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Sample records for profile varies greatly

  1. Song trait similarity in great tits varies with social structure.

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    Lysanne Snijders

    Full Text Available For many animals, long-range signalling is essential to maintain contact with conspecifics. In territorial species, individuals often have to balance signalling towards unfamiliar potential competitors (to solely broadcast territory ownership with signalling towards familiar immediate neighbours (to also maintain so-called "dear enemy" relations. Hence, to understand how signals evolve due to these multilevel relationships, it is important to understand how general signal traits vary in relation to the overall social environment. For many territorial songbirds dawn is a key signalling period, with several neighbouring individuals singing simultaneously without immediate conflict. In this study we tested whether sharing a territory boundary, rather than spatial proximity, is related to similarity in dawn song traits between territorial great tits (Parus major in a wild personality-typed population. We collected a large dataset of automatized dawn song recordings from 72 unique male great tits, during the fertile period of their mate, and compared specific song traits between neighbours and non-neighbours. We show here that both song rate and start time of dawn song were repeatable song traits. Moreover, neighbours were significantly more dissimilar in song rate compared to non-neighbours, while there was no effect of proximity on song rate similarity. Additionally, similarity in start time of dawn song was unrelated to sharing a territory boundary, but birds were significantly more similar in start time of dawn song when they were breeding in close proximity of each other. We suggest that the dissimilarity in dawn song rate between neighbours is either the result of neighbouring great tits actively avoiding similar song rates to possibly prevent interference, or a passive consequence of territory settlement preferences relative to the types of neighbours. Neighbourhood structuring is therefore likely to be a relevant selection pressure shaping

  2. Adenoma detection rate varies greatly during colonoscopy training.

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    van Doorn, Sascha C; Klanderman, Robert B; Hazewinkel, Yark; Fockens, Paul; Dekker, Evelien

    2015-07-01

    The adenoma detection rate (ADR) is considered the most important quality indicator for colonoscopy and varies widely among colonoscopists. It is unknown whether the ADR of gastroenterology consultants can already be predicted during their colonoscopy training. To evaluate the ADR of fellows in gastroenterology and evaluate whether this predicts their ADR as gastroenterology consultants. Retrospective observational study. Academic and regional centers. Symptomatic patients undergoing colonoscopy. The variance in ADR among 7 gastroenterology fellows during their training (between May 2004 and March 2012) and of the same fellows after they registered as consultants (between October 2011 and April 2014) was evaluated. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to compare the highest detector (endoscopist with highest ADR) with the individual fellows and to evaluate whether an ADR of 20% or higher during the training was predictive of a high ADR as a consultant. During training, ADRs ranged from 14% to 36% (P training. An ADR lower than 20% during training was associated with a lower ADR as a consultant (OR 0.51; 95% CI, 0.30-0.87). Retrospective study. Variance in ADR is already present during the endoscopy training of gastroenterology fellows. Most fellows do not improve their ADR after completing their training. These findings suggest that the ADR can be predicted during colonoscopy training, and we suggest that feedback and benchmarking should be implemented early during training of fellows in an effort to improve ADR in future daily practice as a consultant. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. On the Anonymity Risk of Time-Varying User Profiles

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    Silvia Puglisi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Websites and applications use personalisation services to profile their users, collect their patterns and activities and eventually use this data to provide tailored suggestions. User preferences and social interactions are therefore aggregated and analysed. Every time a user publishes a new post or creates a link with another entity, either another user, or some online resource, new information is added to the user profile. Exposing private data does not only reveal information about single users’ preferences, increasing their privacy risk, but can expose more about their network that single actors intended. This mechanism is self-evident in social networks where users receive suggestions based on their friends’ activities. We propose an information-theoretic approach to measure the differential update of the anonymity risk of time-varying user profiles. This expresses how privacy is affected when new content is posted and how much third-party services get to know about the users when a new activity is shared. We use actual Facebook data to show how our model can be applied to a real-world scenario.

  4. Influence of shear wave velocity reversals on one-dimensional site response of spatially varied profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Pehlivan, M; Hashash, YMA; Harmon, JA; Rathje, EM; Stewart, JP; Silva, SJ; Campbell, KW; Nikolaou, S

    2015-01-01

    Spatial variability and uncertainties that exist in natural deposits are often modeled in one-dimensional (1D) site response analysis through multiple spatially varied shear wave velocity (VS) profiles. These spatially varied VS profiles usually exhibit VS reversals that might not be observed in the natural deposits. This study investigates the consequences of allowing VS reversals in spatially varied VS on the 1D site response characteristics. Two sets of sixty (60) spatially varied VS profi...

  5. Gradually-varied flow profiles in open channels analytical solutions by using Gaussian hypergeometric function

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    Jan, Chyan-Deng

    2014-01-01

    Gradually-varied flow (GVF) is a steady non-uniform flow in an open channel with gradual changes in its water surface elevation. The evaluation of GVF profiles under a specific flow discharge is very important in hydraulic engineering. This book proposes a novel approach to analytically solve the GVF profiles by using the direct integration and Gaussian hypergeometric function. Both normal-depth- and critical-depth-based dimensionless GVF profiles are presented. The novel approach has laid the foundation to compute at one sweep the GVF profiles in a series of sustaining and adverse channels, w

  6. Common Brain Structure Findings Across Children with Varied Reading Disability Profiles.

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    Eckert, Mark A; Vaden, Kenneth I; Maxwell, Amanda B; Cute, Stephanie L; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Berninger, Virginia W

    2017-07-20

    Dyslexia is a developmental disorder in reading that exhibits varied patterns of expression across children. Here we examined the degree to which different kinds of reading disabilities (defined as profiles or patterns of reading problems) contribute to brain morphology results in Jacobian determinant images that represent local brain shape and volume. A matched-pair brain morphometry approach was used to control for confounding from brain size and research site effects in this retrospective multi-site study of 134 children from eight different research sites. Parietal operculum, corona radiata, and internal capsule differences between cases and controls were consistently observed across children with evidence of classic dyslexia, specific comprehension deficit, and language learning disability. Thus, there can be common brain morphology findings across children with quite varied reading disability profiles that we hypothesize compound the developmental difficulties of children with unique reading disability profiles and reasons for their reading disability.

  7. Low-profile stent system for treatment of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis : The GREAT trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sapoval, Marc; Zahringer, Markus; Pattynama, Peter; Rabbia, Claudio; Vignali, Claudio; Maleux, Geert; Boyer, Louis; Szczerbo-Trojanowska, Malgorzata; Jaschke, Werner; Hafsahl, Geir; Downes, Mark; Beregi, Jean Paul; Veeger, Nic; Talen, Aly

    PURPOSE: The Palmaz Genesis Peripheral Stainless Steel Balloon Expandable Stent in Renal Artery Treatment (GREAT) Trial was designed to assess the safety and performance of a low-profile stent for the treatment of obstructive renal artery disease by looking at 6-month renal artery patency uniformly

  8. Time-varying Entry Heating Profile Replication with a Rotating Arc Jet Test Article

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    Grinstead, Jay Henderson; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Noyes, Eric A.; Mach, Jeffrey J.; Empey, Daniel M.; White, Todd R.

    2014-01-01

    A new approach for arc jet testing of thermal protection materials at conditions approximating the time-varying conditions of atmospheric entry was developed and demonstrated. The approach relies upon the spatial variation of heat flux and pressure over a cylindrical test model. By slowly rotating a cylindrical arc jet test model during exposure to an arc jet stream, each point on the test model will experience constantly changing applied heat flux. The predicted temporal profile of heat flux at a point on a vehicle can be replicated by rotating the cylinder at a prescribed speed and direction. An electromechanical test model mechanism was designed, built, and operated during an arc jet test to demonstrate the technique.

  9. Adolescent educational success and mental health vary across school engagement profiles.

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    Wang, Ming-Te; Peck, Stephen C

    2013-07-01

    The present study used multidimensional and person-centered approaches to identify subgroups of adolescents characterized by unique patterns of behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement and examined whether adolescent developmental outcomes varied as a function of different combinations of engagement components. Data were collected on 1,025 youths (57% African American, 43% European American; 53% female, 47% male). Five profiles of student engagement in school were identified: Highly Engaged, Moderately Engaged, Minimally Engaged, Emotionally Disengaged, and Cognitively Disengaged. These 5 groups differed in their educational and psychological functioning. The study not only provides empirical evidence supporting the multifaceted nature of school engagement but also demonstrates its utility relative to educational success and mental health. Considering the multiple dimensions of student engagement simultaneously from a person-centered perspective promises a useful approach for addressing sample heterogeneity and understanding different patterns of school engagement and their consequences.

  10. 24-Hour Glucose Profiles on Diets Varying in Protein Content and Glycemic Index

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    van Baak, Marleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is increasing that the postprandial state is an important factor contributing to the risk of chronic diseases. Not only mean glycemia, but also glycemic variability has been implicated in this effect. In this exploratory study, we measured 24-h glucose profiles in 25 overweight participants in a long-term diet intervention study (DIOGENES study on Diet, Obesity and Genes), which had been randomized to four different diet groups consuming diets varying in protein content and glycemic index. In addition, we compared 24-h glucose profiles in a more controlled fashion, where nine other subjects followed in random order the same four diets differing in carbohydrate content by 10 energy% and glycemic index by 20 units during three days. Meals were provided in the lab and had to be eaten at fixed times during the day. No differences in mean glucose concentration or glucose variability (SD) were found between diet groups in the DIOGENES study. In the more controlled lab study, mean 24-h glucose concentrations were also not different. Glucose variability (SD and CONGA1), however, was lower on the diet combining a lower carbohydrate content and GI compared to the diet combining a higher carbohydrate content and GI. These data suggest that diets with moderate differences in carbohydrate content and GI do not affect mean 24-h or daytime glucose concentrations, but may result in differences in the variability of the glucose level in healthy normal weight and overweight individuals. PMID:25093276

  11. 24-Hour Glucose Profiles on Diets Varying in Protein Content and Glycemic Index

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    Marleen A. van Baak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is increasing that the postprandial state is an important factor contributing to the risk of chronic diseases. Not only mean glycemia, but also glycemic variability has been implicated in this effect. In this exploratory study, we measured 24-h glucose profiles in 25 overweight participants in a long-term diet intervention study (DIOGENES study on Diet, Obesity and Genes, which had been randomized to four different diet groups consuming diets varying in protein content and glycemic index. In addition, we compared 24-h glucose profiles in a more controlled fashion, where nine other subjects followed in random order the same four diets differing in carbohydrate content by 10 energy% and glycemic index by 20 units during three days. Meals were provided in the lab and had to be eaten at fixed times during the day. No differences in mean glucose concentration or glucose variability (SD were found between diet groups in the DIOGENES study. In the more controlled lab study, mean 24-h glucose concentrations were also not different. Glucose variability (SD and CONGA1, however, was lower on the diet combining a lower carbohydrate content and GI compared to the diet combining a higher carbohydrate content and GI. These data suggest that diets with moderate differences in carbohydrate content and GI do not affect mean 24-h or daytime glucose concentrations, but may result in differences in the variability of the glucose level in healthy normal weight and overweight individuals

  12. Continuous resistivity profiling data from Great South Bay, Long Island, New York

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    Cross, V.A.; Bratton, J.F.; Kroeger, K.D.; Crusius, John; Worley, C.R.

    2013-01-01

    An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York was conducted to assess the importance of submarine groundwater discharge as a potential nonpoint source of nitrogen delivery to Great South Bay. Over 200 kilometers of continuous resistivity profiling data were collected to image the fresh-saline groundwater interface in sediments beneath the bay. In addition, groundwater sampling was performed at sites (1) along the north shore of Great South Bay, particularly in Patchogue Bay, that were representative of the developed Long Island shoreline, and (2) at sites on and adjacent to Fire Island, a 50-kilometer-long barrier island on the south side of Great South Bay. Other field activities included sediment coring, stationary electrical resistivity profiling, and surveys of in situ pore water conductivity. Results of continuous resistivity profiling surveys are described in this report. The onshore and offshore shallow hydrostratigraphy of the Great South Bay shorelines, particularly the presence and nature of submarine confining units, appears to exert primary control on the dimensions and chemistry of the submarine groundwater flow and discharge zones. Sediment coring has shown that the confining units commonly consist of drowned and buried peat layers likely deposited in salt marshes. Low-salinity groundwater extends from 10 to 100 meters offshore along much of the north and south shores of Great South Bay based on continuous resistivity profiling data, especially off the mouths of tidal creeks and beneath shallow flats to the north of Fire Island adjacent to modern salt marshes. Human modifications of much of the shoreline and nearshore areas along the north shore of the bay, including filling of salt marshes, construction of bulkheads and piers, and dredging of navigation channels, has substantially altered the natural hydrogeology of the bay's shorelines by truncating confining units and increasing

  13. Free surface profiles in river flows: Can standard energy-based gradually-varied flow computations be pursued?

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    Cantero, Francisco; Castro-Orgaz, Oscar; Garcia-Marín, Amanda; Ayuso, José Luis; Dey, Subhasish

    2015-10-01

    Is the energy equation for gradually-varied flow the best approximation for the free surface profile computations in river flows? Determination of flood inundation in rivers and natural waterways is based on the hydraulic computation of flow profiles. This is usually done using energy-based gradually-varied flow models, like HEC-RAS, that adopts a vertical division method for discharge prediction in compound channel sections. However, this discharge prediction method is not so accurate in the context of advancements over the last three decades. This paper firstly presents a study of the impact of discharge prediction on the gradually-varied flow computations by comparing thirteen different methods for compound channels, where both energy and momentum equations are applied. The discharge, velocity distribution coefficients, specific energy, momentum and flow profiles are determined. After the study of gradually-varied flow predictions, a new theory is developed to produce higher-order energy and momentum equations for rapidly-varied flow in compound channels. These generalized equations enable to describe the flow profiles with more generality than the gradually-varied flow computations. As an outcome, results of gradually-varied flow provide realistic conclusions for computations of flow in compound channels, showing that momentum-based models are in general more accurate; whereas the new theory developed for rapidly-varied flow opens a new research direction, so far not investigated in flows through compound channels.

  14. Carotenoid micellarization varies greatly between individual and mixed vegetables with or without the addition of fat or fiber.

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    O'Connell, Orla; Ryan, Lisa; O'Sullivan, Laurie; Aherne-Bruce, S Aisling; O'Brien, Nora M

    2008-01-01

    Carotenoid bioavailability is influenced by a number of factors, including the type of food matrix and the presence of fat, fiber, and other carotenoids. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were: first, to assess the effects of mixing raw vegetables on the micellarization of beta-carotene, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and lutein compared with individual vegetables; second, to investigate the effects of adding different oils on carotenoid transfer to the micelles; and third, and to a minor extent, to determine carotenoid micellarization following the addition of fiber. The two mixed vegetable meals were TRS (tomato, red pepper, and spinach) and CRS (courgette/zucchini, red pepper, and spinach). Similar trends in carotenoid micellarization were seen between individual vegetables and the TRS meal but not with the CRS meal. In general, the addition of olive, peanut, or rapeseed oil to the CRS meal significantly enhanced carotenoid micellarization but this effect was not concentration-dependent. In relation to the TRS meal, adding either vegetable oils or fiber (oat bran, wheat bran, and pectin) significantly decreased the micellarization of carotenoids to varying degrees. The results from this study indicate that changes to a combination of raw vegetables, with or without the addition of dietary fat or fiber, can have varying results on carotenoid bioavailability.

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations of burbot Lota lota from Great Slave Lake are very low but vary by sex.

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    Madenjian, C P; Stapanian, M A; Cott, P A; Rediske, R R; O'Keefe, J P

    2014-05-01

    Total polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations (ΣPCBs) in whole fish were determined for 18 ripe female burbot Lota lota and 14 ripe male burbot from Great Slave Lake, a lake with no known point sources of PCBs. In addition, ΣPCBs were determined in both somatic tissue and gonads for a randomly selected subset of 5 females and 5 males. Mean ΣPCBs for females and males were 2.89 and 3.76 ng/g, respectively. Thus, males had 30 % greater ΣPCBs than females. Based on ΣPCB determinations for somatic tissue and gonads, ΣPCBs of females and males would be expected to decrease by 18 % and increase by 6 %, respectively, immediately after spawning due to the release of gametes. Results from a previous study in eastern Lake Erie indicated that males had 28 and 71 % greater ΣPCBs than females from populations of younger (ages 6-13 years) and older (ages 14-17 years) burbot, respectively. Thus, although younger burbot from Lake Erie had approximately 50 times greater ΣPCBs than Great Slave Lake burbot, the relative difference in ΣPCBs between the sexes was remarkably similar across both populations. Our results supported the contention that the widening of the difference in ΣPCBs between the sexes in older burbot from Lake Erie was attributable to a "hot spot" effect operating on older burbot because Lake Erie has received PCB point source loadings. Our results also supported the contention that male fish expend energy at a rate between 15 and 30 % greater than females. Eventually, these results will be useful in developing sex-specific bioenergetics models for fish.

  16. Prostate specific antigen testing policy worldwide varies greatly and seems not to be in accordance with guidelines: a systematic review

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    Van der Meer Saskia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate specific antigen (PSA testing is widely used, but guidelines on follow-up are unclear. Methods We performed a systematic review of the literature to determine follow-up policy after PSA testing by general practitioners (GPs and non-urologic hospitalists, the use of a cut-off value for this policy, the reasons for repeating a PSA test after an initial normal result, the existence of a general cut-off value below which a PSA result is considered normal, and the time frame for repeating a test. Data sources. MEDLINE, Embase, PsychInfo and the Cochrane library from January 1950 until May 2011. Study eligibility criteria. Studies describing follow-up policy by GPs or non-urologic hospitalists after a primary PSA test, excluding urologists and patients with prostate cancer. Studies written in Dutch, English, French, German, Italian or Spanish were included. Excluded were studies describing follow-up policy by urologists and follow-up of patients with prostate cancer. The quality of each study was structurally assessed. Results Fifteen articles met the inclusion criteria. Three studies were of high quality. Follow-up differed greatly both after a normal and an abnormal PSA test result. Only one study described the reasons for not performing follow-up after an abnormal PSA result. Conclusions Based on the available literature, we cannot adequately assess physicians’ follow-up policy after a primary PSA test. Follow-up after a normal or raised PSA test by GPs and non-urologic hospitalists seems to a large extent not in accordance with the guidelines.

  17. Perceived relative attractiveness of facial profiles with varying degrees of skeletal anomalies.

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    Hönn, Mirjam; Dietz, Klaus; Godt, Arnim; Göz, Gernot

    2005-05-01

    The objective of this study was to answer the following questions: Are profiles of Class I patients perceived as more attractive than profiles of Class II or Class III patients in Germany today? How pronounced must a skeletal malocclusion be to be perceived as less attractive? Are there differences in perception between dentists and laypersons? For the present study we examined seven patients with skeletal Class I, orthognathic maxillae and mandibles, and straight average faces (ideal biometric face as defined by A. M. Schwarz). Using the Onyx Ceph software, their profile lines were modified to reflect three different Class II profile variants and three different Class III profile variants. The 49 profiles thus obtained were assigned to two groups. Group 1 comprised the seven straight average faces and the first part of the retrognathic and prognathic profile variants. Group 2 comprised the same seven straight average faces and the remaining retrognathic and prognathic profile variants. Both groups of faces were scored by 130 laypersons and 126 dentists. Both groups of observers perceived the seven straight average faces similarly both in the first and second (subsequent) scoring rounds. The straight average face was perceived as most attractive by laypersons (mean, 5.48; 95% confidence interval (CI:) 5.33-5.60) and dentists (mean, 5.44; 95% CI, 5.28-5.50) alike, followed by the mildest variant of the retrognathic face (laypersons, mean, 4.85; 95% CI, 4.68-5.01; dentists, mean, 4.98; 95% CI, 4.81-5.10). Dentists differentiated more clearly by degree of skeletal malocclusion than did laypersons. Both groups alike perceived the extreme variant of the prognathic and retrognathic profile lines as the least attractive. Grouping the subjects by gender yielded only minor differences in perception. The straight average face is perceived as most attractive by representative German populations today. Dentists make clearer gradual distinctions in their perceptions than do

  18. Demonstration of Aerosol Property Profiling by Multiwavelength Lidar Under Varying Relative Humidity Conditions

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    Veselovskii, I.; Whiteman, D. N.; Kolgotin, A.; Andrews, E.; Korenskii, M.

    2009-01-01

    During the months of July-August 2007 NASA conducted a research campaign called the Tropical Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling (TC4) experiment. Vertical profiles of ozone were measured daily using an instrument known as an ozonesonde, which is attached to a weather balloon and launch to altitudes in excess of 30 km. These ozone profiles were measured over coastal Las Tablas, Panama (7.8N, 80W) and several times per week at Alajuela, Costa Rica (ION, 84W). Meteorological systems in the form of waves, detected most prominently in 100-300 in thick ozone layer in the tropical tropopause layer, occurred in 50% (Las Tablas) and 40% (Alajuela) of the soundings. These layers, associated with vertical displacements and classified as gravity waves ("GW," possibly Kelvin waves), occur with similar stricture and frequency over the Paramaribo (5.8N, 55W) and San Cristobal (0.925, 90W) sites of the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) network. The gravity wave labeled layers in individual soundings correspond to cloud outflow as indicated by the tracers measured from the NASA DC-8 and other aircraft data, confirming convective initiation of equatorial waves. Layers representing quasi-horizontal displacements, referred to as Rossby waves, are robust features in soundings from 23 July to 5 August. The features associated with Rossby waves correspond to extra-tropical influence, possibly stratospheric, and sometimes to pollution transport. Comparison of Las Tablas and Alajuela ozone budgets with 1999-2007 Paramaribo and San Cristobal soundings shows that TC4 is typical of climatology for the equatorial Americas. Overall during TC4, convection and associated meteorological waves appear to dominate ozone transport in the tropical tropopause layer.

  19. Fatty acid profiles of four filamentous green algae under varying culture conditions.

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    Liu, Junzhuo; Vanormelingen, Pieter; Vyverman, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Although benthic filamentous algae are interesting targets for wastewater treatment and biotechnology, relatively little is known about their biochemical composition and variation in response to growth conditions. Fatty acid composition of four benthic filamentous green algae was determined in different culture conditions. Although the response was partly species-dependent, increasing culture age, nitrogen deprivation and dark exposure of stationary phase greatly increased both total fatty acid content (TFA) from 12-35 to 40-173mgg(-1) dry weight (DW) and the relative proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) from 21-58% to 55-87% of TFA, with dark exposure having the greatest effect. However, the main variation in fatty acid composition was between species, with Uronema being rich in C16:0 (2.3% of DW), Klebsormidium in C18:2ω6 (5.4% of DW) and Stigeoclonium in C18:3ω3 (11.1% of DW). This indicates the potential of the latter two species as potential sources of these PUFAs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Transcriptomic profiling of Arabidopsis gene expression in response to varying micronutrient zinc supply

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    Herlânder Azevedo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of the micronutrient zinc is a widespread condition in agricultural soils, causing a negative impact on crop quality and yield. Nevertheless, there is an insufficient knowledge on the regulatory and molecular mechanisms underlying the plant response to inadequate zinc nutrition [1]. This information should contribute to the development of plant-based solutions with improved nutrient-use-efficiency traits in crops. Previously, the transcription factors bZIP19 and bZIP23 were identified as essential regulators of the response to zinc deficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana [2]. A microarray experiment comparing gene expression between roots of wild-type and the mutant bzip19 bzip23, exposed to zinc deficiency, led to the identification of differentially expressed genes related with zinc homeostasis, namely its transport and plant internal translocation [2]. Here, we provide the detailed methodology, bioinformatics analysis and quality controls related to the microarray gene expression profiling published by Assunção and co-workers [2]. Most significantly, the present dataset comprises new experimental variables, including analysis of shoot tissue, and zinc sufficiency and excess supply. Thus, it expands from 8 to 42 microarrays hybridizations, which have been deposited at the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO under the accession number GSE77286. Overall, it provides a resource for research on the molecular basis and regulatory events of the plant response to zinc supply, emphasizing the importance of Arabidopsis bZIP19 and bZIP23 transcription factors.

  1. Neurophysiological and subjective profile of marijuana with varying concentrations of cannabinoids.

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    Ilan, A B; Gevins, A; Coleman, M; ElSohly, M A; de Wit, H

    2005-09-01

    This study investigated the contribution of different cannabinoids to the subjective, behavioral and neurophysiological effects of smoked marijuana. Healthy marijuana users (12 men, 11 women) participated in four sessions. They were randomly assigned to a low or a high delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol group (THC; 1.8% versus 3.6%). In the four sessions under blinded conditions subjects smoked marijuana cigarettes containing placebo (no active cannabinoids), or cigarettes containing THC with low or high levels of cannabichromene (CBC; 0.1% versus 0.5%) and low or high levels of cannabidiol (CBD; 0.2% versus 1.0%). Dependent measures included subjective reports, measures of cognitive task performance and neurophysiological measures [electroencephalographic (EEG) and event-related potential (ERP)]. Compared to placebo, active THC cigarettes produced expected effects on mood, behavior and brain activity. A decrease in performance, reduction in EEG power and attenuation of ERP components reflecting attentional processes were observed during tests of working memory and episodic memory. Most of these effects were not dose-dependent. Varying the concentrations of CBC and CBD did not change subjects' responses on any of the outcome measures. These findings are consistent with previous studies indicating that THC and its metabolites are the primary active constituents of marijuana. They also suggest that neurophysiological EEG and ERP measures are useful biomarkers of the effects of THC.

  2. What’s normal? Oligosaccharide concentrations and profiles in milk produced by healthy women vary geographically12

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    Meehan, Courtney L; McGuire, Mark A; Foster, James; Sellen, Daniel W; Kamau-Mbuthia, Elizabeth W; Kamundia, Egidioh W; Mbugua, Samwel; Moore, Sophie E; Prentice, Andrew M; Kvist, Linda J; Otoo, Gloria E; Brooker, Sarah L; Price, William J; Shafii, Bahman; Placek, Caitlyn; Lackey, Kimberly A; Robertson, Bianca; Ruíz, Lorena; Pareja, Rossina G; Bode, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Background: Human milk is a complex fluid comprised of myriad substances, with one of the most abundant substances being a group of complex carbohydrates referred to as human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). There has been some evidence that HMO profiles differ in populations, but few studies have rigorously explored this variability. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that HMO profiles differ in diverse populations of healthy women. Next, we examined relations between HMO and maternal anthropometric and reproductive indexes and indirectly examined whether differences were likely related to genetic or environmental variations. Design: In this cross-sectional, observational study, milk was collected from a total of 410 healthy, breastfeeding women in 11 international cohorts and analyzed for HMOs by using high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: There was an effect of the cohort (P 4 times higher in milk collected in Sweden than in milk collected in rural Gambia (mean ± SEM: 473 ± 55 compared with 103 ± 16 nmol/mL, respectively; P < 0.05), and disialyllacto-N-tetraose (DSLNT) concentrations ranged from 216 ± 14 nmol/mL (in Sweden) to 870 ± 68 nmol/mL (in rural Gambia) (P < 0.05). Maternal age, time postpartum, weight, and body mass index were all correlated with several HMOs, and multiple differences in HMOs [e.g., lacto-N-neotetrose and DSLNT] were shown between ethnically similar (and likely genetically similar) populations who were living in different locations, which suggests that the environment may play a role in regulating the synthesis of HMOs. Conclusions: The results of this study support our hypothesis that normal HMO concentrations and profiles vary geographically, even in healthy women. Targeted genomic analyses are required to determine whether these differences are due at least in part to genetic variation. A careful examination of sociocultural, behavioral, and environmental factors is needed to determine their roles in this regard. This

  3. Coverage of Nutrition Interventions Intended for Infants and Young Children Varies Greatly across Programs: Results from Coverage Surveys in 5 Countries123

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    Aaron, Grant J; Poonawala, Alia; van Liere, Marti J; Schofield, Dominic; Myatt, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Background: The efficacy of a number of interventions that include fortified complementary foods (FCFs) or other products to improve infant and young child feeding (IYCF) is well established. Programs that provide such products free or at a subsidized price are implemented in many countries around the world. Demonstrating the impact at scale of these programs has been challenging, and rigorous information on coverage and utilization is lacking. Objective: The objective of this article is to review key findings from 11 coverage surveys of IYCF programs distributing or selling FCFs or micronutrient powders in 5 countries. Methods: Programs were implemented in Ghana, Cote d’Ivoire, India, Bangladesh, and Vietnam. Surveys were implemented at different stages of program implementation between 2013 and 2015. The Fortification Assessment Coverage Toolkit (FACT) was developed to assess 3 levels of coverage (message: awareness of the product; contact: use of the product ≥1 time; and effective: regular use aligned with program-specific goals), as well as barriers and factors that facilitate coverage. Analyses included the coverage estimates, as well as an assessment of equity of coverage between the poor and nonpoor, and between those with poor and adequate child feeding practices. Results: Coverage varied greatly between countries and program models. Message coverage ranged from 29.0% to 99.7%, contact coverage from 22.6% to 94.4%, and effective coverage from 0.8% to 88.3%. Beyond creating awareness, programs that achieved high coverage were those with effective mechanisms in place to overcome barriers for both supply and demand. Conclusions: Variability in coverage was likely due to the program design, delivery model, quality of implementation, and product type. Measuring program coverage and understanding its determinants is essential for program improvement and to estimate the potential for impact of programs at scale. Use of the FACT can help overcome this evidence

  4. Sound velocity profiles collected by NOAA's Navigation Response Team No. 4 in the Great Lakes, July 5 - September 25, 2007 (NODC Accession 0020370)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical oceanographic data were collected from NOAA Navigation Response Team-4 in the Great Lakes from 05 July 2007 to 25 September 2007. Sound velocity profiles...

  5. Sound velocity profiles from velocimeter casts by NOAA Navigation Response Team-4 in the Great Lakes from 16 August 2006 to 18 October 2006 (NODC Accession 0012524)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical oceanographic data were collected from NOAA Navigation Response Team-4 in the Great Lakes from 16 August 2006 to 18 October 2006. Sound velocity profiles...

  6. Sound velocity profiles collected in the Great Lakes and one station in Galveston Bay by NOAA Navigation Response Team 4, April - August 2006 (NODC Accession 0002823)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sound velocity profiles were collected using sound velocimeter in the Great Lakes and Galveston Bay from NOAA NAVIGATION RESPONSE TEAM 4 from 11 April 2006 to 04...

  7. Energy, Environmental and Economic Performance of a Micro-trigeneration System upon Varying the Electric Vehicle Charging Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Sibilio

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The widespread adoption of electric vehicles and electric heat pumps would result in radically different household electrical demand characteristics, while also possibly posing a threat to the stability of the electrical grid. In this paper, a micro-trigeneration system (composed of a 6.0 kWel cogeneration device feeding a 4.5 kWcool electric air-cooled vapor compression water chiller serving an Italian residential multi-family house was investigated by using the dynamic simulation software TRNSYS. The charging of an electric vehicle was considered by analyzing a set of seven electric vehicle charging profiles representing different scenarios. The simulations were performed in order to evaluate the capability of micro-cogeneration technology in: alleviating the impact on the electric infrastructure (a; saving primary energy (b; reducing the carbon dioxide equivalent emissions (c and determining the operating costs in comparison to a conventional supply system based on separate energy production (d.

  8. Identification of differences in human and great ape phytanic acid metabolism that could influence gene expression profiles and physiological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegmund Kimberly D

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been proposed that anatomical differences in human and great ape guts arose in response to species-specific diets and energy demands. To investigate functional genomic consequences of these differences, we compared their physiological levels of phytanic acid, a branched chain fatty acid that can be derived from the microbial degradation of chlorophyll in ruminant guts. Humans who accumulate large stores of phytanic acid commonly develop cerebellar ataxia, peripheral polyneuropathy, and retinitis pigmentosa in addition to other medical conditions. Furthermore, phytanic acid is an activator of the PPAR-alpha transcription factor that influences the expression of genes relevant to lipid metabolism. Results Despite their trace dietary phytanic acid intake, all great ape species had elevated red blood cell (RBC phytanic acid levels relative to humans on diverse diets. Unlike humans, chimpanzees showed sexual dimorphism in RBC phytanic acid levels, which were higher in males relative to females. Cultured skin fibroblasts from all species had a robust capacity to degrade phytanic acid. We provide indirect evidence that great apes, in contrast to humans, derive significant amounts of phytanic acid from the hindgut fermentation of plant materials. This would represent a novel reduction of metabolic activity in humans relative to the great apes. Conclusion We identified differences in the physiological levels of phytanic acid in humans and great apes and propose this is causally related to their gut anatomies and microbiomes. Phytanic acid levels could contribute to cross-species and sex-specific differences in human and great ape transcriptomes, especially those related to lipid metabolism. Based on the medical conditions caused by phytanic acid accumulation, we suggest that differences in phytanic acid metabolism could influence the functions of human and great ape nervous, cardiovascular, and skeletal systems.

  9. Great Lakes: Great Gardening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York Sea Grant Inst., Albany, NY.

    This folder contains 12 fact sheets designed to improve the quality of gardens near the Great Lakes. The titles are: (1) "Your Garden and the Great Lakes"; (2) "Organic Gardening"; (3) "Fruit and Vegetable Gardening"; (4) "Composting Yard Wastes"; (5) "Herbicides and Water Quality"; (6)…

  10. Development of V2G and G2V Power Profiles and Their Implications on Grid Under Varying Equilibrium of Aggregated Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Prateek; Jain, Trapti

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the vehicle-to-grid (V2G) power capability of aggregated electric vehicles (EV) in the manner that they are being adopted by the consumers with their growing infiltration in the vehicles market. The proposed modeling of V2G and grid-to-vehicle (G2V) energy profiles blends the heterogeneous attributes namely, driven mileages, arrival and departure times, travel and parking durations, and speed dependent energy consumption of mobility trends. Three penetration percentages of 25 %, 50 % and 100 % resulting in varied compositions of battery electric vehicle (BEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) in the system, as determined by the consumers' acceptance, have been considered to evaluate the grid capacity for V2G. Distinct charge-discharge powers have been selected as per charging standards to match contemporary vehicles and infrastructure requirements. Charging and discharging approaches have been devised to replicate non-linear characteristics of Li-ion battery. Effects of simultaneous conjunction of V2G and G2V power curves with daily conventional load profile are quantified drawn upon workplace-discharging home-charging scheme. Results demonstrated a marked drop in load and hence in market price during morning hours which is hurriedly overcompensated by the hike during evening hours with rising penetration level and charge-discharge power.

  11. Great Minds? Great Lakes!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.

    This booklet introduces an environmental curriculum for use in a variety of elementary subjects. The lesson plans provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into the subjects of history, social studies, and environmental sciences. Each of these sections contains background information, discussion points, and a…

  12. Molecular weight profiles of proanthocyanidin polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent M. Williams; Lawrence J. Porter; Richard W. Hemingway

    1983-01-01

    The MW profiles of proanthocyanidin polymers (condensed tannins) from 32 samples representing a wide range of plant tissues of many different species have been obtained by gel permeation chromatography of the peracetate derivatives. The tannins vary widely in MW, with M values for the peracetates in the range 1600-5500. The MW profiles vary greatly from those with...

  13. GREAT optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Gentner, Armin; Graf, Urs U.; Philipp, Martin; Rabanus, David; Stutzki, Jürgen

    2004-10-01

    The German REceiver for Astronomy at Terahertz frequencies (GREAT) is a first generation PI instrument for the SOFIA telescope, developed by a collaboration between the MPIfR, KOSMA, DLR, and the MPAe. The first three institutes each contribute one heterodyne receiver channel to operate at 1.9, 2.7 and 4.7 THz, respectively. A later addition of a e.g. 1.4 THz channel is planned. The GREAT instrument is developed to carry two cryostats at once. That means that any two of the three frequencies can be observed simultaneously. Therefore, we need to be able to quickly exchange the optics benches, the local oscillator (LO) subsystems, and the cryostats containing the mixer devices. This demands a high modularity and flexibility of our receiver concept. Our aim is to avoid the need for realignment when swapping receiver channels. After an overview of the common GREAT optics, a detailed description of several parts (optics benches, calibration units, diplexer, focal plane imager) is given. Special emphasis is given to the LO optics of the KOSMA 1.9 THz channel, because its backward wave oscillator has an astigmatic output beam profile, which has to be corrected for. We developed astigmatic off-axis mirrors to compensate this astigmatism. The mirrors are manufactured in-house on a 5 axis CNC milling machine. We use this milling machine to obtain optical components with highest surface accuracy (about 5 microns) appropriate for these wavelengths. Based on the CNC machining capabilities we present our concept of integrated optics, which means to manufacture optical subsystems monolithically. The optics benches are located on three point mounts, which in conjunction with the integrated optics concept ensure the required adjustment free optics setup.

  14. Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The Great Lakes region, as defined here, includes the Great Lakes and their drainage basins in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. The region also includes the portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the 21 northernmost counties of Illinois that lie in the Mississippi River drainage basin, outside the floodplain of the river. The region spans about 9º of latitude and 20º of longitude and lies roughly halfway between the equator and the North Pole in a lowland corridor that extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean.The Great Lakes are the most prominent natural feature of the region (Fig. 1). They have a combined surface area of about 245,000 square kilometers and are among the largest, deepest lakes in the world. They are the largest single aggregation of fresh water on the planet (excluding the polar ice caps) and are the only glacial feature on Earth visible from the surface of the moon (The Nature Conservancy 1994a).The Great Lakes moderate the region’s climate, which presently ranges from subarctic in the north to humid continental warm in the south (Fig. 2), reflecting the movement of major weather masses from the north and south (U.S. Department of the Interior 1970; Eichenlaub 1979). The lakes act as heat sinks in summer and heat sources in winter and are major reservoirs that help humidify much of the region. They also create local precipitation belts in areas where air masses are pushed across the lakes by prevailing winds, pick up moisture from the lake surface, and then drop that moisture over land on the other side of the lake. The mean annual frost-free period—a general measure of the growing-season length for plants and some cold-blooded animals—varies from 60 days at higher elevations in the north to 160 days in lakeshore areas in the south. The climate influences the general distribution of wild plants and animals in the region and also influences the activities and distribution of the human

  15. Quantifying water flow within aquatic ecosystems using load cell sensors: a profile of currents experienced by coral reef organisms around Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Jacob L

    2014-01-01

    Current velocity in aquatic environments has major implications for the diversity, abundance and ecology of aquatic organisms, but quantifying these currents has proven difficult. This study utilises a simple and inexpensive instrument (reef system around Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia) at a spatial and temporal scale relevant to the ecology of individual benthos and fish. The instrument uses load-cell sensors to provide a correlation between sensor output and ambient current velocity of 99%. Each instrument is able to continuously record current velocities to >500 cms⁻¹ and wave frequency to >100 Hz over several weeks. Sensor data are registered and processed at 16 MHz and 10 bit resolution, with a measuring precision of 0.06±0.04%, and accuracy of 0.51±0.65% (mean ±S.D.). Each instrument is also pressure rated to 120 m and shear stresses ≤20 kNm⁻² allowing deployment in harsh environments. The instrument was deployed across 27 coral reef sites covering the crest (3 m), mid-slope (6 m) and deep-slope (9 m depth) of habitats directly exposed, oblique or sheltered from prevailing winds. Measurements demonstrate that currents over the reef slope and crest varies immensely depending on depth and exposure: currents differ up to 9-fold within habitats only separated by 3 m depth and 15-fold between exposed, oblique and sheltered habitats. Comparisons to ambient weather conditions reveal that currents around Lizard Island are largely wind driven. Zero to 22.5 knot winds correspond directly to currents of 0 to >82 cms⁻¹, while tidal currents rarely exceed 5.5 cms⁻¹. Rather, current velocity increases exponentially as a function of wave height (0 to 1.6 m) and frequency (0.54 to 0.20 Hz), emphasizing the enormous effect of wind and waves on organisms in these shallow coral reef habitats.

  16. Aspen phenylpropanoid genes' expression levels correlate with genets' tannin richness and vary both in responses to soil nitrogen and associations with phenolic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Vicki H G; Bandau, Franziska; Gundale, Michael J; Cole, Christopher T; Albrectsen, Benedicte R

    2017-02-01

    Condensed tannin (CT) contents of European aspen (Populus tremula L.) vary among genotypes, and increases in nitrogen (N) availability generally reduce plants' tannin production in favor of growth, through poorly understood mechanisms. We hypothesized that intrinsic tannin production rates may co-vary with gene expression responses to soil N and resource allocation within the phenylpropanoid pathway (PPP). Thus, we examined correlations between soil N levels and both expression patterns of eight PPP genes (measured by quantitative-reverse transcription PCR) and foliar phenolic compounds (measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry) in young aspen genets with intrinsically extreme CT levels. Monitored phenolics included salicinoids, lignins, flavones, flavonols, CT precursors and CTs. The PPP genes were consistently expressed more strongly in high-CT trees. Low N supplements reduced expression of genes throughout the PPP in all genets, while high N doses restored expression of genes at the beginning and end of the pathway. These PPP changes were not reflected in pools of tannin precursors, but varying correlations between gene expression and foliar phenolic pools were detected in young and mature leaves, suggesting that processes linking gene expression and the resulting phenolics vary spatially and temporally. Precursor fluxes suggested that CT-related metabolic rate or sink controls are linked to intrinsic carbon allocation strategies associated with N responses. Overall, we found more negative correlations (indicative of allocation trade-offs) between PPP gene expression and phenolic products following N additions in low-CT plants than in high-CT plants. The tannin-related expression dynamics suggest that, in addition to defense, relative tannin levels may also be indicative of intraspecific variations in the way aspen genets respond to soil fertility. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e

  17. Phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin profiles vary in Bos taurus indicus and Bos taurus taurus in vitro- and in vivo-produced blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudano, Mateus J; Santos, Vanessa G; Tata, Alessandra; Ferreira, Christina R; Paschoal, Daniela M; Machado, Rui; Buratini, José; Eberlin, Marcos N; Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda D C

    2012-06-01

    Lipid droplets, subspecies (Bos taurus indicus vs. Bos taurus taurus), and in vitro culture are known to influence cryopreservation of bovine embryos. Limited information is available regarding differences in membrane lipids in embryo, such as phosphatidylcholines (PC) and sphingomyelins (SM). The objective of the present study was to compare the profiles of several PC and SM species and relate this information to cytoplasmic lipid levels present in Nellore (B. taurus indicus) and Simmental (B. taurus taurus) blastocysts produced in vitro (IVP) or in vivo (ET). Simmental and IVP embryos had more cytoplasmic lipid content than Nellore and ET embryos (n = 30). Blastocysts were submitted to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. Differences in the PC profile were addressed by principal component analysis. The lipid species with PC (32:1) and PC (34:1) had higher ion abundances in Nellore embryos, whereas PC (34:2) was higher in Simmental embryos. IVP embryos had less abundant ions of PC (32:1), PC (34:2), and PC (36:5) compared to ET embryos. Moreover, ion abundance of PC (32:0) was higher in both Nellore and Simmental IVP embryos compared to ET embryos. Therefore, mass spectrometry profiles of PC and SM species significantly differ with regard to unsaturation level and carbon chain composition in bovine blastocysts due to subspecies and in vitro culture conditions. Because PC abundances of Nellore and Simmental embryos were distinct (34:1 vs. 34:2), as were those of IVP and ET embryos (32:0 vs. 36:5), they are potential markers of postcryopreservation embryonic survival.

  18. Great Apes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Cerveny, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesia of great apes is often necessary to conduct diagnostic analysis, provide therapeutics, facilitate surgical procedures, and enable transport and translocation for conservation purposes. Due to the stress of remote delivery injection of anesthetic agents, recent studies have focused on oral delivery and/or transmucosal absorption of preanesthetic and anesthetic agents. Maintenance of the airway and provision of oxygen is an important aspect of anesthesia in great ape species. The provision of analgesia is an important aspect of the anesthesia protocol for any procedure involving painful stimuli. Opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often administered alone, or in combination to provide multi-modal analgesia. There is increasing conservation management of in situ great ape populations, which has resulted in the development of field anesthesia techniques for free-living great apes for the purposes of translocation, reintroduction into the wild, and clinical interventions.

  19. Comparative isotope ecology of African great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelze, Vicky M; Fahy, Geraldine; Hohmann, Gottfried; Robbins, Martha M; Leinert, Vera; Lee, Kevin; Eshuis, Henk; Seiler, Nicole; Wessling, Erin G; Head, Josephine; Boesch, Christophe; Kühl, Hjalmar S

    2016-12-01

    The isotope ecology of great apes is a useful reference for palaeodietary reconstructions in fossil hominins. As extant apes live in C3-dominated habitats, variation in isotope signatures is assumed to be low compared to hominoids exploiting C4-plant resources. However, isotopic differences between sites and between and within individuals are poorly understood due to the lack of vegetation baseline data. In this comparative study, we included all species of free-ranging African great apes (Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Gorilla sp.). First, we explore differences in isotope baselines across different habitats and whether isotopic signatures in apes can be related to feeding niches (faunivory and folivory). Secondly, we illustrate how stable isotopic variations within African ape populations compare to other extant and extinct primates and discuss possible implications for dietary flexibility. Using 701 carbon and nitrogen isotope data points resulting from 148 sectioned hair samples and an additional collection of 189 fruit samples, we compare six different great ape sites. We investigate the relationship between vegetation baselines and climatic variables, and subsequently correct great ape isotope data to a standardized plant baseline from the respective sites. We obtained temporal isotopic profiles of individual animals by sectioning hair along its growth trajectory. Isotopic signatures of great apes differed between sites, mainly as vegetation isotope baselines were correlated with site-specific climatic conditions. We show that controlling for plant isotopic characteristics at a given site is essential for faunal data interpretation. While accounting for plant baseline effects, we found distinct isotopic profiles for each great ape population. Based on evidence from habituated groups and sympatric great ape species, these differences could possibly be related to faunivory and folivory. Dietary flexibility in apes varied, but temporal variation was overall

  20. Great Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    One of Dickens's most renowned and enjoyable novels, Great Expectations tells the story of Pip, an orphan boy who wishes to transcend his humble origins and finds himself unexpectedly given the opportunity to live a life of wealth and respectability. Over the course of the tale, in which Pip

  1. Great Belt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carsten S.; Kristensen, Per S.; Erichsen, Lars

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes aspects of the soil investigations and geotechnical evaluations for the foundation design of the 6.6 km long Great Belt West Bridge. The gravity foundations rest predominantly on glacial tills and pre-quaternary limestone. Special investigations for assessment of the soil...

