were downregulated, while 7 were upregulated in these MVs. In addition, significant differences in microRNA expression profiles between MVs derived from K562 cells and K562 cells were identified. The present results revealed that 77 and 122 microRNAs were only expressed in MVs derived from K562 cells and in K562 cells, respectively. There were 104 microRNAs co-expressed in MVs derived from K562 cells and in K562 cells. Target gene-related pathway analyses demonstrated that the majority of the dysregulated microRNAs were involved in pathways associated with leukemia, particularly the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the p53 signaling pathways. By further conducting

  6. UAV Trajectory Modeling Using Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Min

    2017-01-01

    Large amount of small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (sUAVs) are projected to operate in the near future. Potential sUAV applications include, but not limited to, search and rescue, inspection and surveillance, aerial photography and video, precision agriculture, and parcel delivery. sUAVs are expected to operate in the uncontrolled Class G airspace, which is at or below 500 feet above ground level (AGL), where many static and dynamic constraints exist, such as ground properties and terrains, restricted areas, various winds, manned helicopters, and conflict avoidance among sUAVs. How to enable safe, efficient, and massive sUAV operations at the low altitude airspace remains a great challenge. NASA's Unmanned aircraft system Traffic Management (UTM) research initiative works on establishing infrastructure and developing policies, requirement, and rules to enable safe and efficient sUAVs' operations. To achieve this goal, it is important to gain insights of future UTM traffic operations through simulations, where the accurate trajectory model plays an extremely important role. On the other hand, like what happens in current aviation development, trajectory modeling should also serve as the foundation for any advanced concepts and tools in UTM. Accurate models of sUAV dynamics and control systems are very important considering the requirement of the meter level precision in UTM operations. The vehicle dynamics are relatively easy to derive and model, however, vehicle control systems remain unknown as they are usually kept by manufactures as a part of intellectual properties. That brings challenges to trajectory modeling for sUAVs. How to model the vehicle's trajectories with unknown control system? This work proposes to use a neural network to model a vehicle's trajectory. The neural network is first trained to learn the vehicle's responses at numerous conditions. Once being fully trained, given current vehicle states, winds, and desired future trajectory, the neural

  7. Validation of CALIPSO space-borne-derived attenuated backscatter coefficient profiles using a ground-based lidar in Athens, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Mamouri

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We present initial aerosol validation results of the space-borne lidar CALIOP -onboard the CALIPSO satellite- Level 1 attenuated backscatter coefficient profiles, using coincident observations performed with a ground-based lidar in Athens, Greece (37.9° N, 23.6° E. A multi-wavelength ground-based backscatter/Raman lidar system is operating since 2000 at the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA in the framework of the European Aerosol Research LIdar NETwork (EARLINET, the first lidar network for tropospheric aerosol studies on a continental scale. Since July 2006, a total of 40 coincidental aerosol ground-based lidar measurements were performed over Athens during CALIPSO overpasses. The ground-based measurements were performed each time CALIPSO overpasses the station location within a maximum distance of 100 km. The duration of the ground–based lidar measurements was approximately two hours, centred on the satellite overpass time. From the analysis of the ground-based/satellite correlative lidar measurements, a mean bias of the order of 22% for daytime measurements and of 8% for nighttime measurements with respect to the CALIPSO profiles was found for altitudes between 3 and 10 km. The mean bias becomes much larger for altitudes lower that 3 km (of the order of 60% which is attributed to the increase of aerosol horizontal inhomogeneity within the Planetary Boundary Layer, resulting to the observation of possibly different air masses by the two instruments. In cases of aerosol layers underlying Cirrus clouds, comparison results for aerosol tropospheric profiles become worse. This is attributed to the significant multiple scattering effects in Cirrus clouds experienced by CALIPSO which result in an attenuation which is less than that measured by the ground-based lidar.

  8. Generation of Microtumors Using 3D Human Biogel Culture System and Patient-derived Glioblastoma Cells for Kinomic Profiling and Drug Response Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Ashley N; Shevin, Rachael S; Anderson, Joshua C; Langford, Catherine P; Eustace, Nicholas; Gillespie, G Yancey; Singh, Raj; Willey, Christopher D

    2016-06-09

    The use of patient-derived xenografts for modeling cancers has provided important insight into cancer biology and drug responsiveness. However, they are time consuming, expensive, and labor intensive. To overcome these obstacles, many research groups have turned to spheroid cultures of cancer cells. While useful, tumor spheroids or aggregates do not replicate cell-matrix interactions as found in vivo. As such, three-dimensional (3D) culture approaches utilizing an extracellular matrix scaffold provide a more realistic model system for investigation. Starting from subcutaneous or intracranial xenografts, tumor tissue is dissociated into a single cell suspension akin to cancer stem cell neurospheres. These cells are then embedded into a human-derived extracellular matrix, 3D human biogel, to generate a large number of microtumors. Interestingly, microtumors can be cultured for about a month with high viability and can be used for drug response testing using standard cytotoxicity assays such as 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and live cell imaging using Calcein-AM. Moreover, they can be analyzed via immunohistochemistry or harvested for molecular profiling, such as array-based high-throughput kinomic profiling, which is detailed here as well. 3D microtumors, thus, represent a versatile high-throughput model system that can more closely replicate in vivo tumor biology than traditional approaches.

  9. Weight Trajectories of Israeli Pediatric Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Marilyn; Bachar, Eytan; Ronen Ackerman, Eyal; Rancourt, Diana; Bonne, Omer; Weintraub, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Cross-national replication of the high rates of overweight/obesity among U.S. pediatric cancer survivors (PCS) is limited. Predictors of weight trajectories of Israeli PCS were examined from diagnosis and end of active cancer treatment to 3 years posttreatment. World Health Organization-derived body mass index (z-BMI) values were calculated at each time point from medical records of 135 Israeli PCS ( M diagnosis age = 11.4). A three-section piecewise multilevel model including age, ethnicity, gender, treatment length, and diagnosis as predictors was used to estimate z-BMI trajectories. Most participants remained at a healthy weight at all time points. Differing weight trajectories emerged for PCS diagnosed with lymphoma/leukemia versus other cancer diagnoses from diagnosis to end of treatment, but similar weight change patterns were observed posttreatment. Replication of U.S. PCS weight trajectories was not observed in Israeli PCS, suggesting the importance of exploring environmental risk factors contributing to obesity among PCS.

  10. Two-year course trajectories of anxiety disorders: do DSM classifications matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batelaan, Neeltje M; Rhebergen, Didi; Spinhoven, Philip; van Balkom, Anton J; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2014-09-01

    Anxiety disorders have been shown to differ in their course, but it is unknown whether DSM-categories represent clinically relevant course trajectories. We aim to identify anxiety course trajectories using a data-driven method and to examine whether these course trajectories correspond to DSM-categories or whether other clinical indicators better differentiate them. 907 patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia, panic disorder without agoraphobia , agoraphobia, social phobia, or generalized anxiety disorder according to DSM-IV criteria were derived from a prospective cohort study (Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety). Baseline data were collected between September 2004 and February 2007; follow-up data, between October 2006 and March 2009. Latent class growth analysis was conducted, based on symptoms of anxiety and avoidance assessed with the Life Chart Interview covering a 2-year time period. Identified course trajectories were compared with DSM-IV diagnoses and a wider set of predictors. We identified a class with minimal symptoms over time (41.7%), a moderately severe chronic class (42.8%), and a severe chronic class (15.4%). Panic disorder with agoraphobia (OR = 2.14; 95% CI, 1.48-3.09) and social phobia (OR = 1.97; 95% CI, 1.46-2.68) predicted moderately severe chronicity; panic disorder with agoraphobia (OR = 2.70; 95% CI, 1.66-4.40), social phobia (OR = 2.46; 95% CI, 1.62-3.74), and generalized anxiety disorder (OR = 1.86; 95% CI, 1.23-2.82) predicted a severe chronic course. However, baseline severity, duration of anxiety, and disability better predicted severe chronic course trajectories than DSM-categories. Additionally, partner status, age at onset, childhood trauma, and comorbid depressive disorder predicted chronic courses. Course of anxiety was pleomorphic with over 40% having a favorable course, thereby questioning the common notion of chronicity of anxiety disorders. Severity, duration of anxiety, and disability were able to better

  11. Tracing developmental trajectories of oppositional defiant behaviors in preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Lourdes Ezpeleta; Roser Granero; Núria de la Osa; José Blas Navarro; Eva Penelo; Domènech, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies on developmental trajectories have used ad hoc definitions of oppositional defiant behaviors (ODB), which makes it difficult to compare results. This article defines developmental trajectories of ODB from ages 3–5 based on five different standard measurements derived from three separate instruments. -- Method: A sample of 622 three-year-old preschoolers, followed up at ages 4, 5, and 6, was assessed with the five measures of oppositionality answered by parents and ...

  12. Exome-wide Mutation Profile in Benzo[a]pyrene-derived Post-stasis and Immortal Human Mammary Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severson, Paul L.; Vrba, Lukas; Stampfer, Martha R.; Futscher, Bernard W.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic mutations are known to drive cancer progression and certain tumors have mutation signatures that reflect exposures to environmental carcinogens. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) has a known mutation signature and has proven capable of inducing changes to DNA sequence that drives normal pre-stasis human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) past a first tumor suppressor barrier (stasis) and towards immortality. We analyzed normal, pre-stasis HMEC, three independent BaP-derived post-stasis HMEC strains (184Aa, 184Be, 184Ce) and two of their immortal derivatives(184A1 and 184BE1) by whole exome sequencing. The independent post-stasis strains exhibited between 93 and 233 BaP-induced mutations in exons. Seventy percent of the mutations were C:G>A:T transversions, consistent with the known mutation spectrum of BaP. Mutations predicted to impact protein function occurred in several known and putative cancer drivers including p16, PLCG1, MED12, TAF1 in 184Aa; PIK3CG, HSP90AB1, WHSC1L1, LCP1 in 184Be and FANCA, LPP in 184Ce. Biological processes that typically harbor cancer driver mutations such as cell cycle, regulation of cell death and proliferation, RNA processing, chromatin modification and DNA repair were found to have mutations predicted to impact function in each of the post-stasis strains. Spontaneously immortalized HMEC lines derived from two of the BaP-derived post-stasis strains shared greater than 95% of their BaP-induced mutations with their precursor cells. These immortal HMEC had 10 or fewer additional point mutations relative to their post-stasis precursors, but acquired chromosomal anomalies during immortalization that arose independent of BaP. The results of this study indicate that acute exposures of HMEC to high dose BaP recapitulate mutation patterns of human tumors and can induce mutations in a number of cancer driver genes. PMID:25435355

  13. Aerosol extinction profiles at 525 nm and 1020 nm derived from ACE imager data: comparisons with GOMOS, SAGE II, SAGE III, POAM III, and OSIRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Vanhellemont

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian ACE (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment mission is dedicated to the retrieval of a large number of atmospheric trace gas species using the solar occultation technique in the infrared and UV/visible spectral domain. However, two additional solar disk imagers (at 525 nm and 1020 nm were added for a number of reasons, including the retrieval of aerosol and cloud products. In this paper, we present first comparison results for these imager aerosol/cloud optical extinction coefficient profiles, with the ones derived from measurements performed by 3 solar occultation instruments (SAGE II, SAGE III, POAM III, one stellar occultation instrument (GOMOS and one limb sounder (OSIRIS. The results indicate that the ACE imager profiles are of good quality in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere, although the aerosol extinction for the visible channel at 525 nm contains a significant negative bias at higher altitudes, while the relative differences indicate that ACE profiles are almost always too high at 1020 nm. Both problems are probably related to ACE imager instrumental issues.

  14. Energy methods for hypersonic trajectory optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Han-Chang

    A family of near-optimal guidance laws for the ascent and descent trajectories between earth surface and earth orbit of fully reusable single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicles is derived. Of interest are both the optimal operation of the propulsion system and the optimal flight path. The method is based on selecting propulsion system modes and flight-path parameters that maximize a certain performance function. This function is derived from consideration of the energy-state model of the aircraft equations of motion. For ascent trajectories of vehicles employing hydrogen fuel, because the density of liquid hydrogen is relatively low, the sensitivity to perturbations in volume needs to be taken into consideration as well as weight sensitivity. The cost functional is then a weighted sum of fuel mass and volume; the weighting factor is chosen to minimize vehicle empty weight for a given payload mass and volume in orbit. Both airbreathing/rocket and all rocket propulsion systems are considered. For airbreathing/rocket vehicles, the optimal propulsion switching Mach numbers are determined and the use of liquid oxygen augmentation is investigated. For the vehicles with all rocket power, the desirability of tripropellant systems is investigated. In addition, time and heat load is minimized as well. For descent trajectories, the trade-off between minimizing heat load into the vehicle and maximizing cross range distance is investigated, as well as minimum time and minimum temperature paths. The results show that the optimization methodology can be used to derive a wide variety of near-optimal launch vehicle trajectories.

  15. Gene Expression Profiling and Pathway Network Analysis Predicts a Novel Antitumor Function for a Botanical-Derived Drug, PG2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lun Kuo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available PG2 is a botanical drug that is mostly composed of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS. Its role in hematopoiesis and relieving cancer-related fatigue has recently been clinically investigated in cancer patients. However, systematic analyses of its functions are still limited. The aim of this study was to use microarray-based expression profiling to evaluate the quality and consistency of PG2 from three different product batches and to study biological mechanisms of PG2. An integrative molecular analysis approach has been designed to examine significant PG2-induced signatures in HL-60 leukemia cells. A quantitative analysis of gene expression signatures was conducted for PG2 by hierarchical clustering of correlation coefficients. The results showed that PG2 product batches were consistent and of high quality. These batches were also functionally equivalent to each other with regard to how they modulated the immune and hematopoietic systems. Within the PG2 signature, there were five genes associated with doxorubicin: IL-8, MDM4, BCL2, PRODH2, and BIRC5. Moreover, the combination of PG2 and doxorubicin had a synergistic effect on induced cell death in HL-60 cells. Together with the bioinformatics-based approach, gene expression profiling provided a quantitative measurement for the quality and consistency of herbal medicines and revealed new roles (e.g., immune modulation for PG2 in cancer treatment.

  16. Trajectory Optimization: OTIS 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, John P.; Sjauw, Waldy K.; Falck, Robert D.; Paris, Stephen W.

    2010-01-01

    The latest release of the Optimal Trajectories by Implicit Simulation (OTIS4) allows users to simulate and optimize aerospace vehicle trajectories. With OTIS4, one can seamlessly generate optimal trajectories and parametric vehicle designs simultaneously. New features also allow OTIS4 to solve non-aerospace continuous time optimal control problems. The inputs and outputs of OTIS4 have been updated extensively from previous versions. Inputs now make use of objectoriented constructs, including one called a metastring. Metastrings use a greatly improved calculator and common nomenclature to reduce the user s workload. They allow for more flexibility in specifying vehicle physical models, boundary conditions, and path constraints. The OTIS4 calculator supports common mathematical functions, Boolean operations, and conditional statements. This allows users to define their own variables for use as outputs, constraints, or objective functions. The user-defined outputs can directly interface with other programs, such as spreadsheets, plotting packages, and visualization programs. Internally, OTIS4 has more explicit and implicit integration procedures, including high-order collocation methods, the pseudo-spectral method, and several variations of multiple shooting. Users may switch easily between the various methods. Several unique numerical techniques such as automated variable scaling and implicit integration grid refinement, support the integration methods. OTIS4 is also significantly more user friendly than previous versions. The installation process is nearly identical on various platforms, including Microsoft Windows, Apple OS X, and Linux operating systems. Cross-platform scripts also help make the execution of OTIS and post-processing of data easier. OTIS4 is supplied free by NASA and is subject to ITAR (International Traffic in Arms Regulations) restrictions. Users must have a Fortran compiler, and a Python interpreter is highly recommended.

  17. Going Ballistic: Bullet Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Wade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This project seeks to answer at what angle does a gun marksman have to aim in order to hit the center of a target one meter off the ground and 1000 meters away? We begin by modeling the bullet's trajectory using Euler's method with the help of a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet solver, and then systematically search for the angle corresponding to the center of the target. It was found that a marksman shooting a target 1000 meters away and 1 meter off the ground has to aim the rifle 0.436° above horizontal to hit the center.

  18. Functional Profiles of Human Umbilical Cord-Derived Adult Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Obese/Diabetic Versus Healthy Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanucci, Pia; Pescara, Teresa; Pennoni, Ilaria; Alunno, Alessia; Bistoni, Onelia; Torlone, Elisabetta; Luca, Giovanni; Gerli, Roberto; Basta, Giuseppe; Calafiore, Riccardo

    2016-06-28

    Adult human mesenchymal stem cells retrieved, from the post-partum human umbilical cord Wharton jelly (hUCMS), have recently gained growing interest due to their morphological and functional properties. The main purpose of our work was to examine morphology and functional properties of hUCMS retrieved from healthy women as compared to those with obesity, or gestational or type 2 diabetes mellitus, under fair metabolic control. Possible differences between groups could shed light into the potential use of these cells for the cell therapy of a variety of diseases, regardless of the obesity/diabetes status of the donor mothers. Additionally, information on how the maternal disease may affect the cord-derived stem cells, hence possibly newborn children would be important. We have studied obese/diabetic or normal donor post-partum umbilical cord-derived hUCMS, either in basal or during differentiation protocols into several cell phenotypes and the definitive endoderm. Immunomodulatory properties of these cells, in terms of inhibition of activated lymphocyte proliferation, also was examined. According to our preliminary results, there are functional differences, as assessed by cell and molecular assays, in terms of both, differentiation and immunomodulatory potential, between the cells derived from normal as compared to obese/diabetic mothers. The findings seemingly indicate that the uterine environment of obese/diabetic mothers is quite distant from normal, regardless of metabolic control. Hence hUCMS extracted from obese/diabetic mothers do not appear to be suitable for cell therapy clinical protocols but more studies are required.

  19. Characterization of plant-derived lactococci on the basis of their volatile compounds profile when grown in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemayehu, Debebe; Hannon, John A; McAuliffe, Olivia; Ross, R Paul

    2014-02-17

    A total of twelve strains of lactococci were isolated from grass and vegetables (baby corn and fresh green peas). Ten of the isolates were classified as Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and two as Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris based on 16S rDNA sequencing. Most of the plant-derived strains were capable of metabolising a wide range of carbohydrates in that they fermented D-mannitol, amygdalin, potassium gluconate, l-arabinose, d-xylose, sucrose and gentibiose. None of the dairy control strains (i.e. L. lactis subsp. cremoris HP, L. lactis subsp. lactis IL1403 and Lactococcus lactis 303) were able to utilize any of these carbohydrates. The technological potential of the isolates as flavour-producing lactococci was evaluated by analysing their growth in milk and their ability to produce volatile compounds using solid phase micro-extraction of the headspace coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME GC-MS). Principal component analysis (PCA) of the volatile compounds clearly separated the dairy strains from the plant derived strains, with higher levels of most flavour rich compounds. The flavour compounds produced by the plant isolates among others included; fatty acids such as 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acids, and hexanoic acid, several esters (e.g. butyl acetate and ethyl butanoate) and ketones (e.g. acetoin, diacetyl and 2-heptanone), all of which have been associated with desirable and more mature flavours in cheese. As such the production of a larger number of volatile compounds is a distinguishing feature of plant-derived lactococci and might be a desirable trait for the production of dairy products with enhanced flavour and/or aroma. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Stability of gene expression and epigenetic profiles highlights the utility of patient-derived paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia xenografts for investigating molecular mechanisms of drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Nicholas C; Bhadri, Vivek A; Maksimovic, Jovana; Parkinson-Bates, Mandy; Ng, Jane; Craig, Jeff M; Saffery, Richard; Lock, Richard B

    2014-06-01

    Patient-derived tumour xenografts are an attractive model for preclinical testing of anti-cancer drugs. Insights into tumour biology and biomarkers predictive of responses to chemotherapeutic drugs can also be gained from investigating xenograft models. As a first step towards examining the equivalence of epigenetic profiles between xenografts and primary tumours in paediatric leukaemia, we performed genome-scale DNA methylation and gene expression profiling on a panel of 10 paediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (BCP-ALL) tumours that were stratified by prednisolone response. We found high correlations in DNA methylation and gene expression profiles between matching primary and xenograft tumour samples with Pearson's correlation coefficients ranging between 0.85 and 0.98. In order to demonstrate the potential utility of epigenetic analyses in BCP-ALL xenografts, we identified DNA methylation biomarkers that correlated with prednisolone responsiveness of the original tumour samples. Differential methylation of CAPS2, ARHGAP21, ARX and HOXB6 were confirmed by locus specific analysis. We identified 20 genes showing an inverse relationship between DNA methylation and gene expression in association with prednisolone response. Pathway analysis of these genes implicated apoptosis, cell signalling and cell structure networks in prednisolone responsiveness. The findings of this study confirm the stability of epigenetic and gene expression profiles of paediatric BCP-ALL propagated in mouse xenograft models. Further, our preliminary investigation of prednisolone sensitivity highlights the utility of mouse xenograft models for preclinical development of novel drug regimens with parallel investigation of underlying gene expression and epigenetic responses associated with novel drug responses.

  1. Hydrodynamic features of the South Aegean Sea as derived from Argo T/ S and dissolved oxygen profiles in the area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassis, Dimitris; Krasakopoulou, Evangelia; Korres, Gerasimos; Petihakis, George; Triantafyllou, George S.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the hydrodynamic picture of the South Aegean Sea is examined through an analysis of recent measurements in its sub-basins, the Myrtoan and Cretan Sea. Both sub-basins play an important role in the water circulation, exchange, and formation processes that affect the dynamics of the whole Eastern Mediterranean. For the first time, Bio-Argo floats were deployed in the area under the Greek Argo Research Infrastructure coordination. The acquired profiles cover an almost 2-year period (November 2013-July 2015) and are compared with previous Argo profiles and the re-processed time-series data recorded from the E1-M3A POSEIDON observatory operating in the area since 2007. The spatio-temporal distribution of the physical and chemical properties in each sub-basin is examined. Dense water formation events are revealed in the northern part (Myrtoan), while the wider area can be characterized as pre-conditioned. In the Cretan basin, a strong inter-annual variability of the salinity field at intermediate and deep layers is observed that is associated with water exchange from its open boundaries. Furthermore, comparison of the dissolved oxygen (DO) distribution with physical water properties within both the mixed layer, and at greater depths, indicated that relatively high but still under-saturated DO values are more likely to be associated with convection events. Finally, an updated picture of the physical properties and the DO distribution is presented based on the last 5 years of measurements and the recent introduction of Bio-Argo floats with DO sensors in the area.

  2. Spirituality and positive psychology go hand in hand: an investigation of multiple empirically derived profiles and related protective benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Yakov A; Miller, Lisa

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the relationship between personal spirituality and positive psychology traits as potentially presented in multiple profiles, rather than monolithically across a full sample. A sample of 3966 adolescents and emerging adults (aged 18-25, mean = 20.19, SD = 2.08) and 2014 older adults (aged 26-82, mean = 38.41, SD = 11.26) completed a survey assessing daily spiritual experiences (relationship with a Higher Power and sense of a sacred world), forgiveness, gratitude, optimism, grit, and meaning. To assess the relative protective benefits of potential profiles, we also assessed the level of depressive symptoms and frequency of substance use (tobacco, marijuana, alcohol, and heavy alcohol use). Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to examine common subgroupings of study participants across report on personal spirituality and positive psychology scales in each age cohort, with potential difference between latent classes then tested in level of depressive symptoms and degree of substance use. LCA determined a four-class and a three-class best-fitting models for the younger and older cohorts, respectively. Level of personal spirituality and level of positive psychology traits were found to coincide in 83 % of adolescents and emerging adults and in 71 % of older adults, suggesting personal spirituality and positive psychology traits go hand in hand. A minority subgroup of "virtuous humanists" showed high levels of positive psychology traits but low levels of personal spirituality, across both age cohorts. Whereas level of depression was found to be inversely associated with positive psychology traits and personal spirituality, uniquely personal spirituality was protective against degree of substance use across both age cohorts. Overall interpretation of the study findings suggests that personal spirituality may be foundational to positive psychology traits in the majority of people.

  3. Gene Expression Profile Reveals Abnormalities of Multiple Signaling Pathways in Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived from Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Tang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to compare bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs between systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and normal controls by means of cDNA microarray, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and immunoblotting. Our results showed there were a total of 1, 905 genes which were differentially expressed by BMMSCs derived from SLE patients, of which, 652 genes were upregulated and 1, 253 were downregulated. Gene ontology (GO analysis showed that the majority of these genes were related to cell cycle and protein binding. Pathway analysis exhibited that differentially regulated signal pathways involved actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion, tight junction, and TGF-β pathway. The high protein level of BMP-5 and low expression of Id-1 indicated that there might be dysregulation in BMP/TGF-β signaling pathway. The expression of Id-1 in SLE BMMSCs was reversely correlated with serum TNF-α levels. The protein level of cyclin E decreased in the cell cycling regulation pathway. Moreover, the MAPK signaling pathway was activated in BMMSCs from SLE patients via phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and SAPK/JNK. The actin distribution pattern of BMMSCs from SLE patients was also found disordered. Our results suggested that there were distinguished differences of BMMSCs between SLE patients and normal controls.

  4. Safety and biodistribution profile of placental-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (PLX-PAD) following intramuscular delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramot, Yuval; Meiron, Moran; Toren, Amir; Steiner, Michal; Nyska, Abraham

    2009-08-01

    The administration of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) provides an exciting emerging therapeutic modality for the treatment of peripheral arterial disease, a condition that is associated with critical limb ischemia as its end stage. Placental-derived MSCs, termed PLX-PAD cells, are stable adhesive stromal cells isolated from full-term human placentae, cultured on carriers, and expanded in a bioreactor called the PluriX. These cells can be expanded in vitro without phenotypic or karyotypic changes. We studied the safety and biodistribution properties of PLX-PAD cells following intramuscular administration in NOD/SCID mice. No significant clinical signs, hematological and biochemical parameters, or major pathological changes were found in PLX-PAD-treated animals in comparison to vehicle controls. Several animals in the control and PLX-PAD-treated groups developed thymic malignant lymphoma, first seen after one month, as expected in this mouse strain. In addition, both groups developed spontaneous mesenteric vessel inflammation. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) demonstrated that distribution of PLX-PAD cells was confined to the injection site. Placental-derived MSCs remained in this site with gradual decrease in concentration during a three-month period. In view of these data, we conclude that the administration of PLX-PAD cells is not associated with any adverse effects in NOD/SCID mice.

  5. Young adults' trajectories of Ecstasy use: a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Andrew; Najman, Jake M; Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Plotnikova, Maria; Wells, Helene; Legosz, Margot; Kemp, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Young adults' Ecstasy use trajectories have important implications for individual and population-level consequences of Ecstasy use, but little relevant research has been conducted. This study prospectively examines Ecstasy trajectories in a population-based sample. Data are from the Natural History Study of Drug Use, a retrospective/prospective cohort study conducted in Australia. Population screening identified a probability sample of Ecstasy users aged 19-23 years. Complete data for 30 months of follow-up, comprising 4 time intervals, were available for 297 participants (88.4% of sample). Trajectories were derived using cluster analysis based on recent Ecstasy use at each interval. Trajectory predictors were examined using a generalized ordered logit model and included Ecstasy dependence (World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Instrument), psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale), aggression (Young Adult Self Report) and contextual factors (e.g. attendance at electronic/dance music events). Three Ecstasy trajectories were identified (low, intermediate and high use). At its peak, the high-use trajectory involved 1-2 days Ecstasy use per week. Decreasing frequency of use was observed for intermediate and high-use trajectories from 12 months, independently of market factors. Intermediate and high-use trajectory membership was predicted by past Ecstasy consumption (>70 pills) and attendance at electronic/dance music events. High-use trajectory members were unlikely to have used Ecstasy for more than 3 years and tended to report consistently positive subjective effects at baseline. Given the social context and temporal course of Ecstasy use, Ecstasy trajectories might be better understood in terms of instrumental rather than addictive drug use patterns. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Vertical Cloud Climatology During TC4 Derived from High-Altitude Aircraft Merged Lidar and Radar Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavka, Dennis; Tian, Lin; Hart, William; Li, Lihua; McGill, Matthew; Heymsfield, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    Aircraft lidar works by shooting laser pulses toward the earth and recording the return time and intensity of any of the light returning to the aircraft after scattering off atmospheric particles and/or the Earth s surface. The scattered light signatures can be analyzed to tell the exact location of cloud and aerosol layers and, with the aid of a few optical assumptions, can be analyzed to retrieve estimates of optical properties such as atmospheric transparency. Radar works in a similar fashion except it sends pulses toward earth at a much larger wavelength than lidar. Radar records the return time and intensity of cloud or rain reflection returning to the aircraft. Lidar can measure scatter from optically thin cirrus and aerosol layers whose particles are too small for the radar to detect. Radar can provide reflection profiles through thick cloud layers of larger particles that lidar cannot penetrate. Only after merging the two instrument products can accurate measurements of the locations of all layers in the full atmospheric column be achieved. Accurate knowledge of the vertical distribution of clouds is important information for understanding the Earth/atmosphere radiative balance and for improving weather/climate forecast models. This paper describes one such merged data set developed from the Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling (TC4) experiment based in Costa Rica in July-August 2007 using the nadir viewing Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) and the Cloud Radar System (CRS) on board the NASA ER-2 aircraft. Statistics were developed concerning cloud probability through the atmospheric column and frequency of the number of cloud layers. These statistics were calculated for the full study area, four sub-regions, and over land compared to over ocean across all available flights. The results are valid for the TC4 experiment only, as preferred cloud patterns took priority during mission planning. The TC4 Study Area was a very cloudy region, with cloudy

  7. Plotting Orbital Trajectories For Maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Adam R.

    1991-01-01

    Interactive Orbital Trajectory Planning Tool (EIVAN) computer program is forward-looking interactive orbit-trajectory-plotting software tool for use with proximity operations (operations occurring within 1-km sphere of space station) and other maneuvers. Developed to plot resulting trajectories, to provide better comprehension of effects of orbital mechanics, and to help user develop heuristics for planning missions on orbit. Program runs with Microsoft's Excel for execution on MacIntosh computer running MacIntosh OS.

  8. Inland and Near Shore Water Profiles Derived from the High Altitude Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Michael F.; Stoll, Jeremy D.; Cook, William B.; Ondrusek, Michael; Stengel, Eric; Brunt, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) on the Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat-2) mission is a six beam, low energy, high repetition rate, 532 nm laser transmitter with photon counting detectors. Although designed primarily for detecting height changes in icecaps, sea ice and vegetation, the polar-orbital satellite will observe global surface water during its designed three year life span, including inland water bodies, coasts, and open oceans. In preparation for the mission, an ICESat-2 prototype or the Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL), was built and flown on high altitude aircraft experiments over a range of inland and near-shore targets. The purpose was to test the ATLAS concept and to provide a database for developing an algorithm that detects along track surface water height and light penetration under a range of atmospheric and water conditions. The current analysis examines the datasets of three MABEL transects observed from 20 km above ground of coastal and inland waters conducted in 2012 and 2013. Transects ranged from about 2 to 12 km in length and included the middle Chesapeake Bay, the near shore Atlantic coast at Virginia Beach, and Lake Mead. Results indicate MABEL's high capability for retrieving surface water height statistics with a mean height precision of approximately 5-7 cm per 100m segment length. Profiles of attenuated subsurface backscatter, characterized using a Signal to Background Ratio written in Log10 base, or LSBR0, were observed over a range of 1.3 to 9.3 meters depending on water clarity and atmospheric background. Results indicate that observable penetration depth, although primarily dependent on water properties, was greatest when solar background rate was low. Near shore bottom reflectance was detected only at the Lake Mead site down to maximum of 10 m under a clear night sky and low turbidity of approximately 1.6 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU). The overall results suggest

  9. Comparative expression profiling in grape (Vitis vinifera) berries derived from frequency analysis of ESTs and MPSS signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iandolino, Alberto; Nobuta, Kan; da Silva, Francisco Goes; Cook, Douglas R; Meyers, Blake C

    2008-05-12

    Vitis vinifera (V. vinifera) is the primary grape species cultivated for wine production, with an industry valued annually in the billions of dollars worldwide. In order to sustain and increase grape production, it is necessary to understand the genetic makeup of grape species. Here we performed mRNA profiling using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS) and combined it with available Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) data. These tag-based technologies, which do not require a priori knowledge of genomic sequence, are well-suited for transcriptional profiling. The sequence depth of MPSS allowed us to capture and quantify almost all the transcripts at a specific stage in the development of the grape berry. The number and relative abundance of transcripts from stage II grape berries was defined using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS). A total of 2,635,293 17-base and 2,259,286 20-base signatures were obtained, representing at least 30,737 and 26,878 distinct sequences. The average normalized abundance per signature was approximately 49 TPM (Transcripts Per Million). Comparisons of the MPSS signatures with available Vitis species' ESTs and a unigene set demonstrated that 6,430 distinct contigs and 2,190 singletons have a perfect match to at least one MPSS signature. Among the matched sequences, ESTs were identified from tissues other than berries or from berries at different developmental stages. Additional MPSS signatures not matching to known grape ESTs can extend our knowledge of the V. vinifera transcriptome, particularly when these data are used to assist in annotation of whole genome sequences from Vitis vinifera. The MPSS data presented here not only achieved a higher level of saturation than previous EST based analyses, but in doing so, expand the known set of transcripts of grape berries during the unique stage in development that immediately precedes the onset of ripening. The MPSS dataset also revealed evidence of antisense expression not

  10. Comparative expression profiling in grape (Vitis vinifera berries derived from frequency analysis of ESTs and MPSS signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cook Douglas R

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitis vinifera (V. vinifera is the primary grape species cultivated for wine production, with an industry valued annually in the billions of dollars worldwide. In order to sustain and increase grape production, it is necessary to understand the genetic makeup of grape species. Here we performed mRNA profiling using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS and combined it with available Expressed Sequence Tag (EST data. These tag-based technologies, which do not require a priori knowledge of genomic sequence, are well-suited for transcriptional profiling. The sequence depth of MPSS allowed us to capture and quantify almost all the transcripts at a specific stage in the development of the grape berry. Results The number and relative abundance of transcripts from stage II grape berries was defined using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS. A total of 2,635,293 17-base and 2,259,286 20-base signatures were obtained, representing at least 30,737 and 26,878 distinct sequences. The average normalized abundance per signature was ~49 TPM (Transcripts Per Million. Comparisons of the MPSS signatures with available Vitis species' ESTs and a unigene set demonstrated that 6,430 distinct contigs and 2,190 singletons have a perfect match to at least one MPSS signature. Among the matched sequences, ESTs were identified from tissues other than berries or from berries at different developmental stages. Additional MPSS signatures not matching to known grape ESTs can extend our knowledge of the V. vinifera transcriptome, particularly when these data are used to assist in annotation of whole genome sequences from Vitis vinifera. Conclusion The MPSS data presented here not only achieved a higher level of saturation than previous EST based analyses, but in doing so, expand the known set of transcripts of grape berries during the unique stage in development that immediately precedes the onset of ripening. The MPSS dataset also revealed

  11. Heterogeneity in multidimensional health trajectories of late old years and socioeconomic stratification: a latent trajectory class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickrama, Kandauda K A S; Mancini, Jay A; Kwag, Kyunghwa; Kwon, Josephine

    2013-03-01

    This study examines (a) the heterogeneity in individual multidimensional health trajectories and (b) the socioeconomic stratification of individual multidimensional health trajectories during the late older years. This study used prospective data from 1,945 adults, 75 to 85 years old, collected over an 8-year period from the Health and Retirement Study. To examine inconsistent findings in the research literature, a latent trajectory class analysis was performed. Multidimensional overall health trajectories showed three heterogeneous latent classes (maintaining, persistently high, and deteriorating), and profiles of ascribed and achieved socioeconomic characteristics of multidimensional health trajectory classes showed a significant social and racial/ethnic stratification in late older years. Past adverse socioeconomic circumstances, including childhood and adulthood adversity, are potential sources of unobserved heterogeneity of multidimensional health trajectories even in late older years. The identification of members of latent trajectory health classes and the associated antecedents linked to health class membership are consistent with a life-course conceptual framework. Thus, multidimensional health capturing the full range of health problems needs to be investigated for proper examination of socioeconomic correlates of health. This facilitates the understanding of the associations between life-course experiences and health in late old age that ultimately have implications for prevention and intervention.

