Sample records for profile transport model

  1. Reduced Lorenz models for anomalous transport and profile resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rypdal, K.; Garcia, Odd Erik


    problem is incompatible with finite fluxes through the system in the limit of vanishing diffusion. An alternative formulation leading to the Lorenz equations is proposed, invoking open boundaries and the notion of convective streamers and their back-reaction on the profile gradient, giving rise......The physical basis for the Lorenz equations for convective cells in stratified fluids, and for magnetized plasmas imbedded in curved magnetic fields, are reexamined with emphasis on anomalous transport. It is shown that the Galerkin truncation leading to the Lorenz equations for the closed boundary...... to resilience of the profile. Particular emphasis is put on the diffusionless limit, where these equations reduce to a simple dynamical system depending only on one single forcing parameter. This model is studied numerically, stressing experimentally observable signatures, and some of the perils of dimension...

  2. Validation of Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment zone profiles and evaluation of stratospheric transport in a global chemistry transport model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat,; Landgraf, J.; Aben, I.; Hasekamp, O.; Bregman, B.


    This paper presents a validation of Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) ozone (O3) profiles which are used to evaluate stratospheric transport in the chemistry transport model (CTM) Tracer Model version 5 (TM5) using a linearized stratospheric O3 chemistry scheme. A comparison of GOME O3

  3. Self-organization of hot plasmas the canonical profile transport model

    CERN Document Server

    Dnestrovskij, Yu N


    In this monograph the author presents the Canonical Profile Transport Model or CPTM as a rather general mathematical framework to simulate plasma discharges.The description of hot plasmas in a magnetic fusion device is a very challenging task and many plasma properties still lack a physical explanation. One important property is plasma self-organization.It is very well known from experiments that the radial profile of the plasma pressure and temperature remains rather unaffected by changes of the deposited power or plasma density. The attractiveness of the CPTM is that it includes the effect o

  4. Validation of a coupled core-transport, pedestal-structure, current-profile and equilibrium model (United States)

    Meneghini, O.


    The first workflow capable of predicting the self-consistent solution to the coupled core-transport, pedestal structure, and equilibrium problems from first-principles and its experimental tests are presented. Validation with DIII-D discharges in high confinement regimes shows that the workflow is capable of robustly predicting the kinetic profiles from on axis to the separatrix and matching the experimental measurements to within their uncertainty, with no prior knowledge of the pedestal height nor of any measurement of the temperature or pressure. Self-consistent coupling has proven to be essential to match the experimental results, and capture the non-linear physics that governs the core and pedestal solutions. In particular, clear stabilization of the pedestal peeling ballooning instabilities by the global Shafranov shift and destabilization by additional edge bootstrap current, and subsequent effect on the core plasma profiles, have been clearly observed and documented. In our model, self-consistency is achieved by iterating between the TGYRO core transport solver (with NEO and TGLF for neoclassical and turbulent flux), and the pedestal structure predicted by the EPED model. A self-consistent equilibrium is calculated by EFIT, while the ONETWO transport package evolves the current profile and calculates the particle and energy sources. The capabilities of such workflow are shown to be critical for the design of future experiments such as ITER and FNSF, which operate in a regime where the equilibrium, the pedestal, and the core transport problems are strongly coupled, and for which none of these quantities can be assumed to be known. Self-consistent core-pedestal predictions for ITER, as well as initial optimizations, will be presented. Supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-SC0012652.

  5. OMI Ozone Profile and Tropospheric Ozone and Cross Evaluations with Chemical Transport Models (United States)

    Liu, X.; Liu, J.; Duncan, B. N.; Yang, K.; Strahan, S. E.; Chance, K.; Bhartia, P. K.


    About five years of ozone profile and tropospheric ozone (October 2004-December 2009) from OMI are presented. The seasonal and inter-annual variations of tropospheric ozone in different regions are analyzed. To improve our understanding about processes controlling tropospheric ozone, we cross-evaluate the consistency of ozone profiles from the stratosphere to the troposphere between OMI retrievals, GMI combo model simulations (with two GMAO meteorological fields, GEOS-4 and MERRA reanalysis, called Aura4 and MERRA runs, respectively), and the GEOS-Chem model simulations, and investigate their differences in spatiotemporal distribution. The GMI ozone fields in both runs and the GEOS-Chem simulations generally show consistent seasonal, latitudinal variation and global distribution. Aura4 total ozone show positive biases of 10-30 DU at southern middle and high latitudes and negative biases of ~10-30 DU in the tropics, most of the biases originating from the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere (up to 20-50%). However, tropospheric ozone column usually agrees well to within 5 DU. MERRA total ozone generally compares well with OMI total ozone except with positive biases of ~10-20 DU at northern high latitudes. MERRA ozone profiles generally show positives of ~10-30% from the southern hemisphere to 20N. Aura-4 tropospheric ozone columns generally agree well with OMI to within 5 DU except in the tropics, where MERRA run has some positive biases of 5-10 DU. Differences between Aura4 and MERRA tropospheric ozone are investigated by examining various ozone precursors. The larger MERRA tropical tropospheric ozone likely results from the weak convection in the MERRA, which causes stronger stratospheric tropospheric exchange and weaker convection transport of typically poorer ozone and richer CO tropical air near the surface.

  6. Tractable flux-driven temperature, density, and rotation profile evolution with the quasilinear gyrokinetic transport model QuaLiKiz (United States)

    Citrin, J.; Bourdelle, C.; Casson, F. J.; Angioni, C.; Bonanomi, N.; Camenen, Y.; Garbet, X.; Garzotti, L.; Görler, T.; Gürcan, O.; Koechl, F.; Imbeaux, F.; Linder, O.; van de Plassche, K.; Strand, P.; Szepesi, G.; Contributors, JET


    Quasilinear turbulent transport models are a successful tool for prediction of core tokamak plasma profiles in many regimes. Their success hinges on the reproduction of local nonlinear gyrokinetic fluxes. We focus on significant progress in the quasilinear gyrokinetic transport model QuaLiKiz (Bourdelle et al 2016 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 58 014036), which employs an approximated solution of the mode structures to significantly speed up computation time compared to full linear gyrokinetic solvers. Optimisation of the dispersion relation solution algorithm within integrated modelling applications leads to flux calculations × {10}6-7 faster than local nonlinear simulations. This allows tractable simulation of flux-driven dynamic profile evolution including all transport channels: ion and electron heat, main particles, impurities, and momentum. Furthermore, QuaLiKiz now includes the impact of rotation and temperature anisotropy induced poloidal asymmetry on heavy impurity transport, important for W-transport applications. Application within the JETTO integrated modelling code results in 1 s of JET plasma simulation within 10 h using 10 CPUs. Simultaneous predictions of core density, temperature, and toroidal rotation profiles for both JET hybrid and baseline experiments are presented, covering both ion and electron turbulence scales. The simulations are successfully compared to measured profiles, with agreement mostly in the 5%–25% range according to standard figures of merit. QuaLiKiz is now open source and available at

  7. Cross-Shore Numerical Model CSHORE for Waves, Currents, Sediment Transport and Beach Profile Evolution (United States)


    investigated extensively (e.g., Kriebel and Dean 1985; van Rijn et al. 2003) but we still cannot predict beach profile evolution accurately. To improve...wave refraction (e.g., Phillips 1977; Mei 1989; Dalrymple 1988) is used to predict the spatial variations of Hrms and . The dispersion relation for...shown to yield the equilibrium profile popularized by Dean (1991). The bottom slope function Gs(Sbx) was introduced by Kobayashi et al. (2008a) to

  8. Reactive transport model of the formation of oxide-type Ni-laterite profiles (Punta Gorda, Moa Bay, Cuba) (United States)

    Domènech, Cristina; Galí, Salvador; Villanova-de-Benavent, Cristina; Soler, Josep M.; Proenza, Joaquín A.


    Oxide-type Ni-laterite deposits are characterized by a dominant limonite zone with goethite as the economically most important Ni ore mineral and a thin zone of hydrous Mg silicate-rich saprolite beneath the magnesium discontinuity. Fe, less soluble, is mainly retained forming goethite, while Ni is redeposited at greater depth in a Fe(III) and Ni-rich serpentine (serpentine II) or in goethite, where it adsorbs or substitutes for Fe in the mineral structure. Here, a 1D reactive transport model, using CrunchFlow, of Punta Gorda oxide-type Ni-laterite deposit (Moa Bay, Cuba) formation is presented. The model reproduces the formation of the different laterite horizons in the profile from an initial, partially serpentinized peridotite, in 106 years, validating the conceptual model of the formation of this kind of deposits in which a narrow saprolite horizon rich in Ni-bearing serpentine is formed above peridotite parent rock and a thick limonite horizon is formed over saprolite. Results also confirm that sorption of Ni onto goethite can explain the weight percent of Ni found in the Moa goethite. Sensitivity analyses accounting for the effect of key parameters (composition, dissolution rate, carbonate concentration, quartz precipitation) on the model results are also presented. It is found that aqueous carbonate concentration and quartz precipitation significantly affects the laterization process rate, while the effect of the composition of secondary serpentine or of mineral dissolution rates is minor. The results of this reactive transport modeling have proven useful to validate the conceptual models derived from field observations.

  9. Reactive transport model of the formation of oxide-type Ni-laterite profiles (Punta Gorda, Moa Bay, Cuba) (United States)

    Domènech, Cristina; Galí, Salvador; Villanova-de-Benavent, Cristina; Soler, Josep M.; Proenza, Joaquín A.


    Oxide-type Ni-laterite deposits are characterized by a dominant limonite zone with goethite as the economically most important Ni ore mineral and a thin zone of hydrous Mg silicate-rich saprolite beneath the magnesium discontinuity. Fe, less soluble, is mainly retained forming goethite, while Ni is redeposited at greater depth in a Fe(III) and Ni-rich serpentine (serpentine II) or in goethite, where it adsorbs or substitutes for Fe in the mineral structure. Here, a 1D reactive transport model, using CrunchFlow, of Punta Gorda oxide-type Ni-laterite deposit (Moa Bay, Cuba) formation is presented. The model reproduces the formation of the different laterite horizons in the profile from an initial, partially serpentinized peridotite, in 106 years, validating the conceptual model of the formation of this kind of deposits in which a narrow saprolite horizon rich in Ni-bearing serpentine is formed above peridotite parent rock and a thick limonite horizon is formed over saprolite. Results also confirm that sorption of Ni onto goethite can explain the weight percent of Ni found in the Moa goethite. Sensitivity analyses accounting for the effect of key parameters (composition, dissolution rate, carbonate concentration, quartz precipitation) on the model results are also presented. It is found that aqueous carbonate concentration and quartz precipitation significantly affects the laterization process rate, while the effect of the composition of secondary serpentine or of mineral dissolution rates is minor. The results of this reactive transport modeling have proven useful to validate the conceptual models derived from field observations.

  10. Measurements and modeling of transport and impurity radial profiles in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch (United States)

    Kuldkepp, M.; Brunsell, P. R.; Cecconello, M.; Dux, R.; Menmuir, S.; Rachlew, E.


    Radial impurity profiles of oxygen in the rebuilt reversed field pinch EXTRAP T2R [P. R. Brunsell et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 43, 1457 (2001)] have been measured with a multichannel spectrometer. Absolute ion densities for oxygen peak between 1-4×1010cm-3 for a central electron density of 1×1013cm-3. Transport simulations with the one-dimensional transport code STRAHL with a diffusion coefficient of 20m2 s-1 yield density profiles similar to those measured. Direct measurement of the ion profile evolution during pulsed poloidal current drive suggests that the diffusion coefficient is reduced by a factor ˜2 in the core but remains unaffected toward the edge. Core transport is not significantly affected by the radial magnetic field growth seen at the edge in discharges without feedback control. This indicates that the mode core amplitude remains the same while the mode eigenfunction increases at the edge.

  11. Modelling of Temperature Profiles and Transport Scaling in Auxiliary Heated Tokamaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callen, J.D.; Christiansen, J.P.; Cordey, J.G.


    -mode) scaling with input power, . The constant heat pinch or excess temperature gradient model leads to the offset linear law for the total stored energy W with Pin, W = τinc Pin + W(0), which describes JET auxiliary heating data quite well. It also provides definitions for the incremental energy confinement...

  12. Modelling the effects of macrofauna on sediment transport and bed elevation: Application over a cross-shore mudflat profile and model validation (United States)

    Orvain, Francis; Le Hir, Pierre; Sauriau, Pierre-Guy; Lefebvre, Sébastien


    The effects of 2 functional groups of bioturbators have been predicted in terms of long-term impact on erodability: (1) one superficial mobile deposit-feeder, the gastropod Hydrobia ulvae; and (2) one endobenthic deposit-feeder, the bivalve Scrobicularia plana. Different scenarios of morphodynamical cross-shore 1DH/1DV model were performed to simulate the equilibrium profile of an intertidal mudflat under tide and wave forcings. This process-based model for erosion is able to simulate multiphasic sequential resuspension, by discriminating various erosion behaviour like benthos-generated fluff-layer erosion (BGFL) and general bed loosening and burrowing activity in deep layers. The results were analysed and compared to examine the long-term effect of macrofauna after 14 years. It reveals that the impact of the bivalve S. plana is very significant after only 4 years of simulation while the effect of the gastropod H. ulvae is negligible in terms of sediment transport even after 14 years. More generally, this reveals the strong impact of stationary endobenthic bioturbators that induces a high downward shift of the upper shore while the effects of superficial motile bioturbators remain very low. This impact is mainly due to the effect of endobenthic species in deep layers associated to burrowing activities and their consequences on the bed erosion, but the production of a fluff layer by surface grazer like H. ulvae at the sediment surface can be neglected. The importance of macrofauna mediation of bed erodability is discussed in this study by comparing the activities of the two functional groups of bioturbation on the general functioning of intertidal mudflats. The model outcomes (transferred in a 1DV framework) were in close agreement with the measured results of flume data at 3 different bathymetric levels of the mudflat over the cross-shore profile. This validation step revealed that model of sediment transport under influence of biota effects does not need further

  13. Modeling and simulation of band-gap profiling with planar heterojunction of hole-transporting layer-free perovskite solar cells (United States)

    Liu, Yung-Tsung; Chen, Yu-Hung; Lin, Chen-Cheng; Fan, Chia-Ming; Liu, Jun-Chin; Tung, Yung-Liang; Tsai, Song-Yeu


    This study entailed modeling a perovskite absorber involving band-gap grading at the back of the absorber and double-grading profiles of hole-transporting layer-free perovskite solar cells. Device simulation based on continuity equations and Poisson’s equation was carried out by using AMPS-1D software. The optimum grading profile consisted of a band gap of 1.7 eV at the interface between the TiO2 and absorber with a graded thickness of 300 nm, uniform 1.5 eV of 50 nm, and back surface 2.1 eV with a graded thickness of 50 nm. The attained simulated efficiency was 22.68% (open-circuit voltage, V oc  =  1.34 V; short-circuit current density, J sc  =  19.98 mA cm-2 fill factor, FF  =  0.84), which is close to the uniform band gap of 1.5 eV of the whole absorber with a hole-transporting layer (Spiro-OMeTAD). This was mainly because of back grading forming a conduction band energy barrier to suppress the transportation of photo-generated electrons from the absorber to the back electrode, thereby improving carrier collection. The results indicate that the hole-transporting layer could be replaced by optimal band-gap profiling of the absorber, with near to no decayed performance of the perovskite solar cells.

  14. Data Transfer Advisor with Transport Profiling Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Nageswara S. [ORNL; Liu, Qiang [ORNL; Yun, Daqing [Harrisburg University; Wu, Chase Qishi [New Jersey Institute of Technology; Kettimuthu, R. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Jung, Eun-sung [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)


    The network infrastructures have been rapidly upgraded in many high-performance networks (HPNs). However, such infrastructure investment has not led to corresponding performance improvement in big data transfer, especially at the application layer, largely due to the complexity of optimizing transport control on end hosts. We design and implement ProbData, a PRofiling Optimization Based DAta Transfer Advisor, to help users determine the most effective data transfer method with the most appropriate control parameter values to achieve the best data transfer performance. ProbData employs a profiling optimization based approach to exploit the optimal operational zone of various data transfer methods in support of big data transfer in extreme scale scientific applications. We present a theoretical framework of the optimized profiling approach employed in ProbData as wellas its detailed design and implementation. The advising procedure and performance benefits of ProbData are illustrated and evaluated by proof-of-concept experiments in real-life networks.

  15. Modeling of Changing Electrode Profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prentice, Geoffrey Allen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials and Molecular Research Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    A model for simulating the transient behavior of solid electrodes undergoing deposition or dissolution has been developed. The model accounts for ohmic drop, charge transfer overpotential, and mass transport limitations. The finite difference method, coupled with successive overrelaxation, was used as the basis of the solution technique. An algorithm was devised to overcome the computational instabilities associated with the calculations of the secondary and tertiary current distributions. Simulations were performed on several model electrode profiles: the sinusoid, the rounded corner, and the notch. Quantitative copper deposition data were obtained in a contoured rotating cylinder system, Sinusoidal cross-sections, machined on stainless steel cylinders, were used as model geometries, Kinetic parameters for use in the simulation were determined from polarization curves obtained on copper rotating cylinders, These parameters, along with other physical property and geometric data, were incorporated in simulations of growing sinusoidal profiles. The copper distributions on the sinusoidal cross-sections were measured and found to compare favorably with the simulated results. At low Wagner numbers the formation of a slight depression at the profile peak was predicted by the simulation and observed on the profile. At higher Wagner numbers, the simulated and experimental results showed that the formation of a depression was suppressed. This phenomenon was shown to result from the competition between ohmic drop and electrode curvature.

  16. Metribuzin transport in undisturbed soil cores under controlled water potential conditions: experiments and modelling to evaluate the risk of leaching in a sandy loam soil profile. (United States)

    Pot, Valérie; Benoit, Pierre; Le Menn, Mona; Eklo, Ole-Martin; Sveistrup, Tore; Kvaerner, Jens


    Mobility of pesticides in soils is often evaluated and characterised in the surface soil layers rather than at different depths where soil characteristics such as soil organic matter, microbial biomass or clay contents can strongly change pesticide behaviour. The objective of this work was to characterise the reactivity of the herbicide metribuzin in three main soil horizons found in the 0-80 cm profile of an alluvial soil of southern Norway under dynamic transport conditions. A laboratory infiltrometer was used to perform percolation experiments in soil cores sampled in the three horizons Ap, Bw and Bw/C, at a fixed matric potential of -10 cm, thus preventing pores of equivalent radii higher than 0.015 cm from contributing to water flow. The physical equilibrium transport model correctly described the transport of water tracer (bromide). The distribution coefficient K(d) values were estimated to be 0.29, 0.17 ± 0.02 and 0.15 ± 0.00 L kg(-1) for horizons Ap, Bw and Bw/C respectively, in close agreement with batch sorption data. Degradation was found only for the surface horizon with a short half-life of about 5 days, in disagreement with longer half-lives found in batch and field degradation data. For all horizons, a kinetic sorption model was needed for better description of metribuzin leaching. Chemical non-equilibrium was greatest in the Bw horizon and lowest in the Bw/C horizon. Overall, metribuzin exhibited a greater mobility in the deeper horizons. The risk of metribuzin transfer to groundwater in such alluvial soils should therefore be considered. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Modeling Transport Layer Protocols (United States)

    Sasnauskas, Raimondas; Weingaertner, Elias

    In a layered communication architecture, transport layer protocols handle the data exchange between processes on different hosts over potentially lossy communication channels. Typically, transport layer protocols are either connection-oriented or are based on the transmission of individual datagrams. Well known transport protocols are the connection-oriented Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) [372] and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) [370] as well as the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) [340] and DCCP, the Datagram Congestion Control Protocol [259]. In this chapter, we focus on the modeling process of the transport layer. While we mostly use TCP and UDP as a base of comparison from this point, we emphasize that the methodologies discussed further on are conferrable to virtually any transport layer in any layered communication architecture.