  2. Coverage of Large-Scale Food Fortification of Edible Oil, Wheat Flour, and Maize Flour Varies Greatly by Vehicle and Country but Is Consistently Lower among the Most Vulnerable: Results from Coverage Surveys in 8 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Grant J; Friesen, Valerie M; Jungjohann, Svenja; Garrett, Greg S; Neufeld, Lynnette M; Myatt, Mark

    2017-05-01

    Background: Large-scale food fortification (LSFF) of commonly consumed food vehicles is widely implemented in low- and middle-income countries. Many programs have monitoring information gaps and most countries fail to assess program coverage. Objective: The aim of this work was to present LSFF coverage survey findings (overall and in vulnerable populations) from 18 programs (7 wheat flour, 4 maize flour, and 7 edible oil programs) conducted in 8 countries between 2013 and 2015. Methods: A Fortification Assessment Coverage Toolkit (FACT) was developed to standardize the assessments. Three indicators were used to assess the relations between coverage and vulnerability: 1 ) poverty, 2 ) poor dietary diversity, and 3 ) rural residence. Three measures of coverage were assessed: 1 ) consumption of the vehicle, 2 ) consumption of a fortifiable vehicle, and 3 ) consumption of a fortified vehicle. Individual program performance was assessed based on the following: 1 ) achieving overall coverage ≥50%, 2) achieving coverage of ≥75% in ≥1 vulnerable group, and 3 ) achieving equity in coverage for ≥1 vulnerable group. Results: Coverage varied widely by food vehicle and country. Only 2 of the 18 LSFF programs assessed met all 3 program performance criteria. The 2 main program bottlenecks were a poor choice of vehicle and failure to fortify a fortifiable vehicle (i.e., absence of fortification). Conclusions: The results highlight the importance of sound program design and routine monitoring and evaluation. There is strong evidence of the impact and cost-effectiveness of LSFF; however, impact can only be achieved when the necessary activities and processes during program design and implementation are followed. The FACT approach fills an important gap in the availability of standardized tools. The LSFF programs assessed here need to be re-evaluated to determine whether to further invest in the programs, whether other vehicles are appropriate, and whether other approaches

  3. A case study of the Great Plains low-level jet using wind profiler network data and a high resolution mesoscale model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, S.; Fast, J.D.; Bian, X.; Stage, S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    The Great Plains low-level jet (LLJ) has important effects on the life cycle of clouds and on radiative and surface heat and moisture fluxes at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site. This diurnal phenomenon governs the transport and convergence of low-level moisture into the region and often leads to the development of clouds and precipitation. A full understanding of the life cycle of clouds at the SGP CART site and their proper representation in single column and global climate models cannot be obtained without an improved understanding of this important phenomenon.

  4. Sound velocity, temperature, and salinity profiles from underway vessel profiler and CTD casts by Navigation Response Team 4 in the Great Lakes area from 19 June 2008 to 15 October 2008 (NODC Accession 0049268)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical oceanographic data were collected by Navigation Response Team 4 in the Great Lakes area from 19 June 2008 to 15 October 2008. Data were collected from CTD...

  5. INTRODUCTION The incidence of retained placenta varies greatly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    balance between the post-partum haemorrhage risk of leaving the placenta in situ, the likelihood of spontaneous ... patient were unbooked for antenatal care in UCH with booked patients accounting for 27.8 per cent of the cases. ... reported 0.2 per cent in Maharashtra, India. Of the several complications of the third stage of.

  6. Fatty acid profiles of great tit (Parus major) eggs differ between urban and rural habitats, but not between coniferous and deciduous forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Alejandra; Andersson, Martin N; Wang, Hong-Lei; Salmón, Pablo; Watson, Hannah; Burdge, Graham C; Isaksson, Caroline

    2016-08-01

    Early-life nutrition is an important determinant of both short- and long-term performance and fitness. The avian embryo develops within an enclosed package of nutrients, of which fatty acids (FA) are essential for many aspects of development. The FA composition of yolk depends on maternal nutrition and condition prior to egg formation, which may be affected by the external environment. To test if maternal environment affects yolk FA composition, we investigated whether the FA composition of great tit (Parus major) egg yolks differed between urban and rural habitats, and between deciduous and coniferous habitats. The results reveal differences in FA composition between eggs laid in urban and rural habitats, but not between eggs from the coniferous and deciduous habitats. To a large extent, this difference likely reflects dietary differences associated with urban habitats rather than dominating vegetation type. Specifically, urban yolks contained lower proportions of both ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFA), which are important for chick development. We also found a positive association between the proportion of saturated fatty acids and laying date, and a negative association between the proportion of ω-6 PUFA and clutch size. Given that urbanization is expanding rapidly, future studies should investigate whether factors such as anthropogenic food in the urban environment underlie these differences and whether they impair chick development.

  7. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Great Australian Bight and Indian Ocean from 1998-02-28 to 1998-04-01 (NODC Accession 0115154)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115154 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Great Australian Bight and Indian Ocean...

  8. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from FRANKLIN in the Great Australian Bight and Indian Ocean from 1994-11-12 to 1994-12-05 (NODC Accession 0116716)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0116716 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from FRANKLIN in the Great Australian Bight and Indian Ocean from...

  9. Long-Term Mild, rather than Intense, Exercise Enhances Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Greatly Changes the Transcriptomic Profile of the Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Koshiro; Okamoto, Masahiro; Shibato, Junko; Lee, Min Chul; Matsui, Takashi; Rakwal, Randeep; Soya, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Our six-week treadmill running training (forced exercise) model has revealed that mild exercise (ME) with an intensity below the lactate threshold (LT) is sufficient to enhance spatial memory, while intense exercise (IE) above the LT negates such benefits. To help understand the unrevealed neuronal and signaling/molecular mechanisms of the intensity-dependent cognitive change, in this rat model, we here investigated plasma corticosterone concentration as a marker of stress, adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) as a potential contributor to this ME-induced spatial memory, and comprehensively delineated the hippocampal transcriptomic profile using a whole-genome DNA microarray analysis approach through comparison with IE. Results showed that only IE had the higher corticosterone concentration than control, and that the less intense exercise (ME) is better suited to improve AHN, especially in regards to the survival and maturation of newborn neurons. DNA microarray analysis using a 4 × 44 K Agilent chip revealed that ME regulated more genes than did IE (ME: 604 genes, IE: 415 genes), and only 41 genes were modified with both exercise intensities. The identified molecular components did not comprise well-known factors related to exercise-induced AHN, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Rather, network analysis of the data using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis algorithms revealed that the ME-influenced genes were principally related to lipid metabolism, protein synthesis and inflammatory response, which are recognized as associated with AHN. In contrast, IE-influenced genes linked to excessive inflammatory immune response, which is a negative regulator of hippocampal neuroadaptation, were identified. Collectively, these results in a treadmill running model demonstrate that long-term ME, but not of IE, with minimizing running stress, has beneficial effects on increasing AHN, and provides an ME-specific gene inventory containing some potential regulators of this

  10. Long-Term Mild, rather than Intense, Exercise Enhances Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Greatly Changes the Transcriptomic Profile of the Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Koshiro; Okamoto, Masahiro; Shibato, Junko; Lee, Min Chul; Matsui, Takashi; Rakwal, Randeep; Soya, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Our six-week treadmill running training (forced exercise) model has revealed that mild exercise (ME) with an intensity below the lactate threshold (LT) is sufficient to enhance spatial memory, while intense exercise (IE) above the LT negates such benefits. To help understand the unrevealed neuronal and signaling/molecular mechanisms of the intensity-dependent cognitive change, in this rat model, we here investigated plasma corticosterone concentration as a marker of stress, adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) as a potential contributor to this ME-induced spatial memory, and comprehensively delineated the hippocampal transcriptomic profile using a whole-genome DNA microarray analysis approach through comparison with IE. Results showed that only IE had the higher corticosterone concentration than control, and that the less intense exercise (ME) is better suited to improve AHN, especially in regards to the survival and maturation of newborn neurons. DNA microarray analysis using a 4 × 44 K Agilent chip revealed that ME regulated more genes than did IE (ME: 604 genes, IE: 415 genes), and only 41 genes were modified with both exercise intensities. The identified molecular components did not comprise well-known factors related to exercise-induced AHN, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Rather, network analysis of the data using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis algorithms revealed that the ME-influenced genes were principally related to lipid metabolism, protein synthesis and inflammatory response, which are recognized as associated with AHN. In contrast, IE-influenced genes linked to excessive inflammatory immune response, which is a negative regulator of hippocampal neuroadaptation, were identified. Collectively, these results in a treadmill running model demonstrate that long-term ME, but not of IE, with minimizing running stress, has beneficial effects on increasing AHN, and provides an ME-specific gene inventory containing some potential regulators of this

  11. Quantifying water flow within aquatic ecosystems using load cell sensors: a profile of currents experienced by coral reef organisms around Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob L Johansen

    Full Text Available Current velocity in aquatic environments has major implications for the diversity, abundance and ecology of aquatic organisms, but quantifying these currents has proven difficult. This study utilises a simple and inexpensive instrument (500 cms⁻¹ and wave frequency to >100 Hz over several weeks. Sensor data are registered and processed at 16 MHz and 10 bit resolution, with a measuring precision of 0.06±0.04%, and accuracy of 0.51±0.65% (mean ±S.D.. Each instrument is also pressure rated to 120 m and shear stresses ≤20 kNm⁻² allowing deployment in harsh environments. The instrument was deployed across 27 coral reef sites covering the crest (3 m, mid-slope (6 m and deep-slope (9 m depth of habitats directly exposed, oblique or sheltered from prevailing winds. Measurements demonstrate that currents over the reef slope and crest varies immensely depending on depth and exposure: currents differ up to 9-fold within habitats only separated by 3 m depth and 15-fold between exposed, oblique and sheltered habitats. Comparisons to ambient weather conditions reveal that currents around Lizard Island are largely wind driven. Zero to 22.5 knot winds correspond directly to currents of 0 to >82 cms⁻¹, while tidal currents rarely exceed 5.5 cms⁻¹. Rather, current velocity increases exponentially as a function of wave height (0 to 1.6 m and frequency (0.54 to 0.20 Hz, emphasizing the enormous effect of wind and waves on organisms in these shallow coral reef habitats.

  12. Great Lakes Science Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Since 1927, Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) research has provided critical information for the sound management of Great Lakes fish populations and other important...

  13. Profiling and Racial Profiling: An Interactive Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Racial Profiling has been recognized as a serious problem that affects many segments of our society and is especially notable in law enforcement. Governments and police services have pronounced that racial profiling is not acceptable and will not be tolerated. They have gone to great lengths in trying to eradicate racial profiling through…

  14. Analysis of uncertainties, associated to the calculating hypothesis, in discharge tables for high flows estimating, based on mathematics models for calculating water surface profiles fore steady gradually varied flow; Analisis de las incertidumbres, asociadas a las hipotesis de calculo, en la estimacion de curvas de gasto para crcidas, basada en el empleo de modelo matematico de calculo hidraulico en regimen permanente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldana Valverde, A. L.; Gonzalez Rodriguez, J. C.

    1999-08-01

    In this paper are analyzed some of the most important factors which can influence on the results of calculating water surface profiles for steady gradually varied flow. In this case, the objective of this kind of modeling, has been the estimation of discharges tables for high flows of river station gages connected to the hydrologic automatic information system (SAIH) of the Confederacion Hidrografica del Sur de Espana, system named red Hidrosur. (Author) 3 refs

  15. The Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great Lakes form the largest surface freshwater system on Earth. The U.S. and Canada work together to restore and protect the environment in the Great Lakes Basin. Top issues include contaminated sediments, water quality and invasive species.

  16. Smoothly Varying Bright Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Alfen, Nicholas; Hindman, Lauren; Moody, Joseph Ward; Biancardi, Rochelle; Whipple, Parkes; Gaunt, Caleb

    2018-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that blazar light can vary sinusoidally with periods of hundreds of days to tens of years. Such behavior is expected of, among other things, jets coming from binary black holes. To look for general variability in lesser-known blazars and AGN, in 2015-2016 we monitored 182 objects with Johnson V-band magnitudes reported as being < 16. In all, this campaign generated 22,000 frames from 2,000 unique pointings. We find that approximately one dozen of these objects show evidence of smooth variability consistent with sinusoidal periods. We report on the entire survey sample, highlighting those that show sinusoidal variations.

  17. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  18. Great Basin insect outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara Bentz; Diane Alston; Ted Evans

    2008-01-01

    Outbreaks of native and exotic insects are important drivers of ecosystem dynamics in the Great Basin. The following provides an overview of range, forest, ornamental, and agricultural insect outbreaks occurring in the Great Basin and the associated management issues and research needs.

  19. Comparison of postprandial profiles of ghrelin, active GLP-1, and total PYY to meals varying in fat and carbohydrate and their association with hunger and the phases of satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Catherine; Caudwell, Phillipa; Finlayson, Graham; Webb, Dominic-Luc; Hellström, Per M; Näslund, Erik; Blundell, John E

    2013-05-01

    The relationship between postprandial peptides at circulating physiological levels and short-term appetite control is not well understood. The purpose of this study was first to compare the postprandial profiles of ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and peptide YY (PYY) after isoenergetic meals differing in fat and carbohydrate content and second to examine the relationships between ghrelin, GLP-1, and PYY with hunger, fullness, and energy intake. Plasma was collected before and periodically after the meals for 180 minutes, after which time ad libitum food was provided. Simultaneous ratings of hunger and fullness were tracked for 180 minutes through phases identified as early (0-60 minutes) and late (60-180 minutes) satiety. This study was conducted at the Psychobiology and Energy Balance Research Unit, University of Leeds. The participants were 16 healthy overweight/obese adults. Changes in hunger and fullness and metabolic markers were indicators of the impact of the meals on satiety. Ghrelin was influenced similarly by the 2 meals [F(1, 12) = 0.658, P = .433] and was significantly associated with changes in hunger (P hunger in the late satiety phase and with energy intake (P hunger or fullness, nor was PYY associated with food intake. The results demonstrate that under these conditions, these peptides respond differently to ingested nutrients. Ghrelin and GLP-1, but not PYY, were associated with short-term control of appetite over the measurement period.

  20. varying elastic parameters distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Moussawi, Ali

    2014-12-01

    The experimental identication of mechanical properties is crucial in mechanics for understanding material behavior and for the development of numerical models. Classical identi cation procedures employ standard shaped specimens, assume that the mechanical elds in the object are homogeneous, and recover global properties. Thus, multiple tests are required for full characterization of a heterogeneous object, leading to a time consuming and costly process. The development of non-contact, full- eld measurement techniques from which complex kinematic elds can be recorded has opened the door to a new way of thinking. From the identi cation point of view, suitable methods can be used to process these complex kinematic elds in order to recover multiple spatially varying parameters through one test or a few tests. The requirement is the development of identi cation techniques that can process these complex experimental data. This thesis introduces a novel identi cation technique called the constitutive compatibility method. The key idea is to de ne stresses as compatible with the observed kinematic eld through the chosen class of constitutive equation, making possible the uncoupling of the identi cation of stress from the identi cation of the material parameters. This uncoupling leads to parametrized solutions in cases where 5 the solution is non-unique (due to unknown traction boundary conditions) as demonstrated on 2D numerical examples. First the theory is outlined and the method is demonstrated in 2D applications. Second, the method is implemented within a domain decomposition framework in order to reduce the cost for processing very large problems. Finally, it is extended to 3D numerical examples. Promising results are shown for 2D and 3D problems.

  1. Perfil imuno-histoquímico e variáveis clinicopatológicas no câncer de mama Immunohistochemical profile and clinical-pathological variables in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Rocha Duarte Cintra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as principais características em mulheres com câncer de mama, de acordo com o perfil imuno-histoquímico. MÉTODOS: A população foi composta a partir de coorte hospitalar formada por mulheres com diagnóstico de câncer de mama efetuado entre 2003 e 2005 (n = 601 e atendidas em centro de referência em assistência oncológica de Juiz de Fora-MG. Foram selecionadas apenas 397 mulheres que possuíam imunohistoquímica completa. Para definição dos grupos segundo perfil imuno-histoquímico, optou-se por classificação baseada na avaliação dos receptores de estrógeno e de progesterona, índice de proliferação celular Ki67 e superexpressão de HER2. De acordo com os diferentes fenótipos, foram definidos cinco subtipos: luminal A, luminal B-HER2 negativo, luminal B-HER2 positivo, triplo negativo e HER2 superexpresso. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos pacientes tinha pele branca (80,7% e era pós-menopausada (64,9%, com idade média de 57,4 anos (±13,5. Ao diagnóstico, 57,5% delas tinha tumor de tamanho > 2,0 cm, e 41,7% exibiam comprometimento linfonodal. Os subtipos mais frequentes foram luminal B-HER2 negativo (41,8% e triplo negativo (24,2%. No subtipo luminal A, 72,1% das pacientes eram pós-menopausadas, enquanto que os maiores percentuais na pré-menopausa foram observados nos subtipos luminal B-HER2 positivo e triplo negativo (45,2% e 44,2%, respectivamente. Verificou-se maior frequência de tumores > 2,0 cm e com linfonodos comprometidos nos subtipos triplo negativo e HER2 positivo. CONCLUSÃO: Esta pesquisa possibilitou avaliar a distribuição das principais características clinicopatológicas e relacionadas aos serviços de saúde em coorte de mulheres brasileiras com câncer de mama, segundo os subtipos tumorais imuno-histoquímicos.OBJECTIVE: To describe the main characteristics of women with breast cancer, according to the immunohistochemical profile. METHODS: The population comprised a hospital cohort

  2. The GREAT spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Page, R D; Appelbe, D E; Butler, P A; Freeman, S J; Greenlees, P T; Herzberg, R D; Jenkins, D G; Jones, G D; Jones, P; Joss, D T; Julin, R; Kettunen, H; Leino, M; Rahkila, P; Regan, P H; Simpson, J; Uusitalo, J; Vincent, S M; Wadsworth, R

    2003-01-01

    The GREAT spectrometer is designed to measure the decay properties of reaction products transported to the focal plane of a recoil separator. GREAT comprises a system of silicon, germanium and gas detectors optimised for detecting the arrival of the reaction products and correlating with any subsequent radioactive decay involving the emission of protons, alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, X-rays or conversion electrons. GREAT can either be employed as a sensitive stand-alone device for decay measurements at the focal plane, or used to provide a selective tag for prompt conversion electrons or gamma rays measured with arrays of detectors deployed at the target position. A new concept of triggerless data acquisition (total data readout) has also been developed as part of the GREAT project, which circumvents the problems and limitations of common dead time in conventional data acquisition systems.

  3. Great Indoors Awards 2007

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Hollandis Maastrichtis jagati 17. XI esimest korda rahvusvahelist auhinda The Great Indoors Award. Aasta sisekujundusfirmaks valiti Masamichi Katayama asutatud Wonderwall. Auhinna said veel Zaha Hadid, Heatherwick Studio, Ryui Nakamura Architects ja Item Idem

  4. The Great adventure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lemire, J; Plantanida, T; Suzuki, D

    2003-01-01

    .... We watch as the crew navigate a three-masted sailing ship through the legendary Northwest Passage - a treacherous, ice-choked route that has captured the imaginations of great explores for centuries...

  5. Great Lakes Bathymetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lakes Michigan, Erie, Saint Clair, Ontario and Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and...

  6. Great Leap into Famine

    OpenAIRE

    Ó Gráda, Cormac

    2011-01-01

    Frank Dikötter’s Mao's Great Famine: The History of China's Most Devastating Catastrophe, 1958-62 is the longest and most detailed study of the Great Leap Forward (GLF) famine to appear in English to date. Much of the story will be already familiar to western readers from works by Roderick McFarquhar (1983), Jasper Becker (1996), Ralph Thaxton (2008), and others, but Dikötter adds a lot that is new and valuable. For the past decade or so Chinese scholars have been publishing works based on pu...

  7. Journeys to greatness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2009-02-01

    Readers, I hope, will forgive me for a shameless bit of self-publicity about my latest book, The Great Equations: Breakthroughs in Science from Pythagoras to Heisenberg (Norton). But then the book is partly yours too, inspired as it was by the responses of Physics World readers to my request for suggestions of great equations (October 2004 pp14-15). In the book, I chose to discuss not the most frequently mentioned equations, but those that seem to have engaged their discoverers in the most remarkable journeys.

  8. Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A better than average view of the Great Barrier Reef was captured by SeaWiFS on a recent overpass. There is sunglint northeast of the reef and there appears to be some sort of filamentous bloom in the Capricorn Channel.

  9. Great Experiments in Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia. Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 11. Great Experiments in Physics - Discovery of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. Amit Roy. Series Article Volume 5 Issue 11 November 2000 pp 4-13 ...

  10. Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Kelley

    Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to…

  11. The Great Dismal Swamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This introduction to the natural history of the Great Dismal Swamp is presented at a time when 50,000 acres of the Swamp are being converted from private holdings to...

  12. Great Experiments in Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 5. Great Experiments in Physics - Measuring Diameters of Stars: The Hanbury Brown-Twiss Effect. Amit Roy. Series Article ... Author Affiliations. Amit Roy1. Nuclear Science Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, P.O. Box 10502 New Delhi 110 067, India.

  13. Great Experiments in Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 10. Great Experiments in Physics - Birth of Quantum Electronics – Lasers. Amit Roy. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 10 ... Author Affiliations. Amit Roy1. Nuclear Science Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, P.O. Box 10502, New Delhi 110 067, India.

  14. Great Experiments in Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Great Experiments in Physics - Birth of Quantum Electronics – Masers. Amit Roy. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 9 ... Author Affiliations. Amit Roy1. Nuclear Science Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, P.O. Box 10502, New Delhi 110 067, India.

  15. What great managers do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Marcus

    2005-03-01

    Much has been written about the qualities that make a great manager, but most of the literature overlooks a fundamental question: What does a great manager actually do? While there are countless management styles, one thing underpins the behavior of all great managers. Above all, an exceptional manager comes to know and value the particular quirks and abilities of her employees. She figures out how to capitalize on her staffers' strengths and tweaks her environment to meet her larger goals. Such a specialized approach may seem like a lot of work. But in fact, capitalizing on each person's uniqueness can save time. Rather than encourage employees to conform to strict job descriptions that may include tasks they don't enjoy and aren't good at, a manager who develops positions for his staff members based on their unique abilities will be rewarded with behaviors that are far more efficient and effective than they would be otherwise. This focus on individuals also makes employees more accountable. Because staffers are evaluated on their particular strengths and weaknesses, they are challenged to take responsibility for their abilities and to hone them. Capitalizing on a person's uniqueness also builds a stronger sense of team. By taking the time to understand what makes each employee tick, a great manager shows that he sees his people for who they are. This personal investment not only motivates individuals but also galvanizes the entire team. Finally, this approach shakes up existing hierarchies, which leads to more creative thinking. To take great managing from theory to practice, the author says, you must know three things about a person: her strengths, the triggers that activate those strengths, and how she learns. By asking the right questions, squeezing the right triggers, and becoming aware of your employees' learning styles, you will discover what motivates each person to excel.

  16. Blood profiles of indigenous Pedi goats fed varying levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vachellia karroo (Acacia karroo) is promising fodder for goats in the critical dry season in communal rangelands. The only limitation to the use of this fodder tree is the presence of phenolic compounds, such as condensed tannins. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of tanniniferous V. karroo leaf meal feeding ...

  17. Blood profiles of indigenous Pedi goats fed varying levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    david

    2016-12-01

    Dec 1, 2016 ... dry season (Brown et al., 2016). There is insufficient plant biomass to support the production of goats in this .... under the shade to minimize nutrient losses to ultraviolet rays. After drying, leaves were ... Polokwane, RSA). Botanical authentication of the plant materials was done at Larry Leach Herbarium,.

  18. Great cities look small

    CERN Document Server

    Sim, Aaron; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-01-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social-ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximising the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly-available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterise the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of GDP and HIV infection rates ac...

  19. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J. Iwan [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  20. Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Gardner, Joe F.

    1999-01-01

    This document is intended as a source of general information and facts about Great Salt Lake, Utah. This U.S. Geological Survey information sheet answers frequently asked questions about Great Salt Lake. Topics include: History, salinity, brine shrimp, brine flies, migratory birds, and recreation. Great Salt Lake, the shrunken remnant of prehistoric Lake Bonneville, has no outlet. Dissolved salts accumulate in the lake by evaporation. Salinity south of the causeway has ranged from 6 percent to 27 percent over a period of 22 years (2 to 7 times saltier than the ocean). The high salinity supports a mineral industry that extracts about 2 million tons of salt from the lake each year. The aquatic ecosystem consists of more than 30 species of organisms. Harvest of its best-known species, the brine shrimp, annually supplies millions of pounds of food for the aquaculture industry worldwide. The lake is used extensively by millions of migratory and nesting birds and is a place of solitude for people. All this occurs in a lake that is located at the bottom of a 35,000-square-mile drainage basin that has a human population of more than 1.5 million.

  1. Properties of tooth enamel in great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James J-W; Morris, Dylan; Constantino, Paul J; Lucas, Peter W; Smith, Tanya M; Lawn, Brian R

    2010-12-01

    A comparative study has been made of human and great ape molar tooth enamel. Nanoindentation techniques are used to map profiles of elastic modulus and hardness across sections from the enamel-dentin junction to the outer tooth surface. The measured data profiles overlap between species, suggesting a degree of commonality in material properties. Using established deformation and fracture relations, critical loads to produce function-threatening damage in the enamel of each species are calculated for characteristic tooth sizes and enamel thicknesses. The results suggest that differences in load-bearing capacity of molar teeth in primates are less a function of underlying material properties than of morphology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Diagnóstico precoce do câncer de pulmão: o grande desafio. Variáveis epidemiológicas e clínicas, estadiamento e tratamento Early diagnosis of lung cancer: the great challenge. Epidemiological variables, clinical variables, staging and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Adriano Barros

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar casos confirmados de câncer de pulmão, revisando suas variáveis epidemiológicas, clínicas, estadiamento e tratamento. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 263 casos provenientes do Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná e do Hospital Erasto Gaertner, instituições responsáveis por parcela significativa do atendimento a pacientes na cidade de Curitiba (PR. Realizou-se um estudo retrospectivo através de preenchimento de questionário e os dados obtidos foram analisados de forma descritiva, utilizando-se o software EPI-INFO. RESULTADOS: Houve predomínio de pacientes do sexo masculino (76%, sendo que a maioria dos pacientes era fumante ou ex-fumante por ocasião do diagnóstico (90%. Não havia referência a doença pulmonar prévia em 87% dos casos. Tosse (142 casos e dor torácica (92 casos foram os sintomas iniciais mais freqüentes. O câncer de pulmão tipo não pequenas células foi encontrado em 87% dos pacientes e o tipo histológico mais freqüente foi o carcinoma espinocelular, representando 49% dos casos. O tabagismo foi considerado o fator predisponente mais importante. CONCLUSÃO: As características evolutivas do câncer de pulmão, como a inespecificidade dos sintomas iniciais e o tempo e evolução do tumor, somadas à ausência de programas de rastreamento efetivos, constituem os principais fatores que contribuem para a não detecção da neoplasia pulmonar de forma precoce, o que torna difícil o tratamento e dificulta o aumento da sobrevida.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate confirmed cases of lung cancer, reviewing epidemiological variables, clinical variables, staging and treatment. METHODS: The cases of 263 patients were studied. All of the patients had been treated at the Universidade Federal do Paraná (Federal University of Paraná Hospital de Clínicas or at the Hospital Erasto Gaertner, two institutions that, together, serve a significant portion of the patients seeking treatment in the city of

  3. Great software debates

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, A

    2004-01-01

    The industry’s most outspoken and insightful critic explains how the software industry REALLY works. In Great Software Debates, Al Davis, shares what he has learned about the difference between the theory and the realities of business and encourages you to question and think about software engineering in ways that will help you succeed where others fail. In short, provocative essays, Davis fearlessly reveals the truth about process improvement, productivity, software quality, metrics, agile development, requirements documentation, modeling, software marketing and sales, empiricism, start-up financing, software research, requirements triage, software estimation, and entrepreneurship.

  4. Idiopathic great saphenous phlebosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Jodati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Arterial sclerosis has been extensively described but reports on venous sclerosis are very sparse. Phlebosclerosis refers to the thickening and hardening of the venous wall. Despite its morphological similarities with arteriosclerosis and potential morbid consequences, phlebosclerosis has gained only little attention. We report a 72 year old male with paralysis and atrophy of the right leg due to childhood poliomyelitis who was referred for coronary artery bypass surgery. The great saphenous vein, harvested from the left leg, showed a hardened cord-like obliterated vein. Surprisingly, harvested veins from the atrophic limb were normal and successfully used for grafting.

  5. The Great Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Jack

    1989-11-01

    This lively history of the development of science and its relationship to society combines vivid biographies of twelve pivotal scientists, commentary on the social and historical events of their time, and over four hundred illustrations, including many in color. The biographies span from classical times to the Atomic Age, covering Aristotle, Galileo, Harvey, Newton, Lavoisier, Humboldt, Faraday, Darwin, Pasteur, Curie, Freud, and Einstein. Through the biographies and a wealth of other material, the volume reveals how social forces have influenced the course of science. Along with the highly informative color illustrations, it contains much archival material never before published, ranging from medieval woodcuts, etchings from Renaissance anatomy texts, and pages from Harvey's journal, to modern false-color x-rays and infrared photographs of solar flares. A beautifully-designed, fact-filled, stimulating work, The Great Scientists will fascinate anyone with an interest in science and how history can influence scientific discovery.

  6. Great Britain at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    From 14 to 16 November 2006 Administration Building, Bldg. 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Fifteen companies will present their latest technologies at the 'Great Britain at CERN' exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main fields represented will be computing technologies, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies and particle detectors. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions (the British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association). Below you will find: a list of the exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departmental secretariat, from the Reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the companies is available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 3D Metrics Alma...

  7. Great Britain at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    From 14 to 16 November 2006 Administration Building, Bldg. 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Fifteen companies will present their latest technologies at the 'Great Britain at CERN' exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main fields represented will be computing technologies, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies and particle detectors. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions (the British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association). Below you will find: a list of the exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departmental secretariat, from the Reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the companies is available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 3D Metrics Almat...

  8. Great Wall of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER sub-image covers a 12 x 12 km area in northern Shanxi Province, China, and was acquired January 9, 2001. The low sun angle, and light snow cover highlight a section of the Great Wall, visible as a black line running diagonally through the image from lower left to upper right. The Great Wall is over 2000 years old and was built over a period of 1000 years. Stretching 4500 miles from Korea to the Gobi Desert it was first built to protect China from marauders from the north.This image is located at 40.2 degrees north latitude and 112.8 degrees east longitude.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology, and measuring surface

  9. Time-varying individual risk attitudes over the Great Recession: A comparison of Germany and Ukraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dohmen, T.J.; Lehmann, H.; Pignatti, N.

    We use the panel data of the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) and of the Ukrainian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (ULMS) to investigate whether risk attitudes have primary (exogenous) determinants that are valid in different stages of economic development and in a different structural context,

  10. Catecholamines and in vitro growth of pathogenic bacteria: enhancement of growth varies greatly among bacterial species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belay, Tesfaye; Aviles, Hernan; Vance, Monique; Fountain, Kimberly; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of catecholamines on in vitro growth of a range of bacterial species, including anaerobes. Bacteria tested included: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacteriodes fragilis, Shigella boydii, Shigella sonnie, Enterobacter Sp, and Salmonella choleraesuis. The results of the current study indicated that supplementation of bacterial cultures in minimal medium with norepinephrine or epinephrine did not result in increased growth of bacteria. Positive controls involving treatment of Escherichia coli with catecholamines did result in increased growth of that bacterial species. The results of the present study extend previous observations that showed differential capability of catecholamines to enhance bacterial growth in vitro.

  11. Review: The Great Gatsby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia de Jesus Sales

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A presente resenha busca discutir a tradução de The Great Gatsby para o contexto brasileiro. Diversas traduções foram feitas, em diversas épocas e com repercussão positiva no contexto brasileiro. Para o presente estudo, foi observada a tradução de Vanessa Bárbara, de 2011. Nesse sentido, o aspecto biográficos do autor e a forma como se apresentam os personagens na obra são fatores de cotejamento na obra original e na tradução brasileira. Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (1896 – 1940 é famoso por ter em suas obras traços biográficos, algo que certamente influencia o leitor que adentra a sua obra. Quanto à recepção de O Grande Gatsby no contexto brasileiro, há que se considerar que O Grande Gatsby teve diversas traduções no Brasil. Depois dessa tradução de Vanessa Bárbara, em 2011, outras três vieram em 2013, juntamente com o filme. Há que considerar os aspectos comerciais embutidos nessas traduções e que muito corroboram para o resultado final. Prova disso são as capas, que são sempre diferenciadas em cada edição lançada. O tradutor nem sempre pode opinar sobre questões como estas. A tradução, a meu ver, é uma obra de qualidade, visto que a tradutora buscou ser fiel, sem dificultar a interpretação da obra para o leitor.

  12. Review: The Great Gatsby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia de Jesus Sales

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A presente resenha busca discutir a tradução de The Great Gatsby para o contexto brasileiro. Diversas traduções foram feitas, em diversas épocas e com repercussão positiva no contexto brasileiro. Para o presente estudo, foi observada a tradução de Vanessa Bárbara, de 2011. Nesse sentido, o aspecto biográficos do autor e a forma como se apresentam os personagens na obra são fatores de cotejamento na obra original e na tradução brasileira. Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (1896 – 1940 é famoso por ter em suas obras traços biográficos, algo que certamente influencia o leitor que adentra a sua obra. Quanto à recepção de O Grande Gatsby no contexto brasileiro, há que se considerar que O Grande Gatsby teve diversas traduções no Brasil. Depois dessa tradução de Vanessa Bárbara, em 2011, outras três vieram em 2013, juntamente com o filme. Há que considerar os aspectos comerciais embutidos nessas traduções e que muito corroboram para o resultado final. Prova disso são as capas, que são sempre diferenciadas em cada edição lançada. O tradutor nem sempre pode opinar sobre questões como estas. A tradução, a meu ver, é uma obra de qualidade, visto que a tradutora buscou ser fiel, sem dificultar a interpretação da obra para o leitor.

  13. Australia's Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Great Barrier Reef extends for 2,000 kilometers along the northeastern coast of Australia. It is not a single reef, but a vast maze of reefs, passages, and coral cays (islands that are part of the reef). This nadir true-color image was acquired by the MISR instrument on August 26, 2000 (Terra orbit 3679), and shows part of the southern portion of the reef adjacent to the central Queensland coast. The width of the MISR swath is approximately 380 kilometers, with the reef clearly visible up to approximately 200 kilometers from the coast. It may be difficult to see the myriad details in the browse image, but if you retrieve the higher resolution version, a zoomed display reveals the spectacular structure of the many reefs.The more northerly coastal area in this image shows the vast extent of sugar cane cultivation, this being the largest sugar producing area in Australia, centered on the city of Mackay. Other industries in the area include coal, cattle, dairying, timber, grain, seafood, and fruit. The large island off the most northerly part of the coast visible in this image is Whitsunday Island, with smaller islands and reefs extending southeast, parallel to the coast. These include some of the better known resort islands such as Hayman, Lindeman, Hamilton, and Brampton Islands.Further south, just inland of the small semicircular bay near the right of the image, is Rockhampton, the largest city along the central Queensland coast, and the regional center for much of central Queensland. Rockhampton is just north of the Tropic of Capricorn. Its hinterland is a rich pastoral, agricultural, and mining region.MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  14. Einstein Equations from Varying Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Bartłomiej

    2018-01-01

    A recent proposal equates the circuit complexity of a quantum gravity state with the gravitational action of a certain patch of spacetime. Since Einstein's equations follow from varying the action, it should be possible to derive them by varying complexity. I present such a derivation for vacuum solutions of pure Einstein gravity in three-dimensional asymptotically anti-de Sitter space. The argument relies on known facts about holography and on properties of tensor network renormalization, an algorithm for coarse-graining (and optimizing) tensor networks.

  15. Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA) houses environmental data on a wide variety of constituents in water, biota, sediment, and air in the Great Lakes area.

  16. Modifed Great Basin Extent (Buffered)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Two different great basin perimeter files were intersected and dissolved using ArcGIS 10.2.2 to create the outer perimeter of the great basin for use modeling...

  17. Great Lakes Initiative (GLI) Clearinghouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great Lakes Initiative Toxicity Clearinghouse is a central location for information on criteria, toxicity data, exposure parameters and other supporting documents used in developing water quality standards in the Great Lakes watershed.

  18. Great Men and Us Too

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mary Grayson

    2008-01-01

    .... These folks across the world stage as great heroes or great villains. The thoery is most often associated with Thomas Carlyle, a 19th century talk radio show host -- actually he was a Scottish historian -- known for his quote...

  19. INFLUENCE OF SUPERPLASTICIZER AND VARYING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the results of the study on the influence of superplasticizer and varying aggregate size on the drying shrinkage and compressive strength of laterised concrete. Four different samples of laterised concrete were made from prescribed mix ratio of 1:1:2 which include; two control specimens made with ...

  20. Optimistlik Karlovy Vary / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2007-01-01

    42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivali auhinnatud filmidest (žürii esimees Peter Bart). Kristallgloobuse sai Islandi-Saksamaa "Katseklaasilinn" (režii Baltasar Kormakur), parimaks režissööriks tunnistati norralane Bard Breien ("Negatiivse mõtlemise kunst"). Austraallase Michael James Rowlandi "Hea õnne teekond" sai žürii eripreemia

  1. Esmaklassiline Karlovy Vary / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus

    2007-01-01

    Ilmar Raagi mängufilm "Klass" võitis 42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivalil kaks auhinda - ametliku kõrvalvõistlusprogrammi "East of the West" eripreemia "Special mention" ja Euroopa väärtfilmikinode keti Europa Cinemas preemia. Ka Asko Kase lühifilmi "Zen läbi prügi linastumisest ning teistest auhinnasaajatest ning osalejatest

  2. Time-varying Crash Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Feunoua, Bruno; Jeon, Yoontae

    We estimate a continuous-time model with stochastic volatility and dynamic crash probability for the S&P 500 index and find that market illiquidity dominates other factors in explaining the stock market crash risk. While the crash probability is time-varying, its dynamic depends only weakly...

  3. Eestlased Karlovy Varys / J. R.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    J. R.

    2007-01-01

    Ilmar Raagi mängufilm "Klass" osaleb 42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivali võistlusprogrammis "East of the West" ja Asko Kase lühimängufilm "Zen läbi prügi" on valitud festivali kõrvalprogrammi "Forum of Independents"

  4. The Next Great Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, K. V.

    2007-12-01

    value of systems-level thinking, and it makes good sense to make this the essential mantra of Earth science undergraduate and graduate programs of the future. We must emphasize that Earth science plays a central role in understanding processes that have shaped our planet since the origin of our species, processes that have thus influenced the rise and fall of human societies. By studying the co-evolution of Earth and human societies, we lay a critical part of the foundation for future environmental policymaking. If we can make this point persuasively, Earth science might just be the "next great science".

  5. Role of Surface Energy Exchange for Simulating Wind Turbine Inflow: A Case Study in the Southern Great Plains, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Wharton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model is used to investigate choice of land surface model (LSM on the near surface wind profile, including heights reached by multi-megawatt (MW wind turbines. Simulations of wind profiles and surface energy fluxes were made using five LSMs of varying degrees of sophistication in dealing with soil–plant–atmosphere feedbacks for the Department of Energy (DOE Southern Great Plains (SGP Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM Central Facility in Oklahoma, USA. Surface flux and wind profile measurements were available for validation. WRF was run for three, two-week periods covering varying canopy and meteorological conditions. The LSMs predicted a wide range of energy flux and wind shear magnitudes even during the cool autumn period when we expected less variability. Simulations of energy fluxes varied in accuracy by model sophistication, whereby LSMs with very simple or no soil–plant–atmosphere feedbacks were the least accurate; however, the most complex models did not consistently produce more accurate results. Errors in wind shear were also sensitive to LSM choice and were partially related to energy flux accuracy. The variability of LSM performance was relatively high suggesting that LSM representation of energy fluxes in WRF remains a large source of model uncertainty for simulating wind turbine inflow conditions.

  6. Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This detailed view of the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia (19.5S, 149.5E) shows several small patch reefs within the overall reef system. The Great Barrier Reef, largest in the world, comprises thousands of individual reefs of great variety and are closely monitored by marine ecologists. These reefs are about 6000 years old and sit on top of much older reefs. The most rapid coral growth occurs on the landward side of the reefs.

  7. Harmonic functions with varying coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dziok

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complex-valued harmonic functions that are univalent and sense preserving in the open unit disk can be written in the form f = h + g ‾ $f=h+\\overline{g}$ , where h and g are analytic. In this paper we investigate some classes of univalent harmonic functions with varying coefficients related to Janowski functions. By using the extreme points theory we obtain necessary and sufficient convolution conditions, coefficients estimates, distortion theorems, and integral mean inequalities for these classes of functions. The radii of starlikeness and convexity for these classes are also determined.

  8. Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.

  9. Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Uzan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.

  10. Michigan: The Great Lakes State

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Sandra Lee; La Luzerne-Oi, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Although Michigan is often called the "Wolverine State," its more common nickname is the "Great Lakes State." This name comes from the fact that Michigan is the only state in the United States that borders four of the five Great Lakes. Also referred to as the "Water Wonderland," Michigan has 11,000 additional lakes,…

  11. What Caused the Great Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Jean; O'Driscoll, Timothy G.

    2007-01-01

    Economists and historians have struggled for almost 80 years to account for the American Great Depression, which began in 1929 and lasted until the early years of World War II. In this article, the authors discuss three major schools of thought on the causes of the Great Depression and the long failure of the American economy to return to full…

  12. How users experience great products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortiz Nicolas, J.C.; Aurisicchio, M.; Desmet, P.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports qualitative research about how users experience great products. Eighteen interviews were conducted in which participants were asked to bring along a ‘great’ product that they own. During the interviews participants explained why they consider a product great and how they

  13. Local Varying-Alpha Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D

    2014-01-01

    In a recent paper we demonstrated how the simplest model for varying alpha may be interpreted as the effect of a dielectric material, generalized to be consistent with Lorentz invariance. Unlike normal dielectrics, such a medium cannot change the speed of light, and its dynamics obey a Klein-Gordon equation. This work immediately suggests an extension of the standard theory, even if we require compliance with Lorentz invariance. Instead of a wave equation, the dynamics may satisfy a local algebraic relation involving the permittivity and the properties of the electromagnetic field, in analogy with more conventional dielectric (but still preserving Lorentz invariance). We develop the formalism for such theories and investigate some phenomenological implications. The problem of the divergence of the classical self-energy can be solved, or at least softened, in this framework. Some interesting new cosmological solutions for the very early universe are found, including the possibility of a bounce, inflation and e...

  14. Weighted approximation with varying weight

    CERN Document Server

    Totik, Vilmos

    1994-01-01

    A new construction is given for approximating a logarithmic potential by a discrete one. This yields a new approach to approximation with weighted polynomials of the form w"n"(" "= uppercase)P"n"(" "= uppercase). The new technique settles several open problems, and it leads to a simple proof for the strong asymptotics on some L p(uppercase) extremal problems on the real line with exponential weights, which, for the case p=2, are equivalent to power- type asymptotics for the leading coefficients of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. The method is also modified toyield (in a sense) uniformly good approximation on the whole support. This allows one to deduce strong asymptotics in some L p(uppercase) extremal problems with varying weights. Applications are given, relating to fast decreasing polynomials, asymptotic behavior of orthogonal polynomials and multipoint Pade approximation. The approach is potential-theoretic, but the text is self-contained.

  15. Diurnally-Varying Lunar Hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, A. R.; Hurley, D.; Retherford, K. D.; Mandt, K.; Greathouse, T. K.; Farrell, W. M.; Vilas, F.

    2016-12-01

    Dayside, non-polar lunar hydration signatures have been observed by a handful of instruments and present insights into the lunar water cycle. In this study, we utilize the unique measurements from the current Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission to study the phenomenon of diurnally-varying dayside lunar hydration. The Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) onboard LRO senses a strong far-ultraviolet water absorption edge indicating hydration in small abundances in the permanently shadowed regions as well as on the lunar dayside. We report on diurnal variability in hydration in different terrain types. We investigate the importance of different sources of hydration, including solar wind bombardment and meteoroid bombardment, by observing trends during magnetotail and meteor stream crossings.

  16. Compassion makes good care great.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Daloni

    2014-05-27

    Daloni Carlisle reveals how the compassionate nursing care she received in a London hospital following a recent cancer diagnosis has given her an 'emotional understanding of what constitutes great nursing care.

  17. Great Lakes Initiative (GLI) Clearinghouse

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Great Lakes Initiative Toxicity Data Clearinghouse is a central location for information on criteria, toxicity data, exposure parameters and other supporting...