  12. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp065 deployed by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in the East Coast - US/Canada from 2015-10-01 to 2016-01-07 (NCEI Accession 0145716)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) received the data...

  13. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp018 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Solomon Sea from 2016-02-18 to 2016-05-28 (NCEI Accession 0153549)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  14. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp063 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-08-23 to 2016-08-28 (NCEI Accession 0156530)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  15. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp028 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2014-12-10 to 2015-03-31 (NCEI Accession 0137982)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  16. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp039 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-02-18 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0156570)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  17. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp047 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2014-06-23 to 2015-01-22 (NCEI Accession 0137987)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  18. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp042 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Solomon Sea from 2015-03-18 to 2015-05-27 (NCEI Accession 0137985)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  19. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp011 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2015-04-27 to 2015-08-13 (NCEI Accession 0137976)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  20. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp025 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-03-10 to 2016-06-28 (NCEI Accession 0155280)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  1. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp010 deployed by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in the East Coast - US/Canada from 2017-07-07 to 2017-09-12 (NCEI Accession 0166618)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. (This deployment supported by NOAA.) The National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI)...

  2. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp063 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2014-09-15 to 2014-11-04 (NCEI Accession 0137991)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  3. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp006 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Solomon Sea from 2015-12-14 to 2016-03-30 (NCEI Accession 0153787)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  4. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp027 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Solomon Sea from 2015-06-16 to 2015-09-23 (NCEI Accession 0145712)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  5. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp066 deployed by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in the East Coast - US/Canada from 2015-12-17 to 2016-04-06 (NCEI Accession 0153789)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) received the data...

  6. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp064 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-05-17 to 2016-08-23 (NCEI Accession 0156410)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  7. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp064 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2015-10-30 to 2016-02-03 (NCEI Accession 0145715)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  8. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp011 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2014-09-23 to 2015-01-09 (NCEI Accession 0137975)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  9. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp066 deployed by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in the East Coast - US/Canada from 2016-08-18 to 2016-09-28 (NCEI Accession 0156697)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) received the data...

  10. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp028 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-08-17 to 2016-09-16 (NCEI Accession 0156601)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  11. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp024 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Solomon Sea from 2017-01-30 to 2017-05-08 (NCEI Accession 0162888)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group. (This deployment supported by NOAA.) The National Centers for...

  12. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp030 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-02-18 to 2016-06-02 (NCEI Accession 0153551)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  13. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp001 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Solomon Sea from 2015-01-12 to 2015-04-08 (NCEI Accession 0137973)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  14. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp030 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2017-04-05 to 2017-07-11 (NCEI Accession 0164208)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group. (This deployment supported by NOAA.) The National Centers for...

  15. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp040 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2015-04-09 to 2015-07-14 (NCEI Accession 0138034)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  16. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp055 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2017-03-14 to 2017-06-28 (NCEI Accession 0163867)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group. (This deployment supported by NOAA.) The National Centers for...

  17. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp039 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2015-01-22 to 2015-07-16 (NCEI Accession 0138033)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  18. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp064 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the |Coastal Waters of California from 2016-12-14 to 2017-03-29 (NCEI Accession 0162258)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  19. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp001 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Solomon Sea from 2016-08-15 to 2016-11-16 (NCEI Accession 0157002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  20. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp048 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2015-01-27 to 2015-08-27 (NCEI Accession 0145669)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  1. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp048 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2014-01-16 to 2014-07-29 (NCEI Accession 0138035)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  2. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp028 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2014-06-05 to 2014-09-05 (NCEI Accession 0137981)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  3. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp011 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-06-02 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0156569)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  4. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp052 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-09-06 to 2017-03-14 (NCEI Accession 0162198)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  5. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp025 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2015-08-13 to 2015-11-18 (NCEI Accession 0145665)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  6. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp043 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Solomon Sea from 2014-09-27 to 2015-01-04 (NCEI Accession 0137986)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  7. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp054 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-03-17 to 2016-10-11 (NCEI Accession 0156772)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  8. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp020 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean from 2014-08-03 to 2014-12-12 (NCEI Accession 0137977)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  9. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp025 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-09-13 to 2016-12-14 (NCEI Accession 0157580)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  10. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp052 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2015-07-28 to 2016-02-18 (NCEI Accession 0145670)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  11. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp011 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2015-11-05 to 2016-02-18 (NCEI Accession 0145664)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  12. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp056 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2017-03-29 to 2017-07-01 (NCEI Accession 0164292)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group. (This deployment supported by NOAA.) The National Centers for...

  13. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp035 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2015-03-31 to 2015-07-16 (NCEI Accession 0138032)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  14. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp031 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean from 2015-09-10 to 2015-12-16 (NCEI Accession 0145667)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  15. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp049 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2017-05-18 to 2017-08-24 (NCEI Accession 0165396)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group. (This deployment supported by NOAA.) The National Centers for...

  16. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp042 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Solomon Sea from 2016-11-04 to 2017-02-23 (NCEI Accession 0161310)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  17. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp028 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-06-28 to 2016-08-23 (NCEI Accession 0156400)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  18. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp028 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-12-14 to 2017-03-28 (NCEI Accession 0162257)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  19. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp053 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean from 2016-07-20 to 2016-10-20 (NCEI Accession 0156796)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  20. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp047 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2015-08-27 to 2016-03-17 (NCEI Accession 0145668)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  1. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp011 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-11-30 to 2017-03-14 (NCEI Accession 0162197)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  2. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp028 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2015-11-24 to 2016-03-10 (NCEI Accession 0145666)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  3. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp041 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-09-08 to 2016-12-14 (NCEI Accession 0157607)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  4. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp063 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-02-03 to 2016-05-17 (NCEI Accession 0153552)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  5. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp049 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-04-05 to 2016-06-02 (NCEI Accession 0153788)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  6. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp018 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Solomon Sea from 2014-06-10 to 2014-09-21 (NCEI Accession 0138030)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  7. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp025 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2017-03-28 to 2017-07-11 (NCEI Accession 0164207)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group. (This deployment supported by NOAA.) The National Centers for...

  8. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp025 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2015-01-08 to 2015-04-09 (NCEI Accession 0137980)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  9. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp030 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-09-06 to 2016-11-30 (NCEI Accession 0157115)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  10. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp011 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2014-05-01 to 2014-08-13 (NCEI Accession 0137974)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  11. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp025 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2014-06-11 to 2014-09-15 (NCEI Accession 0137978)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  12. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp050 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean from 2015-02-06 to 2015-05-14 (NCEI Accession 0137988)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  13. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp030 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2015-01-09 to 2015-04-27 (NCEI Accession 0137984)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  14. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp030 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2014-08-13 to 2014-11-25 (NCEI Accession 0137983)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  15. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp043 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Solomon Sea from 2016-05-20 to 2016-08-24 (NCEI Accession 0156529)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  16. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp052 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2014-08-14 to 2015-01-09 (NCEI Accession 0137990)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  17. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp051 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2014-11-12 to 2015-01-08 (NCEI Accession 0137989)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  18. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp020 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean from 2015-12-16 to 2016-03-30 (NCEI Accession 0153550)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  19. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp053 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Solomon Sea from 2015-08-29 to 2015-12-13 (NCEI Accession 0145713)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  20. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp026 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Solomon Sea from 2017-04-20 to 2017-07-31 (NCEI Accession 0164709)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group. (This deployment supported by NOAA.) The National Centers for...

  1. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp025 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2014-11-25 to 2014-11-27 (NCEI Accession 0137979)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  2. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp050 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean from 2016-03-30 to 2016-07-20 (NCEI Accession 0155979)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  3. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp031 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean from 2014-04-12 to 2014-08-02 (NCEI Accession 0138031)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  4. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp010 deployed by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in the East Coast - US/Canada from 2015-04-09 to 2015-06-25 (NCEI Accession 0139261)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) received the data...

  5. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp055 deployed by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in the East Coast - US/Canada from 2015-07-16 to 2015-10-16 (NCEI Accession 0145714)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) received the data...

  6. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp034 deployed by Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute and US Navy; Naval Postgraduate School in the Coastal Waters of California from 2017-04-05 to 2017-05-31 (NCEI Accession 0163370)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from MBARI and Naval Postgraduate School. (Supported by Naval Postgraduate School Naval Research Program, CeNCOOS and MBARI.) The National...

  7. Machine learning based identification of protein-protein interactions using derived features of physiochemical properties and evolutionary profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Muhammad; Hayat, Maqsood

    2017-05-01

    Proteins are the central constitute of a cell or biological system. Proteins execute their functions by interacting with other molecules such as RNA, DNA and other proteins. The major functionality of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is the execution of biochemical activities in living species. Therefore, an accurate identification of PPIs becomes a challenging and demanding task for investigators from last few decades. Various traditional and computational methods have been applied but they have not achieved quite encouraging results. In order to extend the concept of computational model by incorporating intelligent, contemporary machine learning algorithms have been utilized for identification of PPIs. In this prediction model, protein sequences are expressed by using two distinct feature extraction methods namely: physiochemical properties of amino acids and evolutionary profiles method position specific scoring matrix (PSSM). Jackknife test and numerous performance parameters namely: specificity, recall, accuracy, MCC, precision, and F-measure were employed to compute the predictive quality of proposed model. After empirical analysis, it is determined that the proposed prediction model yielded encouraging predictive outcomes compared to existing state-of-the-art models. This achievement is ascribed with PSSM because it has clearly discerned a motif of PPIs. It is realized that the proposed prediction model will lead to be a practical and very useful tool for research community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Increased recruitment of bone marrow-derived cells into the brain associated with altered brain cytokine profile in senescence-accelerated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa-Ishii, Sanae; Inaba, Muneo; Li, Ming; Shi, Ming; Umegaki, Hiroyuki; Ikehara, Susumu; Shimada, Atsuyoshi

    2016-04-01

    Bone marrow-derived cells enter the brain in a non-inflammatory condition through the attachments of choroid plexus and differentiate into ramified myeloid cells. Neurodegenerative conditions may be associated with altered immune-brain interaction. The senescence-accelerated mouse prone 10 (SAMP10) undergoes earlier onset neurodegeneration than C57BL/6 (B6) strain. We hypothesized that the dynamics of immune cells migrating from the bone marrow to the brain is perturbed in SAMP10 mice. We created 4 groups of radiation chimeras by intra-bone marrow-bone marrow transplantation using 2-month-old (2 mo) and 10 mo SAMP10 and B6 mice as recipients with GFP transgenic B6 mice as donors, and analyzed histologically 4 months later. In the [B6 → 10 mo SAMP10] chimeras, more ramified marrow-derived cells populated a larger number of discrete brain regions than the other chimeras, especially in the diencephalon. Multiplex cytokine assays of the diencephalon prepared from non-treated 3 mo and 12 mo SAMP10 and B6 mice revealed that 12 mo SAMP10 mice exhibited higher tissue concentrations of CXCL1, CCL11, G-CSF, CXCL10 and IL-6 than the other groups. Immunohistologically, choroid plexus epithelium and ependyma produced CXCL1, while astrocytic processes in the attachments of choroid plexus expressed CCL11 and G-CSF. The median eminence produced CXCL10, hypothalamic neurons G-CSF and tanycytes CCL11 and G-CSF. These brain cytokine profile changes in 12 mo SAMP10 mice were likely to contribute to acceleration of the dynamics of marrow-derived cells to the diencephalon. Further studies on the functions of ramified marrow-derived myeloid cells would enhance our understanding of the brain-bone marrow interaction.

  9. Comparison of glyoxal, BrO, and IO vertical profiles derived from both ground-based and airborne MAX-DOAS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, Sean; Volkamer, Rainer; Baidar, Sunil; Dix, Barbara; Koenig, Theodore; Ortega, Ivan; Sinreich, Roman; van Roozendael, Michel; Hendrick, Francois; Kinnison, Doug

    2015-04-01

    The information content of ground-based MAX-DOAS retrievals is assessed by collocated aircraft measurements for a ship MAX-DOAS setup over the Eastern tropical Pacific Ocean (TORERO RF17), and a mountain-top MAX-DOAS setup at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii (CONTRAST RF17). During both case studies the CU airborne MAX-DOAS (AMAX-DOAS) instrument aboard the NSF/NCAR GV aircraft measured profiles of glyoxal, BrO, and IO with 12-20 degrees of freedom and up to 500 m vertical resolution. The TORERO field campaign took place in 2012, while CONTRAST in 2014; both campaigns covered the months of January and February. Additional measurements aboard the aircraft helped to provide information/validation of the AMAX-DOAS derived profiles, such as in-situ water vapor from the Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser hygrometer (VCSEL), in-situ hydrocarbon measurements from the Trace Organic Gas Analyzer (TOGA), and aerosol information constrained by the Ultra High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer (UHSAS). The AMAX-DOAS profiles are compared with ground-based MAX-DOAS inversions. The latter explores the effect of using either the measured differential slant column density (dSCD) or SCD as input to the optimal estimation inversion, where SCD = dSCD + SCD_ref. SCD_ref is the residual column amount of the trace gas contained within the reference spectrum. For the AMAX-DOAS data, the values of SCD_ref were actively minimized, while SCD_ref is usually unknown for ground-based MAX-DOAS retrievals. In absence of independent measurements to constrain SCD_ref, the current state-of-the-art with ground-based MAX-DOAS applications is to use dSCDs as input to the inversion. Here we assess the effect of uncertain SCD_ref for ground-based MAX-DOAS profiles in form of a sensitivity study. Additionally for the ground-based data, different methods are compared for the determination of SCD_ref: 1) the collocated aircraft profiles described above present the opportunity to forward calculate the SCD

  10. Discovery and selectivity-profiling of 4-benzylamino 1-aza-9-oxafluorene derivatives as lead structures for IGF-1R inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Martin; Erlenkamp, German; Sippl, Wolfgang; Schächtele, Christoph; Totzke, Frank; Hilgeroth, Andreas

    2010-12-01

    Recently the insuline-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) emerged as a promising target structure for the development of novel anti-cancer agents. IGF-1R plays a central role in both tumour progression and resistance development against anti-cancer drugs. We discovered 1-aza-9-oxafluorene derivatives as novel lead structures with submicromolar activities against IGF-1R. Structure-activity relationships (SARs) on a series of related receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are discussed in the context of available crystal structures. A preliminary selectivity-profiling is demonstrated for the first compound series. Antiproliferative tumour cell line screening studies yielded one candidate as a promising cytostatic agent without significant toxic effects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative Expression Profiles of mRNAs and microRNAs Among Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived From Breast, Face, and Abdominal Adipose Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Hung Wang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We determined the expression of both mRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs from human mesenchymal stem cells BM19, FM30, and AM3, which is derived from breast, face, and abdominal adipose tissues, respectively. BM19, FM30, and AM3 cells exhibited considerably similar mRNA profiles, and their 1,038 abundantly common genes were involved in regulating six cell adhesion and three cytoskeleton remodeling processes among the top ten GeneGo canonical pathway maps. The 39 most abundant miRNAs in AM3 cells were expressed at very similar levels in BM19 cells. However, seven abundant miRNAs (miR-19b, miR-320, miR-186, miR-199a, miR-339, miR-99a, and miR-152 in AM3 cells were expressed at much lower levels than that in FM30 cells, and 38 genes targeted by these miRNAs were consequently upregulated more than 3-fold in FM30 cells compared with AM3 cells. Therefore, autologous abdominal adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells are suitable for tissue engineering of breast reconstruction because of very similar expression profiles of mRNAs and miRNAs between AM3 and BM19 cells. Conversely, abdominal AM3 cells might not be suitable for facial rejuvenation, since the 38 highly expressed genes targeted by miRNAs in FM30 cells might play an important role(s in the development of facial tissue.

  12. Foot trajectory approximation using the pendulum model of walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Juan; Vuckovic, Aleksandra; Galen, Sujay; Conway, Bernard A; Hunt, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    Generating a natural foot trajectory is an important objective in robotic systems for rehabilitation of walking. Human walking has pendular properties, so the pendulum model of walking has been used in bipedal robots which produce rhythmic gait patterns. Whether natural foot trajectories can be produced by the pendulum model needs to be addressed as a first step towards applying the pendulum concept in gait orthosis design. This study investigated circle approximation of the foot trajectories, with focus on the geometry of the pendulum model of walking. Three able-bodied subjects walked overground at various speeds, and foot trajectories relative to the hip were analysed. Four circle approximation approaches were developed, and best-fit circle algorithms were derived to fit the trajectories of the ankle, heel and toe. The study confirmed that the ankle and heel trajectories during stance and the toe trajectory in both the stance and the swing phases during walking at various speeds could be well modelled by a rigid pendulum. All the pendulum models were centred around the hip with pendular lengths approximately equal to the segment distances from the hip. This observation provides a new approach for using the pendulum model of walking in gait orthosis design.

  13. Dissipative quantum trajectories in complex space: Damped harmonic oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chia-Chun

    2016-10-01

    Dissipative quantum trajectories in complex space are investigated in the framework of the logarithmic nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The logarithmic nonlinear Schrödinger equation provides a phenomenological description for dissipative quantum systems. Substituting the wave function expressed in terms of the complex action into the complex-extended logarithmic nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we derive the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation including the dissipative potential. It is shown that dissipative quantum trajectories satisfy a quantum Newtonian equation of motion in complex space with a friction force. Exact dissipative complex quantum trajectories are analyzed for the wave and solitonlike solutions to the logarithmic nonlinear Schrödinger equation for the damped harmonic oscillator. These trajectories converge to the equilibrium position as time evolves. It is indicated that dissipative complex quantum trajectories for the wave and solitonlike solutions are identical to dissipative complex classical trajectories for the damped harmonic oscillator. This study develops a theoretical framework for dissipative quantum trajectories in complex space.

  14. Isothiocyanate profile and selective antibacterial activity of root, stem, and leaf extracts derived from Raphanus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevi, Syed Sultan; Mangamoori, Lakshmi Narasu; Dhand, Vivek; Ramakrishna, Damaraju Siva

    2009-01-01

    Acetone and hexane extracts derived from the root, stem, and leaf of Raphanus sativus were investigated for their antibacterial activity against foodborne and resistant pathogens, such as Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella typhimurium, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, and Escherichia coli. Total and individual isothiocyanate (ITC) components and their relationship with the antibacterial activity of R. sativus were also evaluated. Both acetone and hexane fractions of root, stem, and leaf exhibited selective antibacterial activity against the organisms tested. Antibacterial activity was strongest in the acetone fraction of root with larger zone of inhibition and lower minimum inhibitory concentration. The results obtained were comparable to that seen with standard antibiotics. Of the different parts of R. sativus studied, root tended to be more active than the stem and leaf extracts in inhibiting the bacterial growth. Gas chromatographic analysis revealed the presence of variable amounts of five different ITCs such as allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC), benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), phenethyl isothiocyanate, and 4-(methylthio)-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (MTBITC) in different parts of the plant. The low linear correlation between the total ITC content and antibacterial activity implied that bacterial growth inhibitory ability of R. sativus was not dependent on the total ITC content. However, the antibacterial activity of R. sativus was well correlated with AITC, PITC, and BITC for all organisms except for Enteroc. faecalis, whose inhibitory effect was more related to MTBITC.

  15. Phenolic Profiling of Olives and Olive Oil Process-Derived Matrices Using UPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-HRMS Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klen, Tina Jerman; Wondra, Alenka Golc; Vrhovšek, Urška; Vodopivec, Branka Mozetič

    2015-04-22

    All of the matrices entailed in olive oil processing were screened for the presence of known and new phenol constituents in a single study, combining an ultra high pressure liquid chromatography system with diode array and electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight high resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF-HRMS) detection. Their trail was followed from the fruit (peel/pulp and stone) to the paste and final products, i.e. pomace, wastewater, and oil, providing important insight into the origin, disappearance, and evolution of each during the operational steps. Eighty different phenols, composed of fruit native representatives and their technologically formed and/or released derivatives, were detected in six olive matrices and fully characterized on the basis of HRMS and UV-vis spectroscopic data. In addition to phenols already known in olive matrices, four new molecular formulas were proposed and three new tentative identities assigned to newly discovered phenols, i.e., β-methyl-OH-verbascoside, methoxynüzhenide, and methoxynüzhenide 11-methyl oleoside.

  16. In vitro anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of dronedarone, a novel amiodarone derivative with an improved safety profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaim, Gustavo; Hernandez-Rodriguez, Vanessa; Mujica-Gonzalez, Sheira; Plaza-Rojas, Lourdes; Silva, May Li; Parra-Gimenez, Nereida; Garcia-Marchan, Yael; Paniz-Mondolfi, Alberto; Uzcanga, Graciela

    2012-07-01

    Amiodarone, a commonly used antiarrhythmic, is also a potent and selective anti-Trypanosoma cruzi agent. Dronedarone is an amiodarone derivative in which the 2,5-diiodophenyl moiety of the parental drug has been replaced with an unsubstituted phenyl group aiming to eliminate the thyroid toxicity frequently observed with amiodarone treatment. Dronedarone has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and its use as a safe antiarrhythmic has been extensively documented. We show here that dronedarone also has potent anti-T. cruzi activity, against both extracellular epimastigotes and intracellular amastigotes, the clinically relevant form of the parasite. The 50% inhibitory concentrations against both proliferative stages are lower than those previously reported for amiodarone. The mechanism of action of dronedarone resembles that of amiodarone, as it induces a large increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration of the parasite, which results from the release of this ion from intracellular storage sites, including a direct effect of the drug on the mitochondrial electrochemical potential, and through alkalinization of the acidocalcisomes. Our results suggest a possible future repurposed use of dronedarone for the treatment of Chagas' disease.

  17. Spectroscopic profiling and computational study of the binding of tschimgine: A natural monoterpene derivative, with calf thymus DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajeh, Masoumeh Ashrafi; Dehghan, Gholamreza; Dastmalchi, Siavoush; Shaghaghi, Masoomeh; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2018-03-01

    DNA is a major target for a number of anticancer substances. Interaction studies between small molecules and DNA are essential for rational drug designing to influence main biological processes and also introducing new probes for the assay of DNA. Tschimgine (TMG) is a monoterpene derivative with anticancer properties. In the present study we tried to elucidate the interaction of TMG with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) using different spectroscopic methods. UV-visible absorption spectrophotometry, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies as well as molecular docking study revealed formation of complex between TMG and CT-DNA. Binding constant (Kb) between TMG and DNA was 2.27 × 104 M- 1, that is comparable to groove binding agents. The fluorescence spectroscopic data revealed that the quenching mechanism of fluorescence of TMG by CT-DNA is static quenching. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔH DNA. Competitive binding assay with methylene blue (MB) and Hoechst 33258 using fluorescence spectroscopy displayed that TMG possibly binds to the minor groove of CT-DNA. These observations were further confirmed by CD spectral analysis, viscosity measurements and molecular docking.

  18. In Vitro Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi Activity of Dronedarone, a Novel Amiodarone Derivative with an Improved Safety Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Rodriguez, Vanessa; Mujica-Gonzalez, Sheira; Plaza-Rojas, Lourdes; Silva, May Li; Parra-Gimenez, Nereida; Garcia-Marchan, Yael; Paniz-Mondolfi, Alberto; Uzcanga, Graciela

    2012-01-01

    Amiodarone, a commonly used antiarrhythmic, is also a potent and selective anti-Trypanosoma cruzi agent. Dronedarone is an amiodarone derivative in which the 2,5-diiodophenyl moiety of the parental drug has been replaced with an unsubstituted phenyl group aiming to eliminate the thyroid toxicity frequently observed with amiodarone treatment. Dronedarone has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and its use as a safe antiarrhythmic has been extensively documented. We show here that dronedarone also has potent anti-T. cruzi activity, against both extracellular epimastigotes and intracellular amastigotes, the clinically relevant form of the parasite. The 50% inhibitory concentrations against both proliferative stages are lower than those previously reported for amiodarone. The mechanism of action of dronedarone resembles that of amiodarone, as it induces a large increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration of the parasite, which results from the release of this ion from intracellular storage sites, including a direct effect of the drug on the mitochondrial electrochemical potential, and through alkalinization of the acidocalcisomes. Our results suggest a possible future repurposed use of dronedarone for the treatment of Chagas' disease. PMID:22508311

  19. Umbilical cord blood–derived T regulatory cells to prevent GVHD: kinetics, toxicity profile, and clinical effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeffrey S.; McKenna, David H.; Hippen, Keli L.; DeFor, Todd E.; Sumstad, Darin; Curtsinger, Julie; Verneris, Michael R.; MacMillan, Margaret L.; Levine, Bruce L.; Riley, James L.; June, Carl H.; Le, Chap; Weisdorf, Daniel J.; McGlave, Philip B.; Blazar, Bruce R.; Wagner, John E.

    2016-01-01

    We studied the safety and clinical outcomes of patients treated with umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived regulatory T cells (Tregs) that expanded in cultures stimulated with K562 cells modified to express the high-affinity Fc receptor (CD64) and CD86, the natural ligand of CD28 (KT64/86). Eleven patients were treated with Treg doses from 3-100 × 106 Treg/kg. The median proportion of CD4+FoxP3+CD127– in the infused product was 87% (range, 78%-95%), and we observed no dose-limiting infusional adverse events. Clinical outcomes were compared with contemporary controls (n = 22) who received the same conditioning regimen with sirolimus and mycophenolate mofetil immune suppression. The incidence of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) at 100 days was 9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0-25) vs 45% (95% CI, 24-67) in controls (P = .05). Chronic GVHD at 1 year was zero in Tregs and 14% in controls. Hematopoietic recovery and chimerism, cumulative density of infections, nonrelapse mortality, relapse, and disease-free survival were similar in the Treg recipients and controls. KT64/86-expanded UCB Tregs were safe and resulted in low risk of acute GVHD. PMID:26563133

  20. Umbilical cord blood-derived T regulatory cells to prevent GVHD: kinetics, toxicity profile, and clinical effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstein, Claudio G; Miller, Jeffrey S; McKenna, David H; Hippen, Keli L; DeFor, Todd E; Sumstad, Darin; Curtsinger, Julie; Verneris, Michael R; MacMillan, Margaret L; Levine, Bruce L; Riley, James L; June, Carl H; Le, Chap; Weisdorf, Daniel J; McGlave, Philip B; Blazar, Bruce R; Wagner, John E

    2016-02-25

    We studied the safety and clinical outcomes of patients treated with umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived regulatory T cells (Tregs) that expanded in cultures stimulated with K562 cells modified to express the high-affinity Fc receptor (CD64) and CD86, the natural ligand of CD28 (KT64/86). Eleven patients were treated with Treg doses from 3-100 × 10(6) Treg/kg. The median proportion of CD4(+)FoxP3(+)CD127(-) in the infused product was 87% (range, 78%-95%), and we observed no dose-limiting infusional adverse events. Clinical outcomes were compared with contemporary controls (n = 22) who received the same conditioning regimen with sirolimus and mycophenolate mofetil immune suppression. The incidence of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) at 100 days was 9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0-25) vs 45% (95% CI, 24-67) in controls (P = .05). Chronic GVHD at 1 year was zero in Tregs and 14% in controls. Hematopoietic recovery and chimerism, cumulative density of infections, nonrelapse mortality, relapse, and disease-free survival were similar in the Treg recipients and controls. KT64/86-expanded UCB Tregs were safe and resulted in low risk of acute GVHD. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  1. Mapping transcriptome profiles of in vitro iPSC-derived cardiac differentiation to in utero heart development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The dataset includes microarray data (Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Array from WT and Nos3−/− mouse embryonic heart ventricular tissues at 14.5 days post coitum (E14.5, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs derived from WT and Nos3−/− mouse tail tip fibroblasts, iPSC-differentiated cardiomyocytes at Day 11, and mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs and differentiated cardiomyocytes as positive controls for mouse iPSC differentiation. Both in utero (using embryonic heart tissues and in vitro (using iPSCs and differentiated cells microarray datasets were deposited to the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database. The deposited data in GEO include raw microarray data, metadata for sample source information, experimental design, sample and data processing, and gene expression matrix. The data are available under GEO Access Number GSE69317 (GSE69315 for tissue sample microarray data, GSE69316 for iPSCs microarray data, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc= GSE69317.

  2. Pharmacological Profile of Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Splice Variant Translation Using a Novel Drug Screening Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaghi, Valentina; Polacchini, Alessio; Baj, Gabriele; Pinheiro, Vera L. M.; Vicario, Annalisa; Tongiorgi, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key regulator of neuronal development and plasticity. BDNF is a major pharmaceutical target in neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. However, pharmacological modulation of this neurotrophin is challenging because BDNF is generated by multiple, alternatively spliced transcripts with different 5′- and 3′UTRs. Each BDNF mRNA variant is transcribed independently, but translation regulation is unknown. To evaluate the translatability of BDNF transcripts, we developed an in vitro luciferase assay in human neuroblastoma cells. In unstimulated cells, each BDNF 5′- and 3′UTR determined a different basal translation level of the luciferase reporter gene. However, constructs with either a 5′UTR or a 3′UTR alone showed poor translation modulation by BDNF, KCl, dihydroxyphenylglycine, AMPA, NMDA, dopamine, acetylcholine, norepinephrine, or serotonin. Constructs consisting of the luciferase reporter gene flanked by the 5′UTR of one of the most abundant BDNF transcripts in the brain (exons 1, 2c, 4, and 6) and the long 3′UTR responded selectively to stimulation with the different receptor agonists, and only transcripts 2c and 6 were increased by the antidepressants desipramine and mirtazapine. We propose that BDNF mRNA variants represent “a quantitative code” for regulated expression of the protein. Thus, to discriminate the efficacy of drugs in stimulating BDNF synthesis, it is appropriate to use variant-specific in vitro screening tests. PMID:25074925

  3. Urban water trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Adriana; Hofmann, Pascale; Teh, Tse-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Water is an essential element in the future of cities. It shapes cities’ locations, form, ecology, prosperity and health. The changing nature of urbanisation, climate change, water scarcity, environmental values, globalisation and social justice mean that the models of provision of water services and infrastructure that have dominated for the past two centuries are increasingly infeasible. Conventional arrangements for understanding and managing water in cities are being subverted by a range of natural, technological, political, economic and social changes. The prognosis for water in cities remains unclear, and multiple visions and discourses are emerging to fill the space left by the certainty of nineteenth century urban water planning and engineering. This book documents a sample of those different trajectories, in terms of water transformations, option, services and politics. Water is a key element shaping urban form, economies and lifestyles, part of the ongoing transformation of cities. Cities are face...