  18. An equilibrium profile model for tidal environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Bernabeu


    Full Text Available During a full tidal cycle, the beach profile is exposed to continuously changing hydrodynamical conditions. Consequently, the profile evolves constantly to adapt to these changes. The equilibrium condition on tidal beaches is defined in terms of the relative occurrence of swash, surf zone and shoaling processes. We have assumed that the tidal beach profile is in equilibrium when the net sediment transport along a tidal cycle is zero. In this model the contribution of swash is considered negligible. A simple and easy-to-apply equilibrium profile formulation is proposed. This model is based on the assumption that surf zone processes dominate the profile morphology wherever wave breaking occurs during the tidal cycle. The obtained equilibrium profile is valid from the high tide level to the breaker point at low tide level. The tidal influence on the profile morphology is the lengthening of the surf profile. The higher the tidal range, the longer the surf profile. The model was tested against field and laboratory data, showing reasonable predictions of measured beach profiles.

  19. Community Sediment Transport Model (United States)


    with IKONOS imagery). The tidal-residual circulation (arrows, right panel) in the CSTM simulations generates sediment transport consistent with...method for estimating surface sediment concentrations from AVHRR using the method described in Myint and Walker (2002). Water quality parameters for...frequencies. A model with a spectral wave driver has a better convergence rate than a monochromatic wave driver. Optimized coupling frequencies are

  20. Groupage Cargo Transportation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksejevs Ruslans


    Full Text Available In this work we consider a specific problem of optimal planning of maritime transportation of multiproduct cargo by ships of one (corporate strategy or several (partially corporate strategy companies: the core of the problem consists of the existence of the network of intermediate seaports (i.e. transitional seaports, where for every ship arrived the cargo handling is done, and which are situated between the starting and the finishing seaports. In this work, there are mathematical models built from scratch in the form of multicriteria optimization problem; then the goal attainment method of Gembicki is used for reducing the built models to a one-criterion problem of linear programming.

  1. Transport hub flow modelling


    Despagne, Wilfried; Frenod, Emmanuel


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the road freight haulage activity. Using the physical and data flow information from a freight forwarder, we intend to model the flow of inbound and outbound goods in a freight transport hub. Approach: This paper presents the operation of a road haulage group. To deliver goods within two days to any location in France, a haulage contractor needs to be part of a network. This network handles the processing of both physical goods and data. We...

  2. Comparison of ozone profiles from DIAL, MLS, and chemical transport model simulations over Río Gallegos, Argentina, during the spring Antarctic vortex breakup, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sugita


    Full Text Available This study evaluates the agreement between ozone profiles derived from the ground-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL, satellite-borne Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS, and 3-D chemical transport model (CTM simulations such as the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC-CTM over the Atmospheric Observatory of Southern Patagonia (Observatorio Atmosférico de la Patagonia Austral, OAPA; 51.6° S, 69.3° W in Río Gallegos, Argentina, from September to November 2009. In this austral spring, measurements were performed in the vicinity of the polar vortex and inside it on some occasions; they revealed the variability in the potential vorticity (PV of measured air masses. Comparisons between DIAL and MLS were performed between 6 and 100 hPa with 500 km and 24 h coincidence criteria. The results show a good agreement between DIAL and MLS with mean differences of ±0.1 ppmv (MLS − DIAL, n  =  180 between 6 and 56 hPa. MIROC-CTM also agrees with DIAL, with mean differences of ±0.3 ppmv (MIROC-CTM − DIAL, n  =  23 between 10 and 56 hPa. Both comparisons provide mean differences of 0.5 ppmv (MLS to 0.8–0.9 ppmv (MIROC-CTM at the 83–100 hPa levels. DIAL tends to underestimate ozone values at this lower altitude region. Between 6 and 8 hPa, the MIROC-CTM ozone value is 0.4–0.6 ppmv (5–8 % smaller than those from DIAL. Applying the scaled PV (sPV criterion for matching pairs in the DIAL–MLS comparison, the variability in the difference decreases 21–47 % between 10 and 56 hPa. However, the mean differences are small for all pressure levels, except 6 hPa. Because ground measurement sites in the Southern Hemisphere (SH are very sparse at mid- to high latitudes, i.e., 35–60° S, the OAPA site is important for evaluating the bias and long-term stability of satellite instruments. The good performance of this DIAL system will be useful for such purposes in the

  3. Interpreting metabolomic profiles using unbiased pathway models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul C Deo


    Full Text Available Human disease is heterogeneous, with similar disease phenotypes resulting from distinct combinations of genetic and environmental factors. Small-molecule profiling can address disease heterogeneity by evaluating the underlying biologic state of individuals through non-invasive interrogation of plasma metabolite levels. We analyzed metabolite profiles from an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT in 50 individuals, 25 with normal (NGT and 25 with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT. Our focus was to elucidate underlying biologic processes. Although we initially found little overlap between changed metabolites and preconceived definitions of metabolic pathways, the use of unbiased network approaches identified significant concerted changes. Specifically, we derived a metabolic network with edges drawn between reactant and product nodes in individual reactions and between all substrates of individual enzymes and transporters. We searched for "active modules"--regions of the metabolic network enriched for changes in metabolite levels. Active modules identified relationships among changed metabolites and highlighted the importance of specific solute carriers in metabolite profiles. Furthermore, hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis demonstrated that changed metabolites in OGTT naturally grouped according to the activities of the System A and L amino acid transporters, the osmolyte carrier SLC6A12, and the mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate transporter SLC25A13. Comparison between NGT and IGT groups supported blunted glucose- and/or insulin-stimulated activities in the IGT group. Using unbiased pathway models, we offer evidence supporting the important role of solute carriers in the physiologic response to glucose challenge and conclude that carrier activities are reflected in individual metabolite profiles of perturbation experiments. Given the involvement of transporters in human disease, metabolite profiling may contribute to improved

  4. Consideration of transport logistics hubs in freight transport demand models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huber, Stefan; Klauenberg, Jens; Thaller, Carina


    The increasing importance of logistics and its effects on transportation processes have been considered in freight transport demand modelling by new model developments incorporating several logistics aspects...

  5. Stochastic models of intracellular transport (United States)

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Newby, Jay M.


    The interior of a living cell is a crowded, heterogenuous, fluctuating environment. Hence, a major challenge in modeling intracellular transport is to analyze stochastic processes within complex environments. Broadly speaking, there are two basic mechanisms for intracellular transport: passive diffusion and motor-driven active transport. Diffusive transport can be formulated in terms of the motion of an overdamped Brownian particle. On the other hand, active transport requires chemical energy, usually in the form of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis, and can be direction specific, allowing biomolecules to be transported long distances; this is particularly important in neurons due to their complex geometry. In this review a wide range of analytical methods and models of intracellular transport is presented. In the case of diffusive transport, narrow escape problems, diffusion to a small target, confined and single-file diffusion, homogenization theory, and fractional diffusion are considered. In the case of active transport, Brownian ratchets, random walk models, exclusion processes, random intermittent search processes, quasi-steady-state reduction methods, and mean-field approximations are considered. Applications include receptor trafficking, axonal transport, membrane diffusion, nuclear transport, protein-DNA interactions, virus trafficking, and the self-organization of subcellular structures.

  6. Stochastic models of intracellular transport

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C.


    The interior of a living cell is a crowded, heterogenuous, fluctuating environment. Hence, a major challenge in modeling intracellular transport is to analyze stochastic processes within complex environments. Broadly speaking, there are two basic mechanisms for intracellular transport: passive diffusion and motor-driven active transport. Diffusive transport can be formulated in terms of the motion of an overdamped Brownian particle. On the other hand, active transport requires chemical energy, usually in the form of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis, and can be direction specific, allowing biomolecules to be transported long distances; this is particularly important in neurons due to their complex geometry. In this review a wide range of analytical methods and models of intracellular transport is presented. In the case of diffusive transport, narrow escape problems, diffusion to a small target, confined and single-file diffusion, homogenization theory, and fractional diffusion are considered. In the case of active transport, Brownian ratchets, random walk models, exclusion processes, random intermittent search processes, quasi-steady-state reduction methods, and mean-field approximations are considered. Applications include receptor trafficking, axonal transport, membrane diffusion, nuclear transport, protein-DNA interactions, virus trafficking, and the self-organization of subcellular structures. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  7. Goods Transport Modelling, Vol 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Steen (red.); Kristiansen, Jørgen

    The report is a study of data requirements and methodologies for goods transport. The study is intended to provide the basis for general discussion about the application of goods transport models in Denmark. The report provides an overview of different types of models and data availability....

  8. Modelling Ballast Water Transport

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayakumar, S.; Babu, M.T.; Vethamony, P.

    Ballast water discharges in the coastal environs have caused a great concern over the recent periods as they account for transporting marine organisms from one part of the world to the other. The movement of discharged ballast water as well...

  9. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Turbulent Transport Control via Shaping of Radial Plasma Flow Profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, Mark Allen [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Turbulence, and turbulence-driven transport are ubiquitous in magnetically confined plasmas, where there is an intimate relationship between turbulence, transport, instability driving mechanisms (such as gradients), plasma flows, and flow shear. Though many of the detailed physics of the interrelationship between turbulence, transport, drive mechanisms, and flow remain unclear, there have been many demonstrations that transport and/or turbulence can be suppressed or reduced via manipulations of plasma flow profiles. This is well known in magnetic fusion plasmas [e.g., high confinement mode (H-mode) and internal transport barriers (ITB’s)], and has also been demonstrated in laboratory plasmas. However, it may be that the levels of particle transport obtained in such cases [e.g. H-mode, ITB’s] are actually lower than is desirable for a practical fusion device. Ideally, one would be able to actively feedback control the turbulent transport, via manipulation of the flow profiles. The purpose of this research was to investigate the feasibility of using both advanced model-based control algorithms, as well as non-model-based algorithms, to control cross-field turbulence-driven particle transport through appropriate manipulation of radial plasma flow profiles. The University of New Mexico was responsible for the experimental portion of the project, while our collaborators at the University of Montana provided plasma transport modeling, and collaborators at Lehigh University developed and explored control methods.

  10. Multi-compartment Aerosol Transport Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Joshua Allen; Santarpia, Joshua; Brotherton, Christopher M.; Omana, Michael Alexis; Rivera, Danielle; Lucero, Gabriel Anthony


    A simple aerosol transport model was developed for a multi-compartmented cleanroom. Each compartment was treated as a well-mixed volume with ventilating supply and return air. Gravitational settling, intercompartment transport, and leakage of exterior air into the system were included in the model. A set of first order, coupled, ordinary differential equations was derived from the conservation equations of aerosol mass and air mass. The system of ODEs was then solved in MATLAB using pre-existing numerical methods. The model was verified against cases of (1) constant inlet-duct concentration, and (2) exponentially decaying inlet-duct concentration. Numerical methods resulted in normalized error of less than 10 -9 when model solutions were compared to analytical solutions. The model was validated against experimental measurements from a single field test and showed good agreement in the shape and magnitude of the aerosol concentration profile with time.

  11. Atmospheric Transport Modeling Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzola, Carl A. [Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation, Aiken, SC (United States); Addis, Robert P. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)


    The purpose of this publication is to provide DOE and other federal agency emergency managers with an in-depth compilation and description of atmospheric dispersion models available to DOE and other Federal sites.

  12. Next Generation Transport Phenomenology Model (United States)

    Strickland, Douglas J.; Knight, Harold; Evans, J. Scott


    This report describes the progress made in Quarter 3 of Contract Year 3 on the development of Aeronomy Phenomenology Modeling Tool (APMT), an open-source, component-based, client-server architecture for distributed modeling, analysis, and simulation activities focused on electron and photon transport for general atmospheres. In the past quarter, column emission rate computations were implemented in Java, preexisting Fortran programs for computing synthetic spectra were embedded into APMT through Java wrappers, and work began on a web-based user interface for setting input parameters and running the photoelectron and auroral electron transport models.

  13. Isotope and density profile effects on pedestal neoclassical transport (United States)

    Buller, S.; Pusztai, I.


    Cross-field neoclassical transport of heat, particles and momentum is studied in sharp density pedestals, with a focus on isotope and profile effects, using a radially global approach. Global effects—which tend to reduce the peak ion heat flux, and shift it outward—increase with isotope mass for fixed profiles. The heat flux reduction exhibits a saturation with a favorable isotopic trend. A significant part of the heat flux can be convective even in pure plasmas, unlike in the plasma core, and it is sensitive to how momentum sources are distributed between the various species. In particular, if only ion momentum sources are allowed, in global simulations of pure plasmas the ion particle flux remains close to its local value, while this may not be the case for simulations with isotope mixtures or electron momentum sources. The radial angular momentum transport that is a finite orbit width effect, is found to be strongly correlated with heat sources.

  14. Cumulus parameterizations in chemical transport models (United States)

    Mahowald, Natalie M.; Rasch, Philip J.; Prinn, Ronald G.


    Global three-dimensional chemical transport models (CTMs) are valuable tools for studying processes controlling the distribution of trace constituents in the atmosphere. A major uncertainty in these models is the subgrid-scale parametrization of transport by cumulus convection. This study seeks to define the range of behavior of moist convective schemes and point toward more reliable formulations for inclusion in chemical transport models. The emphasis is on deriving convective transport from meteorological data sets (such as those from the forecast centers) which do not routinely include convective mass fluxes. Seven moist convective parameterizations are compared in a column model to examine the sensitivity of the vertical profile of trace gases to the parameterization used in a global chemical transport model. The moist convective schemes examined are the Emanuel scheme [Emanuel, 1991], the Feichter-Crutzen scheme [Feichter and Crutzen, 1990], the inverse thermodynamic scheme (described in this paper), two versions of a scheme suggested by Hack [Hack, 1994], and two versions of a scheme suggested by Tiedtke (one following the formulation used in the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting) and ECHAM3 (European Centre and Hamburg Max-Planck-Institut) models [Tiedtke, 1989], and one formulated as in the TM2 (Transport Model-2) model (M. Heimann, personal communication, 1992). These convective schemes vary in the closure used to derive the mass fluxes, as well as the cloud model formulation, giving a broad range of results. In addition, two boundary layer schemes are compared: a state-of-the-art nonlocal boundary layer scheme [Holtslag and Boville, 1993] and a simple adiabatic mixing scheme described in this paper. Three tests are used to compare the moist convective schemes against observations. Although the tests conducted here cannot conclusively show that one parameterization is better than the others, the tests are a good measure of the

  15. Modeling Radionuclide Transport in Clays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Liange [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Li, Lianchong [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Liu, Hui -Hai [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    tests (e.g. Garcia-Gutierrez et al. 2006, Soler et al. 2008, van Loon et al. 2004, Wu et al. 2009) and numerical modeling (de Windt et al. 2003; 2006), the effects of THMC processes on radionuclide transport are not fully investigated. The objectives of the research activity documented in this report are to improve a modeling capability for coupled THMC processes and to use it to evaluate the THMC impacts on radionuclide transport. This research activity addresses several key Features, Events and Processes (FEPs), including FEP 2.2.08, Hydrologic Processes, FEP 2.2.07, Mechanical Processes and FEP 2.2.09, Chemical Process— Transport, by studying near-field coupled THMC processes in clay/shale repositories and their impacts on radionuclide transport. This report documents the progress that has been made in FY12. Section 2 discusses the development of THMC modeling capability. Section 3 reports modeling results of THMC impacts on radionuclide transport. Planned work for the remaining months of FY12 and proposed work for FY13 are presented in Section 4.

  16. Fractional diffusion models of nonlocal transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego B [ORNL


    A class of nonlocal models based on the use of fractional derivatives (FDs) is proposed to describe nondiffusive transport in magnetically confined plasmas. FDs are integro-differential operators that incorporate in a unified framework asymmetric non-Fickian transport, non-Markovian ('memory') effects, and nondiffusive scaling. To overcome the limitations of fractional models in unbounded domains, we use regularized FDs that allow the incorporation of finite-size domain effects, boundary conditions, and variable diffusivities. We present an alpha-weighted explicit/implicit numerical integration scheme based on the Grunwald-Letnikov representation of the regularized fractional diffusion operator in flux conserving form. In sharp contrast with the standard diffusive model, the strong nonlocality of fractional diffusion leads to a linear in time response for a decaying pulse at short times. In addition, an anomalous fractional pinch is observed, accompanied by the development of an uphill transport region where the 'effective' diffusivity becomes negative. The fractional flux is in general asymmetric and, for steady states, it has a negative (toward the core) component that enhances confinement and a positive component that increases toward the edge and leads to poor confinement. The model exhibits the characteristic anomalous scaling of the confinement time, {tau}, with the system's size, L, {tau}{approx}L{sup {alpha}}, of low-confinement mode plasma where 1<{alpha}<2 is the order of the FD operator. Numerical solutions of the model with an off-axis source show that the fractional inward transport gives rise to profile peaking reminiscent of what is observed in tokamak discharges with auxiliary off-axis heating. Also, cold-pulse perturbations to steady states in the model exhibit fast, nondiffusive propagation phenomena that resemble perturbative experiments.

  17. Fractional diffusion models of nonlocal transport (United States)

    del-Castillo-Negrete, D.


    A class of nonlocal models based on the use of fractional derivatives (FDs) is proposed to describe nondiffusive transport in magnetically confined plasmas. FDs are integro-differential operators that incorporate in a unified framework asymmetric non-Fickian transport, non-Markovian ("memory") effects, and nondiffusive scaling. To overcome the limitations of fractional models in unbounded domains, we use regularized FDs that allow the incorporation of finite-size domain effects, boundary conditions, and variable diffusivities. We present an α-weighted explicit/implicit numerical integration scheme based on the Grunwald-Letnikov representation of the regularized fractional diffusion operator in flux conserving form. In sharp contrast with the standard diffusive model, the strong nonlocality of fractional diffusion leads to a linear in time response for a decaying pulse at short times. In addition, an anomalous fractional pinch is observed, accompanied by the development of an uphill transport region where the "effective" diffusivity becomes negative. The fractional flux is in general asymmetric and, for steady states, it has a negative (toward the core) component that enhances confinement and a positive component that increases toward the edge and leads to poor confinement. The model exhibits the characteristic anomalous scaling of the confinement time, τ, with the system's size, L, τ ˜Lα, of low-confinement mode plasma where 1<α<2 is the order of the FD operator. Numerical solutions of the model with an off-axis source show that the fractional inward transport gives rise to profile peaking reminiscent of what is observed in tokamak discharges with auxiliary off-axis heating. Also, cold-pulse perturbations to steady sates in the model exhibit fast, nondiffusive propagation phenomena that resemble perturbative experiments.

  18. Parameter optimization for surface flux transport models (United States)

    Whitbread, T.; Yeates, A. R.; Muñoz-Jaramillo, A.; Petrie, G. J. D.


    Accurate prediction of solar activity calls for precise calibration of solar cycle models. Consequently we aim to find optimal parameters for models which describe the physical processes on the solar surface, which in turn act as proxies for what occurs in the interior and provide source terms for coronal models. We use a genetic algorithm to optimize surface flux transport models using National Solar Observatory (NSO) magnetogram data for Solar Cycle 23. This is applied to both a 1D model that inserts new magnetic flux in the form of idealized bipolar magnetic regions, and also to a 2D model that assimilates specific shapes of real active regions. The genetic algorithm searches for parameter sets (meridional flow speed and profile, supergranular diffusivity, initial magnetic field, and radial decay time) that produce the best fit between observed and simulated butterfly diagrams, weighted by a latitude-dependent error structure which reflects uncertainty in observations. Due to the easily adaptable nature of the 2D model, the optimization process is repeated for Cycles 21, 22, and 24 in order to analyse cycle-to-cycle variation of the optimal solution. We find that the ranges and optimal solutions for the various regimes are in reasonable agreement with results from the literature, both theoretical and observational. The optimal meridional flow profiles for each regime are almost entirely within observational bounds determined by magnetic feature tracking, with the 2D model being able to accommodate the mean observed profile more successfully. Differences between models appear to be important in deciding values for the diffusive and decay terms. In like fashion, differences in the behaviours of different solar cycles lead to contrasts in parameters defining the meridional flow and initial field strength.