  18. The Sixth Great Mass Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Five past great mass extinctions have occurred during Earth's history. Humanity is currently in the midst of a sixth, human-induced great mass extinction of plant and animal life (e.g., Alroy 2008; Jackson 2008; Lewis 2006; McDaniel and Borton 2002; Rockstrom et al. 2009; Rohr et al. 2008; Steffen, Crutzen, and McNeill 2007; Thomas et al. 2004;…

  19. Gait phase varies over velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yancheng; Lu, Kun; Yan, Songhua; Sun, Ming; Lester, D Kevin; Zhang, Kuan

    2014-02-01

    We sought to characterize the percent (PT) of the phases of a gait cycle (GC) as velocity changes to establish norms for pathological gait characteristics with higher resolution technology. Ninety five healthy subjects (49 males and 46 females with age 34.9 ± 11.8 yrs, body weight 64.0 ± 11.7 kg and BMI 23.5 ± 3.6) were enrolled and walked comfortably on a 10-m walkway at self-selected slower, normal, and faster velocities. Walking was recorded with a high speed camera (250 frames per second) and the eight phases of a GC were determined by examination of individual frames for each subject. The correlation coefficients between the mean PT of the phases of the three velocities gaits and PT defined by previous publications were all greater than 0.99. The correlation coefficient between velocity and PT of gait phases is -0.83 for loading response (LR), -0.75 for mid stance (MSt), and -0.84 for pre-swing (PSw). While the PT of the phases of three velocities from this study are highly correlated with PT described by Dr. Jacquenlin Perry decades ago, actual PT of each phase varied amongst these individuals with the largest coefficient variation of 24.31% for IC with slower velocity. From slower to faster walk, the mean PT of MSt diminished from 35.30% to 25.33%. High resolution recording revealed ambiguity of some gait phase definitions, and these data may benefit GC characterization of normal and pathological gait in clinical practice. The study results indicate that one should consider individual variations and walking velocity when evaluating gaits of subjects using standard gait phase classification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Partially linear varying coefficient models stratified by a functional covariate

    KAUST Repository

    Maity, Arnab

    2012-10-01

    We consider the problem of estimation in semiparametric varying coefficient models where the covariate modifying the varying coefficients is functional and is modeled nonparametrically. We develop a kernel-based estimator of the nonparametric component and a profiling estimator of the parametric component of the model and derive their asymptotic properties. Specifically, we show the consistency of the nonparametric functional estimates and derive the asymptotic expansion of the estimates of the parametric component. We illustrate the performance of our methodology using a simulation study and a real data application.

  1. Ultrasonic transit-time flowmeters modelled with theoretical velocity profiles: methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pamela I.; Brown, Gregor J.; Stimpson, Brian P.

    2000-12-01

    Fully developed flow is well defined for most values of Reynolds number but distorted flow is not. Velocity profile is the definition given to the distribution of velocity in the axial direction over the cross-section of the pipe. This distribution is not usually uniform and can vary dramatically depending on the properties of the fluid and the configuration of the pipe in which it flows. Ultrasonic flowmeters are affected by such distortions in the flow profile, often resulting in erroneous measurements. Transit-time ultrasonic flowmeters are widely used in industry in distorted fluid flows, therefore correction to or prediction of distorted profiles has sparked great interest in the design and application of ultrasonic flowmeters. This document describes a method for modelling and analysing the effect of theoretical asymmetric flow profiles on ultrasonic flowmeters of the transit-time type, thus allowing an understanding of installation effects.

  2. Seasonal variations of physico-chemical properties of the Great ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was attempted on the physico-chemical variability of the Great Vedaranyam Swamp of the Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary, South-east coast of India. Seasonal variation study was carried out to examine level of varying physico-chemical parameters such as temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, ...

  3. Famous puzzles of great mathematicians

    CERN Document Server

    Petković, Miodrag S

    2009-01-01

    This entertaining book presents a collection of 180 famous mathematical puzzles and intriguing elementary problems that great mathematicians have posed, discussed, and/or solved. The selected problems do not require advanced mathematics, making this book accessible to a variety of readers. Mathematical recreations offer a rich playground for both amateur and professional mathematicians. Believing that creative stimuli and aesthetic considerations are closely related, great mathematicians from ancient times to the present have always taken an interest in puzzles and diversions. The goal of this

  4. Bacillus thuringiensis isolates from Great Nicobar Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokan, R; Mahadeva Swamy, H M; Birah, Ajanta; Thimmegowda, Geetha G

    2013-06-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains were isolated from soil samples of Great Nicobar Islands, one of the "hottest biodiversity hotspots," where no collection has been characterized previously. The 36 new Bt isolates were obtained from 153 samples analyzed by crystal protein production with light/phase-contrast microscopy, determination of cry gene profile by SDS-PAGE, evaluation of toxicity against Coleopteran, and Lepidopteran insect pests, finally cloning and sequencing. Majority of the isolates showed the presence of 66-35 kDa protein bands on SDS-PAGE while the rest showed >130, 130, 73, and 18 kDa bands. The variations in crystal morphology and mass of crystal protein(s) purified from the isolates of Bt revealed genetic and molecular diversity. Based on the toxicity test, 50 % of isolates were toxic to Ash weevils, 16 % isolates were toxic to cotton bollworm, 38 % isolates were toxic both to ash weevil as well as cotton bollworm, while 11 % of the isolates did not exhibit any toxicity. PCR analysis unveiled prepotency of cry1B- and cry8b-like genes in these isolates. This study appoints the first isolation and characterization of local B. thuringiensis isolates in Great Nicobar Islands. Some of these isolates display toxic potential and, therefore, could be adopted for future applications to control some agriculturally important insect pests in the area of integrated pest management for sustainable agriculture.

  5. The Great Gatsby. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelasko, Ken

    Based on F. Scott Fitzgerald's novel "The Great Gatsby," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that adapting part of a novel into a dramatic reading makes students more intimate with the author's intentions and craft; and that a part of a novel may lend itself to various oral interpretations. The main activity…

  6. Great Basin wildlife disease concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ Mason

    2008-01-01

    In the Great Basin, wildlife diseases have always represented a significant challenge to wildlife managers, agricultural production, and human health and safety. One of the first priorities of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Division of Fish and Wildlife Services was Congressionally directed action to eradicate vectors for zoonotic disease, particularly rabies, in...

  7. The Great Bug Hunt 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The Association For Science Education's "schoolscience.co.uk Great Bug Hunt 2011," in association with Martin Rapley and Gatekeeper Educational, has been a resounding success--not only because it fits into the science curriculum so neatly, but also because of the passion it evoked in the children who took part. This year's entries were…

  8. Data Profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Hladíková, Radka

    2010-01-01

    Title: Data Profiling Author: Radka Hladíková Department: Department of Software Engineering Supervisor: Ing. Vladimír Kyjonka Supervisor's e-mail address: Abstract: This thesis puts mind on problems with data quality and data profiling. This Work analyses and summarizes problems of data quality, data defects, process of data quality, data quality assessment and data profiling. The main topic is data profiling as a process of researching data available in existing...

  9. Power is the Great Motivator

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, David C.; Burnham, David H.

    1976-01-01

    Empirical research shows good managers are motivated by a need for power, tempered by maturity and self-control. Workshops can help a manager discover whether he has the correct motivation profile and can help him become a better manager. (JG)

  10. Wind Profiles and Wave Spectra for Potential Wind Farms in South China Sea. Part I: Wind Speed Profile Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichao Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the setting of wind energy harvesting moving from coastal waters to deep waters, the South China Sea has been deemed to offer great potential for the construction of floating wind farms thanks to the abundance of wind energy resources. An engineering model describing the wind profiles and wave spectra specific to the South China Sea conditions, which is the precondition for offshore wind farm construction, has, however, not yet been proposed. In the present study, a series of numerical simulations have been conducted using the Weather Forecast and Research model. Through analyzing the wind and wave information extracted from the numerical simulation results, engineering models to calculate vertical profiles of wind speeds and wave spectra have been postulated. While the present paper focuses on the wind profile model, a companion paper articulates the wave spectrum model. For wind profiles under typhoon conditions, the power-law and log-law models have been found applicable under the condition that the Hellmann exponent α or the friction velocity u * are modified to vary with the wind strength. For wind profiles under non-typhoon conditions, the log-law model is revised to take into consideration the influence of the atmospheric stability.

  11. Matching Value Propositions with Varied Customer Needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikka, Eija-Liisa; Frandsen, Thomas; Hsuan, Juliana

    2018-01-01

    Organizations seek to manage varied customer segments using varied value propositions. The ability of a knowledge-intensive business service (KIBS) provider to formulate value propositions into attractive offerings to varied customers becomes a competitive advantage. In this specific business bas...

  12. The Role of Surface Energy Exchange for Simulating Wind Inflow: An Evaluation of Multiple Land Surface Models in WRF for the Southern Great Plains Site Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wharton, Sonia [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Simpson, Matthew [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Osuna, Jessica [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Newman, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biraud, Sebastien [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used to investigate choice of land surface model (LSM) on the near-surface wind profile, including heights reached by multi-megawatt wind turbines. Simulations of wind profiles and surface energy fluxes were made using five LSMs of varying degrees of sophistication in dealing with soil-plant-atmosphere feedbacks for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility in Oklahoma. Surface-flux and wind-profile measurements were available for validation. The WRF model was run for three two-week periods during which varying canopy and meteorological conditions existed. The LSMs predicted a wide range of energy-flux and wind-shear magnitudes even during the cool autumn period when we expected less variability. Simulations of energy fluxes varied in accuracy by model sophistication, whereby LSMs with very simple or no soil-plant-atmosphere feedbacks were the least accurate; however, the most complex models did not consistently produce more accurate results. Errors in wind shear also were sensitive to LSM choice and were partially related to the accuracy of energy flux data. The variability of LSM performance was relatively high, suggesting that LSM representation of energy fluxes in the WRF model remains a significant source of uncertainty for simulating wind turbine inflow conditions.

  13. Great Lakes management: Ecological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonzogni, W. C.; Robertson, A.; Beeton, A. M.

    1983-11-01

    Although attempts to improve the quality of the Great Lakes generally focus on chemical pollution, other factors are important and should be considered Ecological factors, such as invasion of the lakes by foreign species, habitat changes, overfishing, and random variations in organism populations, are especially influential. Lack of appreciation of the significance of ecological factors stems partly from the inappropriate application of the concept of eutrophication to the Great Lakes. Emphasis on ecological factors is not intended to diminish the seriousness of pollution, but rather to point out that more cost-effective management, as well as more realistic expectations of management efforts by the public, should result from an ecosystem management approach in which ecological factors are carefully considered.

  14. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  15. Early Holocene Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviatt, Charles G.; Madsen, David B.; Miller, David; Thompson, Robert S.; McGeehin, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Shorelines and surficial deposits (including buried forest-floor mats and organic-rich wetland sediments) show that Great Salt Lake did not rise higher than modern lake levels during the earliest Holocene (11.5–10.2 cal ka BP; 10–9 14C ka BP). During that period, finely laminated, organic-rich muds (sapropel) containing brine-shrimp cysts and pellets and interbedded sodium-sulfate salts were deposited on the lake floor. Sapropel deposition was probably caused by stratification of the water column — a freshwater cap possibly was formed by groundwater, which had been stored in upland aquifers during the immediately preceding late-Pleistocene deep-lake cycle (Lake Bonneville), and was actively discharging on the basin floor. A climate characterized by low precipitation and runoff, combined with local areas of groundwater discharge in piedmont settings, could explain the apparent conflict between evidence for a shallow lake (a dry climate) and previously published interpretations for a moist climate in the Great Salt Lake basin of the eastern Great Basin.

  16. Modeling information diffusion in time-varying community networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xuelian; Zhao, Narisa

    2017-12-01

    Social networks are rarely static, and they typically have time-varying network topologies. A great number of studies have modeled temporal networks and explored social contagion processes within these models; however, few of these studies have considered community structure variations. In this paper, we present a study of how the time-varying property of a modular structure influences the information dissemination. First, we propose a continuous-time Markov model of information diffusion where two parameters, mobility rate and community attractiveness, are introduced to address the time-varying nature of the community structure. The basic reproduction number is derived, and the accuracy of this model is evaluated by comparing the simulation and theoretical results. Furthermore, numerical results illustrate that generally both the mobility rate and community attractiveness significantly promote the information diffusion process, especially in the initial outbreak stage. Moreover, the strength of this promotion effect is much stronger when the modularity is higher. Counterintuitively, it is found that when all communities have the same attractiveness, social mobility no longer accelerates the diffusion process. In addition, we show that the local spreading in the advantage group has been greatly enhanced due to the agglomeration effect caused by the social mobility and community attractiveness difference, which thus increases the global spreading.

  17. Impacts of Hurricane Andrew on carbonate platform environments, northern Great Bahama Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Stephen K.; Neumann, A. Conrad

    1993-10-01

    The northern (most energetic) quadrant of Hurricane Andrew (August 1992) passed over leeward-margin sand waves, bank-top sand shoals, reefs, and low islands of Great Bahama Bank for which an extensive prestorm data base exists. A reconnaissance survey seven weeks after Hurricane Andrew evaluated storm impacts on these bank-top settings. Resurveyed seismic profiles showed that positions, dimensions, and orientations of platform sand bodies were unchanged relative to fixed bedrock features. Surveys of reef communities indicated only minor storm-related disturbance. Coral bleaching may be due to storm-induced environmental stress. In addition, storm-wave plucking of boulders from emergent rocky cays resulted in localized crushing of reef biota. On low islands, beach erosion and storm surge were insignificant, and storm damage to Casuarina forests was minor and substrate-specific. Observed minimal hurricane impacts on northern Great Bahama Bank environments lying 10-75 km from the hurricane eye are reconciled by analysis of meteorological data, which show significant weakening of the storm (expressed as a rise in central barometric pressure of ˜20 mbar) during passage across the bank-top. This study demonstrates the importance of specific dynamic aspects of hurricanes (e.g., varying intensity, strength, size, forward speed, duration) which influence their geologic potential, even over relatively short distances along the storm track of an individual hurricane.

  18. Action potential energy efficiency varies among neuron types in vertebrates and invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswa Sengupta

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The initiation and propagation of action potentials (APs places high demands on the energetic resources of neural tissue. Each AP forces ATP-driven ion pumps to work harder to restore the ionic concentration gradients, thus consuming more energy. Here, we ask whether the ionic currents underlying the AP can be predicted theoretically from the principle of minimum energy consumption. A long-held supposition that APs are energetically wasteful, based on theoretical analysis of the squid giant axon AP, has recently been overturned by studies that measured the currents contributing to the AP in several mammalian neurons. In the single compartment models studied here, AP energy consumption varies greatly among vertebrate and invertebrate neurons, with several mammalian neuron models using close to the capacitive minimum of energy needed. Strikingly, energy consumption can increase by more than ten-fold simply by changing the overlap of the Na(+ and K(+ currents during the AP without changing the APs shape. As a consequence, the height and width of the AP are poor predictors of energy consumption. In the Hodgkin-Huxley model of the squid axon, optimizing the kinetics or number of Na(+ and K(+ channels can whittle down the number of ATP molecules needed for each AP by a factor of four. In contrast to the squid AP, the temporal profile of the currents underlying APs of some mammalian neurons are nearly perfectly matched to the optimized properties of ionic conductances so as to minimize the ATP cost.

  19. 33 CFR 125.08 - Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Great Lakes. 125.08 Section 125... VESSELS § 125.08 Great Lakes. The term Great Lakes as used in the regulations in this subchapter shall include the Great Lakes and their connecting and tributary waters. ...

  20. Great Basin Experimental Range: Annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Durant McArthur; Bryce A. Richardson; Stanley G. Kitchen

    2013-01-01

    This annotated bibliography documents the research that has been conducted on the Great Basin Experimental Range (GBER, also known as the Utah Experiment Station, Great Basin Station, the Great Basin Branch Experiment Station, Great Basin Experimental Center, and other similar name variants) over the 102 years of its existence. Entries were drawn from the original...

  1. Local Feature Learning for Face Recognition under Varying Poses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duan, Xiaodong; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a local feature learning method for face recognition to deal with varying poses. As opposed to the commonly used approaches of recovering frontal face images from profile views, the proposed method extracts the subject related part from a local feature by removing the pose...... related part in it on the basis of a pose feature. The method has a closed-form solution, hence being time efficient. For performance evaluation, cross pose face recognition experiments are conducted on two public face recognition databases FERET and FEI. The proposed method shows a significant...... recognition improvement under varying poses over general local feature approaches and outperforms or is comparable with related state-of-the-art pose invariant face recognition approaches. Copyright ©2015 by IEEE....

  2. Great-Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel

    2004-01-01

    From 23 to 25 November 2004 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "Great-Britain at CERN" exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and telecommunications. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions, The British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturer's Association There follows : the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departemental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. A detailed list of firms is available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm 1 Accles & Pollock 2 A S Scientific Products Ltd 3 C...

  3. Mycosis Fungoides: The great imitator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Sajjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mycosis fungoides although a cutaneous T-Cell lymphoma can immitate many dermatological disorders. A 60 year old man presented to our hospital with generalized annular plaques, few with verrucous surface. The annular lesions imitated Psoriasis, Tinea, Syphilis and the diagnosis was in dilemma. Histopathology gave the light and path to diagnosis. Case report: A 60 year old man presented with complains of erythematous scaly lesions since 20 year, Lesions were initially flat and erythematous which later became ulcerated, crusted and painful. H/O exacerbation and remission was present. Conclusions: Mycosis Fungoides is a great imitator both clinically and histopathologically. We are presenting a case report of patient with Mycosis Fungoides, Stage IIA.

  4. Gypsum karst in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper A.H.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In Great Britain the most spectacular gypsum karst development is in the Zechstein gypsum (late Permian mainly in north-eastern England. The Midlands of England also has some karst developed in the Triassic gypsum in the vicinity of Nottingham. Along the north-east coast, south of Sunderland, well-developed palaeokarst, with magnificent breccia pipes, was produced by dissolution of Permian gypsum. In north-west England a small gypsum cave system of phreatic origin has been surveyed and recorded. A large actively evolving phreatic gypsum cave system has been postulated beneath the Ripon area on the basis of studies of subsidence and boreholes. The rate of gypsum dissolution here, and the associated collapse lead to difficult civil engineering and construction conditions, which can also be aggravated by water abstraction.

  5. The Great Warming Brian Fagan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, B. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Great Warming is a journey back to the world of a thousand years ago, to the Medieval Warm Period. Five centuries of irregular warming from 800 to 1250 had beneficial effects in Europe and the North Atlantic, but brought prolonged droughts to much of the Americas and lands affected by the South Asian monsoon. The book describes these impacts of warming on medieval European societies, as well as the Norse and the Inuit of the far north, then analyzes the impact of harsh, lengthy droughts on hunting societies in western North America and the Ancestral Pueblo farmers of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. These peoples reacted to drought by relocating entire communities. The Maya civilization was much more vulnerable that small-scale hunter-gatherer societies and subsistence farmers in North America. Maya rulers created huge water storage facilities, but their civilization partially collapsed under the stress of repeated multiyear droughts, while the Chimu lords of coastal Peru adapted with sophisticated irrigation works. The climatic villain was prolonged, cool La Niñalike conditions in the Pacific, which caused droughts from Venezuela to East Asia, and as far west as East Africa. The Great Warming argues that the warm centuries brought savage drought to much of humanity, from China to Peru. It also argues that drought is one of the most dangerous elements in today’s humanly created global warming, often ignored by preoccupied commentators, but with the potential to cause over a billion people to starve. Finally, I use the book to discuss the issues and problems of communicating multidisciplinary science to the general public.

  6. Natural Selection in the Great Apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagan, Alexander; Theunert, Christoph; Laayouni, Hafid; Santpere, Gabriel; Pybus, Marc; Casals, Ferran; Prüfer, Kay; Navarro, Arcadi; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Andrés, Aida M

    2016-12-01

    Natural selection is crucial for the adaptation of populations to their environments. Here, we present the first global study of natural selection in the Hominidae (humans and great apes) based on genome-wide information from population samples representing all extant species (including most subspecies). Combining several neutrality tests we create a multi-species map of signatures of natural selection covering all major types of natural selection. We find that the estimated efficiency of both purifying and positive selection varies between species and is significantly correlated with their long-term effective population size. Thus, even the modest differences in population size among the closely related Hominidae lineages have resulted in differences in their ability to remove deleterious alleles and to adapt to changing environments. Most signatures of balancing and positive selection are species-specific, with signatures of balancing selection more often being shared among species. We also identify loci with evidence of positive selection across several lineages. Notably, we detect signatures of positive selection in several genes related to brain function, anatomy, diet and immune processes. Our results contribute to a better understanding of human evolution by putting the evidence of natural selection in humans within its larger evolutionary context. The global map of natural selection in our closest living relatives is available as an interactive browser at http://tinyurl.com/nf8qmzh. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  7. Natural Selection in the Great Apes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagan, Alexander; Theunert, Christoph; Laayouni, Hafid; Santpere, Gabriel; Pybus, Marc; Casals, Ferran; Prüfer, Kay; Navarro, Arcadi; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Andrés, Aida M.

    2016-01-01

    Natural selection is crucial for the adaptation of populations to their environments. Here, we present the first global study of natural selection in the Hominidae (humans and great apes) based on genome-wide information from population samples representing all extant species (including most subspecies). Combining several neutrality tests we create a multi-species map of signatures of natural selection covering all major types of natural selection. We find that the estimated efficiency of both purifying and positive selection varies between species and is significantly correlated with their long-term effective population size. Thus, even the modest differences in population size among the closely related Hominidae lineages have resulted in differences in their ability to remove deleterious alleles and to adapt to changing environments. Most signatures of balancing and positive selection are species-specific, with signatures of balancing selection more often being shared among species. We also identify loci with evidence of positive selection across several lineages. Notably, we detect signatures of positive selection in several genes related to brain function, anatomy, diet and immune processes. Our results contribute to a better understanding of human evolution by putting the evidence of natural selection in humans within its larger evolutionary context. The global map of natural selection in our closest living relatives is available as an interactive browser at http://tinyurl.com/nf8qmzh. PMID:27795229

  8. Biophysical Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and pregnancy High-risk pregnancy Biophysical profile About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  9. Recognition of two great contemporaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milin Melita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The common denominator in the careers of two contemporaries and great men, citizens of Austria-Hungary - Leoš Janáček and Sigmund Freud - was that, in spite of their status as outsiders, they managed to achieve well-deserved recognition. Both non-Germans, they had to surmount a number of obstacles in order to attain their professional goals. The Slavophile Janáček dreamed for a long time of success in Prague, which came at last in 1916, two years before a triumph in Vienna. Freud had serious difficulties in his academic career because of the strengthening of racial prejudices and national hatred which were especially marked at the end of the 19th century. After the dissolution of the Empire things changed for the better for the composer, whose works got an excellent reception in Austria and Germany, whereas the psychiatrist had to leave Vienna after the Anschluss. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON 177004: Serbian Musical Identities within Local and Global Frameworks: Traditions, Changes, Challenges

  10. Profiling cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciro, Marco; Bracken, Adrian P; Helin, Kristian

    2003-01-01

    In the past couple of years, several very exciting studies have demonstrated the enormous power of gene-expression profiling for cancer classification and prediction of patient survival. In addition to promising a more accurate classification of cancer and therefore better treatment of patients......, gene-expression profiling can result in the identification of novel potential targets for cancer therapy and a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cancer....

  11. Histone profiles in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Simone S; Neff, Tobias; Bernt, Kathrin M

    2015-10-01

    While DNA abnormalities have long been recognized as the cause of cancer, the contribution of chromatin is a relatively recent discovery. Excitement in the field of cancer epigenetics is driven by 3 key elements: 1. Chromatin may play an active and often critical role in controlling gene expression, DNA stability and cell identity. 2. Chromatin modifiers are frequent targets of DNA aberrations, in some cancers reaching near 100%. Particularly in cancers with low rates of DNA mutations, the key "driver" of malignancy is often a chromatin modifier. 3. Cancer-associated aberrant chromatin is amenable to pharmacologic modulation. This has sparked the rapidly expanding development of small molecules targeting chromatin modifiers or reader domains, several of which have shown promise in clinical trials. In parallel, technical advances have greatly enhanced our ability to perform comprehensive chromatin/histone profiling. Despite the discovery that distinct histone profiles are associated with prognostic subgroups, and in some instances may point towards an underlying aberration that can be targeted, histone profiling has not entered clinical diagnostics. Even eligibility for clinical trials targeting chromatin hinges on traditional histologic or DNA-based molecular criteria rather than chromatin profiles. This review will give an overview of the philosophical debate around the role of histones in controlling or modulating gene expression and discuss the most common techniques for histone profiling. In addition, we will provide prominent examples of aberrantly expressed or mutated chromatin modifiers that result in either globally or locally aberrant histone profiles, and that may be promising therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Tavatult jahe Karlovy Vary / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus

    2011-01-01

    1.-10. juulini toimunud Karlovy Vary 46. filmifestivalist (muusikafilmide alajaotuses näidati Marianne Kõrveri dokumentaalfilmi "Erkki-Sven Tüür: 7 etüüdi piltides" (2010) programmis "A Musical Odyssey")

  13. Eesti film võistleb Karlovy Varys

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    8. juulil esilinastub Karlovy Vary filmifestivalil Rene Vilbre noortefilm "Mina olin siin", mille aluseks on Sass Henno romaan "Mina olin siin. Esimene arest", stsenaariumi kirjutas Ilmar Raag. Film võistleb võistlusprogrammis "East of the West"

  14. Rumor Detection over Varying Time Windows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sejeong Kwon; Meeyoung Cha; Kyomin Jung

    2017-01-01

      This study determines the major difference between rumors and non-rumors and explores rumor classification performance levels over varying time windows--from the first three days to nearly two months...

  15. Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying Architecture of a Layered Reservoir with Mixed Boundaries and Horizontal Well Completion Part IV: Normal and Inverted Letter 'h' and 'H' Architecture.

  16. Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying Architecture of a Layered Reservoir with Mixed Boundaries and Horizontal Well Completion Part III: B-Shaped Architecture with Vertical Well in the Upper Layer.

  17. Arthritis Mechanisms May Vary by Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Subscribe August 2016 Print this issue Arthritis Mechanisms May Vary by Joint En español Send us ... joints have unique patterns of chemical tags—called epigenetic markers—that differ between rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. ...

  18. PL2 production of english word-final consonants: the role of orthography and learner profile variables Produção de consoantes finais do inglês como L2: o papel da ortografia e de variáveis relacionadas ao perfil do aprendiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Silveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates some factors affecting the acquisition of second language (L2 phonology by learners with considerable exposure to the target language in an L2 context. More specifically, the purpose of the study is two-fold: (a to investigate the extent to which participants resort to phonological processes resulting from the transfer of L1 sound-spelling correspondence into the L2 when pronouncing English word-final consonants; and (b to examine the relationship between rate of transfer and learner profile factors, namely proficiency level, length of residence in the L2 country, age of arrival in the L2 country, education, chronological age, use of English with native speakers, attendance in EFL courses, and formal education. The investigation involved 31 Brazilian speakers living in the United States with diverse profiles. Data were collected using a questionnaire to elicit the participants' profiles, a sentence-reading test (pronunciation measure, and an oral picture-description test (L2 proficiency measure. The results indicate that even in an L2 context, the transfer of L1 sound-spelling correspondence to the production of L2 word-final consonants is frequent. The findings also reveal that extensive exposure to rich L2 input leads to the development of proficiency and improves production of L2 word-final consonants.O presente estudo examina fatores que afetam a produção de consoantes em segunda língua (L2 por aprendizes que foram consideravelmente expostos à língua-alvo em um contexto de L2. Um dos objetivos do presente estudo foi investigar com que frequência os participantes utilizam processos fonológicos que resultam da transferência da correspondência entre ortografia e som da língua materna (L1 para a L2, quando produzem consoantes da língua inglesa em posição de final de palavra. O segundo objetivo consistiu em examinar o relacionamento entre índice de transferência grafo-fonológica e fatores ligados ao

  19. Strains of bacterial species induce a greatly varied acute adaptive immune response: The contribution of the accessory genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uri Sela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental question in human susceptibility to bacterial infections is to what extent variability is a function of differences in the pathogen species or in individual humans. To focus on the pathogen species, we compared in the same individual the human adaptive T and B cell immune response to multiple strains of two major human pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. We found wide variability in the acute adaptive immune response induced by various strains of a species, with a unique combination of activation within the two arms of the adaptive response. Further, this was also accompanied by a dramatic difference in the intensity of the specific protective T helper (Th response. Importantly, the same immune response differences induced by the individual strains were maintained across multiple healthy human donors. A comparison of isogenic phage KO strains, demonstrated that of the pangenome, prophages were the major contributor to inter-strain immune heterogeneity, as the T cell response to the remaining "core genome" was noticeably blunted. Therefore, these findings extend and modify the notion of an adaptive response to a pathogenic bacterium, by implying that the adaptive immune response signature of a bacterial species should be defined either per strain or alternatively to the species' 'core genome', common to all of its strains. Further, our results demonstrate that the acquired immune response variation is as wide among different strains within a single pathogenic species as it is among different humans, and therefore may explain in part the clinical heterogeneity observed in patients infected with the same species.

  20. Facial-profile attractiveness changes in adult patients treated with the Herbst appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bremen, J; Erbe, C; Pancherz, H; Ruf, S

    2014-05-01

    The goal of this study was to compare facial profile attractiveness changes of adult patients treated with the Herbst appliance assessed by orthodontists and laypeople. The patient sample comprised 28 adult Herbst patients. Facial profile photographs of the patients were randomly divided into two evaluation sets (before T0, after treatment T1). Ten members of the Angle Society of Europe (orthodontists) and 10 dental students in their third semester (laymen) rated both sets of photographs using Visual Analog Scales (VAS) with an interval of 1 day between the ratings. On average, both orthodontists and students found an improvement in facial profile attractiveness through Herbst appliance treatment (VAS T1-T0 = 0.3 ± 1.9 cm). However, the interindividual perception of profile attractiveness varied greatly in the two rater groups. For both time periods (T0, T1), lower VAS ratings were given by students than by orthodontists. Herbst therapy in adult patients generally improves facial profile attractiveness. Students rated facial profiles more critically than orthodontists.

  1. Transposition of the great arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castela Eduardo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transposition of the great arteries (TGA, also referred to as complete transposition, is a congenital cardiac malformation characterised by atrioventricular concordance and ventriculoarterial (VA discordance. The incidence is estimated at 1 in 3,500–5,000 live births, with a male-to-female ratio 1.5 to 3.2:1. In 50% of cases, the VA discordance is an isolated finding. In 10% of cases, TGA is associated with noncardiac malformations. The association with other cardiac malformations such as ventricular septal defect (VSD and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is frequent and dictates timing and clinical presentation, which consists of cyanosis with or without congestive heart failure. The onset and severity depend on anatomical and functional variants that influence the degree of mixing between the two circulations. If no obstructive lesions are present and there is a large VSD, cyanosis may go undetected and only be perceived during episodes of crying or agitation. In these cases, signs of congestive heart failure prevail. The exact aetiology remains unknown. Some associated risk factors (gestational diabetes mellitus, maternal exposure to rodenticides and herbicides, maternal use of antiepileptic drugs have been postulated. Mutations in growth differentiation factor-1 gene, the thyroid hormone receptor-associated protein-2 gene and the gene encoding the cryptic protein have been shown implicated in discordant VA connections, but they explain only a small minority of TGA cases. The diagnosis is confirmed by echocardiography, which also provides the morphological details required for future surgical management. Prenatal diagnosis by foetal echocardiography is possible and desirable, as it may improve the early neonatal management and reduce morbidity and mortality. Differential diagnosis includes other causes of central neonatal cyanosis. Palliative treatment with prostaglandin E1 and balloon atrial septostomy are usually

  2. Spiking the expectancy profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Chr.; Loui, Psyche; Vuust, Peter

    statistical learning, causing comparatively sharper key profiles in musicians, we hypothesised that musical learning can be modelled as a process of entropy reduction through experience. Specifically, implicit learning of statistical regularities allows reduction in the relative entropy (i.e. symmetrised...... Kullback-Leibler or Jensen-Shannon Divergence) between listeners’ prior expectancy profiles and probability distributions of a musical style or of stimuli used in short-term experiments. Five previous probe-tone experiments with musicians and non-musicians were revisited. In Experiments 1-2 participants...... and relevance of musical training and within-participant decreases after short-term exposure to novel music. Thus, whereas inexperienced listeners make high-entropy predictions, statistical learning over varying timescales enables listeners to generate melodic expectations with reduced entropy...

  3. Cosmic Reason of Great Glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrov, Alexander; Murtazov, Andrey

    The origin of long-time and global glaciations in the past of our planet, which have been named «great», is still not clear. Both the advance of glaciers and their subsequent melting must be connected with some energy consuming processes. There is a powerful energy source permanently functioning throughout the Earth’s history - the solar radiation. The equality of the incoming shortwave solar energy and the transformed long-wave energy emitted by the Earth provides for the whole ecosphere’s sustainable evolution. Great glaciations might be caused by space body falls into the world oceans. If the body is large enough, it can stir waters down to the bottom. The world waters are part of the global heat transfer from the planet’s equator to its poles (nowadays, mostly to the North Pole). The mixing of the bottom and surface waters breaks the circulation of flows and they stop. The termination of heat transfer to the poles will result in an icecap at high latitudes which in its turn will decrease the total solar heat inflow to the planet and shift the pole ice boarder to the equator. This positive feedback may last long and result in long-time glaciations. The oceanic currents will remain only near the equator. The factor obstructing the global cooling is the greenhouse effect. Volcanic eruptions supply a lot of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. When due to the increased albedo the planet receives less solar heat, plants bind less carbon oxide into biomass and more of it retains in the atmosphere. Therefore, the outflow of heat from the planet decreases and glaciations does not involve the whole planet. The balance established between the heat inflow and heat losses is unstable. Any imbalance acts as a positive feed-back factor. If the volcanic activity grows, the inflow of the carbon dioxide into the atmosphere will cause its heating-up (plants will fail to reproduce themselves quickly enough to utilize the carbonic acid). The temperature growth will lead to

  4. Microseisms from the Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, K. J.; Koper, K. D.; Burlacu, V.

    2014-12-01

    Dept. of Geology and Geophysics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112, USA We performed frequency-dependent polarization and power analysis on continuous ambient seismic energy recorded by broadband seismic stations that were part of the Utah Regional Seismic Network (UU) for the years of 2001-2013. The number of broadband seismometers increased from 10 to 28 in this time period. As expected, at all 28 stations the single and double frequency peaks caused by microseisms were observed in the range of 3-20 s. At four of the stations located around the Great Salt Lake (BGU, HVU, NOQ, and SPU) an additional noise peak was intermittently observed in the period range of 0.8-1.2 s. This noise peak was strongest at SPU, a station located on the tip of a peninsula jutting into the lake from the north, and weakest at NOQ, a station located a few kilometers south of the lake in the Oquirrh Mountains. The noise peaks occur in both daytime and nighttime, and have durations lasting from a couple of hours to multiple days. They occur more frequently in the spring, summer, and fall, and less commonly in the winter. The occurrences of noise peaks in the summer show a day night pattern and seem to reach a peak during the night. The time dependence of this 1-s seismic noise was compared to records of wind speed measured at 1-hr intervals from nearby meteorological stations run by the NWS, and to lake level gage height measurements made by the USGS. Correlations with wind speed and lake level were done for every month of the year in 2013. Results showed that the correlations with wind varied throughout the year from a high of 0.49 in November to a low of 0.20 in the month of January. The correlation with lake level also varied throughout the year and the strongest correlation was found in the month of December with a correlation of 0.43. While these correlation values are statistically significant, neither wind nor lake level can completely explain the seismic observations

  5. Digital repetitive control under varying frequency conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, Germán A; Olm, Josep M

    2013-01-01

    The tracking/rejection of periodic signals constitutes a wide field of research in the control theory and applications area. Repetitive Control has proven to be an efficient way to face this topic. However, in some applications the frequency of the reference/disturbance signal is time-varying or uncertain. This causes an important performance degradation in the standard Repetitive Control scheme. This book presents some solutions to apply Repetitive Control in varying frequency conditions without loosing steady-state performance. It also includes a complete theoretical development and experimental results in two representative systems. The presented solutions are organized in two complementary branches: varying sampling period Repetitive Control and High Order Repetitive Control. The first approach allows dealing with large range frequency variations while the second allows dealing with small range frequency variations. The book also presents applications of the described techniques to a Roto-magnet plant and...

  6. Varying flexibilities in systems of organised decentralisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna; Andersen, Søren Kaj

    be while the response of the German system should rather be interpreted as a reactive organised decentralisation. 3) The varying regulation of working time flexibility in Germany and Denmark implies varying risks in the regulation. In Germany lacking competencies in small or medium-sized companies lead...... to this paradox a qualitative study of working time regulation in the metal industry in Denmark and Germany was performed in the spring of 2005. In addition to five case studies of company-based agreements in Denmark and Germany (Baden-Württemberg) the study consisted of analysing statistical data, legislative...

  7. Varying G. [in Einstein gravitation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, V.; Hsieh, S.-H.; Owen, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of the variation of the gravitational constant with cosmological time is critically analyzed. Since Einstein's equation does not allow G to vary on any time scale, no observational data can be analyzed within the context of the standard theory. The recently proposed scale covariant theory, which allows (but does not demand) G to vary, and which has been shown to have passed several standard cosmological tests, is employed to discuss some recent nonnull observational results which indicate a time variation of G.

  8. Breeding success and lutein availability in great tit ( Parus major)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillanpää, Saila; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Eeva, Tapio

    2009-11-01

    The relationship among temporal variation in the availability of carotenoid-rich food, tissue carotenoid levels and breeding success are poorly known. We studied how diet quality and quantity affect the carotenoid profile and fledging success of great tit ( Parus major) nestlings along a pollution gradient. We found declining seasonal trend in lutein concentration of caterpillars, which may be the explanation for the declining trend in nestlings' lutein concentration of plasma with season, despite the increase in caterpillar biomass. This may be because the biomass of most lutein-rich caterpillars (autumnal moths) decreased and less lutein-rich caterpillars (sawflies) increased during the breeding season. The temporal difference in occurrence of different caterpillar species means that peak lutein availability does not coincide with peak caterpillar abundance. However the positive association between total larval biomass and the number of great tit fledglings may suggest that fledging success depends more on total caterpillar availability than on lutein concentration of caterpillars.

  9. Varying domains in a general class of sublinear elliptic problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Cano-Casanova

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we use the linear theory developed in [8] and [9] to show the continuous dependence of the positive solutions of a general class of sublinear elliptic boundary value problems of mixed type with respect to the underlying domain. Our main theorem completes the results of Daners and Dancer [12] -and the references there in-, where the classical Robin problem was dealt with. Besides the fact that we are working with mixed non-classical boundary conditions, it must be mentioned that this paper is considering problems where bifurcation from infinity occurs; now a days, analyzing these general problems, where the coefficients are allowed to vary and eventually vanishing or changing sign, is focusing a great deal of attention -as they give rise to metasolutions (e.g., [20]-.

  10. Fellow Profile

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fellow Profile. Elected: 1971 Section: Chemistry. Narasimhan, Prof. Palliakaranai Thirumalai Ph.D. (Madras), FNA, FNASc. Date of birth: 28 July 1928. Date of death: 3 May 2013. Specialization: Theoretical Chemistry and Magnetic Resonance Last known address: 1013, Lupine Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94086, USA. YouTube ...

  11. A Great Moment for Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    astronomers will have at their disposal the best optical/infrared telescope in the world. We can now look forward with great expectations to the realization of many exciting research projects. The First Light Images Images of various celestial objects were obtained with the VLT CCD Test Camera, some of which are included in a new series, First Astronomical Images from the VLT UT1. None have been subjected to image processing beyond flat-fielding (to remove variations of the digital detector sensitivity over the field) and cosmetic cleaning. They all display the recorded image structure, pixel by pixel. A detailed evaluation with accompanying explanations is presented in the figure captions. 1. Omega Centauri Tracking Tests This 10-minute image demonstrates that the telescope is able to track continuously with a very high precision and thus is able to take full advantage of the frequent, very good atmospheric conditions at Paranal. The images of the stars in this southern globular cluster are very sharp (0.43 arcsec) and are perfectly round, everywhere in the field. 2. The Quadruple Clover Leaf Quasar This 2-minute exposure of the well-known Clover Leaf quasar, a quadruple gravitational lens in which the largest distance between two components is only 1.3 arcsec, was obtained during a period of excellent seeing (0.32 arcsec) measured with a seeing monitor at the top of Paranal. The recorded angular resolution of just 0.38 arcsec demonstrates near-perfect optical quality of the telescope . 3. The Central Area of Globular Cluster M4 This is a colour composite of a field near the centre of the nearest globular cluster. At a seeing of 0.53 arcsec, the blue exposure reaches magnitude B = 24 in only 2 minutes (at signal-to-noise ratio = 5) in a bright sky. A simple extrapolation shows that B ~ 28 would be reached in a 1-hour exposure in a dark sky. The large mirror surface of the VLT UT1 and its ability to produce very sharp images, ensures that faint objects may be observed

  12. Õunpuu Karlovy Varys edukas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    45. Karlovy Vary filmifestivali võistlusprogrammis "East of the West" märgiti ära Veiko Õunpuu film "Püha Tõnu kiusamine". Peaauhind läks rumeenlase Cristi Puiu filmile "Aurora". Grand prix´sai Augustĺ Vila film "La mosquitera". Teisi preemiasaajaid

  13. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Gradually varied flow computation in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammad Jahandar Malekabadi

    The article ''Gradually varied flow computation in channel networks by adaptive algorithm'' (DOI 10.1007/s12046- · 017-0640-x) which has been published online has been retracted by Chief Editor of the journal Sadhana as per the. Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines on redundant publication.

  14. Ellipsometry with randomly varying polarization states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Fenz; Lee, Christopher James; Chen, Juequan; Chen, J.; Louis, Eric; van der Slot, Petrus J.M.; Boller, Klaus J.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    We show that, under the right conditions, one can make highly accurate polarization-based measurements without knowing the absolute polarization state of the probing light field. It is shown that light, passed through a randomly varying birefringent material has a well-defined orbit on the Poincar

  15. Ellipsometry with random varying polarization state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Fenz; van Albada, B.; Lee, c; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    We show that, under the right conditions, one can make highly accurate polarization-based measurements without knowing the absolute polarization state of the probing light field. It is shown that light, passed through a randomly varying birefringent material has a well-defined orbit on the Poincar

  16. "Mina olin siin" esilinastub Karlovy Varys

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Karlovy Vary filmifestivalil esilinastub Rene Vilbre noortefilm "Mina olin siin", mille aluseks on Sass Henno romaan "Mina olin siin. Esimene arest", stsenaariumi kirjutas Ilmar Raag. Film võistleb võistlusprogrammis "East of the West". Esitlema sõidavad R. Vilbre, R. Sildos, R. Kaljujärv, T. Tuisk

  17. Tracking time-varying coefficient-functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Joensen, Alfred K.

    2000-01-01

    is a combination of recursive least squares with exponential forgetting and local polynomial regression. It is argued, that it is appropriate to let the forgetting factor vary with the value of the external signal which is the argument of the coefficient functions. Some of the key properties of the modified method...... are studied by simulation...

  18. Efficient Estimation in Heteroscedastic Varying Coefficient Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanhua Wei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers statistical inference for the heteroscedastic varying coefficient model. We propose an efficient estimator for coefficient functions that is more efficient than the conventional local-linear estimator. We establish asymptotic normality for the proposed estimator and conduct some simulation to illustrate the performance of the proposed method.