  4. Vertically-resolved profiles of mass concentrations and particle backscatter coefficients of Asian dust plumes derived from lidar observations of silicon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Youngmin; Müller, Detlef; Shin, Sung-Kyun; Shin, Dongho; Kim, Young J

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a method to retrieve vertically-resolved profiles of dust mass concentrations by analyzing Raman lidar signals of silicon dioxide (quartz) at 546nm. The observed particle plumes consisted of mixtures of East Asian dust with anthropogenic pollution. Our method for the first time allows for extracting the contribution of the aerosol component "pure dust" contained in the aerosol type "polluted dust". We also propose a method that uses OPAC (Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds) and the mass concentrations profiles of dust in order to derive profiles of backscatter coefficients of pure dust in mixed dust/pollution plumes. The mass concentration of silicon dioxide (quartz) in the atmosphere can be estimated from the backscatter coefficient of quartz. The mass concentration of dust is estimated by the weight percentage (38-77%) of mineral quartz in Asian dust. The retrieved dust mass concentrations are classified into water soluble, nucleation, accumulation, mineral-transported and coarse mode according to OPAC. The mass mixing ratio of 0.018, 0.033, 0.747, 0.130 and 0.072, respectively, is used. Dust extinction coefficients at 550nm were calculated by using OPAC and prescribed number concentrations for each of the 5 components. Dust backscatter coefficients were calculated from the dust extinction coefficients on the basis of a lidar ratio of 45±3sr at 532nm. We present results of quartz-Raman measurements carried out on the campus of the Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (35.10°N, 126.53°E) on 15, 16, and 21 March 2010. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dexamethasone and Monophosphoryl Lipid A Induce a Distinctive Profile on Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells through Transcriptional Modulation of Genes Associated With Essential Processes of the Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina A. García-González

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in the use of tolerogenic dendritic cells (tolDCs as a potential target for immunotherapy. However, the molecular bases that drive the differentiation of monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs toward a tolerogenic state are still poorly understood. Here, we studied the transcriptional profile of moDCs from healthy subjects, modulated with dexamethasone (Dex and activated with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA, referred to as Dex-modulated and MPLA-activated DCs (DM-DCs, as an approach to identify molecular regulators and pathways associated with the induction of tolerogenic properties in tolDCs. We found that DM-DCs exhibit a distinctive transcriptional profile compared to untreated (DCs and MPLA-matured DCs. Differentially expressed genes downregulated by DM included MMP12, CD1c, IL-1B, and FCER1A involved in DC maturation/inflammation and genes upregulated by DM included JAG1, MERTK, IL-10, and IDO1 involved in tolerance. Genes related to chemotactic responses, cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, fatty acid oxidation, metal homeostasis, and free radical scavenging were strongly enriched, predicting the activation of alternative metabolic processes than those driven by counterpart DCs. Furthermore, we identified a set of genes that were regulated exclusively by the combined action of Dex and MPLA, which are mainly involved in the control of zinc homeostasis and reactive oxygen species production. These data further support the important role of metabolic processes on the control of the DC-driven regulatory immune response. Thus, Dex and MPLA treatments modify gene expression in moDCs by inducing a particular transcriptional profile characterized by the activation of tolerance-associated genes and suppression of the expression of inflammatory genes, conferring the potential to exert regulatory functions and immune response modulation.

  6. Dexamethasone and Monophosphoryl Lipid A Induce a Distinctive Profile on Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells through Transcriptional Modulation of Genes Associated With Essential Processes of the Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, Paulina A; Schinnerling, Katina; Sepúlveda-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Maggi, Jaxaira; Mehdi, Ahmed M; Nel, Hendrik J; Pesce, Bárbara; Larrondo, Milton L; Aravena, Octavio; Molina, María C; Catalán, Diego; Thomas, Ranjeny; Verdugo, Ricardo A; Aguillón, Juan C

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in the use of tolerogenic dendritic cells (tolDCs) as a potential target for immunotherapy. However, the molecular bases that drive the differentiation of monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) toward a tolerogenic state are still poorly understood. Here, we studied the transcriptional profile of moDCs from healthy subjects, modulated with dexamethasone (Dex) and activated with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA), referred to as Dex-modulated and MPLA-activated DCs (DM-DCs), as an approach to identify molecular regulators and pathways associated with the induction of tolerogenic properties in tolDCs. We found that DM-DCs exhibit a distinctive transcriptional profile compared to untreated (DCs) and MPLA-matured DCs. Differentially expressed genes downregulated by DM included MMP12, CD1c, IL-1B, and FCER1A involved in DC maturation/inflammation and genes upregulated by DM included JAG1, MERTK, IL-10, and IDO1 involved in tolerance. Genes related to chemotactic responses, cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, fatty acid oxidation, metal homeostasis, and free radical scavenging were strongly enriched, predicting the activation of alternative metabolic processes than those driven by counterpart DCs. Furthermore, we identified a set of genes that were regulated exclusively by the combined action of Dex and MPLA, which are mainly involved in the control of zinc homeostasis and reactive oxygen species production. These data further support the important role of metabolic processes on the control of the DC-driven regulatory immune response. Thus, Dex and MPLA treatments modify gene expression in moDCs by inducing a particular transcriptional profile characterized by the activation of tolerance-associated genes and suppression of the expression of inflammatory genes, conferring the potential to exert regulatory functions and immune response modulation.

  7. Inland and Near-Shore Water Profiles Derived from the High-Altitude Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Michael F.; Stoll, Jeremy D.; Cook, William B.; Ondrusek, Michael; Stengel, Eric; Brunt, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) on the Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat-2) mission is a six beam, low energy, high repetition rate, 532-nanometer laser transmitter with photon counting detectors. Although designed primarily for detecting height changes in ice caps, sea ice, and vegetation, the polar-orbiting satellite will observe global surface water during its designed three-year life span, including inland waterbodies, coasts, and open oceans. In preparation for the mission, an ICESat-2 prototype, the Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL), was built and flown on high-altitude aircraft experiments over a range of inland and near-shore targets. The purpose was to test the ATLAS concept and to provide a database for developing an algorithm that detects along track surface water height and light penetration under a range of atmospheric and water conditions. The current analysis examines the data sets of three MABEL transects observed from 20 kilometers above ground of coastal and inland waters conducted in 2012 and 2013. Transects ranged from about 2 to 12 kilometers in length and included the middle Chesapeake Bay, the near-shore Atlantic coast at Virginia Beach, and Lake Mead. Results indicate MABEL's high capability for retrieving surface water height statistics with a mean height precision ofapproximately 5-7 centimeters per 100-meter segment length. Profiles of attenuated subsurface backscatter, characterized using a Signal to Background Ratio written in Log10 base, or LSBR (sub 0), were observed over a range of 1.3 to 9.3 meters, depending on water clarity and atmospheric background. Results indicate that observable penetration depth, although primarily dependent on water properties, was greatest when the solar background rate was low. Near-shore bottom reflectance was detected only at the Lake Mead site down to a maximum of 10 meters under a clear night sky and low turbidity of approximately 1

  8. Behavioral and antioxidant activity of a tosylbenz[g]indolamine derivative. A proposed better profile for a potential antipsychotic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zika, Chara A; Nicolaou, Ioannis; Gavalas, Antonis; Rekatas, George V; Tani, Ekaterini; Demopoulos, Vassilis J

    2004-01-07

    BACKGROUND: Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a major limitation of older antipsychotics. Newer antipsychotics have various other side effects such as weight gain, hyperglycemia, etc. In a previous study we have shown that an indolamine molecule expresses a moderate binding affinity at the dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT1A receptors in in vitro competition binding assays. In the present work, we tested its p-toluenesulfonyl derivative (TPBIA) for behavioral effects in rats, related to interactions with central dopamine receptors and its antioxidant activity. METHODS: Adult male Fischer-344 rats grouped as: i) Untreated rats: TPBIA was administered i.p. in various doses ii) Apomorphine-treated rats: were treated with apomorphine (1 mg kg-1, i.p.) 10 min after the administration of TPBIA. Afterwards the rats were placed individually in the activity cage and their motor behaviour was recorded for the next 30 min The antioxidant potential of TPBIA was investigated in the model of in vitro non enzymatic lipid peroxidation. RESULTS: i) In non-pretreated rats, TPBIA reduces the activity by 39 and 82% respectively, ii) In apomorphine pretreated rats, TPBIA reverses the hyperactivity and stereotype behaviour induced by apomorphine. Also TPBIA completely inhibits the peroxidation of rat liver microsome preparations at concentrations of 0.5, 0.25 and 0.1 mM. CONCLUSION: TPBIA exerts dopamine antagonistic activity in the central nervous system. In addition, its antioxidant effect is a desirable property, since TD has been partially attributed, to oxidative stress. Further research is needed to test whether TPBIA may be used as an antipsychotic agent.

  9. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in TBI-related mortality: Interrelationships between Genetics and Acute Systemic and CNS BDNF Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Failla, Michelle D.; Conley, Yvette P.; Wagner, Amy K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Older adults have higher mortality rates after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) compared to younger adults. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling is altered in aging and is important to TBI given its role in neuronal survival/plasticity and autonomic function. Following experimental TBI, acute BDNF administration has not been efficacious. Clinically, genetic variation in BDNF (reduced signaling alleles: rs6265, Met-carriers; rs7124442, C-carriers) were protective in acute mortality. Post-acutely, these genotypes carried lower mortality risk in older adults, and greater mortality risk among younger adults. Objective Investigate BDNF levels in mortality/outcome following severe TBI in the context of age and genetic risk. Methods CSF and serum BDNF were assessed prospectively during the first week following severe TBI (n=203), and in controls (n=10). Age, BDNF genotype, and BDNF levels were assessed as mortality/outcome predictors. Results CSF BDNF levels tended to be higher post-TBI (p=0.061) versus controls and were associated with time until death (p=0.042). In contrast, serum BDNF levels were reduced post-TBI versus controls (pBDNF serum and gene*age interactions were mortality predictors post-TBI in the same multivariate model. CSF and serum BDNF tended to be negatively correlated post-TBI (p=0.07). Conclusions BDNF levels predicted mortality, in addition to gene*age interactions, suggesting levels capture additional mortality risk. Higher CSF BDNF post-TBI may be detrimental due to injury and age-related increases in pro-apoptotic BDNF target receptors. Negative CSF and serum BDNF correlations post-TBI suggest blood-brain barrier transit alterations. Understanding BDNF signaling in neuronal survival, plasticity, and autonomic function may inform treatment. PMID:25979196

  10. Quantitative Spatiotemporal Chemical Profiling of Individual Lipid Droplets by Hyperspectral CARS Microscopy in Living Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Napoli, Claudia; Pope, Iestyn; Masia, Francesco; Langbein, Wolfgang; Watson, Pete; Borri, Paola

    2016-04-05

    There is increasing evidence showing that cytosolic lipid droplets, present in all eukaryotic cells, play a key role in many cellular functions. Yet their composition at the individual droplet level and how it evolves over time in living cells is essentially unknown due to the lack of suitable quantitative nondestructive measurement techniques. In this work, we demonstrate the ability of label-free hyperspectral coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy, together with a quantitative image analysis algorithm developed by us, to quantify the lipid type and content in vol/vol concentration units of individual lipid droplets in living human adipose-derived stem cells during differentiation over 9 days in media supplemented with different fatty acids. Specifically, we investigated the addition of the polyunsaturated linoleic and alpha-linolenic fatty acids into the normal differentiation medium (mostly containing monounsaturated fatty acids). We observe a heterogeneous uptake which is droplet-size dependent, time dependent, and lipid dependent. Cells grown in linoleic-acid-supplemented medium show the largest distribution of lipid content across different droplets at all times during differentiation. When analyzing the average lipid content, we find that adding linoleic or alpha-linolenic fatty acids at day 0 results in uptake of the new lipid components with an exponential time constant of 22 ± 2 h. Conversely, switching lipids at day 3 results in an exponential time constant of 60 ± 5 h. These are unprecedented findings, exemplifying that the quantitative imaging method demonstrated here could open a radically new way of studying and understanding cytosolic lipid droplets in living cells.

  11. Criminal trajectories in organized crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poot, Christianne J. de; Kleemans, Edward R.; Nieuwbeerta, Paul; van Koppen, M. Vere

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates criminal trajectories of individuals who are involved in organized crime. A semiparametric group-model is used to cluster 854 individuals into groups with similar developmental trajectories. The most important fi ndings of the study relate to the substantial group of

  12. Homotopy Measures for Representative Trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chambers, Erin W.; Kostitsyna, Irina; Löffler, Maarten; Staals, Frank

    2016-01-01

    An important task in trajectory analysis is defining a meaningful representative for a cluster of similar trajectories. Formally defining and computing such a representative r is a challenging problem. We propose and discuss two new definitions, both of which use only the geometry of the input

  13. Three-dimensional image technology in forensic anthropology: Assessing the validity of biological profiles derived from CT-3D images of the skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia de Leon Valenzuela, Maria Julia

    This project explores the reliability of building a biological profile for an unknown individual based on three-dimensional (3D) images of the individual's skeleton. 3D imaging technology has been widely researched for medical and engineering applications, and it is increasingly being used as a tool for anthropological inquiry. While the question of whether a biological profile can be derived from 3D images of a skeleton with the same accuracy as achieved when using dry bones has been explored, bigger sample sizes, a standardized scanning protocol and more interobserver error data are needed before 3D methods can become widely and confidently used in forensic anthropology. 3D images of Computed Tomography (CT) scans were obtained from 130 innominate bones from Boston University's skeletal collection (School of Medicine). For each bone, both 3D images and original bones were assessed using the Phenice and Suchey-Brooks methods. Statistical analysis was used to determine the agreement between 3D image assessment versus traditional assessment. A pool of six individuals with varying experience in the field of forensic anthropology scored a subsample (n = 20) to explore interobserver error. While a high agreement was found for age and sex estimation for specimens scored by the author, the interobserver study shows that observers found it difficult to apply standard methods to 3D images. Higher levels of experience did not result in higher agreement between observers, as would be expected. Thus, a need for training in 3D visualization before applying anthropological methods to 3D bones is suggested. Future research should explore interobserver error using a larger sample size in order to test the hypothesis that training in 3D visualization will result in a higher agreement between scores. The need for the development of a standard scanning protocol focusing on the optimization of 3D image resolution is highlighted. Applications for this research include the possibility

  14. High-throughput sequencing as an effective approach in profiling small RNAs derived from a hairpin RNA expression vector in woody plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongyan; Song, Guo-Qing

    2014-11-01

    Hairpin RNA (hpRNA)-mediated gene silencing has proved to be an efficient approach to develop virus-resistant transgenic plants. To characterize small RNA molecules (sRNAs) derived from an hpRNA expression vector in transgenic cherry rootstock plants, we conducted small RNA sequencing of (1) a transgenic rootstock containing an inverted repeat of the partial coat protein of Prunus necrotic ring spot virus (PNRSV-hpRNA); (2) a nontransgenic rootstock; and (3) a PNRSV-infected sweet cherry plant. Analysis of the PNRSV sRNA pools indicated that 24-nt (nucleotide) small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were the most prevalent sRNAs in the transgenic rootstock whereas the most abundant sRNAs in the PNRSV-infected nontransgenic rootstock were 21-nt siRNAs. In addition, the 24-nt siRNAs of the PNRSV-hpRNA were more abundant on the sense strand than those on the antisense strand in the transgenic rootstock. In contrast, preference in generating PNRSV sRNAs, ranging from 19-nt to 30-nt for sense and antisense strands, was not distinct in the PNRSV-infected nontransgenic sweet cherry. Taken together, this is the first report on profiling hpRNA-derived sRNAs in woody plants using high-throughput sequencing technology, which is an efficient way to verify the presence/absence, the abundance, and the sequence features of certain sRNAs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The profile of snoRNA-derived microRNAs that regulate expression of variant surface proteins in Giardia lamblia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Saraiya, Ashesh A.; Wang, Ching C.

    2012-01-01

    Summary In the current investigation, we analyzed all the known small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) in the deeply branching protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia for potential microRNAs (miRNAs) that might be derived from them. Two putative miRNAs have since been identified by Northern blot, primer extension, 3′-RACE and co-immunoprecipitation with Giardia Argonaute (GlAgo), and designated miR6 and miR10. Giardia Dicer (GlDcr) is capable of processing the snoRNAs into the corresponding miRNAs in vitro. Potential miR6 and miR10 binding sites in Giardia genome were predicted bioinformatically. A miR6 binding site was found at the 3′-untranslated regions (UTR) of 44 variant surface protein (vsp) genes, whereas a miR10 binding site was identified at the 3′-end of 159 vsp open-reading frames. Thirty-three of these vsp genes turned out to contain binding sites for both miR6 and miR10. A reporter mRNA tagged with the 3′ end of vsp1267, which contains the target sites for both miRNAs, was translationally repressed by both miRNAs in Giardia. Episomal expression of an N-terminal c-myc tagged VSP1267 was found significantly repressed by introducing either miR6 or miR10 into the cells and the repressive effects were additive. When the 2′-O-methyl antisense oligos (ASOs) of either miR6 or miR10 was introduced, however, there was an enhancement of tagged VSP1267 expression suggesting an inhibition of the repressive effects of endogenous miR6 or miR10 by the ASOs. Of the total 220 vsp genes in Giardia, we have now found 178 of them carrying putative binding sites for all the miRNAs that have been currently identified, suggesting that miRNAs are likely the regulators of VSP expression in Giardia. PMID:22568619

  16. Metabolomic Profiling of Pompe Disease-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes Reveals That Oxidative Stress Is Associated With Cardiac and Skeletal Muscle Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yohei; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Higuchi, Takashi; Shimada, Yohta; Ida, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Toya

    2016-08-18

    : Pompe disease (PD) is a lysosomal storage disease that is caused by a deficiency of the acid α-glucosidase, which results in glycogen accumulation in the lysosome. The major clinical symptoms of PD include skeletal muscle weakness, respiratory failure, and cardiac hypertrophy. Based on its severity and symptom onset, PD is classified into infantile and late-onset forms. Lysosomal accumulation of glycogen can promote many types of cellular dysfunction, such as autophagic dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and abnormal calcium signaling within skeletal muscle. However, the disease mechanism underlying PD cardiomyopathy is not fully understood. Several researchers have shown that PD induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes successfully replicate the disease phenotype and are useful disease models. We have analyzed the metabolomic profile of late-onset PD iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes and found that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are likely associated with cardiac complications. Furthermore, we have validated that these disease-specific changes were also observed in the cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscle of a genetically engineered murine PD model. Oxidative stress may contribute to skeletal muscle and cardiomyocyte dysfunction in PD mice; however, NF-E2-related factor 2 was downregulated in cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscle, despite evidence of oxidative stress. We hypothesized that oxidative stress and an impaired antioxidative stress response mechanism may underlie the molecular pathology of late-onset PD. Pompe disease (PD) is a lysosomal storage disease that is caused by a deficiency of the acid α-glucosidase, which results in glycogen accumulation in the lysosome. An analysis of the metabolomic profile of late-onset PD induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes found that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are likely associated with cardiac complications. Furthermore, these disease

  17. Stem Cell Derived Retinal Pigment Epithelium: The Role of Pigmentation as Maturation Marker and Gene Expression Profile Comparison with Human Endogenous Retinal Pigment Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennis, A; Jacobs, J G; Catsburg, L A E; Ten Brink, J B; Koster, C; Schlingemann, R O; van Meurs, J; Gorgels, T G M F; Moerland, P D; Heine, V M; Bergen, A A

    2017-10-01

    In age-related macular degeneration (AMD) the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) deteriorates, leading to photoreceptor decay and severe vision loss. New therapeutic strategies aim at RPE replacement by transplantation of pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived RPE. Several protocols to generate RPE have been developed where appearance of pigmentation is commonly used as indicator of RPE differentiation and maturation. It is, however, unclear how different pigmentation stages reflect developmental stages and functionality of PSC-derived RPE cells. We generated human embryonic stem cell-derived RPE (hESC-RPE) cells and investigated their gene expression profiles at early pigmentation (EP) and late pigmentation (LP) stages. In addition, we compared the hESC-RPE samples with human endogenous RPE. We used a common reference design microarray (44 K). Our analysis showed that maturing hESC-RPE, upon acquiring pigmentation, expresses markers specific for human RPE. Interestingly, our analysis revealed that EP and LP hESC-RPE do not differ much in gene expression. Our data further showed that pigmented hESC-RPE has a significant lower expression than human endogenous RPE in the visual cycle and oxidative stress pathways. In contrast, we observed a significantly higher expression of pathways related to the process adhesion-to-polarity model that is typical of developing epithelial cells. We conclude that, in vitro, the first appearance of pigmentation hallmarks differentiated RPE. However, further increase in pigmentation does not result in much significant gene expression changes and does not add important RPE functionalities. Consequently, our results suggest that the time span for obtaining differentiated hESC-RPE cells, that are suitable for transplantation, may be greatly reduced.

  18. Shear-wave velocity profile and seismic input derived from ambient vibration array measurements: the case study of downtown L'Aquila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giulio, Giuseppe; Gaudiosi, Iolanda; Cara, Fabrizio; Milana, Giuliano; Tallini, Marco

    2014-08-01

    Downtown L'Aquila suffered severe damage (VIII-IX EMS98 intensity) during the 2009 April 6 Mw 6.3 earthquake. The city is settled on a top flat hill, with a shear-wave velocity profile characterized by a reversal of velocity at a depth of the order of 50-100 m, corresponding to the contact between calcareous breccia and lacustrine deposits. In the southern sector of downtown, a thin unit of superficial red soils causes a further shallow impedance contrast that may have influenced the damage distribution during the 2009 earthquake. In this paper, the main features of ambient seismic vibrations have been studied in the entire city centre by using array measurements. We deployed six 2-D arrays of seismic stations and 1-D array of vertical geophones. The 2-D arrays recorded ambient noise, whereas the 1-D array recorded signals produced by active sources. Surface-wave dispersion curves have been measured by array methods and have been inverted through a neighbourhood algorithm, jointly with the H/V ambient noise spectral ratios related to Rayleigh waves ellipticity. We obtained shear-wave velocity (Vs) profiles representative of the southern and northern sectors of downtown L'Aquila. The theoretical 1-D transfer functions for the estimated Vs profiles have been compared to the available empirical transfer functions computed from aftershock data analysis, revealing a general good agreement. Then, the Vs profiles have been used as input for a deconvolution analysis aimed at deriving the ground motion at bedrock level. The deconvolution has been performed by means of EERA and STRATA codes, two tools commonly employed in the geotechnical engineering community to perform equivalent-linear site response studies. The waveform at the bedrock level has been obtained deconvolving the 2009 main shock recorded at a strong motion station installed in downtown. Finally, this deconvolved waveform has been used as seismic input for evaluating synthetic time-histories in a strong

  19. Classical Trajectories from Coherent Quantum Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadin, Alan

    2013-03-01

    In the conventional Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, classical behavior arises from microscopic coherent quantum systems only in the presence of decoherence on the macroscopic scale. On the contrary, we derive classical Hamiltonian trajectories for a confined quantum wave directly from coherent phase evolution on the microscopic scale, without decoherence or wavefunction collapse (see also). This suggests that the basis for classical macroscopic physics, including relativity, lies in the microscopic behavior of coherently oscillating quantum fields. An outline of such a theory will be presented, which resolves longstanding paradoxes involving wave-particle duality, quantum entanglement, and the quantum-to-classical transition.

  20. Aircraft Trajectory Optimization Using Parametric Optimization Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela Romero, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, a study of the optimization of aircraft trajectories using parametric optimization theory is presented. To that end, an approach based on the use of predefined trajectory patterns and parametric optimization is proposed. The trajectory pat

  1. [Community trajectories of mentally ill and intellectually disabled young people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy

    2013-01-01

    In the context of reforms in the field of disability, this study documents the trajectories and mechanisms of support for young people with mental illness or intellectual disability or pervasive developmental disorders, during the teen-adult life transition period; andfactorsfostering or impeding this transition for their maintenance in an everyday environment, particularly in SESSAD (special education and home care service) and the SAMSAH/ SPAC (medico-social support for adults with disabilities/support services in social life). This study was conducted in the French department of Seine-et-Marne. It was supported by a mixed call for tenders, in which 77 respondents (professionals, families and users), and 26 organizations were consulted. The study shows that few young adults in SAMSAH/SPAC programmes are derived from SESSAD, and they encounter major difficulties living in an everyday environment, particularly during the transition period. Clinical or socio-economic factors related to the profiles of users or healthcare service organization facilitate or hinder the inclusion of young people in an everyday environment. Support for users was also often limited to followup over a suboptimal period, and was hampered by insufficient networking within the regional healthcare system. On the other hand, empowerment of users and their optimal inclusion in an everyday environment, as founding principles of the reform, constitute major action priorities for healthcare structures. Strengthening services for young people (16-25 years), including integration strategies, is recommended in order to establish an integrated network of services in the field of disability.

  2. Trajectory Design to Benefit Trajectory-Based Surface Operations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Trajectory-based operations constitute a key mechanism considered by the Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) for managing traffic in high-density or...

  3. Trajectories of Work-Related Functional Impairment prior to Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo; Björkenstam, Charlotte; Alexanderson, Kristina; Runeson, Bo; Tinghög, Petter; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor

    2015-01-01

    Work-related functional impairment in terms of sickness absence and disability pension (SA/DP) has been reported to be associated with subsequent suicide. However, there is only limited knowledge on SA/DP patterns prior to suicide. The aim was to identify trajectories of work-related functional impairment prior to suicide and to describe associations of socio-demographic and medical factors with such trajectories. This is a population-based retrospective cohort study of the 4 209 individuals aged 22-65 years who committed suicide during 2007-2010 in Sweden. Work-related functional impairment was measured as mean annual number of months of SA/DP. We analyzed trajectories of SA/DP during five years prior to suicide (i.e., 2002-2009) by a group-based trajectory method. Associations between socio-demographic and medical factors with different groups of trajectories were estimated by chi2-test and multinomial logistic regression. Five different functional impairment trajectory groups were identified prior to suicide. One group had constant low levels of SA/DP (46%), while 30% had constant high levels of SA/DP. Two groups (16%) showed increasing number of SA/DP months. The remaining 7% showed decreasing number of SA/DP months before the suicide. Sex, age, educational level, family situation, and diagnosis-specific healthcare were significantly associated with different trajectory groups (Likelihood ratio X2 tests suicide attempts were found in the group with constant low levels. Opposite characteristics were displayed in the group with constant high levels. This study identified five different groups of work-related functional impairment trajectories before suicide. These differences might be partly explained by the variations in socio-demographic profiles and health care consumptions five years before suicide.

  4. Future Prisons and Personalized Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cisca Joldersma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the near future, imprisonment may no longer be the ultimate sanction. Imprisonment may be part of sanctions combined in an offender’s trajectory. These trajectories will become more and more personalized and tailor-made. A trajectory consists of different options: pre-trial options; front-door options; options during stay in prison; pre-release options; and aftercare options. With regard to future prisons, five basic principles can be recognized: human dignity; the avoidance of further damage or harm; the right to develop the self; the right to be important to other people; and a stable and professional organization.

  5. General expression profiles of human native odontoblasts and pulp-derived cultured odontoblast-like cells are similar but reveal differential neuropeptide expression levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pääkkönen, Virve; Bleicher, Françoise; Carrouel, Florence; Vuoristo, Jussi T; Salo, Tuula; Wappler, Ilka; Couble, Marie-Lise; Magloire, Henry; Peters, Heiko; Tjäderhane, Leo

    2009-01-01

    Odontoblasts play a central role during the dentin formation by organic matrix production and mineralisation. Recently, suitable in vitro techniques for studying mature primary odontoblasts and the newly differentiated odontoblasts have been developed. Firstly, the gene expression profiles of native and cultured odontoblasts were compared at large-scale to investigate the similarities and differences between the samples. Secondly, differential expression levels of the genes encoding neuronal proteins were analyzed to study odontoblasts sensory function. Microarray analysis was performed to mature native and cultured pulp-derived odontoblast-like cells to compare their transcriptome. Then, the probes positive only in one sample were divided into gene ontology categories. Expression levels of selected neuronal proteins were further studied with quantitative PCR, and at the protein level by immunofluorescence of mature and newly differentiated odontoblasts in developing tooth. Remarkable similarities between the general and neuronal protein gene expression profiles were observed. Higher cortistatin, galanin, somatostatin receptor 1 (SSTR1) and tyrosine phosphatase receptor type Z1 (PTPRZ1) expression was detected in native than in cultured odontoblast at the mRNA level. Pronociceptin was more abundantly expressed in cultured than in native odontoblasts. Immunofluorescence of mature and newly differentiated odontoblasts on human tooth germs confirmed the results. Cultured odontoblasts used in this study have similar general gene expression pattern to native odontoblasts, and therefore offer a valuable tool for the in vitro odontoblast studies. The expression of PTPRZ1 and galanin, which participate in sensory signal transduction, supports the previously suggested role of odontoblasts as sensory cells.

  6. Human omental adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium alters the proteomic profile of epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang YL

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Yanling Zhang,1,* Weihong Dong,1,* Junjie Wang,2 Jing Cai,1 Zehua Wang1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Renhe Hospital, China Three Gorges University, Yichang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have been reported to participate in the formation of supportive tumor stroma. The abilities of proliferation and invasion of human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC cells were significantly enhanced when indirectly cocultured with human omental adipose-derived MSCs (O-ADSCs in vitro. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, EOC cells were cultured with conditioned medium (CM from O-ADSCs (O-ADSC, and the effect of O-ADSC CM on the proteomic profile of EOC cells was assessed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE, followed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The 2-DE assays revealed a global increase in protein expression in the EOC cells treated with CM. Nine proteins were identified from 11 selected protein spots with differential expression after treatment with CM from O-ADSCs. All the nine proteins have been linked to carcinoma and apoptosis, and the migration ability of tumor cells can be regulated by these proteins. Moreover, the upregulation of prohibitin and serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1 in EOC cells treated with CM was further confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. These results suggest that O-ADSCs affect the proteomic profile of EOC cells via paracrine mechanism in favor of EOC progression. Keywords: ovarian cancer, mesenchymal stromal cells, mesenchymal stem cells, omentum, proteomic

  7. Derivation of Aerosol Profiles for MC3E Convection Studies and Use in Simulations of the 20 May Squall Line Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridlind, Ann M.; Xiaowen, Li; Wu, Di; Van Lier-Walqui, Marcus; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Wu, Wei; Dong, Xiquan; Wang, Jingyu; hide

    2017-01-01

    Advancing understanding of deep convection microphysics via mesoscale modeling studies of well-observed case studies requires observation-based aerosol inputs. Here, we derive hygroscopic aerosol size distribution input profiles from ground-based and airborne measurements for six convection case studies observed during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Cloud Experiment (MC3E) over Oklahoma. We demonstrate use of an input profile in simulations of the only well-observed case study that produced extensive stratiform outflow on 20 May 2011. At well-sampled elevations between -11 and -23 degree C over widespread stratiform rain, ice crystal number concentrations are consistently dominated by a single mode near 400 micrometer in randomly oriented maximum dimension (D[superscript max] ). The ice mass at -23 degree C is primarily in a closely collocated mode, whereas a mass mode near D[superscript max] -1000 micrometer becomes dominant with decreasing elevation to the -11 degree C level, consistent with possible aggregation during sedimentation. However, simulations with and without observation-based aerosol inputs systematically overpredict mass peak D[superscript max] by a factor of 3-5 and underpredict ice number concentration by a factor of 4-10. Previously reported simulations with both two-moment and size-resolved microphysics have shown biases of a similar nature. The observed ice properties are notably similar to those reported from recent tropical measurements. Based on several lines of evidence, we speculate that updraft microphysical pathways determining outflow properties in the 20 May case are similar to a tropical regime, likely associated with warm-temperature ice multiplication that is not well understood or well represented in models.

  8. Anti-cancer fatty-acid derivative induces autophagic cell death through modulation of PKM isoform expression profile mediated by bcr-abl in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Haruka; Taniguchi, Kohei; Kumazaki, Minami; Yamada, Nami; Ito, Yuko; Otsuki, Yoshinori; Uno, Bunji; Hayakawa, Fumihiko; Minami, Yosuke; Naoe, Tomoki; Akao, Yukihiro

    2015-04-28

    The fusion gene bcr-abl develops chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and stimulates PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling, leading to impaired autophagy. PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling also plays an important role in cell metabolism. The Warburg effect is a well-recognized hallmark of cancer energy metabolism, and is regulated by the mTOR/c-Myc/hnRNP/PKM signaling cascade. To develop a new strategy for the treatment of CML, we investigated the associations among bcr-abl, the cascade related to cancer energy metabolism, and autophagy induced by a fatty-acid derivative that we had previously reported as being an autophagy inducer. Here we report that a fatty-acid derivative, AIC-47, induced transcriptional repression of the bcr-abl gene and modulated the expression profile of PKM isoforms, resulting in autophagic cell death. We show that c-Myc functioned as a transcriptional activator of bcr-abl, and regulated the hnRNP/PKM cascade. AIC-47, acting through the PPARγ/β-catenin pathway, induced down-regulation of c-Myc, leading to the disruption of the bcr-abl/mTOR/hnRNP signaling pathway, and switching of the expression of PKM2 to PKM1. This switching caused autophagic cell death through an increase in the ROS level. Our findings suggest that AIC-47 induced autophagic cell death through the PPARγ/β-catenin/bcr-abl/mTOR/hnRNP/PKM cascade. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Galileo's Trajectory with Mild Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groetsch, C. W.