  19. Structures, profile consistency, and transport scaling in electrostatic convection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bian, N.H.; Garcia, O.E.


    that for interchange modes, profile consistency is in fact due to mixing by persistent large-scale convective cells. This mechanism is not a turbulent diffusion, cannot occur in collisionless systems, and is the analog of the well-known laminar "magnetic flux expulsion" in magneiohydrodynamics. This expulsion process...... involves a "pinch" across closed streamlines and further results in the formation of pressure fingers along the-separatrix of the convective cells. By nature, these coherent structures are dissipative because the mixing process that leads to their formation relies on a finite amount of collisional...... diffusion. Numerical simulations of two-dimensional interchange modes confirm the role of laminar expulsion by convective cells, for profile consistency and structure formation. They also show that the fingerlike pressure structures ultimately control the rate of heat transport across the plasma layer...

  20. Impurity profiles and radial transport in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch (United States)

    Sallander, J.


    Radially resolved spectroscopy has been used to measure the radial distribution of impurity ions (O III-O V and C III-CVI) in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch (RFP). The radial profile of the emission is reconstructed from line emission measured along five lines of sight. The ion density profile is the fitted quantity in the reconstruction of the brightness profile and is thus obtained directly in this process. These measurements are then used to adjust the parameters in transport calculations in order to obtain consistency with the observed ion density profiles. Comparison between model and measurements show that a radial dependence in the diffusion is needed to explain the measured ion densities.

  1. On the representation of IAGOS/MOZAIC vertical profiles in chemical transport models : contribution of different error sources in the example of carbon monoxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschetti, Fabio; Chen, Huilin; Thouret, Valerie; Nedelec, Philippe; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Gerbig, Christoph


    Utilising a fleet of commercial airliners, MOZAIC/IAGOS provides atmospheric composition data on a regular basis that are widely used for modelling applications. Due to the specific operational context of the platforms, such observations are collected close to international airports and hence in an

  2. Modelling of radon transport in porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, E.R.; de Meijer, R.J.; Katase, A; Shimo, M


    This paper aims to describe the state of the art of modelling radon transport in soil on basis of multiphase radon transport equations. Emphasis is given to methods to obtain a consistent set of input parameters needed For such models. Model-measurement comparisons with the KVI radon transport

  3. Transport Properties for Combustion Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.J.; Bastein, L.; Price, P.N.


    This review examines current approximations and approaches that underlie the evaluation of transport properties for combustion modeling applications. Discussed in the review are: the intermolecular potential and its descriptive molecular parameters; various approaches to evaluating collision integrals; supporting data required for the evaluation of transport properties; commonly used computer programs for predicting transport properties; the quality of experimental measurements and their importance for validating or rejecting approximations to property estimation; the interpretation of corresponding states; combination rules that yield pair molecular potential parameters for unlike species from like species parameters; and mixture approximations. The insensitivity of transport properties to intermolecular forces is noted, especially the non-uniqueness of the supporting potential parameters. Viscosity experiments of pure substances and binary mixtures measured post 1970 are used to evaluate a number of approximations; the intermediate temperature range 1 < T* < 10, where T* is kT/{var_epsilon}, is emphasized since this is where rich data sets are available. When suitable potential parameters are used, errors in transport property predictions for pure substances and binary mixtures are less than 5 %, when they are calculated using the approaches of Kee et al.; Mason, Kestin, and Uribe; Paul and Warnatz; or Ern and Giovangigli. Recommendations stemming from the review include (1) revisiting the supporting data required by the various computational approaches, and updating the data sets with accurate potential parameters, dipole moments, and polarizabilities; (2) characterizing the range of parameter space over which the fit to experimental data is good, rather than the current practice of reporting only the parameter set that best fits the data; (3) looking for improved combining rules, since existing rules were found to under-predict the viscosity in most cases; (4

  4. Directions in Radiation Transport Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Nicholas Smith


    More exciting advances are on the horizon to increase the power of simulation tools. The advent of high performance computers is allowing bigger, higher fidelity models to be created, if the challenges of parallelization and memory management can be met. 3D whole core transport modelling is becoming possible. Uncertainty quantification is improving with large benefits to be gained from more accurate, less pessimistic estimates of uncertainty. Advanced graphical displays allow the user to assimilate and make sense of the vast amounts of data produced by modern modelling tools. Numerical solvers are being developed that use goal-based adaptivity to adjust the nodalisation of the system to provide the optimum scheme to achieve the user requested accuracy on the results, thus removing the need to perform costly convergence studies in space and angle etc. More use is being made of multi-physics methods in which radiation transport is coupled with other phenomena, such as thermal-hydraulics, structural response, fuel performance and/or chemistry in order to better understand their interplay in reactor cores.

  5. A multi-model analysis of vertical ozone profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Jonson


    Full Text Available A multi-model study of the long-range transport of ozone and its precursors from major anthropogenic source regions was coordinated by the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP under the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP. Vertical profiles of ozone at 12-h intervals from 2001 are available from twelve of the models contributing to this study and are compared here with observed profiles from ozonesondes. The contributions from each major source region are analysed for selected sondes, and this analysis is supplemented by retroplume calculations using the FLEXPART Lagrangian particle dispersion model to provide insight into the origin of ozone transport events and the cause of differences between the models and observations.

    In the boundary layer ozone levels are in general strongly affected by regional sources and sinks. With a considerably longer lifetime in the free troposphere, ozone here is to a much larger extent affected by processes on a larger scale such as intercontinental transport and exchange with the stratosphere. Such individual events are difficult to trace over several days or weeks of transport. This may explain why statistical relationships between models and ozonesonde measurements are far less satisfactory than shown in previous studies for surface measurements at all seasons. The lowest bias between model-calculated ozone profiles and the ozonesonde measurements is seen in the winter and autumn months. Following the increase in photochemical activity in the spring and summer months, the spread in model results increases, and the agreement between ozonesonde measurements and the individual models deteriorates further.

    At selected sites calculated contributions to ozone levels in the free troposphere from intercontinental transport are shown. Intercontinental transport is identified based on differences in model calculations with unperturbed emissions and

  6. A multi-model analysis of vertical ozone profiles (United States)

    Jonson, J. E.; Stohl, A.; Fiore, A. M.; Hess, P.; Szopa, S.; Wild, O.; Zeng, G.; Dentener, F. J.; Lupu, A.; Schultz, M. G.; Duncan, B. N.; Sudo, K.; Wind, P.; Schulz, M.; Marmer, E.; Cuvelier, C.; Keating, T.; Zuber, A.; Valdebenito, A.; Dorokhov, V.; de Backer, H.; Davies, J.; Chen, G. H.; Johnson, B.; Tarasick, D. W.; Stübi, R.; Newchurch, M. J.; von der Gathen, P.; Steinbrecht, W.; Claude, H.


    A multi-model study of the long-range transport of ozone and its precursors from major anthropogenic source regions was coordinated by the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP) under the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP). Vertical profiles of ozone at 12-h intervals from 2001 are available from twelve of the models contributing to this study and are compared here with observed profiles from ozonesondes. The contributions from each major source region are analysed for selected sondes, and this analysis is supplemented by retroplume calculations using the FLEXPART Lagrangian particle dispersion model to provide insight into the origin of ozone transport events and the cause of differences between the models and observations. In the boundary layer ozone levels are in general strongly affected by regional sources and sinks. With a considerably longer lifetime in the free troposphere, ozone here is to a much larger extent affected by processes on a larger scale such as intercontinental transport and exchange with the stratosphere. Such individual events are difficult to trace over several days or weeks of transport. This may explain why statistical relationships between models and ozonesonde measurements are far less satisfactory than shown in previous studies for surface measurements at all seasons. The lowest bias between model-calculated ozone profiles and the ozonesonde measurements is seen in the winter and autumn months. Following the increase in photochemical activity in the spring and summer months, the spread in model results increases, and the agreement between ozonesonde measurements and the individual models deteriorates further. At selected sites calculated contributions to ozone levels in the free troposphere from intercontinental transport are shown. Intercontinental transport is identified based on differences in model calculations with unperturbed emissions and emissions reduced by 20% by region

  7. Up-gradient transport in a probabilistic transport model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavnholt, J.; Juul Rasmussen, J.; Garcia, O.E.


    The transport of particles or heat against the driving gradient is studied by employing a probabilistic transport model with a characteristic particle step length that depends on the local concentration or heat gradient. When this gradient is larger than a prescribed critical value, the standard....... These results supplement recent works by van Milligen [Phys. Plasmas 11, 3787 (2004)], which applied Levy distributed step sizes in the case of supercritical gradients to obtain the up-gradient transport. (c) 2005 American Institute of Physics....

  8. Modeling energy transport in nanostructures (United States)

    Pattamatta, Arvind

    Heat transfer in nanostructures differ significantly from that in the bulk materials since the characteristic length scales associated with heat carriers, i.e., the mean free path and the wavelength, are comparable to the characteristic length of the nanostructures. Nanostructure materials hold the promise of novel phenomena, properties, and functions in the areas of thermal management and energy conversion. Example of thermal management in micro/nano electronic devices is the use of efficient nanostructured materials to alleviate 'hot spots' in integrated circuits. Examples in the manipulation of heat flow and energy conversion include nanostructures for thermoelectric energy conversion, thermophotovoltaic power generation, and data storage. One of the major challenges in Metal-Oxide Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) devices is to study the 'hot spot' generation by accurately modeling the carrier-optical phonon-acoustic phonon interactions. Prediction of hotspot temperature and position in MOSFET devices is necessary for improving thermal design and reliability of micro/nano electronic devices. Thermoelectric properties are among the properties that may drastically change at nanoscale. The efficiency of thermoelectric energy conversion in a material is measured by a non-dimensional figure of merit (ZT) defined as, ZT = sigmaS2T/k where sigma is the electrical conductivity, S is the Seebeck coefficient, T is the temperature, and k is the thermal conductivity. During the last decade, advances have been made in increasing ZT using nanostructures. Three important topics are studied with respect to energy transport in nanostructure materials for micro/nano electronic and thermoelectric applications; (1) the role of nanocomposites in improving the thermal efficiency of thermoelectric devices, (2) the interfacial thermal resistance for the semiconductor/metal contacts in thermoelectric devices and for metallic interconnects in micro/nano electronic devices, (3) the

  9. Use of Models in Urban Transportation Planning (United States)


    The report describes the most commonly used models in urban transportation planning. A background on urban transportation planning is given including changes in planning objectives and the effects of Federal legislation. General concepts and problems...

  10. Physics models in the toroidal transport code PROCTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, H.C.


    The physics models that are contained in the toroidal transport code PROCTR are described in detail. Time- and space-dependent models are included for the plasma hydrogenic-ion, helium, and impurity densities, the electron and ion temperatures, the toroidal rotation velocity, and the toroidal current profile. Time- and depth-dependent models for the trapped and mobile hydrogenic particle concentrations in the wall and a time-dependent point model for the number of particles in the limiter are also included. Time-dependent models for neutral particle transport, neutral beam deposition and thermalization, fusion heating, impurity radiation, pellet injection, and the radial electric potential are included and recalculated periodically as the time-dependent models evolve. The plasma solution is obtained either in simple flux coordinates, where the radial shift of each elliptical, toroidal flux surface is included to maintain an approximate pressure equilibrium, or in general three-dimensional torsatron coordinates represented by series of helical harmonics. The detailed coupling of the plasma, scrape-off layer, limiter, and wall models through the neutral transport model makes PROCTR especially suited for modeling of recycling and particle control in toroidal plasmas. The model may also be used in a steady-state profile analysis mode for studying energy and particle balances starting with measured plasma profiles.

  11. A UML profile for framework modeling. (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-liang; Wang, Le-yu; Zhou, Hong


    The current standard Unified Modeling Language(UML) could not model framework flexibility and extendability adequately due to lack of appropriate constructs to distinguish framework hot-spots from kernel elements. A new UML profile that may customize UML for framework modeling was presented using the extension mechanisms of UML, providing a group of UML extensions to meet the needs of framework modeling. In this profile, the extended class diagrams and sequence diagrams were defined to straightforwardly identify the hot-spots and describe their instantiation restrictions. A transformation model based on design patterns was also put forward, such that the profile based framework design diagrams could be automatically mapped to the corresponding implementation diagrams. It was proved that the presented profile makes framework modeling more straightforwardly and therefore easier to understand and instantiate.

  12. Modelling of Transport Projects Uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Leleur, Steen


    This paper proposes a new way of handling the uncertainties present in transport decision making based on infrastructure appraisals. The paper suggests to combine the principle of Optimism Bias, which depicts the historical tendency of overestimating transport related benefits and underestimating......-based graphs which function as risk-related decision support for the appraised transport infrastructure project....

  13. Validation of transport models in ASDEX Upgrade current ramps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fietz, Sina; Hobirk, Joerg; Fable, Emiliano; Fischer, Rainer; Fuchs, Christoph; Pereverzev, Grigori; Ryter, Francois [Max Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Collaboration: the ASDEX Upgrade Team


    In order to prepare adequate ramp up and down scenarios for ITER, understanding the physics of transport during the current ramps is essential. The aim of the work was to assess the capability of several transport models to reproduce the experimental data during the current ramps. For this purpose, the calculated temperature profiles from different transport models, i.e. Coppi-Tang, Neo-Alcator, Bohm-Gyrobohm, critical gradient model and H98/2 scaling-based are compared to experimental temperature profiles under different conditions. The strong variation of the experimental electron temperature profiles are partly reproduced by the models. The importance of central and edge radiation will be emphasized, as well as the main transport properties of the models, especially in the case of strong local electron heating (ECRH). To investigate the control capabilities of a Tokamak, particularly with regard to ITER, the impact on global plasma parameters like the internal inductance and the stored energy is also investigated.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The purpose of the saturated zone (SZ) flow and transport model abstraction task is to provide radionuclide-transport simulation results for use in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) calculations. This task includes assessment of uncertainty in parameters that pertain to both groundwater flow and radionuclide transport in the models used for this purpose. This model report documents the following: (1) The SZ transport abstraction model, which consists of a set of radionuclide breakthrough curves at the accessible environment for use in the TSPA-LA simulations of radionuclide releases into the biosphere. These radionuclide breakthrough curves contain information on radionuclide-transport times through the SZ. (2) The SZ one-dimensional (I-D) transport model, which is incorporated in the TSPA-LA model to simulate the transport, decay, and ingrowth of radionuclide decay chains in the SZ. (3) The analysis of uncertainty in groundwater-flow and radionuclide-transport input parameters for the SZ transport abstraction model and the SZ 1-D transport model. (4) The analysis of the background concentration of alpha-emitting species in the groundwater of the SZ.

  15. Final Technical Report: Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Turbulent Transport Control via Shaping of Radial Plasma Flow Profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, Eugenio


    The strong coupling between the different physical variables involved in the plasma transport phenomenon and the high complexity of its dynamics call for a model-based, multivariable approach to profile control where those predictive models could be exploited. The overall objective of this project has been to extend the existing body of work by investigating numerically and experimentally active control of unstable fluctuations, including fully developed turbulence and the associated cross-field particle transport, via manipulation of flow profiles in a magnetized laboratory plasma device. Fluctuations and particle transport can be monitored by an array of electrostatic probes, and Ex B flow profiles can be controlled via a set of biased concentric ring electrodes that terminate the plasma column. The goals of the proposed research have been threefold: i- to develop a predictive code to simulate plasma transport in the linear HELCAT (HELicon-CAThode) plasma device at the University of New Mexico (UNM), where the experimental component of the proposed research has been carried out; ii- to establish the feasibility of using advanced model-based control algorithms to control cross-field turbulence-driven particle transport through appropriate manipulation of radial plasma flow profiles, iii- to investigate the fundamental nonlinear dynamics of turbulence and transport physics. Lehigh University (LU), including Prof. Eugenio Schuster and one full-time graduate student, has been primarily responsible for control-oriented modeling and model-based control design. Undergraduate students have also participated in this project through the National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) program. The main goal of the LU Plasma Control Group has been to study the feasibility of controlling turbulence-driven transport by shaping the radial poloidal flow profile (i.e., by controlling flow shear) via biased concentric ring electrodes.

  16. Logistics and Transport - a conceptual model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Per Homann; Drewes, Lise


    This paper describes how the freight transport sector is influenced by logistical principles of production and distribution. It introduces new ways of understanding freight transport as an integrated part of the changing trends of mobility. By introducing a conceptual model for understanding...... the interaction between logistics and transport, it points at ways to over-come inherent methodological difficulties when studying this relation...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Magnuson


    The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions, from the repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  18. Modelling of Transport Projects Uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Leleur, Steen


    This paper proposes a new way of handling the uncertainties present in transport decision making based on infrastructure appraisals. The paper suggests to combine the principle of Optimism Bias, which depicts the historical tendency of overestimating transport related benefits and underestimating......-based graphs which functions as risk-related decision support for the appraised transport infrastructure project. The presentation of RSF is demonstrated by using an appraisal case concerning a new airfield in the capital of Greenland, Nuuk....

  19. Biological transportation networks: Modeling and simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Albi, Giacomo


    We present a model for biological network formation originally introduced by Cai and Hu [Adaptation and optimization of biological transport networks, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 (2013) 138701]. The modeling of fluid transportation (e.g., leaf venation and angiogenesis) and ion transportation networks (e.g., neural networks) is explained in detail and basic analytical features like the gradient flow structure of the fluid transportation network model and the impact of the model parameters on the geometry and topology of network formation are analyzed. We also present a numerical finite-element based discretization scheme and discuss sample cases of network formation simulations.

  20. Modeling activity transport in the CANDU heat transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzonas, D.A.; Qiu, L. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)


    The release and transport of corrosion products from the surfaces of primary coolant system components is a serious concern for all water-cooled nuclear power plants. The consequences of high levels of corrosion product transport are twofold: a) increased corrosion product (crud) deposition on fuel cladding surfaces, leading to reduced heat transfer and the possibility of fuel failures, and b) increased production of radioactive species by neutron activation, resulting in increased out-of-core radiation fields and worker dose. In recent years, a semi-empirical activity transport model has been successfully developed to predict the deposition of radionuclides, including {sup 60}Co, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 124}Sb and fission products, around the CANDU® primary Heat Transport System (HTS), and to predict radiation fields at the steam generators and reactor face. The model links corrosion of the carbon steel outlet feeders to magnetite and radionuclide deposition on steam generator and inlet piping surfaces. This paper will describe the model development, key assumptions, required inputs, and model validation. The importance of reactor artefact characterization in the model development will be highlighted, and some key results will be presented, including oxide morphology and loadings, and radionuclide distributions within the oxide. The predictive capabilities of the model will also be described, including predictions of oxide thickness and the effects of changes in chemistry parameters such as alkalinity. While the model was developed primarily for the CANDU® HTS, the information gained during model development regarding corrosion product and radionuclide transport and deposition can also provide insights into activity transport in other water-cooled reactor systems. (author)

  1. A Mercury Model of Atmospheric Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Alex B. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chodash, Perry A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Procassini, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Using the particle transport code Mercury, accurate models were built of the two sources used in Operation BREN, a series of radiation experiments performed by the United States during the 1960s. In the future, these models will be used to validate Mercury’s ability to simulate atmospheric transport.

  2. The european Trans-Tools transport model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, T. van; Burgess, A.


    The paper presents the use of ArcGIS in the Transtools Transport Model, TRANS-TOOLS, created by an international consortium for the European Commission. The model describe passenger as well as freight transport in Europe with all medium and long distance modes (cars, vans, trucks, train, inland

  3. Optimal transportation networks models and theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bernot, Marc; Morel, Jean-Michel


    The transportation problem can be formalized as the problem of finding the optimal way to transport a given measure into another with the same mass. In contrast to the Monge-Kantorovitch problem, recent approaches model the branched structure of such supply networks as minima of an energy functional whose essential feature is to favour wide roads. Such a branched structure is observable in ground transportation networks, in draining and irrigation systems, in electrical power supply systems and in natural counterparts such as blood vessels or the branches of trees. These lectures provide mathematical proof of several existence, structure and regularity properties empirically observed in transportation networks. The link with previous discrete physical models of irrigation and erosion models in geomorphology and with discrete telecommunication and transportation models is discussed. It will be mathematically proven that the majority fit in the simple model sketched in this volume.