  19. Filmihullu eluvesi voolab Karlovy Varys / Margit Tõnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnson, Margit, 1978-

    2010-01-01

    Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelisest filmifestivalist. Filmidest "Mr. Nobody" (rež. Jaco Van Dormaeli), "Kasside ema Teresa" (rež. Pawel Sala) ja "The Arbor" (rež. Clio Barnardi). Nimekiri võitnud töödest ja viimastel aastatel festivalil näidatud Eesti mängufilmidest

  20. Microbial Community and Functional Structure Significantly Varied among Distinct Types of Paddy Soils But Responded Differently along Gradients of Soil Depth Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ren; Wang, Jun-Tao; Deng, Ye; He, Ji-Zheng; Feng, Kai; Zhang, Li-Mei

    2017-01-01

    Paddy rice fields occupy broad agricultural area in China and cover diverse soil types. Microbial community in paddy soils is of great interest since many microorganisms are involved in soil functional processes. In the present study, Illumina Mi-Seq sequencing and functional gene array (GeoChip 4.2) techniques were combined to investigate soil microbial communities and functional gene patterns across the three soil types including an Inceptisol (Binhai), an Oxisol (Leizhou), and an Ultisol (Taoyuan) along four profile depths (up to 70 cm in depth) in mesocosm incubation columns. Detrended correspondence analysis revealed that distinctly differentiation in microbial community existed among soil types and profile depths, while the manifest variance in functional structure was only observed among soil types and two rice growth stages, but not across profile depths. Along the profile depth within each soil type, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Firmicutes increased whereas Cyanobacteria, β-proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia declined, suggesting their specific ecophysiological properties. Compared to bacterial community, the archaeal community showed a more contrasting pattern with the predominant groups within phyla Euryarchaeota, Thaumarchaeota, and Crenarchaeota largely varying among soil types and depths. Phylogenetic molecular ecological network (pMEN) analysis further indicated that the pattern of bacterial and archaeal communities interactions changed with soil depth and the highest modularity of microbial community occurred in top soils, implying a relatively higher system resistance to environmental change compared to communities in deeper soil layers. Meanwhile, microbial communities had higher connectivity in deeper soils in comparison with upper soils, suggesting less microbial interaction in surface soils. Structure equation models were developed and the models indicated that pH was the most representative characteristics of soil type and identified as

  1. Microbial Community and Functional Structure Significantly Varied among Distinct Types of Paddy Soils But Responded Differently along Gradients of Soil Depth Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Bai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Paddy rice fields occupy broad agricultural area in China and cover diverse soil types. Microbial community in paddy soils is of great interest since many microorganisms are involved in soil functional processes. In the present study, Illumina Mi-Seq sequencing and functional gene array (GeoChip 4.2 techniques were combined to investigate soil microbial communities and functional gene patterns across the three soil types including an Inceptisol (Binhai, an Oxisol (Leizhou, and an Ultisol (Taoyuan along four profile depths (up to 70 cm in depth in mesocosm incubation columns. Detrended correspondence analysis revealed that distinctly differentiation in microbial community existed among soil types and profile depths, while the manifest variance in functional structure was only observed among soil types and two rice growth stages, but not across profile depths. Along the profile depth within each soil type, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Firmicutes increased whereas Cyanobacteria, β-proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia declined, suggesting their specific ecophysiological properties. Compared to bacterial community, the archaeal community showed a more contrasting pattern with the predominant groups within phyla Euryarchaeota, Thaumarchaeota, and Crenarchaeota largely varying among soil types and depths. Phylogenetic molecular ecological network (pMEN analysis further indicated that the pattern of bacterial and archaeal communities interactions changed with soil depth and the highest modularity of microbial community occurred in top soils, implying a relatively higher system resistance to environmental change compared to communities in deeper soil layers. Meanwhile, microbial communities had higher connectivity in deeper soils in comparison with upper soils, suggesting less microbial interaction in surface soils. Structure equation models were developed and the models indicated that pH was the most representative characteristics of soil type and

  2. Components in time-varying graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicosia, Vincenzo; Tang, John; Musolesi, Mirco; Russo, Giovanni; Mascolo, Cecilia; Latora, Vito

    2012-06-01

    Real complex systems are inherently time-varying. Thanks to new communication systems and novel technologies, today it is possible to produce and analyze social and biological networks with detailed information on the time of occurrence and duration of each link. However, standard graph metrics introduced so far in complex network theory are mainly suited for static graphs, i.e., graphs in which the links do not change over time, or graphs built from time-varying systems by aggregating all the links as if they were concurrent in time. In this paper, we extend the notion of connectedness, and the definitions of node and graph components, to the case of time-varying graphs, which are represented as time-ordered sequences of graphs defined over a fixed set of nodes. We show that the problem of finding strongly connected components in a time-varying graph can be mapped into the problem of discovering the maximal-cliques in an opportunely constructed static graph, which we name the affine graph. It is, therefore, an NP-complete problem. As a practical example, we have performed a temporal component analysis of time-varying graphs constructed from three data sets of human interactions. The results show that taking time into account in the definition of graph components allows to capture important features of real systems. In particular, we observe a large variability in the size of node temporal in- and out-components. This is due to intrinsic fluctuations in the activity patterns of individuals, which cannot be detected by static graph analysis.

  3. The Time Scale of Recombination Rate Evolution in Great Apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevison, Laurie S; Woerner, August E; Kidd, Jeffrey M; Kelley, Joanna L; Veeramah, Krishna R; McManus, Kimberly F; Bustamante, Carlos D; Hammer, Michael F; Wall, Jeffrey D

    2016-04-01

    We present three linkage-disequilibrium (LD)-based recombination maps generated using whole-genome sequence data from 10 Nigerian chimpanzees, 13 bonobos, and 15 western gorillas, collected as part of the Great Ape Genome Project (Prado-Martinez J, et al. 2013. Great ape genetic diversity and population history. Nature 499:471-475). We also identified species-specific recombination hotspots in each group using a modified LDhot framework, which greatly improves statistical power to detect hotspots at varying strengths. We show that fewer hotspots are shared among chimpanzee subspecies than within human populations, further narrowing the time scale of complete hotspot turnover. Further, using species-specific PRDM9 sequences to predict potential binding sites (PBS), we show higher predicted PRDM9 binding in recombination hotspots as compared to matched cold spot regions in multiple great ape species, including at least one chimpanzee subspecies. We found that correlations between broad-scale recombination rates decline more rapidly than nucleotide divergence between species. We also compared the skew of recombination rates at centromeres and telomeres between species and show a skew from chromosome means extending as far as 10-15 Mb from chromosome ends. Further, we examined broad-scale recombination rate changes near a translocation in gorillas and found minimal differences as compared to other great ape species perhaps because the coordinates relative to the chromosome ends were unaffected. Finally, on the basis of multiple linear regression analysis, we found that various correlates of recombination rate persist throughout the African great apes including repeats, diversity, and divergence. Our study is the first to analyze within- and between-species genome-wide recombination rate variation in several close relatives. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For

  4. Power profiles of single vision and multifocal soft contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Sandra; Conrad, Fabian; Bakaraju, Ravi C; Fedtke, Cathleen; Ehrmann, Klaus; Holden, Brien A

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the optical zone power profile of the most commonly prescribed soft contact lenses to assess their potential impact on peripheral refractive error and hence myopia progression. The optical power profiles of six single vision and ten multifocal contact lenses of five manufacturers in the powers -1.00 D, -3.00 D, and -6.00 D were measured using the SHSOphthalmic (Optocraft GmbH, Erlangen, Germany). Instrument repeatability was also investigated. Instrument repeatability was dependent on the distance from the optical centre, manifesting unreliable data for the central 1mm of the optic zone. Single vision contact lens measurements of -6.00 D lenses revealed omafilcon A having the most negative spherical aberration, lotrafilcon A having the least. Somofilcon A had the highest minus power and lotrafilcon A the biggest deviation in positive direction, relative to their respective labelled powers. Negative spherical aberration occurred for almost all of the multifocal contact lenses, including the centre-distance designs etafilcon A bifocal and omafilcon A multifocal. Lotrafilcon B and balafilcon A seem to rely predominantly on the spherical aberration component to provide multifocality. Power profiles of single vision soft contact lenses varied greatly, many having a negative spherical aberration profile that would exacerbate myopia. Some lens types and powers are affected by large intra-batch variability or power offsets of more than 0.25 dioptres. Evaluation of power profiles of multifocal lenses was derived that provides helpful information for prescribing lenses for presbyopes and progressing myopes. Copyright © 2014 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Leading Good Schools to Greatness: Mastering What Great Principals Do Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Susan Penny; Streshly, William A.

    2010-01-01

    Great leaders are made, not born. Written by the authors of "From Good Schools to Great Schools," this sequel shows how great school leaders can be developed and how leaders can acquire the powerful personal leadership characteristics that the best administrators use to lead their schools to greatness. Based on sound strategies and the work of Jim…

  6. The Third Gravitational Lensing Accuracy Testing (GREAT3) Challenge Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelbaum, Rachel; Rowe, Barnaby; Bosch, James; Chang, Chihway; Courbin, Frederic; Gill, Mandeep; Jarvis, Mike; Kannawadi, Arun; Kacprzak, Tomasz; Lackner, Claire; Leauthaud, Alexie; Miyatake, Hironao; Nakajima, Reiko; Rhodes, Jason; Simet, Melanie; Zuntz, Joe; Armstrong, Bob; Bridle, Sarah; Coupon, Jean; Dietrich, Jörg P.; Gentile, Marc; Heymans, Catherine; Jurling, Alden S.; Kent, Stephen M.; Kirkby, David; Margala, Daniel; Massey, Richard; Melchior, Peter; Peterson, John; Roodman, Aaron; Schrabback, Tim

    2014-05-01

    The GRavitational lEnsing Accuracy Testing 3 (GREAT3) challenge is the third in a series of image analysis challenges, with a goal of testing and facilitating the development of methods for analyzing astronomical images that will be used to measure weak gravitational lensing. This measurement requires extremely precise estimation of very small galaxy shape distortions, in the presence of far larger intrinsic galaxy shapes and distortions due to the blurring kernel caused by the atmosphere, telescope optics, and instrumental effects. The GREAT3 challenge is posed to the astronomy, machine learning, and statistics communities, and includes tests of three specific effects that are of immediate relevance to upcoming weak lensing surveys, two of which have never been tested in a community challenge before. These effects include many novel aspects including realistically complex galaxy models based on high-resolution imaging from space; a spatially varying, physically motivated blurring kernel; and a combination of multiple different exposures. To facilitate entry by people new to the field, and for use as a diagnostic tool, the simulation software for the challenge is publicly available, though the exact parameters used for the challenge are blinded. Sample scripts to analyze the challenge data using existing methods will also be provided. See http://great3challenge.info and http://great3.projects.phys.ucl.ac.uk/leaderboard/ for more information.

  7. Artificial reefs and reef restoration in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Matthew W.; Roseman, Edward; Pritt, Jeremy J.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Manny, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed the published literature to provide an inventory of Laurentian Great Lakes artificial reef projects and their purposes. We also sought to characterize physical and biological monitoring for artificial reef projects in the Great Lakes and determine the success of artificial reefs in meeting project objectives. We found records of 6 artificial reefs in Lake Erie, 8 in Lake Michigan, 3 in Lakes Huron and Ontario, and 2 in Lake Superior. We found 9 reefs in Great Lakes connecting channels and 6 reefs in Great Lakes tributaries. Objectives of artificial reef creation have included reducing impacts of currents and waves, providing safe harbors, improving sport-fishing opportunities, and enhancing/restoring fish spawning habitats. Most reefs in the lakes themselves were incidental (not created purposely for fish habitat) or built to improve local sport fishing, whereas reefs in tributaries and connecting channels were more frequently built to benefit fish spawning. Levels of assessment of reef performance varied; but long-term monitoring was uncommon as was assessment of physical attributes. Artificial reefs were often successful at attracting recreational species and spawning fish; however, population-level benefits of artificial reefs are unclear. Stressors such as sedimentation and bio-fouling can limit the effectiveness of artificial reefs as spawning enhancement tools. Our investigation underscores the need to develop standard protocols for monitoring the biological and physical attributes of artificial structures. Further, long-term monitoring is needed to assess the benefits of artificial reefs to fish populations and inform future artificial reef projects.

  8. Monitoring Change in Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David; Angeroth, Cory; Freeman, Michael; Rowland, Ryan; Carling, Gregory

    2013-08-01

    Great Salt Lake is the largest hypersaline lake in the Western Hemisphere and the fourth largest terminal lake in the world (Figure 1). The open water and adjacent wetlands of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem support millions of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds from throughout the Western Hemisphere [Aldrich and Paul, 2002]. In addition, the area is of important economic value: Brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) residing in Great Salt Lake support an aquaculture shrimp cyst industry with annual revenues as high as $60 million.

  9. TECHNOLOGICAL ENTREPRENEUR`S PROFILE

    OpenAIRE

    NACU Cosmin-Mihai; AVASILCAI Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is a subject of great interest, a process in which more and more people want to take part. The main character of entrepreneurial process is the entrepreneur. He is motivated by various factors and, with certain abilities, competences, attitudes and skills he can develop a sustainable business. In this study, the author aims to develop a profile of technological entrepreneur, starting from a variety of entrepreneurs’ characteristics, identified in literatu...

  10. Anistropically varying conductivity in irreversible electroporation simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labarbera, Nicholas; Drapaca, Corina

    2017-11-01

    One recent area of cancer research is irreversible electroporation (IRE). Irreversible electroporation is a minimally invasive procedure where needle electrodes are inserted into the body to ablate tumor cells with electricity. The aim of this paper is to propose a mathematical model that incorporates a tissue's conductivity increasing more in the direction of the electrical field as this has been shown to occur in experiments. It was necessary to mathematically derive a valid form of the conductivity tensor such that it is dependent on the electrical field direction and can be easily implemented into numerical software. The derivation of a conductivity tensor that can take arbitrary functions for the conductivity in the directions tangent and normal to the electrical field is the main contribution of this paper. Numerical simulations were performed for isotropic-varying and anisotropic-varying conductivities to evaluate the importance of including the electrical field's direction in the formulation for conductivity. By starting from previously published experimental results, this paper derived a general formulation for an anistropic-varying tensor for implementation into irreversible electroporation modeling software. The anistropic-varying tensor formulation allows the conductivity to take into consideration both electrical field direction and magnitude, as opposed to previous published works that only took into account electrical field magnitude. The anisotropic formulation predicts roughly a five percent decrease in ablation size for the monopolar simulation and approximately a ten percent decrease in ablation size for the bipolar simulations. This is a positive result as previously reported results found the isotropic formulation to overpredict ablation size for both monopolar and bipolar simulations. Furthermore, it was also reported that the isotropic formulation overpredicts the ablation size more for the bipolar case than the monopolar case. Thus, our

  11. Quantum Field Theory with Varying Couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagni, Gianluca; Nardelli, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    A quantum scalar field theory with spacetime-dependent coupling is studied. Surprisingly, while translation invariance is explicitly broken in the classical theory, momentum conservation is recovered at the quantum level for some specific choice of the coupling's profile for any finite-order perturbative expansion. For one of these cases, some tree and one-loop diagrams are calculated. This is an example of a theory where violation of Lorentz symmetry is not enhanced at the quantum level. We draw some consequences for the renormalization properties of certain classes of fractional field theories.

  12. 25 Great Ideas for Hispanic Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instructor, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Hispanic Heritage Month, celebrated September 15th through October 15th, is a great opportunity to kick off a whole year of cultural discovery. This article presents 25 great ideas for Hispanic heritage. These 25 fresh ideas--from Aztec math to Carnaval masks--are easy to put together, and they offer students the chance to celebrate their own…

  13. From Good to Great: Discussion Starter Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Great Teachers and Leaders, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In the report "From Good to Great: Exemplary Teachers Share Perspectives on Increasing Teacher Effectiveness across the Career Continuum," (See full report in ERIC at ED555657) National and State Teachers of the Year shared their views on what helped them become great teachers. This accompanying "Discussion Starter Tool" builds…

  14. Great Lakes Education Booklet, 1990-1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Dept. of Natural Resources, Lansing.

    This booklet integrates science, history, and environmental education to help students acquire a basic understanding of the importance of the Great Lakes located in the United States. The packet also contains a Great Lakes Basin resource map and a sand dune poster. These materials introduce students to a brief history of the lakes, the diversity…

  15. Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between the U.S. and Canada addresses critical environmental health issues in the Great Lakes region. It's a model of binational cooperation to protect water quality. It was first signed in 1972 and amended in 2012.

  16. Deformation of the great coupling diaphragms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz ZAJĄC

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic deformation mode of the great coupling diaphragms is the subjectmatter of this article. The model has been created on the experimental way through the research on a wheel excavator. The presented analysis algorithm of the aggregated data is a basis for identification of the causes and the area of the plastic deformation in the great coupling diaphragms.

  17. Great ape genetic diversity and population history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado-Martinez, Javier; Sudmant, Peter H.; Kidd, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Most great ape genetic variation remains uncharacterized; however, its study is critical for understanding population history, recombination, selection and susceptibility to disease. Here we sequence to high coverage a total of 79 wild- and captive-born individuals representing all six great ape...

  18. Recensie "The Great Reset" : Richard Florida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy van Dalm

    2010-01-01

    Like the Great Depression and the Long Depression before it, experts have viewed prolonged economic downturns as crises. In The Great Reset , bestselling author Richard Florida argues that we should instead see the recent recession as an opportunity to create entirely new ways of working and living

  19. 33 CFR 117.720 - Great Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Great Channel. 117.720 Section 117.720 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.720 Great Channel. The draw of the...

  20. A time-varying magnetic flux concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibret, B.; Premaratne, M.; Lewis, P. M.; Thomson, R.; Fitzgerald, P. B.

    2016-08-01

    It is known that diverse technological applications require the use of focused magnetic fields. This has driven the quest for controlling the magnetic field. Recently, the principles in transformation optics and metamaterials have allowed the realization of practical static magnetic flux concentrators. Extending such progress, here, we propose a time-varying magnetic flux concentrator cylindrical shell that uses electric conductors and ferromagnetic materials to guide magnetic flux to its center. Its performance is discussed based on finite-element simulation results. Our proposed design has potential applications in magnetic sensors, medical devices, wireless power transfer, and near-field wireless communications.

  1. Tracking Time-Varying Coefficient-Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Joensen, Alfred K.

    1999-01-01

    of recursive least squares with exponential forgetting and local polynomial regression. However, it is argued, that it is appropriate to let the forgetting factor vary with the value of the external signal shich is argument of the coeffieient-functions.The properties of the modified method are sutdied...... by simulation. A particular feature is that this effectiv forgetting factor will adapt to the bandwidth used so that the effective number of observtions behind the estimates will be almost independent of the actual bandwidth or of the type of bandwidth selection used (fixed or nearest neighbour). The choice...

  2. Conceptual Modeling of Time-Varying Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Heidi; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2004-01-01

    A wide range of database applications manage information that varies over time. Many of the underlying database schemas of these were designed using the Entity-Relationship (ER) model. In the research community as well as in industry, it is common knowledge that the temporal aspects of the mini-world...... are important, but difficult to capture using the ER model. Several enhancements to the ER model have been proposed in an attempt to support the modeling of temporal aspects of information. Common to the existing temporally extended ER models, few or no specific requirements to the models were given...

  3. Linear Parameter Varying Control of Induction Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, Klaus

    The subject of this thesis is the development of linear parameter varying (LPV) controllers and observers for control of induction motors. The induction motor is one of the most common machines in industrial applications. Being a highly nonlinear system, it poses challenging control problems...... for high performance applications. This thesis demonstrates how LPV control theory provides a systematic way to achieve good performance for these problems. The main contributions of this thesis are the application of the LPV control theory to induction motor control as well as various contributions...

  4. MPI Profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, D K; Jones, T R

    2005-02-11

    The Message Passing Interface (MPI) is the de facto message-passing standard for massively parallel programs. It is often the case that application performance is a crucial factor, especially for solving grand challenge problems. While there have been many studies on the scalability of applications, there have not been many focusing on the specific types of MPI calls being made and their impact on application performance. Using a profiling tool called mpiP, a large spectrum of parallel scientific applications were surveyed and their performance results analyzed.

  5. Stereoscopic depth perception varies with hues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zaiqing; Shi, Junsheng; Tai, Yonghang; Yun, Lijun

    2012-09-01

    The contribution of color information to stereopsis is controversial, and whether the stereoscopic depth perception varies with chromaticity is ambiguous. This study examined the changes in depth perception caused by hue variations. Based on the fact that a greater disparity range indicates more efficient stereoscopic perception, the effect of hue variations on depth perception was evaluated through the disparity range with random-dot stereogram stimuli. The disparity range was obtained by constant-stimulus method for eight chromaticity points sampled from the CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram. Eight sample points include four main color hues: red, yellow, green, and blue at two levels of chroma. The results show that the disparity range for the yellow hue is greater than the red hue, the latter being greater than the blue hue and the disparity range for green hue is smallest. We conclude that the perceived depth is not the same for different hues for a given size of disparity. We suggest that the stereoscopic depth perception can vary with chromaticity.

  6. Optimizing power output by varying repetition tempo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Riana R; Sforzo, Gary A; King, Deborah L

    2011-11-01

    The effects of varying interrepetition rest and eccentric velocity on power output (PO) and the number of repetitions performed during a bench press set were examined in 24 college-aged resistance trained men. On 6 separate occasions, subjects performed a set of bench press at 80% 1 repetition maximum until volitional fatigue. For each of the 6 repetition tempo trials, the bench press set was paced by metronome to a unique repetition tempo involving a combination of the following: interrepetition rest of 0 or 4 seconds; eccentric velocity of 1 or 4 seconds and bottom rest of 0 or 3 seconds. The velocity of concentric contraction was maximal during all 6 tempo trials. During each trial, video data were captured to determine PO variables and number of successful repetitions completed at each tempo. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed tempos with a fast eccentric phase (1 second), and no bottom rest produced significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05) PO and repetitions than tempos involving slower eccentric velocity (4 seconds) or greater bottom rest (4 seconds). This combination of greater repetitions and PO resulted in a greater volume of work. Varying interrepetition rest (1 or 4 seconds) did not significantly affect PO or repetitions. The results of this study support the use of fast eccentric speed and no bottom rest during acute performance testing to maximize PO and number of repetitions during a set of bench press.

  7. Adaptive time-varying detrended fluctuation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthouze, Luc; Farmer, Simon F

    2012-07-30

    Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is a technique commonly used to assess and quantify the presence of long-range temporal correlations (LRTCs) in neurophysiological time series. Convergence of the method is asymptotic only and therefore its application assumes a constant scaling exponent. However, most neurophysiological data are likely to involve either spontaneous or experimentally induced scaling exponent changes. We present a novel extension of the DFA method that permits the characterisation of time-varying scaling exponents. The effectiveness of the methodology in recovering known changes in scaling exponents is demonstrated through its application to synthetic data. The dependence of the method on its free parameters is systematically explored. Finally, application of the methodology to neurophysiological data demonstrates that it provides experimenters with a way to identify previously un-recognised changes in the scaling exponent in the data. We suggest that this methodology will make it possible to go beyond a simple demonstration of the presence of scaling to an appreciation of how it may vary in response to either intrinsic changes or experimental perturbations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramunt, Randall M.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Clapp, David; Taylor, William W.; Lynch, Abigail J.; Léonard, Nancy J.

    2012-01-01

    Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) are a valuable resource, both within their native range in the North Pacific rim and in the Great Lakes basin. Understanding their value from a biological and economic perspective in the Great Lakes, however, requires an understanding of changes in the ecosystem and of management actions that have been taken to promote system stability, integrity, and sustainable fisheries. Pacific salmonine introductions to the Great Lakes are comprised mainly of Chinook salmon, coho salmon, and steelhead and have accounted for 421, 177, and 247 million fish, respectively, stocked during 1966-2007. Stocking of Pacific salmonines has been effective in substantially reducing exotic prey fish abundances in several of the Great Lakes (e.g., lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario). The goal of our evaluation was to highlight differences in management strategies and perspectives across the basin, and to evaluate policies for Pacific salmonine management in the Great Lakes. Currently, a potential conflict exists between Pacific salmonine management and native fish rehabilitation goals because of the desire to sustain recreational fisheries and to develop self-sustaining populations of stocked Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes. We provide evidence that suggests Pacific salmonines have not only become naturalized to the food webs of the Great Lakes, but that their populations (specifically Chinook salmon) may be fluctuating in concert with specific prey (i.e., alewives) whose populations are changing relative to environmental conditions and ecosystem disturbances. Remaining questions, however, are whether or not “natural” fluctuations in predator and prey provide enough “stability” in the Great Lakes food webs, and even more importantly, would a choice by managers to attempt to reduce the severity of predator-prey oscillations be antagonistic to native fish restoration efforts. We argue that, on each of the Great Lakes, managers are pursuing

  9. Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Great Lakes Mussel Watch(2009-2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Following the inception of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) to address the significant environmental issues plaguing the Great Lakes region, the...

  10. Quantification of lipoprotein profiles by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aru, Violetta; Lam, Chloie; Khakimov, Bekzod

    2017-01-01

    Lipoproteins and their subfraction profiles have been associated to diverse diseases including Cardio Vascular Disease (CVD). There is thus a great demand for measuring and quantifying the lipoprotein profile in an efficient and accurate manner. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy...

  11. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Phonologically Based Reading Intervention for Struggling Readers with Varying Language Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Fiona J.; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Hulme, Charles

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates Reading Intervention--a 10-week supplementary reading programme emphasising the link between phonological awareness and reading--when delivered in a realistic educational setting. Twenty-nine 6-year-olds with reading difficulties participated in Reading Intervention and their progress and attainments were compared with those…

  12. Transcriptomic profiling of Arabidopsis gene expression in response to varying micronutrient zinc supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azevedo, Herlânder; Azinheiro, Sarah Gaspar; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of the micronutrient zinc is a widespread condition in agricultural soils, causing a negative impact on crop quality and yield. Nevertheless, there is an insufficient knowledge on the regulatory and molecular mechanisms underlying the plant response to inadequate zinc nutrition [1...

  13. Biopsy rates vary with patient profile across different physicians in an academic dermatology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cicy; Fischer, Ryan; Wick, Jo; Rajpara, Anand; Liu, Deede; Aires, Daniel

    2015-04-16

    Current healthcare trends promote data-driven "benchmarking" to decrease cost and increase quality. Dermatologists perform 79% of skin biopsies and biopsy rate is an easily measured benchmark. To reduce the risk of a misguided "one size fits all" benchmark for biopsies, it will help to document the factors driving divergent biopsy rates.This letter compares biopsy rates and high-risk patient ratios for 1000 sequential patients from two academic dermatologists. Elevated biopsy rates (0.55 vs 0.42, p < 0.001) were associated with elevated ratios of high-risk patients (.52 versus .30, p< 0.001). Although limited by small sample size, this research takes a first step toward future efforts to improve accuracy of biopsy benchmarking.

  14. 75 FR 6354 - NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project Grants under the Great Lakes Restoration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-ZC10 NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project Grants under the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... notice published in the Federal Register on January 19, 2010. That notice announced the NOAA Great Lakes...

  15. Climate dynamics: Why does climate vary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, climate change has become a major focus of public and political discussion. Ongoing scientific inquiry, revolving predominantly around understanding the anthropogenic effects of rising greenhouse gas levels, coupled with how successfully findings are communicated to the public, has made climate science both contentious and exigent. In the AGU monograph Climate Dynamics: Why Does Climate Vary?, editors De-Zheng Sun and Frank Bryan reinforce the importance of investigating the complex dynamics that underlie the natural variability of the climate system. Understanding this complexity—particularly how the natural variability of climate may enhance or mask anthropogenic warming—could have important consequences for the future. In this interview, Eos talks to De-Zheng Sun.

  16. Time varying arctic climate change amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chylek, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dubey, Manvendra K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lesins, Glen [DALLHOUSIE U; Wang, Muyin [NOAA/JISAO

    2009-01-01

    During the past 130 years the global mean surface air temperature has risen by about 0.75 K. Due to feedbacks -- including the snow/ice albedo feedback -- the warming in the Arctic is expected to proceed at a faster rate than the global average. Climate model simulations suggest that this Arctic amplification produces warming that is two to three times larger than the global mean. Understanding the Arctic amplification is essential for projections of future Arctic climate including sea ice extent and melting of the Greenland ice sheet. We use the temperature records from the Arctic stations to show that (a) the Arctic amplification is larger at latitudes above 700 N compared to those within 64-70oN belt, and that, surprisingly; (b) the ratio of the Arctic to global rate of temperature change is not constant but varies on the decadal timescale. This time dependence will affect future projections of climate changes in the Arctic.

  17. Time-Varying Periodicity in Intraday Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Gustav; Thyrsgaard, Martin; Todorov, Viktor

    with a constant time-of-day periodic component. We first construct time-of-day volatility estimates and studentize the high-frequency returns with these periodic components. If the intraday volatility periodicity is invariant over time, then the distribution of the studentized returns should be identical across......We develop a nonparametric test for deciding whether return volatility exhibits time-varying intraday periodicity using a long time-series of high-frequency data. Our null hypothesis, commonly adopted in work on volatility modeling, is that volatility follows a stationary process combined...... the trading day. Consequently, the test is based on comparing the empirical characteristic function of the studentized returns across the trading day. The limit distribution of the test depends on the error in recovering volatility from discrete return data and the empirical process error associated...

  18. Optical vortex array in spatially varying lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Kapoor, Amit; Senthilkumaran, P; Joseph, Joby

    2015-01-01

    We present an experimental method based on a modified multiple beam interference approach to generate an optical vortex array arranged in a spatially varying lattice. This method involves two steps which are: numerical synthesis of a consistent phase mask by using two-dimensional integrated phase gradient calculations and experimental implementation of produced phase mask by utilizing a phase only spatial light modulator in an optical 4f Fourier filtering setup. This method enables an independent variation of the orientation and period of the vortex lattice. As working examples, we provide the experimental demonstration of various spatially variant optical vortex lattices. We further confirm the existence of optical vortices by formation of fork fringes. Such lattices may find applications in size dependent trapping, sorting, manipulation and photonic crystals.

  19. Supernumerary teeth vary depending on gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Calvano Küchler

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of supernumerary teeth (ST is a dental developmental anomaly of patterning and morphogenesis. Its variability of morphology, location and developmental timing can shed light on its etiology. In this work we report ST patterns. Orthopantomograms of 1,166 pediatric subjects were examined and the morphology, location and timing of the formation of ST were determined. The frequency of supernumerary teeth in the studied population was 2.3% (n = 27. Twenty-five subjects presented one ST. Maxilla midline was the most commonly affected region (nine cases. We noted high incidence of conical morphology in the midline region. Only teeth with tuberculate morphology presented delayed formation. ST in the midline region occurred more often in males whereas ST in the incisor region were more common in females. In conclusion, ST patterns vary depending on gender.

  20. Air pollution and environmental justice in the Great Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Bryan

    While it is true that air quality has steadily improved in the Great Lakes region, air pollution remains at unhealthy concentrations in many areas. Research suggests that vulnerable and susceptible groups in society -- e.g., minorities, the poor, children, and poorly educated -- are often disproportionately impacted by exposure to environmental hazards, including air pollution. This dissertation explores the relationship between exposure to ambient air pollution (interpolated concentrations of fine particulate matter, PM2.5) and sociodemographic factors (race, housing value, housing status, education, age, and population density) at the Census block-group level in the Great Lakes region of the United States. A relatively novel approach to quantitative environmental justice analysis, geographically weighted regression (GWR), is compared with a simplified approach: ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. While OLS creates one global model to describe the relationship between air pollution exposure and sociodemographic factors, GWR creates many local models (one at each Census block group) that account for local variations in this relationship by allowing the value of regression coefficients to vary over space, overcoming OLS's assumption of homogeneity and spatial independence. Results suggest that GWR can elucidate patterns of potential environmental injustices that OLS models may miss. In fact, GWR results show that the relationship between exposure to ambient air pollution and sociodemographic characteristics is non-stationary and can vary geographically and temporally throughout the Great Lakes region. This suggests that regulators may need to address environmental justice issues at the neighborhood level, while understanding that the severity of environmental injustices can change throughout the year.

  1. Aquatic Trash Prevention National Great Practices Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Great Practice Compendium highlights outstanding activities, technologies, and programs that prevent trash from entering the aquatic environment and/or that reduce the overall volume of trash that is generated.

  2. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Units of Great Smoky Mountains National Park and Vicinity, Tennessee and North Carolina consists of geologic units mapped as area (polygon)...

  3. Climate change and the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers

    2008-01-01

    Climate change is expected to have significant impacts on the Great Basin by the mid-21st century. The following provides an overview of past and projected climate change for the globe and for the region.

  4. Leiomyosarcoma of the great saphenous vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoury, M; Mesurolle, B; Trassard, M; Cherel, P; Talma, V; Hagay, C

    2006-10-01

    Peripheral vascular leiomyosarcomas are rare. A case of leiomyosarcoma of the great saphenous vein diagnosed pre-surgically by MRI and fine-needle aspiration is presented. Characteristics of the tumour and imaging features are discussed.

  5. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Hydro Plus

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Park Hydro Plus is a value-added attribution of data produced by Great Smoky Mountains National Park and published by the USGS NHD. Not to be confused with the USGS...

  6. Q-Ships of the Great War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coder, Barbara

    2000-01-01

    Lacking adequate antisubmarine warfare tactics and technologies to combat the German unrestricted submarine campaign during the Great War, the Allies turned to deception or "ruse de guerre" as a means...

  7. 78 FR 33955 - Great Outdoors Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    .... And through the 21st Century Conservation Service Corps, young men and women will get hands-on... on earth. For centuries, America's great outdoors have given definition to our national character and...

  8. Great Lakes CoastWatch Node

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CoastWatch is a nationwide National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) program within which the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL)...

  9. The Making of a Great Captain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weibel, Theodore G

    2006-01-01

    ... judgement. This paper examines the hypothesis that Great Captains are a product of their families, are highly educated from an early age, possess the qualities of a genius, encounter grand life experiences...

  10. 'Great Power Style' in China's Economic Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Yang

    2011-01-01

    power style’ in economic diplomacy comply with, or differ from, the criteria of benign hegemony; and what are the major constraining factors? Conceptually, China’s ‘great power style’ is rooted in ancient Chinese political philosophy and institution, but it highly resembles the Western notion of benign......China’s ascendance attracts concern, even though Beijing claims to be a responsible great power and tries to demonstrate its ‘great power style’ in economic diplomacy. This article therefore discusses the following questions: to what extent does the current notion and practice of Chinese ‘great...... hegemony. Empirically, China has started to provide more public goods in trade, finance and aid, and it seeks voting powers at international institutions. However, it is still far from being a benign hegemon because of its level of development, domestic political constraints, and tension between political...

  11. Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site (SGP-ARM) is the oldest and largest of DOE's Arm sites. It was established in 1992. It consists of...

  12. 75 FR 32077 - Great Outdoors Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... countless opportunities for exploration, recreation, and reflection, whether in solitude or with family and... Americans to explore the great outdoors and to continue our Nation's tradition of conserving our lands for...

  13. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Fish Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Background and History The brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) is the only trout native to the southern Appalachian Mountains. It was once widespread in Great Smoky...

  14. Natural variation in steroid hormone profiles of male Timber Rattlesnakes, Crotalus horridus, in northwest Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Craig M; Beaupre, Steven J

    2014-09-15

    We describe the seasonal profile of circulating steroid hormones (testosterone and corticosterone) in relation to the breeding season in free ranging male Timber Rattlesnakes, Crotalus horridus, over the course of three active seasons. In addition, we examine variation in steroid concentrations across years and in relation to body condition. We found that seasonal profiles of plasma testosterone were different compared to other crotalines with similar mating patterns. Concentrations of testosterone were elevated above baseline in the three months leading up to the single late summer breeding season. Testosterone peaked in July at the onset of the breeding season and dropped to baseline during the peak months of breeding (August and September). Testosterone concentrations also varied annually. Although the exact cause of annual variation could not be established, our results indicate that weather patterns may have driven observed differences. Testosterone concentrations were positively related to body condition, indicating that testosterone production is modulated according to energetic status (particularly in the two months prior to the breeding season). Corticosterone did not vary seasonally or with any measured variable, a result similar to other studied crotalines. Our results highlight the importance of long-term descriptive studies of the regulatory mechanisms that underlie behavior and physiology in diverse taxa, as these mechanisms can vary greatly within and among populations and are valuable in elucidating the intrinsic and extrinsic sources of such variation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Monitoring change in Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David L.; Angeroth, Cory E.; Freeman, Michael L.; Rowland, Ryan C.; Carling, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of Great Salt Lake, only limited water quality monitoring has occurred historically. To change this, new monitoring stations and networks—gauges of lake level height and rate of inflow, moored buoys, and multiple lake-bottom sensors—will provide important information that can be used to make informed decisions regarding future management of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem.

  16. The Great War and German Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leese, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Review essay on Jason Crouthamel, The Great War and German Memory. Society, Politics and Psychological Trauma, 1914-18 (2009) and Anton Kaes, Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War (2009)......Review essay on Jason Crouthamel, The Great War and German Memory. Society, Politics and Psychological Trauma, 1914-18 (2009) and Anton Kaes, Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War (2009)...

  17. Ecosystem services in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Alan D.; Cardinale, Bradley J; Munns Jr, Wayne R; Ogdahl, Mary E.; Allan, David J; Angadi, Ted; Bartlett, Sarah; Brauman, Kate; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Doss, Matt; Dupont, Diane; Johns, Annie; Kashian, Donna; Lupi, Frank; McIntyre, Peter B.; Miller, Todd; Moore, Michael P.; Muenich, Rebecca Logsdon; Poudel, Rajendra; Price, James; Provencher, Bill; Rea, Anne; Read, Jennifer; Renzetti, Steven; Sohngen, Brent; Washburn, Erica

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive inventory of ecosystem services across the entire Great Lakes basin is currently lacking and is needed to make informed management decisions. A greater appreciation and understanding of ecosystem services, including both use and non-use services, may have avoided misguided resource management decisions in the past that resulted in negative legacies inherited by future generations. Given the interest in ecosystem services and lack of a coherent approach to addressing this topic in the Great Lakes, a summit was convened involving 28 experts working on various aspects of ecosystem services in the Great Lakes. The invited attendees spanned a variety of social and natural sciences. Given the unique status of the Great Lakes as the world's largest collective repository of surface freshwater, and the numerous stressors threatening this valuable resource, timing was propitious to examine ecosystem services. Several themes and recommendations emerged from the summit. There was general consensus that: 1) a comprehensive inventory of ecosystem services throughout the Great Lakes is a desirable goal but would require considerable resources; 2) more spatially and temporally intensive data are needed to overcome our data gaps, but the arrangement of data networks and observatories must be well-coordinated; 3) trade-offs must be considered as part of ecosystem services analyses; and 4) formation of a Great Lakes Institute for Ecosystem Services, to provide a hub for research, meetings, and training is desirable. Several challenges also emerged during the summit, which are discussed.

  18. Social structure varies with elevation in an Alpine ant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Jessica; Pellissier, Loïc; Chapuisat, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Insect societies vary greatly in social organization, yet the relative roles of ecological and genetic factors in driving this variation remain poorly understood. Identifying how social structure varies along environmental gradients can provide insights into the ecological conditions favouring alternative social organizations. Here, we investigate how queen number variation is distributed along elevation gradients within a socially polymorphic ant, the Alpine silver ant Formica selysi. We sampled low- and high-elevation populations in multiple Alpine valleys. We show that populations belonging to different drainage basins are genetically differentiated. In contrast, there is little genetic divergence between low- and high-elevation populations within the same drainage basin. Thus, elevation gradients in each of the drainage basins represent independent contrasts. Whatever the elevation, all well-sampled populations are socially polymorphic, containing both monogynous (= one queen) and polygynous (= multiple queen) colonies. However, the proportion of monogynous colonies per population increases at higher elevation, while the effective number of queens in polygynous colonies decreases, and this pattern is replicated in each drainage basin. The increased prevalence of colonies with a single queen at high elevation is correlated with summer and winter average temperature, but not with precipitation. The colder, unpredictable and patchy environment encountered at higher elevations may favour larger queens with the ability to disperse and establish incipient monogynous colonies independently, while the stable and continuous habitat in the lowlands may favour large, fast-growing polygynous colonies. By highlighting differences in the environmental conditions favouring monogynous or polygynous colonies, this study sheds light on the ecological factors influencing the distribution and maintenance of social polymorphism. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Poverty Levels and Debt Indicators among Low-Income Households before and after the Great Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Tae; Wilmarth, Melissa J.; Henager, Robin

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed the debt profile of low-income households before and after the Great Recession using the 2007, 2010, and 2013 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF). We used Heckman selection models to investigate three debt characteristics: (a) the amount of debt, (b) debt-to-income ratio, and (c) debt delinquency. Before and after the Great…

  20. Surface compaction estimates and soil sensitivity in Aspen stands of the Great Lakes States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron Steber; Ken Brooks; Charles H. Perry; Randy Kolka

    2007-01-01

    Aspen forests in the Great Lakes States support much of the regional timber industry. Management-induced soil compaction is a concern because it affects forest health and productivity and soil erosion. Soil compaction increases bulk density and soil strength and can also decrease air and water movement into and through the soil profile. Currently, most inventories, and...

  1. High throughput whole rumen metagenome profiling using untargeted massively parallel sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Elizabeth M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variation of microorganism communities in the rumen of cattle (Bos taurus is of great interest because of possible links to economically or environmentally important traits, such as feed conversion efficiency or methane emission levels. The resolution of studies investigating this variation may be improved by utilizing untargeted massively parallel sequencing (MPS, that is, sequencing without targeted amplification of genes. The objective of this study was to develop a method which used MPS to generate “rumen metagenome profiles”, and to investigate if these profiles were repeatable among samples taken from the same cow. Given faecal samples are much easier to obtain than rumen fluid samples; we also investigated whether rumen metagenome profiles were predictive of faecal metagenome profiles. Results Rather than focusing on individual organisms within the rumen, our method used MPS data to generate quantitative rumen micro-biome profiles, regardless of taxonomic classifications. The method requires a previously assembled reference metagenome. A number of such reference metagenomes were considered, including two rumen derived metagenomes, a human faecal microflora metagenome and a reference metagenome made up of publically available prokaryote sequences. Sequence reads from each test sample were aligned to these references. The “rumen metagenome profile” was generated from the number of the reads that aligned to each contig in the database. We used this method to test the hypothesis that rumen fluid microbial community profiles vary more between cows than within multiple samples from the same cow. Rumen fluid samples were taken from three cows, at three locations within the rumen. DNA from the samples was sequenced on the Illumina GAIIx. When the reads were aligned to a rumen metagenome reference, the rumen metagenome profiles were repeatable (P  Conclusions We have presented a simple and high throughput method of

  2. Integrating Climate Change into Great Lakes Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, S.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is now recognized as one of the greatest threats to the Great Lakes. Projected climate change impacts to the Great Lakes include increases in surface water and air temperature; decreases in ice cover; shorter winters, early spring, and longer summers; increased frequency of intense storms; more precipitation falling as rain in the winter; less snowfall; and variations in water levels, among other effects. Changing climate conditions may compromise efforts to protect and restore the Great Lakes ecosystem and may lead to irrevocable impacts on the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of the Great Lakes. Examples of such potential impacts include the transformation of coastal wetlands into terrestrial ecosystems; reduced fisheries; increased beach erosion; change in forest species composition as species migrate northward; potential increase in toxic substance concentrations; potential increases in the frequency and extent of algal blooms; degraded water quality; and a potential increase in invasive species. The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, signed into law by President Obama in 2010, represents the commitment of the federal government to protect, restore, and maintain the Great Lakes ecosystem. The GLRI Action Plan, issued in February 2010, identifies five focus areas: - Toxic Substances and Areas of Concern - Invasive Species - Nearshore Health and Nonpoint Source Pollution - Habitat and Wildlife Protection and Restoration - Accountability, Education, Monitoring, Evaluation, Communication, and Partnerships The Action Plan recognizes that the projected impacts of climate change on the Great Lakes have implications across all focus areas and encourages incorporation of climate change considerations into GLRI projects and programs as appropriate. Under the GLRI, EPA has funded climate change-related work by states, tribes, federal agencies, academics and NGOs through competitive grants, state and tribal capacity grants, and Interagency

  3. Morphological variation in great ape and modern human mandibles

    Science.gov (United States)

    HUMPHREY, L. T.; DEAN, M. C.; STRINGER, C. B.

    1999-01-01

    Adult mandibles of 317 modern humans and 91 great apes were selected that showed no pathology. Adult mandibles of Pan troglodytes troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus and Gorilla gorilla gorilla and from 2 modern human populations (Zulu and Europeans from Spitalfields) were reliably sexed. Thirteen measurements were defined and included mandibular height, length and breadth in representative positions. Univariate statistical techniques and multivariate (principal component analysis and discriminant analysis) statistical techniques were used to investigate interspecific variability and sexual dimorphism in human and great ape mandibles, and intraspecific variability among the modern human mandibles. Analysis of interspecific differences revealed some pairs of variables with a tight linear relationship and others where Homo and the great apes pulled apart from one another due to shape differences. Homo and Pan are least sexually dimorphic in the mandible, Pan less so than Homo sapiens, but both the magnitude of sexual dimorphism and the distribution of sexually dimorphic measurements varied both among and between modern humans and great apes. Intraspecific variation among the 10 populations of modern humans was less than that generally reported in studies of crania (74.3% of mandibles were correctly classified into 1 of 10 populations using discriminant functions based on 13 variables as compared with 93% of crania from 17 populations based on 70 variables in one extensive study of crania). A subrecent European population (Poundbury) emerged as more different from a recent European population (Spitalfields) than other more diverse modern populations were from each other, suggesting considerable morphological plasticity in the mandible through time. This study forms a sound basis on which to explore mandibular variation in Neanderthals, early Homo sapiens and other more ancient fossil hominids. PMID:10634689

  4. Slowly Varying Dilaton Cosmologies and Their Field Theory Duals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awad, Adel; /British U. in Egypt /Ain Shams U., Cairo; Das, Sumit R.; Ghosh, Archisman; Oh, Jae-Hyuk; /Kentucky U.; Trivedi, Sandip P.; /Tata Inst. /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC

    2011-06-28

    We consider a deformation of the AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} solution of IIB supergravity obtained by taking the boundary value of the dilaton to be time dependent. The time dependence is taken to be slowly varying on the AdS scale thereby introducing a small parameter {epsilon}. The boundary dilaton has a profile which asymptotes to a constant in the far past and future and attains a minimum value at intermediate times. We construct the sugra solution to first non-trivial order in {epsilon}, and find that it is smooth, horizon free, and asymptotically AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} in the far future. When the intermediate values of the dilaton becomes small enough the curvature becomes of order the string scale and the sugra approximation breaks down. The resulting dynamics is analysed in the dual SU(N) gauge theory on S{sup 3} with a time dependent coupling constant which varies slowly. When N{epsilon} << 1, we find that a quantum adiabatic approximation is applicable, and use it to argue that at late times the geometry becomes smooth AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} again. When N{epsilon} >> 1, we formulate a classical adiabatic perturbation theory based on coherent states which arises in the large N limit. For large values of the tHooft coupling this reproduces the supergravity results. For small 'tHooft coupling the coherent state calculations become involved and we cannot reach a definite conclusion. We argue that the final state should have a dual description which is mostly smooth AdS5 space with the possible presence of a small black hole.