    2012-01-01

    An aspect of Galileo's classical trajectory that persists in a simple resistance model is noted. The resistive model provides a case study for the classroom analysis of limiting behaviour of an implicitly defined function. (Contains 1 note.)

  10. Adaptive Trajectory Design (ATD) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mission design within unstable/stable regions needs unification of individual trajectories from different dynamical regimes. NASA needs an automated process to blend...

  11. [Smoking trajectories among Hungarian adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pénzes, Melinda; Czeglédi, Edit; Balázs, Péter; Urbán, Róbert

    2017-01-01

    Understanding adolescent smoking trajectories is necessary for tailored prevention programs. To identify adolescent cigarette use patterns and risk factors of smoking trajectories by a longitudinal study. We conducted a three-year prospective survey in two age cohorts (6th and 9th school grades) of metropolitan adolescents (n = 1,092) with yearly data collection by self-administered questionnaires. Five smoking trajectory groups were defined by cigarette smoking data. 67.5% of the sample remained nonsmoker, 11.3% smoked all the time, 14.3% were initiators, 3.3% quitters and 3.7% experimenters. Members of smoking trajectory groups differed significantly from each other according to number of smoking friends, parental smoking, family structure, academic achievement and weekly allowance at baseline. Concerning tobacco prevention programs, adolescents are not homogenous population, because distinct set of risk factors are highlighted in their different smoking behavior groups. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(2), 67-76.

  12. GLL RPT IONOSPHERE PROFILES

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Galileo Radio Propagation Team Ionosphere Profile data set is small number of electron density profiles derived from radio occultation data collected while...

  13. Beam Trajectory Correction for SNS

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Chungming

    2005-01-01

    Automated beam trajectory correction with dipole correctors is developed and tested during the Spallation Neutron Source warm linac commissioning periods. The application is based on the XAL Java framework with newly developed optimization tools. Also, dipole corrector polarities and strengths, and beam position monitor (BPM) polarities were checked by an orbit difference program. The on-line model is used in both the trajectory correction and the orbit difference applications. Experimental data for both applications will be presented.

  14. In vivo degradation profile of porcine cartilage-derived extracellular matrix powder scaffolds using a non-invasive fluorescence imaging method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeon Joo; Lee, Soyeon; Yun, Hee-Woong; Yin, Xiang Yun; Kim, Soon Hee; Choi, Byung Hyune; Kim, Young Jick; Kim, Moon Suk; Min, Byoung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    We present a non-invasive fluorescence method for imaging of scaffold degradation in vivo by quantifying the degradation of porcine cartilage-derived extracellular matrix powder (PCP).Three-dimensional porous scaffolds should be biocompatible and bioresorbable, with a controllable degradation and resorption rate to match tissue growth. However, in vivo scaffold degradation and tissue ingrowth processes are not yet fully understood. Unfortunately, current analysis methods require animal sacrifice and scaffold destruction for the quantification of scaffold degradation and cannot monitor the situation in real time. In this study, Cy3, a fluorescent dye, was used for visualizing PCP and a real-time degradation profile was obtained quantitatively by a non-invasive method using an imaging system in which the reduction in fluorescence intensity depended on PCP scaffold degradation. Real-time PCP scaffold degradation was confirmed through changes in the volume and morphology of the scaffold using micro-computed tomography and microscopy. Our results suggest that extracellular matrix degradation was induced by collagen degradation because of the binding between Cy3 and collagen. This non-invasive real-time monitoring system for scaffold degradation will increase our understanding of in vivo matrix and/or scaffold degradation.

  15. Protein expression profile of HT-29 human colon cancer cells after treatment with a cytotoxic daunorubicin-GnRH-III derivative bioconjugate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Natalie Schreier

    Full Text Available Targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic agents is a new approach for the treatment of cancer, which provides increased selectivity and decreased systemic toxicity. We have recently developed a promising drug delivery system, in which the anticancer drug daunorubicin (Dau was attached via oxime bond to a gonadotropin-releasing hormone-III (GnRH-III derivative used as a targeting moiety (Glp-His-Trp-Lys(Ac-His-Asp-Trp-Lys(Da  = Aoa-Pro-Gly-NH2; Glp = pyroglutamic acid, Ac = acetyl; Aoa = aminooxyacetyl. This bioconjugate exerted in vitro cytostatic/cytotoxic effect on human breast, prostate and colon cancer cells, as well as significant in vivo tumor growth inhibitory effect on colon carcinoma bearing mice. In our previous studies, H-Lys(Dau = Aoa-OH was identified as the smallest metabolite produced in the presence of rat liver lysosomal homogenate, which was able to bind to DNA in vitro. To get a deeper insight into the mechanism of action of the bioconjugate, changes in the protein expression profile of HT-29 human colon cancer cells after treatment with the bioconjugate or free daunorubicin were investigated by mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Our results indicate that several metabolism-related proteins, molecular chaperons and proteins involved in signaling are differently expressed after targeted chemotherapeutic treatment, leading to the conclusion that the bioconjugate exerts its cytotoxic action by interfering with multiple intracellular processes.

  16. Genetic profiling and surface proteome analysis of human atrial stromal cells and rat ventricular epicardium-derived cells reveals novel insights into their cardiogenic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Temme

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Epicardium-derived cells (EPDC and atrial stromal cells (ASC display cardio-regenerative potential, but the molecular details are still unexplored. Signals which induce activation, migration and differentiation of these cells are largely unknown. Here we have isolated rat ventricular EPDC and rat/human ASC and performed genetic and proteomic profiling. EPDC and ASC expressed epicardial/mesenchymal markers (WT-1, Tbx18, CD73, CD90, CD44, CD105, cardiac markers (Gata4, Tbx5, troponin T and also contained phosphocreatine. We used cell surface biotinylation to isolate plasma membrane proteins of rEPDC and hASC, Nano-liquid chromatography with subsequent mass spectrometry and bioinformatics analysis identified 396 rat and 239 human plasma membrane proteins with 149 overlapping proteins. Functional GO-term analysis revealed several significantly enriched categories related to extracellular matrix (ECM, cell migration/differentiation, immunology or angiogenesis. We identified receptors for ephrin and growth factors (IGF, PDGF, EGF, anthrax toxin known to be involved in cardiac repair and regeneration. Functional category enrichment identified clusters around integrins, PI3K/Akt-signaling and various cardiomyopathies. Our study indicates that EPDC and ASC have a similar molecular phenotype related to cardiac healing/regeneration. The cell surface proteome repository will help to further unravel the molecular details of their cardio-regenerative potential and their role in cardiac diseases.

  17. Comparison of phenotypic and WGS-derived antimicrobial resistance profiles of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli isolated from cases of diarrhoeal disease in England, 2015-16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Nascimento, Vivienne; Day, Martin R; Doumith, Michel; Hopkins, Katie L; Woodford, Neil; Godbole, Gauri; Jenkins, Claire

    2017-12-01

    Phenotypic and genotypic methods for the detection of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) were compared and evaluated. WGS data from 155 isolates of EAEC isolated between June 2015 and December 2016 were mapped to genes known to be associated with phenotypic AMR. Phenotypic and genotypic testing of 155 isolates against 10 antimicrobial classes resulted in a total of 25 (1.6%) discordant results of a possible 1550 isolate/antimicrobial combinations. Twenty-three of the mismatches were observed in streptomycin or sulphonamide resistance profiles. These discrepancies were associated with either insertions or truncations in the genes predicted to confer resistance, or in their promotors, rendering them non-functional, or with the presence of aadA variants associated with reduced expression. The most common resistances detected were to ampicillin (56.1%), the sulphonamides (49.7%) and trimethoprim (48.4%). The presence of CTX-M ESBL variants and/or acquired AmpC was detected in 87 of 155 (56.1%) isolates and 18 of 155 (11.6%) isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Eighty-eight (56.8%) isolates were MDR. Phenotypic and genome-derived AMR comparisons showed good correlation for EAEC. A better understanding of the role of allelic variants, specific gene combinations and promoter/attenuator mechanisms in the phenotypic manifestation will improve our ability to provide a robust interpretation of the data for surveillance purposes and, ultimately, in the clinical setting.

  18. Different Transcriptional Profiles of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells Infected with Distinct Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunzia Sanarico

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze dendritic cells (DCs activation following infection with different mycobacterial strains, we studied the expression profiles of 165 genes of human monocyte-derived DCs infected with H37Rv, a virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB laboratory strain, CMT97, a clinical MTB isolate, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG, Aventis Pasteur, and BCG Japan, both employed as vaccine against tuberculosis. The analysis of the gene expression reveals that, despite a set of genes similarly modulated, DCs response resulted strain dependent. In particular, H37Rv significantly upregulated EBI3 expression compared with BCG Japan, while it was the only strain that failed to release a significant IL-10 amount. Of note, BCG Japan showed a marked increase in CCR7 and TNF-α expression regarding both MTB strains and it resulted the only strain failing in exponential intracellular growth. Our results suggest that DCs display the ability to elicit a tailored strain-specific immune response.

  19. Hermes emergency reentry trajectories consequences on the Ariane 5 trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delattre, Ph.; Wagner, A.

    1990-06-01

    Hermes emergency reentry trajectories occur in case of any failure during that part of the launch phase from jettisoning the burn-out solid propellant boosters till the ignition of the MPH. In that case the Crew Escape Module cannot be used because of high Mach numbers and very severe constraints that would result of its low lift coefficient. The maximum constraints on the Hermes space plane are obtained in the atmospheric reentry phase of the emergency trajectories. Their important level is due to the deep flight path angle attained during the ballistic arc of the trajectory. Their values are depending on the instant of launch abort. These maximum constraints are very depending on the launch trajectory. The maximum Hermes constraints were represented in the altitude-velocity plane as a maximum altitude boundary for the Ariane 5 launch trajectory. Unfortunately a performance loss is the result of the requirement for a reduction of the culmination altitude. This has lead to a launch trajectory optimization that will be detailed in this paper. As an out-come of this study two important decisions have been made by CNES: choice of a L6 for the Hermes propulsion module; and the choice of the boundary that constraints the launch trajectory. Important efforts were made on Hermes in order to reduce the maximum constraints, in the field of aerodynamics (moment coefficient reduction, increase of the maximum angle of attack), center of gravity location (in order to reduce control surfaces hinge-moments and temperatures) and elevon-body-flap differential deflection.

  20. Fast Optimization for Aircraft Descent and Approach Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchinsky, Dmitry G.; Schuet, Stefan; Brenton, J.; Timucin, Dogan; Smith, David; Kaneshige, John

    2017-01-01

    We address problem of on-line scheduling of the aircraft descent and approach trajectory. We formulate a general multiphase optimal control problem for optimization of the descent trajectory and review available methods of its solution. We develop a fast algorithm for solution of this problem using two key components: (i) fast inference of the dynamical and control variables of the descending trajectory from the low dimensional flight profile data and (ii) efficient local search for the resulting reduced dimensionality non-linear optimization problem. We compare the performance of the proposed algorithm with numerical solution obtained using optimal control toolbox General Pseudospectral Optimal Control Software. We present results of the solution of the scheduling problem for aircraft descent using novel fast algorithm and discuss its future applications.

  1. On Choosing a Rational Flight Trajectory to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordienko, E. S.; Khudorozhkov, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    The algorithm for choosing a trajectory of spacecraft flight to the Moon is discussed. The characteristic velocity values needed for correcting the flight trajectory and a braking maneuver are estimated using the Monte Carlo method. The profile of insertion and flight to a near-circular polar orbit with an altitude of 100 km of an artificial lunar satellite (ALS) is given. The case of two corrections applied during the flight and braking phases is considered. The flight to an ALS orbit is modeled in the geocentric geoequatorial nonrotating coordinate system with the influence of perturbations from the Earth, the Sun, and the Moon factored in. The characteristic correction costs corresponding to corrections performed at different time points are examined. Insertion phase errors, the errors of performing the needed corrections, and the errors of determining the flight trajectory parameters are taken into account.

  2. Design and pre-clinical profiling of a Plasmodium falciparum MSP-3 derived component for a multi-valent virosomal malaria vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boato Francesca

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical profiling of two components for a synthetic peptide-based virosomal malaria vaccine has yielded promising results, encouraging the search for additional components for inclusion in a final multi-valent vaccine formulation. This report describes the immunological characterization of linear and cyclized synthetic peptides comprising amino acids 211-237 of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein (MSP-3. Methods These peptides were coupled to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE; the conjugates were intercalated into immunopotentiating reconstituted influenza virosomes (IRIVs and then used for immunizations in mice to evaluate their capacity to elicit P. falciparum cross-reactive antibodies. Results While all MSP-3-derived peptides were able to elicit parasite-binding antibodies, stabilization of turn structures by cyclization had no immune-enhancing effect. Therefore, further pre-clinical profiling was focused on FB-12, a PE conjugate of the linear peptide. Consistent with the immunological results obtained in mice, all FB-12 immunized rabbits tested seroconverted and consistently elicited antibodies that interacted with blood stage parasites. It was observed that a dose of 50 μg was superior to a dose of 10 μg and that influenza pre-existing immunity improved the immunogenicity of FB-12 in rabbits. FB-12 production was successfully up-scaled and the immunogenicity of a vaccine formulation, produced according to the rules of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP, was tested in mice and rabbits. All animals tested developed parasite-binding antibodies. Comparison of ELISA and IFA titers as well as the characterization of a panel of anti-FB-12 monoclonal antibodies indicated that at least the majority of antibodies specific for the virosomally formulated synthetic peptide were parasite cross-reactive. Conclusion These results reconfirm the suitability of IRIVs as a carrier/adjuvant system for the induction of strong humoral

  3. Trajectory Auto-Corrected image reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, Julianna D; Grissom, William A

    2016-09-01

    To estimate k-space trajectory errors in non-Cartesian acquisitions and reconstruct distortion-free images, without trajectory measurements or gradient calibrations. The Trajectory Auto-Corrected image Reconstruction method jointly estimates k-space trajectory errors and images, based on SENSE and SPIRiT parallel imaging reconstruction. The underlying idea is that parallel imaging and oversampling in the center of k-space provides data redundancy that can be exploited to simultaneously reconstruct images and correct trajectory errors. Trajectory errors are represented as weighted sums of trajectory-dependent error basis functions, the coefficients of which are estimated using gradient-based optimization. Trajectory Auto-Corrected image Reconstruction was applied to reconstruct images and errors in golden angle radial, center-out radial, and spiral in vivo 7 Tesla brain acquisitions in five subjects. Compared to reconstructions using nominal trajectories, Trajectory auto-corrected image reconstructions contained considerably less blurring and streaking and were of similar quality to images reconstructed using measured k-space trajectories in the center-out radial and spiral cases. Reconstruction cost function reductions and improvements in normalized image gradient squared were also similar to those for images reconstructed using measured trajectories. Trajectory Auto-Corrected image Reconstruction enables non-Cartesian image reconstructions free from trajectory errors without the need for separate gradient calibrations or trajectory measurements. Magn Reson Med 76:757-768, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Gene expression profiling for human iPS-derived motor neurons from sporadic ALS patients reveals a strong association between mitochondrial functions and neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Chrystian J; Dariolli, Rafael; Jorge, Frederico M; Monteiro, Matheus R; Maximino, Jessica R; Martins, Roberto S; Strauss, Bryan E; Krieger, José E; Callegaro, Dagoberto; Chadi, Gerson

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that leads to widespread motor neuron death, general palsy and respiratory failure. The most prevalent sporadic ALS form is not genetically inherited. Attempts to translate therapeutic strategies have failed because the described mechanisms of disease are based on animal models carrying specific gene mutations and thus do not address sporadic ALS. In order to achieve a better approach to study the human disease, human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-differentiated motor neurons were obtained from motor nerve fibroblasts of sporadic ALS and non-ALS subjects using the STEMCCA Cre-Excisable Constitutive Polycistronic Lentivirus system and submitted to microarray analyses using a whole human genome platform. DAVID analyses of differentially expressed genes identified molecular function and biological process-related genes through Gene Ontology. REVIGO highlighted the related functions mRNA and DNA binding, GTP binding, transcription (co)-repressor activity, lipoprotein receptor binding, synapse organization, intracellular transport, mitotic cell cycle and cell death. KEGG showed pathways associated with Parkinson's disease and oxidative phosphorylation, highlighting iron homeostasis, neurotrophic functions, endosomal trafficking and ERK signaling. The analysis of most dysregulated genes and those representative of the majority of categorized genes indicates a strong association between mitochondrial function and cellular processes possibly related to motor neuron degeneration. In conclusion, iPSC-derived motor neurons from motor nerve fibroblasts of sporadic ALS patients may recapitulate key mechanisms of neurodegeneration and may offer an opportunity for translational investigation of sporadic ALS. Large gene profiling of differentiated motor neurons from sporadic ALS patients highlights mitochondrial participation in the establishment of autonomous mechanisms associated with sporadic ALS.

  5. Three LIF-dependent signatures and gene clusters with atypical expression profiles, identified by transcriptome studies in mouse ES cells and early derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hummel Oliver

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mouse embryonic stem (ES cells remain pluripotent in vitro when grown in the presence of the cytokine Leukaemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF. Identification of LIF targets and of genes regulating the transition between pluripotent and early differentiated cells is a critical step for understanding the control of ES cell pluripotency. Results By gene profiling studies carried out with mRNAs from ES cells and their early derivatives treated or not with LIF, we have identified i LIF-dependent genes, highly expressed in pluripotent cells, whose expression level decreases sharply upon LIF withdrawal [Pluri genes], ii LIF induced genes [Lifind genes] whose expression is differentially regulated depending upon cell context and iii genes specific to the reversible or irreversible committed states. In addition, by hierarchical gene clustering, we have identified, among eight independent gene clusters, two atypical groups of genes, whose expression level was highly modulated in committed cells only. Computer based analyses led to the characterization of different sub-types of Pluri and Lifind genes, and revealed their differential modulation by Oct4 or Nanog master genes. Individual knock down of a selection of Pluri and Lifind genes leads to weak changes in the expression of early differentiation markers, in cell growth conditions in which these master genes are still expressed. Conclusion We have identified different sets of LIF-regulated genes depending upon the cell state (reversible or irreversible commitment, which allowed us to present a novel global view of LIF responses. We are also reporting on the identification of genes whose expression is strictly regulated during the commitment step. Furthermore, our studies identify sub-networks of genes with a restricted expression in pluripotent ES cells, whose down regulation occurs while the master knot (composed of OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG is still expressed and which might be down

  6. Rumen microbial abundance and fermentation profile during severe subacute ruminal acidosis and its modulation by plant derived alkaloids in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickdam, Elsayed; Khiaosa-Ard, Ratchaneewan; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Klevenhusen, Fenja; Chizzola, Remigius; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2016-06-01

    Rumen microbiota have important metabolic functions for the host animal. This study aimed at characterizing changes in rumen microbial abundances and fermentation profiles using a severe subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in vitro model, and to evaluate a potential modulatory role of plant derived alkaloids (PDA), containing quaternary benzophenanthridine and protopine alkaloids, of which sanguinarine and chelerythrine were the major bioactive compounds. Induction of severe SARA strongly affected the rumen microbial composition and fermentation variables without suppressing the abundance of total bacteria. Protozoa and fungi were more sensitive to the low ruminal pH condition than bacteria. Induction of severe SARA clearly depressed degradation of fiber (P < 0.001), which came along with a decreased relative abundance of fibrolytic Ruminococcus albus and Fibrobacter succinogenes (P < 0.001). Under severe SARA conditions, the genus Prevotella, Lactobacillus group, Megasphaera elsdenii, and Entodinium spp. (P < 0.001) were more abundant, whereas Ruminobacter amylophilus was less abundant. SARA largely suppressed methane formation (-70%, P < 0.001), although total methanogenic 16S rRNA gene abundance was not affected. According to principal component analysis, Methanobrevibacter spp. correlated to methane concentration. Addition of PDA modulated ruminal fermentation under normal conditions such as enhanced (P < 0.05) concentration of total SCFA, propionate and valerate, and increased (P < 0.05) degradation of crude protein compared with the unsupplemented control diet. Our results indicate strong shifts in the microbial community during severe SARA compared to normal conditions. Supplementation of PDA positively modulates ruminal fermentation under normal ruminal pH conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Compressive and extensive strain along gradient trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gampert, Markus; Goebbert, Jens Henrik; Schaefer, Philip; Gauding, Michael; Peters, Norbert [Institut fuer Technische Verbrennung, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Aldudak, Fettah; Oberlack, Martin, E-mail: m.gampert@itv.rwth-aachen.de [Fachgebiet fuer Stroemungsdynamik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany)

    2011-12-22

    Based on direct numerical simulations of forced turbulence, shear turbulence, decaying turbulence, a turbulent channel flow as well as a Kolmogorov flow with Taylor based Reynolds numbers Re{sub {lambda}} between 69 and 295, the normalized probability density function of the length distribution P-tilde (l-tilde) of dissipation elements, the conditional mean scalar difference < {Delta}k | l > at the extreme points as well as the scaling of the two-point velocity difference along gradient trajectories < {Delta}u{sub n}> are studied. Using the field of the instantanous turbulent kinetic energy k as a scalar, we find a good agreement between the model equation for P-tilde (l-tilde) as proposed by Wang and Peters (2008) and the results obtained in the different DNS cases. This confirms the independance of the model solution from both, the Reynolds number and the type of turbulent flow, so that it can be considered universally valid. In addition, we show a 2/3 scaling for the mean conditional scalar difference. In the second part of the paper, we examine the scaling of the conditional two-point velocity difference along gradient trajectories. In particular, we compare the linear s/{tau} scaling, where {tau} denotes an integral time scale and s the separation arclength along a gradient trajectory in the inertial range as derived by Wang (2009) with the s {center_dot} a{sub {infinity}} scaling, where a{sub {infinity}} denotes the asymtotic value of the conditional mean strain rate of large dissipation elements.

  8. Simulation Propulsion System and Trajectory Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Eric S.; Falck, Robert D.; Gray, Justin S.

    2017-01-01

    A number of new aircraft concepts have recently been proposed which tightly couple the propulsion system design and operation with the overall vehicle design and performance characteristics. These concepts include propulsion technology such as boundary layer ingestion, hybrid electric propulsion systems, distributed propulsion systems and variable cycle engines. Initial studies examining these concepts have typically used a traditional decoupled approach to aircraft design where the aerodynamics and propulsion designs are done a-priori and tabular data is used to provide inexpensive look ups to the trajectory ana-ysis. However the cost of generating the tabular data begins to grow exponentially when newer aircraft concepts require consideration of additional operational parameters such as multiple throttle settings, angle-of-attack effects on the propulsion system, or propulsion throttle setting effects on aerodynamics. This paper proposes a new modeling approach that eliminated the need to generate tabular data, instead allowing an expensive propulsion or aerodynamic analysis to be directly integrated into the trajectory analysis model and the entire design problem optimized in a fully coupled manner. The new method is demonstrated by implementing a canonical optimal control problem, the F-4 minimum time-to-climb trajectory optimization using three relatively new analysis tools: Open M-DAO, PyCycle and Pointer. Pycycle and Pointer both provide analytic derivatives and Open MDAO enables the two tools to be combined into a coupled model that can be run in an efficient parallel manner that helps to cost the increased cost of the more expensive propulsion analysis. Results generated with this model serve as a validation of the tightly coupled design method and guide future studies to examine aircraft concepts with more complex operational dependencies for the aerodynamic and propulsion models.

  9. Multiview Trajectory Mapping Using Homography with Lens Distortion Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cavallaro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a trajectory mapping algorithm for a distributed camera setting that is based on statistical homography estimation accounting for the distortion introduced by camera lenses. Unlike traditional approaches based on the direct linear transformation (DLT algorithm and singular value decomposition (SVD, the planar homography estimation is derived from renormalization. In addition to this, the algorithm explicitly introduces a correction parameter to account for the nonlinear radial lens distortion, thus improving the accuracy of the transformation. We demonstrate the proposed algorithm by generating mosaics of the observed scenes and by registering the spatial locations of moving objects (trajectories from multiple cameras on the mosaics. Moreover, we objectively compare the transformed trajectories with those obtained by SVD and least mean square (LMS methods on standard datasets and demonstrate the advantages of the renormalization and the lens distortion correction.

  10. Multiview Trajectory Mapping Using Homography with Lens Distortion Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayumbi Gabin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a trajectory mapping algorithm for a distributed camera setting that is based on statistical homography estimation accounting for the distortion introduced by camera lenses. Unlike traditional approaches based on the direct linear transformation (DLT algorithm and singular value decomposition (SVD, the planar homography estimation is derived from renormalization. In addition to this, the algorithm explicitly introduces a correction parameter to account for the nonlinear radial lens distortion, thus improving the accuracy of the transformation. We demonstrate the proposed algorithm by generating mosaics of the observed scenes and by registering the spatial locations of moving objects (trajectories from multiple cameras on the mosaics. Moreover, we objectively compare the transformed trajectories with those obtained by SVD and least mean square (LMS methods on standard datasets and demonstrate the advantages of the renormalization and the lens distortion correction.

  11. Exploring the complexity of quantum control optimization trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanduri, Arun; Shir, Ofer M; Donovan, Ashley; Ho, Tak-San; Rabitz, Herschel

    2015-01-07

    The control of quantum system dynamics is generally performed by seeking a suitable applied field. The physical objective as a functional of the field forms the quantum control landscape, whose topology, under certain conditions, has been shown to contain no critical point suboptimal traps, thereby enabling effective searches for fields that give the global maximum of the objective. This paper addresses the structure of the landscape as a complement to topological critical point features. Recent work showed that landscape structure is highly favorable for optimization of state-to-state transition probabilities, in that gradient-based control trajectories to the global maximum value are nearly straight paths. The landscape structure is codified in the metric R ≥ 1.0, defined as the ratio of the length of the control trajectory to the Euclidean distance between the initial and optimal controls. A value of R = 1 would indicate an exactly straight trajectory to the optimal observable value. This paper extends the state-to-state transition probability results to the quantum ensemble and unitary transformation control landscapes. Again, nearly straight trajectories predominate, and we demonstrate that R can take values approaching 1.0 with high precision. However, the interplay of optimization trajectories with critical saddle submanifolds is found to influence landscape structure. A fundamental relationship necessary for perfectly straight gradient-based control trajectories is derived, wherein the gradient on the quantum control landscape must be an eigenfunction of the Hessian. This relation is an indicator of landscape structure and may provide a means to identify physical conditions when control trajectories can achieve perfect linearity. The collective favorable landscape topology and structure provide a foundation to understand why optimal quantum control can be readily achieved.

  12. Simulation of Trajectories for High Specific Impulse Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsgrove, Tara; Adams, Robert B.; Brady, Hugh J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Difficulties in approximating flight times and deliverable masses for continuous thrust propulsion systems have complicated comparison and evaluation of proposed propulsion concepts. These continuous thrust propulsion systems are of interest to many groups, not the least of which are the electric propulsion and fusion communities. Several charts plotting the results of well-known trajectory simulation codes were developed and are contained in this paper. These charts illustrate the dependence of time of flight and payload ratio on jet power, initial mass, specific impulse and specific power. These charts are intended to be a tool by which people in the propulsion community can explore the possibilities of their propulsion system concepts. Trajectories were simulated using the tools VARITOP and IPOST. VARITOP is a well known trajectory optimization code that involves numerical integration based on calculus of variations. IPOST has several methods of trajectory simulation; the one used in this paper is Cowell's method for full integration of the equations of motion. The analytical method derived in the companion paper was also used to simulate the trajectory. The accuracy of this method is discussed in the paper.

  13. An Improved DBSCAN Algorithm to Detect Stops in Individual Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Luo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing use of mobile GPS (global positioning system devices, a large volume of trajectory data on users can be produced. In most existing work, trajectories are usually divided into a set of stops and moves. In trajectories, stops represent the most important and meaningful part of the trajectory; there are many data mining methods to extract these locations. DBSCAN (density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise is a classical density-based algorithm used to find the high-density areas in space, and different derivative methods of this algorithm have been proposed to find the stops in trajectories. However, most of these methods required a manually-set threshold, such as the speed threshold, for each feature variable. In our research, we first defined our new concept of move ability. Second, by introducing the theory of data fields and by taking our new concept of move ability into consideration, we constructed a new, comprehensive, hybrid feature–based, density measurement method which considers temporal and spatial properties. Finally, an improved DBSCAN algorithm was proposed using our new density measurement method. In the Experimental Section, the effectiveness and efficiency of our method is validated against real datasets. When comparing our algorithm with the classical density-based clustering algorithms, our experimental results show the efficiency of the proposed method.

  14. New Damped-Jerk trajectory for vibration reduction

    OpenAIRE

    BEAREE, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This paper derives a jerk-shaped profile to address the vibration reduction of underdamped flexible dynamics of motion system. The jerk-limited profile is a widespread smooth command pattern used by modern motion systems. The ability of the jerk-limited profile to cancel the residual vibration of an undamped flexible mode is clearly explained using an equivalent continuous filter representation and the input shaping formalism. This motivates the design of a new jerk-shaped profile, named Damp...

  15. "Do You Trust Him?" Children's Trust Beliefs and Developmental Trajectories of Aggressive Behavior in an Ethnically Diverse Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Averdijk, Margit; Ribeaud, Denis; Rotenberg, Ken J.; Eisner, Manuel P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the role of trust beliefs (i.e., trustworthiness, trustfulness) on aggression trajectories in a four-wave longitudinal study using an ethnically diverse sample of 8- to 11-year-old children (N = 1,028), as well as the risk profiles of low trust beliefs and low socioeconomic status on aggression trajectories. At Time 1 to…

  16. Trajectories in the Course of Body Mass Index After Spinal Cord Injury. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, S.; Post, M.W.; Hoekstra, T.; Valent, L.J.; Faber, W.X; van der Woude, L.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify different trajectories of the course of body mass index (BMI) after spinal cord injury (SCI) and to study whether other cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, lipid profile) follow the same trajectories. Design Multicenter prospective cohort study with measurements at the

  17. Simulation of molecular transitions using classical trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoso, A.; Martens, C. C. [University of California, California (United States)

    2001-03-01

    In the present work, we describe the implementation of a semiclassical method to study physical-chemical processes in molecular systems where electronic state transitions and quantum coherence play a dominant role. The method is based on classical trajectory propagation on the underlying coupled electronic surfaces and is derived from the semiclassical limit of the quantum Liouville equation. Unlike previous classical trajectory-based methods, quantum electronic coherence are treated naturally within this approach as complex weighted trajectory ensembles propagating on the average electronic surfaces. The method is tested on a model problem consisting of one-dimensional motion on two crossing electronic surfaces. Excellent agreement is obtained when compared to the exact results obtained by wave packet propagation. The method is applied to model quantum wave packet interferometry, where two wave packets, differing only in a relative phase, collide in the region where the two electronic surfaces cross. The dependence of the resulting population transfer on the initial relative phase of the wave packets is perfectly captured by our classical trajectory method. Comparison with an alternative method, surface hopping, shows that our approach is appropriate for modelling quantum interference phenomena. [Spanish] En este trabajo se describe la implementacion de un metodo semiclasico para estudiar procesos fisicos-quimicos en sistemas moleculares donde las transiciones entre estados electronicos y las coherencias cuanticas juegan un papel predominante. El metodo se basa en la propagacion de trayectorias clasicas sobre las correspondientes superficies electronicas acopladas y se deriva a partir del limite semiclasico de la ecuacion cuantica de Liouville. A diferencia de metodos previos basados en trayectoria clasica, dentro de este esquema, las coherencias electronicas cuanticas son tratadas de manera natural como ensamble de trayectorias con pesos complejos, moviendose en

  18. Experimental nonlocal and surreal Bohmian trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Dylan H.; Rozema, Lee; Fisher, Kent; Vermeyden, Lydia; Resch, Kevin J.; Wiseman, Howard M.; Steinberg, Aephraim

    2016-01-01

    Weak measurement allows one to empirically determine a set of average trajectories for an ensemble of quantum particles. However, when two particles are entangled, the trajectories of the first particle can depend nonlocally on the position of the second particle. Moreover, the theory describing these trajectories, called Bohmian mechanics, predicts trajectories that were at first deemed “surreal” when the second particle is used to probe the position of the first particle. We entangle two photons and determine a set of Bohmian trajectories for one of them using weak measurements and postselection. We show that the trajectories seem surreal only if one ignores their manifest nonlocality. PMID:26989784

  19. Privacy-Preserving Trajectory Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Xuegang, Huang; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2008-01-01

    . To remedy this situation, this paper first formally defines novel location privacy requirements. Then, it briefly presents a system for privacy--preserving trajectory collection that meets these requirements. The system is composed of an untrusted server and clients communicating in a P2P network. Location...

  20. Efficient Trajectory Propagation for Orbit Determination Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa, Javier; Pelaez, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Regularized formulations of orbital motion apply a series of techniques to improve the numerical integration of the orbit. Despite their advantages and potential applications little attention has been paid to the propagation of the partial derivatives of the corresponding set of elements or coordinates, required in many orbit-determination scenarios and optimization problems. This paper fills this gap by presenting the general procedure for integrating the state-transition matrix of the system together with the nominal trajectory using regularized formulations and different sets of elements. The main difficulty comes from introducing an independent variable different from time, because the solution needs to be synchronized. The correction of the time delay is treated from a generic perspective not focused on any particular formulation. The synchronization using time-elements is also discussed. Numerical examples include strongly-perturbed orbits in the Pluto system, motivated by the recent flyby of the New Horizons spacecraft, together with a geocentric flyby of the NEAR spacecraft.