  4. Uncertainty in tsunami sediment transport modeling (United States)

    Jaffe, Bruce E.; Goto, Kazuhisa; Sugawara, Daisuke; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; La Selle, SeanPaul M.


    Erosion and deposition from tsunamis record information about tsunami hydrodynamics and size that can be interpreted to improve tsunami hazard assessment. We explore sources and methods for quantifying uncertainty in tsunami sediment transport modeling. Uncertainty varies with tsunami, study site, available input data, sediment grain size, and model. Although uncertainty has the potential to be large, published case studies indicate that both forward and inverse tsunami sediment transport models perform well enough to be useful for deciphering tsunami characteristics, including size, from deposits. New techniques for quantifying uncertainty, such as Ensemble Kalman Filtering inversion, and more rigorous reporting of uncertainties will advance the science of tsunami sediment transport modeling. Uncertainty may be decreased with additional laboratory studies that increase our understanding of the semi-empirical parameters and physics of tsunami sediment transport, standardized benchmark tests to assess model performance, and development of hybrid modeling approaches to exploit the strengths of forward and inverse models.

  5. A Model of Cadmium Uptake and Transport in Caco-2 Cells. (United States)

    Gerasimenko, T N; Senyavina, N V; Anisimov, N U; Tonevitskaya, S A


    We created a physiologically substantiated kinetic model of cadmium transport and toxicity in intestinal cell model (Caco-2 cells). Transcriptome profiling of Caco-2 cells revealed high content of transporter DMT1 and ZIP14 and intensive expression of some calcium channels of the CACN family. The mathematical model describing three types of transporters, as well as intracellular cadmium binding with metallothionein and excretion through the basolateral membrane allowed us to construct cadmium uptake and transport curves that approximated the previously obtained experimental data. Using the proposed model, we determined toxic intracellular cadmium concentration leading to cell death and impairing the integrity of cell monolayer and described cadmium transport in this case.

  6. Concept Layout Model of Transportation Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ya Yao


    Full Text Available Transportation terminal is the key node in transport systems. Efficient terminals can improve operation of passenger transportation networks, adjust the layout of public transportation networks, provide a passenger guidance system, and regulate the development of commercial forms, as well as optimize the assembly and distribution of modern logistic modes, among others. This study aims to clarify the relationship between the function and the structure of transportation terminals and establish the function layout design. The mapping mechanism of demand, function, and structure was analyzed, and a quantitative relationship between function and structure was obtained from a design perspective. Passenger demand and terminal structure were decomposed into several demand units and structural elements following the principle of reverse engineering. The relationship maps between these two kinds of elements were then analyzed. Function-oriented concept layout model of transportation terminals was established using the previous method. Thus, a technique in planning and design of transportation structures was proposed. Meaningful results were obtained from the optimization of transportation terminal facilities, which guide the design of the functional layout of transportation terminals and improve the development of urban passenger transportation systems.

  7. Modeling bacterial transport in the subsurface using HP1 (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Olson, M. S.


    Bacterial infiltration through the subsurface has been studied experimentally under different conditions of interest and is dependent on a variety of physical, chemical and biological factors, such as solution chemistry, bacterial size and surface properties, and mineral surfaces etc. However, most bacterial transport studies are often not directly relevant to processes occurring in natural systems. Bacteria have been frequently detected and reported in stormwater runoff. Mixing of stormwater runoff with groundwater in the subsurface during infiltration causes changes in solution chemistry, which lead to changes in bacterial surface properties (such as zeta potential) and collector surface charge and properties. This study focuses on bacterial transport as stormwater runoff infiltrates into the subsurface. A microbial reactive transport model is developed using HP1(HYDRUS1D-PHREEQC), which accounts for changes in the physical and chemical factors that control bacterial attachment onto liquid-solid and liquid-air interfaces. Bacterial attachment efficiency to liquid-solid interfaces is considered both under unfavorable conditions, as predicted by DLVO theory and the Maxwell approach coupling both primary and secondary-minima deposition, and under favorable conditions. Bacterial attachment at the liquid-air interface is modeled using mass transfer equations, which vary with changes in the water content profile. Different scenarios are simulated to observe bacterial transport behavior in uniformly and variably unsaturated soil, under high and low surface ponding depths and with varied and constant rates of bacterial attachment. Column transport experiments have been developed to experimentally validate the microbial reactive transport model.

  8. Uncertainty calculation in transport models and forecasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzo, Stefano; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    Transport projects and policy evaluations are often based on transport model output, i.e. traffic flows and derived effects. However, literature has shown that there is often a considerable difference between forecasted and observed traffic flows. This difference causes misallocation of (public......, infrastructure, and regulation) and demand. Uncertainty pertains to everything the modeller does not know to a full extent about the system object of the modelling process due to a limited knowledge or stochasticity of some model components. Thus, ultimately uncertainty reflects the inability of the modeller...... the uncertainty propagation pattern over time specific for key model outputs becomes strategically important. 1 Manzo, S., Nielsen, O. A. & Prato, C. G. (2014). The Effects of uncertainty in speed-flow curve parameters on a large-scale model. Transportation Research Record, 1, 30-37. 2 Manzo, S., Nielsen, O. A...

  9. Multimodal transportation best practices and model element. (United States)


    This report provides guidance in developing a multimodal transportation element of a local government comprehensive : plan. Two model elements were developed to address differences in statutory requirements for communities of different : sizes and pl...

  10. NODA for EPA's Updated Ozone Transport Modeling (United States)

    Find EPA's NODA for the Updated Ozone Transport Modeling Data for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) along with the ExitExtension of Public Comment Period on CSAPR for the 2008 NAAQS.

  11. Boltzmann Transport in Hybrid PIC HET Modeling (United States)


    Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) July 2015-July 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Boltzmann transport in hybrid PIC HET modeling 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In...reproduce experimentally observed mobility trends derived from HPHall, a workhorse hybrid- PIC HET simulation code. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY...Std. 239.18 Boltzmann transport in hybrid PIC HET modeling IEPC-2015- /ISTS-2015-b- Presented at Joint Conference of 30th International

  12. Velocity profiles in idealized model of human respiratory tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jicha M.


    Full Text Available This article deals with numerical simulation focused on velocity profiles in idealized model of human upper airways during steady inspiration. Three r gimes of breathing were investigated: Resting condition, Deep breathing and Light activity which correspond to most common regimes used for experiments and simulations. Calculation was validated with experimental data given by Phase Doppler Anemometry performed on the model with same geometry. This comparison was made in multiple points which form one cross-section in trachea near first bifurcation of bronchial tree. Development of velocity profile in trachea during steady inspiration was discussed with respect for common phenomenon formed in trachea and for future research of transport of aerosol particles in human respiratory tract.

  13. A Lightweight GRL Profile for i* Modeling (United States)

    Amyot, Daniel; Horkoff, Jennifer; Gross, Daniel; Mussbacher, Gunter

    The i* framework is a popular conceptual modeling language for capturing and analyzing socio-technical motivation and properties of complex systems in terms of actors, their intentions, and their relationships. In November 2008, the International Telecommunications Union finalized the standardization of the User Requirements Notation (URN). URN is composed of two loosely coupled yet integrated sub-languages: the Goal-oriented Requirement Language (GRL), which is an intentional modeling language based on a subset of i*, and the Use Case Map notation for representing and capturing high-level system scenarios and structures. GRL was specifically defined in a non-restrictive way to foster the development and use of different agent and/or goal modeling approaches and techniques. However, because of its permissiveness, GRL can be used in ways that deviate from conventional i* modeling guidelines. In addition, some i* concepts do not have equivalent first-class concepts in GRL. In this paper, we present a lightweight GRL profile for i* that takes advantage of GRL's extensibility features to capture missing i* concepts. The profile presents formal constraints on the use of GRL and its extensions to restrict it to an i* style. Using GRL constrained by this profile enables GRL modeling and analysis tools to be used for i* models, and ensures that resulting i* models conform to an international standard and that they can be integrated with Use Case Maps. Variants and extensions of the original i* can also be supported in a similar way. This profile is implemented in the jUCMNav modeling tool.

  14. Computer modeling of electron and proton transport in chloroplasts. (United States)

    Tikhonov, Alexander N; Vershubskii, Alexey V


    chloroplasts and lateral heterogeneity of lamellar system of thylakoids. The lateral profiles of pH in the thylakoid lumen and in the narrow gap between grana thylakoids have been calculated under different metabolic conditions. Analyzing topological aspects of diffusion-controlled stages of electron and proton transport in chloroplasts, we conclude that along with the NPQ mechanism of attenuation of PSII activity and deceleration of PQH2 oxidation by the cytochrome b6f complex caused by the lumen acidification, the intersystem electron transport may be down-regulated due to the light-induced alkalization of the narrow partition between adjacent thylakoids of grana. The computer models of electron and proton transport described in this article may be integrated as appropriate modules into a comprehensive model of oxygenic photosynthesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An Eulerian transport/transformation/removal model for SO2 and sulfate. I - Model development. II - Model calculation of SO(x) transport in the eastern United States (United States)

    Carmichael, G. R.; Peters, L. K.


    A three-dimensional, time dependent Eulerian atmospheric SO2 and sulfate transport/transformation/removal model is described and applied to the eastern U.S. The model was developed in anticipation of increased input to the atmospheric sulfur content by coal-burning power plants in the near future and is intended as an aid in identifying sources of SO2. The Eulerian transport model incorporates functions for chemical transformations, dry deposition, spatial topographical variations, spatial and temporal variations of mixing layer heights, the wind field, eddy diffusivities, deposition velocities, and temperature and water concentration profiles. Attention is also given to the SO2 photochemical oxidation mechanism and rates. Results from a 72-hr simulation of SO(x) transport over the eastern U.S., using actual 1974 meteorological data, illustrate the model's capability to depict interactions between emissions, transport, chemistry and removal. Concentration distributions are demonstrated to have significant spatial and temporal variations.

  16. Computational modeling of ion transport through nanopores (United States)

    Modi, Niraj; Winterhalter, Mathias; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich


    Nanoscale pores are ubiquitous in biological systems while artificial nanopores are being fabricated for an increasing number of applications. Biological pores are responsible for the transport of various ions and substrates between the different compartments of biological systems separated by membranes while artificial pores are aimed at emulating such transport properties. As an experimental method, electrophysiology has proven to be an important nano-analytical tool for the study of substrate transport through nanopores utilizing ion current measurements as a probe for the detection. Independent of the pore type, i.e., biological or synthetic, and objective of the study, i.e., to model cellular processes of ion transport or electrophysiological experiments, it has become increasingly important to understand the dynamics of ions in nanoscale confinements. To this end, numerical simulations have established themselves as an indispensable tool to decipher ion transport processes through biological as well as artificial nanopores. This article provides an overview of different theoretical and computational methods to study ion transport in general and to calculate ion conductance in particular. Potential new improvements in the existing methods and their applications are highlighted wherever applicable. Moreover, representative examples are given describing the ion transport through biological and synthetic nanopores as well as the high selectivity of ion channels. Special emphasis is placed on the usage of molecular dynamics simulations which already have demonstrated their potential to unravel ion transport properties at an atomic level.

  17. Real time model for public transportation management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneusz Celiński


    Full Text Available Background: The article outlines managing a public transportation fleet in the dynamic aspect. There are currently many technical possibilities of identifying demand in the transportation network. It is also possible to indicate legitimate basis of estimating and steering demand. The article describes a general public transportation fleet management concept based on balancing demand and supply. Material and methods: The presented method utilizes a matrix description of demand for transportation based on telemetric and telecommunication data. Emphasis was placed mainly on a general concept and not the manner in which data was collected by other researchers.  Results: The above model gave results in the form of a system for managing a fleet in real-time. The objective of the system is also to optimally utilize means of transportation at the disposal of service providers. Conclusions: The presented concept enables a new perspective on managing public transportation fleets. In case of implementation, the project would facilitate, among others, designing dynamic timetables, updated based on observed demand, and even designing dynamic points of access to public transportation lines. Further research should encompass so-called rerouting based on dynamic measurements of the characteristics of the transportation system.

  18. Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Moridis; Q. Hu


    The purpose of Revision 00 of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada.

  19. Jet propagation within a Linearized Boltzmann Transport model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Tan; He, Yayun [Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Wang, Xin-Nian [Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Nuclear Science Division, Mailstop 70R0319, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94740 (United States); Zhu, Yan [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain)


    A Linearized Boltzmann Transport (LBT) model has been developed for the study of parton propagation inside quark–gluon plasma. Both leading and thermal recoiled partons are tracked in order to include the effect of jet-induced medium excitation. In this talk, we present a study within the LBT model in which we implement the complete set of elastic parton scattering processes. We investigate elastic parton energy loss and their energy and length dependence. We further investigate energy loss and transverse shape of reconstructed jets. Contributions from the recoiled thermal partons and jet-induced medium excitations are found to have significant influences on the jet energy loss and transverse profile.

  20. System Convergence in Transport Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Cantarella, Guilio E.


    -of-successive-averages (MSA) have been proposed. Convergence of the MSA under fairly weak regularity conditions was shown in Robbins and Monro (1951). The iteration between demand and assignment ? the external equilibrium ? are in many models either decoupled or follow a very simple iteration pattern. However, as demand...

  1. Commercial Consolidation Model Applied to Transport Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilherme de Aragão, J.J.; Santos Fontes Pereira, L. dos; Yamashita, Y.


    Since the 1990s, transport concessions, including public-private partnerships (PPPs), have been increasingly adopted by governments as an alternative for financing and operations in public investments, especially in transport infrastructure. The advantage pointed out by proponents of these models lies in merging the expertise and capital of the private sector to the public interest. Several arrangements are possible and have been employed in different cases. After the duration of the first PPP contracts in transportation, many authors have analyzed the success and failure factors of partnerships. The occurrence of failures in some stages of the process can greatly encumber the public administration, incurring losses to the fiscal responsibility of the competent bodies. This article aims to propose a new commercial consolidation model applied to transport infrastructure to ensure fiscal sustainability and overcome the weaknesses of current models. Initially, a systematic review of the literature covering studies on transport concessions between 1990 and 2015 is offered, where the different approaches between various countries are compared and the critical success factors indicated in the studies are identified. In the subsequent part of the paper, an approach for the commercial consolidation of the infrastructure concessions is presented, where the concessionary is paid following a finalistic performance model, which includes the overall fiscal balance of regional growth. Finally, the papers analyses the usefulness of the model in coping with the critical success factors explained before. (Author)

  2. A Sediment Transport Model for Sewers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Ole; Larsson, Johan; Larsen, Torben


    This paper describes a mathematical model for transport processes in sewers. The model consists of three sub models, a surface model for the description of the buildup and the washoff of sediment particles from the surface area, a morphological model and an advection-dispersion model. The model...... is being developed as a part of a study being carried out at the University of Aalborg, Denmark and VBB VIAK, Sweden. The project is funded by the Swedish Water and Waste Water Works Association and the Nordic Industrial Foundation....

  3. Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Moridis; Q. Hu


    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. This is in accordance with the ''AMR Development Plan U0060, Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This AMR supports the UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). This AMR documents the UZ Radionuclide Transport Model (RTM). This model considers: the transport of radionuclides through fractured tuffs; the effects of changes in the intensity and configuration of fracturing from hydrogeologic unit to unit; colloid transport; physical and retardation processes and the effects of perched water. In this AMR they document the capabilities of the UZ RTM, which can describe flow (saturated and/or unsaturated) and transport, and accounts for (a) advection, (b) molecular diffusion, (c) hydrodynamic dispersion (with full 3-D tensorial representation), (d) kinetic or equilibrium physical and/or chemical sorption (linear, Langmuir, Freundlich or combined), (e) first-order linear chemical reaction, (f) radioactive decay and tracking of daughters, (g) colloid filtration (equilibrium, kinetic or combined), and (h) colloid-assisted solute transport. Simulations of transport of radioactive solutes and colloids (incorporating the processes described above) from the repository horizon to the water table are performed to support model development and support studies for Performance Assessment (PA). The input files for these simulations include transport parameters obtained from other AMRs (i.e., CRWMS M and O 1999d, e, f, g, h; 2000a, b, c, d). When not available, the parameter values used are obtained from the literature. The results of the simulations are used to evaluate the transport of radioactive

  4. Use of EARLINET climatology for validation of vertical model profiles (United States)

    Mortier, Augustin; Schulz, Michael


    For over a decade, intensive in-situ, ground-based and spaceborne remote observations are dedicated to the aerosols, a major component of the Earth atmosphere. These observations are mostly motivated by the high variability of the particles in space and time and their effect on the climate at a global scale, and at a regional scale on air quality. In the meantime, global and regional models provide aerosol concentrations (as projection, reanalysis or in near real time in chemical weather forecasting) respectively for the calculation of radiative effects and the assessment of air quality. The vertical distribution of the aerosol is a key-parameter since it affects its lifetime and reflects physical processes such as wet and dry deposition or chemical reactions. The aerosols present in low levels of the troposphere directly affect local air quality, while elevated aerosol layers can be transported long-range and contribute to pollution in remote regions. The evaluation of aerosol column and simulated vertical profiles are thus of particular interest for the performance characterisation of air quality models. The Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring System (CAMS) delivers daily near real time aerosols products over Europe. In the framework of producing a regional a posteriori validation of the CAMS models, we propose, through this study, a validation exercise of the vertical aerosol profiles. This shall rely on the ACTRIS European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) measurements because of their quality and the opportunity to derive a climatology from long-term measurements. PM10 profiles are given from the models while mostly backscatter profiles are available from EARLINET database. After studying the representativeness of the EARLINET data (2006-2014), we present a comparison with the modeled vertical profiles (7 models and the Ensemble) at the location of measurement stations for the different seasons of the year 2016. The challenge of comparing the measured

  5. Transport in Silicon Nanowires: Role of Radial Dopant Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Troels; Rurali, Riccardo; Jauho, Antti-Pekka


    We consider the electronic transport properties of phosphorus (P) doped silicon nanowires (SiNWs). By combining ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations with a recursive Green's function method, we calculate the conductance distribution of up to 200 nm long SiNWs with different dist...

  6. Evaluation of cloud convection and tracer transport in a three-dimensional chemical transport model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Feng


    large improvement compared to the archived mass fluxes.

    Including a radon tracer in the model confirms the importance of convection for reproducing observed midlatitude profiles. The model run using archived mass fluxes transports significantly more radon to the upper troposphere but the available data does not strongly discriminate between the different model versions.

  7. GEOS-5 Chemistry Transport Model User's Guide (United States)

    Kouatchou, J.; Molod, A.; Nielsen, J. E.; Auer, B.; Putman, W.; Clune, T.


    The Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) General Circulation Model (GCM) makes use of the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF) to enable model configurations with many functions. One of the options of the GEOS-5 GCM is the GEOS-5 Chemistry Transport Model (GEOS-5 CTM), which is an offline simulation of chemistry and constituent transport driven by a specified meteorology and other model output fields. This document describes the basic components of the GEOS-5 CTM, and is a user's guide on to how to obtain and run simulations on the NCCS Discover platform. In addition, we provide information on how to change the model configuration input files to meet users' needs.

  8. Modelling Transition Towards Sustainable Transportation Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Bačeković, I.; Mýrdal, Jón Steinar Garðarsson


    In a transition towards 100% renewable energy system, transportation sector is rarely dealt withusing the holistic approach and measuring its impact on the whole energy system. Furthermore, assolutions for power and heat sectors are clearer, it is a tendency of the researchers to focus on thelatter...... two energy sectors. In order to deal with the raised issue, authors of this paper developed amethodology for calculation of the transition towards sustainable transport sector, focusing on thesolutions that are already available. Furthermore, as a part of the model, a detailed mapping ofresources...... needed has been carried out for each of the alternatives. It was shown that theelectrification of the transportation sector is a crucial point in transition, while for the transportmodes that cannot be electrified, or shifted to different transportation modes, four alternatives weredefined: synthetic...