  5. Varying Collimation for Dark-Field Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Wang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although x-ray imaging is widely used in biomedical applications, biological soft tissues have small density changes, leading to low contrast resolution for attenuation-based x-ray imaging. Over the past years, x-ray small-angle scattering was studied as a new contrast mechanism to enhance subtle structural variation within the soft tissue. In this paper, we present a detection method to extract this type of x-ray scattering data, which are also referred to as dark-field signals. The key idea is to acquire an x-ray projection multiple times with varying collimation before an x-ray detector array. The projection data acquired with a collimator of a sufficiently high collimation aspect ratio contain mainly the primary beam with little scattering, while the data acquired with an appropriately reduced collimation aspect ratio include both the primary beam and small-angle scattering signals. Then, analysis of these corresponding datasets will produce desirable dark-field signals; for example, via digitally subtraction. In the numerical experiments, the feasibility of our dark-field detection technology is demonstrated in Monte Carlo simulation. The results show that the acquired dark field signals can clearly reveal the structural information of tissues in terms of Rayleigh scattering characteristics.

  6. Varied acceptance of clinical trial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimt, C R

    1989-12-01

    The subject of varied acceptance of clinical trial results is discussed in the context of review of trials with which I have been involved and my subjective evaluation of their impact on the practice of clinical medicine. My experience goes back to 1949 and a World Health Organization trial of hyperimmune gamma globulin against rabies. This was followed by a large trial of secondary prevention of poliomyelitis. I participated in the planning and initiation of the first chronic disease trial, the University Group Diabetes Program (UGDP). The latter lasted for 15 years and its ramifications continue to this day. My next trial was the Coronary Drug Project (CDP), a complex trial with more than 8,000 patients. The trials of aspirin and aspirin combined with persantine (the CDPA, AMIS, PARIS I, and PARIS II) followed. My last three trials were a trial of photocoagulation in diabetic retinopathy (DRS), a six-country trial of the antiarrhythmic drug mexiletine (IMPACT), and a study involving two diagnostic procedures for pulmonary embolism (PIOPED). When one considers, in retrospect, the plethora of trials one is struck by the uniform absence of a priori considerations of the impact on medical practice, or likely lack thereof, of possible outcomes.

  7. Microsatellites in varied arenas of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Remya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellites known as simple-sequence repeats (SSRs or short-tandem repeats (STRs, represent specific sequences of DNA consisting of tandemly repeated units of one to six nucleotides. The repetitive nature of microsatellites makes them particularly prone to grow or shrink in length and these changes can have both good and bad consequences for the organisms that possess them. They are responsible for various neurological diseases and hence the same cause is now utilized for the early detection of various diseases, such as, Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder, Congenital generalized Hypertrichosis, Asthma, and Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness. These agents are widely used for forensic identification and relatedness testing, and are predominant genetic markers in this area of application. The application of microsatellites is an extending web and covers the varied scenarios of science, such as, conservation biology, plant genetics, and population studies. At present, researches are progressing round the globe to extend the use of these genetic repeaters to unmask the hidden genetic secrets behind the creation of the world.

  8. Dermatophyte susceptibility varies towards antimicrobial textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Timo R; Mucha, Helmut; Hoefer, Dirk

    2012-07-01

    Dermatophytoses are a widespread problem worldwide. Textiles in contact with infected skin can serve as a carrier for fungus propagation. Hitherto, it is unknown, whether antifungal textiles could contribute in controlling dermatophytes e.g. by disrupting the chain of infection. Testing of antimicrobial fabrics for their antifungal activities therefore is a fundamental prerequisite to assess the putative clinical relevance of textiles for dermatophyte prevention. Fabrics finished with either didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC), poly-hexamethylenbiguanide, copper and two silver chloride concentrations were tested for their antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Candida albicans. To prove dermatophyte susceptibility towards the textiles, swatches were subjected to DIN EN 14199 (Trichophyton sp.) or DIN EN ISO 20743 (C. albicans) respectively. In addition, samples were embedded, and semi-thin sections were analysed microscopically. While all samples showed a clear inhibition of C. albicans, activity against Trichophyton sp. varied significantly: For example, DDAC completely inhibited T. rubrum growth, whereas T. mentagrophytes growth remained unaffected even in direct contact to the fibres. The results favour to add T. mentagrophytes as a test organism in textile dermatophyte efficacy tests. Microscopic analysis of swatches allowed detailed evaluation of additional parameters like mycelium thickness, density and hyphae penetration depth into the fabric. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Varying Inundation Regimes Differentially Affect Natural and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change is altering sea-level rise rates and precipitation patterns worldwide. Coastal wetlands are vulnerable to these changes. System responses to stressors are important for resource managers and environmental stewards to understand in order to best manage them. Thin layer sand or sediment application to drowning and eroding marshes is one approach to build elevation and resilience. The above- and below-ground structure, soil carbon dioxide emissions, and pore water constituents in vegetated natural marsh sediments and sand-amended sediments were examined at varying inundation regimes between mean sea level and mean high water (0.82 m NAVD88 to 1.49 m NAVD88) in a field experiment at Laws Point, part of the Plum Island Sound Estuary (MA). Significantly lower salinities, pH, sulfides, phosphates, and ammonium were measured in the sand-amended sediments than in the natural sediments. In natural sediments there was a pattern of increasing salinity with increasing elevation while in the sand-amended sediments the trend was reversed, showing decreasing salinity with increasing elevation. Sulfide concentrations generally increased from low to high inundation with highest concentrations at the highest inundation (i.e., at the lowest elevations). High pore water phosphate concentrations were measured at low elevations in the natural sediments, but the sand-amended treatments had mostly low concentrations of phosphate and no consistent pattern with elevation. A

  10. Energy and water in the Great Lakes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2011-11-01

    The nexus between thermoelectric power production and water use is not uniform across the U.S., but rather differs according to regional physiography, demography, power plant fleet composition, and the transmission network. That is, in some regions water demand for thermoelectric production is relatively small while in other regions it represents the dominate use. The later is the case for the Great Lakes region, which has important implications for the water resources and aquatic ecology of the Great Lakes watershed. This is today, but what about the future? Projected demographic trends, shifting lifestyles, and economic growth coupled with the threat of global climate change and mounting pressure for greater U.S. energy security could have profound effects on the region's energy future. Planning for such an uncertain future is further complicated by the fact that energy and environmental planning and regulatory decisionmaking is largely bifurcated in the region, with environmental and water resource concerns generally taken into account after new energy facilities and technologies have been proposed, or practices are already in place. Based on these confounding needs, the objective of this effort is to develop Great Lakes-specific methods and tools to integrate energy and water resource planning and thereby support the dual goals of smarter energy planning and development, and protection of Great Lakes water resources. Guiding policies for this planning are the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact and the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The desired outcome of integrated energy-water-aquatic resource planning is a more sustainable regional energy mix for the Great Lakes basin ecosystem.

  11. Ectoparasite reproductive performance when host condition varies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueesch, Shona; Lemoine, Mélissa; Richner, Heinz

    2012-09-01

    Host condition can influence both the nutritive resources available to parasites and the strength of host defences. Since these factors are likely to be correlated, it is unclear whether parasites would be more successful on hosts in good, intermediate or poor conditions. For more complex parasites, like fleas, where larvae depend on adults to extract and make available some essential host resources, host condition can act at two levels. First, it can affect the investment of females into eggs, and second, it can influence offspring growth. In a two-step experiment, we first let female hen fleas Ceratophyllus gallinae feed on nestlings of reduced, control or enlarged great tit Parus major broods and secondly used the blood from these nestlings as a food source for flea larvae reared in the laboratory. We then assessed the effect of brood size manipulation on reproductive investment and survival of female fleas, and on survival, developmental time, mass and size of pre-imago larvae and adults of the first generation. Although host condition, measured as body mass controlled for body size, was significantly influenced by brood size manipulation, it did not affect the female fleas' reproductive investment and survival. Larvae fed with blood from nestlings of reduced broods lived longer, however, than larvae fed on blood from enlarged or control broods. Additionally, F1 adults grew shorter tibiae when their mother had fed on hosts of reduced broods. The finding that brood size manipulation influenced parasite reproduction suggests that it affected nutritive resources and/or host defence, but the precise mechanism or balance between the two requires further investigation.

  12. A hierarchical nest survival model integrating incomplete temporally varying covariates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, Sarah J.; Royle, J. Andrew; Adler, Peter H.; Urbanek, Richard P.; Barzan, Jeb A.

    2013-01-01

    Nest success is a critical determinant of the dynamics of avian populations, and nest survival modeling has played a key role in advancing avian ecology and management. Beginning with the development of daily nest survival models, and proceeding through subsequent extensions, the capacity for modeling the effects of hypothesized factors on nest survival has expanded greatly. We extend nest survival models further by introducing an approach to deal with incompletely observed, temporally varying covariates using a hierarchical model. Hierarchical modeling offers a way to separate process and observational components of demographic models to obtain estimates of the parameters of primary interest, and to evaluate structural effects of ecological and management interest. We built a hierarchical model for daily nest survival to analyze nest data from reintroduced whooping cranes (Grus americana) in the Eastern Migratory Population. This reintroduction effort has been beset by poor reproduction, apparently due primarily to nest abandonment by breeding birds. We used the model to assess support for the hypothesis that nest abandonment is caused by harassment from biting insects. We obtained indices of blood-feeding insect populations based on the spatially interpolated counts of insects captured in carbon dioxide traps. However, insect trapping was not conducted daily, and so we had incomplete information on a temporally variable covariate of interest. We therefore supplemented our nest survival model with a parallel model for estimating the values of the missing insect covariates. We used Bayesian model selection to identify the best predictors of daily nest survival. Our results suggest that the black fly Simulium annulus may be negatively affecting nest survival of reintroduced whooping cranes, with decreasing nest survival as abundance of S. annulus increases. The modeling framework we have developed will be applied in the future to a larger data set to evaluate the

  13. Parent Prevention Communication Profiles and Adolescent Substance Use: A Latent Profile Analysis and Growth Curve Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hye Jeong; Miller-Day, Michelle; Shin, YoungJu; Hecht, Michael L.; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Krieger, Janice L.; Lee, JeongKyu; Graham, John W.

    2017-01-01

    This current study identifies distinct parent prevention communication profiles and examines whether youth with different parental communication profiles have varying substance use trajectories over time. Eleven schools in two rural school districts in the Midwestern United States were selected, and 784 students were surveyed at three time points from the beginning of 7th grade to the end of 8th grade. A series of latent profile analyses were performed to identify discrete profiles/subgroups of substance-specific prevention communication (SSPC). The results revealed a 4-profile model of SSPC: Active-Open, Passive-Open, Active-Silent, and Passive-Silent. A growth curve model revealed different rates of lifetime substance use depending on the youth’s SSPC profile. These findings have implications for parenting interventions and tailoring messages for parents to fit specific SSPC profiles. PMID:29056872

  14. How to bend galaxy disc profiles - II. Stars surfing the bar in Type-III discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpich, J.; Stinson, G. S.; Rix, H.-W.; Martig, M.; Dutton, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    The radial profiles of stars in disc galaxies are observed to be either purely exponential (Type-I), truncated (Type-II) or antitruncated (Type-III) exponentials. Controlled formation simulations of isolated galaxies can reproduce all of these profile types by varying a single parameter, the initial halo spin. In this paper, we examine these simulations in more detail in an effort to identify the physical mechanism that leads to the formation of Type-III profiles. The stars in the antitruncated outskirts of such discs are now on eccentric orbits, but were born on near-circular orbits at much smaller radii. We show that, and explain how, they were driven to the outskirts via non-linear interactions with a strong and long-lived central bar, which greatly boosted their semimajor axis but also their eccentricity. While bars have been known to cause radial heating and outward migration to stellar orbits, we link this effect to the formation of Type-III profiles. This predicts that the antitruncated parts of galaxies have unusual kinematics for disc-like stellar configurations: high radial velocity dispersions and slow net rotation. Whether such discs exist in nature, can be tested by future observations.

  15. Functional Piezocrystal Characterisation under Varying Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Liao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Piezocrystals, especially the relaxor-based ferroelectric crystals, have been subject to intense investigation and development within the past three decades, motivated by the performance advantages offered by their ultrahigh piezoelectric coefficients and higher electromechanical coupling coefficients than piezoceramics. Structural anisotropy of piezocrystals also provides opportunities for devices to operate in novel vibration modes, such as the d36 face shear mode, with domain engineering and special crystal cuts. These piezocrystal characteristics contribute to their potential usage in a wide range of low- and high-power ultrasound applications. In such applications, conventional piezoelectric materials are presently subject to varying mechanical stress/pressure, temperature and electric field conditions. However, as observed previously, piezocrystal properties are significantly affected by a single such condition or a combination of conditions. Laboratory characterisation of the piezocrystal properties under these conditions is therefore essential to fully understand these materials and to allow electroacoustic transducer design in realistic scenarios. This will help to establish the extent to which these high performance piezocrystals can replace conventional piezoceramics in demanding applications. However, such characterisation requires specific experimental arrangements, examples of which are reported here, along with relevant results. The measurements include high frequency-resolution impedance spectroscopy with the piezocrystal material under mechanical stress 0–60 MPa, temperature 20–200 °C, high electric AC drive and DC bias. A laser Doppler vibrometer and infrared thermal camera are also integrated into the measurement system for vibration mode shape scanning and thermal conditioning with high AC drive. Three generations of piezocrystal have been tested: (I binary, PMN-PT; (II ternary, PIN-PMN-PT; and (III doped ternary, Mn

  16. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence varies by cat breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, Kärt; Hytönen, Marjo K; Orro, Toomas; Lohi, Hannes; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread zoonotic parasite that is relevant for veterinary and public health. The domestic cat, the definitive host species with the largest worldwide population, has become evolutionarily and epidemiologically the most important host of T. gondii. The outcome of T. gondii infection is influenced by congenital and acquired host characteristics. We detected differences in T. gondii seroprevalence by cat breed in our previous studies. The aims of this study were to estimate T. gondii seroprevalence in selected domestic cat breeds, and to evaluate whether being of a certain breed is associated with T. gondii seropositivity, when the age and lifestyle of the cat are taken into account. The studied breeds were the Birman, British Shorthair, Burmese, Korat, Norwegian Forest Cat, Ocicat, Persian, and Siamese. Plasma samples were analyzed for the presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against T. gondii with a commercial direct agglutination test at dilution 1:40. The samples were accompanied by owner-completed questionnaires that provided background data on the cats. Overall, 41.12% of the 1121 cats tested seropositive, and the seroprevalence increased with age. The Burmese had the lowest seroprevalence (18.82%) and the Persian had the highest (60.00%). According to the final multivariable logistic regression model, the odds to test seropositive were four to seven times higher in Birmans, Ocicats, Norwegian Forest Cats, and Persians when compared with the Burmese, while older age and receiving raw meat were also risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity. This study showed that T. gondii seroprevalence varies by cat breed and identified being of certain breeds, older age, and receiving raw meat as risk factors for seropositivity.

  17. Functional Piezocrystal Characterisation under Varying Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiaochun; Qiu, Zhen; Jiang, Tingyi; Sadiq, Muhammad R; Huang, Zhihong; Demore, Christine E M; Cochran, Sandy

    2015-12-02

    Piezocrystals, especially the relaxor-based ferroelectric crystals, have been subject to intense investigation and development within the past three decades, motivated by the performance advantages offered by their ultrahigh piezoelectric coefficients and higher electromechanical coupling coefficients than piezoceramics. Structural anisotropy of piezocrystals also provides opportunities for devices to operate in novel vibration modes, such as the d36 face shear mode, with domain engineering and special crystal cuts. These piezocrystal characteristics contribute to their potential usage in a wide range of low- and high-power ultrasound applications. In such applications, conventional piezoelectric materials are presently subject to varying mechanical stress/pressure, temperature and electric field conditions. However, as observed previously, piezocrystal properties are significantly affected by a single such condition or a combination of conditions. Laboratory characterisation of the piezocrystal properties under these conditions is therefore essential to fully understand these materials and to allow electroacoustic transducer design in realistic scenarios. This will help to establish the extent to which these high performance piezocrystals can replace conventional piezoceramics in demanding applications. However, such characterisation requires specific experimental arrangements, examples of which are reported here, along with relevant results. The measurements include high frequency-resolution impedance spectroscopy with the piezocrystal material under mechanical stress 0-60 MPa, temperature 20-200 °C, high electric AC drive and DC bias. A laser Doppler vibrometer and infrared thermal camera are also integrated into the measurement system for vibration mode shape scanning and thermal conditioning with high AC drive. Three generations of piezocrystal have been tested: (I) binary, PMN-PT; (II) ternary, PIN-PMN-PT; and (III) doped ternary, Mn:PIN-PMN-PT. Utilising

  18. Detection of epigenetic changes using ANOVA with spatially varying coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanghua, Xiao; Xinlei, Wang; Quincey, LaPlant; Nestler, Eric J; Xie, Yang

    2013-03-13

    Identification of genome-wide epigenetic changes, the stable changes in gene function without a change in DNA sequence, under various conditions plays an important role in biomedical research. High-throughput epigenetic experiments are useful tools to measure genome-wide epigenetic changes, but the measured intensity levels from these high-resolution genome-wide epigenetic profiling data are often spatially correlated with high noise levels. In addition, it is challenging to detect genome-wide epigenetic changes across multiple conditions, so efficient statistical methodology development is needed for this purpose. In this study, we consider ANOVA models with spatially varying coefficients, combined with a hierarchical Bayesian approach, to explicitly model spatial correlation caused by location-dependent biological effects (i.e., epigenetic changes) and borrow strength among neighboring probes to compare epigenetic changes across multiple conditions. Through simulation studies and applications in drug addiction and depression datasets, we find that our approach compares favorably with competing methods; it is more efficient in estimation and more effective in detecting epigenetic changes. In addition, it can provide biologically meaningful results.

  19. Jupiter's Great Red Spot and White Ovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    This photo of Jupiter was taken by Voyager 1 on the evening of March 1, 1979, from a distance of 2.7 million miles (4.3 million kilometers). The photo shows Jupiter's Great Red Spot (top) and one of the white ovals than can be seen in Jupiter's atmosphere from Earth. The white ovals were seen to form in 1939, and 1940, and have remained more or less constant ever since. None of the structure and detail evident in these features have ever been seen from Earth. The Great Red Spot is three times as large as Earth. Also evident in the picture is a great deal of atmospheric detail that will require further study for interpretation. The smallest details that can be seen in this picture are about 45 miles (80 kilometers across. JPL manages and controls the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  20. Labor Unions and the Great Recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Milkman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the impact of the Great Recession on the U.S. labor movement. After reviewing the classic industrial relations literature on the relationship between unionization rates and business cycles, we analyze historical union density trends. After documenting the relentless downward trend in the private sector from the early 1980s, with no apparent relationship to the business cycle, we analyze the negative impact of the political dynamic that unfolded in the wake of the Great Recession on public-sector unionism in sharp contrast to what took place during the Great Depression. We also explore the new forms of labor organizing that have emerged in the private sector, which have capitalized on the growing public concern about rising inequality sparked by Occupy Wall Street.

  1. A landscape inventory framework: scenic analyses of the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litton R. Burton Jr.; Robert J. Tetlow

    1978-01-01

    A set of four visual inventories are proposed. They are designed to document scenic resources for varied scales of application, from regional and general to local and specific. The Northern Great Plains is used as a case study. Scenic analysis and identification of criteria extend earlier work. The inventory is based on (1) study of previously developed landscape...

  2. Oxygen dynamics in the aftermath of the Great Oxidation of Earth’s atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene; Ngombi-Pemba, Lauriss; Hammarlund, Emma

    2013-01-01

    The oxygen content of Earth’s atmosphere has varied greatly through time, progressing from exceptionally low levels before about 2.3 billion years ago, to much higher levels afterward. In the absence of better information, we usually view the progress in Earth’s oxygenation as a series of steps f...

  3. The Next Economy: Economic Recovery and Transformation in the Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vey, Jennifer S.; Austin, John C.; Bradley, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The nation's recuperation from the Great Recession remains sluggish, with high unemployment and a weak housing market continuing to squelch hopes that a full economic recovery will soon be at hand. The intensity and nature of the recession's lingering effects vary considerably across the country, however. Some metro areas, like Austin and…

  4. Illustrating Enzyme Inhibition Using Gibbs Energy Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearne, Stephen L.

    2012-01-01

    Gibbs energy profiles have great utility as teaching and learning tools because they present students with a visual representation of the energy changes that occur during enzyme catalysis. Unfortunately, most textbooks divorce discussions of traditional kinetic topics, such as enzyme inhibition, from discussions of these same topics in terms of…

  5. Temporally Varying Ethylene Emission on Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Paul N.; Jennings, Donald E.; Bjoraker, Gordon L.; Sada, Pedro V.; McCabe. Geprge; Boyle, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Ethylene (C2H4) emission has been measured in the poles and equator of Jupiter. The 949 cm(sup -1) spectra were recorded with a high resolution spectrometer at the McMath-Pierce telescope at Kitt Peak in October-November 1998 and at the Infrared Telescope Facility at Mauna Kea in June 2000. C2H4 is an important product of methane chemistry in the outer planets. Knowledge of its abundance can help discriminate among the various proposed sets of CH4 photolysis branching ratios at Ly-alpha, and determine the relative importance of the reaction pathways that produce C2H2 and C2H6. In the equatorial region the C2H4 emission is weak, and we were only able to detect it at high air-mass, near the limb. We derive a peak equatorial molar abundance of C2H4 of 4.5 x 10(exp -7) - 1.7 x 10(exp -6) near 2.2 x 10(exp -3) mbar, with a total column of 5.7 x 10(exp 14) - 2.2 x 10(exp 15) molecules cm(exp -2) above 10 mbar depending upon choice of thermal profile. We observed enhanced C2H4 emission from the poles in the regions where auroras are seen in X-ray, UV, and near infrared images. In 2000 we measured a short-term change in the distribution of polar C2H4 emission; the emission in the north IR auroral "hot spot" decreased by a factor of three over a two-day interval. This transient its contribution peak at 5-10 microbar suggests that the polar e is primarily a thermal effect coupled with vertical transport. Comparing our observations from Kitt Peak and Mauna Kea shows that the C2H4 emission of the northern non-"hot spot" auroral regions did not change over the three-year period while that in the southern polar regions decreased.

  6. Native Great Lakes wolves were not restored.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Jennifer A; Wayne, Robert K

    2008-02-23

    Wolves from the Great Lakes area were historically decimated due to habitat loss and predator control programmes. Under the protection of the US Endangered Species Act, the population has rebounded to approximately 3000 individuals. We show that the pre-recovery population was dominated by mitochondrial DNA haplotypes from an endemic American wolf referred to here as the Great Lakes wolf. In contrast, the recent population is admixed, and probably derives also from the grey wolf (Canis lupus) of Old World origin and the coyote (Canis latrans). Consequently, the pre-recovery population has not been restored, casting doubt on delisting actions.

  7. Unemployment and marital status in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, W

    1992-01-01

    During the past decade, the marriage rate has declined and the divorce rate has increased in Great Britain. Becker (1981) attributes such changes to improvements in the economic status of women, in that high-wage women gain less from marriage relative to other women. However, an empirical analysis of data from the General Household Survey 1985 in Great Britain shows that male unemployment is another important determinant of changes in marital status. High rates of male unemployment reduce the incidence of marriage and increase the likelihood of divorce.

  8. Computational issues of solving the 1D steady gradually varied flow equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artichowicz Wojciech

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a problem of multiple solutions of steady gradually varied flow equation in the form of the ordinary differential energy equation is discussed from the viewpoint of its numerical solution. Using the Lipschitz theorem dealing with the uniqueness of solution of an initial value problem for the ordinary differential equation it was shown that the steady gradually varied flow equation can have more than one solution. This fact implies that the nonlinear algebraic equation approximating the ordinary differential energy equation, which additionally coincides with the wellknown standard step method usually applied for computing of the flow profile, can have variable number of roots. Consequently, more than one alternative solution corresponding to the same initial condition can be provided. Using this property it is possible to compute the water flow profile passing through the critical stage.

  9. Broadcast spawning by Pocillopora species on the Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Roach, Sebastian; Miller, Karen J; Woolsey, Erika; Gerlach, Gabriele; Baird, Andrew H

    2012-01-01

    The coral genus Pocillopora is one of the few to include some species that broadcast spawn gametes and some species that brood larvae, although reports of reproductive mode and timing vary within and among species across their range. Notably, the ubiquitous Pocillopora damicornis has been described as both a brooder and spawner, although evidence of broadcast spawning is rare. Here, we report observations of broadcast-spawning in four species of Pocillopora on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), including P. damicornis. All species spawned predictably during the early morning, two days following the full moon, and spawning was observed in multiple months over the summer period (November to February). Eggs and sperm were free-spawned concurrently. Eggs were negatively buoyant and contained Symbiodinium. This newfound knowledge on the mode, timing and regularity of broadcast spawning in Pocillopora spp. on the GBR brings us one step closer to elucidating the complex reproductive ecology of these species.

  10. "Great Technology, Football and...": Malaysian Language Learners' Stereotypes about Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Nikitina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on stereotypes about Germany, its culture and people, held by learners of German in a big public university in Malaysia. It examines not only the stereotypical representations of the target language country but also assesses its favourability and salience, which has not been done previously. The findings revealed that the students' stereotypes about Germany were varied and diverse. Also, they were overwhelmingly positive. The top three salient categories of images about Germany were related to technology, famous personalities - for the most part football players and scientists - and cars. The findings also indicated that very few references had been made to German culture and to its great cultural figures. The results of the present study suggest that students could benefit from a wider and deeper exposure to German culture in the language classroom.

  11. 76 FR 32857 - Great Outdoors Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... rural landscapes, including working farms and ranches; develop the next generation of urban parks and... States of America A Proclamation For generations, America's great outdoors have ignited our imaginations... across our country with a stake in the health of our environment and natural places. Our conversations...

  12. The Great Work of the New Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Thomas Berry explores the meaning of work from the standpoint of human civilization responding to the call of the universe, replacing use and exploitation of nature with the wonder, rapport, and intimacy so important to the psychic balance of the developing human and natural harmony of life on Earth. The Great Work is defined as the work of…

  13. Great Depression a Timely Class Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that a number of history and social studies teachers have found that because of the parallels they're able to draw between the current economic crisis and the Great Depression, their students are seeing that history is relevant. They're engaging more deeply in history lessons than they have in previous years. The teachers say…

  14. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the

  15. The Technological Diegesis in "The Great Gatsby"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingquan

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the technological diegesis in "The Great Gatsby." In the novel, Fitzgerald cleverly integrates the technological forces into his writing. He particularly relies on the two main props of automobile and telephone to arrange his fragmented plots into a whole. By the deliberate juxtaposition of men and women and machines…

  16. The Classical Plotline of "The Great Gatsby"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Dennis P.

    1975-01-01

    Argues that an understanding of the craft of fiction is furthered by a return to the original creation, concluding that "The Great Gatsby" is one of the best examples of Aristotle's description of tragedy as set forth in "The Poetics." (RB)

  17. The Nature of Psychology: The Great Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Ruben

    2007-01-01

    Research about the nature of psychology, its subject matter, its level of analysis, its scientific laws, its relationship with other disciplines, and its social relevance has been a matter of great concern and interest during the development of psychology. This problem can be analyzed in terms of the dilemmas of the psychological discipline, which…

  18. The geologic story of the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Donald E.

    1980-01-01

    The Great Plains! The words alone create a sense of space and a feeling of destiny a challenge. But what exactly is this special part of Western America that contains so much of our history? How did it come to be? Why is it different?

  19. Financial fragility in the Great Moderation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, Dirk; Grydaki, Maria

    2014-01-01

    A nascent literature explores the measurement of financial fragility. This paper considers evidence for rising financial fragility during the 1984-2007 Great Moderation in the U.S. The literature suggests that macroeconomic stability combined with strong growth of credit to asset markets, in asset

  20. Ecosystem services in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comprehensive inventory of ecosystem services across the entire Great Lakes basin is currently lacking and is needed to make informed management decisions. A greater appreciation and understanding of ecosystem services, including both use and non-use services, may have avoided ...

  1. The Y chromosomes of the great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallast, Pille; Jobling, Mark A

    2017-05-01

    The great apes (orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos and humans) descended from a common ancestor around 13 million years ago, and since then their sex chromosomes have followed very different evolutionary paths. While great-ape X chromosomes are highly conserved, their Y chromosomes, reflecting the general lability and degeneration of this male-specific part of the genome since its early mammalian origin, have evolved rapidly both between and within species. Understanding great-ape Y chromosome structure, gene content and diversity would provide a valuable evolutionary context for the human Y, and would also illuminate sex-biased behaviours, and the effects of the evolutionary pressures exerted by different mating strategies on this male-specific part of the genome. High-quality Y-chromosome sequences are available for human and chimpanzee (and low-quality for gorilla). The chromosomes differ in size, sequence organisation and content, and while retaining a relatively stable set of ancestral single-copy genes, show considerable variation in content and copy number of ampliconic multi-copy genes. Studies of Y-chromosome diversity in other great apes are relatively undeveloped compared to those in humans, but have nevertheless provided insights into speciation, dispersal, and mating patterns. Future studies, including data from larger sample sizes of wild-born and geographically well-defined individuals, and full Y-chromosome sequences from bonobos, gorillas and orangutans, promise to further our understanding of population histories, male-biased behaviours, mutation processes, and the functions of Y-chromosomal genes.

  2. Montana Advanced Biofuels Great Falls Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This November 20, 2015 letter from EPA approves the petition from Montana Advanced Biofuels, LLC, Great Falls facility, regarding ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for advanced biofuel (D-code 5) and renewable

  3. Great Basin rare and vulnerable species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erica Fleishman

    2008-01-01

    Many native species of plants and animals in the Great Basin have a restricted geographic distribution that reflects the region’s biogeographic history. Conservation of these species has become increasingly challenging in the face of changing environmental conditions and land management practices. This paper provides an overview of major stressors contributing to...

  4. The great neurosis of Dr. Joseph Gerard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Rouillon, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    The Great Neurosis, of Dr. Joseph Gerard, was published in 1889 in Paris. The book, intended for the general public, shows the different varieties of neuroses through picturesque and instructive examples. Its scientific and medical value is poor, but provides us with the various meanings of the word 'neurosis' in the late nineteenth century. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. The Great Bug Hunt Is Back!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca; Rapley, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The Association for Science Education's "schoolscience.co.uk" and Martin Rapley, presenter of "The Big Bug Experience," are again running the Great Bug Hunt in 2012. Simply identify a habitat, explore and discover the bugs that live there, photograph or draw them and record findings--it's that simple. The winner will be the…

  6. Global Change in the Great Lakes: Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Barbara K., Ed.; Rosser, Arrye R., Ed.

    The Ohio Sea Grant Education Program has produced this series of publications designed to help people understand how global change may affect the Great Lakes region. The possible implications of global change for this region of the world are explained in the hope that policymakers and individuals will be more inclined to make responsible decisions…

  7. Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A. A.; Wong, M. H.; Rogers, J. H.; Orton, G. S.; de Pater, I.; Asay-Davis, X.; Carlson, R. W.; Marcus, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features, having been continuously observed since the 1800's. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show analyses of 2014 Hubble spectral imaging data to study the color, structure and internal dynamics of this long-live storm.

  8. 77 FR 33597 - Great Outdoors Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... natural beauty. To uphold this tradition, I was proud to launch the America's Great Outdoors Initiative...! initiative is encouraging children and families to explore the outdoors and engage in outdoor recreation as... us the opportunity to get active, explore, and strengthen our bonds with family and friends. This...

  9. Theodosius Dohzhansky: A Great Inspirer 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ayala (perhaps Dobzhansky's most distinguished student) and. Bimalendu Nath. In this article, I ... this influence (of Dobzhansky on his students) never consisted to any great extent of direct transmission of facts in lecture sessions .... and myself are spending the whole time studying the inversions in the third chromosome in ...

  10. The Great Siege through Turkish eyes.

    OpenAIRE

    Cassola, Arnold; Malta Historical Society

    2009-01-01

    A talk organised by the Malta Historical Society entitled: The Great Siege through Turkish eyes. The talk is delivered by Prof Arnold Cassola. Arnold Cassola is a Maltese politician, an Associate Professor in Comparative Literature at the University of Malta and the author and editor of various books and academic papers.

  11. Countdown to the Great American Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulco, Charles

    2017-01-01

    The Great American Total Solar Eclipse (TSE2017) will occur on August 21 this year--the first total solar eclipse in the continental United States since 1979. For many reasons, this is a scientific and educational milestone event of the highest magnitude that should not be missed by any teacher and student whether or not their school is in session…

  12. Wind profiler installed in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsley, B. B.; Carey, J.; Woodman, R. F.; Sarango, M.; Urbina, J.; Rodriguez, R.; Ragaini, E.

    A VHF (50 MHz) wind profiler was installed in Antarctica at the Peruvian Base “Machu Picchu” on King George Island from January 21 to 26. The wind profiler will provide a first look at atmospheric dynamics over the region.The profiler—the first of its kind in Antarctica—is a National Science Foundationsponsored cooperative project of the University of Colorado, the Geophysical Institute of Peru, the University of Piura (Peru), and the Peruvian Navy. This venture was also greatly facilitated by Peru's Comision Nacional de Asuntos Antartidos and Consejo Nacional de Ciencias y Tecnologia, with additional logis tics support provided by the Argentinean Navy and the Uruguayan Air Force.

  13. Great Lakes Shipping. Earth Systems - Education Activities for Great Lakes Schools (ES-EAGLS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Rosanne W., Ed.

    This activity book is part of a series designed to take a concept or idea from the existing school curriculum and develop it in the context of the Great Lakes using teaching approaches and materials appropriate for students in middle and high school. The theme of this book is Great Lakes shipping. Students learn about the connections between the…

  14. What Makes a Great Journal Great in Economics? The Singer Not the Song.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); L. Oxley (Les)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe paper is concerned with analysing what makes a great journal great in economics, based on quantifiable measures. Alternative Research Assessment Measures (RAM) are discussed, with an emphasis on the Thomson Reuters ISI Web of Science database (hereafter ISI). The various ISI RAM that

  15. Turbulent Region Near Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    True and false color mosaics of the turbulent region west of Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The Great Red Spot is on the planetary limb on the right hand side of each mosaic. The region west (left) of the Great Red Spot is characterized by large, turbulent structures that rapidly change in appearance. The turbulence results from the collision of a westward jet that is deflected northward by the Great Red Spot into a higher latitude eastward jet. The large eddies nearest to the Great Red Spot are bright, suggesting that convection and cloud formation are active there.The top mosaic combines the violet (410 nanometers) and near infrared continuum (756 nanometers) filter images to create a mosaic similar to how Jupiter would appear to human eyes. Differences in coloration are due to the composition and abundance of trace chemicals in Jupiter's atmosphere. The lower mosaic uses the Galileo imaging camera's three near-infrared (invisible) wavelengths (756 nanometers, 727 nanometers, and 889 nanometers displayed in red, green, and blue) to show variations in cloud height and thickness. Light blue clouds are high and thin, reddish clouds are deep, and white clouds are high and thick. Purple most likely represents a high haze overlying a clear deep atmosphere. Galileo is the first spacecraft to distinguish cloud layers on Jupiter.The mosaic is centered at 16.5 degrees south planetocentric latitude and 85 degrees west longitude. The north-south dimension of the Great Red Spot is approximately 11,000 kilometers. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. North is at the top of the picture. The images used were taken on June 26, 1997 at a range of 1.2 million kilometers (1.05 million miles) by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech

  16. Fundamental-frequency and load-varying thermal cycles effects on lifetime estimation of DFIG power converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Guanguan; Zhou, Dao; Yang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    In respect to a Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) system, its corresponding time scale varies from microsecond level of power semiconductor switching to second level of the mechanical response. In order to map annual thermal profile of the power semiconductors, different approaches have been...... adopted to handle the fundamental-frequency thermal cycles and load-varying thermal cycles. Their effects on lifetime estimation of the power device in the Back-to-Back (BTB) power converter are evaluated....

  17. Phenolic Compound Profiles in Berry Skins from Nine Red Wine Grape Cultivars in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Yun Cui

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compound profiles were investigated by HPLC-MS in two consecutive years to assess genotypic variation in berry skins of nine red Vitis vinifera cultivars. The results showed that the types and levels of phenolic compounds greatly varied with cultivar. Common wine grape cultivars such as Syrah, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Gernischt and Merlot contained more types of anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, stilbenes and phenolic acids than Gamay, Yan73, Pinot Noir, Zinfandel and Мускат Розовый. Yan 73 and Pinot Noir had abundant anthocyanins, but only a few nonanthocyanin phenolic compounds. Gamay, Zinfandel and Мускат Розовый contained only a few anthocyanins and flavonols. For a grape cultivar, the ratio of one anthocyanin content to total anthocyanin content did not change greatly from one year to the next, unlike for non-anthocyanins. Cluster analysis showed that except for Syrah and Yan 73, the phenolic profiles in the tested grape cultivars had no significant year-to-year variations.

  18. Why are there no great women chefs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druckman, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    This article applies the rhetorical and deliberately provocative approach of the watershed essay art historian Linda Nochlin wrote in 1971—“Why Have there Been No Great Women Artists?”—to today's culinary industry. Nochlin used the question her title posed as a theoretical trap that would draw attention not only to the inherent sexism or prejudice that pervades the way the public perceives art, but also to those same issues' existence within and impact on academia and the other cultural institutions responsible for posing these sorts of questions. Nochlin bypassed the obvious and irrelevant debate over women's being less or differently talented and, in so doing, exposed that debate for being a distraction from the heart of the matter: how, sociologically (media) or institutionally (museums, foundations, etc.), people define a “great artist.” Although it's 40 years later, the polemic is as effective when used to understand the gender divide in the food world.

  19. Hospital Capital Investment During the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung

    2017-01-01

    Hospital capital investment is important for acquiring and maintaining technology and equipment needed to provide health care. Reduction in capital investment by a hospital has negative implications for patient outcomes. Most hospitals rely on debt and internal cash flow to fund capital investment. The great recession may have made it difficult for hospitals to borrow, thus reducing their capital investment. I investigated the impact of the great recession on capital investment made by California hospitals. Modeling how hospital capital investment may have been liquidity constrained during the recession is a novel contribution to the literature. I estimated the model with California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development data and system generalized method of moments. Findings suggest that not-for-profit and public hospitals were liquidity constrained during the recession. Comparing the changes in hospital capital investment between 2006 and 2009 showed that hospitals used cash flow to increase capital investment by $2.45 million, other things equal.

  20. Great Carbonate Bank of Yucatan, Southern Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viniegra-O, F.

    1981-01-01

    Since 1972, numerous large and giant oil fields have been discovered in the Reforma area of Chiapas and Tabasco States, southern Mexico, and on the offshore Campeche shelf west of Campeche State. The huge carbonate bank with which these discoveries are associated is called the Great Carbonate Bank of Yucatan. Present trap structures are mainly fractured and faulted domal salt pillows created during the Laramide orogeny. The Great Carbonate Bank of Yucatan is believed to include not just the Yucatan Peninsula, but also a part of coastal Veracruz State, where several discoveries have been made in carbonate rocks of Early to Middle Cretaceous ages in thrust sheets along the western margin of the Veracruz basin, which are now buried beneath the coastal plain. It is probable that large, subthrust, anticlinal structures underlie the thrust sheets along the western margin of the Veracruz basin, and these when drilled, may contain important hydrocarbon accumulations. (JMT)

  1. Great auricular neuropraxia with beach chair position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Minal; Cheng, Ruth; Kamath, Hattiyangadi; Yarmush, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Shoulder arthroscopy has been shown to be the procedure of choice for many diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Neuropraxia of the great auricular nerve (GAN) is an uncommon complication of shoulder surgery, with the patient in the beach chair position. We report a case of great auricular neuropraxia associated with direct compression by a horseshoe headrest, used in routine positioning for uncomplicated shoulder surgery. In this case, an arthroscopic approach was taken, under regional anesthesia with sedation in the beach chair position. The GAN, a superficial branch of the cervical plexus, is vulnerable to neuropraxia due to its superficial anatomical location. We recommend that for the procedures of the beach chair position, the auricle be protected and covered with cotton and gauze to avoid direct compression and the position of the head and neck be checked and corrected frequently.

  2. Water resources in the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers

    2008-01-01

    The Great Basin Watershed covers 362,600 km (140,110 mi2) and extends from the Sierra Nevada Range in California to the Wasatch Range in Utah, and from southeastern Oregon to southern Nevada (NBC Weather Plus Website). The region is among the driest in the nation and depends largely on winter snowfall and spring runoff for its water supply. Precipitation may be as much...

  3. The Rule of Saint Basil the Great

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Pietrow

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The rules of monasticism were collected and published in a single work entitled Asketikon by Saint Basil the Great. It is arranged in the form of questions and answers to create one coherent work. It has two different publications.The first publication named The Small Asketikon dates to 370-370. It is the fruit of the Saint’s work among Pontic communities and consists of 203 questions and answers. The orignial Greek manuscript has not survived and it is available only in two translations: the Latin Rufin and fragments in Syrian language. The second publication named The Great Asketikon appeard in about 377 and presents the most mature step of cenobitic monasticismin Basil’s elaboration. The Great Asketikon was created by adding new questions to The Small Asketikon and consists of two parts called the The Longer Rules and The Shorter Rules. The Longer Rules are primarily a set of questions and answers. It includes a wide range of rules and norms of the overall life in community. It refers to the fundamental rules of spirituality, such as love, sacrifice, obedience and rudimental problems connected withcommunity organization, cenobitic monasticism and the role of the superior, work and prayer. The second part of The Great Asketikon consists of shorter rules. Two publications are known: the first one originated in Pont andincludes 286 questions and answers and second arose in Cezarei and includes 318 questions and answers. In this work, the Hierarch explains in detail issues regarding community life and solves difficult problems connected with conscience. He writes about behavior towards brothers and explains the significance of weaknesses and virtues.

  4. The Making of a Great Captain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    AU/ACSC/5585/AY06 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY THE MAKING OF A GREAT CAPTAIN by Theodore G. Weibel, Major, USAF A Research...Corsica was described as lonely and stricken with homesickness .18 Napoleon’s youth was characterized by a combination of yearning to be with his... college education that would certainly challenge him. During winter break that year his father eluded that he secured an appointment to West Point for

  5. Lemay and Olds: Great Captains of Airpower

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    tenth quality, which happened to them, Divine Providence. While these qualities answered what was required of ancient great commanders, some have...they suffered from the same failure of agility, unable to adjust to the changing political landscape and reality of their situation. While...the main problem.64 This is not to say that Strauss’ remaining qualities of ambition, judgement, strategy, terror, branding, and Divine Providence do

  6. Great auricular neuropraxia with beach chair position

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi M; Cheng R; Kamath H; Yarmush J

    2017-01-01

    Minal Joshi,1 Ruth Cheng,2 Hattiyangadi Kamath,1 Joel Yarmush1 1Department of Anesthesiology, New York Methodist Hospital, New York, NY, USA; 2School of Medicine, St. George’s University, Grenada, West Indies Abstract: Shoulder arthroscopy has been shown to be the procedure of choice for many diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Neuropraxia of the great auricular nerve (GAN) is an uncommon complication of shoulder surgery, with the patient in the beach chair position. We report...

  7. Ventricular assist device outflow graft in congenitally corrected transposition of great arteries - a surgical challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohite Prashant N

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries is a complex congenital cardiac anomaly with a wide spectrum of morphologic features and clinical profiles. Most patients are diagnosed late in their life, undergoes surgical repairs, eventually leading to systemic ventricular failure needing heart transplant or mechanical circulatory assistance. As, aorta is located anterior to and left of the PA (Transposition of great arteries, the outflow graft of ventricular assist device traverse across pulmonary artery to reach aorta which poses challenge during further surgical explorations.

  8. Can healthcare go from good to great?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Todd H; Wachter, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare's improvement efforts have focused on the point of care, targeting specific processes such as preventing central line infections, while paying relatively less attention to the larger issues of organizational structure and leadership. Interestingly, the business community has long recognized that poor management and structure can thwart improvement efforts. Perhaps the corporate world's best-known study of these issues is found in the book Good to Great, which identifies top-performing corporations, compares them to carefully selected organizations that failed to achieve similar levels of performance, and gleans lessons from these analyses. In this article, we analyze the feasibility of carefully applying Good to Great's methods for analyzing organizational structure and leadership to healthcare. While a few studies in healthcare have come close to emulating Good to Great's methodology, none have matched its rigor. These shortcomings highlight key information and measurement gaps that must be addressed to facilitate unbiased, rigorous studies of the organizational and leadership predictors of institutional excellence in healthcare. Copyright © 2011 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  9. Early Holocene Great Salt Lake, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviatt, Charles G.; Madsen, David B.; Miller, David M.; Thompson, Robert S.; McGeehin, John P.

    2015-07-01

    Shorelines and surficial deposits (including buried forest-floor mats and organic-rich wetland sediments) show that Great Salt Lake did not rise higher than modern lake levels during the earliest Holocene (11.5-10.2 cal ka BP; 10-9 14C ka BP). During that period, finely laminated, organic-rich muds (sapropel) containing brine-shrimp cysts and pellets and interbedded sodium-sulfate salts were deposited on the lake floor. Sapropel deposition was probably caused by stratification of the water column - a freshwater cap possibly was formed by groundwater, which had been stored in upland aquifers during the immediately preceding late-Pleistocene deep-lake cycle (Lake Bonneville), and was actively discharging on the basin floor. A climate characterized by low precipitation and runoff, combined with local areas of groundwater discharge in piedmont settings, could explain the apparent conflict between evidence for a shallow lake (a dry climate) and previously published interpretations for a moist climate in the Great Salt Lake basin of the eastern Great Basin.

  10. Meteotsunamis in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechle, Adam J.; Wu, Chin H.; Kristovich, David A. R.; Anderson, Eric J.; Schwab, David J.; Rabinovich, Alexander B.