  1. 4D Trajectory Estimation for Air Traffic Control Automation System Based on Hybrid System Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Min Tang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available To resolve the problem of future airspace management under great traffic flow and high density condition, 4D trajectory estimation has become one of the core technologies of the next new generation air traffic control automation system. According to the flight profile and the dynamics models of different aircraft types under different flight conditions, a hybrid system model that switches the aircraft from one flight stage to another with aircraft state changing continuously in one state is constructed. Additionally, air temperature and wind speed are used to modify aircraft true airspeed as well as ground speed, and the hybrid system evolution simulation is used to estimate aircraft 4D trajectory. The case study proves that 4D trajectory estimated through hybrid system model can image the flight dynamic states of aircraft and satisfy the needs of the planned flight altitude profile.KEY WORDSair traffic management, 4D trajectory estimation, hybrid system model, aircraft dynamic model

  2. MicroRNA Profiling of Neurons Generated Using Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from Patients with Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder, and 22q11.2 Del.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejian Zhao

    Full Text Available We are using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC technology to study neuropsychiatric disorders associated with 22q11.2 microdeletions (del, the most common known schizophrenia (SZ-associated genetic factor. Several genes in the region have been implicated; a promising candidate is DGCR8, which codes for a protein involved in microRNA (miRNA biogenesis. We carried out miRNA expression profiling (miRNA-seq on neurons generated from iPSCs derived from controls and SZ patients with 22q11.2 del. Using thresholds of p<0.01 for nominal significance and 1.5-fold differences in expression, 45 differentially expressed miRNAs were detected (13 lower in SZ and 32 higher. Of these, 6 were significantly down-regulated in patients after correcting for genome wide significance (FDR<0.05, including 4 miRNAs that map to the 22q11.2 del region. In addition, a nominally significant increase in the expression of several miRNAs was found in the 22q11.2 neurons that were previously found to be differentially expressed in autopsy samples and peripheral blood in SZ and autism spectrum disorders (e.g., miR-34, miR-4449, miR-146b-3p, and miR-23a-5p. Pathway and function analysis of predicted mRNA targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs showed enrichment for genes involved in neurological disease and psychological disorders for both up and down regulated miRNAs. Our findings suggest that: i. neurons with 22q11.2 del recapitulate the miRNA expression patterns expected of 22q11.2 haploinsufficiency, ii. differentially expressed miRNAs previously identified using autopsy samples and peripheral cells, both of which have significant methodological problems, are indeed disrupted in neuropsychiatric disorders and likely have an underlying genetic basis.

  3. Analytical Ballistic Trajectories with Approximately Linear Drag

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giliam J. P. de Carpentier

    2014-01-01

      This paper introduces a practical analytical approximation of projectile trajectories in 2D and 3D roughly based on a linear drag model and explores a variety of different planning algorithms for these trajectories...

  4. Trajectories of delinquency and parenting styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; Blokland, A.; Dubas, J.S.; Loeber, R.; Gerris, J.R.M.; Laan, P.H. van der

    2008-01-01

    We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering

  5. Trajectories of Delinquency and Parenting Styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; Blokland, A.A.J.; Dubas, J.S.; Loeber, R.; Gerris, J.R.M.; Laan, P.H. van der

    2008-01-01

    We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering

  6. LINEAR LATTICE AND TRAJECTORY RECONSTRUCTION AND CORRECTION AT FAST LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, A. [Fermilab; Edstrom, D. [Fermilab; Halavanau, A. [Northern Illinois U.

    2017-07-16

    The low energy part of the FAST linear accelerator based on 1.3 GHz superconducting RF cavities was successfully commissioned [1]. During commissioning, beam based model dependent methods were used to correct linear lattice and trajectory. Lattice correction algorithm is based on analysis of beam shape from profile monitors and trajectory responses to dipole correctors. Trajectory responses to field gradient variations in quadrupoles and phase variations in superconducting RF cavities were used to correct bunch offsets in quadrupoles and accelerating cavities relative to their magnetic axes. Details of used methods and experimental results are presented.

  7. An analysis of atmospheric entry trajectories for manned and unmanned missions to the planet Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, M. K.; Gonzalez, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    A unified atmospheric density model is presented for the planet Venus, and this model is compatible with Russian and American data obtained during the 1967 Venus launch opportunity. Trajectory characteristics involved in atmospheric entry are discussed with reference to roll-control modulation and entry corridor. Subsequent to a trajectory-oriented discussion of potential Venus mission characteristics, a parametric analysis of manned and unmanned vehicle entry trajectories into the Venusian atmosphere is presented. A sensitivity analysis with reference to atmospheric density deviations is included to show the dependence of corridor depth on the atmospheric density profile.

  8. Successful Aging: Multiple Trajectories and Population Heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    Fengyan Tang

    2014-01-01

    Following Rowe and Kahn¡¯s successful aging model, this study identified successful aging as a distinctive aging trajectory and examined gender differences in the aging process. Using the Health and Retirement Study data (2000-2008), this study applied group-based trajectory analysis to identify multiple aging trajectories in a sample of older Americans aged 65 and over (N=9,226). Six dimensions were analyzed in the multi-trajectory model: chronic disease, physical functional limitation, disa...

  9. Quantum Particle-Trajectories and Geometric Phase

    OpenAIRE

    Dima, M.

    1999-01-01

    "Particle"-trajectories are defined as integrable $dx_\\mu dp^\\mu = 0$ paths in projective space. Quantum states evolving on such trajectories, open or closed, do not delocalise in $(x, p)$ projection, the phase associated with the trajectories being related to the geometric (Berry) phase and the Classical Mechanics action. High Energy Physics properties of states evolving on "particle"-trajectories are discussed.

  10. Winding light beams along elliptical helical trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Yuanhui; Chen, Yujie; Zhang, Yanfeng; Chen, Hui; Yu, Siyuan

    2016-01-01

    Conventional caustic methods in real or Fourier space produced accelerating optical beams only with convex trajectories. We develop a superposition caustic method capable of winding light beams along non-convex trajectories. We ascertain this method by constructing a one-dimensional (1D) accelerating beam moving along a sinusoidal trajectory, and subsequently extending to two-dimensional (2D) accelerating beams along arbitrarily elliptical helical trajectories. We experimentally implement the...

  11. Semi-Automated Processing of Trajectory Simulator Output Files for Model Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    types including the Computer, Meteorological Data–Profiler ( CMD -P) and the Meteorological Measuring Set – Profiler (MMS-P). ARL supported the...earlier the CMD -P and MMS-P) with MET data from radiosonde observations (RAOBs) in terms of MET variables (e.g., wind speed) and measures of artillery...Laboratory ARDEC US Armaments Research and Development Center CMD -P Computer, Meteorological Data–Profiler GTRAJ General Trajectory MET meteorological

  12. Trajectories of Autism Severity in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venker, Courtney E.; Ray-Subramanian, Corey E.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Weismer, Susan Ellis

    2014-01-01

    Relatively little is known about trajectories of autism severity using calibrated severity scores (CSS) from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, but characterizing these trajectories has important theoretical and clinical implications. This study examined CSS trajectories during early childhood. Participants were 129 children with autism…

  13. The envelope of ballistic trajectories and elliptic orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butikov, Eugene I.

    2015-11-01

    Simple geometric derivations are given for the shape of the "safety domain" boundary for the family of Keplerian orbits of equal energy in a central gravitational field and for projectile trajectories in a uniform field. Examples of practical uses of the envelope of the family of orbits are discussed and illustrated by computer simulations. This material is appropriate for physics teachers and undergraduate students studying classical mechanics and orbital motions.

  14. How can latent trajectories of back pain be translated into defined subgroups?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Hestbæk, Lise; Kent, Peter

    2017-01-01

    descriptive definitions, as a way to apply the same definitions of mutually exclusive subgroups across populations. In this study, we investigated if the course trajectories of two LBP cohorts fitted with previously suggested trajectory subgroup definitions, how distinctly different these subgroups were......BACKGROUND: Similar types of trajectory patterns have been identified by Latent Class Analyses (LCA) across multiple low back pain (LBP) cohorts, but these patterns are impractical to apply to new cohorts or individual patients. It would be useful to be able to identify trajectory subgroups from......, and if the subgroup definitions matched with LCA-derived patterns. METHODS: Weekly measures of LBP intensity and frequency during 1 year were available from two clinical cohorts. We applied definitions of 16 possible trajectory subgroups to these observations and calculated the prevalence of the subgroups...

  15. New Search Space Reduction Algorithm for Vertical Reference Trajectory Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro MURRIETA-MENDOZA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Burning the fuel required to sustain a given flight releases pollution such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides, and the amount of fuel consumed is also a significant expense for airlines. It is desirable to reduce fuel consumption to reduce both pollution and flight costs. To increase fuel savings in a given flight, one option is to compute the most economical vertical reference trajectory (or flight plan. A deterministic algorithm was developed using a numerical aircraft performance model to determine the most economical vertical flight profile considering take-off weight, flight distance, step climb and weather conditions. This algorithm is based on linear interpolations of the performance model using the Lagrange interpolation method. The algorithm downloads the latest available forecast from Environment Canada according to the departure date and flight coordinates, and calculates the optimal trajectory taking into account the effects of wind and temperature. Techniques to avoid unnecessary calculations are implemented to reduce the computation time. The costs of the reference trajectories proposed by the algorithm are compared with the costs of the reference trajectories proposed by a commercial flight management system using the fuel consumption estimated by the FlightSim® simulator made by Presagis®.

  16. Extent of Continental Crust Thickening Derived From Gravity Profile Leading From Aden Towards the Dhala Plateau in the Yemen Trap Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecha, V.

    2003-12-01

    Gravity profile trends NNW from Aden and terminates at the Dhala plateau formed by Tertiary volcanics often referred to as the Yemen Trap Series. The length of profile is 120 km. Profile consists of 366 gravity stations with average distance of 300 m between stations. The mean square error of Bouguer anomalies is 0.06 mGal. This final error includes errors of gravity and altitude measurements and error in terrain corrections. Altitudes along profile are ranging from 0 m a.s.l. in the south to 1400 m a.s.l. at the northern side of profile. In the central part of the Gulf of Aden occurs juvenile oceanic crust. Stretched continental crust is assumed on the coast. Regional gravity field decreases from +38 mGal on the coast in Aden to -126 mGal at mountains of the Dhala plateau. According to gravity modeling the decrease of 164 mGal in gravity is caused by 8 km continental crust thickening over the distance of 120 km. Regional gravity field is accompanied by local anomalies with amplitudes of tens of mGal. Sources of local anomalies are from S to N: coastal sediments (negative), Tertiary intrusions and volcanics within the Dhala graben (positive), Mesozoic sediments (negative) and Tertiary volcanics of the Dhala plateau (positive). Gravity profile is most detailed and most precise regional gravity measurement carried out in the southern tip of Arabia and brings new information about geology of the area with scarce geophysical data.

  17. Longitudinal analysis strategies for modelling epigenetic trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, James R; Suderman, Matthew; Simpkin, Andrew J; Gaunt, Tom R; Heron, Jon; Relton, Caroline L; Tilling, Kate

    2018-02-16

    DNA methylation levels are known to vary over time, and modelling these trajectories is crucial for our understanding of the biological relevance of these changes over time. However, due to the computational cost of fitting multilevel models across the epigenome, most trajectory modelling efforts to date have focused on a subset of CpG sites identified through epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) at individual time-points. We propose using linear regression across the repeated measures, estimating cluster-robust standard errors using a sandwich estimator, as a less computationally intensive strategy than multilevel modelling. We compared these two longitudinal approaches, as well as three approaches based on EWAS (associated at baseline, at any time-point and at all time-points), for identifying epigenetic change over time related to an exposure using simulations and by applying them to blood DNA methylation profiles from the Accessible Resource for Integrated Epigenomics Studies (ARIES). Restricting association testing to EWAS at baseline identified a less complete set of associations than performing EWAS at each time-point or applying the longitudinal modelling approaches to the full dataset. Linear regression models with cluster-robust standard errors identified similar sets of associations with almost identical estimates of effect as the multilevel models, while also being 74 times more efficient. Both longitudinal modelling approaches identified comparable sets of CpG sites in ARIES with an association with prenatal exposure to smoking (>70% agreement). Linear regression with cluster-robust standard errors is an appropriate and efficient approach for longitudinal analysis of DNA methylation data.

  18. Analysis of Near Simultaneous Jimsphere and AMPS High Resolution Wind Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelfang, S. I.

    2003-01-01

    The high-resolution wind profile of the Automated Meteorological Profiling System (HRAMPS) is the proposed replacement for the Jimsphere measurement system used to support NASA Shuttle launches from the Eastern Test Range (ETR). Samples of twenty-six ETR near simultaneous Jimsphere and HRAMPS wind profiles were obtained for Shuttle program HRAMPS certification studies. Shuttle systems engineering certification is to ensure that spacecraft and launch vehicle systems performance and safety evaluations for each launch (derived from flight simulations with Jimsphere wind profile data bases) retain their validity when HRAMPS profiles are used on day-of-launch (DOL) in trajectory and loads simulations to support the commit-to-launch decision. This paper describes a statistical analysis of the near simultaneous profiles. In principle the differences between a Jimsphere profile and an HRAMPS profile should be attributed to tracking technology (radar versus GPS tracking of a Jimsphere flight element) and the method for derivation of wind vectors from the raw tracking data. In reality, it is not technically feasible to track the same Jimsphere balloon with the two systems. The aluminized Mylar surface of the standard Jimsphere flight element facilitates radar tracking, but it interferes with HRAMPS during simultaneous tracking. Suspending a radar reflector from an HRAMPS flight element (Jimsphere without aluminized coating) does not produce satisfactory Jimsphere profiles because of intermittent radar returns. Thus, differences between the Jimsphere and HRAMPS profiles are also attributed to differences in the trajectories of separate flight elements. Because of small sample size and a test period limited to one winter season, test measurements during extreme high winds aloft could not have been expected and did not occur. It is during the highest winds that the largest differences between Jimsphere and HRAMPS would occur because the distance between flight elements would be

  19. Hierarchical Control and Trajectory Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Clyde F.; Horn, P. W.

    1994-01-01

    Most of the time on this project was spent on the trajectory planning problem. The construction is equivalent to the classical spline construction in the case that the system matrix is nilpotent. If the dimension of the system is n then the spline of degree 2n-1 is constructed. This gives a new approach to the construction of splines that is more efficient than the usual construction and at the same time allows the construction of a much larger class of splines. All known classes of splines are reconstructed using the approach of linear control theory. As a numerical analysis tool control theory gives a very good tool for constructing splines. However, for the purposes of trajectory planning it is quite another story. Enclosed in this document are four reports done under this grant.

  20. Trajectories of low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axén, Iben; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Low back pain is not a self-limiting problem, but rather a recurrent and sometimes persistent disorder. To understand the course over time, detailed investigation, preferably using repeated measurements over extended periods of time, is needed. New knowledge concerning short-term trajectories...... indicates that the low back pain 'episode' is short lived, at least in the primary care setting, with most patients improving. Nevertheless, in the long term, low back pain often runs a persistent course with around two-thirds of patients estimated to be in pain after 12 months. Some individuals never have...... low back pain, but most have it on and off or persistently. Thus, the low back pain 'condition' is usually a lifelong experience. However, subgroups of patients with different back pain trajectories have been identified and linked to clinical parameters. Further investigation is warranted...

  1. Geometric diffusion of quantum trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Liu, Ren-Bao

    2015-07-01

    A quantum object can acquire a geometric phase (such as Berry phases and Aharonov-Bohm phases) when evolving along a path in a parameter space with non-trivial gauge structures. Inherent to quantum evolutions of wavepackets, quantum diffusion occurs along quantum trajectories. Here we show that quantum diffusion can also be geometric as characterized by the imaginary part of a geometric phase. The geometric quantum diffusion results from interference between different instantaneous eigenstate pathways which have different geometric phases during the adiabatic evolution. As a specific example, we study the quantum trajectories of optically excited electron-hole pairs in time-reversal symmetric insulators, driven by an elliptically polarized terahertz field. The imaginary geometric phase manifests itself as elliptical polarization in the terahertz sideband generation. The geometric quantum diffusion adds a new dimension to geometric phases and may have applications in many fields of physics, e.g., transport in topological insulators and novel electro-optical effects.

  2. Bohmian trajectories of Airy packets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassar, Antonio B., E-mail: anassar@hw.com [Science Department, Harvard-Westlake School, 3700 Coldwater Canyon, Studio City, 91604 (United States); Department of Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Extension Program, 10995 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024 (United States); Miret-Artés, Salvador [Instituto de Física Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-15

    The discovery of Berry and Balazs in 1979 that the free-particle Schrödinger equation allows a non-dispersive and accelerating Airy-packet solution has taken the folklore of quantum mechanics by surprise. Over the years, this intriguing class of wave packets has sparked enormous theoretical and experimental activities in related areas of optics and atom physics. Within the Bohmian mechanics framework, we present new features of Airy wave packet solutions to Schrödinger equation with time-dependent quadratic potentials. In particular, we provide some insights to the problem by calculating the corresponding Bohmian trajectories. It is shown that by using general space–time transformations, these trajectories can display a unique variety of cases depending upon the initial position of the individual particle in the Airy wave packet. Further, we report here a myriad of nontrivial Bohmian trajectories associated to the Airy wave packet. These new features are worth introducing to the subject’s theoretical folklore in light of the fact that the evolution of a quantum mechanical Airy wave packet governed by the Schrödinger equation is analogous to the propagation of a finite energy Airy beam satisfying the paraxial equation. Numerous experimental configurations of optics and atom physics have shown that the dynamics of Airy beams depends significantly on initial parameters and configurations of the experimental set-up.

  3. Developmental trajectories of adiposity from birth until early adulthood and association with cardiometabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, J; Severo, M; Barros, H; Mishra, G D; Guimarães, J T; Ramos, E

    2015-10-01

    To identify developmental trajectories of adiposity from birth until early adulthood, and to investigate how they relate with cardiometabolic risk factors at 21 years of age. Participants' weight and height measurements were obtained using the EPITeen cohort protocol at 13, 17 and 21 years of age, and extracted from child health books as recorded during health routine evaluations since birth. Blood pressure, triglycerides, cholesterol and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were assessed at 21 years. Trajectories were defined using 719 participants contributing 11 459 measurements. The individual growth curves were modelled using mixed-effects fractional polynomial, and the trajectories were estimated using normal mixture modelling for model-based clustering. Differences in cardiometabolic risk factors at 21 years according to adiposity trajectories were estimated through analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and adjusted means are presented. Two trajectories-'Average body mass index (BMI) growth' (80.7%) and 'Higher BMI growth' (19.3%)-were identified. Compared with those in 'Average BMI growth', 'Higher BMI growth' participants were more frequently delivered by caesarean section, mothers were younger and had higher BMI, and parental education was lower; and at 21 years showed higher adjusted mean systolic (111.6 vs 108.3 mm Hg, Phigh-density lipoprotein cholesterol (53.3 vs 57.0 mg dl(-1), P=0.001). As there was a significant interaction between trajectories and sex, triglycerides and HOMA-IR were stratified by sex and we found significantly higher triglycerides, in males, and higher HOMA-IR in both sexes in 'Higher BMI growth' trajectory. All the differences were attenuated after adjustment for BMI at 21 years. In this long-term follow-up, we were able to identify two adiposity trajectories, statistically related to the BMI and cardiometabolic profile in adulthood. Our results also suggest that the impact of the adiposity trajectory on cardiometabolic profile is

  4. Development Trajectory, Emission Profile, and Policy Actions : Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Qwanruedee; Chotichanathawewong; Natapol Thongplew

    2012-01-01

    In Thailand climate change has been integrated into the formulation of several national plans and policies. Even though Thailand is not obligated to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, it voluntarily takes numerous actions to mitigate emissions. Both the public and private sector have been actively involved in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, with a series of measures and actions implemented in each sector. The development of renewable energy and the promotion of energy conservation and ...

  5. Development trajectory, emission profile, and policy actions: Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Chotichanathawewong, Qwanruedee; Thongplew, Natapol

    2012-01-01

    In Thailand climate change has been integrated into the formulation of several national plans and policies. Even though Thailand is not obligated to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, it voluntarily takes numerous actions to mitigate emissions. Both the public and private sector have been actively involved in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, with a series of measures and actions implemented in each sector. The development of renewable energy and the promotion of energy conservation and effici...

  6. Adolescent Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms: Codevelopment of Behavioral and Academic Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brière, Frédéric N; Janosz, Michel; Fallu, Jean-Sébastien; Morizot, Julien

    2015-09-01

    Increasing evidence suggests the existence of heterogeneity in the development of depressive symptoms during adolescence, but little remains known regarding the implications of this heterogeneity for the development of commonly co-occurring problems. In this study, we derived trajectories of depressive symptoms in adolescents and examined the codevelopment of multiple behavioral and academic problems in these trajectories. Participants were 6,910 students from secondary schools primarily located in disadvantaged areas of Quebec (Canada) who were assessed annually from the age 12 to 16 years. Trajectories were identified using growth mixture modeling. The course of behavioral (delinquency, substance use) and academic adjustment (school liking, academic achievement) in trajectories was examined by deriving latent growth curves for each covariate conditional on trajectory membership. We identified five trajectories of stable-low (68.1%), increasing (12.1%), decreasing (8.7%), transient (8.7%), and stable-high (2.4%) depressive symptoms. Examination of conditional latent growth curves revealed that the course of behavioral and academic problems closely mirrored the course of depressive symptoms in each trajectory. This pattern of results suggests that the course of depressive symptoms and other adjustment problems over time is likely to involve an important contribution of shared underlying developmental process(es). Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimal design of k-space trajectories using a multi-objective genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Brian M; Lewin, Jonathan S; Duerk, Jeffrey L

    2004-10-01

    Spiral, radial, and other nonrectilinear k-space trajectories are an area of active research in MRI due largely to their typically rapid acquisition times and benign artifact patterns. Trajectory design has commonly proceeded from a description of a simple shape to an investigation of its properties, because there is no general theory for the derivation of new trajectories with specific properties. Here such a generalized methodology is described. Specifically, a multi-objective genetic algorithm (GA) is used to design trajectories with beneficial flow and off-resonance properties. The algorithm converges to a well-defined optimal set with standard spiral trajectories on the rapid but low-quality end, and a new class of trajectories on the slower but high-quality end. The new trajectories all begin with nonzero gradient amplitude at the k-space origin, and curve gently outward relative to standard spirals. Improvements predicted in simulated imaging experiments were found to correlate well with improvements in actual experimental measures of image quality. The impact of deviations from the desired k-space trajectory is described, as is the impact of using different phantoms.

  8. Second-order analytic solutions for re-entry trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Kyou

    1993-01-01

    With the development of aeroassist technology, either for near-earth orbital transfer with or without a plane change or for planetary aerocapture, it is of interest to have accurate analytic solutions for reentry trajectories in an explicit form. Starting with the equations of motion of a non-thrusting aerodynamic vehicle entering a non-rotating spherical planetary atmosphere, a normalization technique is used to transform the equations into a form suitable for an analytic integration. Then, depending on the type of planar entry modes with a constant angle-of-attack, namely, ballistic fly-through, lifting skip, and equilibrium glide trajectories, the first-order solutions are obtained with the appropriate simplification. By analytic continuation, the second-order solutions for the altitude, speed, and flight path angle are derived. The closed form solutions lead to explicit forms for the physical quantities of interest, such as the deceleration and aerodynamic heating rates. The analytic solutions for the planar case are extended to three-dimensional skip trajectories with a constant bank angle. The approximate solutions for the heading and latitude are developed to the second order. In each type of trajectory examined, explicit relations among the principal variables are in a form suitable for guidance and navigation purposes. The analytic solutions have excellent agreement with the numerical integrations. They also provide some new results which were not reported in the existing classical theory.

  9. Nonlinear three-dimensional trajectory following: simulation and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, George H.

    In light of recent military requirements for unmanned and autonomous vehicles, research into methods of designing arbitrary three-dimensional trajectories and controlling aircraft along them has become vital. In this report, we explore two methods of nonlinear control for the purpose of following three-dimensional trajectories and paths. First, prior work on a dynamic feedback linearization exploiting the differential flatness of the ideal airplane is adapted with the intent of implementing it on a physical testbed in MIT's Realtime indoor Autonomous Vehicle test ENvironment (RAVEN), but poor behavior—both in simulation and in hardware—under moderate levels of joint parameter uncertainty thwarted attempts at implementation. Additionally, the differential flatness technique in its pure form follows trajectories, which are sometimes inferior intuitively and practically to paths. In the context of unmanned air vehicle (UAV) flight in gusty environments, this motivated the extension of prior work on two-dimensional path following to three-dimensions, and simulations are presented in which the fully nonlinear controller derived from differential flatness follows a trajectory that is generated dynamically from a path. The three-dimensional path-following logic is actually implemented in RAVEN, and results are presented that demonstrate good vertical rise time in response to a step input and centimeter accuracy in vertical and lateral tracking. Future directions are proposed.

  10. Trajectory Tracking and Stabilization of a Quadrotor Using Model Predictive Control of Laguerre Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mapopa Chipofya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a solution to stability and trajectory tracking of a quadrotor system using a model predictive controller designed using a type of orthonormal functions called Laguerre functions. A linear model of the quadrotor is derived and used. To check the performance of the controller we compare it with a linear quadratic regulator and a more traditional linear state space MPC. Simulations for trajectory tracking and stability are performed in MATLAB and results provided in this paper.

  11. An industrial robot singular trajectories planning based on graphs and neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łęgowski, Adrian; Niezabitowski, Michał

    2016-06-01

    Singular trajectories are rarely used because of issues during realization. A method of planning trajectories for given set of points in task space with use of graphs and neural networks is presented. In every desired point the inverse kinematics problem is solved in order to derive all possible solutions. A graph of solutions is made. The shortest path is determined to define required nodes in joint space. Neural networks are used to define the path between these nodes.

  12. Palaeohydrogeology and Transport Parameters Derived from 4He and Cl Profiles in Aquitard Pore Waters in a Large Multilayer Aquifer System, Central Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey C. Priestley

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of chloride and 4He profiles through an aquitard that separates the Great Artesian Basin from the underlying Arckaringa Basin in central Australia is presented. The aquitard separates two aquifers with long water residence times, due to low recharge rates in the arid climate. One-dimensional solute transport models were used to determine the advective flux of groundwater across the aquitard as well as establish any major changes in past hydrological conditions recorded by variations of the pore water composition. This in situ study showed that both diffusion and slow downward advection (vz=0.7 mm/yr control solute transport. Numerical simulations show that an increase in chloride concentration in the upper part of the profile is due to a reduction in recharge in the upper aquifer for at least 3000 years. Groundwater extraction since 2008 has likely increased chloride and 4He concentrations in the lower aquifer by pulling up water from deeper layers; however, there has been insufficient time for upward solute transport into the pore water profile by diffusion against downward advection. The transport model of 4He and chloride provides insight into how the two aquifers interact through the aquitard and how climate change is being recorded in the aquitard profile.

  13. Temperamental Profiles of Dysregulated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Robert R.; Ayer, Lynsay A.; Crehan, Eileen T.; Rettew, David C.; Baer, Julie R.; Hudziak, James J.

    2012-01-01

    It is crucial to characterize self-regulation in children. We compared the temperamental profiles of children with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP) to profiles associated with other CBCL-derived syndromes. 382 children (204 boys; aged 5-18) from a large family study were examined. Temperamental profiles were…

  14. Design and Analysis of Optimal Ascent Trajectories for Stratospheric Airships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Joseph Bernard

    Stratospheric airships are lighter-than-air vehicles that have the potential to provide a long-duration airborne presence at altitudes of 18-22 km. Designed to operate on solar power in the calm portion of the lower stratosphere and above all regulated air traffic and cloud cover, these vehicles represent an emerging platform that resides between conventional aircraft and satellites. A particular challenge for airship operation is the planning of ascent trajectories, as the slow moving vehicle must traverse the high wind region of the jet stream. Due to large changes in wind speed and direction across altitude and the susceptibility of airship motion to wind, the trajectory must be carefully planned, preferably optimized, in order to ensure that the desired station be reached within acceptable performance bounds of flight time and energy consumption. This thesis develops optimal ascent trajectories for stratospheric airships, examines the structure and sensitivity of these solutions, and presents a strategy for onboard guidance. Optimal ascent trajectories are developed that utilize wind energy to achieve minimum-time and minimum-energy flights. The airship is represented by a three-dimensional point mass model, and the equations of motion include aerodynamic lift and drag, vectored thrust, added mass effects, and accelerations due to mass flow rate, wind rates, and Earth rotation. A representative wind profile is developed based on historical meteorological data and measurements. Trajectory optimization is performed by first defining an optimal control problem with both terminal and path constraints, then using direct transcription to develop an approximate nonlinear parameter optimization problem of finite dimension. Optimal ascent trajectories are determined using SNOPT for a variety of upwind, downwind, and crosswind launch locations. Results of extensive optimization solutions illustrate definitive patterns in the ascent path for minimum time flights across

  15. Trajectories of depressive symptoms after hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristancho, P; Lenze, E J; Avidan, M S; Rawson, K S

    2016-05-01

    Hip fracture is often complicated by depressive symptoms in older adults. We sought to characterize trajectories of depressive symptoms arising after hip fracture and examine their relationship with functional outcomes and walking ability. We also investigated clinical and psychosocial predictors of these trajectories. We enrolled 482 inpatients, aged ⩾60 years, who were admitted for hip fracture repair at eight St Louis, MO area hospitals between 2008 and 2012. Participants with current depression diagnosis and/or notable cognitive impairment were excluded. Depressive symptoms and functional recovery were assessed with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale and Functional Recovery Score, respectively, for 52 weeks after fracture. Health, cognitive, and psychosocial variables were gathered at baseline. We modeled depressive symptoms using group-based trajectory analysis and subsequently identified correlates of trajectory group membership. Three trajectories emerged according to the course of depressive symptoms, which we termed 'resilient', 'distressed', and 'depressed'. The depressed trajectory (10% of participants) experienced a persistently high level of depressive symptoms and a slower time to recover mobility than the other trajectory groups. Stressful life events prior to the fracture, current smoking, higher anxiety, less social support, antidepressant use, past depression, and type of implant predicted membership of the depressed trajectory. Depressive symptoms arising after hip fracture are associated with poorer functional status. Clinical and psychosocial variables predicted membership of the depression trajectory. Early identification and intervention of patients in a depressive trajectory may improve functional outcomes after hip fracture.

  16. Assisted reproductive travel: UK patient trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Nicky; Culley, Lorraine

    2011-11-01

    Media reporting of 'fertility tourism' tends to portray those who travel as a cohesive group, marked by their desperation and/or selfishness and propensity towards morally questionable behaviour. However, to date little has been known about the profile of those leaving the UK for treatment. This paper discusses the first UK-based study of patient assisted reproduction travel that was designed to explore individual travel trajectories. It is argued that existing ways of conceptualizing cross-border reproductive care as 'fertility or reproductive tourism' are in danger of essentializing what the data suggest are diverse, complex and often ambiguous motivations for reproductive travel. The concept of seriality is used to suggest that, whilst 'reproductive tourists' share some characteristics, they also differ in significant ways. This paper argues that, through an examination of the personal landscapes of fertility travel, the diverse processes involved in reproductive travel can be better understood and policymakers can be assisted to avoid what might be regarded as simplistic responses to cross-border reproductive care. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Developing a simulation framework for safe and optimal trajectories considering drivers’ driving style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruber, Thierry; Larue, Grégoire S.; Rakotonirainy, Andry

    2017-01-01

    Advanced driving assistance systems (ADAS) have huge potential for improving road safety and travel times. However, their take-up in the market is very slow; and these systems should consider driver's preferences to increase adoption rates. The aim of this study is to develop a model providing...... drivers with the optimal trajectory considering the motorist's driving style in real time. Travel duration and safety are the main parameters used to find the optimal trajectory. A simulation framework to determine the optimal trajectory was developed in which the ego car travels in a highway environment...... safe and fast trajectories in three tests scenarios: emergency braking, overtaking and a complex situation with multiple vehicles around the ego vehicle. Different driver profiles were then tested in the complex scenario, showing that the proposed approach can adapt to driver preferences and provide...

  18. Path-based Queries on Trajectory Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Pelekis, Nikos; Theodoridis, Yannis

    2014-01-01

    In traffic research, management, and planning a number of path-based analyses are heavily used, e.g., for computing turn-times, evaluating green waves, or studying traffic flow. These analyses require retrieving the trajectories that follow the full path being analyzed. Existing path queries cannot...... sufficiently support such path-based analyses because they retrieve all trajectories that touch any edge in the path. In this paper, we define and formalize the strict path query. This is a novel query type tailored to support path-based analysis, where trajectories must follow all edges in the path....... To efficiently support strict path queries, we present a novel NETwork-constrained TRAjectory index (NETTRA). This index enables very efficient retrieval of trajectories that follow a specific path, i.e., strict path queries. NETTRA uses a new path encoding scheme that can determine if a trajectory follows...