  9. Transportation Telematics Systems Operation Efficiency Modeling (United States)

    Siergiejczyk, Mirosław


    In the paper is presented a method of assessing of the exploitation efficiency of transport telematics systems. In order to obtain as an overall assessment of transport telematics systems, as the method for evaluating was accepted the multi-state analysis of the exploitation process. Then was elaborated the model of exploitation process of the telematics system. The problem of fundamental importance in the study of efficiency is to determine the partial measures of effectiveness. Using the characteristics of the exploitation process, a model of exploitation efficiency of telematics system was elaborated and the measures of its evaluation are presented.

  10. Combined kinetic and transport modeling of radiofrequency current drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumont, R.; Giruzzi, G. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/Cadarache, Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee (DRFC), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Barbato, E. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Frascati (Italy)


    A numerical model for predictive simulations of radiofrequency current drive in magnetically confined plasmas is developed. It includes the minimum requirements for a self consistent description of such regimes, i.e., a 3-D ,kinetic equation for the electron distribution function, 1-D heat and current transport equations, and resonant coupling between velocity space and configuration space dynamics, through suitable wave propagation equations. The model finds its full application in predictive studies of complex current profile control scenarios in tokamaks, aiming at the establishment of internal transport barriers by the simultaneous use of various radiofrequency current drive methods. The basic properties of this non-linear numerical system are investigated and illustrated by simulations applied to reversed magnetic shear regimes obtained by Lower Hybrid and Electron Cyclotron current drive for parameters typical of the Tore Supra tokamak. (authors)

  11. A wave-resolving model for nearshore suspended sediment transport (United States)

    Ma, Gangfeng; Chou, Yi-Ju; Shi, Fengyan


    This paper presents a wave-resolving sediment transport model, which is capable of simulating sediment suspension in the field-scale surf zone. The surf zone hydrodynamics is modeled by the non-hydrostatic model NHWAVE (Ma et al., 2012). The turbulent flow and suspended sediment are simulated in a coupled manner. Three effects of suspended sediment on turbulent flow field are considered: (1) baroclinic forcing effect; (2) turbulence damping effect and (3) bottom boundary layer effect. Through the validation with the laboratory measurements of suspended sediment under nonbreaking skewed waves and surfzone breaking waves, we demonstrate that the model can reasonably predict wave-averaged sediment profiles. The model is then utilized to simulate a rip current field experiment (RCEX) and nearshore suspended sediment transport. The offshore sediment transport by rip currents is captured by the model. The effects of suspended sediment on self-suspension are also investigated. The turbulence damping and bottom boundary layer effects are significant on sediment suspension. The suspended sediment creates a stably stratified water column, damping fluid turbulence and reducing turbulent diffusivity. The suspension of sediment also produces a stably stratified bottom boundary layer. Thus, the drag coefficient and bottom shear stress are reduced, causing less sediment pickup from the bottom. The cross-shore suspended sediment flux is analyzed as well. The mean Eulerian suspended sediment flux is shoreward outside the surf zone, while it is seaward in the surf zone.

  12. Modelling chemical depletion profiles in regolith (United States)

    Brantley, S.L.; Bandstra, J.; Moore, J.; White, A.F.


    Chemical or mineralogical profiles in regolith display reaction fronts that document depletion of leachable elements or minerals. A generalized equation employing lumped parameters was derived to model such ubiquitously observed patterns:C = frac(C0, frac(C0 - Cx = 0, Cx = 0) exp (??ini ?? over(k, ??) ?? x) + 1)Here C, Cx = 0, and Co are the concentrations of an element at a given depth x, at the top of the reaction front, or in parent respectively. ??ini is the roughness of the dissolving mineral in the parent and k???? is a lumped kinetic parameter. This kinetic parameter is an inverse function of the porefluid advective velocity and a direct function of the dissolution rate constant times mineral surface area per unit volume regolith. This model equation fits profiles of concentration versus depth for albite in seven weathering systems and is consistent with the interpretation that the surface area (m2 mineral m- 3 bulk regolith) varies linearly with the concentration of the dissolving mineral across the front. Dissolution rate constants can be calculated from the lumped fit parameters for these profiles using observed values of weathering advance rate, the proton driving force, the geometric surface area per unit volume regolith and parent concentration of albite. These calculated values of the dissolution rate constant compare favorably to literature values. The model equation, useful for reaction fronts in both steady-state erosional and quasi-stationary non-erosional systems, incorporates the variation of reaction affinity using pH as a master variable. Use of this model equation to fit depletion fronts for soils highlights the importance of buffering of pH in the soil system. Furthermore, the equation should allow better understanding of the effects of important environmental variables on weathering rates. ?? 2008.

  13. Modelling of electron transport and of sawtooth activity in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angioni, C


    Transport phenomena in tokamak plasmas strongly limit the particle and energy confinement and represent a crucial obstacle to controlled thermonuclear fusion. Within the vast framework of transport studies, three topics have been tackled in the present thesis: first, the computation of neoclassical transport coefficients for general axisymmetric equilibria and arbitrary collisionality regime; second, the analysis of the electron temperature behaviour and transport modelling of plasma discharges in the Tokamak a configuration Variable (TCV); third, the modelling and simulation of the sawtooth activity with different plasma heating conditions. The work dedicated to neoclassical theory has been undertaken in order to first analytically identify a set of equations suited for implementation in existing Fokker-Planck codes. Modifications of these codes enabled us to compute the neoclassical transport coefficients considering different realistic magnetic equilibrium configurations and covering a large range of variation of three key parameters: aspect ratio, collisionality, and effective charge number. A comparison of the numerical results with an analytical limit has permitted the identification of two expressions for the trapped particle fraction, capable of encapsulating the geometrical effects and thus enabling each transport coefficient to be fitted with a single analytical function. This has allowed us to provide simple analytical formulae for all the neoclassical transport coefficients valid for arbitrary aspect ratio and collisionality in general realistic geometry. This work is particularly useful for a correct evaluation of the neoclassical contribution in tokamak scenarios with large bootstrap cur- rent fraction, or improved confinement regimes with low anomalous transport and for the determination of the plasma current density profile, since the plasma conductivity is usually assumed neoclassical. These results have been included in the plasma transport code

  14. Error estimation and adaptive chemical transport modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte Braack


    Full Text Available We present a numerical method to use several chemical transport models of increasing accuracy and complexity in an adaptive way. In largest parts of the domain, a simplified chemical model may be used, whereas in certain regions a more complex model is needed for accuracy reasons. A mathematically derived error estimator measures the modeling error and provides information where to use more accurate models. The error is measured in terms of output functionals. Therefore, one has to consider adjoint problems which carry sensitivity information. This concept is demonstrated by means of ozone formation and pollution emission.

  15. Model for Microcirculation Transportation Network Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Chen


    Full Text Available The idea of microcirculation transportation was proposed to shunt heavy traffic on arterial roads through branch roads. The optimization model for designing micro-circulation transportation network was developed to pick out branch roads as traffic-shunting channels and determine their required capacity, trying to minimize the total reconstruction expense and land occupancy subject to saturation and reconstruction space constraints, while accounting for the route choice behaviour of network users. Since micro-circulation transportation network design problem includes both discrete and continuous variables, a discretization method was developed to convert two groups of variables (discrete variables and continuous variables into one group of new discrete variables, transforming the mixed network design problem into a new kind of discrete network design problem with multiple values. The genetic algorithm was proposed to solve the new discrete network design problem. Finally a numerical example demonstrated the efficiency of the model and algorithm.

  16. Multi-shell transport model for L-H transition (United States)

    Berionni, V.; Morel, P.; Gürcan, Ö. D.


    A coupled model of transport, turbulence, and mesoscale flows is proposed, including turbulence spreading. The model consists of transport equations for plasma density and pressure coupled to a shell model of drift wave turbulence, which incorporates coupling to mesoscale flows via disparate scale interactions. The model can describe the turbulent cascade and its dynamical interplay with zonal and mean shear flows as well as the profile evolution (including the profiles of turbulence intensity itself) due to these self-consistent turbulent fluxes. This simple system of equations is shown to capture the low to high confinement (L-H) transition. It is also observed that as the heating is increased, the system goes through an intermediate phase that displays oscillations between zonal flows and turbulence. The transition towards the H mode, which is characterized by the presence of a strong mean shear flow at the edge, is triggered by the mesoscale dynamics due to the action of zonal flows, with turbulence spreading playing an important role in the H to L back transition.

  17. Climate impact of transportation A model comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girod, B.; Vuuren, D.P. van; Grahn, M.; Kitous, A.; Kim, S.H.; Kyle, P.


    Transportation contributes to a significant and rising share of global energy use and GHG emissions. Therefore modeling future travel demand, its fuel use, and resulting CO2 emission is highly relevant for climate change mitigation. In this study we compare the baseline projections for global

  18. Equilibrium models in multimodal container transport systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corman, F.; Viti, F.; Negenborn, R.R.


    Optimizing the performance of multimodal freight transport networks involves adequately balancing the interplay between costs, volumes, times of departure and arrival, and times of travel. In order to study this interplay, we propose an assignment model that is able to efficiently determine flows

  19. Modelling anisotropic water transport in polymer composite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This work reports anisotropic water transport in a polymer composite consisting of an epoxy matrix reinforced with aligned triangular bars made of vinyl ester. By gravimetric experiments, water diffusion in resin and polymer composites were characterized. Parameters for Fickian diffusion and polymer relaxation models were ...

  20. Using BIG data in transport modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Romph, E.


    Both innovation and ingenuity are required to turn an increasing amount of data that is not obviously 'transport oriented' into useful information that can assist with model building in circumstances where relevant data is otherwise not available or in poor supply, explains Omnitrans'

  1. A depth integrated model for suspended transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galappatti, R.


    A new depth averaged model for suspended sediment transport in open channels has been developed based on an asymptotic solution to the two dimensional convection-diffusion equation in the vertical plane. The solution for the depth averaged concentration is derived from the bed boundary condition and

  2. Logistics Chains in Freight Transport Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davydenko, I.Y.


    The flow of trade is not equal to transport flows, mainly due to the fact that warehouses and distribution facilities are used as intermediary stops on the way from production locations to the points of consumption or further rework of goods. This thesis proposes a logistics chain model, which

  3. Unreliability effects in public transport modelling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, Niels; Brands, Ties; de Romph, Erik; Aceves Flores, Jessica


    Nowadays, transport demand models do not explicitly evaluate the impacts of service reliability of transit. Service reliability of transit systems is adversely experienced by users, as it causes additional travel time and unsecure arrival times. Because of this, travellers are likely to perceive a

  4. Improving the accuracy of vehicle emissions profiles for urban transportation greenhouse gas and air pollution inventories. (United States)

    Reyna, Janet L; Chester, Mikhail V; Ahn, Soyoung; Fraser, Andrew M


    Metropolitan greenhouse gas and air emissions inventories can better account for the variability in vehicle movement, fleet composition, and infrastructure that exists within and between regions, to develop more accurate information for environmental goals. With emerging access to high quality data, new methods are needed for informing transportation emissions assessment practitioners of the relevant vehicle and infrastructure characteristics that should be prioritized in modeling to improve the accuracy of inventories. The sensitivity of light and heavy-duty vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) and conventional air pollutant (CAP) emissions to speed, weight, age, and roadway gradient are examined with second-by-second velocity profiles on freeway and arterial roads under free-flow and congestion scenarios. By creating upper and lower bounds for each factor, the potential variability which could exist in transportation emissions assessments is estimated. When comparing the effects of changes in these characteristics across U.S. cities against average characteristics of the U.S. fleet and infrastructure, significant variability in emissions is found to exist. GHGs from light-duty vehicles could vary by -2%-11% and CAP by -47%-228% when compared to the baseline. For heavy-duty vehicles, the variability is -21%-55% and -32%-174%, respectively. The results show that cities should more aggressively pursue the integration of emerging big data into regional transportation emissions modeling, and the integration of these data is likely to impact GHG and CAP inventories and how aggressively policies should be implemented to meet reductions. A web-tool is developed to aide cities in improving emissions uncertainty.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Iu. Smirnov


    Full Text Available The main part of developing computer-aided design of roads are simulation systems to see the road in action. Modeling of the functioning of the road in such a simulation system - this test road design in the computer. This article describes three modules: PARK, PROFILE, COMPOSITION and comprising a set of process simulation programs functioning road. A significant increase in the accuracy of simulation results provides software parks established normative reference database of technical and economic parameters of vehicles belonging to the stream. Completeness framework allows continuous adjustment and constant up-dating of the parameters types of cars in different scales calculation excludes construction and operating costs in justifying economic calculations optimality design solutions and increases the reliability of evaluating the effectiveness of capital investments in the construction and reconstruction of roads. Optimization of the design solutions in general, as a single continuous sequence of combinations of elements contributes to road profile program that analyzes the geometric elements of the plan, longitudinal section, compressing the geometry information of the way for the subsequent modeling of the functioning of the road. Program PROFILE (and built on its basis BASIS program, PROFILE is a nexus between the projecting programs and programs that simulate traffic. Transport and road performance computer modeled for a particular stream of automobile. Technical and economic parameters of vehicles belonging to the flow (up to 20, which is sufficient for practical and research tasks and their percentage in the flow of the program selects COMPOSITION regulatory reference framework articulated earlier PARK module and writes them to a working file for their subsequent use module RIDE.

  6. Numerical modelling of ion transport in flames

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Jie


    This paper presents a modelling framework to compute the diffusivity and mobility of ions in flames. The (n, 6, 4) interaction potential is adopted to model collisions between neutral and charged species. All required parameters in the potential are related to the polarizability of the species pair via semi-empirical formulas, which are derived using the most recently published data or best estimates. The resulting framework permits computation of the transport coefficients of any ion found in a hydrocarbon flame. The accuracy of the proposed method is evaluated by comparing its predictions with experimental data on the mobility of selected ions in single-component neutral gases. Based on this analysis, the value of a model constant available in the literature is modified in order to improve the model\\'s predictions. The newly determined ion transport coefficients are used as part of a previously developed numerical approach to compute the distribution of charged species in a freely propagating premixed lean CH4/O2 flame. Since a significant scatter of polarizability data exists in the literature, the effects of changes in polarizability on ion transport properties and the spatial distribution of ions in flames are explored. Our analysis shows that changes in polarizability propagate with decreasing effect from binary transport coefficients to species number densities. We conclude that the chosen polarizability value has a limited effect on the ion distribution in freely propagating flames. We expect that the modelling framework proposed here will benefit future efforts in modelling the effect of external voltages on flames. Supplemental data for this article can be accessed at © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

  7. Phylogenetic profiles of all membrane transport proteins of the malaria parasite highlight new drug targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    January Weiner 3rd


    Full Text Available In order to combat the on-going malaria epidemic, discovery of new drug targets remains vital. Proteins that are essential to survival and specific to malaria parasites are key candidates. To survive within host cells, the parasites need to acquire nutrients and dispose of waste products across multiple membranes. Additionally, like all eukaryotes, they must redistribute ions and organic molecules between their various internal membrane bound compartments. Membrane transport proteins mediate all of these processes and are considered important mediators of drug resistance as well as drug targets in their own right. Recently, using advanced experimental genetic approaches and streamlined life cycle profiling, we generated a large collection of Plasmodium berghei gene deletion mutants and assigned essential gene functions, highlighting potential targets for prophylactic, therapeutic, and transmission-blocking anti-malarial drugs. Here, we present a comprehensive orthology assignment of all Plasmodium falciparum putative membrane transport proteins and provide a detailed overview of the associated essential gene functions obtained through experimental genetics studies in human and murine model parasites. Furthermore, we discuss the phylogeny of selected potential drug targets identified in our functional screen. We extensively discuss the results in the context of the functional assignments obtained using gene targeting available to date.

  8. Symposium on unsaturated flow and transport modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, E.M.; Gee, G.W.; Nelson, R.W. (eds.)


    This document records the proceedings of a symposium on flow and transport processes in partially saturated groundwater systems, conducted at the Battelle Seattle Research Center on March 22-24, 1982. The symposium was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the purpose of assessing the state-of-the-art of flow and transport modeling for use in licensing low-level nuclear waste repositories in partially saturated zones. The first day of the symposium centered around research in flow through partially saturated systems. Papers were presented with the opportunity for questions following each presentation. In addition, after all the talks, a formal panel discussion was held during which written questions were addressed to the panel of the days speakers. The second day of the Symposium was devoted to solute and contaminant transport in partially saturated media in an identical format. Individual papers are abstracted.

  9. Integrated modeling of temperature profiles in L-mode tokamak discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiq, T.; Kritz, A. H.; Tangri, V. [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Pankin, A. Y. [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Voitsekhovitch, I. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Budny, R. V. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)


    Simulations of doublet III-D, the joint European tokamak, and the tokamak fusion test reactor L-mode tokamak plasmas are carried out using the PTRANSP predictive integrated modeling code. The simulation and experimental temperature profiles are compared. The time evolved temperature profiles are computed utilizing the Multi-Mode anomalous transport model version 7.1 (MMM7.1) which includes transport associated with drift-resistive-inertial ballooning modes (the DRIBM model [T. Rafiq et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 082511 (2010)]). The tokamak discharges considered involved a broad range of conditions including scans over gyroradius, ITER like current ramp-up, with and without neon impurity injection, collisionality, and low and high plasma current. The comparison of simulation and experimental temperature profiles for the discharges considered is shown for the radial range from the magnetic axis to the last closed flux surface. The regions where various modes in the Multi-Mode model contribute to transport are illustrated. In the simulations carried out using the MMM7.1 model it is found that: The drift-resistive-inertial ballooning modes contribute to the anomalous transport primarily near the edge of the plasma; transport associated with the ion temperature gradient and trapped electron modes contribute in the core region but decrease in the region of the plasma boundary; and neoclassical ion thermal transport contributes mainly near the center of the discharge.

  10. A heterogeneous model for gas transport in carbon molecular sieves. (United States)

    Ding, L P; Yuan, Y X; Farooq, S; Bhatia, S K


    A dual resistance model with distribution of either barrier or pore diffusional activation energy is proposed in this work for gas transport in carbon molecular sieve (CMS) micropores. This is a novel approach in which the equilibrium is homogeneous, but the kinetics is heterogeneous. The model seems to provide a possible explanation for the concentration dependence of the thermodynamically corrected barrier and pore diffusion coefficients observed in previous studies from this laboratory on gas diffusion in CMS. The energy distribution is assumed to follow the gamma distribution function. It is shown that the energy distribution model can fully capture the behavior described by the empirical model established in earlier studies to account for the concentration dependence of thermodynamically corrected barrier and pore diffusion coefficients. A methodology is proposed for extracting energy distribution parameters, and it is further shown that the extracted energy distribution parameters can effectively predict integral uptake and column breakthrough profiles over a wide range of operating pressures.

  11. Mesoscopic Modeling of Reactive Transport Processes (United States)

    Kang, Q.; Chen, L.; Deng, H.