    2016-01-01

    The generation mechanism of meteotsunamis, which are meteorologically induced water waves with spatial/temporal characteristics and behavior similar to seismic tsunamis, is poorly understood. We quantify meteotsunamis in terms of seasonality, causes, and occurrence frequency through the analysis of long-term water level records in the Laurentian Great Lakes. The majority of the observed meteotsunamis happen from late-spring to mid-summer and are associated primarily with convective storms. Meteotsunami events of potentially dangerous magnitude (height > 0.3 m) occur an average of 106 times per year throughout the region. These results reveal that meteotsunamis are much more frequent than follow from historic anecdotal reports. Future climate scenarios over the United States show a likely increase in the number of days favorable to severe convective storm formation over the Great Lakes, particularly in the spring season. This would suggest that the convectively associated meteotsunamis in these regions may experience an increase in occurrence frequency or a temporal shift in occurrence to earlier in the warm season. To date, meteotsunamis in the area of the Great Lakes have been an overlooked hazard. PMID:27883066

  11. Moral reasoning about great apes in research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Carol Midori

    2006-04-01

    This study explored how individuals (biomedical scientists, Great Ape Project activists, lay adults, undergraduate biology and environmental studies students, and Grade 12 and 9 biology students) morally judge and reason about using great apes in biomedical and language research. How these groups perceived great apes' mental capacities (e.g., pain, logical thinking) and how these perceptions related to their judgments were investigated through two scenarios. In addition, the kinds of informational statements (e.g., biology, economics) that may affect individuals' scenario judgments were investigated. A negative correlation was found between mental attributions and scenario judgments while no clear pattern occurred for the informational statements. For the biomedical scenario, all groups significantly differed in mean judgment ratings except for the biomedical scientists, GAP activists and Grade 9 students. For the language scenario, all groups differed except for the GAP activists, and undergraduate environmental studies and Grade 9 students. An in-depth qualitative analysis showed that although the biomedical scientists, GAP activists and Grade 9 students had similar judgments, they produced different mean percentages of justifications under four moral frameworks (virtue, utilitarianism, deontology, and welfare). The GAP activists used more virtue reasoning while the biomedical scientists and Grade 9 students used more utilitarian and welfare reasoning, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of developing environmental/humane education curricula.

  12. Geothermal fluid genesis in the Great Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, T.; Buchanan, P.K.

    1990-01-01

    Early theories concerning geothermal recharge in the Great Basin implied recharge was by recent precipitation. Physical, chemical, and isotopic differences between thermal and non-thermal fluids and global paleoclimatic indicators suggest that recharge occurred during the late Pleistocene. Polar region isotopic studies demonstrate that a depletion in stable light-isotopes of precipitation existed during the late Pleistocene due to the colder, wetter climate. Isotopic analysis of calcite veins and packrat midden megafossils confirm the depletion event occurred in the Great Basin. Isotopic analysis of non-thermal springs is utilized as a proxy for local recent precipitation. Contoured plots of deuterium concentrations from non-thermal and thermal water show a regional, systematic variation. Subtracting contoured plots of non-thermal water from plots of thermal water reveals that thermal waters on a regional scale are generally isotopically more depleted. Isolated areas where thermal water is more enriched than non-thermal water correspond to locations of pluvial Lakes Lahontan and Bonneville, suggesting isotopically enriched lake water contributed to fluid recharge. These anomalous waters also contain high concentrations of sodium chloride, boron, and other dissolved species suggestive of evaporative enrichment. Carbon-age date and isotopic data from Great Basin thermal waters correlate with the polar paleoclimate studies. Recharge occurred along range bounding faults. 151 refs., 62 figs., 15 tabs.

  13. Beach science in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Byappanahalli, Murulee N.; Edge, Thomas A.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring beach waters for human health has led to an increase and evolution of science in the Great Lakes, which includes microbiology, limnology, hydrology, meteorology, epidemiology, and metagenomics, among others. In recent years, concerns over the accuracy of water quality standards at protecting human health have led to a significant interest in understanding the risk associated with water contact in both freshwater and marine environments. Historically, surface waters have been monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci), but shortcomings of the analytical test (lengthy assay) have resulted in a re-focusing of scientific efforts to improve public health protection. Research has led to the discovery of widespread populations of fecal indicator bacteria present in natural habitats such as soils, beach sand, and stranded algae. Microbial source tracking has been used to identify the source of these bacteria and subsequently assess their impact on human health. As a result of many findings, attempts have been made to improve monitoring efficiency and efficacy with the use of empirical predictive models and molecular rapid tests. All along, beach managers have actively incorporated new findings into their monitoring programs. With the abundance of research conducted and information gained over the last 25 years, “Beach Science” has emerged, and the Great Lakes have been a focal point for much of the ground-breaking work. Here, we review the accumulated research on microbiological water quality of Great Lakes beaches and provide a historic context to the collaborative efforts that have advanced this emerging science.

  14. Life and death during the Great Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia Granados, José A; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2009-10-13

    Recent events highlight the importance of examining the impact of economic downturns on population health. The Great Depression of the 1930s was the most important economic downturn in the U.S. in the twentieth century. We used historical life expectancy and mortality data to examine associations of economic growth with population health for the period 1920-1940. We conducted descriptive analyses of trends and examined associations between annual changes in health indicators and annual changes in economic activity using correlations and regression models. Population health did not decline and indeed generally improved during the 4 years of the Great Depression, 1930-1933, with mortality decreasing for almost all ages, and life expectancy increasing by several years in males, females, whites, and nonwhites. For most age groups, mortality tended to peak during years of strong economic expansion (such as 1923, 1926, 1929, and 1936-1937). In contrast, the recessions of 1921, 1930-1933, and 1938 coincided with declines in mortality and gains in life expectancy. The only exception was suicide mortality which increased during the Great Depression, but accounted for less than 2% of deaths. Correlation and regression analyses confirmed a significant negative effect of economic expansions on health gains. The evolution of population health during the years 1920-1940 confirms the counterintuitive hypothesis that, as in other historical periods and market economies, population health tends to evolve better during recessions than in expansions.

  15. Great auricular neuropraxia with beach chair position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi M

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Minal Joshi,1 Ruth Cheng,2 Hattiyangadi Kamath,1 Joel Yarmush1 1Department of Anesthesiology, New York Methodist Hospital, New York, NY, USA; 2School of Medicine, St. George’s University, Grenada, West Indies Abstract: Shoulder arthroscopy has been shown to be the procedure of choice for many diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Neuropraxia of the great auricular nerve (GAN is an uncommon complication of shoulder surgery, with the patient in the beach chair position. We report a case of great auricular neuropraxia associated with direct compression by a horseshoe headrest, used in routine positioning for uncomplicated shoulder surgery. In this case, an arthroscopic approach was taken, under regional anesthesia with sedation in the beach chair position. The GAN, a superficial branch of the cervical plexus, is vulnerable to neuropraxia due to its superficial anatomical location. We recommend that for the procedures of the beach chair position, the auricle be protected and covered with cotton and gauze to avoid direct compression and the position of the head and neck be checked and corrected frequently. Keywords: neuropraxia, anesthesia, arthroscopy, great auricular nerve

  16. Corrected transposition of the great arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Hi; Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-12-15

    The corrected transposition of the great arteries is an usual congenital cardiac malformation, which consists of transposition of great arteries and ventricular inversion, and which is caused by abnormal development of conotruncus and ventricular looping. High frequency of associated cardiac malformations makes it difficult to get accurate morphologic diagnosis. A total of 18 cases of corrected transposition of the great arteries is presented, in which cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography were done at the Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital between September 1976 and June 1981. The clinical, radiographic, and operative findings with the emphasis on the angiocardiographic findings were analyzed. The results are as follows: 1. Among 18 cases, 13 cases have normal cardiac position, 2 cases have dextrocardia with situs solitus, 2 cases have dextrocardia with situs inversus and 1 case has levocardia with situs inversus. 2. Segmental sets are (S, L, L) in 15 cases, and (I, D,D) in 3 cases and there is no exception to loop rule. 3. Side by side interrelationships of both ventricles and both semilunar valves are noticed in 10 and 12 cases respectively. 4. Subaortic type conus is noted in all 18 cases. 5. Associated cardic malformations are VSD in 14 cases, PS in 11, PDA in 3, PFO in 3, ASD in 2, right aortic arch in 2, tricuspid insufficiency, mitral prolapse, persistent left SVC and persistent right SVC in 1 case respectively. 6. For accurate diagnosis of corrected TGA, selective biventriculography using biplane cineradiography is an essential procedure.

  17. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest developments in the field of renewables at country level around the world. Each profile combines analysis by IRENA's specialists with the latest available country data and additional information from a wide array of sources. The resulting reports provide a brief yet comprehensive picture of the situation with regard to renewable energy, including energy supply, electrical generation and grid capacity, and access. Energy policies, targets and projects are also considered, along with each country's investment climate and endowment with renewable energy resources. The energy statistics presented here span the period from 2009 until 2012, reflecting varying timelines in the source material. Since data availability differs from country to country, wider regional comparisons are possible only for the latest year with figures available for every country included. Despite the time lag in some cases, the evident differences and disparities between countries and regions around the world remain striking. The current package of country profiles is just a starting point. The geographic scope will continue to expand, and existing profiles will be enhanced with new indicators, with the whole series maintained as a live product on the IRENA website (www.irena.org)

  18. 76 FR 24505 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory... Great Lakes pilot registration, operating requirements, training policies, and pilotage rates and other...

  19. The Great Firewall of China: A Critical Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whiting, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    Censorship has a great impact on society as we enter the cyber environment. The Chinese "Great Firewall", as it is commonly called, brings great attention to China as they enter into the global economy...

  20. Great Lakes Commercial Fishing Catch 1929-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Since 1971 the Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC), formerly known as the National Fishery Center-Great Lakes (National Biological Service), the Great Lakes Fishery...

  1. Changes in Bacterial And Archaeal Community Structure And Functional Diversity Along a Geochemically Variable Soil Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansel, C.M.; Fendorf, S.; Jardine, P.M.; Francis, C.A.

    2009-05-18

    Spatial heterogeneity in physical, chemical, and biological properties of soils allows for the proliferation of diverse microbial communities. Factors influencing the structuring of microbial communities, including availability of nutrients and water, pH, and soil texture, can vary considerably with soil depth and within soil aggregates. Here we investigated changes in the microbial and functional communities within soil aggregates obtained along a soil profile spanning the surface, vadose zone, and saturated soil environments. The composition and diversity of microbial communities and specific functional groups involved in key pathways in the geochemical cycling of nitrogen, Fe, and sulfur were characterized using a coupled approach involving cultivation-independent analysis of both 16S rRNA (bacterial and archaeal) and functional genes (amoA and dsrAB) as well as cultivation-based analysis of Fe(III)-reducing organisms. Here we found that the microbial communities and putative ammonia-oxidizing and Fe(III)-reducing communities varied greatly along the soil profile, likely reflecting differences in carbon availability, water content, and pH. In particular, the Crenarchaeota 16S rRNA sequences are largely unique to each horizon, sharing a distribution and diversity similar to those of the putative (amoA-based) ammonia-oxidizing archaeal community. Anaerobic microenvironments within soil aggregates also appear to allow for both anaerobic- and aerobic-based metabolisms, further highlighting the complexity and spatial heterogeneity impacting microbial community structure and metabolic potential within soils.

  2. JASPAR 2010: the greatly expanded open-access database of transcription factor binding profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Portales-Casamar, Elodie; Thongjuea, Supat; Kwon, Andrew T

    2009-01-01

    to an active research community. As binding models are refined by newer data, the JASPAR database now uses versioning of matrices: in this release, 12% of the older models were updated to improved versions. Classification of TF families has been improved by adopting a new DNA-binding domain nomenclature...

  3. Regularized Estimation of Structural Instability in Factor Models: The US Macroeconomy and the Great Moderation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callot, Laurent; Kristensen, Johannes Tang

    This paper shows that the parsimoniously time-varying methodology of Callot and Kristensen (2015) can be applied to factor models.We apply this method to study macroeconomic instability in the US from 1959:1 to 2006:4 with a particular focus on the Great Moderation. Models with parsimoniously time...... that the parameters of both models exhibit a higher degree of instability in the period from 1970:1 to 1984:4 relative to the following 15 years. In our setting the Great Moderation appears as the gradual ending of a period of high structural instability that took place in the 1970s and early 1980s....

  4. The Great Recession, unemployment and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norström, Thor; Grönqvist, Hans

    2015-02-01

    How have suicide rates responded to the marked increase in unemployment spurred by the Great Recession? Our paper puts this issue into a wider perspective by assessing (1) whether the unemployment-suicide link is modified by the degree of unemployment protection, and (2) whether the effect on suicide of the present crisis differs from the effects of previous economic downturns. We analysed the unemployment-suicide link using time-series data for 30 countries spanning the period 1960-2012. Separate fixed-effects models were estimated for each of five welfare state regimes with different levels of unemployment protection (Eastern, Southern, Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian and Scandinavian). We included an interaction term to capture the possible excess effect of unemployment during the Great Recession. The largest unemployment increases occurred in the welfare state regimes with the least generous unemployment protection. The unemployment effect on male suicides was statistically significant in all welfare regimes, except the Scandinavian one. The effect on female suicides was significant only in the eastern European country group. There was a significant gradient in the effects, being stronger the less generous the unemployment protection. The interaction term capturing the possible excess effect of unemployment during the financial crisis was not significant. Our findings suggest that the more generous the unemployment protection the weaker the detrimental impact on suicide of the increasing unemployment during the Great Recession. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Managing authenticity: the paradox of great leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffee, Rob; Jones, Gareth

    2005-12-01

    Leaders and followers both associate authenticity with sincerity, honesty, and integrity. It's the real thing--the attribute that uniquely defines great managers. But while the expression of a genuine self is necessary for great leadership, the concept of authenticity is often misunderstood, not least by leaders themselves. They often assume that authenticity is an innate quality--that a person is either genuine or not. In fact, the authors say, authenticity is largely defined by what other people see in you and, as such, can to a great extent be controlled by you. In this article, the authors explore the qualities of authentic leadership. To illustrate their points, they recount the experiences of some of the authentic leaders they have known and studied, including the BBC's Greg Dyke, Nestlé's Peter Brabeck-Letmathe, and Marks & Spencer's Jean Tomlin. Establishing your authenticity as a leader is a two-part challenge. You have to consistently match your words and deeds; otherwise, followers will never accept you as authentic. But it is not enough just to practice what you preach. To get people to follow you, you also have to get them to relate to you. This means presenting different faces to different audiences--a requirement that many people find hard to square with authenticity. But authenticity is not the product of manipulation. It accurately reflects aspects of the leader's inner self, so it can't be an act. Authentic leaders seem to know which personality traits they should reveal to whom, and when. Highly attuned to their environments, authentic leaders rely on an intuition born of formative, sometimes harsh experiences to understand the expectations and concerns of the people they seek to influence. They retain their distinctiveness as individuals, yet they know how to win acceptance in strong corporate and social cultures and how to use elements of those cultures as a basis for radical change.

  6. Gene expression of benthic amphipods (genus: Diporeia in relation to a circular ssDNA virus across two Laurentian Great Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalia S.I. Bistolas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Circular rep-encoding ssDNA (CRESS-DNA viruses are common constituents of invertebrate viral consortia. Despite their ubiquity and sequence diversity, the effects of CRESS-DNA viruses on invertebrate biology and ecology remain largely unknown. This study assessed the relationship between the transcriptional profile of benthic amphipods of genus Diporeia and the presence of the CRESS-DNA virus, LM29173, in the Laurentian Great Lakes to provide potential insight into the influence of these viruses on invertebrate gene expression. Twelve transcriptomes derived from Diporeia were compared, representing organisms from two amphipod haplotype clades (Great Lakes Michigan and Superior, defined by COI barcode sequencing with varying viral loads (up to 3 × 106 genome copies organism−1. Read recruitment to de novo assembled transcripts revealed 2,208 significantly over or underexpressed contigs in transcriptomes with above average LM29173 load. Of these contigs, 31.5% were assigned a putative function. The greatest proportion of annotated, differentially expressed transcripts were associated with functions including: (1 replication, recombination, and repair, (2 cell structure/biogenesis, and (3 post-translational modification, protein turnover, and chaperones. Contigs putatively associated with innate immunity displayed no consistent pattern of expression, though several transcripts were significantly overexpressed in amphipods with high viral load. Quantitation (RT-qPCR of target transcripts, non-muscular myosin heavy chain, β-actin, and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2, corroborated transcriptome analysis and indicated that Lake Michigan and Lake Superior amphipods with high LM29173 load exhibit lake-specific trends in gene expression. While this investigation provides the first comparative survey of the transcriptional profile of invertebrates of variable CRESS-DNA viral load, additional inquiry is required to define the scope of host

  7. Day of Launch Profile Selection for Pad Abort Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Ryan J.

    2010-01-01

    A day of launch selection approach that involves choosing from an array of pitch profiles of varying loft was analyzed with the purpose of reducing the risk of a land landing failure during a pad abort. It was determined that selecting from three pitch profiles can reduce the number of waterline abort performance requirement failures approximately in half without compromising other performance metrics.

  8. A Graphical Method for Great Circle Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Tien-Pen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A great circle route (GCR is the shortest route on a spherical earth model. Do we have a visual diagram to handle the shortest route? In this paper, a graphical method (GM is proposed to solve the GCR problems based on the celestial meridian diagram (CMD in celestial navigation. Unlike developed algebraic methods, the GM is a geometric method. Appling computer software to graph, the GM does not use any equations but is as accurate as using algebraic methods. In addition, the GM, which emphasizes the rotational surface, can depict a GCR and judge its benefit.

  9. Evolution and demography of the great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlwilm, Martin; de Manuel, Marc; Nater, Alexander; Greminger, Maja P; Krützen, Michael; Marques-Bonet, Tomas

    2016-12-01

    The great apes are the closest living relatives of humans. Chimpanzees and bonobos group together with humans, while gorillas and orangutans are more divergent from humans. Here, we review insights into their evolution pertaining to the topology of species and subspecies and the reconstruction of their demography based on genome-wide variation. These advances have only become possible recently through next-generation sequencing technologies. Given the close relationship to humans, they provide an important evolutionary context for human genetics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Did Alexander the Great read Xenophon?

    OpenAIRE

    McGroarty, Kieran

    2006-01-01

    It has been assumed by writers, ancient and modern, that Xenophon’s literary output had a direct influence on Alexander the Great. But is there any evidence to prove that it did? In spite of the paucity of references to Xenophon in the surviving Alexander sources, many writers, both ancient and modern, have no doubts concerning the influence of Xenophon’s writings on Alexander. An extreme position is suggested by Eunapius, the sophist and historian born at Sardis c. AD 345, when he says in hi...

  11. The Great Stench or the fool's argument.

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    The eight weeks of the "Great Stench" in London in June-July 1858 had a lasting effect on the city. Today's embankments were planned then, and the huge oval brick sewers of London were designed and constructed as a direct result of the stench. The event occurred before the bacteriological era, when fear of cholera caused by a miasma gripped the city. This article, through quotations from The Times, Punch, and the medical press, traces the various reactions to the stink and explores the reason...

  12. The Great Stench or the fool's argument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J D

    1991-01-01

    The eight weeks of the "Great Stench" in London in June-July 1858 had a lasting effect on the city. Today's embankments were planned then, and the huge oval brick sewers of London were designed and constructed as a direct result of the stench. The event occurred before the bacteriological era, when fear of cholera caused by a miasma gripped the city. This article, through quotations from The Times, Punch, and the medical press, traces the various reactions to the stink and explores the reasons why there wasn't more of a public reaction to the plague threat.

  13. Muslim Women and Islamophobia in Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    CHAIB, Fatima Zohra

    2016-01-01

    The principle issues of Islam have a great impact on the British society which had shared a mission of reflecting the realities of feminism before Islam. The manifestation of Islam is also considered as a proof of the best realization in the history of women rights in UK. Thus, this research investigates Muslim woman’s life by showing her social status through time and space and studying her roles in the construction of the society. We tend mainly, to focus on the way she fought for her relig...

  14. Time Frequency Features of Rotor Systems with Slowly Varying Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With the analytic method and numerical method respectively, the asymptotic solutions and finite element model of rotor system with single slowly varying mass is obtained to investigate the time frequency features of such rotor system; furthermore, with given model of slowly varying mass, the rotor system with dual slowly varying mass is studied. For the first order approximate solution is used, there exists difference between the results with analytic method and numerical method. On the base of common characteristics of rotor system with dual slowly varying mass, the general rules and formula describing the frequency distribution of rotor system with multiple slowly varying mass are proposed.

  15. Dynamics of fluid-conveying pipes: effects of velocity profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enz, Stephanie; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    Varying velocity profiles and internal fluid loads on fluid-conveying pipes are investigated. Different geometric layouts of the fluid domain and inflow velocity profiles are considered. It is found that the variation of the velocity profiles along the bended pipe is considerable. A determination...... of the resulting fluid loads on the pipe walls is of interest e.g, for evaluating the dynamical behaviour of lightly damped structures like Coriolis flow meters....

  16. Great careers: Cornil, Bouchard, Bourneville and Proust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciaroni, Maurizio; Cittadini, Elisabetta; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2011-01-01

    Several French physicians of the 19th century are considered to be the pioneers of modern neurology, especially Jean-Martin Charcot. Later, the pupils of Charcot--interns at La Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris, including Cornil, Bouchard and Bourneville--went on to make great contributions to the field of neurology with their own discoveries. Specifically, with their mentor, they made the following contributions: Bouchard is responsible for first-ever description of cerebral hemorrhage pathogenesis; Bourneville arranged for the publication of Charcot's works; Cornil demonstrated histological evidence that supported Guillaume Duchenne's hypothesis regarding the cause of paralysis in poliomyelitis and he made the first diagnosis of chronic childhood arthritis. Besides these physicians, Adrien Proust, the father of the novelist Marcel, who had met Charcot at the Salpêtrière during the early part of his career, was a renowned physician, who also contributed greatly to research through his published works on stroke, aphasia, hysteria and neurasthenia. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Contraceptive use and attitudes in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddens, B J; Visser, A P; Vemer, H M; Everaerd, W T; Lehert, P

    1994-01-01

    In order to update current knowledge on contraceptive use and attitudes in Great Britain (i.e. England, Scotland and Wales), a survey was conducted among 1753 randomly selected British women aged 15-45. Replies were received from 967 women (55.2%). Seventy-three percent (73%) of fertile, sexually active women who wished to avoid pregnancy were using reliable methods of contraception, viz. oral contraceptives (OCs), intrauterine devices (IUDs) or sterilization. However, it was found that adolescents and women over 40 who wished to avoid pregnancy were, nevertheless, especially likely not to be using any contraceptive method at all. The women surveyed were concerned about weight gain, cardiovascular and cancer risks associated with OC use, and infection and infertility risks associated with IUD use. Sixty percent (60%) perceived sterilization as a major and risky surgical operation. It was concluded that contraceptive practice in Britain had not improved greatly in recent years. The latest scientific findings regarding the true advantages and disadvantages of OCs, IUDs and sterilization, therefore, need to be brought to the attention of the lay public more effectively. Special efforts need to be directed towards providing adolescents and women over 40 with proper information. Physicians and the mass media could play a considerable role in this respect.

  18. China in space the great leap forward

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The 21st century has seen the emergence, after the Soviet Union and the United States, of the third great space superpower: China. Here, in China in Space - The Great Leap Forward, Brian Harvey takes a contemporary look at the new Chinese space program. China has already launched its first space station, Tiangong; has sent its first spacecraft to the Moon, the Chang e; and has plans to send spaceships to Mars and further afield. China's annual launch rate has already overtaken those of both Europe and the United States. Huge new production plants and launch centers are under construction, to build and launch the new family of Long March 5, 6, and 7 rockets. In Roadmap 2050, the Academy of Sciences indicates that China intends to be the leading spacefaring nation by mid-century, with bases on the Moon and Mars. This book gives an informed, fully up-to-date commentary on all aspects of the Chinese space program, including its history, development, technology, missions, and the personalities involved. It lists a...

  19. Analysis of Ozone And CO2 Profiles Measured At A Diary Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunjemiyo, S. O.; Hasson, A. S.; Ashkan, S.; Steele, J.; Shelton, T.

    2015-12-01

    Ozone and carbon dioxide are both greenhouse gasses in the planetary boundary layer. Ozone is a harmful secondary pollutant in the troposphere produced mostly during the day when there is a photochemical reaction in which primary pollutant precursors such as nitrous oxide (NOx) or volatile organic compounds (VOC's) mix with sunlight. As with most pollutants in the lower troposphere, both ozone and carbon dioxide vary in spatial and temporal scale depending on sources of pollution, environmental conditions and the boundary layer dynamics. Among the several factors that influence ozone variation, the seasonal changes in meteorological parameters and availability of ozone precursors are crucial because they control ozone formation and decay. Understanding how the difference in emission sources affect vertical transport of ozone and carbon dioxide is considered crucial to the improvement of their regional inventory sources. The purpose of this study is to characterize vertical transport of ozone and carbon at a diary facility. The study was conducted in the summer of 2011 and 2012 at a commercial dairy facility in Central California and involved profile measurements of ozone and CO2 using electrochemical ozonesondes, meteorological sondes and CO2 probe tethered to a 9 cubic meters helium balloon. On each day of the data collection, multiple balloon launches were made over a period representing different stages of the boundary layer development. The results show ozone and CO2 profiles display different characteristics. Regardless of the time of the day, the CO2 concentration decreases with height with a sharp gradient near the surface that is strengthened by a stable atmospheric condition, a feature suggesting the surface as the source. On the other hand, ozone profiles show greater link to the evolution of the lower boundary layer. Ozone profiles display unique features indicating ozone destruction near the surface. This unusual near the surface, observed even in the

  20. Does the effectiveness of control measures depend on the influenza pandemic profile?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solen Kernéis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although strategies to contain influenza pandemics are well studied, the characterization and the implications of different geographical and temporal diffusion patterns of the pandemic have been given less attention. METHODOLOGY/MAIN FINDINGS: Using a well-documented metapopulation model incorporating air travel between 52 major world cities, we identified potential influenza pandemic diffusion profiles and examined how the impact of interventions might be affected by this heterogeneity. Clustering methods applied to a set of pandemic simulations, characterized by seven parameters related to the conditions of emergence that were varied following Latin hypercube sampling, were used to identify six pandemic profiles exhibiting different characteristics notably in terms of global burden (from 415 to >160 million of cases and duration (from 26 to 360 days. A multivariate sensitivity analysis showed that the transmission rate and proportion of susceptibles have a strong impact on the pandemic diffusion. The correlation between interventions and pandemic outcomes were analyzed for two specific profiles: a fast, massive pandemic and a slow building, long-lasting one. In both cases, the date of introduction for five control measures (masks, isolation, prophylactic or therapeutic use of antivirals, vaccination correlated strongly with pandemic outcomes. Conversely, the coverage and efficacy of these interventions only moderately correlated with pandemic outcomes in the case of a massive pandemic. Pre-pandemic vaccination influenced pandemic outcomes in both profiles, while travel restriction was the only measure without any measurable effect in either. CONCLUSIONS: our study highlights: (i the great heterogeneity in possible profiles of a future influenza pandemic; (ii the value of being well prepared in every country since a pandemic may have heavy consequences wherever and whenever it starts; (iii the need to quickly implement control

  1. Preliminary results of the Umkehr and ozonosonde ozone profile intercomparison at Marambio Base, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizkova, Klara; Metelka, Ladislav; Laska, Kamil; Stanek, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Retrieved ozone profiles can be a useful tool to monitor the current state of the stratospheric ozone layer and the recovery of the Antarctic ozone hole. At the Marambio Base (64° S, 56° W), located in the Antarctic Peninsula Region, the ozone profiles are obtained by the ozonesonde observations or the Umkehr method from the Brewer spectrophotometer B199. The instrument is operated by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute and was installed in February 2010. The ozonesonde observations have been carried out by the Finnish Meteorological Institute since late 1980s, with the highest frequency during austral spring months. In this study, the vertical ozone profiles during spring and summer 2015 were compared. The year 2015 was selected because of the late onset of the ozone hole, which offered the possibility to start the intercomparison from the beginning of the ozone hole formation. We have selected 20 days in August-December 2015, when both Umkehr and ozonesonde measurements were available. Because the ozonesonde balloon can only ascend to altitudes of about 30 km, only Umkehr layers 0-5 were taken into account. The largest mean differences between the ozonesonde and Umkehr measurements were observed in the Umkehr layer 4 with the approximate layer base height at 19.0 km. In this level, the ozonesonde observations exceeded the Umkehr retrievals in average by 10.6 %. On the other hand, in the Umkehr layer 3 with the approximate layer base height at 14.6 km, the Umkehr ozone retrievals were in average by 10.2 % higher than the ozonesonde measurements. The Umkehr and ozonesonde profiles differed largely during the ozone hole period or when the solar zenith angle for Umkehr retrievals was low. However, the ozone profile differences in the selected days varied greatly and were further analyzed and presented in the form of case studies.

  2. Great apes' risk-taking strategies in a decision making task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B M Haun

    Full Text Available We investigate decision-making behaviour in all four non-human great ape species. Apes chose between a safe and a risky option across trials of varying expected values. All species chose the safe option more often with decreasing probability of success. While all species were risk-seeking, orangutans and chimpanzees chose the risky option more often than gorillas and bonobos. Hence all four species' preferences were ordered in a manner consistent with normative dictates of expected value, but varied predictably in their willingness to take risks.

  3. The VariLift® Interbody Fusion System: expandable, standalone interbody fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emstad E

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Erik Emstad,1 Diana Cardenas del Monaco,1 Louis C Fielding,2 Jon E Block2 1Wenzel Spine, Inc., Austin, TX, 2The Jon Block Group, San Francisco, CA, USA Abstract: Intervertebral fusion cages have been in clinical use since the 1990s. Cages offer the benefits of bone graft containment, restored intervertebral and foraminal height, and a more repeatable, stable procedure compared to interbody fusion with graft material alone. Due to concerns regarding postoperative stability, loss of lordosis, and subsidence or migration of the implant, interbody cages are commonly used with supplemental fixation such as pedicle screw systems or anterior plates. While providing additional stability, supplemental fixation techniques increase operative time, exposure, cost, and morbidity. The VariLift® Interbody Fusion System (VariLift® system has been developed as a standalone solution to provide the benefits of intervertebral fusion cages without the requirement of supplemental fixation. The VariLift® system, FDA-cleared for standalone use in both the cervical and lumbar spine, is implanted in a minimal profile and then expanded in situ to provide segmental stability, restored lordosis, and a large graft chamber. Preclinical testing and analyses have found that the VariLift® System is durable, and reduces stresses that may contribute to subsidence and migration of other standalone interbody cages. Fifteen years of clinical development with the VariLift® system have demonstrated positive clinical outcomes, continued patient maintenance of segmental stability and lordosis, and no evidence of implant migration. The purpose of this report is to describe the VariLift® system, including implant characteristics, principles of operation, indications for use, patient selection criteria, surgical technique, postoperative care, preclinical testing, and clinical experience. The VariLift® System represents an improved surgical option for a stable interbody fusion without

  4. In quest of Great Lakes ice age vertebrates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holman, J. Alan

    2001-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 The Pleistocene in the Great Lakes Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Where to Find Vertebrate Fossils...

  5. 78 FR 38725 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory... Guard on matters relating to Great Lakes pilotage, including review of proposed Great Lakes pilotage...

  6. Assessing endocranial variations in great apes and humans using 3D data from virtual endocasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienvenu, Thibaut; Guy, Franck; Coudyzer, Walter; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Roualdès, Georges; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2011-06-01

    Modern humans are characterized by their large, complex, and specialized brain. Human brain evolution can be addressed through direct evidence provided by fossil hominid endocasts (i.e. paleoneurology), or through indirect evidence of extant species comparative neurology. Here we use the second approach, providing an extant comparative framework for hominid paleoneurological studies. We explore endocranial size and shape differences among great apes and humans, as well as between sexes. We virtually extracted 72 endocasts, sampling all extant great ape species and modern humans, and digitized 37 landmarks on each for 3D generalized Procrustes analysis. All species can be differentiated by their endocranial shape. Among great apes, endocranial shapes vary from short (orangutans) to long (gorillas), perhaps in relation to different facial orientations. Endocranial shape differences among African apes are partly allometric. Major endocranial traits distinguishing humans from great apes are endocranial globularity, reflecting neurological reorganization, and features linked to structural responses to posture and bipedal locomotion. Human endocasts are also characterized by posterior location of foramina rotunda relative to optic canals, which could be correlated to lesser subnasal prognathism compared to living great apes. Species with larger brains (gorillas and humans) display greater sexual dimorphism in endocranial size, while sexual dimorphism in endocranial shape is restricted to gorillas, differences between males and females being at least partly due to allometry. Our study of endocranial variations in extant great apes and humans provides a new comparative dataset for studies of fossil hominid endocasts. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Fundamental-frequency and load-varying thermal cycles effects on lifetime estimation of DFIG power converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, G.; Zhou, D.; Yang, J.

    2017-01-01

    In respect to a Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) system, its corresponding time scale varies from microsecond level of power semiconductor switching to second level of the mechanical response. In order to map annual thermal profile of the power semiconductors, different approaches have been ...... adopted to handle the fundamental-frequency thermal cycles and load-varying thermal cycles. Their effects on lifetime estimation of the power device in the Back-to-Back (BTB) power converter are evaluated.......In respect to a Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) system, its corresponding time scale varies from microsecond level of power semiconductor switching to second level of the mechanical response. In order to map annual thermal profile of the power semiconductors, different approaches have been...

  8. Physicochemical and thermal properties of Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Great Northern bean starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Ratnayake, Wajira S

    2014-03-01

    The compositions and properties of 5 Great Northern bean cultivars (Beryl-R, Coyne, Gemini, Marquis, and Orion) were investigated. Starch was isolated from each cultivar by a wet milling process. Isolated, unmodified starches were characterized for granular, molecular, thermal, and rheological properties. Smooth surfaces and essentially similar granule sizes and shapes were observed among all cultivars. Amylose contents were in the range 21.0% to 22.6%. Amylose and amylopectin molecular weights were approximately 10(5) and 10(9) Da, respectively. Typical C-type X-ray pattern was observed in all cultivars. Significant differences were observed among cultivars in percentage relative crystallinities, which were in the range 18.2% to 23.8%. The relative crystallinity was independent of amylose proportion and molecular weight. The 5 Great Northern bean cultivars differed in their thermal and rheological properties. Coyne and Gemini had low gelatinization enthalpies. In pasting profile analysis, Coyne had the lowest peak and final viscosities. Granule size, polymer proportion, and molecular weights had major influences on gelatinization and pasting properties of Great Northern bean starches. Great Northern bean is one of the major varieties of dry-edible beans produced worldwide. Starch is the major component in Great Northern beans, which accounts for approximately 40% of its composition. Although most legume starches have been studied in detail, physicochemical and functional properties of Great Northern bean starch are largely unknown. This study investigated the properties and thermal behaviors of 5 Great Northern bean cultivars. The new information reported in this article, on starch properties, would pave ways to find new ingredient and product applications for Great Northern beans in food processing. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Jupiter Great Red Spot and White Ovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    This photo of Jupiter was taken by Voyager 1 on March 1, 1979. The spacecraft was 3 million miles (5 million kilometers) from Jupiter at the time. The photo shows Jupiter's Great Red Spot (upper right) and the turbulent region immediately to the west. At the middle right of the frame is one of several white ovals seen on Jupiter from Earth. The structure in every feature here is far better than has ever been seen from any telescopic observations. The Red Spot and the white oval both reveal intricate and involved structure. The smallest details that can be seen in this photo are about 55 miles (95 kilometers) across. JPL manages and controls the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  10. ROV dives under Great Lakes ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsenga, S.J.; Gannon, John E.; Kennedy, Gregory; Norton, D.C.; Herdendorf, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    Observations of the underside of ice have a wide variety of applications. Severe under-ice roughness can affect ice movements, rough under-ice surfaces can scour the bottom disturbing biota and man-made structures such as pipelines, and the flow rate of rivers is often affected by under-ice roughness. A few reported observations of the underside of an ice cover have been made, usually by cutting a large block of ice and overturning it, by extensive boring, or by remote sensing. Such operations are extremely labor-intensive and, in some cases, prone to inaccuracies. Remotely operated vehicles (ROV) can partially solve these problems. In this note, we describe the use, performance in a hostile environment, and results of a study in which a ROV was deployed under the ice in Lake Erie (North American Great Lakes).

  11. The Great White Guppy: Top Predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, G. M.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrogen isotopes are often used to trace the trophic level of members of an ecosystem. As part of a stable isotope biogeochemistry and forensics course at Purdue University, students are introduced to this concept by analyzing nitrogen isotopes in sea food purchased from local grocery stores. There is a systematic increase in 15N/14N ratios going from kelp to clams/shrimp, to sardines, to tuna and finally to shark. These enrichments demonstrate how nitrogen is enriched in biomass as predators consume prey. Some of the highest nitrogen isotope enrichments observed, however, are in the common guppy. We investigated a number of aquarium fish foods and find they typically have high nitrogen isotope ratios because they are made form fish meal that is produced primarily from the remains of predator fish such as tuna. From, a isotope perspective, the guppy is the top of the food chain, more ferocious than even the Great White shark.

  12. Leiomyosarcoma of the great saphenous vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Campos Moraes Amato

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A 56-year-old male patient presented with a complaint of two painful, hard, palpable nodules in the right lower limb. A Doppler ultrasound scan revealed the presence of nodules, likely to be neoplastic. Computed angiography showed two solid hypervascular nodules in the right great saphenous vein, fed by branches of the posterior tibial artery. Embolization of the nodules using surgical cyanoacrylate was performed, followed by an excisional biopsy. Anatomical pathology and immunohistochemical analysis identified the nodule as a high-grade leiomyosarcoma, characterized by ten mitotic figures per ten high-power fields, necrosis and cell pleomorphism. Immunohistochemical analysis results were positive for caldesmon and desmin labeling. A second surgical procedure was performed to enlarge the free margins.

  13. Geoarchaeology of water management at Great Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulas, Federica; Pikirayi, Innocent; Sagiya, Munyaradzi Elton

    In Africa, research on water management in urban contexts has often focussed rainfall, and the occurrence floods and droughts, whereas small-scale catchment systems and soil moisture regimes have received far less attention. This paper sets out to re-address the issue by examining the occurrence......, distribution and use of multiple water resources at the ancient urban landscape of Great Zimbabwe. Here, the rise and demise of the urban site have been linked to changing rainfall in the 1st mill. AD. Accordingly, rainfall shortages and consequent droughts eventually leading to the decline and abandonment...... management of water resources over the last thousand years or so. These findings call for a rethinking of current models of urban evolutions in the region. More importantly, this study illustrates the need for integrating different datasets at multiple spatial and temporal scales to address people...

  14. Walt Whitman, our great gay poet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, John

    2008-01-01

    This article surveys the critical debates around Walt Whitman's "Calamus" cluster, arguing that a "queer" reading of Whitman--one that does not see him as, for example, a closeted homosexual who censored his work for fear of being "outed"--is both historically accurate and politically efficacious. While previous efforts to reclaim Whitman as "our great gay poet" are understandable--particularly given critical readings of Whitman that denied the homoeroticism of his poems--today, a reading of Whitman as homosexual threatens to simplify our understanding of the history of homosexuality and to blunt the power of Whitman's poetry to continue to "queer" normative understandings of sex and gender identity categories and their relationship to politics.

  15. The Great Game and the copyright villain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Rosenblatt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the reactions of Sherlock Holmes fans and enthusiasts to assertions of intellectual property ownership and infringement by putative rights holders in two eras of Sherlockian history. In both the 1946–47 and 2013–15 eras, Sherlock Holmes devotees villainized the entities claiming ownership of intellectual property in Holmes, distancing those entities from Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and casting them as greedy and morally bankrupt. Throughout each era, Sherlockians did not shy away from creating transformative works based on the Holmes canon over the objections of putative rights holders. This complicates the usual expectation that copyright assertions against fans are likely to chill fan production. The essay explores possible reasons why Sherlockian fandom might differ from other fandoms in this respect, including the role of the Great Game form of Sherlockian fandom in shaping fan attitudes toward their subject.

  16. Potential Lacustrine Records of Cascadia Great Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, A. E.; Goldfinger, C.; Briles, C.; Gavin, D. G.; Colombaroli, D.

    2011-12-01

    Lacustrine sediments have been used successfully over the past few decades to develop earthquake chronologies and rupture assessments in a variety of locations and settings, from large lakes in Japan and Chile to Alpine lakes in central Europe. Although inland lakes in the Pacific Northwest have been used extensively for fire and vegetation reconstructions, they have been largely ignored with respect to their tectonic setting. Strong shaking from great earthquakes at subduction zones is known to produce significant environmental disturbance and can result in lake deposits that are distinctive and datable records of these events. Cascadia paleoseismic studies, including those at Lake Washington, Bradley Lake, and Effingham and Saanich Inlets, provide direct evidence that records of Cascadia great earthquakes are preserved in a variety of sedimentary archives. The field of marine turbidite paleoseismology has resulted in advancements which we have now begun to apply to inland lacustrine sediments using the records at Sanger and Bolan Lakes (both spring-fed, alpine cirque lakes), and Upper Squaw Lake (a stream-fed, landslide-dammed lake) located 45-100 km inland from the coast near the California/Oregon border. Inorganic terrigenous layers are visible in these sediments, and physical property data (via CT scans, magnetic susceptibility and gamma density) show characteristics that correlate between lakes, and more surprisingly, correlate great distances to seismogenic offshore turbidite deposits. The highest resolution site is Upper Squaw Lake, a 7.2 ha landslide-dammed lake which drains a 40 km2 watershed. A 10 m core spanning the past 2,000 years was extracted from this site, and is comprised of silty gyttja interbedded with inorganic turbidite deposits. Six major events are observed this core, similar to the number of events in the marine turbidite record in the same time period, with supporting age control. The characteristics of the physical property data are

  17. The Great Alliance Between Politics and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Pietro

    2014-07-01

    Dear Friends, I accepted the invitation to take part in this important scientific appointment, which has remarkably reached its 46th edition this year, with great pleasure. First of all, I would like to warmly welcome and thank the scientists who have come from all over the world to give their contribution of intelligence and commitment to the future of our planet and of humanity. I would like to thank the World Federation of Scientists, the ICSC World Lab and the Ettore Majorana Foundation for their invitation and hospitality and I would like to express my personal consideration and respect for Professor Antonino Zichichi, for his competent and passionate dedication in keeping the attention of science, public opinion and politics focused on planetary emergencies for decades, combining scientific rigour and popularisation skill...

  18. Data Collection During the Great American Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernier, Dave

    2017-12-01

    I am lucky enough (and old enough) to have seen three total eclipses. About a year ago, I became aware of the total eclipse that was coming to the United States on August 21, 2017. Because I knew how exciting a total eclipse can be, I spent a lot of time encouraging people to travel to the zone of totality if they possibly could. I also encouraged teachers to turn this event into a STEM lesson by taking data. We asked teachers to join us in collecting data during the eclipse and to share it. The people collecting these data were either teachers or former teachers (like me). Many times, the sensors were mounted with duct tape and rubber bands, but we got some great data!

  19. Dipole vortices in the Great Australian Bight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cresswell, George R.; Lund-Hansen, Lars C.; Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard

    2015-01-01

    Shipboard measurements from late 2006 made by the Danish Galathea 3 Expedition and satellite sea surface temperature images revealed a chain of cool and warm mushroom' dipole vortices that mixed warm, salty, oxygen-poor waters on and near the continental shelf of the Great Australian Bight (GAB......) with cooler, fresher, oxygen-rich waters offshore. The alternating jets' flowing into the mushrooms were directed mainly northwards and southwards and differed in temperature by only 1.5 degrees C; however, the salinity difference was as much as 0.5, and therefore quite large. The GAB waters were slightly...... denser than the cooler offshore waters. The field of dipoles evolved and distorted, but appeared to drift westwards at 5km day-1 over two weeks, and one new mushroom carried GAB water southwards at 7km day(-1). Other features encountered between Cape Leeuwin and Tasmania included the Leeuwin Current...

  20. Patient organizations in Finland: increasing numbers and great variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toiviainen, Hanna K; Vuorenkoski, Lauri H; Hemminki, Elina K

    2010-09-01

    There is very little research on patient organizations (POs), even though their numbers and influence seem to be increasing. The purpose of this study was to describe the establishment, membership, size, organization, decision making and basic funding of national POs in Finland. National POs (n = 130) were identified from their umbrella organizations and by Internet searches. Data were collected from POs' web pages (87% of POs had one), Finland's Slot Machine Association (RAY, an important public financier of POs), a relevant survey done by a local TV-company, and interviews and written materials of POs. Some current national POs were established around the turn of the 19(th) century. The rate of establishment of new POs increased from the 1970s and particularly in the 1990s when POs were characterized by increasing specialization. POs focused on different patient groups and diseases and were founded by philanthropists, physicians, patients, parents and the drug industry. Members could be patients, patient relatives, health-care professionals and organizations. POs widely varied in memberships (20-145 000, in 2002) and in number of paid personnel (0-1395, in 2002), organizational structure and decision making. Interest groups and financiers were often represented in decision-making organs. Activities included mutual support and service production, and, increasingly, informing and lobbying. POs had wide domestic and international co-operation and networking. Drug industry marketing was visible on PO web pages. Budget sizes varied (4000-15 million euros, in 2001). The main public financier was RAY. The old national POs were large and part of national social and health care, but newer ones were often established for mutual support and lobbying. National POs are not uniform but characterized by great variation. The number of national POs is increasing suggesting tighter competition for financing and visibility in the future.