  19. Winding light beams along elliptical helical trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Yuanhui; Zhang, Yanfeng; Chen, Hui; Yu, Siyuan

    2016-01-01

    Conventional caustic methods in real or Fourier space produced accelerating optical beams only with convex trajectories. We develop a superposition caustic method capable of winding light beams along non-convex trajectories. We ascertain this method by constructing a one-dimensional (1D) accelerating beam moving along a sinusoidal trajectory, and subsequently extending to two-dimensional (2D) accelerating beams along arbitrarily elliptical helical trajectories. We experimentally implement the method with a compact and robust integrated optics approach by fabricating micro-optical structures on quartz glass plates to perform the spatial phase and amplitude modulation to the incident light, generating beam trajectories highly consistent with prediction. The theoretical and implementation methods can in principle be extended to the construction of accelerating beams with a wide variety of non-convex trajectories, thereby opening up a new route of manipulating light beams for fundamental research and practical ap...

  20. Towards Efficient Search for Activity Trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Kai; Shang, Shuo; Yuan, Jing

    2013-01-01

    The advances in location positioning and wireless communication technologies have led to a myriad of spatial trajectories representing the mobility of a variety of moving objects. While processing trajectory data with the focus of spatio-temporal features has been widely studied in the last decade......, recent proliferation in location-based web applications (e.g., Foursquare, Facebook) has given rise to large amounts of trajectories associated with activity information, called activity trajectory. In this paper, we study the problem of efficient similarity search on activity trajectory database. Given...... proposed to take into account the order of the query locations. To process the queries efficiently, we firstly develop a novel hybrid grid index, GAT, to organize the trajectory segments and activities hierarchically, which enables us to prune the search space by location proximity and activity containment...

  1. Winding light beams along elliptical helical trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yuanhui; Chen, Yujie; Zhang, Yanfeng; Chen, Hui; Yu, Siyuan

    2016-07-01

    Conventional caustic methods in real or Fourier space produced accelerating optical beams only with convex trajectories. We developed a superposition caustic method capable of winding light beams along nonconvex trajectories. We ascertain this method by constructing a one-dimensional (1D) accelerating beam moving along a sinusoidal trajectory, and subsequently extending to two-dimensional (2D) accelerating beams along arbitrarily elliptical helical trajectories. We experimentally implemented the method with a compact and robust integrated optics approach by fabricating micro-optical structures on quartz glass plates to perform the spatial phase and amplitude modulation to the incident light, generating beam trajectories highly consistent with prediction. The theoretical and implementation methods can in principle be extended to the construction of accelerating beams with a wide variety of nonconvex trajectories, thereby opening up a route of manipulating light beams for fundamental research and practical applications.

  2. Modulation of monocyte/macrophage-derived cytokine and chemokine profile by persistent Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection leads to chronic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope Mavromara

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available HCV infection presents a major public health problem, with more than 170 million people infected worldwide. Chronicity and persistence of infection constitute the hallmark of the disease. Although HCV is a hepatotropic virus, subsets of immune cells have been found to be permissive to infection and viral replication. Peripheral blood monocytes, attracted to the site of infection and differentiated into macrophages, and resident hepatic macrophages, known as Kupffer cells, are important mediators of innate immunity, through production of several chemokines and cytokines in addition to their phagocytic activity. HCV proteins have been shown to modulate the cytokine and chemokine production profile of monocytes/macrophages, as it is suggested by both in vitro and clinical studies. This modified expression profile appears crucial for the establishment of aberrant inflammation that leads to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

  3. Empirically Derived Subtypes of Adolescent Depression: Latent Profile Analysis of Co-Occurring Symptoms in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Keith C.; Ostrander, Rick; Walkup, John T.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

    2007-01-01

    A latent profile analysis was conducted on the co-occurring symptoms of 423 adolescents diagnosed with major depressive disorder as part of the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS), a multisite, randomized treatment trial. The participants had a mean (SD) age of 14.6 (1.5) years; of the sample, 45.6% was male and 73.8% was white.…

  4. Trajectory reshaping based guidance with impact time and angle constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a novel impact time and angle constrained guidance law for homing missiles. The guidance law is first developed with the prior-assumption of a stationary target, which is followed by the practical extension to a maneuvering target scenario. To derive the closed-form guidance law, the trajectory reshaping technique is utilized and it results in defining a specific polynomial function with two unknown coefficients. These coefficients are determined to satisfy the impact time and angle constraints as well as the zero miss distance. Furthermore, the proposed guidance law has three additional guidance gains as design parameters which make it possible to adjust the guided trajectory according to the operational conditions and missile’s capability. Numerical simulations are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed guidance law.

  5. The pharmacokinetic profile of plasma-derived mannan-binding lectin in healthy adult volunteers and patients with Staphylococcus aureus septicaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Peter; Laursen, Inga; Thornberg, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is a member of the innate immune system, and MBL-deficiency affects 10-15% of Caucasians. With development of a plasma-derived MBL, substitution has become a therapeutic option in diseases associated with MBL insufficiency. The pharmacokinetics of injected MBL is weakly...

  6. Stem Cell Derived Retinal Pigment Epithelium : The Role of Pigmentation as Maturation Marker and Gene Expression Profile Comparison with Human Endogenous Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennis, A; Jacobs, J G; Catsburg, L A E; Ten Brink, J B; Koster, C; Schlingemann, R O; van Meurs, J; Gorgels, T G M F; Moerland, P D; Heine, V M; Bergen, A A

    2017-01-01

    In age-related macular degeneration (AMD) the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) deteriorates, leading to photoreceptor decay and severe vision loss. New therapeutic strategies aim at RPE replacement by transplantation of pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived RPE. Several protocols to generate RPE have

  7. The first synthesis of 4-phenylbutenone derivative bromophenols including natural products and their inhibition profiles for carbonic anhydrase, acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrak, Çetin; Taslimi, Parham; Gülçin, İlhami; Menzek, Abdullah

    2017-06-01

    The first synthesis of (E)-4-(3-bromo-4,5-dihydroxyphenyl)but-3-en-2-one (1), (E)-4-(2-bromo-4,5-dihydroxyphenyl)but-3-en-2-one (2), and (E)-4-(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxyphenyl)but-3-en-2-one (3) was realized as natural bromophenols. Derivatives with mono OMe of 2 and 3 were obtained from the reactions of their derivatives with di OMe with AlCl3. These novel 4-phenylbutenone derivatives were effective inhibitors of the cytosolic carbonic anhydrase I and II isoenzymes (hCA I and II), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) with Ki values in the range of 158.07-404.16pM for hCA I, 107.63-237.40pM for hCA II, 14.81-33.99pM for AChE and 5.64-19.30pM for BChE. The inhibitory effects of the synthesized novel 4-phenylbutenone derivatives were compared to acetazolamide as a clinical hCA I and II isoenzymes inhibitor and tacrine as a clinical AChE and BChE enzymes inhibitor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Trajectory similarity join in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo

    2017-09-07

    The matching of similar pairs of objects, called similarity join, is fundamental functionality in data management. We consider the case of trajectory similarity join (TS-Join), where the objects are trajectories of vehicles moving in road networks. Thus, given two sets of trajectories and a threshold θ, the TS-Join returns all pairs of trajectories from the two sets with similarity above θ. This join targets applications such as trajectory near-duplicate detection, data cleaning, ridesharing recommendation, and traffic congestion prediction. With these applications in mind, we provide a purposeful definition of similarity. To enable efficient TS-Join processing on large sets of trajectories, we develop search space pruning techniques and take into account the parallel processing capabilities of modern processors. Specifically, we present a two-phase divide-and-conquer algorithm. For each trajectory, the algorithm first finds similar trajectories. Then it merges the results to achieve a final result. The algorithm exploits an upper bound on the spatiotemporal similarity and a heuristic scheduling strategy for search space pruning. The algorithm\\'s per-trajectory searches are independent of each other and can be performed in parallel, and the merging has constant cost. An empirical study with real data offers insight in the performance of the algorithm and demonstrates that is capable of outperforming a well-designed baseline algorithm by an order of magnitude.

  9. Comparative profiling of HLA-DR and HLA-DQ associated factor VIII peptides presented by monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyron, Ivan; Hartholt, Robin B; Pedró-Cos, Laura; van Alphen, Floris; Ten Brinke, Anja; Lardy, Neubury; Meijer, Sander; Voorberg, Jan

    2017-10-12

    The development of anti-factor VIII antibodies represents a major complication in the treatment of patients with hemophilia A. Generation of high affinity anti-factor VIII antibodies is dependent on help provided by CD4+ T cells that recognize factor VIII-derived peptides presented on class II major histocompatibility complex on the surface of antigen presenting cells. In order to identify the immune-dominant epitopes that can be presented to CD4+ T cells, we previously developed a mass-spectrometry based method to identify factor VIII derived peptides that are presented on human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR. In the present work, we compared the repertoire of FVIII-derived peptide presented on HLA-DR and HLA-DQ. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells from 9 HLA-typed healthy donors were pulsed with recombinant factor VIII. HLA-DR and HLA-DQ molecules were purified using monoclonal antibodies. Our data show that HLA-DQ and HLA-DR present a similar repertoire of factor VIII-derived peptides. However, the number of peptides associated with HLA-DQ was lower when compared to HLA-DR. We also identified a peptide, within the acidic a3 domains of factor VIII that is presented with higher frequency on HLA-DQ. Interestingly, this peptide was found to have a higher predicted affinity for HLA-DQ when compared to HLA-DR. Taken together, our data suggest that HLA-DQ participates in the presentation of factor VIII peptides, thereby contributing to the development of inhibitory antibodies in a proportion of patients with severe hemophilia A. Copyright © 2017, Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  10. An application of mass spectrometry for quality control of biologicals: Highly sensitive profiling of plasma residuals in human plasma-derived immunoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limonier, Franck; Van Steendam, Katleen; Waeterloos, Geneviève; Brusselmans, Koen; Sneyers, Myriam; Deforce, Dieter

    2017-01-30

    Thromboembolic events (TEE) associated to trace amounts of plasmatic activated coagulation factor XI (FXIa) in administrated immunoglobulin (Ig) have recently raised concerns and hence there is a need for highly sensitive profiling of residual plasma source proteins. This study aims to consider LC-ESI-QTOF data-dependent acquisition in combination with sample fractionation for this purpose. Sample fractionation proved mandatory to enable identification of plasma residuals. Two approaches were compared: Ig depletion with protein G - protein A affinity chromatography and low-abundant protein enrichment with a combinatorial peptide ligand library (ProteoMiner™, Bio-Rad). The latter allowed a higher number of identifications. Highly sensitive detection of prothrombotic FXIa was assessed with confident identification of a 1ng/mg spike. Moreover, different residuals compositions were profiled for various commercial Ig products. Using a quantitative label free analysis, a TEE-positive Ig batch was distinguished from other regular Ig products, with increased levels of FXIa but also other unique proteins. This could have prevented the recently observed TEE problems with Ig. The method is a convenient tool to better characterize Ig products after any plasma pool or manufacture process change, gaining insights in the product quality profile without any prior information required. This study characterized residual plasma proteins in Ig products, using bottom-up LC-MS/MS with conventional data-dependent acquisition, preceded by sample fractionation. Without any prior information or target-specific development, >30 proteins were identified in a commercial Ig product. Quality control relevance was demonstrated with the identification of FXIa spiked at 1ng/mg in Ig, which is below the minimal thrombotic dose of 3ng/mg observed in an in vivo model. Relative label-free quantitation highlighted significant differences in normalized abundances of residual proteins between Ig

  11. Predictability of evolutionary trajectories in fitness landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E Lobkovsky

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies on enzyme evolution show that only a small fraction of all possible mutation trajectories are accessible to evolution. However, these experiments deal with individual enzymes and explore a tiny part of the fitness landscape. We report an exhaustive analysis of fitness landscapes constructed with an off-lattice model of protein folding where fitness is equated with robustness to misfolding. This model mimics the essential features of the interactions between amino acids, is consistent with the key paradigms of protein folding and reproduces the universal distribution of evolutionary rates among orthologous proteins. We introduce mean path divergence as a quantitative measure of the degree to which the starting and ending points determine the path of evolution in fitness landscapes. Global measures of landscape roughness are good predictors of path divergence in all studied landscapes: the mean path divergence is greater in smooth landscapes than in rough ones. The model-derived and experimental landscapes are significantly smoother than random landscapes and resemble additive landscapes perturbed with moderate amounts of noise; thus, these landscapes are substantially robust to mutation. The model landscapes show a deficit of suboptimal peaks even compared with noisy additive landscapes with similar overall roughness. We suggest that smoothness and the substantial deficit of peaks in the fitness landscapes of protein evolution are fundamental consequences of the physics of protein folding.

  12. Predictability of evolutionary trajectories in fitness landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobkovsky, Alexander E; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2011-12-01

    Experimental studies on enzyme evolution show that only a small fraction of all possible mutation trajectories are accessible to evolution. However, these experiments deal with individual enzymes and explore a tiny part of the fitness landscape. We report an exhaustive analysis of fitness landscapes constructed with an off-lattice model of protein folding where fitness is equated with robustness to misfolding. This model mimics the essential features of the interactions between amino acids, is consistent with the key paradigms of protein folding and reproduces the universal distribution of evolutionary rates among orthologous proteins. We introduce mean path divergence as a quantitative measure of the degree to which the starting and ending points determine the path of evolution in fitness landscapes. Global measures of landscape roughness are good predictors of path divergence in all studied landscapes: the mean path divergence is greater in smooth landscapes than in rough ones. The model-derived and experimental landscapes are significantly smoother than random landscapes and resemble additive landscapes perturbed with moderate amounts of noise; thus, these landscapes are substantially robust to mutation. The model landscapes show a deficit of suboptimal peaks even compared with noisy additive landscapes with similar overall roughness. We suggest that smoothness and the substantial deficit of peaks in the fitness landscapes of protein evolution are fundamental consequences of the physics of protein folding.

  13. [PROFILE OF THE MARROW-DERIVED STROMAL PRECURSORS POPULATION IN C57BL/6N MICE FLOWN ON BIOSATELLITE BION-M1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markina, E A; Bobyleva, P I; Andrianova, I V; Andreeva, E R; Buravkova, L B

    2015-01-01

    The CFU-F number, proliferative activity and spontaneous differentiation potential of stromal cells derived from the tibia marrow of C57BL/6N mice readapted to the 1-g gravity following a long-term flight on biosatellite Bion-M1 were evaluated. The CFU-F number, proliferative activity and spontaneous adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of marrow-derived stromal cells from the space flown group were no different from the group of vivarium control. However, the proliferative activity and adhesion properties of the cells were down-regulated on day 7 of readaptation. These results suggest that space flight factors did not impact the stromal differon of the mouse marrow. The decline of stromal cells activity indicates the decompensation of their functions under 1g gravity.

  14. Trajectory optimization in radiotherapy using sectioning (TORUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Christopher Barry; Bush, Karl Kenneth

    2017-07-01

    A challenging problem in trajectory optimization for radiotherapy is properly handling the synchronization of the medical accelerators dynamic delivery. The initial coarse sampling of control points implemented in a Progressive Resolution Optimization type approach (VMAT) routinely results in MLC aperture forming contention issues as the sampling resolution increases. This work presents an approach to optimize continuous, beam-on radiation trajectories through exploration of the anatomical topology present in the patient and formation of a novel dual-metric graph optimization problem. This work presents a new perspective on trajectory optimization in radiotherapy using the concept of sectioning (TORUS). TORUS avoids degradation of 3D dose optimization quality by mapping the connectedness of target regions from the BEV perspective throughout the space of deliverable coordinates. This connectedness information is then incorporated into a graph optimization problem to define ideal trajectories. The unique usage of two distance functions in this graph optimization permits the TORUS algorithm to generate efficient dynamic trajectories for delivery while maximizing the angular flux through all PTV voxels. 3D dose optimization is performed for trajectories using a commercial TPS progressive resolution optimizer. The TORUS algorithm is applied to three example treatments: chest wall, scalp, and the TG-119 C-shape phantom. When static collimator coplanar trajectories are generated for the chest wall and scalp cases, the TORUS trajectories are found to outperform both 7 field IMRT and 2 arc VMAT plans in delivery time, organ at risk sparing, conformality, and homogeneity. For the TG-119 phantom, when static couch and collimator non-coplanar trajectories are optimized, TORUS trajectories have superior sparing of the central core avoidance with shorter delivery times, with similar dose conformality and homogeneity. The TORUS algorithm is able to automatically generate

  15. Construction of a WMR for Trajectory Tracking Control: Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Silva-Ortigoza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a solution for trajectory tracking control of a differential drive wheeled mobile robot (WMR based on a hierarchical approach. The general design and construction of the WMR are described. The hierarchical controller proposed has two components: a high-level control and a low-level control. The high-level control law is based on an input-output linearization scheme for the robot kinematic model, which provides the desired angular velocity profiles that the WMR has to track in order to achieve the desired position (x*,y* and orientation (φ*. Then, a low-level control law, based on a proportional integral (PI approach, is designed to control the velocity of the WMR wheels to ensure those tracking features. Regarding the trajectories, this paper provides the solution or the following cases: (1 time-varying parametric trajectories such as straight lines and parabolas and (2 smooth curves fitted by cubic splines which are generated by the desired data points x1*,y1*,…,xn*,yn*. A straightforward algorithm is developed for constructing the cubic splines. Finally, this paper includes an experimental validation of the proposed technique by employing a DS1104 dSPACE electronic board along with MATLAB/Simulink software.

  16. Low-thrust rocket trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keaton, P.W.

    1987-03-01

    The development of low-thrust propulsion systems to complement chemical propulsion systems will greatly enhance the evolution of future space programs. Two advantages of low-thrust rockets are stressed: first, in a strong gravitational field, such as occurs near the Earth, freighter missions with low-thrust engines require one-tenth as much propellant as do chemical engines. Second, in a weak gravitational field, such as occurs in the region between Venus and Mars, low-thrust rockets are faster than chemical rockets with comparable propellant mass. The purpose here is to address the physics of low-thrust trajectories and to interpret the results with two simple models. Analytic analyses are used where possible - otherwise, the results of numerical calculations are presented in graphs. The author has attempted to make this a self-contained report.

  17. Low-thrust rocket trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keaton, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    The development of low-thrust propulsion systems to complement chemical propulsion systems will greatly enhance the evolution of future space programs. Two advantages of low-thrust rockets are stressed: first, in a strong gravitational field, such as occurs near the Earth, freighter missions with low-thrust engines require one-tenth as much propellant as do chemical engines. Second, in a weak gravitational field, such as occurs in the region between Venus and Mars, low-thrust rockets are faster than chemical rockets with comparable propellant mass. The purpose here is to address the physics of low-thrust trajectories and to interpret the results with two simple models. Analytic analyses are used where possible - otherwise, the results of numerical calculations are presented in graphs. The author has attempted to make this a self-contained report. 57 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Mobility, education and life trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog; Valentin, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Travel for educational purposes, once the privilege of the upper class, has become a global mass phenomenon in recent years. This special issue examines, within different cultural and historical contexts, the close relationship between migration, education and social mobility. Adopting the perspe......’ self-perception as ‘educated persons’ and the invention of new, and the maintaining of old, identities that this involves.......Travel for educational purposes, once the privilege of the upper class, has become a global mass phenomenon in recent years. This special issue examines, within different cultural and historical contexts, the close relationship between migration, education and social mobility. Adopting...... the perspective that education includes a broad range of formative experiences, the articles explore different educational trajectories and the local, regional and transnational relations in which they are embedded. Three key issues emerge from the analyses: firstly, the central role of temporality in terms...

  19. Cellular Functions and Gene and Protein Expression Profiles in Endothelial Cells Derived from Moyamoya Disease-Specific iPS Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamauchi, Shuji; Shichinohe, Hideo; Uchino, Haruto; Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Nakayama, Naoki; Kazumata, Ken; Osanai, Toshiya; Abumiya, Takeo; Houkin, Kiyohiro; Era, Takumi

    Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a slow, progressive steno-occlusive disease, arising in the terminal portions of the cerebral internal carotid artery. However, the functions and characteristics of the endothelial cells (ECs) in MMD are unknown. We analyzed these features using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived ECs. iPSC lines were established from the peripheral blood of three patients with MMD carrying the variant RNF213 R4810K, and three healthy persons used as controls. After the endothelial differentiation of iPSCs, CD31+CD144+ cells were purified as ECs using a cell sorter. We analyzed their proliferation, angiogenesis, and responses to some angiogenic factors, namely VEGF, bFGF, TGF-β, and BMP4. The ECs were also analyzed using DNA microarray and proteomics to perform comprehensive gene and protein expression analysis. Angiogenesis was significantly impaired in MMD regardless of the presence of any angiogenic factor. On the contrary, endothelial proliferation was not significant between control- and MMD-derived cells. Regarding DNA microarray, pathway analysis illustrated that extracellular matrix (ECM) receptor-related genes, including integrin β3, were significantly downregulated in MMD. Proteomic analysis revealed that cytoskeleton-related proteins were downregulated and splicing regulation-related proteins were upregulated in MMD. Downregulation of ECM receptor-related genes may be associated with impaired angiogenic activity in ECs derived from iPSCs from patients with MMD. Upregulation of splicing regulation-related proteins implied differences in splicing patterns between control and MMD ECs.

  20. Candidate Earth Entry Trajectories to Mimic Venus Aerocapture Using a Lifting ADEPT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jimmy

    2017-01-01

    A Lifting ADEPT is considered for aerocapture at Venus. Analysis concerning the heating environment leads to an initial sizing estimate. In tandem, a direct entry profile at Earth is considered to act as a facsimile for the Venus aerocapture heating environment. The bounds of this direct entry profile are determined and it is found that a trajectory from a Geostationary Transfer Orbit with a Lifting ADEPT capable of fitting on a rideshare opportunity is capable of matching certain aspects of this heating environment.

  1. Active trajectory control for a heavy ion beam probe on the compact helical system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujisawa, A.; Iguchi, H.; Lee, S.; Crowley, T.P.; Hamada, Y.; Hidekuma, S.; Kojima, M.

    1996-05-01

    A 200 keV heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) on the Compact Helical System torsatron/heliotron uses a newly proposed method in order to control complicated beam trajectories in non-axisymmetrical devices. As a result, the HIBP has successfully measured potential profiles of the toroidal helical plasma. The article will describe the results of the potential profile measurements, together with the HIBP hardware system and procedures to realize the method. (author)

  2. Evaluation of some significant issues affecting trajectory and control management for air-breathing hypersonic vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattis, Philip D.; Malchow, Harvey L.

    1992-01-01

    Horizontal takeoff airbreathing-propulsion launch vehicles require near-optimal guidance and control which takes into account performance sensitivities to atmospheric characteristics while satisfying physically-derived operational constraints. A generic trajectory/control analysis tool that deepens insight into these considerations has been applied to two versions of a winged-cone vehicle model. Information that is critical to the design and trajectory of these vehicles is derived, and several unusual characteristics of the airbreathing propulsion model are shown to have potentially substantial effects on vehicle dynamics.

  3. Shyness Trajectories in Slow-to-Warm-Up Infants: Relations with Child Sex and Maternal Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Jessica Stoltzfus; Karraker, Katherine; Metzger, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about slow-to-warm-up temperament in infancy. This study examined the trajectory of shyness in children who were slow-to-warm-up in infancy in comparison to children with other temperament profiles in infancy. Participants were 996 mothers and children in the NICHD SECC studied from 6 months to first grade. Latent growth curve…

  4. Receptive Vocabulary in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Cross-Sectional Developmental Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kover, Sara T.; McDuffie, Andrea S.; Hagerman, Randi J.; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    In light of evidence that receptive language may be a relative weakness for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), this study characterized receptive vocabulary profiles in boys with ASD using cross-sectional developmental trajectories relative to age, nonverbal cognition, and expressive vocabulary. Participants were 49 boys with ASD…

  5. Comparison of phenotypic and WGS-derived antimicrobial resistance profiles of Shigella sonnei isolated from cases of diarrhoeal disease in England and Wales, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadouki, Zahra; Day, Martin R; Doumith, Michel; Chattaway, Marie A; Dallman, Timothy J; Hopkins, Katie L; Elson, Richard; Woodford, Neil; Godbole, Gauri; Jenkins, Claire

    2017-09-01

    Phenotypic and genotypic methods for the detection of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Shigella sonnei in England and Wales were compared and evaluated. WGS data from 341 isolates of S. sonnei isolated between June 2015 and January 2016 were mapped to genes known to be associated with phenotypic AMR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on all viable isolates (n = 335). Fifteen of 335 isolates had a discrepancy between phenotypic and genotypic testing for 1 of the 10 antimicrobial classes tested, equating to 15 (0.45%) discordant results out of a possible 3350 isolate/antimicrobial combinations. All 15 mismatched results were genotypically resistant but phenotypically susceptible. Eleven of the 15 discrepancies were observed in streptomycin resistance profiles. The most common resistance profile was trimethoprim, sulphonamides, tetracyclines and streptomycin, occurring in 97 (28.4%) isolates. Resistances to ciprofloxacin and the third-generation cephalosporins, not detected in England and Wales prior to 2002, were identified in 18.2% and 12% of isolates, respectively. Three hundred and four (89.1%) isolates were MDR. There was no significant association between any of the AMR determinants tested and recent foreign travel in male or female cases. The number of isolates of S. sonnei harbouring blaTEM-1 and ermB/mphA was significantly higher in men who reported no recent travel outside the UK. The use of WGS for routine public health surveillance is a reliable method for rapid detection of emerging AMR in isolates of S. sonnei.

  6. Optimization of Trajectory Correction Scheme for Guided Mortar Projectiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Guidance with traditional trajectory correction scheme usually starts from the trajectory apex time to reduce drag penalties early in flight; however, this method cannot get the max trajectory correction capability of canards according to our analysis. This paper presents an optimized trajectory correction scheme by taking different control phases of canards in ballistic ascending segment and ballistic descending segment. Simulation indicates that the optimized trajectory correction can improve the trajectory correction capability greatly. The result of an example trajectory and Monte Carlo simulations with the predictive guidance law and the trajectory tracking guidance law testifies the effectiveness of the optimized trajectory correction scheme.

  7. Multi-step lining-up correction of the CLIC trajectory

    CERN Document Server

    D'Amico, T E

    1999-01-01

    In the CLIC main linac it is very important to minimise the trajectory excursion and consequently the emittance dilution in order to obtain the required luminosity. Several algorithms have been proposed and lately the ballistic method has proved to be very effective. The trajectory correction method described hereafter retains the main advantages of the latter while adding some interesting features. It is based on the separation of the unknown variables like the quadrupole misalignments, the offset and slope of the injection straight line and the misalignments of the beam position monitors (BPM). This is achieved by referring the trajectory relatively to the injection line and not to the average pre-alignment line and by using two trajectories each corresponding to slightly different quadrupole strengths. A reference straight line is then derived onto which the beam is bent by a kick obtained by moving the first quadrupole. The other quadrupoles are then aligned on that line. The quality of the correction dep...

  8. Path Planning Using Concatenated Analytically-Defined Trajectories for Quadrotor UAVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Jamieson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a semi-analytical trajectory planning method for quadrotor UAVs. These trajectories are analytically defined, are constant in speed and sub-optimal with respect to a weighted quadratic cost function of the translational and angular velocities. A technique for concatenating the trajectories into multi-segment paths is demonstrated. These paths are smooth to the first derivative of the translational position and pass through defined waypoints. A method for detecting potential collisions by discretizing the path into a coarse mesh before using a numerical optimiser to determine the point of the path closest to the obstacle is presented. This hybrid method reduces the computation time when compared to discretizing the trajectory into a fine mesh and calculating the minimum distance. A tracking controller is defined and used to show that the paths are dynamically feasible and the typical magnitudes of the controller inputs required to fly them.

  9. Trajectory Planning with Pose Feedback for a Dual-Arm Space Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yicheng Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain high precision path tracking for a dual-arm space robot, a trajectory planning method with pose feedback is proposed to be introduced into the design process in this paper. Firstly, pose error kinematic models are derived from the related kinematics and desired pose command for the end-effector and the base, respectively. On this basis, trajectory planning with pose feedback is proposed from a control perspective. Theoretical analyses show that the proposed trajectory planning algorithm can guarantee that pose error converges to zero exponentially for both the end-effector and the base when the robot is out of singular configuration. Compared with the existing algorithms, the proposed algorithm can lead to higher precision path tracking for the end-effector. Furthermore, the algorithm renders the system good anti-interference property for the base. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed trajectory planning algorithm.

  10. A Framework for Context-aware Trajectory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogorny, V.; Wachowicz, M.

    2009-01-01

    The recent advances in technologies for mobile devices, like GPS and mobile phones, are generating large amounts of a new kind of data: trajectories of moving objects. These data are normally available as sample points, with very little or no semantics. Trajectory data can be used in a variety of

  11. Comment on "The envelope of projectile trajectories"

    CERN Document Server

    Butikov, E I

    2003-01-01

    Several simple alternative methods to obtain the equation of the envelope of the family of projectile trajectories corresponding to the same initial speed are suggested, including methods in which the boundary of the region occupied by the parabolic trajectories is found as an envelope of a set of circles. Two possible generalizations of the discussed problem are also suggested. (letters and comments)

  12. Automated Sensitivity Analysis of Interplanetary Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knittel, Jeremy; Hughes, Kyle; Englander, Jacob; Sarli, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    This work describes a suite of Python tools known as the Python EMTG Automated Trade Study Application (PEATSA). PEATSA was written to automate the operation of trajectory optimization software, simplify the process of performing sensitivity analysis, and was ultimately found to out-perform a human trajectory designer in unexpected ways. These benefits will be discussed and demonstrated on sample mission designs.

  13. Guidance trajectories for aeroassisted orbital transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, A.

    1990-01-01

    Research on aerobraking guidance schemes is presented. The intent is to produce aerobraking guidance trajectories exhibiting many of the desirable characteristics of optimal aerobraking trajectories. Both one-control schemes and two-control schemes are studied. The research is in the interest of aeroassisted flight experiment vehicles (AFE) and aeroassisted orbital transfer (AOT) vehicles.

  14. Soccer Ball Lift Coefficients via Trajectory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin…

  15. JPC = ODD-- Radial Trajectories for Light Mesons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumanoglu, I.; Peaslee, D. C.

    2003-01-01

    Versification of the Veneziano model for light meson radial trajectories has found surprising constancy of slope for several different sequences of resonant states with JPC = even++. Efforts to extend this result to JPC = odd-- trajectories have been hampered by a comparative scarcity of data, but we present an early survey to seek similarities and differences with even++ resonances.

  16. Trajectories of CBCL Attention Problems in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robbers, S.C.C.; Oort, F.V.A. van; Polderman, T.J.C.; Bartels, M.; Boomsma, D.I.; Verhulst, F.C.; Huizink, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to identify developmental trajectories of Attention Problems in twins followed from age 6 to 12 years. Second, we investigated whether singletons follow similar trajectories. Maternal longitudinal ratings on the Attention Problems (AP) subscale of the Child Behavior

  17. Variation in trajectories of women's marital quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Spencer L

    2015-01-01

    I examine variation in trajectories of women's marital quality across the life course. The analysis improves upon earlier research in three ways: (1) the analysis uses a sequential cohort design and data from the first 35years of marriage; (2) I analyze rich data from a national sample; (3) I examine multiple dimensions of marital quality. Latent class growth analyses estimated on data from women in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1979 (N=2604) suggest multiple trajectories for each of three dimensions of marital quality, including two trajectories of marital happiness, two trajectories of marital communication, and three trajectories of marital conflict. Socioeconomic and demographic covariates are then used to illustrate how factors such as income, cohabitation, and race-ethnicity set individuals at risk of poor marital quality throughout the life course by differentiating between high and low trajectories of marital quality. Women on low marital quality trajectories are, as expected, at much greater risk of divorce. Taken together, these findings show how fundamental socioeconomic and demographic characteristics contribute to subsequent marital outcomes via their influence on trajectories of marital quality as well as providing a better picture of the complexity in contemporary patterns of marital quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Trajectories of Intimate Partner Violence Victimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Swartout

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purposes of this study were to assess the extent to which latent trajectories of female intimate partner violence (IPV victimization exist; and, if so, use negative childhood experiences to predict trajectory membership.Methods: We collected data from 1,575 women at 5 time-points regarding experiences during adolescence and their 4 years of college. We used latent class growth analysis to fit a series of personcentered, longitudinal models ranging from 1 to 5 trajectories. Once the best-fitting model was selected, we used negative childhood experience variables—sexual abuse, physical abuse, and witnessing domestic violence—to predict most-likely trajectory membership via multinomial logistic regression.Results: A 5-trajectory model best fit the data both statistically and in terms of interpretability. The trajectories across time were interpreted as low or no IPV, low to moderate IPV, moderate to low IPV, high to moderate IPV, and high and increasing IPV, respectively. Negative childhood experiences differentiated trajectory membership, somewhat, with childhood sexual abuse as a consistent predictor of membership in elevated IPV trajectories.Conclusion: Our analyses show how IPV risk changes over time and in different ways. These differential patterns of IPV suggest the need for prevention strategies tailored for women that consider victimization experiences in childhood and early adulthood. [West J Emerg Med. 2012;13(3:272–277.