    Reactive transport processes involving precipitation and/or dissolution are pervasive in geochemical, biological and engineered systems. Typical examples include self-assembled patterns such as Liesegang rings or bands, cones of stalactites in limestones caves, biofilm growth in aqueous environment, formation of mineral deposits in boilers and heat exchangers, uptake of toxic metal ions from polluted water by calcium carbonate, and mineral trapping of CO2. Compared to experimental studies, a numerical approach enables a systematic study of the reaction kinetics, mass transport, and mechanisms of nucleation and crystal growth, and hence provides a detailed description of reactive transport processes. In this study, we enhance a previously developed lattice Boltzmann pore-scale model by taking into account the nucleation process, and develop a mesoscopic approach to simulate reactive transport processes involving precipitation and/or dissolution of solid phases. The model is then used to simulate the formation of Liesegang precipitation patterns and investigate the effects of gel on the morphology of the precipitates. It is shown that this model can capture the porous structures of the precipitates and can account for the effects of the gel concentration and material. A wide range of precipitation patterns is predicted under different gel concentrations, including regular bands, treelike patterns, and for the first time with numerical models, transition patterns from regular bands to treelike patterns. The model is also applied to study the effect of secondary precipitate on the dissolution of primary mineral. Several types of dissolution and precipitation processes are identified based on the morphology and structures of the precipitates and on the extent to which the precipitates affect the dissolution of the primary mineral. Finally the model is applied to study the formation of pseudomorph. It is demonstrated for the first time by numerical simulation that a

  12. Lubricant transport across the piston ring with flat and triangular lubrication injection profiles on the liner in large two-stroke marine diesel engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Hannibal Toxværd; Klit, Peder; Vølund, Anders


    A theoretical investigation of the lubricant transport across the top compression piston ring in a large two-stroke marine diesel engine is presented. A numerical model for solving Reynolds equation between the piston ring and cylinder liner based on the finite difference method in one dimension...... the lubricant transport across the piston ring, two different kinds of initial lubricant profile on the liner and two different kinds of load are investigated i.e. a flat profile and an approximated triangular profile as well as no load and a combustion load based on a combustion pressure profile. The impact...... has been made. The model includes force equilibrium of the piston ring, perturbation of Reynolds equation, and transient mass conservation. The model represents a new method of achieving mass conservation across the piston ring and between different time-dependent positions. For analyzing...

  13. Modelling an Ammonium Transporter with SCLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Troina


    Full Text Available The Stochastic Calculus of Looping Sequences (SCLS is a recently proposed modelling language for the representation and simulation of biological systems behaviour. It has been designed with the aim of combining the simplicity of notation of rewrite systems with the advantage of compositionality. It also allows a rather simple and accurate description of biological membranes and their interactions with the environment.In this work we apply SCLS to model a newly discovered ammonium transporter. This transporter is believed to play a fundamental role for plant mineral acquisition, which takes place in the arbuscular mycorrhiza, the most wide-spread plant-fungus symbiosis on earth. Due to its potential application in agriculture this kind of symbiosis is one of the main focuses of the BioBITs project. In our experiments the passage of NH3 / NH4+ from the fungus to the plant has been dissected in known and hypothetical mechanisms; with the model so far we have been able to simulate the behaviour of the system under different conditions. Our simulations confirmed some of the latest experimental results about the LjAMT2;2 transporter. The initial simulation results of the modelling of the symbiosis process are promising and indicate new directions for biological investigations.

  14. Progress in unsaturated flow and transport modeling (United States)

    van Genuchten, Martinus Th.; Jury, William A.


    This paper reviews recent progress in modeling water flow and solute transport in the unsaturated (vadose) zone. Much progress has been attained in the analytical and numerical description of vadose zone transfer processes. A variety of deterministic models are currently available for describing and predicting these processes. The most popular ones continue to be the classical Richards equation for unsaturated flow and the Fickian-based convection-dispersion equation for solute transport. While deterministic solutions of these equations remain useful tools in research and management, their practical utility for predicting actual field water and solute concentration is increasingly being questioned. Problems caused by preferential flow through soil macropores and by spatial and temporal variability in soil hydraulic properties have caused some disillusionment with the classical models. A number of alternative deterministic and stochastic formulations have been proposed to specifically deal with preferential flow and/or spatial variability. Those models have greatly increased our understanding of field scale transport processes, and have in some cases led to better practical tools for management purposes.

  15. The effect of transient density profile shaping on transport in large stellarators and heliotrons (United States)

    Dinklage, A.; Sakamoto, R.; Yokoyama, M.; Ida, K.; Baldzuhn, J.; Beidler, C. D.; Cats, S.; McCarthy, K. J.; Geiger, J.; Kobayashi, M.; Maaßberg, H.; Morita, S.; Motojima, G.; Nakata, M.; Nunami, M.; Pablant, N.; Ogawa, K.; Proll, J. H. E.; Satake, S.; Tanaka, K.; Warmer, F.; Wolf, R. C.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Yamada, H.; Yasuhara, R.; Yoshinuma, M.; the LHD Experiment Group


    Transport studies of pellet fuelling experiments on LHD are reported. Spatio-temporal evolutions after pellet injection into LHD discharges show cases where central density increases on the time scale of particle transport processes. Both the temperature gradient and the density gradient change during the density relaxation, the latter even in sign. The resulting thermodynamic forces influence radial electric fields—both as a driving term but also by, e.g. affecting the E r dependence of ion transport. Magnetic fluctuations have been found to be induced by pellet injection but die out with the relaxation of the pressure profile.

  16. The Vitis vinifera sugar transporter gene family: phylogenetic overview and macroarray expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanassova Rossitza


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In higher plants, sugars are not only nutrients but also important signal molecules. They are distributed through the plant via sugar transporters, which are involved not only in sugar long-distance transport via the loading and the unloading of the conducting complex, but also in sugar allocation into source and sink cells. The availability of the recently released grapevine genome sequence offers the opportunity to identify sucrose and monosaccharide transporter gene families in a woody species and to compare them with those of the herbaceous Arabidopsis thaliana using a phylogenetic analysis. Results In grapevine, one of the most economically important fruit crop in the world, it appeared that sucrose and monosaccharide transporter genes are present in 4 and 59 loci, respectively and that the monosaccharide transporter family can be divided into 7 subfamilies. Phylogenetic analysis of protein sequences has indicated that orthologs exist between Vitis and Arabidospis. A search for cis-regulatory elements in the promoter sequences of the most characterized transporter gene families (sucrose, hexoses and polyols transporters, has revealed that some of them might probably be regulated by sugars. To profile several genes simultaneously, we created a macroarray bearing cDNA fragments specific to 20 sugar transporter genes. This macroarray analysis has revealed that two hexose (VvHT1, VvHT3, one polyol (VvPMT5 and one sucrose (VvSUC27 transporter genes, are highly expressed in most vegetative organs. The expression of one hexose transporter (VvHT2 and two tonoplastic monosaccharide transporter (VvTMT1, VvTMT2 genes are regulated during berry development. Finally, three putative hexose transporter genes show a preferential organ specificity being highly expressed in seeds (VvHT3, VvHT5, in roots (VvHT2 or in mature leaves (VvHT5. Conclusions This study provides an exhaustive survey of sugar transporter genes in Vitis vinifera and

  17. The Vitis vinifera sugar transporter gene family: phylogenetic overview and macroarray expression profiling (United States)


    Background In higher plants, sugars are not only nutrients but also important signal molecules. They are distributed through the plant via sugar transporters, which are involved not only in sugar long-distance transport via the loading and the unloading of the conducting complex, but also in sugar allocation into source and sink cells. The availability of the recently released grapevine genome sequence offers the opportunity to identify sucrose and monosaccharide transporter gene families in a woody species and to compare them with those of the herbaceous Arabidopsis thaliana using a phylogenetic analysis. Results In grapevine, one of the most economically important fruit crop in the world, it appeared that sucrose and monosaccharide transporter genes are present in 4 and 59 loci, respectively and that the monosaccharide transporter family can be divided into 7 subfamilies. Phylogenetic analysis of protein sequences has indicated that orthologs exist between Vitis and Arabidospis. A search for cis-regulatory elements in the promoter sequences of the most characterized transporter gene families (sucrose, hexoses and polyols transporters), has revealed that some of them might probably be regulated by sugars. To profile several genes simultaneously, we created a macroarray bearing cDNA fragments specific to 20 sugar transporter genes. This macroarray analysis has revealed that two hexose (VvHT1, VvHT3), one polyol (VvPMT5) and one sucrose (VvSUC27) transporter genes, are highly expressed in most vegetative organs. The expression of one hexose transporter (VvHT2) and two tonoplastic monosaccharide transporter (VvTMT1, VvTMT2) genes are regulated during berry development. Finally, three putative hexose transporter genes show a preferential organ specificity being highly expressed in seeds (VvHT3, VvHT5), in roots (VvHT2) or in mature leaves (VvHT5). Conclusions This study provides an exhaustive survey of sugar transporter genes in Vitis vinifera and revealed that sugar

  18. In situ neutron depth profiling: A powerful method to probe lithium transport in micro-batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudenhoven, J.F.M.; Labohm, F.; Mulder, M.; Niessen, R.A.H.; Mulder, F.M.; Notten, P.H.L.


    In situ neutron depth profiling (NDP) offers the possibility to observe lithium transport inside micro-batteries during battery operation. It is demonstrated that NDP results are consistent with the results of electrochemical measurements, and that the use of an enriched6LiCoO2 cathode offers more

  19. Modelling sediment clasts transport during landscape evolution (United States)

    Carretier, Sébastien; Martinod, Pierre; Reich, Martin; Godderis, Yves


    Over thousands to millions of years, the landscape evolution is predicted by models based on fluxes of eroded, transported and deposited material. The laws describing these fluxes, corresponding to averages over many years, are difficult to prove with the available data. On the other hand, sediment dynamics are often tackled by studying the distribution of certain grain properties in the field (e.g. heavy metals, detrital zircons, 10Be in gravel, magnetic tracers). There is a gap between landscape evolution models based on fluxes and these field data on individual clasts, which prevent the latter from being used to calibrate the former. Here we propose an algorithm coupling the landscape evolution with mobile clasts. Our landscape evolution model predicts local erosion, deposition and transfer fluxes resulting from hillslope and river processes. Clasts of any size are initially spread in the basement and are detached, moved and deposited according to probabilities using these fluxes. Several river and hillslope laws are studied. Although the resulting mean transport rate of the clasts does not depend on the time step or the model cell size, our approach is limited by the fact that their scattering rate is cell-size-dependent. Nevertheless, both their mean transport rate and the shape of the scattering-time curves fit the predictions. Different erosion-transport laws generate different clast movements. These differences show that studying the tracers in the field may provide a way to establish these laws on the hillslopes and in the rivers. Possible applications include the interpretation of cosmogenic nuclides in individual gravel deposits, provenance analyses, placers, sediment coarsening or fining, the relationship between magnetic tracers in rivers and the river planform, and the tracing of weathered sediment.

  20. Improving Estuarine Transport Models using Satellite Measurements (United States)


    river flow, low energy neap tides. Spatial variability is also evident, with shallow water regions along the fringe and at upstream intertidal areas ...processes that produce remotely-sensed surface patterns provides a means for testing and improving transport models, particularly in areas in which...flanked by intertidal flats. As with field and satellite data, the shape of the turbidity maximum is asymmetric, and the position is related to the

  1. Modelling Transcapillary Transport of Fluid and Proteins in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Pietribiasi

    Full Text Available The kinetics of protein transport to and from the vascular compartment play a major role in the determination of fluid balance and plasma refilling during hemodialysis (HD sessions. In this study we propose a whole-body mathematical model describing water and protein shifts across the capillary membrane during HD and compare its output to clinical data while evaluating the impact of choosing specific values for selected parameters.The model follows a two-compartment structure (vascular and interstitial space and is based on balance equations of protein mass and water volume in each compartment. The capillary membrane was described according to the three-pore theory. Two transport parameters, the fractional contribution of large pores (αLP and the total hydraulic conductivity (LpS of the capillary membrane, were estimated from patient data. Changes in the intensity and direction of individual fluid and solute flows through each part of the transport system were analyzed in relation to the choice of different values of small pores radius and fractional conductivity, lymphatic sensitivity to hydraulic pressure, and steady-state interstitial-to-plasma protein concentration ratio.The estimated values of LpS and αLP were respectively 10.0 ± 8.4 mL/min/mmHg (mean ± standard deviation and 0.062 ± 0.041. The model was able to predict with good accuracy the profiles of plasma volume and serum total protein concentration in most of the patients (average root-mean-square deviation < 2% of the measured value.The applied model provides a mechanistic interpretation of fluid transport processes induced by ultrafiltration during HD, using a minimum of tuned parameters and assumptions. The simulated values of individual flows through each kind of pore and lymphatic absorption rate yielded by the model may suggest answers to unsolved questions on the relative impact of these not-measurable quantities on total vascular refilling and fluid balance.

  2. Glider observations and modeling of sediment transport in Hurricane Sandy (United States)

    Miles, Travis; Seroka, Greg; Kohut, Josh; Schofield, Oscar; Glenn, Scott


    Regional sediment resuspension and transport are examined as Hurricane Sandy made landfall on the Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) in October 2012. A Teledyne-Webb Slocum glider, equipped with a Nortek Aquadopp current profiler, was deployed on the continental shelf ahead of the storm, and is used to validate sediment transport routines coupled to the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). The glider was deployed on 25 October, 5 days before Sandy made landfall in southern New Jersey (NJ) and flew along the 40 m isobath south of the Hudson Shelf Valley. We used optical and acoustic backscatter to compare with two modeled size classes along the glider track, 0.1 and 0.4 mm sand, respectively. Observations and modeling revealed full water column resuspension for both size classes for over 24 h during peak waves and currents, with transport oriented along-shelf toward the southwest. Regional model predictions showed over 3 cm of sediment eroded on the northern portion of the NJ shelf where waves and currents were the highest. As the storm passed and winds reversed from onshore to offshore on the southern portion of the domain waves and subsequently orbital velocities necessary for resuspension were reduced leading to over 3 cm of deposition across the entire shelf, just north of Delaware Bay. This study highlights the utility of gliders as a new asset in support of the development and verification of regional sediment resuspension and transport models, particularly during large tropical and extratropical cyclones when in situ data sets are not readily available.

  3. Energy transport modelling including ergodic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McTaggart, N.; Bonnin, X.; Runov, A.; Schneider, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Zagorski, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, P.O.Box 49, Warsaw (Poland)


    The effect of ergodization (either by additional coils like in TEXTOR-DED or by intrinsic plasma effects like in W7-X) defines the need for transport models being able to describe this properly. A prerequisite for this is the concept of local magnetic coordinates allowing a correct discretization with minimized numerical errors. For these coordinates the full respective metric tensor has to be known. To study the energy transport in complex edge geometries (in particular for W7-X) we use a finite difference discretization of the transport equations on a custom-tailored grid in local magnetic coordinates. This grid is generated by field line tracing to guarantee an exact discretization of the dominant parallel transport (this also minimizes the numerical diffusion problem). The perpendicular fluxes are interpolated on cross-sectional planes (toroidal cuts), where a quasi-isotropic problem is solved by a constrained Delaunay triangulation (preserving magnetic surfaces where they exist), and discretization. All terms involving toroidal terms are discretized by finite differences. The first tests for W7X and NCSX were successfully performed. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Transportation planning, management systems, public participation, and land use modeling. Transportation research record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This volume focuses on statewide and metropolitan transportation planning, management systems, and land use-transportation issues. The papers on statewide and metropolitan transportation planning concern an interactive planning modeling process (Wyoming), an area transportation partnership to assist in the development of the state transportation improvement program (Minnesota), the development of a customer perspective in the statewide transportation planning process (Colorado), a pilot transportation plan for an Indian reservation in western North Carolina, and a community-based, strategic, comprehensive planning process (Ithaca, New York). The papers that concern management systems fall into two categories: those which discuss congestion management and those which discuss management systems for transport infrastructure.

  5. Thermal Transport Model for Heat Sink Design (United States)

    Chervenak, James A.; Kelley, Richard L.; Brown, Ari D.; Smith, Stephen J.; Kilbourne, Caroline a.


    A document discusses the development of a finite element model for describing thermal transport through microcalorimeter arrays in order to assist in heat-sinking design. A fabricated multi-absorber transition edge sensor (PoST) was designed in order to reduce device wiring density by a factor of four. The finite element model consists of breaking the microcalorimeter array into separate elements, including the transition edge sensor (TES) and the silicon substrate on which the sensor is deposited. Each element is then broken up into subelements, whose surface area subtends 10 10 microns. The heat capacity per unit temperature, thermal conductance, and thermal diffusivity of each subelement are the model inputs, as are the temperatures of each subelement. Numerical integration using the Finite in Time Centered in Space algorithm of the thermal diffusion equation is then performed in order to obtain a temporal evolution of the subelement temperature. Thermal transport across interfaces is modeled using a thermal boundary resistance obtained using the acoustic mismatch model. The document concludes with a discussion of the PoST fabrication. PoSTs are novel because they enable incident x-ray position sensitivity with good energy resolution and low wiring density.

  6. Mass transport model through the skin by microencapsulation system. (United States)

    Carreras, Núria; Alonso, Cristina; Martí, Meritxell; Lis, Manel J


    Skin drug delivery can be subdivided into topical and transdermal administration. Transdermal administration can take advantage of chemical and physical strategies that can improve skin permeability and allow drug penetration. In this study, the development of a skin penetration profile was carried out by an in vitro technique for a microencapsulated system of ibuprofen. Release experiments were performed using percutaneous absorption tests to determine the evolution of the principle present in each of the different skin compartments as a function of time. A general kinetic model for a microencapsulated structure as a mass transport system through the skin was applied: [Formula: see text] This model could predict the penetration profile of encapsulated substances through skin from biofunctional textiles as well as estimate the dosage profile of the active principle. The apparent diffusion coefficients found were 1.20 × 10(-7 )cm/s for the stratum corneum and higher for the rest of the skin 6.67 × 10(-6 )cm/s.

  7. Preliminary Model Results of Beach Profile Dynamics with Stratigraphy (United States)

    Reniers, A. J.; Koktas, M.; Gallagher, E. L.; Wadman, H. M.; Brodie, K. L.; Johnson, B. D.; McNinch, J.


    The presence of spatial variation in grain size within the surf and swash zone is often ignored in numerical modeling whereas Upon closer inspection, a broad range of grain sizes is visible on a beach. This could potentially lead to a significant mismatch between predictions and observations of profile evolution given the strong sensitivity of sediment transport formulae to the grain size. To explore this in more detail, numerical simulations with XBeach have been performed to simulate the observations of changes in beach profile and stratigraphy within the swash zone at Duck, NC, under a range of wave and tidal conditions (see presentations by Wadman et al., and Gallagher et al. for complementary information on the observations at this conference). The research focus is to establish the morphodynamic response to the sediment dynamics at short and longer time scales in the presence of stratigraphy. A better understanding of the mechanisms and subsequently improved modeling will provide more accurate predictions of the morphodynamic response of the beach during moderate and extreme conditions. It will also help in the interpretation of sediment layering of the beach to relate to past extreme storms on geological time scales.

  8. Understanding transport in model water desalination membranes (United States)

    Chan, Edwin

    Polyamide based thin film composites represent the the state-of-the-art nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes used in water desalination. The performance of these membranes is enabled by the ultrathin (~100 nm) crosslinked polyamide film in facilitating the selective transport of water over salt ions. While these materials have been refined over the last several decades, understanding the relationships between polyamide structure and membrane performance remains a challenge because of the complex and heterogeneous nature of the polyamide film. In this contribution, we present our approach to addressing this challenge by studying the transport properties of model polyamide membranes synthesized via molecular layer-by-layer (mLbL) assembly. First, we demonstrate that mLbL can successfully construct polyamide membranes with well-defined nanoscale thickness and roughness using a variety of monomer formulations. Next, we present measurement tools for characterizing the network structure and transport of these model polyamide membranes. Specifically, we used X-ray and neutron scattering techniques to characterize their structure as well as a recently-developed indentation based poromechanics approach to extrapolate their water diffusion coefficient. Finally, we illustrate how these measurements can provide insight into the original problem by linking the key polyamide network properties, i.e. water-polyamide interaction parameter and characteristic network mesh size, to the membrane performance.