  1. Comparison of results from different NDE techniques from ceramic matrix composites with varying porosity levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Imelda; Ojard, Greg; Santhosh, Unni; Ahmad, Jalees; Gowayed, Yasser

    2015-03-01

    Ceramic matrix composites (CMC's) are attractive materials for use in advanced turbine engines. Due to the nature of available processing techniques, however, the amount and distribution of porosity in CMC's can vary greatly. This can be particularly true in parts with complex geometries. It is therefore important to characterize the porosity with non-destructive techniques and understand its effect on properties. A series of CMC samples were fabricated with varying levels of porosity and analyzed with different NDE techniques. The results were categorized and analyzed with respect to ease of interpretation and degree to which they could be quantified and used in models to determine the effects of defects. The results were also correlated with microstructural examination and mechanical properties.

  2. GLL RPT IONOSPHERE PROFILES

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Galileo Radio Propagation Team Ionosphere Profile data set is small number of electron density profiles derived from radio occultation data collected while...

  3. GHGRP Industrial Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program periodically produces detailed profiles of the various industries that report under the program. These profiles contain detailed analyses. This page hosts data highlights for all sectors.

  4. HOPWA Performance Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HOPWA Performance Profiles are generated quarterly for all agencies receiving HOPWA formula or competitive grants. Performance Profiles are available at the national...

  5. Estimating varying coefficients for partial differential equation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyu; Cao, Jiguo; Carroll, Raymond J

    2017-09-01

    Partial differential equations (PDEs) are used to model complex dynamical systems in multiple dimensions, and their parameters often have important scientific interpretations. In some applications, PDE parameters are not constant but can change depending on the values of covariates, a feature that we call varying coefficients. We propose a parameter cascading method to estimate varying coefficients in PDE models from noisy data. Our estimates of the varying coefficients are shown to be consistent and asymptotically normally distributed. The performance of our method is evaluated by a simulation study and by an empirical study estimating three varying coefficients in a PDE model arising from LIDAR data. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  6. Methods for time-varying exposure related problems in pharmacoepidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazzagli, Laura; Linder, Marie; Zhang, Mingliang

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Lack of control for time-varying exposures can lead to substantial bias in estimates of treatment effects. The aim of this study is to provide an overview and guidance on some of the available methodologies used to address problems related to time-varying exposure and confounding...... pharmacoepidemiological problems, construction of treatment episodes, time-varying confounders, cumulative exposure and latency, and treatment switching. RESULTS: A correct treatment episodes construction is fundamental to avoid bias in treatment effect estimates. Several methods exist to address time-varying covariates...

  7. Audio Effects Based on Biorthogonal Time-Varying Frequency Warping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Cavaliere

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available We illustrate the mathematical background and musical use of a class of audio effects based on frequency warping. These effects alter the frequency content of a signal via spectral mapping. They can be implemented in dispersive tapped delay lines based on a chain of all-pass filters. In a homogeneous line with first-order all-pass sections, the signal formed by the output samples at a given time is related to the input via the Laguerre transform. However, most musical signals require a time-varying frequency modification in order to be properly processed. Vibrato in musical instruments or voice intonation in the case of vocal sounds may be modeled as small and slow pitch variations. Simulation of these effects requires techniques for time-varying pitch and/or brightness modification that are very useful for sound processing. The basis for time-varying frequency warping is a time-varying version of the Laguerre transformation. The corresponding implementation structure is obtained as a dispersive tapped delay line, where each of the frequency dependent delay element has its own phase response. Thus, time-varying warping results in a space-varying, inhomogeneous, propagation structure. We show that time-varying frequency warping is associated to an expansion over biorthogonal sets generalizing the discrete Laguerre basis. Slow time-varying characteristics lead to slowly varying parameter sequences. The corresponding sound transformation does not suffer from discontinuities typical of delay lines based on unit delays.

  8. EFFECTS OF ACUTE PHYSICAL EXERCISE OF VARYING INTENSITY ON LIPID METABOLISM IN MIDDLE AGED MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Roytberg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate effects of acute physical exercise of varying intensity on lipid metabolism in middle aged men.Material and methods. Two bouts of physical exercise of moderate and high intensity were performed in 54 clinically healthy men aged 30-45 y.o. without obesity with subsequent assessment of lipid profile (total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride levels, and atherogenic index. Effect of physical exercise on the lipid profile as studied both in the whole group and in subjects with and without insulin resistance.Results. Acute physical exercise of moderate and high intensity produced beneficial effects on lipid parameters (increase in cholesterol of high density lipoprotein level and reduction of atherogenic index. Increased intensity of physical exercise caused more prominent improvement of lipid profile in subjects without insulin resistance. However subjects with insulin resistance had weaker response to physical exercise than individuals without insulin resistance did and increased intensity of physical exercise did not cause significant improvement of lipid parameters in subjects with insulin resistance.Conclusion. Response to moderate or high intensive physical exercise may depend on baseline metabolic profile. It should be taken into account under development of preventive programs for modifying risk factors of cardio-vascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  9. A Time-Varied Probabilistic ON/OFF Switching Algorithm for Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Rached, Nadhir B.

    2018-01-11

    In this letter, we develop a time-varied probabilistic on/off switching planning method for cellular networks to reduce their energy consumption. It consists in a risk-aware optimization approach that takes into consideration the randomness of the user profile associated with each base station (BS). The proposed approach jointly determines (i) the instants of time at which the current active BS configuration must be updated due to an increase or decrease of the network traffic load, and (ii) the set of minimum BSs to be activated to serve the networks’ subscribers. Probabilistic metrics modeling the traffic profile variation are developed to trigger this dynamic on/off switching operation. Selected simulation results are then performed to validate the proposed algorithm for different system parameters.

  10. PROFILER: 1D galaxy light profile decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciambur, Bogdan C.

    2017-05-01

    Written in Python, PROFILER analyzes the radial surface brightness profiles of galaxies. It accurately models a wide range of galaxies and galaxy components, such as elliptical galaxies, the bulges of spiral and lenticular galaxies, nuclear sources, discs, bars, rings, and spiral arms with a variety of parametric functions routinely employed in the field (Sérsic, core-Sérsic, exponential, Gaussian, Moffat and Ferrers). In addition, Profiler can employ the broken exponential model (relevant for disc truncations or antitruncations) and two special cases of the edge-on disc model: namely along the major axis (in the disc plane) and along the minor axis (perpendicular to the disc plane).

  11. Profiles of rivers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannett, Henry

    1901-01-01

    The profiles here represented are derived from various sources and differ from one another greatly in accuracy. Many of them are drawn from the annual reports of the Chief of Engineers, U.S.A., under which are included the reports of the Mississippi and Missouri River commissions. The heights thus obtained are those of the level of water in the rivers at certain stages, and may be regarded as of great accuracy. Others have been obtained from railroad profiles, being the level of the rivers at points where the railroads touch or cross them. Still others have been taken from the atlas sheets of the United States Geological Survey and from other maps. In most such cases the points at which the contours cross the rivers upon the maps have been taken. These again differ in point of accuracy with the means adopted for the location of the contours. Where the spirit level was used in locating contours it may be assumed that the determinations are fairly good, but where the barometer was used the probable error may be of considerable magnitude. Such elevations are, however, mainly in the mountainous parts of the country, where the fall of the streams is great, and where, therefore, errors of considerable magnitude may be tolerated, as affecting but little the form of the profile.

  12. An automated sawtooth detection algorithm for strongly varying plasma conditions and crash characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gude, A.; Maraschek, M.; Kardaun, O.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2017-09-01

    A sawtooth crash algorithm that can automatically detect irregular sawteeth with strongly varying crash characteristics, including inverted crashes with central signal increase, has been developed. Such sawtooth behaviour is observed in ASDEX Upgrade with its tungsten wall, especially in phases with central ECRH. This application of ECRH for preventing impurity accumulation is envisaged also for ITER. The detection consists of three steps: a sensitive edge detection, a multichannel combination to increase detection performance, and a profile analysis that tests generic sawtooth crash features. The effect of detection parameters on the edge detection results has been investigated using synthetic signals and tested in an application to ASDEX Upgrade soft x-ray data.

  13. The effect of spatially varying velocity field on the transport of radioactivity in a porous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Soubhadra; Srinivas, C V; Baskaran, R; Venkatraman, B

    2016-10-01

    In the event of an accidental leak of the immobilized nuclear waste from an underground repository, it may come in contact of the flow of underground water and start migrating. Depending on the nature of the geological medium, the flow velocity of water may vary spatially. Here, we report a numerical study on the migration of radioactivity due to a space dependent flow field. For a detailed analysis, seven different types of velocity profiles are considered and the corresponding concentrations are compared. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Personality and information gathering in free-ranging great tits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Overveld, Thijs; Matthysen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    One aspect of animal personality that has been well described in captivity, but received only little attention in studies in the wild, is that personality types may vary in their behavioural flexibility towards environmental changes. A fundamental factor underlying such differences is believed to be the degree to which individual behavior is guided by environmental stimuli. We tested this hypothesis in the wild using free-ranging great tits. Personality variation was quantified using exploratory behaviour in a novel environment, which has previously been shown to be repeatable and correlated with other behaviours in this and other populations of the same species. By temporarily removing food at feeding stations we examined whether birds with different personality differed in returning to visit empty feeders as this may provide information on how birds continue to sample their environment after a sudden change in conditions. In two summer experiments, we found that fast-exploring juveniles visited empty feeders less often compared to slow-exploring juveniles. In winter, sampling behaviour was sex dependent but not related to personality. In both seasons, we found that birds who sampled empty feeders more often were more likely to rediscover food after we again re-baited the feeding stations, but there was no effect of personality. Our results show that personality types may indeed differ in ways of collecting environmental information, which is consistent with the view of personalities as different styles of coping with environmental changes. The adaptive value of these alternative behavioural tactics, however, needs to be further explored.

  15. Geographic setting influences Great Lakes beach microbiological water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Stelzer, Erin A.; Fuller, Lori M.; Brennan, Angela K.; Isaacs, Natasha M.; Johnson, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding of factors that influence Escherichia coli (EC) and enterococci (ENT) concentrations, pathogen occurrence, and microbial sources at Great Lakes beaches comes largely from individual beach studies. Using 12 representative beaches, we tested enrichment cultures from 273 beach water and 22 tributary samples for EC, ENT, and genes indicating the bacterial pathogens Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC), Shigella spp., Salmonella spp, Campylobacter jejuni/coli, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and 108–145 samples for Bacteroides human, ruminant, and gull source-marker genes. EC/ENT temporal patterns, general Bacteroides concentration, and pathogen types and occurrence were regionally consistent (up to 40 km), but beach catchment variables (drains/creeks, impervious surface, urban land cover) influenced exceedances of EC/ENT standards and detections of Salmonella and STEC. Pathogen detections were more numerous when the EC/ENT Beach Action Value (but not when the Geometric Mean and Statistical Threshold Value) was exceeded. EC, ENT, and pathogens were not necessarily influenced by the same variables. Multiple Bacteroides sources, varying by date, occurred at every beach. Study of multiple beaches in different geographic settings provided new insights on the contrasting influences of regional and local variables, and a broader-scale perspective, on significance of EC/ENT exceedances, bacterial sources, and pathogen occurrence.

  16. Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad G. Stevens, P.E.; Troy K. Simonsen; Kerryanne M. Leroux

    2012-06-09

    In fiscal year 2005, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) received funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake a broad array of tasks to either directly or indirectly address the barriers that faced much of the Great Plains states and their efforts to produce and transmit wind energy at the time. This program, entitled Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project, was focused on the central goal of stimulating wind energy development through expansion of new transmission capacity or development of new wind energy capacity through alternative market development. The original task structure was as follows: Task 1 - Regional Renewable Credit Tracking System (later rescoped to Small Wind Turbine Training Center); Task 2 - Multistate Transmission Collaborative; Task 3 - Wind Energy Forecasting System; and Task 4 - Analysis of the Long-Term Role of Hydrogen in the Region. As carried out, Task 1 involved the creation of the Small Wind Turbine Training Center (SWTTC). The SWTTC, located Grand Forks, North Dakota, consists of a single wind turbine, the Endurance S-250, on a 105-foot tilt-up guyed tower. The S-250 is connected to the electrical grid on the 'load side' of the electric meter, and the power produced by the wind turbine is consumed locally on the property. Establishment of the SWTTC will allow EERC personnel to provide educational opportunities to a wide range of participants, including grade school through college-level students and the general public. In addition, the facility will allow the EERC to provide technical training workshops related to the installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. In addition, under Task 1, the EERC hosted two small wind turbine workshops on May 18, 2010, and March 8, 2011, at the EERC in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Task 2 involved the EERC cosponsoring and aiding in the planning of three transmission workshops in the midwest and western regions. Under Task

  17. Radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahier, B A; Tracy, B L

    1995-12-01

    The Great Lakes basin is of radiologic interest due to the large population within its boundaries that may be exposed to various sources of ionizing radiation. Specific radionuclides of interest in the basin arising from natural and artificial sources include 3H, 14C, 90Sr, 129I, 131I, 137Cs, 222Rn, 226Ra, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, and 241Am. The greatest contribution to total radiation exposure is the natural background radiation that provides an average dose of about 2.6 mSv/year to all basin residents. Global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted before 1963 has resulted in the largest input of anthropogenic radioactivity into the lakes. Of increasing importance is the radionuclide input from the various components of the nuclear fuel cycle. Although the dose from these activities is currently very low, it is expected to increase if there is continued growth of the nuclear industry. In spite of strict regulations on design and operation of nuclear power facilities, the potential exists for a serious accident as a result of the large inventories of radionuclides contained in the reactor cores; however, these risks are several orders of magnitude less than the risks from other natural and man-made hazards. An area of major priority over the next few decades will be the management of the substantial amounts of radioactive waste generated by nuclear fuel cycle activities. Based on derived risk coefficients, the theoretical incidence of fatal and weighted nonfatal cancers and hereditary defects in the basin's population, attributable to 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation, is conservatively estimated to be of the order of 3.4 x 10(5) cases. The total number of attributable health effects to the year 2050 from fallout radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin is of the order of 5.0 x 10(3). In contrast, estimates of attributable health effects from 50 years of exposure to current nuclear fuel cycle effluent in the basin are of the order of 2

  18. Transcriptional Profiling Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Patient Sputa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildner, Leticia Muraro; Gould, Katherine A; Waddell, Simon J

    2018-01-01

    The emergence of drug resistance threatens to destroy tuberculosis control programs worldwide, with resistance to all first-line drugs and most second-line drugs detected. Drug tolerance (or phenotypic drug resistance) is also likely to be clinically relevant over the 6-month long standard treatment for drug-sensitive tuberculosis. Transcriptional profiling the response of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to antimicrobial drugs offers a novel interpretation of drug efficacy and mycobacterial drug-susceptibility that likely varies in dynamic microenvironments, such as the lung. This chapter describes the noninvasive sampling of tuberculous sputa and techniques for mRNA profiling M. tb bacilli during patient therapy to characterize real-world drug actions.

  19. Time-varying interaction leads to amplitude death in coupled ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new form of time-varying interaction in coupled oscillators is introduced. In this interaction, each individual oscillator has always time-independent self-feedback while its interaction with other oscillators are modulated with time-varying function. This interaction gives rise to a phenomenon called amplitude death even in ...

  20. Time-frequency representation based on time-varying ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A parametric time-frequency representation is presented based on time- varying autoregressive model (TVAR), followed by applications to non-stationary vibration signal processing. The identification of time-varying model coefficients and the determination of model order, are addressed by means of neural ...

  1. Linear Parameter Varying Control of Doubly Fed Induction Machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tien, H. Nguyen; Scherer, Carsten W.; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; Müller, Volkmar

    This paper is concerned with the design of a self-scheduled current controller for doubly fed induction machines. The design is based on the framework of linear parameter-varying systems where the mechanical angular speed is considered to be a measurable time-varying parameter. The objective is to

  2. Surface sealing and hydraulic conductances under varying-intensity rains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giménez, D.; Dirksen, C.; Miedema, R.; Eppink, L.A.A.J.; Schoonderbeek, D.

    1992-01-01

    In the past, investigations on surface seals developing under simulated rains usually were performed with uniform rainfall intensities. Recent studies, however, showed that varying-intensity rains affect erosion and volumes of runoff. We conducted a study on surface sealing under varying-intensity

  3. Expected optimal feedback with Time-Varying Parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucci, M.P.; Kendrick, D.A.; Amman, H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070970777

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we derive the closed loop form of the Expected Optimal Feedback rule, sometimes called passive learning stochastic control, with time varying parameters. As such this paper extends the work of Kendrick (1981,2002, Chapter 6) where parameters are assumed to vary randomly around a known

  4. Specimen loading list for the varying temperature experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qualls, A.L.; Sitterson, R.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The varying temperature experiment HFIR-RB-13J has been assembled and inserted in the reactor. Approximately 5300 specimens were cleaned, inspected, matched, and loaded into four specimen holders. A listing of each specimen loaded into the steady temperature holder, its position in the capsule, and the identification of the corresponding specimen loaded into the varying temperature holder is presented in this report.

  5. How Do Parenting Concepts Vary within and between the Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean Christophe

    2009-01-01

    How do parenting concepts vary within and between the families? The present study regards parenting as a complex family process by considering three concepts of parenting: styles, differential treatment and coparenting consistency. A main question was addressed: whether and how these parenting concepts vary within the families towards siblings or…

  6. What makes CERN’s research great

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    As a newcomer to CERN, I find myself both honoured and humbled to have had the role of Research Director confided in me for five years.    My career has taken me from Hamburg to Stanford and Heidelberg and back to Hamburg, and although this is the first time I have been based at CERN, it is not my first involvement with the Laboratory. I was a member of the OPAL collaboration in the late 1980s, and chaired the LHCC from 2011 to 2014. In addition, over the past ten years I have enjoyed contacts with many colleagues at CERN, via joint European programmes and particularly in discussions on linear colliders. In this, my first message to personnel, I’d like to set out my view of what makes CERN’s research great, and where I’d like to see things when I step down at the end of 2020. First and foremost, I have to refer to the many excellent experts at CERN and to the thousands of users of our facilities. Their ideas are the backbone of all...

  7. Great Salt Lake basins study unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Kidd M.; Baskin, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began implementing a full-scale National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program.The long-term goals of the NAWQA Program are to describe the status and trends in the quality of a large, representative part of the Nation’s surface- and ground-water resources and to provide a sound, scientific understanding of the primary natural and human factors that affect the quality of these resources. In meeting these goals, the program will produce a wealth of water-quality information that will be useful to policy makers and managers at Federal, State, and local levels.A major design feature of the NAWQA Program will enable water-quality information at different areal scales to be integrated. A major component of the program is study-unit investigations, which ae the principal building blocks of the program upon which national-level assessment activities will be based. The 60 study-unit investigations that make up the program are hydrologic systems that include principal river basins and aquifer systems throughout the Nation. These study units cover areas from less than 1.000 to greater than 60,000 mi2 and incorporate from about 60 to 70 percent of the Nation’s water use and population served by public water supply. In 1993, assessment activities began in the Great Salt Lake Basins NAWQA study unit.

  8. Explore electricity! with 25 great projects

    CERN Document Server

    Vleet, Carmella Van; Vleet, Carmella

    2013-01-01

    Given the pace of how we harness and utilize electricity, as well as the importance of developing new sources of energy, electricity is a timely subject for kids to explore. In Explore Electricity! With 25 Great Projects, kids ages 6-9 will learn the basics of electricity: currents, circuits, power, magnetism and electromagnetism, motors and generators. They'll become more attuned to how much they rely on electricity in their daily lives. They'll also understand that while electricity is a wonderful resource, and one we've used to our advantage ever since it was discovered, the future of how we make and use electricity is still changing and there are things they can do today to impact these changes. This title invites kids to experiment on their own with 25 simple projects that will "spark" their learning and enthusiasm, including making their own clothespin switch, lemon battery, compass, electromagnet, and flashlight, as well as generating their own "lightning." These hands-on activities combined with infor...

  9. Regional Personality Differences in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentfrow, Peter J.; Jokela, Markus; Lamb, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent investigations indicate that personality traits are unevenly distributed geographically, with some traits being more prevalent in certain places than in others. The geographical distributions of personality traits are associated with a range of important political, economic, social, and health outcomes. The majority of research on this subject has focused on the geographical distributions and macro-level correlates of personality across nations or regions of the United States. The aim of the present investigation was to replicate and extend that past work by examining regional personality differences in Great Britain. Using a sample of nearly 400,000 British residents, we mapped the geographical distributions of the Big Five Personality traits across 380 Local Authority Districts and examined the associations with important political, economic, social, and health outcomes. The results revealed distinct geographical clusters, with neighboring regions displaying similar personality characteristics, and robust associations with the macro-level outcome variables. Overall, the patterns of results were similar to findings from past research. PMID:25803819

  10. Incidental oligotrophication of North American Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mary Anne; Fahnenstiel, Gary; Scavia, Donald

    2011-04-15

    Phytoplankton production is an important factor in determining both ecosystem stability and the provision of ecosystem goods and services. The expansive and economically important North American Great Lakes are subjected to multiple stressors and understanding their responses to those stresses is important for understanding system-wide ecological controls. Here we show gradual increases in spring silica concentration (an indicator of decreasing growth of the dominant diatoms) in all basins of Lakes Michigan and Huron (USA and Canadian waters) between 1983 and 2008. These changes indicate the lakes have undergone gradual oligotrophication coincident with and anticipated by nutrient management implementation. Slow declines in seasonal drawdown of silica (proxy for seasonal phytoplankton production) also occurred, until recent years, when lake-wide responses were punctuated by abrupt decreases, putting them in the range of oligotrophic Lake Superior. The timing of these dramatic production drops is coincident with expansion of populations of invasive dreissenid mussels, particularly quagga mussels, in each basin. The combined effect of nutrient mitigation and invasive species expansion demonstrates the challenges facing large-scale ecosystems and suggest the need for new management regimes for large ecosystems.

  11. Time varying voltage combustion control and diagnostics sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorpening, Benjamin T [Morgantown, WV; Thornton, Jimmy D [Morgantown, WV; Huckaby, E David [Morgantown, WV; Fincham, William [Fairmont, WV

    2011-04-19

    A time-varying voltage is applied to an electrode, or a pair of electrodes, of a sensor installed in a fuel nozzle disposed adjacent the combustion zone of a continuous combustion system, such as of the gas turbine engine type. The time-varying voltage induces a time-varying current in the flame which is measured and used to determine flame capacitance using AC electrical circuit analysis. Flame capacitance is used to accurately determine the position of the flame from the sensor and the fuel/air ratio. The fuel and/or air flow rate (s) is/are then adjusted to provide reduced flame instability problems such as flashback, combustion dynamics and lean blowout, as well as reduced emissions. The time-varying voltage may be an alternating voltage and the time-varying current may be an alternating current.

  12. Homogenization of the lipid profile values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro-Botet, Juan; Rodríguez-Padial, Luis; Brotons, Carlos; Esteban-Salán, Margarita; García-Lerín, Aurora; Pintó, Xavier; Lekuona, Iñaki; Ordóñez-Llanos, Jordi

    2017-12-20

    Analytical reports from the clinical laboratory are essential to guide clinicians about what lipid profile values should be considered altered and, therefore, require intervention. Unfortunately, there is a great heterogeneity in the lipid values reported as "normal, desirable, recommended or referenced" by clinical laboratories. This can difficult clinical decisions and be a barrier to achieve the therapeutic goals for cardiovascular prevention. A recent international recommendation has added a new heterogeneity factor for the interpretation of lipid profile, such as the possibility of measuring it without previous fasting. All this justifies the need to develop a document that adapts the existing knowledge to the clinical practice of our health system. In this regard, professionals from different scientific societies involved in the measurement and use of lipid profile data have developed this document to establish recommendations that facilitate their homogenization. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  13. Ozone height profiles using laser heterodyne radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S. L.

    1994-01-01

    The monitoring of vertical profiles of ozone and related minor constituents in the atmosphere are of great significance to understanding the complex interaction between atmospheric dynamics, chemistry and radiation budget. An ultra high spectral resolution tunable CO2 laser heterodyne radiometer has been designed, developed and set up at the National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi to obtain vertical profiles of various minor constituents the characteristic absorption lines in 9 to 11 micron spectral range. Due to its high spectral resolution the lines can be resolved completely and data obtained are inverted to get vertical profiles using an inversion technique developed by the author. In the present communication the salient features of the laser heterodyne system and the results obtained are discussed in detail.

  14. Education in Honduras. A Critical Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    graduates for the different environments they may face (eg.urban, rural, multigrade ). Likewise, the curriculum is weak on content, instructional...prevalence of multigrade classrooms where teachers handle more than one grade level simultaneously. In the rural areas, with 88 percent of the schools, the...helps. -- Multigrade teachers have more repeaters. -- Textbooks are Important. -- Real access to school time varies greatly; the more time spent In

  15. Chemical water shutoff profile research status and development trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L. T.

    2017-08-01

    Excess water production is now a common problem encountered in almost every water flooding mature oilfield. The exploitation of oil field is faced with great challenge because of the decrease of oil field production. For the development of high water cut rare the status quo chemical water shutoff profile control technology is an important solution to solve this problem. Oilfield chemical water shutoff has important application prospects. This paper analyzes the water shutoff profile control and water shutoff profile control agent currently oilfield applications, moreover the use and development of blocking agent profile technology is to improve reservoir recovery and propose solutions. With the constant increase in water cut, profile technology should be simple, efficient, practical and profile control agent of development should be economic, environmental, and long period

  16. Dynamics of Foreign Exchange Networks: A Time-Varying Copula Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang-Jin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a time-varying copula approach and the minimum spanning tree (MST method, we propose a time-varying correlation network-based approach to investigate dynamics of foreign exchange (FX networks. In piratical terms, we choose the daily FX rates of 42 major currencies in the international FX market during the period of 2005–2012 as the empirical data. The empirical results show that (i the distributions of cross-correlation coefficients (distances in the international FX market (network are fat-tailed and negatively skewed; (ii financial crises during the analyzed period have a great effect on the FX network’s topology structure and lead to the US dollar becoming more centered in the MST; (iii the topological measures of the FX network show a large fluctuation and display long-range correlations; (iv the FX network has a long-term memory effect and presents a scale-free behavior in the most of time; and (v a great majority of links between currencies in the international FX market survive from one time to the next, and multistep survive rates of FX networks drop sharply as the time increases.

  17. Sequential tool use in great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Schumacher, Lena; Call, Josep

    2012-01-01

    Sequential tool use is defined as using a tool to obtain another non-food object which subsequently itself will serve as a tool to act upon a further (sub)goal. Previous studies have shown that birds and great apes succeed in such tasks. However, the inclusion of a training phase for each of the sequential steps and the low cost associated with retrieving the longest tools limits the scope of the conclusions. The goal of the experiments presented here was, first to replicate a previous study on sequential tool use conducted on New Caledonian crows and, second, extend this work by increasing the cost of retrieving a tool in order to test tool selectivity of apes. In Experiment 1, we presented chimpanzees, orangutans and bonobos with an out-of-reach reward, two tools that were available but too short to reach the food and four out-of-reach tools differing in functionality. Similar to crows, apes spontaneously used up to 3 tools in sequence to get the reward and also showed a strong preference for the longest out-of reach tool independently of the distance of the food. In Experiment 2, we increased the cost of reaching for the longest out-of reach tool. Now apes used up to 5 tools in sequence to get the reward and became more selective in their choice of the longest tool as the costs of its retrieval increased. The findings of the studies presented here contribute to the growing body of comparative research on tool use.

  18. The Great Belt coherence experiment. [Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, J.; Kristensen, L.; Courtney, M.S.

    1991-08-01

    We have studied theoretically and experimentally lateral spectral coherences of turbulent velocity components over water at the height of 70 m. Simple theoretical considerations show that if these coherences are known it is possible with just the knowledge of the spectra to calculate the power spectrum of the lift forces on the bridge deck. These considerations also show that the force spectrum at a particular frequency {omega} = {omega}{sub 0} grows with the mean wind speed U raised to a power which can be as large as 17/3, i.e. the r.m.s. amplitude of the force at that frequency is proportional to U{sup 17/6}. We have shown quantitatively that only if the displacement D between the measured wind speed components is small compared to the scale of the turbulence do we know for certain that the coherences are parameterless functions of the dimensionless variable {omega}D/U with the implication that the coherence of identical velocity components goes to one as {omega} goes to zero. The experimental data were obtained from three sonic anemometers mounted at the top of two 70 m masts on the island Sprogoe in the middle of the Great Belt between Zealand and Fyn. The displacements were 15.0, 32.5 and 47.5 m. The data shows that the coherences only for the smallest displacement approach one as the frequency goes to zero. The larger the displacement the smaller the coherence at zero frequency. A dynamic ''shear distortion'' model explains the behavior of the coherence quite well and makes it possible to predict the coherence on basis of velocity spectra measured at one point. Simple exponential fit to the actual data have been obtained. (author) 23 refs.

  19. Sequential tool use in great apes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Martin-Ordas

    Full Text Available Sequential tool use is defined as using a tool to obtain another non-food object which subsequently itself will serve as a tool to act upon a further (subgoal. Previous studies have shown that birds and great apes succeed in such tasks. However, the inclusion of a training phase for each of the sequential steps and the low cost associated with retrieving the longest tools limits the scope of the conclusions. The goal of the experiments presented here was, first to replicate a previous study on sequential tool use conducted on New Caledonian crows and, second, extend this work by increasing the cost of retrieving a tool in order to test tool selectivity of apes. In Experiment 1, we presented chimpanzees, orangutans and bonobos with an out-of-reach reward, two tools that were available but too short to reach the food and four out-of-reach tools differing in functionality. Similar to crows, apes spontaneously used up to 3 tools in sequence to get the reward and also showed a strong preference for the longest out-of reach tool independently of the distance of the food. In Experiment 2, we increased the cost of reaching for the longest out-of reach tool. Now apes used up to 5 tools in sequence to get the reward and became more selective in their choice of the longest tool as the costs of its retrieval increased. The findings of the studies presented here contribute to the growing body of comparative research on tool use.

  20. Conceiving and Marketing NASA's Great Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwit, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In late 1984, Dr. Charles P. (Charlie) Pellerin Jr., director of the Astrophysics Division of NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) faced a dilemma. Congress and the White House had given approval to work that would lead to the launch of the Gamma Ray Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope, but competing segments of the astronomical community were clamoring for two additional missions, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) and the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). Pellerin knew that Congress would not countenance a request for another costly astronomical space observatory so soon after approving GRO and HST. He also foresaw that if he arbitrarily assigned priority to either AXAF or SIRTF he would split the astronomical community. The losing faction would be up on Capitol Hill, lobbying Congress to reverse the decision; and Congress would do what it always does with split communities --- nothing. Pellerin called a meeting of leading astrophysicists to see how a persuasive argument could be made for both these new observatories and to market them as vital to a first comprehensive inventory of the universe conducted across all wavelength ranges. The group provided Pellerin a rotating membership of astrophysicists, who could debate and resolve issues so that decisions he reached would have solid community support. It also helped him to market his ideas in Congress. Ultimately, the concept of the Great Observatories came to be accepted; but its implementation faced myriad difficulties. False starts, political alliances that never worked out, and dramatic changes of direction necessitated by the Challenger disaster of early 1986 continually kept progress off balance. My paper follows these twists and turns from late 1984 to the announcement, on February 1, 1988, that President Reagan's FY89 budget proposal to Congress had designated AXAF for a new start.

  1. Great Lakes Research Vessel Operations 1958-2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Great Lakes Research Vessel Operations data release is taken from the Research Vessel Catch (RVCAT) database curated at the Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC)....

  2. Great Lakes maritime education program for K-12 teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Michigan Technological University has led an educational/outreach effort for the Great Lake Maritime Research Institute since 2006. : Despite Michigan Techs relative isolation and long distance from most locations in the Great Lakes Basin, every s...

  3. The role of fire in managing for biological diversity on native rangelands of the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn Hull Sieg

    1997-01-01

    A strategy for using fire to manage for biological diversity on native rangelands in the Northern Great Plains incorporates an understanding of its past frequency, timing and intensity. Historically, lightning and humans were the major fire setters, and the role of fire varied both in space and time. A burning regime that includes fires at various intervals, seasons...

  4. 46 CFR 46.05-20 - Great Lakes voyage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Great Lakes voyage. 46.05-20 Section 46.05-20 Shipping... VESSELS Definitions Used in This Part § 46.05-20 Great Lakes voyage. A Great Lakes voyage is any voyage from a United States port or place on the Great Lakes to another United States port or place on the...

  5. 46 CFR 42.05-40 - Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Great Lakes. 42.05-40 Section 42.05-40 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-40 Great Lakes. (a) This term means the Great Lakes of North America. (b) As used in this part, the term solely navigating the Great Lakes includes any special...

  6. Free Electron Lasers with Slowly Varying Beam and Undulator Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Zhirong

    2005-01-01

    The performance of a free electron lasers (FEL) is affected when the electron beam energy varies alone the undulator as would be caused by vacuum pipe wakefields and/or when the undulator strength parameter is tapered in the small signal regime until FEL saturation. In this paper, we present a self-consistent theory of FELs with slowly-varying beam and undulator parameters. A general method is developed to apply the WKB approximation to the beam-radiation system by employing the adjoint eigenvector that is orthogonal to the eigenfunctions of the coupled Maxwell-Vlasov equations. This method may be useful for other slowly varying processes in beam dynamics.

  7. Robust Stabilization of Nonlinear Systems with Uncertain Varying Control Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaiyue Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the stabilization problem for a class of nonlinear systems, whose control coefficient is uncertain and varies continuously in value and sign. The study emphasizes the development of a robust control that consists of a modified Nussbaum function to tackle the uncertain varying control coefficient. By such a method, the finite-time escape phenomenon has been prevented when the control coefficient is crossing zero and varying its sign. The proposed control guarantees the asymptotic stabilization of the system and boundedness of all closed-loop signals. The control performance is illustrated by a numerical simulation.

  8. The Great Lakes. An Environmental Atlas and Resource Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botts, Lee; Krushelnicki, Bruce

    This atlas was developed jointly by the Canadian and American governments, and is intended to provide an ecosystem approach to the understanding of the Great Lakes Basin. Chapter one provides an introduction to both the natural and cultural aspects of the Great Lakes. Chapter two, "Natural Processes in the Great Lakes," describes such…

  9. 77 FR 24729 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory... recommendations to the Secretary of Homeland Security and the Coast Guard on matters relating to Great Lakes...

  10. 78 FR 49544 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Request for applications. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard seeks applications for membership on the Great Lakes... of Homeland Security and the Coast Guard on matters relating to Great Lakes pilotage, including...

  11. 76 FR 62085 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee... the Federal Register of October 4, 2011, a notice announcing a Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee... authority of the Great Lakes Pilotage program. If you have been adversely affected by the one-day delay in...

  12. 76 FR 61370 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory... Homeland Security and the Coast Guard on matters relating to Great Lakes pilotage, including review of...

  13. 46 CFR 90.10-13 - Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Great Lakes. 90.10-13 Section 90.10-13 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-13 Great Lakes. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the Great Lakes. ...

  14. 46 CFR 151.03-29 - Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Great Lakes. 151.03-29 Section 151.03-29 Shipping COAST... LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-29 Great Lakes. A designation for all vessels in Great Lakes service. ...

  15. 78 FR 5474 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory... recommendations to the Secretary of Homeland Security and the Coast Guard on matters relating to Great Lakes...

  16. 75 FR 8728 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee (GLPAC) will meet at Coast Guard Marine... range of issues related to pilotage on the Great Lakes, including the rules and regulations that govern...

  17. 77 FR 33228 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Request for applicants. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard seeks applications for membership on the Great Lakes... of Homeland Security and the Coast Guard on matters relating to Great Lakes pilotage, including...

  18. 46 CFR 188.10-31 - Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Great Lakes. 188.10-31 Section 188.10-31 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-31 Great Lakes. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the Great Lakes. ...

  19. CHECKLIST OF DIATOMS FROM THE LAURENTIAN GREAT LAKES

    Science.gov (United States)

    An updated diatom (Bacillariophyta) checklist for the Great Lakes has been completed (J. Great Lakes Res. 1999) and supplants the preliminary checklist (J. Great Lakes Res. 1978). The present list is effectively a 20-year update. The updated list is based upon: 1) the 1978 checkl...

  20. Microarrays with varying carbohydrate density reveal distinct subpopulations of serum antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyelaran, Oyindasola; Li, Qian; Farnsworth, David; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C

    2009-07-01

    Antigen arrays have become important tools for profiling complex mixtures of proteins such as serum antibodies. These arrays can be used to better understand immune responses, discover new biomarkers, and guide the development of vaccines. Nevertheless, they are not perfect and improved array designs would enhance the information derived from this technology. In this study, we describe and evaluate a strategy for varying antigen density on an array and then use the array to study binding of lectins, monoclonal antibodies, and serum antibodies. To vary density, neoglycoproteins containing differing amounts of carbohydrate were synthesized and used to make a carbohydrate microarray with variations in both structure and density. We demonstrate that this method provides variations in density on the array surface within a range that is relevant for biological recognition events. The array was used to evaluate density dependent binding properties of three lectins (Vicia villosa lectin B4, Helix pomatia agglutinin, and soybean agglutinin) and three monoclonal antibodies (HBTn-1, B1.1, and Bric111) that bind the tumor-associated Tn antigen. In addition, serum antibodies were profiled from 30 healthy donors. The results show that variations in antigen density are required to detect the full spectrum of antibodies that bind a particular antigen and can be used to reveal differences in antibody populations between individuals that are not detectable using a single antigen density.

  1. The Great 1787 Corralero, Oaxaca, Tsunami Uncovered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Herrera, M.; Lagos, M.; Goguitchaichrili, A.; Aguilar, B.; Machain-Castillo, M. L.; Caballero, M.; Ruíz-Fernández, A. C.; Suarez, G.; Ortuño, M.

    2013-05-01

    In 28th March 1787, more than two centuries ago, a deadly tsunami (related to the the San Sixto earthquake) poured over the coast of Oaxaca, Guerrero, and Chiapas, along more than 500 km of the Mexican Pacific coast and up to 6 km inland, the tsunami destroyed mostly farmlands, and livestock and few villages since the density of population was sparse at the time, according to known historical accounts. We report the first geological evidence from the Corralero (Alotengo) lagoon coastal area to support these historical accounts. A transect was made with coring and test pits every 100 m from the coastline and up to 1.6 km inland. The test pits showed an anomalous sand layer that had been deposited in a single event in the swales of a series of beach ridges. The anomalous layer is continuous along the transect, about a 1000 m-long, and is formed of coarse to medium sand, at about 36 to 64 cm depth. It thickness varies, averaging 28 cm in the middle of a swale. Based on the accounts of the 1787 earthquake (M 8.6) and tsunami, we deduced that this might be the evidence of its existence. As the only major tsunami described at that time, the San Sixto earthquake-triggered tsunami. We used the stratigraphy, grain size, microfossils (foraminifera and diatoms), magnetic properties such as magnetic susceptibility, remanent magnetization analyses to reveal the nature of this anomalous sand layer. These proxies support a sudden and rapid event, consisting of sands transported by an extreme sea-wave inland. Further analysis will confirm the estimated age of this event.

  2. Great earthquakes hazard in slow subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcaillou, B.; Gutscher, M.; Westbrook, G. K.

    2008-12-01

    Research on the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of 2004 has challenged two popular paradigms; that the strongest subduction earthquakes strike in regions of rapid plate convergence and that rupture occurs primarily along the contact between the basement of the overriding plate and the downgoing plate. Subduction zones presenting similar structural and geodynamic characteristics (slow convergence and thick wedges of accreted sediment) may be capable of generating great megathrust earthquakes (M>8.5) despite an absence of thrust type earthquakes over the past 40 years. Existing deep seismic sounding data and hypocenters are used to constrain the geometry of several key slow subduction zones (Antilles, Hellenic, Sumatra). This geometry forms the basis for numerical modelling of fore-arc thermal structure, which is applied to calculate the estimated width of the seismogenic portion of the subduction fault plane. The margins with the thickest accretionary wedges are commonly found to have the widest (predicted) seismogenic zone. Furthermore, for these margins there exists a substantial (20-60 km wide) region above the up-dip limit for which the contribution to tsunami generation is poorly understood. As the rigidity (mu) of these high-porosity sediments is low, co-seismic slip here can be expected to be slow. Accordingly, the contribution to seismic moment will be low, but the contribution to tsunami generation may be very high. Indeed, recent seismological data from Nankai indicate very low frequency shallow-thrust earthquakes beneath this portion of the accretionary wedge, long-considered to be "aseismic". We propose that thick accumulations of sediment on the downgoing plate and the presence of a thick accretionary wedge can increase the maximum size of the potential rupture fault plane in two ways; 1) by thermally insulating the downgoing plate and thereby increasing the total downdip length of the fault which can rupture seismically and 2) by "smoothing out" the

  3. [Kim Pil Soon, a great doctor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H W

    1998-01-01

    : giving up his prospective career as a doctor, professor, and hospital administrator. He no longer remained as an ordinary clinician who treats only diseased persons, but transformed himself to the Great Doctor, a time-old ideal type of doctor in the East Asian countries who treats and cures the diseased nation, by dedicating himself to the independence movement.

  4. Influence of feeding varying crude protein and digestible energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of feeding varying crude protein and digestible energy levels on the development of individual muscles, rate of lean and fat deposition in pigs reared from 9 to 60kg liveweight in a humid tropical environment.

  5. Estimation of Time Varying Autoregressive Symmetric Alpha Stable

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this work, we present a novel method for modeling time-varying autoregressive impulsive signals driven by symmetric alpha stable distributions. The proposed...

  6. Uus Eesti film pandi eile Karlovy Varys projektorisse / Kristiina Davidjants

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Davidjants, Kristiina, 1974-

    2008-01-01

    8. juulil esilinastus Karlovy Vary filmifestivalil Rene Vilbre noortefilm "Mina olin siin", mille aluseks on Sass Henno romaan "Mina olin siin. Esimene arest". Film võistleb võistlusprogrammis "East of the West"

  7. Modeling non-Gaussian time-varying vector autoregressive process

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present a novel and general methodology for modeling time-varying vector autoregressive processes which are widely used in many areas such as modeling of chemical...

  8. Toluene metabolism during exposure to varying concentrations combined with exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Døssing, M; Hansen, S H

    1987-01-01

    The urinary excretion of hippuric acid (HA) and ortho-cresol (O-cr) in man was measured in two studies of 7-h exposure to toluene in a climate chamber, either constant concentration of 100 ppm or varying concentrations containing peaks of 300 ppm but with a time-weighted average of 100 ppm....... In Study A, four males were exposed to clean air and to constant and varying concentrations of toluene in combination with rest and with 100 W exercise in 140 min. Exercise increased end exposure excretion rate of HA and O-cr by 47 and 114%, respectively. After exposure, all excess HA was excreted within 4...... h, while O-cr was eliminated with a half life of about 3 h. Alveolar air concentration of toluene varied between 21 and 31 ppm during constant exposure and between 13 and 57 ppm during varying exposure, but no difference in mean alveolar toluene concentration or in metabolite excretion was seen...

  9. A Semiparametric Recurrent Events Model with Time-varying Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhangsheng; Liu, Lei; Bravata, Dawn M.; Williams, Linda S.; Tepper, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY We consider a recurrent events model with time-varying coefficients motivated by two clinical applications. A random effects (Gaussian frailty) model is used to describe the intensity of recurrent events. The model can accommodate both time-varying and time-constant coefficients. The penalized spline method is used to estimate the time-varying coefficients. Laplace approximation is used to evaluate the penalized likelihood without a closed form. The smoothing parameters are estimated in a similar way to variance components. We conduct simulations to evaluate the performance of the estimates for both time-varying and time-independent coefficients. We apply this method to analyze two data sets: a stroke study and a child wheeze study. PMID:22903343

  10. Quality of Eggs Under Varying Storage Periods, Conditions and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality of Eggs Under Varying Storage Periods, Conditions and Seasons in ... and egg weight on external and internal characteristics of chicken eggs. ... Storage time did not affect (p>0.05) shell weight, shape index, egg length and egg width.

  11. Analysis of time-varying psoriasis lesion image patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2004-01-01

    The multivariate alteration detection transform is applied to pairs of within and between time varying registered psoriasis image patterns. Color band contribution to the variates explaining maximal change is analyzed....

  12. Gut microbiomes of Indian children of varying nutritional status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghosh, Tarini Shankar; Gupta, Sourav Sen; Bhattacharya, Tanudeep; Yadav, Deepak; Barik, Anamitra; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Das, Bhabatosh; Mande, Sharmila S; Nair, G Balakrish

    2014-01-01

    .... Consequently, dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been implicated in malnutrition. Metagenomics approach was adopted to investigate the gut microbiome sampled from 20 rural Indian children with varying nutritional status...

  13. Design of 2D Time-Varying Vector Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Guoning

    2012-10-01

    Design of time-varying vector fields, i.e., vector fields that can change over time, has a wide variety of important applications in computer graphics. Existing vector field design techniques do not address time-varying vector fields. In this paper, we present a framework for the design of time-varying vector fields, both for planar domains as well as manifold surfaces. Our system supports the creation and modification of various time-varying vector fields with desired spatial and temporal characteristics through several design metaphors, including streamlines, pathlines, singularity paths, and bifurcations. These design metaphors are integrated into an element-based design to generate the time-varying vector fields via a sequence of basis field summations or spatial constrained optimizations at the sampled times. The key-frame design and field deformation are also introduced to support other user design scenarios. Accordingly, a spatial-temporal constrained optimization and the time-varying transformation are employed to generate the desired fields for these two design scenarios, respectively. We apply the time-varying vector fields generated using our design system to a number of important computer graphics applications that require controllable dynamic effects, such as evolving surface appearance, dynamic scene design, steerable crowd movement, and painterly animation. Many of these are difficult or impossible to achieve via prior simulation-based methods. In these applications, the time-varying vector fields have been applied as either orientation fields or advection fields to control the instantaneous appearance or evolving trajectories of the dynamic effects. © 1995-2012 IEEE.