  19. Defining Health Trajectories in Older Adults With Five Clinical Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, Giola; Marengoni, Alessandra; Calderón-Larrañaga, Amaia; Angleman, Sara; Rizzuto, Debora; Welmer, Anna-Karin; Mangialasche, Francesca; Orsini, Nicola; Fratiglioni, Laura

    2017-08-01

    People age differently, challenging the identification of those more at risk of rapid health deterioration. This study aimed to explore the heterogeneity in the health of older adults by using five clinical indicators to detect age-related variation and individual health trajectories over time. Health of 3,363 people aged 60+ from the Swedish National study on Aging and Care-Kungsholmen (SNAC-K) assessed at baseline and at 3- and 6-year follow-ups. Number of chronic diseases, physical and cognitive performance, personal and instrumental activities of daily living were integrated in a health assessment tool (HAT). Interindividual health differences at baseline and follow-ups were assessed with logistic quantile regression. Intraindividual health trajectories were traced with quantile mixed-effect models. The HAT score ranges from 0 (poor health) to 10 (good health); each score corresponds to a specific clinical profile. HAT was reliable over time and accurately predicted adverse health outcomes (receiver-operating characteristic areas: hospitalization = 0.78; 95% confidence interval = 0.74-0.81; mortality = 0.85; 95% confidence interval = 0.83-0.87; similar areas obtained for gait speed). Before age 85, at least 90% of participants were free of severe disability, and at least 50% were functionally independent despite chronic disorders. Age- and sex-related variation and high heterogeneity in health were detected at baseline and confirmed by intraindividual health trajectories. This study provides a positive picture of the health status of people 60+. Despite the complexity and heterogeneity of health in this age group, we could identify age- and sex-specific health trajectories using an integrated HAT. HAT is potentially useful in clinical practice and public health interventions.

  20. Trajectories of Delinquency and Parenting Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokland, Arjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Loeber, Rolf; Gerris, Jan R. M.; van der Laan, Peter H.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering ages 10–19, we identified five distinct delinquency trajectories differing in both level and change in seriousness over time: a nondelinquent, minor persisting, moderate desisting, serious persisting, and serious desisting trajectory. More serious delinquents tended to more frequently engage in delinquency, and to report a higher proportion of theft. Proportionally, serious persistent delinquents were the most violent of all trajectory groups. Using cluster analysis we identified three parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian (moderately supportive), and neglectful (punishing). Controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood delinquency, neglectful parenting was more frequent in moderate desisters, serious persisters, and serious desisters, suggesting that parenting styles differentiate non- or minor delinquents from more serious delinquents. PMID:17786548

  1. Trajectories of delinquency and parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeve, Machteld; Blokland, Arjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Loeber, Rolf; Gerris, Jan R M; van der Laan, Peter H

    2008-02-01

    We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering ages 10-19, we identified five distinct delinquency trajectories differing in both level and change in seriousness over time: a nondelinquent, minor persisting, moderate desisting, serious persisting, and serious desisting trajectory. More serious delinquents tended to more frequently engage in delinquency, and to report a higher proportion of theft. Proportionally, serious persistent delinquents were the most violent of all trajectory groups. Using cluster analysis we identified three parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian (moderately supportive), and neglectful (punishing). Controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood delinquency, neglectful parenting was more frequent in moderate desisters, serious persisters, and serious desisters, suggesting that parenting styles differentiate non- or minor delinquents from more serious delinquents.

  2. Novel 5-oxo-hexahydroquinoline derivatives: design, synthesis, in vitro P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance reversal profile and molecular dynamics simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraki, Omolbanin; Edraki, Najmeh; Khoshneviszadeh, Mehdi; Zargari, Farshid; Ranjbar, Sara; Saso, Luciano; Firuzi, Omidreza; Miri, Ramin

    2017-01-01

    Overexpression of the efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is one of the important mechanisms of multidrug resistance (MDR) in many tumor cells. In this study, 26 novel 5-oxo-hexahydroquinoline derivatives containing different nitrophenyl moieties at C4 and various carboxamide substituents at C3 were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their ability to inhibit P-gp by measuring the amount of rhodamine 123 (Rh123) accumulation in uterine sarcoma cells that overexpress P-gp (MES-SA/Dx5) using flow cytometry. The effect of compounds with highest MDR reversal activities was further evaluated by measuring the alterations of MES-SA/Dx5 cells' sensitivity to doxorubicin (DXR) using MTT assay. The results of both biological assays indicated that compounds bearing 2-nitrophenyl at C4 position and compounds with 4-chlorophenyl carboxamide at C3 demonstrated the highest activities in resistant cells, while they were devoid of any effect in parental nonresistant MES-SA cells. One of the active derivatives, 5c, significantly increased intracellular Rh123 at 100 µM, and it also significantly reduced the IC50 of DXR by 70.1% and 88.7% at 10 and 25 µM, respectively, in MES-SA/Dx5 cells. The toxicity of synthesized compounds against HEK293 as a noncancer cell line was also investigated. All tested derivatives except for 2c compound showed no cytotoxicity. A molecular dynamics simulation study was also performed to investigate the possible binding site of 5c in complex with human P-gp, which showed that this compound formed 11 average H-bonds with Ser909, Thr911, Arg547, Arg543 and Ser474 residues of P-gp. A good agreement was found between the results of the computational and experimental studies. The findings of this study show that some 5-oxo-hexahydroquinoline derivatives could serve as promising candidates for the discovery of new agents for P-gp-mediated MDR reversal.

  3. Rapid screening and multi-toxin profile confirmation of tetrodotoxins and analogues in human body fluids derived from a puffer fish poisoning incident in New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambla-Alegre, Maria; Leonardo, Sandra; Barguil, Yann; Flores, Cintia; Caixach, Josep; Campbell, Katrina; Elliott, Christopher T; Maillaud, Claude; Boundy, Michael J; Harwood, D Tim; Campàs, Mònica; Diogène, Jorge

    2018-02-01

    In August 2014, a puffer fish poisoning incidence resulting in one fatality was reported in New Caledonia. Although tetrodotoxin (TTX) intoxication was established from the patients' signs and symptoms, the determination of TTX in the patient's urine, serum or plasma is essential to confirm the clinical diagnosis. To provide a simple cost-effective rapid screening tool for clinical analysis, a maleimide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (mELISA) adapted for the determination of TTX contents in human body fluids was assessed. The mELISA was applied to the analysis of urine samples from two patients and a response for the presence of TTX and/or structurally similar analogues was detected in all samples. The analysis by LC-MS/MS confirmed the presence of TTX but also TTX analogues (4-epiTTX, 4,9-anhydroTTX and 5,6,11-trideoxyTTX) in the urine. A change in the multi-toxin profile in the urine based on time following consumption was observed. LC-MS/MS analysis of serum and plasma samples also revealed the presence of TTX (32.9 ng/mL) and 5,6,11-trideoxyTTX (374.6 ng/mL) in the post-mortem plasma. The results provide for the first time the TTX multi-toxin profile of human samples from a puffer fish intoxication and clearly demonstrate the implication of TTX as the causative agent of the reported intoxication case. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The impact of freeze-drying infant fecal samples on measures of their bacterial community profiles and milk-derived oligosaccharide content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Zachery T; Davis, Jasmine C C; Smilowitz, Jennifer T; German, J Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Mills, David A

    2016-01-01

    Infant fecal samples are commonly studied to investigate the impacts of breastfeeding on the development of the microbiota and subsequent health effects. Comparisons of infants living in different geographic regions and environmental contexts are needed to aid our understanding of evolutionarily-selected milk adaptations. However, the preservation of fecal samples from individuals in remote locales until they can be processed can be a challenge. Freeze-drying (lyophilization) offers a cost-effective way to preserve some biological samples for transport and analysis at a later date. Currently, it is unknown what, if any, biases are introduced into various analyses by the freeze-drying process. Here, we investigated how freeze-drying affected analysis of two relevant and intertwined aspects of infant fecal samples, marker gene amplicon sequencing of the bacterial community and the fecal oligosaccharide profile (undigested human milk oligosaccharides). No differences were discovered between the fecal oligosaccharide profiles of wet and freeze-dried samples. The marker gene sequencing data showed an increase in proportional representation of Bacteriodes and a decrease in detection of bifidobacteria and members of class Bacilli after freeze-drying. This sample treatment bias may possibly be related to the cell morphology of these different taxa (Gram status). However, these effects did not overwhelm the natural variation among individuals, as the community data still strongly grouped by subject and not by freeze-drying status. We also found that compensating for sample concentration during freeze-drying, while not necessary, was also not detrimental. Freeze-drying may therefore be an acceptable method of sample preservation and mass reduction for some studies of microbial ecology and milk glycan analysis.

  5. The impact of freeze-drying infant fecal samples on measures of their bacterial community profiles and milk-derived oligosaccharide content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachery T. Lewis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Infant fecal samples are commonly studied to investigate the impacts of breastfeeding on the development of the microbiota and subsequent health effects. Comparisons of infants living in different geographic regions and environmental contexts are needed to aid our understanding of evolutionarily-selected milk adaptations. However, the preservation of fecal samples from individuals in remote locales until they can be processed can be a challenge. Freeze-drying (lyophilization offers a cost-effective way to preserve some biological samples for transport and analysis at a later date. Currently, it is unknown what, if any, biases are introduced into various analyses by the freeze-drying process. Here, we investigated how freeze-drying affected analysis of two relevant and intertwined aspects of infant fecal samples, marker gene amplicon sequencing of the bacterial community and the fecal oligosaccharide profile (undigested human milk oligosaccharides. No differences were discovered between the fecal oligosaccharide profiles of wet and freeze-dried samples. The marker gene sequencing data showed an increase in proportional representation of Bacteriodes and a decrease in detection of bifidobacteria and members of class Bacilli after freeze-drying. This sample treatment bias may possibly be related to the cell morphology of these different taxa (Gram status. However, these effects did not overwhelm the natural variation among individuals, as the community data still strongly grouped by subject and not by freeze-drying status. We also found that compensating for sample concentration during freeze-drying, while not necessary, was also not detrimental. Freeze-drying may therefore be an acceptable method of sample preservation and mass reduction for some studies of microbial ecology and milk glycan analysis.

  6. Receptor interaction profiles of novel N-2-methoxybenzyl (NBOMe) derivatives of 2,5-dimethoxy-substituted phenethylamines (2C drugs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickli, Anna; Luethi, Dino; Reinisch, Julian; Buchy, Danièle; Hoener, Marius C; Liechti, Matthias E

    2015-12-01

    N-2-methoxybenzyl-phenethylamines (NBOMe drugs) are newly used psychoactive substances with poorly defined pharmacological properties. The aim of the present study was to characterize the receptor binding profiles of a series of NBOMe drugs compared with their 2,5-dimethoxy-phenethylamine analogs (2C drugs) and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in vitro. We investigated the binding affinities of 2C drugs (2C-B, 2C-C, 2C-D, 2C-E, 2C-H, 2C-I, 2C-N, 2C-P, 2C-T-2, 2C-T-4, 2C-T-7, and mescaline), their NBOMe analogs, and LSD at monoamine receptors and determined functional 5-hydroxytryptamine-2A (5-HT2A) and 5-HT2B receptor activation. Binding at and the inhibition of monoamine uptake transporters were also determined. Human cells that were transfected with the respective human receptors or transporters were used (with the exception of trace amine-associated receptor-1 [TAAR1], in which rat/mouse receptors were used). All of the compounds potently interacted with serotonergic 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, 5-HT2C receptors and rat TAAR1 (most Ki and EC50: LSD, but not dopaminergic D1-3 receptors (most Ki:>1 μM), unlike LSD. The binding profile of NBOMe drugs predicts strong hallucinogenic effects, similar to LSD, but possibly more stimulant properties because of α1 receptor interactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Personalized trajectory matching in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo

    2013-07-31

    With the increasing availability of moving-object tracking data, trajectory search and matching is increasingly important. We propose and investigate a novel problem called personalized trajectory matching (PTM). In contrast to conventional trajectory similarity search by spatial distance only, PTM takes into account the significance of each sample point in a query trajectory. A PTM query takes a trajectory with user-specified weights for each sample point in the trajectory as its argument. It returns the trajectory in an argument data set with the highest similarity to the query trajectory. We believe that this type of query may bring significant benefits to users in many popular applications such as route planning, carpooling, friend recommendation, traffic analysis, urban computing, and location-based services in general. PTM query processing faces two challenges: how to prune the search space during the query processing and how to schedule multiple so-called expansion centers effectively. To address these challenges, a novel two-phase search algorithm is proposed that carefully selects a set of expansion centers from the query trajectory and exploits upper and lower bounds to prune the search space in the spatial and temporal domains. An efficiency study reveals that the algorithm explores the minimum search space in both domains. Second, a heuristic search strategy based on priority ranking is developed to schedule the multiple expansion centers, which can further prune the search space and enhance the query efficiency. The performance of the PTM query is studied in extensive experiments based on real and synthetic trajectory data sets. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  8. The 20-Year Longitudinal Trajectories of Social Functioning in Individuals With Psychotic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velthorst, Eva; Fett, Anne-Kathrin J; Reichenberg, Avraham; Perlman, Greg; van Os, Jim; Bromet, Evelyn J; Kotov, Roman

    2017-11-01

    Social impairment is a long-recognized core feature of schizophrenia and is common in other psychotic disorders. Still, to date the long-term trajectories of social impairment in psychotic disorders have rarely been studied systematically. Data came from the Suffolk County Mental Health Project, a 20-year prospective study of first-admission patients with psychotic disorders. A never-psychotic comparison group was also assessed. Latent class growth analysis was applied to longitudinal data on social functioning from 485 respondents with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and psychotic mood disorders, and associations of the empirically derived trajectories with premorbid social adjustment, diagnosis, and 20-year outcomes were examined. Four mostly stable trajectories of preserved (N=82; 59th percentile of comparison group sample distribution), moderately impaired (N=148; 17th percentile), severely impaired (N=181; 3rd percentile), and profoundly impaired (N=74; 1st percentile) functioning best described the 20-year course of social functioning across diagnoses. The outcome in the group with preserved functioning did not differ from that of never-psychotic individuals at 20 years, but the other groups functioned significantly worse. Differences among trajectories were already evident in childhood. The two most impaired trajectories started to diverge in early adolescence. Poorer social functioning trajectories were strongly associated with other real-world outcomes at 20 years. Multiple trajectories were represented within each disorder. However, more participants with schizophrenia spectrum disorders had impaired trajectories, and more with mood disorders had better functioning trajectories. The results highlight substantial variability of social outcomes within diagnoses-albeit overall worse social outcomes in schizophrenia spectrum disorders-and show remarkably stable long-term impairments in social functioning after illness onset across all diagnoses.

  9. Toxoplasma gondii is dependent on glutamine and alters migratory profile of infected host bone marrow derived immune cells through SNAT2 and CXCR4 pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ping Lee

    Full Text Available The obligate intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, disseminates through its host inside infected immune cells. We hypothesize that parasite nutrient requirements lead to manipulation of migratory properties of the immune cell. We demonstrate that 1 T. gondii relies on glutamine for optimal infection, replication and viability, and 2 T. gondii-infected bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs display both "hypermotility" and "enhanced migration" to an elevated glutamine gradient in vitro. We show that glutamine uptake by the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2 is required for this enhanced migration. SNAT2 transport of glutamine is also a significant factor in the induction of migration by the small cytokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 in uninfected DCs. Blocking both SNAT2 and C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4; the unique receptor for SDF-1 blocks hypermotility and the enhanced migration in T. gondii-infected DCs. Changes in host cell protein expression following T. gondii infection may explain the altered migratory phenotype; we observed an increase of CD80 and unchanged protein level of CXCR4 in both T. gondii-infected and lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated DCs. However, unlike activated DCs, SNAT2 expression in the cytosol of infected cells was also unchanged. Thus, our results suggest an important role of glutamine transport via SNAT2 in immune cell migration and a possible interaction between SNAT2 and CXCR4, by which T. gondii manipulates host cell motility.

  10. Quantum stochastic trajectories: the Smoluchowski-Bohm equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanzini, Francesco; Moro, Giorgio J

    2017-12-20

    Molecular systems are quantum systems, but the complete characterization of molecular motions within a fully quantum framework might appear to be an unfeasible task because it would require that the actual nuclear positions are established at any time. One would like to use a quantum molecular trajectory that defines the instantaneous nuclear positions and satisfies the predictions of quantum mechanics in terms of its statistical properties. Even though it can be proven that the single Bohm trajectory provides a representation of the quantum molecular trajectory, this solves the issue only on a theoretical ground: exact solutions of the Schrödinger-Bohm dynamical system are extremely computationally demanding. Therefore, we derive a stochastic equation of Smoluchowski type from the Schrödinger-Bohm dynamics, through projection operator techniques, in order to characterize the molecular motions of open quantum systems. The main quantum features of the motions emerge from the equilibrium distribution, i.e., the wave function's squared modulus integrated on the environment degrees of freedom. Furthermore, we verify the accuracy of the stochastic equation by comparing its predictions with those of the deterministic dynamics for a model system of six interacting harmonic oscillators. The indisputable advantage of this full quantum mechanical approach is that of representing the molecular dynamics, which controls important phenomena like vibrational relaxation, conformational transitions and activated processes, in a self consistent way and at the low computational cost of solving simple stochastic equations.

  11. Research on the trajectory model for ZY-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yifu; Xie, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    The new generation Chinese high-resolution three-line stereo-mapping satellite Ziyuan 3 (ZY-3) is equipped with three sensors (nadir, backward, and forward views). Its objective is to manufacture the 1 : 50000 topographic map and revise and update the 1 : 25000 topographic map. For the push-broom satellite, the interpolation accuracy of orbit and attitude determines directly the satellite's stereo-mapping accuracy and the position accuracy without ground control point. In this study, a new trajectory model is proposed for ZY-3 in this paper, according to researching and analyzing the orbit and attitude of ZY-3. Using the trajectory data set, the correction and accuracy of the new proposed trajectory are validated and compared with the other models, polynomial model (LPM), piecewise polynomial model (PPM), and Lagrange cubic polynomial model (LCPM). Meanwhile, the differential equation is derivate for the bundle block adjustment. Finally, the correction and practicability of piece-point with weight polynomial model for ZY-3 satellite are validated according to the experiment of geometric correction using the ZY-3 image and orbit and attitude data.

  12. Research on the Trajectory Model for ZY-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifu Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The new generation Chinese high-resolution three-line stereo-mapping satellite Ziyuan 3 (ZY-3 is equipped with three sensors (nadir, backward, and forward views. Its objective is to manufacture the 1 : 50000 topographic map and revise and update the 1 : 25000 topographic map. For the push-broom satellite, the interpolation accuracy of orbit and attitude determines directly the satellite’s stereo-mapping accuracy and the position accuracy without ground control point. In this study, a new trajectory model is proposed for ZY-3 in this paper, according to researching and analyzing the orbit and attitude of ZY-3. Using the trajectory data set, the correction and accuracy of the new proposed trajectory are validated and compared with the other models, polynomial model (LPM, piecewise polynomial model (PPM, and Lagrange cubic polynomial model (LCPM. Meanwhile, the differential equation is derivate for the bundle block adjustment. Finally, the correction and practicability of piece-point with weight polynomial model for ZY-3 satellite are validated according to the experiment of geometric correction using the ZY-3 image and orbit and attitude data.

  13. Characteristic functions based on a quantum jump trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Xi, Jingyi

    2016-12-01

    Characteristic functions (CFs) provide a very efficient method for evaluating the probability density functions of stochastic thermodynamic quantities and investigating their statistical features in quantum master equations (QMEs). A conventional procedure for obtaining these functions is to resort to a first-principles approach; namely, the evolution equations of the CFs of the combined system and its environment are obtained and then projected into the degrees of freedom of the system. However, the QMEs can be unraveled by a quantum jump trajectory. Thermodynamic quantities such as the heat, work, and entropy production can be well defined along a trajectory. Hence, on the basis of the notion of a trajectory, can we straightforwardly derive these CFs, e.g., their evolution equations? This is essential to establish the self-contained stochastic thermodynamics of a QME. In this paper, we show that it is indeed plausible and also simple. Particularly, these equations are fully consistent with those obtained by the first-principles method. Our results have practical significance; they indicate that the quantum fluctuation relations could be verified by more realistic photocounting experiments.

  14. OH-equivalent temperatures derived from ACE-FTS and SABER temperature profiles – a comparison with OH*(3-1 temperatures from Maynooth (53.2° N, 6.4° W

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Mulligan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available OH-equivalent temperatures were derived from all of the temperature profiles retrieved in 2004 and 2005 by the ACE-FTS instrument in a 5 degree band of latitude centred on a ground-based observing station at Maynooth. A globally averaged OH volume emission rate (VER profile obtained from WINDII data was employed as a weighting function to compute the equivalent temperatures. The annual cycle of temperature thus produced was compared with the annual cycle of temperatures recorded at the ground-based station more than a decade earlier from the OH*(3-1 Meinel band. Both data sets showed excellent agreement in the absolute value of the temperature minimum (~162 K and in its time of occurrence in the annual cycle at summer solstice. Away from mid-summer, however, the temperatures diverged and reach a maximum disagreement of more than 20 K in mid-winter. Comparison of the Maynooth ground-based data with the corresponding results from two nearby stations in the same time-period indicated that the Maynooth data are consistent with other ground stations. The temperature difference between the satellite and ground-based datasets in winter was reduced to 14–15 K by lowering the peak altitude of the weighting function to 84 km. An unrealistically low peak altitude would be required, however, to bring temperatures derived from the satellite into agreement with the ground-based data. OH equivalent temperatures derived from the SABER instrument using the same weighting function produced results that agreed well with ACE-FTS. When the OH 1.6 μm VER profile measured by SABER was used as the weighting function, the OH equivalent temperatures increased in winter as expected but the summer temperatures were reduced resulting in an approximately constant offset of 8.6±0.8 K between ground and satellite values with the ground values higher. Variability in both the altitude and width of the OH layer within a discernable seasonal variation were responsible for the

  15. Trajectory Design for the Phobos and Deimos & Mars Environment Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Anthony L.; Korsmeyer, David J.; Loucks, Michel E.; Yang, Fan Yang; Lee, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The presented trajectory design and analysis was performed for the Phobos and Deimos & Mars Environment (PADME) mission concept as part of a NASA proposal submission managed by NASA Ames Research Center in the 2014-2015 timeframe. The PADME spacecraft would be a derivative of the successfully flown Lunar Atmosphere & Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft. While LADEE was designed to enter low-lunar orbit, the PADME spacecraft would instead enter an elliptical Mars orbit of 2-week period. This Mars orbit would pass by Phobos near periapsis on successive orbits and then raise periapsis to yield close approaches of Deimos every orbit thereafter.

  16. Heparinized collagen sutures for sustained delivery of PDGF-BB: Delivery profile and effects on tendon-derived cells In-Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younesi, Mousa; Donmez, Baris Ozgur; Islam, Anowarul; Akkus, Ozan

    2016-09-01

    Suturing is the standard of repair for lacerated flexor tendons. Past studies focused on delivering growth factors to the repair site by incorporating growth factors to nylon sutures which are commonly used in the repair procedure. However, conjugation of growth factors to nylon or other synthetic sutures is not straightforward. Collagen holds promise as a suture material by way of providing chemical sites for conjugation of growth factors. On the other hand, collagen also needs to be reconstituted as a mechanically robust thread that can be sutured. In this study, we reconstituted collagen solutions as suturable collagen threads by using linear electrochemical compaction. Prolonged release of PDGF-BB (Platelet derived growth factor-BB) was achieved by covalent bonding of heparin to the collagen sutures. Tensile mechanical tests of collagen sutures before and after chemical modification indicated that the strength of sutures following chemical conjugation stages was not compromised. Strength of lacerated tendons sutured with epitendinous collagen sutures (11.2±0.7N) converged to that of the standard nylon suture (14.9±2.9N). Heparin conjugation of collagen sutures didn't affect viability and proliferation of tendon-derived cells and prolonged the PDGF-BB release up to 15days. Proliferation of cells seeded on PDGF-BB incorporated collagen sutures was about 50% greater than those seeded on plain collagen sutures. Collagen that is released to the media by the cells increased by 120% under the effects of PDGF-BB and collagen production by cells was detectable by histology as of day 21. Addition of PDGF-BB to collagen sutures resulted in a moderate decline in the expression of the tendon-associated markers scleraxis, collagen I, tenomodulin, and COMP; however, expression levels were still greater than the cells seeded on collagen gel. The data indicate that the effects of PDGF-BB on tendon-derived cells mainly occur through increased cell proliferation and that longer

  17. Trajectory Based Behavior Analysis for User Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, Hsing-Kuo; Lin, Hong-Yi; Chen, Kuan-Ta; Fadlil, Junaidillah

    Many of our activities on computer need a verification step for authorized access. The goal of verification is to tell apart the true account owner from intruders. We propose a general approach for user verification based on user trajectory inputs. The approach is labor-free for users and is likely to avoid the possible copy or simulation from other non-authorized users or even automatic programs like bots. Our study focuses on finding the hidden patterns embedded in the trajectories produced by account users. We employ a Markov chain model with Gaussian distribution in its transitions to describe the behavior in the trajectory. To distinguish between two trajectories, we propose a novel dissimilarity measure combined with a manifold learnt tuning for catching the pairwise relationship. Based on the pairwise relationship, we plug-in any effective classification or clustering methods for the detection of unauthorized access. The method can also be applied for the task of recognition, predicting the trajectory type without pre-defined identity. Given a trajectory input, the results show that the proposed method can accurately verify the user identity, or suggest whom owns the trajectory if the input identity is not provided.

  18. High-order epistasis shapes evolutionary trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailer, Zachary R; Harms, Michael J

    2017-05-01

    High-order epistasis-where the effect of a mutation is determined by interactions with two or more other mutations-makes small, but detectable, contributions to genotype-fitness maps. While epistasis between pairs of mutations is known to be an important determinant of evolutionary trajectories, the evolutionary consequences of high-order epistasis remain poorly understood. To determine the effect of high-order epistasis on evolutionary trajectories, we computationally removed high-order epistasis from experimental genotype-fitness maps containing all binary combinations of five mutations. We then compared trajectories through maps both with and without high-order epistasis. We found that high-order epistasis strongly shapes the accessibility and probability of evolutionary trajectories. A closer analysis revealed that the magnitude of epistasis, not its order, predicts is effects on evolutionary trajectories. We further find that high-order epistasis makes it impossible to predict evolutionary trajectories from the individual and paired effects of mutations. We therefore conclude that high-order epistasis profoundly shapes evolutionary trajectories through genotype-fitness maps.

  19. A PSO-PID quaternion model based trajectory control of a hexarotor UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artale, Valeria; Milazzo, Cristina L. R.; Orlando, Calogero; Ricciardello, Angela

    2015-12-01

    A quaternion based trajectory controller for a prototype of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is discussed in this paper. The dynamics of the UAV, a hexarotor in details, is described in terms of quaternion instead of the usual Euler angle parameterization. As UAV flight management concerns, the method here implemented consists of two main steps: trajectory and attitude control via Proportional-Integrative-Derivative (PID) and Proportional-Derivative (PD) technique respectively and the application of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method in order to tune the PID and PD parameters. The optimization is the consequence of the minimization of a objective function related to the error with the respect to a proper trajectory. Numerical simulations support and validate the proposed method.

  20. Effects of Lactobacillus reuteri-derived biosurfactant on the gene expression profile of essential adhesion genes (gtfB, gtfC and ftf of Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Salehi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Streptococci are the main causative agents in plaque formation and mutans streptococci are the principle etiological agent of dental plaque and caries. The process of biofilm formation is a step-wise process, starting with adhesion of planktonic cells to the surfaces. It is now a well known fact that expression of glucosyltransferases (gtfs and fructosyltransferase (ftf genes play a critical role in the initial adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to the tooth surface, which results in the formation of dental plaques and consequently caries and other periodontal diseases. Materials and Methods: In the present study, we have determined the effect of biosurfactants purified from Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM20016 culture on gene expression profile of gftB/C and fft of S. mutans (ATCC35668 using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: The application of biosurfactant caused considerable down-regulation of the expression of all three genes under study. The reduction in gene expression was statistically very significant (P > 0.0001 for all three genes. Conclusions: Inhibition of these genes by the extracted L. reuteri biosurfactant shows the emergence of a powerful alternative to the presently practicing alternatives. In view of the importance of these gene products for S. mutans attachment to the tooth surface, which is the initial important step in biofilm production and dental caries, we believe that the biosurfactant prepared in this study could be considered as a step ahead in dental caries prevention.

  1. Effects of Lactobacillus reuteri-derived biosurfactant on the gene expression profile of essential adhesion genes (gtfB, gtfC and ftf) of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Rasoul; Savabi, Omid; Kazemi, Mohammad; Kamali, Sara; Salehi, Ahmad Reza; Eslami, Gilda; Tahmourespour, Arezoo

    2014-01-01

    Streptococci are the main causative agents in plaque formation and mutans streptococci are the principle etiological agent of dental plaque and caries. The process of biofilm formation is a step-wise process, starting with adhesion of planktonic cells to the surfaces. It is now a well known fact that expression of glucosyltransferases (gtfs) and fructosyltransferase (ftf) genes play a critical role in the initial adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to the tooth surface, which results in the formation of dental plaques and consequently caries and other periodontal diseases. In the present study, we have determined the effect of biosurfactants purified from Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM20016) culture on gene expression profile of gftB/C and fft of S. mutans (ATCC35668) using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The application of biosurfactant caused considerable down-regulation of the expression of all three genes under study. The reduction in gene expression was statistically very significant (P > 0.0001 for all three genes). Inhibition of these genes by the extracted L. reuteri biosurfactant shows the emergence of a powerful alternative to the presently practicing alternatives. In view of the importance of these gene products for S. mutans attachment to the tooth surface, which is the initial important step in biofilm production and dental caries, we believe that the biosurfactant prepared in this study could be considered as a step ahead in dental caries prevention.

  2. Comparative analysis of methods for gene transcription profiling data derived from different microarray technologies in rat and mouse models of diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bihoreau Marie-Thérèse

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray technologies are widely used to quantify the abundance of transcripts corresponding to thousands of genes. To maximise the robustness of transcriptome results, we have tested the performance and reproducibility of rat and mouse gene expression data obtained with Affymetrix, Illumina and Operon platforms. Results We present a thorough analysis of the degree of reproducibility provided by analysing the transcriptomic profile of the same animals of several experimental groups under different popular microarray technologies in different tissues. Concordant results from inter- and intra-platform comparisons were maximised by testing many popular computational methods for generating fold changes and significances and by only considering oligonucleotides giving high expression levels. The choice of Affymetrix signal extraction technique was shown to have the greatest effect on the concordance across platforms. In both species, when choosing optimal methods, the agreement between data generated on the Affymetrix and Illumina was excellent; this was verified using qRT-PCR on a selection of genes present on all platforms. Conclusion This study provides an extensive assessment of analytical methods best suited for processing data from different microarray technologies and can assist integration of technologically different gene expression datasets in biological systems.

  3. Developmental Trajectories of Subjective Social Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Elizabeth; Maxwell, Sarah; Malspeis, Susan; Adler, Nancy

    2015-09-01

    Subjective social status (SSS), a person's sense of their (or for youth, abstract their family's) position in the socioeconomic hierarchy, is strongly related to health in adults but not health in adolescence. Understanding this developmental discrepancy requires first understanding the developmental trajectory of SSS. The objective of this study was to identify the number and shape of SSS trajectories as adolescents transition to adulthood and explore if trajectory membership affects health. Using data from 7436 assessments from the Princeton School District Study, a decade long cohort study of non-Hispanic black and white youth, latent class growth models with 3 to 7 SSS trajectories were developed. Model fit, trajectory structure, and shape were used to guide optimal model selection. Using this optimal model, the associations of trajectory membership with BMI and depressive symptoms in young adulthood were explored. The 5-class model was optimal. In this model, trajectories were persistent high (7.8%),mid–high (32.2%), middle (43.4%), low–lower (7.4%), and high–low (9.1%). Non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity, lower household income, and low parent education were associated with membership in this high–low trajectory. High–low trajectory membership was associated with higher BMI and depressive symptoms in non-Hispanic white subjects but was not associated with depressive symptoms. It was associated with lower BMI only after adjustment for BMI in adolescence in non-Hispanic black subjects. SSS is relatively stable in adolescence and the transition to adulthood, and it generally reflects objective markers of social advantage. However, socially disadvantaged youth with high SSS in early adolescence may be at increased health risk.

  4. Conduct Disorder and Alcohol Use Disorder Trajectories, Predictors, and Outcomes for Indigenous Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Brenna L; Sittner, Kelley J; Forbes, Miriam K; Walls, Melissa L; Whitbeck, Les B

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify separate and joint trajectories of conduct disorder (CD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) DSM-IV diagnostic symptoms among American Indian and First Nation (Indigenous) youth aged 10 to 18 years, and to characterize baseline profiles and later outcomes associated with joint trajectory group membership. Data were collected between 2002 and 2010 on three indigenous reservations in the northern Midwest and four Canadian reserves (N = 673). CD and substance use disorder (SUD) were measured using the DSM-IV Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Revised (DISC-R), administered at four time points. Using group-based trajectory modeling, three CD and four AUD trajectories were found. Both had a small group with high symptoms, but the largest groups for both had no symptoms (55% and 73%, respectively). CD symptom trajectories began at age 10 years and peaked at age 14; AUD trajectories began at age 12 years and were highest from age 16 on. Eight joint trajectories were identified. Of the sample, 53% fell into the group with no CD or AUD symptoms. Compared to symptomatic groups, this group had greater caretaker warmth, positive school adjustment, less discrimination, and fewer deviant peers, and were less likely to have a caretaker with major depression at baseline. Symptomatic groups had higher odds of high school dropout, sex under the influence, and arrest at age 17 to 20 years. Despite significant risk factors, a large proportion of Indigenous youth had no CD-SUD symptoms over time. CD-SUD symptoms have multiple development trajectories and are related to early developmental risk and later psychosocial outcomes. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Active Transportation Demand Management (ATDM) Trajectory Level Validation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The ATDM Trajectory Validation project developed a validation framework and a trajectory computational engine to compare and validate simulated and observed vehicle...