  9. Fractal continuum model for tracer transport in a porous medium. (United States)

    Herrera-Hernández, E C; Coronado, M; Hernández-Coronado, H


    A model based on the fractal continuum approach is proposed to describe tracer transport in fractal porous media. The original approach has been extended to treat tracer transport and to include systems with radial and uniform flow, which are cases of interest in geoscience. The models involve advection due to the fluid motion in the fractal continuum and dispersion whose mathematical expression is taken from percolation theory. The resulting advective-dispersive equations are numerically solved for continuous and for pulse tracer injection. The tracer profile and the tracer breakthrough curve are evaluated and analyzed in terms of the fractal parameters. It has been found in this work that anomalous transport frequently appears, and a condition on the fractal parameter values to predict when sub- or superdiffusion might be expected has been obtained. The fingerprints of fractality on the tracer breakthrough curve in the explored parameter window consist of an early tracer breakthrough and long tail curves for the spherical and uniform flow cases, and symmetric short tailed curves for the radial flow case.

  10. Transport modeling: An artificial immune system approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodorović Dušan


    Full Text Available This paper describes an artificial immune system approach (AIS to modeling time-dependent (dynamic, real time transportation phenomenon characterized by uncertainty. The basic idea behind this research is to develop the Artificial Immune System, which generates a set of antibodies (decisions, control actions that altogether can successfully cover a wide range of potential situations. The proposed artificial immune system develops antibodies (the best control strategies for different antigens (different traffic "scenarios". This task is performed using some of the optimization or heuristics techniques. Then a set of antibodies is combined to create Artificial Immune System. The developed Artificial Immune transportation systems are able to generalize, adapt, and learn based on new knowledge and new information. Applications of the systems are considered for airline yield management, the stochastic vehicle routing, and real-time traffic control at the isolated intersection. The preliminary research results are very promising.

  11. Parent Prevention Communication Profiles and Adolescent Substance Use: A Latent Profile Analysis and Growth Curve Model (United States)

    Choi, Hye Jeong; Miller-Day, Michelle; Shin, YoungJu; Hecht, Michael L.; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Krieger, Janice L.; Lee, JeongKyu; Graham, John W.


    This current study identifies distinct parent prevention communication profiles and examines whether youth with different parental communication profiles have varying substance use trajectories over time. Eleven schools in two rural school districts in the Midwestern United States were selected, and 784 students were surveyed at three time points from the beginning of 7th grade to the end of 8th grade. A series of latent profile analyses were performed to identify discrete profiles/subgroups of substance-specific prevention communication (SSPC). The results revealed a 4-profile model of SSPC: Active-Open, Passive-Open, Active-Silent, and Passive-Silent. A growth curve model revealed different rates of lifetime substance use depending on the youth’s SSPC profile. These findings have implications for parenting interventions and tailoring messages for parents to fit specific SSPC profiles. PMID:29056872

  12. Integrated urban systems model with multiple transportation supply agents. (United States)


    This project demonstrates the feasibility of developing quantitative models that can forecast future networks under : current and alternative transportation planning processes. The current transportation planning process is modeled : based on empiric...

  13. HMMEditor: a visual editing tool for profile hidden Markov model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Jianlin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Profile Hidden Markov Model (HMM is a powerful statistical model to represent a family of DNA, RNA, and protein sequences. Profile HMM has been widely used in bioinformatics research such as sequence alignment, gene structure prediction, motif identification, protein structure prediction, and biological database search. However, few comprehensive, visual editing tools for profile HMM are publicly available. Results We develop a visual editor for profile Hidden Markov Models (HMMEditor. HMMEditor can visualize the profile HMM architecture, transition probabilities, and emission probabilities. Moreover, it provides functions to edit and save HMM and parameters. Furthermore, HMMEditor allows users to align a sequence against the profile HMM and to visualize the corresponding Viterbi path. Conclusion HMMEditor provides a set of unique functions to visualize and edit a profile HMM. It is a useful tool for biological sequence analysis and modeling. Both HMMEditor software and web service are freely available.

  14. Systematic evaluation of atmospheric chemistry-transport model CHIMERE (United States)

    Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Menut, Laurent; Mailler, Sylvain; Siour, Guillaume; Couvidat, Florian; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Turquety, Solene


    Regional-scale atmospheric chemistry-transport models (CTM) are used to develop air quality regulatory measures, to support environmentally sensitive decisions in the industry, and to address variety of scientific questions involving the atmospheric composition. Model performance evaluation with measurement data is critical to understand their limits and the degree of confidence in model results. CHIMERE CTM ( is a French national tool for operational forecast and decision support and is widely used in the international research community in various areas of atmospheric chemistry and physics, climate, and environment ( This work presents the model evaluation framework applied systematically to the new CHIMERE CTM versions in the course of the continuous model development. The framework uses three of the four CTM evaluation types identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the American Meteorological Society (AMS): operational, diagnostic, and dynamic. It allows to compare the overall model performance in subsequent model versions (operational evaluation), identify specific processes and/or model inputs that could be improved (diagnostic evaluation), and test the model sensitivity to the changes in air quality, such as emission reductions and meteorological events (dynamic evaluation). The observation datasets currently used for the evaluation are: EMEP (surface concentrations), AERONET (optical depths), and WOUDC (ozone sounding profiles). The framework is implemented as an automated processing chain and allows interactive exploration of the results via a web interface.

  15. Representation of tropical deep convection in atmospheric models – Part 2: Tracer transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Hoyle


    Full Text Available The tropical transport processes of 14 different models or model versions were compared, within the framework of the SCOUT-O3 (Stratospheric-Climate Links with Emphasis on the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere project. The tested models range from the regional to the global scale, and include numerical weather prediction (NWP, chemical transport, and chemistry-climate models. Idealised tracers were used in order to prevent the model's chemistry schemes from influencing the results substantially, so that the effects of modelled transport could be isolated. We find large differences in the vertical transport of very short-lived tracers (with a lifetime of 6 h within the tropical troposphere. Peak convective outflow altitudes range from around 300 hPa to almost 100 hPa among the different models, and the upper tropospheric tracer mixing ratios differ by up to an order of magnitude. The timing of convective events is found to be different between the models, even among those which source their forcing data from the same NWP model (ECMWF. The differences are less pronounced for longer lived tracers, however they could have implications for modelling the halogen burden of the lowermost stratosphere through transport of species such as bromoform, or short-lived hydrocarbons into the lowermost stratosphere. The modelled tracer profiles are strongly influenced by the convective transport parameterisations, and different boundary layer mixing parameterisations also have a large impact on the modelled tracer profiles. Preferential locations for rapid transport from the surface into the upper troposphere are similar in all models, and are mostly concentrated over the western Pacific, the Maritime Continent and the Indian Ocean. In contrast, models do not indicate that upward transport is highest over western Africa.

  16. Process-based modeling of tsunami inundation and sediment transport (United States)

    Apotsos, A.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Jaffe, B.


    The infrequent and unpredictable nature of tsunamis precludes the use of field experiments to measure the hydrodynamic and sediment transport processes that occur. Instead, these processes are often approximated from laboratory, numerical, and theoretical studies or inferred from observations of the resultant sediment deposits. Here Delft3D, a three-dimensional numerical model, is used to simulate the inundation and sediment transport of a tsunami similar in magnitude to the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami over one measured and three idealized morphologies. The model is first shown to match well the observations taken at Kuala Meurisi, Sumatra, and then used to examine in detail the processes that occur during the tsunami. The model predicts that at a given cross-shore location the onshore flow accelerates rapidly to a maximum as the wavefront passes, and then gradually decelerates before reversing direction and flowing offshore. The onshore flow does not tend to zero everywhere at maximum inundation, but instead flow reversal occurs near the shoreline even as the wavefront continues to inundate landward. While some sediment is eroded by the passing wavefront, the suspension of sandy sediment is dominated by the long-duration, high-velocity backwash that occurs along the beach face and offshore of the shoreline. Some of the sediment suspended during backwash is advected shoreward by the subsequent wave, creating large spatial gradients in the suspended sediment concentrations, which may not be in equilibrium with the local hydrodynamics. The inundation and transport of sediment during a tsunami can be affected by complexities in the morphological profile and interactions between multiple waves, and many of the hydrodynamic and sediment transport processes predicted here are similar to analogous processes previously observed in the swash zone. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Modelling the observed vertical transport of {sup 7}Be in specific soils with advection dispersion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Astorga, Romina; Velasco, Hugo; Valladares, Diego L.; Lohaiza, Flavia; Ayub, Jimena Juri; Rizzotto, Marcos [Grupo de Estudios Ambientales. Instituto de Matematica Aplicada San Luis - Universidad Nacional de San Luis - CONICET, San Luis (Argentina)


    {sup 7}Be is a short-lived environmental radionuclide, produced in the upper atmosphere by spallation of nitrogen and oxygen by cosmic rays. After of the production by the nuclear reaction, {sup 7}Be diffuses through the atmosphere until it attaches to atmospheric aerosols. Subsequently, it is deposited on the earth surface mainly as wet fallout. The main physical processes which transport {sup 7}Be in soil are diffusion and advection by water. Migration parameters and measurements confirm that sorption is the main physical process, which confines {sup 7}Be concentration to soil surface. The literature data show that in soils, {sup 7}Be is concentrated near the surface (0-2 cm) as it is adsorbed onto clay minerals after its deposition on the soil surface and does not penetrate deeper into soils due to its short half-life. The maximum mass activity density of {sup 7}Be is found at the point of input of the radionuclide, i.e. at the surface of the soil column, showing a exponential distribution profile typical of a purely diffusive transport. Many studies applying the advection dispersion models have been reported in the literature in order to modelling the transport of {sup 137}Cs in soils. On them, the models are used to achieve information of the mechanisms that govern the transport, i. e. the model is used to explain the soil profile of radionuclide. The effective dispersion coefficient and the apparent advection velocity of radionuclide in soil are also obtained by fitting the analytical solution of the model equation to measured depth distributions of the radionuclide. In this work, the advective dispersive transport model with linear sorption is used to analyze the vertical migration process of {sup 7}Be in soils of undisturbed or reference sites. The deposition history is approximated by pulse-like input functions and time dependent analytical solution of equation model is obtained. The values of dispersion coefficient and apparent advection velocity obtained

  18. A disaggregate freight transport model of transport chain and shipment size choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windisch, E.; De Jong, G.C.; Van Nes, R.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.


    The field of freight transport modelling is relatively young compared to passenger transport modelling. However, some key issues in freight policy, like growing freight shares on the road, advanced logistics concepts or emerging strict freight transport regulations, have been creating increasing

  19. Modeling in transport phenomena a conceptual approach

    CERN Document Server

    Tosun, Ismail


    Modeling in Transport Phenomena, Second Edition presents and clearly explains with example problems the basic concepts and their applications to fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, chemical reaction engineering and thermodynamics. A balanced approach is presented between analysis and synthesis, students will understand how to use the solution in engineering analysis. Systematic derivations of the equations and the physical significance of each term are given in detail, for students to easily understand and follow up the material. There is a strong incentive in science and engineering to

  20. Bioavailability Studies and in vitro Profiling of the Selective Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter Subtype 1 (EAAT1) Inhibitor UCPH‐102

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haym, Isabell; Huynh, Tri H. V.; Hansen, Stinne W.


    Although the selective excitatory amino acid transporter subtype 1 (EAAT1) inhibitor UCPH‐101 has become a standard pharmacological tool compound for in vitro and ex vivo studies in the EAAT research field, its inability to penetrate the blood–brain barrier makes it unsuitable for in vivo studies...... displayed substantially improved properties in this respect. In vitro profiling of UCPH‐102 (10 μm) at 51 central nervous system targets in radioligand binding assays strongly suggests that the compound is completely selective for EAAT1. Finally, in a rodent locomotor model, p.o. administration of UCPH‐102...

  1. Multispecies reactive transport modelling of electrokinetic remediation of harbour sediments. (United States)

    Masi, Matteo; Ceccarini, Alessio; Iannelli, Renato


    We implemented a numerical model to simulate transport of multiple species and geochemical reactions occurring during electrokinetic remediation of metal-contaminated porous media. The main phenomena described by the model were: (1) species transport by diffusion, electromigration and electroosmosis, (2) pH-dependent buffering of H + , (3) adsorption of metals onto particle surfaces, (4) aqueous speciation, (5) formation and dissolution of solid precipitates. The model was applied to simulate the electrokinetic extraction of heavy metals (Pb, Zn and Ni) from marine harbour sediments, characterized by a heterogeneous solid matrix, high buffering capacity and aged pollution. A good agreement was found between simulations of pH, electroosmotic flow and experimental results. The predicted residual metal concentrations in the sediment were also close to experimental profiles for all of the investigated metals. Some removal overestimation was observed in the regions close to the anode, possibly due to the significant metal content bound to residual fraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Documentation of TRU biological transport model (BIOTRAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, A.F.; Garcia, B.J.; Sutton, C.M.


    Inclusive of Appendices, this document describes the purpose, rationale, construction, and operation of a biological transport model (BIOTRAN). This model is used to predict the flow of transuranic elements (TRU) through specified plant and animal environments using biomass as a vector. The appendices are: (A) Flows of moisture, biomass, and TRU; (B) Intermediate variables affecting flows; (C) Mnemonic equivalents (code) for variables; (D) Variable library (code); (E) BIOTRAN code (Fortran); (F) Plants simulated; (G) BIOTRAN code documentation; (H) Operating instructions for BIOTRAN code. The main text is presented with a specific format which uses a minimum of space, yet is adequate for tracking most relationships from their first appearance to their formulation in the code. Because relationships are treated individually in this manner, and rely heavily on Appendix material for understanding, it is advised that the reader familiarize himself with these materials before proceeding with the main text.

  3. Ecosystem element transport model for Lake Eckarfjaerden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konovalenko, L.; Bradshaw, C. [The Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University (Sweden); Andersson, E.; Kautsky, U. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. - SKB (Sweden)


    The ecosystem transport model of elements was developed for Lake Eckarfjaerden located in the Forsmark area in Sweden. Forsmark has currently a low level repository (SFR) and a repository for spent fuel is planned. A large number of data collected during site-investigation program 2002-2009 for planning the repository were available for the creation of the compartment model based on carbon circulation, physical and biological processes (e.g. primary production, consumption, respiration). The model is site-specific in the sense that the food web model is adapted to the actual food web at the site, and most estimates of biomass and metabolic rates for the organisms and meteorological data originate from site data. The functional organism groups of Lake Eckarfjaerden were considered as separate compartments: bacterio-plankton, benthic bacteria, macro-algae, phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish, benthic fauna. Two functional groups of bacteria were taken into account for the reason that they have the highest biomass of all functional groups during the winter, comprising 36% of the total biomass. Effects of ecological parameters, such as bacteria and algae biomass, on redistribution of a hypothetical radionuclide release in the lake were examined. The ecosystem model was used to estimate the environmental transfer of several elements (U, Th, Ra) and their isotopes (U-238, U-234,Th-232, Ra-226) to various aquatic organisms in the lake, using element-specific distribution coefficients for suspended particle and sediment. Results of chemical analyses of the water, sediment and biota were used for model validation. The model gives estimates of concentration factors for fish based on modelling rather on in situ measurement, which reduces the uncertainties for many radionuclides with scarce of data. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  4. Transportation energy consumption and conservation policy options in the Northeast. [1972 profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report presents a profile of 1972 transportation energy consumption in the Northeast region. Transportation energy projections for the region are given by mode for the years 1985 and 2000. Conservation actions which could significantly affect future transportation energy demand levels are described and their impacts evaluated. It is estimated that while the demand for energy in the transportation sector might increase by as much as 88% by the year 2000, strong conservation actions could reduce the projected level of demand by over 30%. Recent changes in the growth and distribution of population and industrial and commercial activities are reviewed. Both the factors that affect these growth and distribution patterns and the implications of changes in existing patterns on energy use in the transportation sector are discussed. It is shown, for example, that land-use controls could substantially reduce the growth of energy demand in the transportation sector. Finally, conservation actions are discussed within the context of how they might be implemented by Federal, State, or local governments. Interactions between actions are discussed and groupings of actions that minimize the disadvantages of individual actions while taking advantage of complementary effects between actions are presented.

  5. Profiling of sugar transporter genes in grapevine coping with water deficit. (United States)

    Medici, Anna; Laloi, Maryse; Atanassova, Rossitza


    The profiling of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) genes under water deficit was specifically targeted to sugar transporters. Leaf water status was characterized by physiological parameters and soluble sugars content. The expression analysis provided evidence that VvHT1 hexose transporter gene was strongly down-regulated by the increased sugar content under mild water-deficit. The genes of monosaccharide transporter VvHT5, sucrose carrier VvSUC11, vacuolar invertase VvGIN2 and grape ASR (ABA, stress, ripening) were up-regulated under severe water stress. Their regulation in a drought-ABA signalling network and possible roles in complex interdependence between sugar subcellular partitioning and cell influx/efflux under Grapevine acclimation to dehydration are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Complexities in coastal sediment transport studies by numerical modelling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ilangovan, D.; ManiMurali, R.

    Marine environmental studies related to erosion, accretion, pollution transport, dredge disposal, location of seawater intake, effluent disposal, etc., involve sediment transport studies. Numerical models use set of well linked mathematical...

  7. Reactive transport modeling of nitrogen in Seine River sediments (United States)

    Akbarzadeh, Z.; Laverman, A.; Raimonet, M.; Rezanezhad, F.; Van Cappellen, P.


    Biogeochemical processes in sediments have a major impact on the fate and transport of nitrogen (N) in river systems. Organic matter decomposition in bottom sediments releases inorganic N species back to the stream water, while denitrification, anammox and burial of organic matter remove bioavailable N from the aquatic environment. To simulate N cycling in river sediments, a multi-component reactive transport model has been developed in MATLAB®. The model includes 3 pools of particulate organic N, plus pore water nitrate, nitrite, nitrous oxide and ammonium. Special attention is given to the production and consumption of nitrite, a N species often neglected in early diagenetic models. Although nitrite is usually considered to be short-lived, elevated nitrite concentrations have been observed in freshwater streams, raising concerns about possible toxic effects. We applied the model to sediment data sets collected at two locations in the Seine River, one upstream, the other downstream, of the largest wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of the Paris conurbation. The model is able to reproduce the key features of the observed pore water depth profiles of the different nitrogen species. The modeling results show that the presence of oxygen in the overlying water plays a major role in controlling the exchanges of nitrite between the sediments and the stream water. In August 2012, sediments upstream of the WWTP switch from being a sink to a source of nitrite as the overlying water becomes anoxic. Downstream sediments remain a nitrite sink in oxic and anoxic conditions. Anoxic bottom waters at the upstream location promote denitrification, which produces nitrite, while at the downstream site, anammox and DNRA are important removal processes of nitrite.

  8. Monitoring suspended sediment transport in an ice-affected river using acoustic Doppler current profilers (United States)

    Moore, S. A.; Ghareh Aghaji Zare, S.; Rennie, C. D.; Ahmari, H.; Seidou, O.


    Quantifying sediment budgets and understanding the processes which control fluvial sediment transport is paramount to monitoring river geomorphology and ecological habitat. In regions that are subject to freezing there is the added complexity of ice. River ice processes impact flow distribution, water stage and sediment transport. Ice processes typically have the largest impact on sediment transport and channel morphodynamics when ice jams occur during ice cover formation and breakup. Ice jams may restrict flow and cause local acceleration when released. Additionally, ice can mechanically scour river bed and banks. Under-ice sediment transport measurements are lacking due to obvious safety and logistical reasons, in addition to a lack of adequate measurement techniques. Since some rivers can be covered in ice during six months of the year, the lack of data in winter months leads to large uncertainty in annual sediment load calculations. To address this problem, acoustic profilers are being used to monitor flow velocity, suspended sediment and ice processes in the Lower Nelson River, Manitoba, Canada. Acoustic profilers are ideal for under-ice sediment flux measurements since they can be operated autonomously and continuously, they do not disturb the flow in the zone of measurement and acoustic backscatter can be related to sediment size and concentration. In March 2012 two upward-facing profilers (1200 kHz acoustic Doppler current profiler, 546 KHz acoustic backscatter profiler) were installed through a hole in the ice on the Nelson River, 50 km downstream of the Limestone Generating Station. Data were recorded for four months, including both stable cover and breakup periods. This paper presents suspended sediment fluxes calculated from the acoustic measurements. Velocity data were used to infer the vertical distribution of sediment sizes and concentrations; this information was then used in the interpretation of the backscattered intensity data. It was found that

  9. Modelling the transport system in China and evaluating the current strategies towards the sustainable transport development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, W.; Lund, H.; Mathiesen, B.V.