  14. Electricity futures prices: time varying sensitivity to fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Fleten, Stein-Erik; Huisman, Ronald; Kilic, Mehtap; Pennings, Enrico; Westgaard, Sjur

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides insight into the time-varying relation between electricity futures prices and fundamentals in the form of contract prices for fossil fuels. As supply curves are not constant and different producers have different marginal costs of production, we argue that the relation between the prices of electricity futures and those of underlying fundamentals such as natural gas, coal and emission rights varies over time. We test this view by applying a model that linearly relates elec...

  15. Bounds and asymptotics for orthogonal polynomials for varying weights

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, Eli

    2018-01-01

    This book establishes bounds and asymptotics under almost minimal conditions on the varying weights, and applies them to universality limits and entropy integrals.  Orthogonal polynomials associated with varying weights play a key role in analyzing random matrices and other topics.  This book will be of use to a wide community of mathematicians, physicists, and statisticians dealing with techniques of potential theory, orthogonal polynomials, approximation theory, as well as random matrices. .

  16. YOUNG ATHLETES' MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Moreno Murcia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between motivational characteristics and dispositional flow. In order to accomplish this goal, motivational profiles emerging from key constructs within Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory were related to the dispositional flow measures. A sample of 413 young athletes (Age range 12 to 16 years completed the PMCSQ-2, POSQ, SMS and DFS measures. Cluster analysis results revealed three profiles: a "self-determined profile" characterised by higher scores on the task-involving climate perception and on the task orientation; a "non-self-determined profile", characterised by higher scores on ego-involving climate perception and ego orientation; and a "low self-determined and low non-self-determined profile" which had the lowest dispositional flow. No meaningful differences were found between the "self-determined profile" and the "non-self-determined profile" in dispositional flow. The "self-determined profile" was more commonly associated with females, athletes practising individual sports and those training more than three days a week. The "non-self-determined profile" was more customary of males and athletes practising team sports as well as those training just two or three days a week

  17. Measurement of Rapid Variations in Lower-Tropospheric Humidity Profiles Using Ground-Based Scanning Compact Microwave Radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, S.; Bosch-Lluis, X.; Reising, S. C.; Vivekanandan, J.

    2012-12-01

    Thermodynamic properties of the troposphere, particularly water vapor content and temperature, change in response to physical mechanisms, including frictional drag, evaporation, transpiration, heat transfer, pollutant emission and flow modification due to terrain. The planetary boundary layer (PBL) is characterized by a greater rate of change in the thermodynamic state of the atmosphere than at higher altitudes in the troposphere. Measurement of these changes, such as large horizontal gradients in water vapor and vertical profiles, provides very important data for improved weather prediction. Sensitivity studies for severe storm prediction indicate that a lack of accurate observations of water vapor densities throughout the lower troposphere limits the forecasting of severe storms. Therefore, measurements of water vapor density using microwave radiometers may help to improve accuracy of severe weather prediction. The HUMidity EXperiment 2011 (HUMEX11) was conducted to validate remote sensing of tropospheric humidity using ground-based scanning Compact Microwave Radiometers for Humidity profiling (CMR-H). Two microwave radiometers were scanned to sample an atmospheric volume at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility. Scientific objectives of HUMEX11 were to measure water vapor profiles in the lower troposphere with high vertical and temporal resolution and to track rapid variations in water vapor in the lowest 3 km of the troposphere. The principal reason for conducting the campaign at the SGP Climate Research Facility was the ability to compare the water vapor profile results with other measurements like ARM microwave radiometers and Raman lidar. The Raman lidar water vapor profiles were used as truth for comparison with the retrieved profiles. The study also focuses on optimizing the size of the background data set to minimize retrieval error as well as varying the

  18. Secondary metabolite profiling of Alternaria dauci, A. porri, A. solani, and A. tomatophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Dongo, Anita; Pryor, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    Chemotaxonomy (secondary metabolite profiling) has been shown to be of great value in the classification and differentiation in Ascomycota. However, few studies have investigated the use of metabolite production for classification and identification purposes of plant pathogenic Alternaria species...

  19. Speed Profiles for Deceleration Guidance During Rollout and Turnoff (ROTO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, L. Keith; Hankins, Walter W., III; Hueschen, Richard M.

    1999-01-01

    Two NASA goals are to enhance airport safety and to improve capacity in all weather conditions. This paper contributes to these goals by examining speed guidance profiles to aid a pilot in decelerating along the runway to an exit. A speed profile essentially tells the pilot what the airplane's speed should be as a function of where the airplane is on the runway. While it is important to get off the runway as soon as possible (when striving to minimize runway occupancy time), the deceleration along a speed profile should be constrained by passenger comfort. Several speed profiles are examined with respect to their maximum decelerations and times to reach exit speed. One profile varies speed linearly with distance; another has constant deceleration; and two related nonlinear profiles delay maximum deceleration (braking) to reduce time spent on the runway.

  20. Ernst Chain: a great man of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardos, Nelson; Demain, Arnold L

    2013-08-01

    resources were scarce in postwar Britain, the British government declined the project. Chain then took a post in 1948 at Rome's Instituto Superiore di Sanitá, establishing a new biochemistry department with a pilot plant. During that period, his department developed important new antibiotics (including the first semisynthetic antibiotics) as well as improved technological processes to produce a wide variety of important microbial metabolites that are still in wide use today. Chain was also responsible for helping several countries to start up a modern penicillin industry following World War II, including the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China. In 1964, Chain returned to England to establish a new biochemistry department and industrial scale fermentation pilot plant at Imperial College in London. Imperial College became the preeminent biochemical department in Europe. Chain was also a pioneer in changing the relationship between government, private universities, and private industry for collaboration and funding to support medical research. Ernst Chain has left a lasting impact as a great scientist and internationalist.

  1. Biological Effects of the Great Oxidation Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J.

    2012-12-01

    Fossil evidence of photoautotrophy, documented in Precambrian sediments by stromatolites, stromatolitic microfossils, and carbon isotopic data consistent with autotrophic CO2-fixation, extends to ~3,500 Ma. Such data, however, are insufficient to establish the time of origin of O2-producing (cyanobacterial) photosynthesis from its anoxygenic, photosynthetic bacterial, evolutionary precursor. The oldest (Paleoarchean) stromatolites may have been formed by anoxygenic photoautotrophs, rather than the cyanobacteria that dominate Proterozoic and modern stromatolites. Unlike the cyanobacteria of Proterozoic microbial assemblages, the filamentous and coccoidal microfossils of Archean deposits may represent remnants of non-O2-producing prokaryotes. And although the chemistry of Archean organic matter shows it to be biogenic, its carbon isotopic composition is insufficient to differentiate between oxygenic and anoxygenic sources. Though it is well established that Earth's ecosystem has been based on autotrophy since its early stages and that O2-producing photosynthesis evolved earlier, perhaps much earlier, than the increase of atmospheric oxygen in the ~2,450 and ~2,320 Ma Great Oxidation Event (GOE), the time of origin of oxygenic photoautotrophy has yet to be established. Recent findings suggest that Earth's ecosystem responded more or less immediately to the GOE. The increase of atmospheric oxygen markedly affected ocean water chemistry, most notably by increasing the availability of biologically usable oxygen (which enabled the development of obligate aerobes, such as eukaryotes), and of nitrate, sulfate and hydrogen sulfide (the increase of H2S being a result of microbial reduction of sulfate), the three reactants that power the anaerobic basis of sulfur-cycling microbial sulfuretums. Fossil evidence of the earliest eukaryotes (widely accepted to date from ~1800 Ma and, arguably, ~2200 Ma) fit this scenario, but the most telling example of life's response to the GOE

  2. Three Great Eyes on Kepler's Supernova Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Composite [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Chandra X-Ray Data (blue) Chandra X-Ray Data (green)Hubble Telescope (visible-light)Spitzer Telescope (infrared) NASA's three Great Observatories -- the Hubble Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Chandra X-ray Observatory -- joined forces to probe the expanding remains of a supernova, called Kepler's supernova remnant, first seen 400 years ago by sky watchers, including astronomer Johannes Kepler. The combined image unveils a bubble-shaped shroud of gas and dust that is 14 light-years wide and is expanding at 4 million miles per hour (2,000 kilometers per second). Observations from each telescope highlight distinct features of the supernova remnant, a fast-moving shell of iron-rich material from the exploded star, surrounded by an expanding shock wave that is sweeping up interstellar gas and dust. Each color in this image represents a different region of the electromagnetic spectrum, from X-rays to infrared light. These diverse colors are shown in the panel of photographs below the composite image. The X-ray and infrared data cannot be seen with the human eye. By color-coding those data and combining them with Hubble's visible-light view, astronomers are presenting a more complete picture of the supernova remnant. Visible-light images from the Hubble telescope (colored yellow) reveal where the supernova shock wave is slamming into the densest regions of surrounding gas. The bright glowing knots are dense clumps from instabilities that form behind the shock wave. The Hubble data also show thin filaments of gas that look like rippled sheets seen edge-on. These filaments reveal where the shock wave is encountering lower-density, more uniform interstellar material. The Spitzer telescope shows microscopic dust particles (colored red) that have been heated by the supernova shock wave. The dust re

  3. Personality and information gathering in free-ranging great tits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thijs van Overveld

    Full Text Available One aspect of animal personality that has been well described in captivity, but received only little attention in studies in the wild, is that personality types may vary in their behavioural flexibility towards environmental changes. A fundamental factor underlying such differences is believed to be the degree to which individual behavior is guided by environmental stimuli. We tested this hypothesis in the wild using free-ranging great tits. Personality variation was quantified using exploratory behaviour in a novel environment, which has previously been shown to be repeatable and correlated with other behaviours in this and other populations of the same species. By temporarily removing food at feeding stations we examined whether birds with different personality differed in returning to visit empty feeders as this may provide information on how birds continue to sample their environment after a sudden change in conditions. In two summer experiments, we found that fast-exploring juveniles visited empty feeders less often compared to slow-exploring juveniles. In winter, sampling behaviour was sex dependent but not related to personality. In both seasons, we found that birds who sampled empty feeders more often were more likely to rediscover food after we again re-baited the feeding stations, but there was no effect of personality. Our results show that personality types may indeed differ in ways of collecting environmental information, which is consistent with the view of personalities as different styles of coping with environmental changes. The adaptive value of these alternative behavioural tactics, however, needs to be further explored.

  4. The cognitive underpinnings of flexible tool use in great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völter, Christoph J; Call, Josep

    2014-07-01

    Nonhuman primates perform poorly in trap tasks, a benchmark test of causal knowledge in nonhuman animals. However, recent evidence suggests that when the confound of tool use is avoided, great apes' performance improves dramatically. In the present study, we examined the cognitive underpinnings of tool use that contribute to apes' poor performance in trap tasks. We presented chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), bonobos (Pan paniscus), and orangutans (Pongo abelii) with different versions of a maze-like multilevel trap task. We manipulated whether the apes had to use their fingers or a stick to negotiate a reward through the maze. Furthermore, we varied whether the apes obtained visual information about the functionality of the traps (i.e., blockage of free passage) or only arbitrary color stimuli indicating the location of the traps. We found that (a) apes in the finger-maze task outperformed apes in the tool-use-maze task (and partially planned their moves multiple steps ahead), and (b) tool-using apes failed to learn to avoid the traps and performed similar to apes that did not obtain functional information about the traps. Follow-up experiments with apes that already learned to avoid the traps showed that tool use or the color cues per se did not pose a problem for experienced apes. These results suggest that simultaneously monitoring 2 spatial relations (the tool-reward and reward-surface relation) might overstrain apes' cognitive system. Thus, trap tasks involving tool use might constitute a dual task loading on the same cognitive resources; a candidate for these shared resources is the attentional system.

  5. Personality and Information Gathering in Free-Ranging Great Tits

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Overveld, Thijs; Matthysen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    One aspect of animal personality that has been well described in captivity, but received only little attention in studies in the wild, is that personality types may vary in their behavioural flexibility towards environmental changes. A fundamental factor underlying such differences is believed to be the degree to which individual behavior is guided by environmental stimuli. We tested this hypothesis in the wild using free-ranging great tits. Personality variation was quantified using exploratory behaviour in a novel environment, which has previously been shown to be repeatable and correlated with other behaviours in this and other populations of the same species. By temporarily removing food at feeding stations we examined whether birds with different personality differed in returning to visit empty feeders as this may provide information on how birds continue to sample their environment after a sudden change in conditions. In two summer experiments, we found that fast-exploring juveniles visited empty feeders less often compared to slow-exploring juveniles. In winter, sampling behaviour was sex dependent but not related to personality. In both seasons, we found that birds who sampled empty feeders more often were more likely to rediscover food after we again re-baited the feeding stations, but there was no effect of personality. Our results show that personality types may indeed differ in ways of collecting environmental information, which is consistent with the view of personalities as different styles of coping with environmental changes. The adaptive value of these alternative behavioural tactics, however, needs to be further explored. PMID:23383299

  6. Effect of microstructure on the arsenic profile in implanted silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coghlan, W.A.; Rhee, M.H.; Williams, J.M.; Streit, L.A.; Williams, P.

    1985-10-01

    According to an irradiation damage model, the profile of an implanted ion at temperature great enough for diffusion to occur will depend on the sink density in the material. To test this model, pure silicon wafers were prepared with high and low dislocation densities. These wafers were implanted with about 5 x 10/sup 19/ As/sup +2//m/sup 2/ at 77/sup 0/K, 300/sup 0/C, and 600/sup 0/C. After implanting the profiles were measured using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy. The observed spreading of the As-profile contradicts initial theoretical predictions. Further speculation is presented to explain the differences.

  7. Agency Culture and Climate in Child Welfare: Do Perceptions Vary by Exposure to the Child Welfare System?

    OpenAIRE

    Spielfogel, Jill E.; Leathers, Sonya J.; Christian, Errick

    2016-01-01

    Organizational culture and climate play a critical role in worker retention and outcomes, yet little is known about whether perceptions of culture and climate vary depending on the demands of particular roles. In this study, 113 staff from a child welfare agency completed Organizational Social Context profiles. Staff were divided into three groups according to their proximity to child welfare tasks to assess whether involvement in higher stress child welfare tasks is related to perceptions of...

  8. Criminal Psychological Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-18

    landmark report became known to the general population. Dr. Langer’s profile broke new ground. While the practice of psychoanalysis was not new, this marked...school or college dropout. Suspect is probably suffering from one or more forms of paranoid psychosis .6 Perpetrator: Based on this profile, the police

  9. Compton profile of tantalum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    scale-Compton profile is directly related to the momentum distribution of the electrons. The spectral analysis ... proximation, the Compton profile J(q) is the projection of the target's electron momentum distribution, n(p) ... densed matter and serves as a reliable test of the accuracy of the calculated wave functions. Such basic ...

  10. Reinforced aerodynamic profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to the prevention of deformations in an aerodynamic profile caused by lack of resistance to the bending moment forces that are created when such a profile is loaded in operation. More specifically, the invention relates to a reinforcing element inside an aerodynamic...

  11. Chemical profiling of explosives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brust, G.M.H.

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of this thesis is to develop analytical methods for the chemical profiling of explosives. Current methodologies for the forensic analysis of explosives focus on identification of the explosive material. However, chemical profiling of explosives becomes increasingly important, as

  12. 314 EFFECT OF VARYING CONCENTRATION OF AUXINS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-06-12

    Jun 12, 2012 ... adopted the massive cultivation of the crop. The plant is found to incur little or no carbon debt hence it offers immediate and sustained greenhouse advantage and militating against climate change (Becker and Makkar, 2009). Currently Nigerian government has shown great interest in Jatropha plant and ...

  13. Lessons learned from a great master!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Seixas da Silva

    2015-06-01

    critical thinking as early as the their first semester was something revolutionary and very attractive. This teaching strategy was so well accepted that was common to find either students who had already approved the course of Biochemistry or students attending advanced semesters returning to attend the class and to see the beloved teacher once again! In class it was possible to both discuss biochemistry and learn history! To have the classroom invaded by "actors" playing the judgment and beheading of Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier over 100 years after his death while discussing his experiments caused a whirlwind of emotions in the students. This was important to sensitize them to the challenges experienced by renowned scientists who paid with their lives to defend their ideas. Thus, students became protagonists of story and the biochemistry classes more interesting and challenging. This challenge was shared by the "actors", who actually were students of the Biological Chemistry program sharing the classroom with the great master. For these graduate students, it was an experience where they raised awareness of the importance of dedication to the teaching of Sciences.Prof. de Meis’ speech where he stated no one owns the truth or all knowledge was another point closing the relationship with the undergraduate students. In the modern world it is nearly impossible to keep yourself up to date, so we ended up specializing in something. De Meis used to cause some perplexity among the students by showing a picture with all copies of a single reputable scientific journal in the biochemistry field published over a year. Surprisingly, this stack of magazines was 1.5 meters tall! Could you imagine that all recent knowledge in biochemistry is compiled in few pages of a textbook? de Meis, then, revealed that we do not know everything, but we do need to learn how to interpret new facts, a new experiment, a new concept, a new technique, a new discovery. We need to develop critical thinking to

  14. Vibration Analysis of Composite Beams with Sinusoidal Periodically Varying Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Botong; Liu, Chein-Shan; Zhu, Liangliang

    2017-12-01

    As an increasing variety of composite materials with complex interfaces are emerging, we develop a theory to investigate composite beams and shed some light on new physical insights into composite beams with sinusoidal periodically varying interfaces. For the natural vibration of composite beams with continuous or periodically varying interfaces, the governing equation has been derived according to the generalised Hamiltonian principle. For composite beams having different boundary conditions, we transform the governing equations into integral equations and solve them by using the sinusoidal functions as test functions as well as the basis of the vibration modes. Due to the orthogonality of the sinusoidal functions, expansion coefficients in closed form can be found. Therefore, the proposed iterative schemes, with the help of the Rayleigh quotient and boundary functions, can quickly find the eigenvalues and free vibration modes. The obtained natural frequencies agree well with those obtained using the finite element method. In addition, the proposed method can be extended easily to laminated composite beams in more general cases or complex components and geometries in vibration engineering. The effects of different material properties of the upper and lower components and varying interface geometry function on the frequency of the composite beams are examined. According to our investigation, the natural frequency of a laminated beam with a continuous or periodically varying interface can be changed by altering the density or elastic modulus. We also show the responses of the frequencies of the components to the varying periodic interface.

  15. Probabilistic projections of regional climatic changes over the Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuquan; Huang, Guohe; Baetz, Brian W.; Zhao, Shan

    2017-10-01

    As the largest surface fresh water system on earth, the Great Lakes is facing the threat of climate change. Understanding how the hydrologic cycle in the Great Lakes region would be affected by human-induced global warming is important for developing informed adaptation strategies. In this study, high-resolution regional climate ensemble simulations based upon the PRECIS modeling system are conducted to project future climatic changes over the Great Lakes Basin. The results show that the Great Lakes Basin is very likely to experience a continuous warming-up throughout the 21st century. Particularly, mean air temperatures will rise by 2.6 °C in the forthcoming decades (i.e., 2030s), 3.8 °C in the middle of the century (i.e., 2050s), and 5.6 °C to the end of the century (i.e., 2080s), respectively. The warming air temperatures are very likely to result in more precipitation over the entire basin. The annual total precipitation over the Great Lakes Basin is projected to increase by 8.9% in the 2030s and 12.2% in the 2050s, while the magnitude of precipitation increase would decline to 7.1% in the 2080s. The slow-down of the precipitation increase from the 2050s to the 2080s indicates a shift from the aggressive increase of precipitation before and in the middle of this century to the eventual decrease by the end of this century, suggesting that a nonlinear response relationship between precipitation and temperature may exist in the Great Lakes Basin and such a relationship is also likely to vary in response to global warming.

  16. Time-varying Reeb Graphs: A Topological Framework Supporting the Analysis of Continuous Time-varying Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascarenhas, Ajith Arthur [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2006-01-01

    I present time-varying Reeb graphs as a topological framework to support the analysis of continuous time-varying data. Such data is captured in many studies, including computational fluid dynamics, oceanography, medical imaging, and climate modeling, by measuring physical processes over time, or by modeling and simulating them on a computer. Analysis tools are applied to these data sets by scientists and engineers who seek to understand the underlying physical processes. A popular tool for analyzing scientific datasets is level sets, which are the points in space with a fixed data value s. Displaying level sets allows the user to study their geometry, their topological features such as connected components, handles, and voids, and to study the evolution of these features for varying s. For static data, the Reeb graph encodes the evolution of topological features and compactly represents topological information of all level sets. The Reeb graph essentially contracts each level set component to a point. It can be computed efficiently, and it has several uses: as a succinct summary of the data, as an interface to select meaningful level sets, as a data structure to accelerate level set extraction, and as a guide to remove noise. I extend these uses of Reeb graphs to time-varying data. I characterize the changes to Reeb graphs over time, and develop an algorithm that can maintain a Reeb graph data structure by tracking these changes over time. I store this sequence of Reeb graphs compactly, and call it a time-varying Reeb graph. I augment the time-varying Reeb graph with information that records the topology of level sets of all level values at all times, that maintains the correspondence of level set components over time, and that accelerates the extraction of level sets for a chosen level value and time. Scientific data sampled in space-time must be extended everywhere in this domain using an interpolant. A poor choice of interpolant can create degeneracies that are

  17. Large-Eddy Simulation of Shallow Cumulus over Land: A Composite Case Based on ARM Long-Term Observations at Its Southern Great Plains Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yunyan [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Klein, Stephen A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Fan, Jiwen [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Chandra, Arunchandra S. [Division of Meteorology and Physical Oceanography, University of Miami, Miami, Florida; Kollias, Pavlos [School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York; Xie, Shaocheng [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Tang, Shuaiqi [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California

    2017-10-01

    Based on long-term observations by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program at its Southern Great Plains site, a new composite case of continental shallow cumulus (ShCu) convection is constructed for large-eddy simulations (LES) and single-column models. The case represents a typical daytime non-precipitating ShCu whose formation and dissipation are driven by the local atmospheric conditions and land-surface forcing, and are not influenced by synoptic weather events. The case includes: early-morning initial profiles of temperature and moisture with a residual layer; diurnally-varying sensible and latent heat fluxes which represent a domain average over different land-surface types; simplified large-scale horizontal advective tendencies and subsidence; and horizontal winds with prevailing direction and average speed. Observed composite cloud statistics are provided for model evaluation. The observed diurnal cycle is well-reproduced by LES, however the cloud amount, liquid water path, and shortwave radiative effect are generally underestimated. LES are compared between simulations with an all-or-nothing bulk microphysics and a spectral bin microphysics. The latter shows improved agreement with observations in the total cloud cover and the amount of clouds with depths greater than 300 meters. When compared with radar retrievals of in-cloud air motion, LES produce comparable downdraft vertical velocities, but a larger updraft area, velocity and updraft mass flux. Both observation and LES show a significantly larger in-cloud downdraft fraction and downdraft mass flux than marine ShCu.

  18. Large-Eddy Simulation of Shallow Cumulus over Land: A Composite Case Based on ARM Long-Term Observations at Its Southern Great Plains Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yunyan [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Klein, Stephen A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Fan, Jiwen [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Chandra, Arunchandra S. [Division of Meteorology and Physical Oceanography, University of Miami, Miami, Florida; Kollias, Pavlos [School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York; Xie, Shaocheng [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Tang, Shuaiqi [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California

    2017-10-01

    Based on long-term observations by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program at its Southern Great Plains site, a new composite case of continental shallow cumulus (ShCu) convection is constructed for large-eddy simulations (LES) and single-column models. The case represents a typical daytime nonprecipitating ShCu whose formation and dissipation are driven by the local atmospheric conditions and land surface forcing and are not influenced by synoptic weather events. The case includes early morning initial profiles of temperature and moisture with a residual layer; diurnally varying sensible and latent heat fluxes, which represent a domain average over different land surface types; simplified large-scale horizontal advective tendencies and subsidence; and horizontal winds with prevailing direction and average speed. Observed composite cloud statistics are provided for model evaluation. The observed diurnal cycle is well reproduced by LES; however, the cloud amount, liquid water path, and shortwave radiative effect are generally underestimated. LES are compared between simulations with an all-or-nothing bulk microphysics and a spectral bin microphysics. The latter shows improved agreement with observations in the total cloud cover and the amount of clouds with depths greater than 300 m. When compared with radar retrievals of in-cloud air motion, LES produce comparable downdraft vertical velocities, but a larger updraft area, velocity, and updraft mass flux. Both observations and LES show a significantly larger in-cloud downdraft fraction and downdraft mass flux than marine ShCu.

  19. Robust linear parameter varying induction motor control with polytopic models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalila Khamari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a robust controller for an induction motor which is represented as a linear parameter varying systems. To do so linear matrix inequality (LMI based approach and robust Lyapunov feedback controller are associated. This new approach is related to the fact that the synthesis of a linear parameter varying (LPV feedback controller for the inner loop take into account rotor resistance and mechanical speed as varying parameter. An LPV flux observer is also synthesized to estimate rotor flux providing reference to cited above regulator. The induction motor is described as a polytopic model because of speed and rotor resistance affine dependence their values can be estimated on line during systems operations. The simulation results are presented to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach where robustness stability and high performances have been achieved over the entire operating range of the induction motor.

  20. Tone Attrition in Mandarin Speakers of Varying English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quam, Carolyn; Creel, Sarah C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the degree of dominance of Mandarin-English bilinguals' languages affects phonetic processing of tone content in their native language, Mandarin. Method: We tested 72 Mandarin-English bilingual college students with a range of language-dominance profiles in the 2 languages and ages of…

  1. Effects of varying concentrations of Dioscorea bulbifera (Fam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tablets of paracetamol BP prepared with purified starch obtained from the bulbs of locally cultivated Dioscorea bulbifera in comparison with corn starch BP, both at concentrations, 3-10 %w/w were evaluated for their disintegration time, mechanical properties and dissolution profiles. All the batches of tablets prepared with ...

  2. Functional adaptations in the forelimb muscles of non-human great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatt, Julia P; Crompton, Robin H; Payne-Davis, Rachel C; Vereecke, Evie E; Isler, Karin; Savage, Russell; D'Août, Kristiaan; Günther, Michael M; Thorpe, Susannah K S

    2012-01-01

    The maximum capability of a muscle can be estimated from simple measurements of muscle architecture such as muscle belly mass, fascicle length and physiological cross-sectional area. While the hindlimb anatomy of the non-human apes has been studied in some detail, a comparative study of the forelimb architecture across a number of species has never been undertaken. Here we present data from chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas and an orangutan to ascertain if, and where, there are functional differences relating to their different locomotor repertoires and habitat usage. We employed a combination of analyses including allometric scaling and ancovas to explore the data, as the sample size was relatively small and heterogeneous (specimens of different sizes, ages and sex). Overall, subject to possible unidentified, confounding factors such as age effects, it appears that the non-human great apes in this sample (the largest assembled to date) do not vary greatly across different muscle architecture parameters, even though they perform different locomotor behaviours at different frequencies. Therefore, it currently appears that the time spent performing a particular behaviour does not necessarily impose a dominating selective influence on the soft-tissue portion of the musculoskeletal system; rather, the overall consistency of muscle architectural properties both between and within the Asian and African apes strengthens the case for the hypothesis of a possible ancient shared evolutionary origin for orthogrady under compressive and/or suspensory loading in the great apes. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2011 Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  3. Precoder and decoder prediction in time-varying MIMO channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuan Hung; Leus, Geert; Khaled, Nadia

    2005-01-01

    In mobile communications, time varying channels make the available channel information out of date. Timely updating the channel state is an obvious solution to improve the system performance in a time varying channel. However, a better knowledge of the channel comes at the cost of a decrease...... in the system throughput. Thus, predicting the future channel conditions can improve not only the performance but also the throughput of many types of wireless systems. This is especially true for a wireless system where multiple antennas are applied at both link ends. In this report we propose and evaluate...

  4. Factors Affecting Public Preferences for Grassland Landscape Heterogeneity in the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Omkar; Becerra, Terrie A.; Engle, David M.; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D.; Elmore, R. Dwayne

    2017-11-01

    Agricultural intensification has fragmented rangelands in the Great Plains, which has contributed to uniform and homogeneous landscapes and decreased biodiversity. Alternative land management practices involving fire-grazing interactions can help maintain biodiversity without affecting livestock productivity. A survey was designed to understand the factors that influence preferences among the general population towards grassland landscape heterogeneity. Given the ordinal nature of survey responses, requisite data were analyzed using a generalized ordinal logit model. Results suggested that respondents who valued open space and those who recognized a need for a varying mix of uniform grasses and grasslands preferred landscape heterogeneity. Female respondents were about two times as likely to prefer heterogeneous landscapes compared to male respondents. In contrast, population groups that preferred wildlife habitat did not desire heterogeneous landscapes. Results suggest the need for extension and outreach activities to educate certain segments of the general population regarding benefits of alternative management practices that support landscape heterogeneity in the Great Plains.

  5. Academic health centres: managing the transition from good to great.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Peter; O'Neill, Fiona; Kirk, Andrew; Hillhouse, Edward

    2010-02-01

    Academic health centres (AHCs) bring significant economic and health benefits to a community. This study focuses on four integrated AHCs in the USA. They are described as the 'traditional great' or 'transformational great', where a number of common characteristics have been identified on how these organisations have demonstrated superior performance over time. The conceptual framework of 'good to great' provides a structure to explore key factors that support enhanced performance.

  6. Global Politics, Regional Competition: Great Power Politics in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Lakatos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the issue of competing great power interests in Central Asia, known for specialists in international relations as the New Great Game. The focus is in first hand on interests of the “Big Four” global powers and secondly, on the interests of a series of regional powers which can bring decisive contributions to the New Great Game. The analysis has two directions: one concentrated on strategic analysis, and the second focused on economic interests.

  7. Influence of DNA extraction on oral microbial profiles obtained via 16S rRNA gene sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreto Abusleme

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The advent of next-generation sequencing has significantly facilitated characterization of the oral microbiome. Despite great efforts in streamlining the processes of sequencing and data curation, upstream steps required for amplicon library generation could still influence 16S rRNA gene-based microbial profiles. Among upstream processes, DNA extraction is a critical step that could represent a great source of bias. Accounting for bias introduced by extraction procedures is important when comparing studies that use different methods. Identifying the method that best portrays communities is also desirable. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate bias introduced by different DNA extraction procedures on oral microbiome profiles. Design: Four DNA extraction methods were tested on mock communities consisting of seven representative oral bacteria. Additionally, supragingival plaque samples were collected from seven individuals and divided equally to test two commonly used DNA extraction procedures. Amplicon libraries of the 16S rRNA gene were generated and sequenced via 454-pyrosequencing. Results: Evaluation of mock communities revealed that DNA yield and bacterial species representation varied with DNA extraction methods. Despite producing the lowest yield of DNA, a method that included bead beating was the only protocol capable of detecting all seven species in the mock community. Comparison of the performance of two commonly used methods (crude lysis and a chemical/enzymatic lysis+column-based DNA isolation on plaque samples showed no effect of extraction protocols on taxa prevalence but global community structure and relative abundance of individual taxa were affected. At the phylum level, the latter method improved the recovery of Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Spirochaetes over crude lysis. Conclusion: DNA extraction distorts microbial profiles in simulated and clinical oral samples, reinforcing the

  8. Sea spray aerosol in the Great Barrier Reef and the presence of nonvolatile organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, Marc; Cravigan, Luke; Miljevic, Branka; Vaattovaara, Petri; Deschaseaux, Elisabeth; Swan, Hilton; Jones, Graham; Ristovski, Zoran

    2016-06-01

    Sea spray aerosol (SSA) particles produced from the ocean surface in regions of biological activity can vary greatly in size, number and composition, and in their influence on cloud formation. Algal species such as phytoplankton can alter the SSA composition. Numerous studies have investigated nascent SSA properties, but all of these have focused on aerosol particles produced by seawater from noncoral related phytoplankton and in coastal regions. Bubble chamber experiments were performed with seawater samples taken from the reef flat around Heron Island in the Great Barrier Reef during winter 2011. Here we show that the SSA from these samples was composed of an internal mixture of varying fractions of sea salt, semivolatile organics, as well as nonvolatile (below 550°C) organics. A relatively constant volume fraction of semivolatile organics of 10%-13% was observed, while nonvolatile organic volume fractions varied from 29% to 49% for 60 nm SSA. SSA organic fractions were estimated to reduce the activation ratios of SSA to cloud condensation nuclei by up to 14% when compared with artificial sea salt. Additionally, a sea-salt calibration was applied so that a compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer could be used to quantify the contribution of sea salt to submicron SSA, which yielded organic volume fractions of 3%-6%. Overall, these results indicate a high fraction of organics associated with wintertime Aitken mode SSA generated from Great Barrier Reef seawater. Further work is required to fully distinguish any differences coral reefs have on SSA composition when compared to open oceans.

  9. Profiling the Mobile Customer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille Wegener; King, Nancy J.

    2010-01-01

    Mobile customers are increasingly being tracked and profiled by behavioural advertisers to enhance delivery of personalized advertising. This type of profiling relies on automated processes that mine databases containing personally-identifying or anonymous consumer data, and it raises a host...... of significant concerns about privacy and data protection. This second article in a two part series on "Profiling the Mobile Customer" explores how to best protect consumers' privacy and personal data through available mechanisms that include industry self-regulation, privacy-enhancing technologies...

  10. The dynamics of liquid drops and their interaction with solids of varying wettabilities

    KAUST Repository

    Sprittles, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    Microdrop impact and spreading phenomena are explored as an interface formation process using a recently developed computational framework. The accuracy of the results obtained from this framework for the simulation of high deformation free-surface flows is confirmed by a comparison with previous numerical studies for the large amplitude oscillations of free liquid drops. Our code\\'s ability to produce high resolution benchmark calculations for dynamic wetting flows is then demonstrated by simulating microdrop impact and spreading on surfaces of greatly differing wettability. The simulations allow one to see features of the process which go beyond the resolution available to experimental analysis. Strong interfacial effects which are observed at the microfluidic scale are then harnessed by designing surfaces of varying wettability that allow new methods of flow control to be developed. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  11. Augmentation of direct laser writing fabrication throughput for three-dimensional structures by varying focusing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonušauskas, Linas; Rekštytė, Sima; Malinauskas, Mangirdas

    2014-12-01

    We propose a laser fabrication approach for single monolith structure by varying beam focusing lenses (NA1=1.4 and NA2=0.45). With this, we show great improvement of the manufacturing throughput while keeping the desired spatial resolution and feature definition. To quantitatively evaluate its efficiency, we theoretically calculate and experimentally measure the polymerized volume using different focusing conditions and show that the augmentation can reach more than sevenfold. Based on this, sample structures of hybrid organic-inorganic SZ2080 and hydrogel polyethylene (glycol) diacrylate photopolymers were successfully manufactured. These three-dimensional structures included prototype scaffolds for cell growth and microfluidic components. Their quality was assessed and possible difficulties as well as limitations that arose were discussed. The new structures were compared to alternative direct laser writing throughput increasing techniques. Finally, we discussed potential applications in manufacturing various elements for regenerative medicine and microfluidics.

  12. Computation of gradually varied flow in compound open channel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this method, the energy and continuity equations are solved for steady, gradually varied flow by the Newton–Raphson method and the proposed methodology is applied to tree-type and looped-channel networks. An algorithm is presented to determine multiple critical depths in a compound channel. Modifications in ...

  13. Time Varying Market Integration and Expected Rteurns in Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, F.C.J.M.; de Roon, F.A.

    2001-01-01

    We use a simple model in which the expected returns in emerging markets depend on their systematic risk as measured by their beta relative to the world portfolio as well as on the level of integration in that market.The level of integration is a time-varying variable that depends on the market value

  14. Overcoming Spurious Regression Using time-Varying Fourier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-stationary time series data have been traditionally analyzed in the frequency domain by assuming constant amplitudes regardless of the timelag. A new approach called time-varying amplitude method (TVAM) is presented here. Oscillations are analyzed for changes in the magnitude of Fourier Coefficients which are ...

  15. Multivariate Option Pricing with Time Varying Volatility and Correlations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rombouts, Jeroen V.K.; Stentoft, Lars Peter

    In recent years multivariate models for asset returns have received much attention, in particular this is the case for models with time varying volatility. In this paper we consider models of this class and examine their potential when it comes to option pricing. Specifically, we derive the risk ...

  16. Microwave oven-induced decalcification at varying temperatures: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of decalcifying fluid types on bone tissue architecture and its staining properties following decalcification at varying temperatures. A decalcification methodology using Golding and Stewards (GS) fluid, and Jenkings fluid (JK), and a modern household microwave oven to ...

  17. A five-dimensional model of varying fine structure constant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A five-dimensional model of varying fine structure constant. J P MBELEK. Service d'Astrophysique, C.E. Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France. Abstract. The cosmological variation of the fine structure constant « is explored from an effective theory, under the form of an improved version of the 5D Kaluza-Klein theory.

  18. A five-dimensional model of varying fine structure constant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dimensional model of varying fine structure constant. J P Mbelek. Cosmology Volume 62 Issue 3 March 2004 pp 741-743. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/pram/062/03/0741-0743 ...

  19. Incremental Closed-loop Identification of Linear Parameter Varying Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with system identification for control of linear parameter varying systems. In practical applications, it is often important to be able to identify small plant changes in an incremental manner without shutting down the system and/or disconnecting the controller; unfortunately, cl...

  20. Effects of varying protein levels on broiler performance when dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of varying protein levels on broiler performance when dietary energy levels remain constant. S A Osei, K Effah-Baah. Abstract. (Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science, 1987-90, 20-23: 21-24). Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals ...

  1. Adolescent Sexual Behaviors at Varying Levels of Substance Use Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Leah J.; Latimer, William

    2010-01-01

    Combining substance use and sex compounds the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. However, the association between substance use and sexual behaviors may vary by substance and sexual behavior. The current study sought to examine the relationship between alcohol and marijuana use frequency and specific sexual…

  2. Response of Japanese Breeder Quails to Varying Dietary Protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A three months feeding trial was conducted to assess the effects of feeding varying levels of dietary protein on productive performance, egg quality characteristics and hatchability using 930 six weeks breeders quails. The birds were randomly divided into five dietary treatment groups of 186 birds, and were further replicated ...

  3. Performance and cost implication of finisher turkeys fed varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 28-day experiment was conducted to determine the effect of feeding varying levels of rice milling waste as a substitute on maize on the performance, nutrient utilization and the economics implication on finisher turkeys. Five turkey finisher diets were formulated by substituting maize with rice milling waste at 0%, 25%, 50%, ...

  4. Effect of Varying Concentration of Auxins and Stem Length on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of varying hormonal treatments and length of cuttings of clonal materials on the sprouting and rooting abilities of Jatropha curcas L. Two stem cutting lengths: 30cm and 60cm were pre-treated with two types of auxins: Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) and Indole-3-Butyric Acid ...

  5. Non-stationary vibrations of mechanical systems with slowly varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper presents an approximate analytical solution for investigation of vibration responses in linear Single-Degree-of-Freedom-Systems (SDOF) with slowly varying natural frequency subjected to a transient excitalion force with constant amplitude. The solution employs the WBKJ-approximation method, the method of ...

  6. Time-frequency representation based on time-varying ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A parametric time-frequency representation is presented based on timevarying autoregressive model (TVAR), followed by applications to non-stationary vibration signal processing. The identification of time-varying model coefficients and the determination of model order, are addressed by means of neural networks and ...

  7. Explicit Analytical Solution of a Pendulum with Periodically Varying Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianzhi; Fang, Bo; Li, Song; Huang, Wenhu

    2010-01-01

    A pendulum with periodically varying length is an interesting physical system. It has been studied by some researchers using traditional perturbation methods (for example, the averaging method). But due to the limitation of the conventional perturbation methods, the solutions are not valid for long-term prediction of the pendulum. In this paper,…

  8. SANS investigation on evolution of pore morphology for varying ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    morphology for varying sintering time in porous ceria. A K PATRA1, S RAMANATHAN2, D SEN1 and S MAZUMDER1. 1Solid State Physics Division; 2Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research. Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India. E-mail: apatra@magnum.barc.ernet.in. Abstract. Precipitates of ceria were synthesized ...

  9. Time-varying correlation and common structures in volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This thesis studies time series properties of the covariance structure of multivariate asset returns. First, the time-varying feature of correlation is investigated at the intraday level with a new correlation model incorporating the intraday correlation dynamics. Second, the thesis develops a

  10. Crop-Livestock Farming Systems Varying with Different Altitudes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, rangeland is increasingly converted to cropland, creating diverse crop-livestock practices in different environments. As these practices lead to highly adapted livestock production systems using resources that vary locally and seasonally, not much is known about their similarities and differences.

  11. Time-varying Combinations of Predictive Densities using Nonlinear Filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Billio (Monica); R. Casarin (Roberto); F. Ravazzolo (Francesco); H.K. van Dijk (Herman)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a Bayesian combination approach for multivariate predictive densities which relies upon a distributional state space representation of the combination weights. Several specifications of multivariate time-varying weights are introduced with a particular focus on weight dynamics

  12. The Multi-Vari Chart -- A Systematic Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mast, J.; Roes, K.C.B.; Does, R.J.M.M.

    1999-01-01

    Prior to setting up a designed experiment or setting up a monitoring system for a process most experimenters perform an exploratory study to investigate thestructure of the process' variation. Tools that are frequently used for such a study are predominantly graphical in nature.The multi-vari chart

  13. Sheep response to sugar cane tops supplemented with varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to examine the response of West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep to sugarcane (Sacccharum officinarum) tops supplemented with varying levels of Leucaena leucocephala foliage. Twenty WAD sheep averaging 10.14kg were randomly divided into four groups of 5 replicates, and each group was fed ...

  14. Estimation of time-varying channels - A block approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leus, G.; Tang, Z.; Banelli, P.

    2011-01-01

    Channel state information (CSI) is indispensable for coherent detection in a wireless communication system. The pilot-aided method is one of the most intensively studied approaches for channel estimation. This method is especially attractive for time-varying channels because of their short coherence

  15. Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm with Time-Varying Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quande Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial bee colony (ABC is one of the newest additions to the class of swarm intelligence. ABC algorithm has been shown to be competitive with some other population-based algorithms. However, there is still an insufficiency that ABC is good at exploration but poor at exploitation. To make a proper balance between these two conflictive factors, this paper proposed a novel ABC variant with a time-varying strategy where the ratio between the number of employed bees and the number of onlooker bees varies with time. The linear and nonlinear time-varying strategies can be incorporated into the basic ABC algorithm, yielding ABC-LTVS and ABC-NTVS algorithms, respectively. The effects of the added parameters in the two new ABC algorithms are also studied through solving some representative benchmark functions. The proposed ABC algorithm is a simple and easy modification to the structure of the basic ABC algorithm. Moreover, the proposed approach is general and can be incorporated in other ABC variants. A set of 21 benchmark functions in 30 and 50 dimensions are utilized in the experimental studies. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed time-varying strategy.

  16. Response of rabbits to varying levels of cassava and Leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out to determine the performance, haematology, carcass characteristics and sensory evaluation of meat from rabbits (n = 30) fed varying levels of cassava and Leucaena leaf meal diets. Rabbits were randomly allocated to five dietary treatments of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% CLM replaced with LLM for ...

  17. Water use efficiency of six rangeland grasses under varied soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The changes in soil moisture content were measured by Gypsum Block which aided in determining the irrigation schedules. The grasses demonstrated varied levels of WUE which was evaluated by amount of biomass productivity in relation to evapotranspired water during the growing period. The three soil moisture content ...

  18. Performance and External Egg Quality of Layers under Varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance and External Egg Quality of Layers under Varying Stocking ... Study determined the performance and external egg quality of layers in locally fabricated metal-type battery cage at different stocking density. ... Birds stocked at 2/cell gained 15g/birds in weight while birds stocked 3 and 4 ... OTHER RESOURCES.

  19. Electricity Futures Prices : Time Varying Sensitivity to Fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S-E. Fleten (Stein-Erik); R. Huisman (Ronald); M. Kilic (Mehtap); H.P.G. Pennings (Enrico); S. Westgaard (Sjur)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis paper provides insight in the time-varying relation between electricity futures prices and fundamentals in the form of prices of contracts for fossil fuels. As supply curves are not constant and different producers have different marginal costs of production, we argue that the

  20. Mining Graphs for Understanding Time-Varying Volumetric Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yi; Wang, Chaoli; Peterka, Tom; Jacob, Robert; Kim, Seung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    A notable recent trend in time-varying volumetric data analysis and visualization is to extract data relationships and represent them in a low-dimensional abstract graph view for visual understanding and making connections to the underlying data. Nevertheless, the ever-growing size and complexity of data demands novel techniques that go beyond standard brushing and linking to allow significant reduction of cognition overhead and interaction cost. In this paper, we present a mining approach that automatically extracts meaningful features from a graph-based representation for exploring time-varying volumetric data. This is achieved through the utilization of a series of graph analysis techniques including graph simplification, community detection, and visual recommendation. We investigate the most important transition relationships for time-varying data and evaluate our solution with several time-varying data sets of different sizes and characteristics. For gaining insights from the data, we show that our solution is more efficient and effective than simply asking users to extract relationships via standard interaction techniques, especially when the data set is large and the relationships are complex. We also collect expert feedback to confirm the usefulness of our approach.