  6. Comparison study of sub-trajectory clustering in data mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guodong; Huang, Zhitao; Wang, Xiang

    2017-06-01

    Trajectory clustering is an important method to achieve moving object data mining, multi-sensor information fusion and trajectory knowledge discovery. Sub-trajectory clustering is an important method to extract useful information from a large number of trajectory data in trajectory analysis. In this paper, comparative experiments are made on the time consumption, similarity measure and clustering performance based on the existing sub-trajectory clustering methods. Based on the comparisons, the advantages and disadvantages of different methods are presented and an improved method is proposed for dealing with trajectories with low positioning accuracy and correlating tracklets from asynchronous sensors. Besides, a general framework of trajectory data mining is discussed.

  7. Soccer ball lift coefficients via trajectory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, John Eric [Department of Physics, Lynchburg College, Lynchburg, VA 24501 (United States); Carre, Matt J, E-mail: goff@lynchburg.ed [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin parameters that have not been obtained by today's wind tunnels. Our trajectory analysis technique is not only a valuable tool for professional sports scientists, it is also accessible to students with a background in undergraduate-level classical mechanics.

  8. Elastic Functional Coding of Riemannian Trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anirudh, Rushil; Turaga, Pavan; Jingyong Su; Srivastava, Anuj

    2017-05-01

    Visual observations of dynamic phenomena, such as human actions, are often represented as sequences of smoothly-varying features. In cases where the feature spaces can be structured as Riemannian manifolds, the corresponding representations become trajectories on manifolds. Analysis of these trajectories is challenging due to non-linearity of underlying spaces and high-dimensionality of trajectories. In vision problems, given the nature of physical systems involved, these phenomena are better characterized on a low-dimensional manifold compared to the space of Riemannian trajectories. For instance, if one does not impose physical constraints of the human body, in data involving human action analysis, the resulting representation space will have highly redundant features. Learning an effective, low-dimensional embedding for action representations will have a huge impact in the areas of search and retrieval, visualization, learning, and recognition. Traditional manifold learning addresses this problem for static points in the euclidean space, but its extension to Riemannian trajectories is non-trivial and remains unexplored. The difficulty lies in inherent non-linearity of the domain and temporal variability of actions that can distort any traditional metric between trajectories. To overcome these issues, we use the framework based on transported square-root velocity fields (TSRVF); this framework has several desirable properties, including a rate-invariant metric and vector space representations. We propose to learn an embedding such that each action trajectory is mapped to a single point in a low-dimensional euclidean space, and the trajectories that differ only in temporal rates map to the same point. We utilize the TSRVF representation, and accompanying statistical summaries of Riemannian trajectories, to extend existing coding methods such as PCA, KSVD and Label Consistent KSVD to Riemannian trajectories or more generally to Riemannian functions. We show that

  9. Stability and transitions in posttraumatic growth trajectories among cancer patients: LCA and LTA analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat-Horenczyk, Ruth; Saltzman, Leia Y; Hamama-Raz, Yaira; Perry, Shlomit; Ziv, Yuval; Ginat-Frolich, Rivkah; Stemmer, Salomon M

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of the current study were to identify (a) different post cancer treatment adaptation profiles; (b) factors that predict these adaptation profiles; and (c) transitions in post cancer-treatment adaptation profiles and trajectories in a sample (N = 198) of female breast cancer patients over a 2-year period. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to idenitfy profiles of post cancer treatment adaptation, based on a combined pattern of responses to observable indicators of distress, coping strategies, and posttraumatic growth. latent transition analysis (LTA) was used to track trajectories, based on the probabilities of transitions among latent classes. Four postcancer treatment adaptation profiles were found: (a) distressed, (b) resistant, (c) constructive growth, and (d) struggling growth. The majority of transitions between different adaptation profiles occurred between 6 and 12 months after treatment. These findings offer theoretical and practice implications regarding posttraumatic growth in breast-cancer patients by distinguishing between profiles of adaptation and highlights a previously unidentified profile-struggling growth. These results contribute to the theoretical understanding of the complex relationship between growth, distress, and coping. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Pharmacological profile of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) splice variant translation using a novel drug screening assay: a "quantitative code".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaghi, Valentina; Polacchini, Alessio; Baj, Gabriele; Pinheiro, Vera L M; Vicario, Annalisa; Tongiorgi, Enrico

    2014-10-03

    The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key regulator of neuronal development and plasticity. BDNF is a major pharmaceutical target in neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. However, pharmacological modulation of this neurotrophin is challenging because BDNF is generated by multiple, alternatively spliced transcripts with different 5'- and 3'UTRs. Each BDNF mRNA variant is transcribed independently, but translation regulation is unknown. To evaluate the translatability of BDNF transcripts, we developed an in vitro luciferase assay in human neuroblastoma cells. In unstimulated cells, each BDNF 5'- and 3'UTR determined a different basal translation level of the luciferase reporter gene. However, constructs with either a 5'UTR or a 3'UTR alone showed poor translation modulation by BDNF, KCl, dihydroxyphenylglycine, AMPA, NMDA, dopamine, acetylcholine, norepinephrine, or serotonin. Constructs consisting of the luciferase reporter gene flanked by the 5'UTR of one of the most abundant BDNF transcripts in the brain (exons 1, 2c, 4, and 6) and the long 3'UTR responded selectively to stimulation with the different receptor agonists, and only transcripts 2c and 6 were increased by the antidepressants desipramine and mirtazapine. We propose that BDNF mRNA variants represent "a quantitative code" for regulated expression of the protein. Thus, to discriminate the efficacy of drugs in stimulating BDNF synthesis, it is appropriate to use variant-specific in vitro screening tests. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Optimal feed rate profiles for fed-batch culture in penicillin production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Moo-Young

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The fed-batch optimization of penicillin productivity was applied as an example of optimization algorithm verification. The objective function of this problem was to optimize penicillin productivity by determination of feed rate trajectory. This study compared the optimized results derived from the proposed algorithm and from the iterative dynamic programming. Three decision variables for the proposed algorithm comprised ts (switching time from exponential to linear feeding schedules, K (constant in feed rate equation, and ε (a multiplier on substrate requirement. Estimation of this set of decision variables employed Markov chain Monte Carlo procedures (the Gibbs parameter sampling and the Metropolis-Hasting algorithm using an originally given set of initial values. The optimization procedure was divided into two time periods as follows: i the time period of exponential feeding policy, t ts. The calculation procedure of the first period of fermentation time had been proposed by integrating Pontryagin’s optimum principle and Luedeking-Piret equation. The feed rate profile during the later period was obtained from the direct substitution of desired substrate requirement derived from Monod equation. The optimal feed-rate profile corresponded to the values of decision variables as follows [ts K ε] = [35.9370.096 2.087]. The proposed algorithm was appropriate for determination of optimal feed-rate trajectories in any fed-batch problems provided that the product formation rate agrees with a Luedecking-Piret model.

  12. Ten-Year Blood Pressure Trajectories, Cardiovascular Mortality, and Life Years Lost in 2 Extinction Cohorts: the Minnesota Business and Professional Men Study and the Zutphen Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, S.M.A.J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Menotti, A.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Jacobs, D.R.; Blackburn, H.; Kromhout, D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Blood pressure (BP) trajectories derived from measurements repeated over years have low measurement error and may improve cardiovascular disease prediction compared to single, average, and usual BP (single BP adjusted for regression dilution). We characterized 10-year BP trajectories and

  13. Tip trajectories of a smart micro-cantilever beam: analysis and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Dick, A. J.; Ghorbel, F. H.

    2009-11-01

    The tip trajectories of a smart micro-cantilever beam consisting of an atomic force microscope probe with an additional segment of piezoelectric material on top of the probe are studied. A precise model with inhomogeneous partial differential equations and compatible inhomogeneous boundary conditions is developed to describe the dynamics of the smart micro-cantilever beam. The forced vibration solution of this model with respect to two independent inputs from the piezoelectric actuator and the base excitation is derived. By using this solution and the geometric relationship, the trajectory of the end of the tip is obtained from the motion of the free end of the cantilever beam. On the basis of the resonant response to harmonic inputs at the second dynamic mode, nano-scale elliptical and linear tip trajectories are predicted. Within this paper, a smart micro-cantilever beam is shown to produce nano-scale curved tip trajectories for the first time. Analytical and simulation findings indicate that the characteristics of the resulting trajectories are influenced by the magnitudes of two inputs. Potential applications of the elliptical and linear trajectories for nanomanipulation are proposed.

  14. Knowledge-Based Trajectory Error Pattern Method Applied to an Active Force Control Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endra Pitowarno, Musa Mailah, Hishamuddin Jamaluddin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The active force control (AFC method is known as a robust control scheme that dramatically enhances the performance of a robot arm particularly in compensating the disturbance effects. The main task of the AFC method is to estimate the inertia matrix in the feedback loop to provide the correct (motor torque required to cancel out these disturbances. Several intelligent control schemes have already been introduced to enhance the estimation methods of acquiring the inertia matrix such as those using neural network, iterative learning and fuzzy logic. In this paper, we propose an alternative scheme called Knowledge-Based Trajectory Error Pattern Method (KBTEPM to suppress the trajectory track error of the AFC scheme. The knowledge is developed from the trajectory track error characteristic based on the previous experimental results of the crude approximation method. It produces a unique, new and desirable error pattern when a trajectory command is forced. An experimental study was performed using simulation work on the AFC scheme with KBTEPM applied to a two-planar manipulator in which a set of rule-based algorithm is derived. A number of previous AFC schemes are also reviewed as benchmark. The simulation results show that the AFC-KBTEPM scheme successfully reduces the trajectory track error significantly even in the presence of the introduced disturbances.Key Words:  Active force control, estimated inertia matrix, robot arm, trajectory error pattern, knowledge-based.

  15. Hyperdynamic CSF motion profiles found in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer's disease assessed by fluid mechanics derived from magnetic resonance images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Ken; Matsumae, Mitsunori; Hayashi, Naokazu; Hirayama, Akihiro; Yatsushiro, Satoshi; Kuroda, Kagayaki

    2017-10-18

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) does not only ascertain morphological features, but also measures physiological properties such as fluid velocity or pressure gradient. The purpose of this study was to investigate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics in patients with morphological abnormalities such as enlarged brain ventricles and subarachnoid spaces. We used a time-resolved three dimensional phase contrast (3D-PC) MRI technique to quantitatively evaluate CSF dynamics in the Sylvian aqueduct of healthy elderly individuals and patients with either idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) or Alzheimer's disease (AD) presenting with ventricular enlargement. Nineteen healthy elderly individuals, ten iNPH patients, and seven AD patients (all subjects ≥ 60 years old) were retrospectively evaluated 3D-PC MRI. The CSF velocity, pressure gradient, and rotation in the Sylvian aqueduct were quantified and compared between the three groups using Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Mann-Whitney U tests. There was no statistically significant difference in velocity among the three groups. The pressure gradient was not significantly different between the iNPH and AD groups, but was significantly different between the iNPH group and the healthy controls (p < 0.001), and similarly, between the AD group and the healthy controls (p < 0.001). Rotation was not significantly different between the iNPH and AD groups, but was significantly different between the iNPH group and healthy controls (p < 0.001), and similarly, between the AD group and the healthy controls (p < 0.001). Quantitative analysis of CSF dynamics with time resolved 3D-PC MRI revealed differences and similarities in the Sylvian aqueduct between healthy elderly individuals, iNPH patients, and AD patients. The results showed that CSF motion is in a hyperdynamic state in both iNPH and AD patient groups compared to healthy elderly individuals, and that iNPH patients and AD patients display similar CSF motion profiles.

  16. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in Traumatic Brain Injury-Related Mortality: Interrelationships Between Genetics and Acute Systemic and Central Nervous System BDNF Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Failla, Michelle D; Conley, Yvette P; Wagner, Amy K

    2016-01-01

    Older adults have higher mortality rates after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) compared to younger adults. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling is altered in aging and is important to TBI given its role in neuronal survival/plasticity and autonomic function. Following experimental TBI, acute BDNF administration has not been efficacious. Clinically, genetic variation in BDNF (reduced signaling alleles: rs6265, Met-carriers; rs7124442, C-carriers) can be protective against acute mortality. Postacutely, these genotypes carry lower mortality risk in older adults and greater mortality risk among younger adults. Investigate BDNF levels in mortality/outcome following severe TBI in the context of age and genetic risk. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum BDNF were assessed prospectively during the first week following severe TBI (n = 203) and in controls (n = 10). Age, BDNF genotype, and BDNF levels were assessed as mortality/outcome predictors. CSF BDNF levels tended to be higher post-TBI (P = .061) versus controls and were associated with time until death (P = .042). In contrast, serum BDNF levels were reduced post-TBI versus controls (P BDNF serum and gene * age interactions were mortality predictors post-TBI in the same multivariate model. CSF and serum BDNF tended to be negatively correlated post-TBI (P = .07). BDNF levels predicted mortality, in addition to gene * age interactions, suggesting levels capture additional mortality risk. Higher CSF BDNF post-TBI may be detrimental due to injury and age-related increases in pro-apoptotic BDNF target receptors. Negative CSF and serum BDNF correlations post-TBI suggest blood-brain barrier transit alterations. Understanding BDNF signaling in neuronal survival, plasticity, and autonomic function may inform treatment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Trajectory behaviour at different phonemic context sizes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Badenhorst, J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose a piecewise-linear model for the temporal trajectories of Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients during phone transitions. As with conventional Hidden Markov Models, the parameters of the model can be estimated for different...

  18. Efficient Calculation of Earth Penetrating Projectile Trajectories

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Youch, Daniel F

    2006-01-01

    .... An exact solution for the Poncelet Equation exists; making for easy computation. However, the one dimensional nature of the equation fails to capture the intricate three-dimensional nature of real world ballistic penetrator trajectories...

  19. The Trajectories of Saccadic Eye Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahill, A. Terry; Stark, Lawrence

    1979-01-01

    Investigates the trajectories of saccadic eye movements, the control signals of the eye, and nature of the mechanisms that generate them, using the techniques of bioengineering in collecting the data. (GA)

  20. Picking Robot Arm Trajectory Planning Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang Zhiyong; He Dongjian; Tang Jing Lei; Meng Lingshuai

    2014-01-01

      The picking robot arm is scheduled to complete picking tasks in the working space, to overcome the shaking vibration to improve the picking stability, its movement should follow specific consistence trajectory points...

  1. Action Recognition Using Discriminative Structured Trajectory Groups

    KAUST Repository

    Atmosukarto, Indriyati

    2015-01-06

    In this paper, we develop a novel framework for action recognition in videos. The framework is based on automatically learning the discriminative trajectory groups that are relevant to an action. Different from previous approaches, our method does not require complex computation for graph matching or complex latent models to localize the parts. We model a video as a structured bag of trajectory groups with latent class variables. We model action recognition problem in a weakly supervised setting and learn discriminative trajectory groups by employing multiple instance learning (MIL) based Support Vector Machine (SVM) using pre-computed kernels. The kernels depend on the spatio-temporal relationship between the extracted trajectory groups and their associated features. We demonstrate both quantitatively and qualitatively that the classification performance of our proposed method is superior to baselines and several state-of-the-art approaches on three challenging standard benchmark datasets.

  2. Quantum caustics in resonance-fluorescence trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghiloo, M.; Tan, D.; Harrington, P. M.; Lewalle, P.; Jordan, A. N.; Murch, K. W.

    2017-11-01

    We employ phase-sensitive amplification to perform homodyne detection of the resonance fluorescence from a driven superconducting artificial atom. Entanglement between the emitter and its fluorescence allows us to track the individual quantum state trajectories of the emitter conditioned on the outcomes of the field measurements. We analyze the ensemble properties of these trajectories by considering trajectories that connect specific initial and final states. By applying the stochastic path-integral formalism, we calculate equations of motion for the most-likely path between two quantum states and compare these predicted paths to experimental data. Drawing on the mathematical similarity between the action formalism of the most-likely quantum paths and ray optics, we study the emergence of caustics in quantum trajectories: places where multiple extrema in the stochastic action occur. We observe such multiple most-likely paths in experimental data and find these paths to be in reasonable quantitative agreement with theoretical calculations.

  3. Trajectory Clustering with Applications to Airspace Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper presents a framework aimed at monitoring the behavior of aircraft in a given airspace. Trajectories that constitute typical operations are determined and...

  4. OPTIMAL TRAJECTORY PLANNING OF MANIPULATORS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATEF A. ATA

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Optimal motion planning is very important to the operation of robot manipulators. Its main target is the generation of a trajectory from start to goal that satisfies objectives, such as minimizing path traveling distance or time interval, lowest energy consumption or obstacle avoidance and satisfying the robot’s kinematics and dynamics. Review, discussion and analysis of optimization techniques to find the optimal trajectory either in Cartesian space or joint space are presented and investigated. Optimal trajectory selection approaches such as kinematics and dynamics techniques with various constraints are presented and explained. Although the kinematics approach is simple and straight forward, it will experience some problems in implementation because of lack of Inertia and torque constraints. The application of Genetic Algorithms to find the optimal trajectory of manipulators especially in the obstacle avoidance is also highlighted. Combining the Genetic Algorithms with other classical optimization methods proves to have better performance as a hybrid optimization technique.

  5. Aerocapture Guidance Methods for High Energy Trajectories

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dicarlo, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    .... Phase change occurred when two conditions were met: First, the vehicle could fly a constant bank angle of 1100 for the remainder of the trajectory and have the resulting apogee below or within a given tolerance above the target apogee...

  6. Boolean networks with robust and reliable trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmal, Christoph; Peixoto, Tiago P.; Drossel, Barbara

    2010-11-01

    We construct and investigate Boolean networks that follow a given reliable trajectory in state space, which is insensitive to fluctuations in the updating schedule and which is also robust against noise. Robustness is quantified as the probability that the dynamics return to the reliable trajectory after a perturbation of the state of a single node. In order to achieve high robustness, we navigate through the space of possible update functions by using an evolutionary algorithm. We constrain the networks to those having the minimum number of connections required to obtain the reliable trajectory. Surprisingly, we find that robustness always reaches values close to 100% during the evolutionary optimization process. The set of update functions can be evolved such that it differs only slightly from that of networks that were not optimized with respect to robustness. The state space of the optimized networks is dominated by the basin of attraction of the reliable trajectory.

  7. Boolean networks with robust and reliable trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmal, Christoph; Peixoto, Tiago P; Drossel, Barbara, E-mail: schmal@physik.uni-bielefeld.d, E-mail: tiago@fkp.tu-darmstadt.d, E-mail: drossel@fkp.tu-darmstadt.d [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, TU Darmstadt, Hochschulstrasse 6, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    We construct and investigate Boolean networks that follow a given reliable trajectory in state space, which is insensitive to fluctuations in the updating schedule and which is also robust against noise. Robustness is quantified as the probability that the dynamics return to the reliable trajectory after a perturbation of the state of a single node. In order to achieve high robustness, we navigate through the space of possible update functions by using an evolutionary algorithm. We constrain the networks to those having the minimum number of connections required to obtain the reliable trajectory. Surprisingly, we find that robustness always reaches values close to 100% during the evolutionary optimization process. The set of update functions can be evolved such that it differs only slightly from that of networks that were not optimized with respect to robustness. The state space of the optimized networks is dominated by the basin of attraction of the reliable trajectory.

  8. A retrospective cohort study of comorbidity trajectories associated with traumatic brain injury in veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Mary Jo; Finley, Erin P; Wang, Chen-Pin; Copeland, Laurel A; Jaramillo, Carlos A; Swan, Alicia A; Elnitsky, Christine A; Leykum, Luci K; Mortensen, Eric M; Eapen, Blessen A; Noel, Polly H; Pugh, Jacqueline A

    2016-01-01

    To identify and validate trajectories of comorbidity associated with traumatic brain injury in male and female Iraq and Afghanistan war Veterans (IAV). Derivation and validation cohorts were compiled of IAV who entered the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) care and received 3 years of VA care between 2002-2011. Chronic disease and comorbidities associated with deployment including TBI were identified using diagnosis codes. A latent class analysis (LCA) of longitudinal comorbidity data was used to identify trajectories of comorbidity. LCA revealed five trajectories that were similar for women and men: (1) Healthy, (2) Chronic Disease, (3) Mental Health, (4) Pain and (5) Polytrauma Clinical Triad (PCT: pain, mental health and TBI). Two additional classes found in men were 6) Minor Chronic and 7) PCT with chronic disease. Among these gender-stratified trajectories, it was found that women were more likely to experience headache (Pain trajectory) and depression (Mental Health trajectory), while men were more likely to experience lower back pain (Pain trajectory) and substance use disorder (Mental Health trajectory). The probability of TBI was highest in the PCT-related trajectories, with significantly lower probabilities in other trajectories. It was found that TBI was most common in PCT-related trajectories, indicating that TBI is commonly comorbid with pain and mental health conditions for both men and women. The relatively young age of this cohort raises important questions regarding how disease burden, including the possibility of neurodegenerative sequelae, will accrue alongside normal age-related decline in individuals with TBI. Additional 'big data' methods and a longer observation period may allow the development of predictive models to identify individuals with TBI that are at-risk for adverse outcomes.

  9. Machine Learning for Biological Trajectory Classification Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbalzarini, Ivo F.; Theriot, Julie; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2002-01-01

    Machine-learning techniques, including clustering algorithms, support vector machines and hidden Markov models, are applied to the task of classifying trajectories of moving keratocyte cells. The different algorithms axe compared to each other as well as to expert and non-expert test persons, using concepts from signal-detection theory. The algorithms performed very well as compared to humans, suggesting a robust tool for trajectory classification in biological applications.

  10. User Oriented Trajectory Search for Trip Recommendation

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Ruogu

    2012-07-08

    Trajectory sharing and searching have received significant attention in recent years. In this thesis, we propose and investigate the methods to find and recommend the best trajectory to the traveler, and mainly focus on a novel technique named User Oriented Trajectory Search (UOTS) query processing. In contrast to conventional trajectory search by locations (spatial domain only), we consider both spatial and textual domains in the new UOTS query. Given a trajectory data set, the query input contains a set of intended places given by the traveler and a set of textual attributes describing the traveler’s preference. If a trajectory is connecting/close to the specified query locations, and the textual attributes of the trajectory are similar to the traveler’s preference, it will be recommended to the traveler. This type of queries can enable many popular applications such as trip planning and recommendation. There are two challenges in UOTS query processing, (i) how to constrain the searching range in two domains and (ii) how to schedule multiple query sources effectively. To overcome the challenges and answer the UOTS query efficiently, a novel collaborative searching approach is developed. Conceptually, the UOTS query processing is conducted in the spatial and textual domains alternately. A pair of upper and lower bounds are devised to constrain the searching range in two domains. In the meantime, a heuristic searching strategy based on priority ranking is adopted for scheduling the multiple query sources, which can further reduce the searching range and enhance the query efficiency notably. Furthermore, the devised collaborative searching approach can be extended to situations where the query locations are ordered. Extensive experiments are conducted on both real and synthetic trajectory data in road networks. Our approach is verified to be effective in reducing both CPU time and disk I/O time.

  11. Age trajectories of stroke case fatality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2011-01-01

    Mortality rates level off at older ages. Age trajectories of stroke case-fatality rates were studied with the aim of investigating prevalence of this phenomenon, specifically in case-fatality rates at older ages.......Mortality rates level off at older ages. Age trajectories of stroke case-fatality rates were studied with the aim of investigating prevalence of this phenomenon, specifically in case-fatality rates at older ages....

  12. Trajectory generation for a remotely operated vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio Fraga; Borges de Sousa, J.; Lobo Pereira, F

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of trajectory generation for a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). The ROV is a nonholonomic vehicle and has limited actuator capabilities. This means that the task of trajectory generation for the inspection of underwater structures is not a trivial one, and that it cannot be done without computer aided design tools. The approach is based on techniques developed for differential flat systems. The ROV model is presented and it is shown that it satisfies the diffe...

  13. High-order epistasis shapes evolutionary trajectories.

    OpenAIRE

    Sailer, Zachary R.; Harms, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    High-order epistasis-where the effect of a mutation is determined by interactions with two or more other mutations-makes small, but detectable, contributions to genotype-fitness maps. While epistasis between pairs of mutations is known to be an important determinant of evolutionary trajectories, the evolutionary consequences of high-order epistasis remain poorly understood. To determine the effect of high-order epistasis on evolutionary trajectories, we computationally removed high-order epis...

  14. High-order epistasis shapes evolutionary trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Sailer, Zachary R.

    2017-01-01

    High-order epistasis?where the effect of a mutation is determined by interactions with two or more other mutations?makes small, but detectable, contributions to genotype-fitness maps. While epistasis between pairs of mutations is known to be an important determinant of evolutionary trajectories, the evolutionary consequences of high-order epistasis remain poorly understood. To determine the effect of high-order epistasis on evolutionary trajectories, we computationally removed high-order epis...

  15. Cervical Cancer Cell Supernatants Induce a Phenotypic Switch from U937-Derived Macrophage-Activated M1 State into M2-Like Suppressor Phenotype with Change in Toll-Like Receptor Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Sánchez-Reyes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer (CC is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV is the main risk factor for developing CC. Macrophages are important immune effector cells; they can be differentiated into two phenotypes, identified as M1 (classically activated and M2 (alternatively activated. Macrophage polarization exerts profound effects on the Toll-like receptor (TLR profile. In this study, we evaluated whether the supernatant of human CC cells HeLa, SiHa, and C-33A induces a shift of M1 macrophage toward M2 macrophage in U937-derived macrophages. Results. The results showed that soluble factors secreted by CC cells induce a change in the immunophenotype of macrophages from macrophage M1 into macrophage M2. U937-derived macrophages M1 released proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide; however, when these cells were treated with the supernatant of CC cell lines, we observed a turnover of M1 toward M2. These cells increased CD163 and IL-10 expression. The expression of TLR-3, -7, and -9 is increased when the macrophages were treated with the supernatant of CC cells. Conclusions. Our result strongly suggests that CC cells may, through the secretion of soluble factors, induce a change of immunophenotype M1 into M2 macrophages.

  16. ED-XRF spectrometry-based comparative inorganic profile of leaf-derived in vitro calli and in vivo leaf samples of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. and Thonn.-a hepatoprotective herb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, P., E-mail: pranati_nayak_23@yahoo.co.i [Plant Tissue and Cell Culture Facility, Post-Graduate Department of Botany, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar 751004, Orissa (India); Plant Biotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, (C.S.I.R., Govt. of India), Bhubaneswar 751013, Orissa (India); Behera, P.R., E-mail: priyaranjan2004@gmail.co [Plant Tissue and Cell Culture Facility, Post-Graduate Department of Botany, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar 751004, Orissa (India); Plant Biotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, (C.S.I.R., Govt. of India), Bhubaneswar 751013, Orissa (India); Thirunavoukkarasu, M., E-mail: mtarasu@yahoo.co [Plant Biotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, (C.S.I.R., Govt. of India), Bhubaneswar 751013, Orissa (India); Chand, P.K., E-mail: pkchanduubot@rediffmail.co [Plant Tissue and Cell Culture Facility, Post-Graduate Department of Botany, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar 751004, Orissa (India)

    2011-03-15

    The Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) set-up incorporating a molybdenum secondary exciter was used for quantitative determination of major and minor elements in leaves of in vivo grown medicinal herb Phyllanthus amarus vis-a-vis its leaf-derived in vitro callus culture. The elements such as K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr and Pb were identified, quantified and compared between both the sources. Experimental results revealed that, compared to the naturally grown herb, in vitro leaf-derived callus cultures were more efficient in accumulating inorganic elements, especially trace elements, which are essential for growth and development and more importantly for prevention and cure of diseases. This investigation on a medicinal plant species is the first of its kind to have used the ED-XRF technique to demonstrate a comparative account of the elemental profile of in vitro callus cultures with their in vivo donor in order to explore the possibility of exploiting the former as a viable alternative and a renewable source of phytochemicals.

  17. The viability of trajectory analysis for diagnosing dynamical and chemical influences on ozone concentrations in the UTLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, J. W.; Pfister, L.; Kinnison, D. E.; Hintsa, E. J.; Thornberry, T. D.

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the utility of trajectory analysis in the tropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere, Lagrangian predictions of ozone mixing ratio are compared to observations from the Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment. Model predictions are based on backward trajectories that are initiated along flight tracks. Ozone mixing ratios from analysis data interpolated onto "source locations" (at trajectory termini) provide initial conditions for chemical production models that are integrated forward in time along parcel trajectories. Model sensitivities are derived from ensembles of predictions using two sets of dynamical forcing fields, four sets of source ozone mixing ratios, three trajectory formulations (adiabatic, diabatic, and kinematic), and two chemical production models. Direct comparisons of analysis ozone mixing ratios to observations have large random errors that are reduced by averaging over 75 min ( 800 km) long flight tracks. These averaged values have systematic errors that motivate a similarly systematic adjustment to source ozone mixing ratios. Sensitivity experiments reveal a prediction error minimum in parameter space and, thus, a consistent diagnostic picture: The best predictions utilize the source ozone adjustment and a chemical production model derived from Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (a chemistry-climate model) chemistry. There seems to be slight advantages to using ERA-Interim winds compared to Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications and to using kinematic trajectories compared to diabatic; however, both diabatic and kinematic formulations are clearly preferable to adiabatic trajectories. For these predictions, correlations with observations typically decrease as model error is reduced and, thus, fail as a model comparison metric.

  18. Analysis of the three-dimensional trajectories of organisms: estimates of velocity, curvature and torsion from positional information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, H C; Ciampaglio, C N; McHenry, M

    2000-03-01

    Most biological motions are three-dimensional. This includes the trajectories of whole organisms and of their appendages. While recordings of three-dimensional trajectories are sometimes published, quantitative analysis of these trajectories is uncommon, primarily because there are no standard techniques or conventions in biology for the analysis of three-dimensional trajectories. This paper describes a new technique, finite helix fit (FHF), based on the geometry of three-dimensional curves, whereby a three-dimensional trajectory is completely described by its velocity, curvature and torsion. FHF estimates these parameters from discretely sampled points on a trajectory (i.e. from positional data such as x,y,z coordinates). Other measures of motion can be derived from these parameters, such as the translational and rotational (or angular) velocities of an organism. The performance of the algorithms is demonstrated using simulated trajectories and trajectories of freely swimming organisms (a flagellate, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii; a ciliate, Paramecium tetraurelia; spermatozoa of a sea urchin, Arbacia punctulata; larvae of an ascidian, Botrylloides sp.).

  19. Mars interplanetary trajectory design via Lagrangian points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Roshan Thomas; Sharma, Ram Krishan

    2014-09-01

    With the increase in complexities of interplanetary missions, the main focus has shifted to reducing the total delta-V for the entire mission and hence increasing the payload capacity of the spacecraft. This paper develops a trajectory to Mars using the Lagrangian points of the Sun-Earth system and the Sun-Mars system. The whole trajectory can be broadly divided into three stages: (1) Trajectory from a near-Earth circular parking orbit to a halo orbit around Sun-Earth Lagrangian point L2. (2) Trajectory from Sun-Earth L2 halo orbit to Sun-Mars L1 halo orbit. (3) Sun-Mars L1 halo orbit to a circular orbit around Mars. The stable and unstable manifolds of the halo orbits are used for halo orbit insertion. The intermediate transfer arcs are designed using two-body Lambert's problem. The total delta-V for the whole trajectory is computed and found to be lesser than that for the conventional trajectories. For a 480 km Earth parking orbit, the total delta-V is found to be 4.6203 km/s. Another advantage in the present approach is that delta-V does not depend upon the synodic period of Earth with respect to Mars.

  20. A Study of Shuttlecock's Trajectory in Badminton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lung-Ming; Pan, Yi-Hsiang; Chen, Yung-Jen

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to construct and validate a motion equation for the flight of the badminton and to find the relationship between the air resistance force and a shuttlecock's speed. This research method was based on motion laws of aerodynamics. It applied aerodynamic theories to construct motion equation of a shuttlecock's flying trajectory under the effects of gravitational force and air resistance force. The result showed that the motion equation of a shuttlecock's flight trajectory could be constructed by determining the terminal velocity. The predicted shuttlecock trajectory fitted the measured data fairly well. The results also revealed that the drag force was proportional to the square of a shuttlecock velocity. Furthermore, the angle and strength of a stroke could influence trajectory. Finally, this study suggested that we could use a scientific approach to measure a shuttlecock's velocity objectively when testing the quality of shuttlecocks. And could be used to replace the traditional subjective method of the Badminton World Federation based on players' striking shuttlecocks, as well as applying research findings to improve professional knowledge of badminton player training. Key pointsThe motion equation of a shuttlecock's flying trajectory could be constructed by determining the terminal velocity in aerodynamics.Air drag force is proportional to the square of a shuttlecock velocity. Furthermore, the angle and strength of a stroke could influence trajectory.