    Transport is one of the most challenge sectors when addressing energy security and climate change due to its high reliance on oil products and lack of the alternative fuels. This paper explores the ability of three transport strategies to contribute to the development of a sustainable transport...... in China. With this purpose in mind, a Chinese transport model has been created and three current transport strategies which are high speed railway (HSR), urban rail transit (URT) and electric vehicle (EV) were evaluated together with a reference transport system in 2020. As conservative results, 13...

  10. Neutral gas transport modeling with DEGAS 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stotler, D.; Karney, C.


    We are currently rewriting the neutral gas transport code, DEGAS with a view to not only making it faster, but also easing the process of including new physics. The goal is to make adding new species and reactions relatively simple so that the code can be rapidly adapted to new divertor physics regimes. DEGAS 2 will also be optimized for coupling to fluid plasma codes, incorporating many of the techniques utilized in B2-EIRENE. Finally, it is our intention that DEGAS 2, like DEGAS, be well-documented and easy to use. We ill present model calculations including ionization and charge exchange which will illustrate the way reactions are included into DEGAS 2 and will demonstrate operation of the code on a distributed network of workstations.

  11. Modeling Oxygen Transport in the Human Placenta (United States)

    Serov, Alexander; Filoche, Marcel; Salafia, Carolyn; Grebenkov, Denis

    Efficient functioning of the human placenta is crucial for the favorable pregnancy outcome. We construct a 3D model of oxygen transport in the placenta based on its histological cross-sections. The model accounts for both diffusion and convention of oxygen in the intervillous space and allows one to estimate oxygen uptake of a placentone. We demonstrate the existence of an optimal villi density maximizing the uptake and explain it as a trade-off between the incoming oxygen flow and the absorbing villous surface. Calculations performed for arbitrary shapes of fetal villi show that only two geometrical characteristics - villi density and the effective villi radius - are required to predict fetal oxygen uptake. Two combinations of physiological parameters that determine oxygen uptake are also identified: maximal oxygen inflow of a placentone and the Damköhler number. An automatic image analysis method is developed and applied to 22 healthy placental cross-sections demonstrating that villi density of a healthy human placenta lies within 10% of the optimal value, while overall geometry efficiency is rather low (around 30-40%). In a perspective, the model can constitute the base of a reliable tool of post partum oxygen exchange efficiency assessment in the human placenta. Also affiliated with Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

  12. Contaminant transport at a waste residue deposit: 1. Inverse flow and non-reactive transport modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenborg, Torben Obel; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard; Rosbjerg, Dan


    An application of an inverse flow and transport model to a contaminated aquifer is presented. The objective of the study is to identify physical and nonreactive flow and transport parameters through an optimization approach. The approach can be classified as a statistical procedure, where a flow ...... is the first in a two-paper series describing contaminant transport at a waste residue site. III the second paper, reactive transport at the site is investigated....

  13. Modeling and clustering users with evolving profiles in usage streams

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chongsheng


    Today, there is an increasing need of data stream mining technology to discover important patterns on the fly. Existing data stream models and algorithms commonly assume that users\\' records or profiles in data streams will not be updated or revised once they arrive. Nevertheless, in various applications such asWeb usage, the records/profiles of the users can evolve along time. This kind of streaming data evolves in two forms, the streaming of tuples or transactions as in the case of traditional data streams, and more importantly, the evolving of user records/profiles inside the streams. Such data streams bring difficulties on modeling and clustering for exploring users\\' behaviors. In this paper, we propose three models to summarize this kind of data streams, which are the batch model, the Evolving Objects (EO) model and the Dynamic Data Stream (DDS) model. Through creating, updating and deleting user profiles, these models summarize the behaviors of each user as a profile object. Based upon these models, clustering algorithms are employed to discover interesting user groups from the profile objects. We have evaluated all the proposed models on a large real-world data set, showing that the DDS model summarizes the data streams with evolving tuples more efficiently and effectively, and provides better basis for clustering users than the other two models. © 2012 IEEE.

  14. Palaeohydrogeology and Transport Parameters Derived from 4He and Cl Profiles in Aquitard Pore Waters in a Large Multilayer Aquifer System, Central Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey C. Priestley


    Full Text Available A study of chloride and 4He profiles through an aquitard that separates the Great Artesian Basin from the underlying Arckaringa Basin in central Australia is presented. The aquitard separates two aquifers with long water residence times, due to low recharge rates in the arid climate. One-dimensional solute transport models were used to determine the advective flux of groundwater across the aquitard as well as establish any major changes in past hydrological conditions recorded by variations of the pore water composition. This in situ study showed that both diffusion and slow downward advection (vz=0.7 mm/yr control solute transport. Numerical simulations show that an increase in chloride concentration in the upper part of the profile is due to a reduction in recharge in the upper aquifer for at least 3000 years. Groundwater extraction since 2008 has likely increased chloride and 4He concentrations in the lower aquifer by pulling up water from deeper layers; however, there has been insufficient time for upward solute transport into the pore water profile by diffusion against downward advection. The transport model of 4He and chloride provides insight into how the two aquifers interact through the aquitard and how climate change is being recorded in the aquitard profile.

  15. Model estimates of enhanced photochemical production of ozone resulting from convective transport of precursors (United States)

    Pickering, Kenneth E.; Thompson, Anne M.; Dickerson, Russell R.


    Vertical profiles of net photochemical ozone production rates and total tropospheric column production rates were estimated using two models, a simple photochemical box model and a time-dependent one-dimensional transport/kinetics model. Photochemical production of ozone is found to dominate over destruction throughout the vertical extent of the troposphere over the central United States during typical summertime convective conditions. The column net production can be enhanced by the transport of the ozone precursors NO and NMHC from the boundary layer to the free troposphere by convective activity.

  16. Survey of research reports in transportation modelling. Part 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, A.; Wamsteker-Andriessen, S.J.


    A survey of research reports in transportation modelling in two parts. Part one is devided in reports concerning economic development and car mobility, analyzing large transportation data files and transportation planning and spatial development. Part two consists of reserach reports concerning

  17. Survey of research reports in transportation modelling. Part 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, A.; Wamsteker-Andriessen, S.J.


    A survey of research reports in transportation modelling in two parts. Part one is devided in reports concerning economic development and car mobility, analyzing large transportation data files and transportation planning and spatial development. Part two consists of reserach reports concerning

  18. Modelling force deployment from army intelligence using the transportation system capability (TRANSCAP) model : a standardized approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burke, J. F., Jr; Love, R. J; Macal, C. M


    ...) model to simulate the deployment of forces from Army bases, in collaboration with and under the sponsorship of the Military Transportation Management Command Transportation Engineering Agency (MTMCTEA...

  19. Visualization and modeling of smoke transport over landscape scales (United States)

    Glenn P. Forney; William Mell


    Computational tools have been developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for modeling fire spread and smoke transport. These tools have been adapted to address fire scenarios that occur in the wildland urban interface (WUI) over kilometer-scale distances. These models include the smoke plume transport model ALOFT (A Large Open Fire plume...

  20. Modeling flow and solute transport in irrigation furrows (United States)

    This paper presents an internally coupled flow and solute transport model for free-draining irrigation furrows. Furrow hydraulics is simulated with a numerical zero-inertia model and solute transport is computed with a model based on a numerical solution of the cross-section averaged advection-dispe...

  1. Modeling and analysis of transport in the mammary glands (United States)

    Quezada, Ana; Vafai, Kambiz


    The transport of three toxins moving from the blood stream into the ducts of the mammary glands is analyzed in this work. The model predictions are compared with experimental data from the literature. The utility of the model lies in its potential to improve our understanding of toxin transport as a pre-disposing factor to breast cancer. This work is based on a multi-layer transport model to analyze the toxins present in the breast milk. The breast milk in comparison with other sampling strategies allows us to understand the mass transport of toxins once inside the bloodstream of breastfeeding women. The multi-layer model presented describes the transport of caffeine, DDT and cimetidine. The analysis performed takes into account the unique transport mechanisms for each of the toxins. Our model predicts the movement of toxins and/or drugs within the mammary glands as well as their bioaccumulation in the tissues.

  2. Transperitoneal transport of creatinine. A comparison of kinetic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugleberg, S; Graff, J; Joffe, P


    and lymphatic convective solute transport. The validation procedure included an assessment of theoretical (a priori) and practical (a posteriori) identifiability, goodness of fit, residual error analysis and plausibility of parameter estimates. The results of the validation procedure demonstrate that the model......Six kinetic models of transperitoneal creatinine transport were formulated and validated on the basis of experimental results obtained from 23 non-diabetic patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. The models were designed to elucidate the presence or absence of diffusive, non-lymphatic convective...... including all three forms of transport is superior to other models. We conclude that the best model of transperitoneal creatinine transport includes diffusion, non-lymphatic convective transport and lymphatic convective transport....

  3. Distribution and transport of PAHs in soil profiles of different water irrigation areas in Beijing, China. (United States)

    Jin, Aifang; He, Jiangtao; Chen, Sunuan; Huang, Guoxin


    Vertical distribution characteristics and transport mechanisms of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil profiles (0-5.5 m) of different water irrigation areas in the southeast suburb of Beijing were analyzed and compared. 16 priority PAHs on the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) list were analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The relationship between the properties of soil and PAHs was also studied by statistical analyses. The results showed that total PAH concentrations in the topsoils of the wastewater irrigation (WWI) area, reclaimed water irrigation (RWI) area, groundwater irrigation (GWI) area were much higher than those in the deep soils, with the concentrations of 726.0, 206.8 and 42.8 μg kg(-1) (dry wt), respectively. The low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs (2-3 ring) including naphthalene (Nap), phenanthrene (Phe), fluorene (Fl) dominated the layers (0.5-5.5 m) underneath the surfaces. The migration of LMW PAHs was faster than that of high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs and LMW PAHs were transported in dissolved matter. The different soil textures of three sites caused the differences in the variation ranges of PAHs in the profiles. The statistical analyses showed a significant linear positive correlation between PAHs and total organic carbon (TOC). The 2-4 ring PAHs were detected in the wastewater and reclaimed waters, which was consistent with those in the soil profiles. The presence of PAHs in the soil profiles was mainly due to the irrigation of wastewater. Wastewater reuse guidelines and standards for irrigation should be established urgently.

  4. Multi-Organ Contribution to the Metabolic Plasma Profile Using Hierarchical Modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida Torell

    Full Text Available Hierarchical modelling was applied in order to identify the organs that contribute to the levels of metabolites in plasma. Plasma and organ samples from gut, kidney, liver, muscle and pancreas were obtained from mice. The samples were analysed using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC TOF-MS at the Swedish Metabolomics centre, Umeå University, Sweden. The multivariate analysis was performed by means of principal component analysis (PCA and orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS. The main goal of this study was to investigate how each organ contributes to the metabolic plasma profile. This was performed using hierarchical modelling. Each organ was found to have a unique metabolic profile. The hierarchical modelling showed that the gut, kidney and liver demonstrated the greatest contribution to the metabolic pattern of plasma. For example, we found that metabolites were absorbed in the gut and transported to the plasma. The kidneys excrete branched chain amino acids (BCAAs and fatty acids are transported in the plasma to the muscles and liver. Lactic acid was also found to be transported from the pancreas to plasma. The results indicated that hierarchical modelling can be utilized to identify the organ contribution of unknown metabolites to the metabolic profile of plasma.

  5. Modelling Emission of Pollutants from transportation using mobile sensing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Anders

    to use data acquired from smartphones to im- prove transportation related air quality models and models for climate gas emission from transportation. These models can be used for planning of transportation net- works, monitoring of air quality, and automate transport related green accounting. More...... of individual drivers, by deducing driving modes from accelerometer data. The work presented in this thesis spans different and diverse research fields. Trans- portation models are a subfield of econometrics, air quality modelling is a subfield of atmospheric chemistry, and driving mode detection and efficient...... database imple- mentations are a subfield of computer science. I have worked to bring these diverse research fields together to solve the challenge of improving modelling of transporta- tion related air quality emissions as well as modelling of transportation related climate gas emissions. The main...

  6. Thermal Transport in the Kitaev Model (United States)

    Nasu, Joji; Yoshitake, Junki; Motome, Yukitoshi


    In conventional insulating magnets, heat is carried by magnons and phonons. In contrast, when the magnets harbor a quantum spin liquid state, emergent quasiparticles from the fractionalization of quantum spins can carry heat. Here, we investigate unconventional thermal transport yielded by such exotic carriers, in both longitudinal and transverse components, for the Kitaev model, whose ground state is exactly shown to be a quantum spin liquid with fractional excitations described as itinerant Majorana fermions and localized Z2 fluxes. We find that the longitudinal thermal conductivity exhibits a single peak at a high temperature, while the nonzero frequency component has a peak at a low temperature, reflecting the spin fractionalization. On the other hand, we show that the transverse thermal conductivity is induced by the magnetic field in a wide temperature range up to the energy scale of the bare exchange coupling; while increasing temperature, the transverse response divided by temperature decreases from the quantized value expected for the topologically nontrivial ground state and shows nonmonotonic temperature dependence. These characteristic behaviors provide experimentally accessible evidence of fractional excitations in the proximity to the Kitaev quantum spin liquid.

  7. Modelling global container freight transport demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavasszy, L.A.; Ivanova, O.; Halim, R.A.


    The objective of this chapter is to discuss methods and techniques for a quantitative and descriptive analysis of future container transport demand at a global level. Information on future container transport flows is useful for various purposes. It is instrumental for the assessment of returns of

  8. Modelling multicomponent solute transport in structured soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beinum, van G.W.


    The mobility of contaminants in soil is an important factor in determining their ability to spread into the wider environment. For non-volatile substances, transport within the soil is generally dominated by transport of dissolved fractions in the soil water phase, via either diffusion or

  9. European initiatives for modeling emissions from transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joumard, Robert; Hickman, A. John; Samaras, Zissis


    In Europe there have been many cooperative studies into transport emission inventories since the late 80s. These cover the scope of CORINAIR program involving experts from seven European Community laboratories addressing only road transport emissions at national level. These also include the late...

  10. Accelerating Information Retrieval from Profile Hidden Markov Model Databases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Tamimi

    Full Text Available Profile Hidden Markov Model (Profile-HMM is an efficient statistical approach to represent protein families. Currently, several databases maintain valuable protein sequence information as profile-HMMs. There is an increasing interest to improve the efficiency of searching Profile-HMM databases to detect sequence-profile or profile-profile homology. However, most efforts to enhance searching efficiency have been focusing on improving the alignment algorithms. Although the performance of these algorithms is fairly acceptable, the growing size of these databases, as well as the increasing demand for using batch query searching approach, are strong motivations that call for further enhancement of information retrieval from profile-HMM databases. This work presents a heuristic method to accelerate the current profile-HMM homology searching approaches. The method works by cluster-based remodeling of the database to reduce the search space, rather than focusing on the alignment algorithms. Using different clustering techniques, 4284 TIGRFAMs profiles were clustered based on their similarities. A representative for each cluster was assigned. To enhance sensitivity, we proposed an extended step that allows overlapping among clusters. A validation benchmark of 6000 randomly selected protein sequences was used to query the clustered profiles. To evaluate the efficiency of our approach, speed and recall values were measured and compared with the sequential search approach. Using hierarchical, k-means, and connected component clustering techniques followed by the extended overlapping step, we obtained an average reduction in time of 41%, and an average recall of 96%. Our results demonstrate that representation of profile-HMMs using a clustering-based approach can significantly accelerate data retrieval from profile-HMM databases.

  11. A study on iron ore transportation model with penalty value of transportation equipment waiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailing Pan


    Full Text Available As some steel enterprises are at a disadvantage in the choice of the mode of transportation, this paper made further studies of the characteristics of the iron ore logistics, taking comprehensive consideration of optimizing the waiting time under the conditions with limited loading capacity and setting up a procedural model of the iron ore logistics system with minimum cost of transportation, storage, loading, unloading, and transportation equipment waiting. Finally, taking the iron ore transport system of one steel enterprise as example, the solution and the validity of the model were analyzed and verified in this paper.

  12. Evaluation of Tropical Transport in a Global Chemistry and Transport Model (United States)

    Douglass, Anne R.; DaSilva, A. M.; Lin, S.-J.; Pawson, S.; Rood, R. B.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)


    Observations of constituents from satellite, aircraft and sondes can be utilized to develop diagnostics of various aspects of tropical transport. These include tropical mid-latitude isolation, the seasonal transport from the upper tropical troposphere to the mid-latitude lowermost stratosphere, the seasonal cycle of the tropical total ozone and its variability. These diagnostics will be applied to constituent fields from an off-line chemistry and transport model (CTM) driven by winds from two sources. These are the Finite Volume Community Climate Model (FV-CCM), a general circulation model that uses the NCAR CCM physics and the Lin and Rood dynamical core, and an assimilation system developed by the Data Assimilation Office at the Goddard Space Flight Center that uses the FV-CCM at its core. Signatures of the quasi-biennial oscillation present in the observations will be emphasized to understand differences between the two model transports and the transport inferred from the observations.

  13. Transportation of Dangerous Goods: Turkey Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Şencan


    Full Text Available The shortcomings in the implementation of hazardous substances transport in the world and in our country lead to very serious hazards. These problems lead to life, property and very serious environmental disasters. This is not only a matter of transportation, but also of the chemistry, textile and fuel industries. This study provides information on the legislation on dangerous goods transport in Turkey. It also contains technical information on hazardous substances, following the search of the relevant literature for the province of hazardous goods.

  14. Models for estimating photosynthesis parameters from in situ production profiles (United States)

    Kovač, Žarko; Platt, Trevor; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Antunović, Suzana


    The rate of carbon assimilation in phytoplankton primary production models is mathematically prescribed with photosynthesis irradiance functions, which convert a light flux (energy) into a material flux (carbon). Information on this rate is contained in photosynthesis parameters: the initial slope and the assimilation number. The exactness of parameter values is crucial for precise calculation of primary production. Here we use a model of the daily production profile based on a suite of photosynthesis irradiance functions and extract photosynthesis parameters from in situ measured daily production profiles at the Hawaii Ocean Time-series station Aloha. For each function we recover parameter values, establish parameter distributions and quantify model skill. We observe that the choice of the photosynthesis irradiance function to estimate the photosynthesis parameters affects the magnitudes of parameter values as recovered from in situ profiles. We also tackle the problem of parameter exchange amongst the models and the effect it has on model performance. All models displayed little or no bias prior to parameter exchange, but significant bias following parameter exchange. The best model performance resulted from using optimal parameter values. Model formulation was extended further by accounting for spectral effects and deriving a spectral analytical solution for the daily production profile. The daily production profile was also formulated with time dependent growing biomass governed by a growth equation. The work on parameter recovery was further extended by exploring how to extract photosynthesis parameters from information on watercolumn production. It was demonstrated how to estimate parameter values based on a linearization of the full analytical solution for normalized watercolumn production and from the solution itself, without linearization. The paper complements previous works on photosynthesis irradiance models by analysing the skill and consistency of

  15. Transport models for relativistic heavy-ion collisions at Relativistic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review the transport models that are widely used to study the properties of the quark-gluon plasma formed in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. We show that transport model analysis of two important and complementary observables, the anisotropic flow of bulk hadrons and suppression of ...

  16. Modeling of capacitated transportation systems for integral scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebben, Mark; van der Heijden, Matthijs C.; Hurink, Johann L.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.


    Motivated by a planned automated cargo transportation network, we consider transportation problems in which the finite capacity of resources has to be taken nto account. We present a flexible modeling methodology which allows to construct, evaluate, and improve feasible solutions. The modeling is

  17. Gyrokinetic modelling of stationary electron and impurity profiles in tokamaks

    CERN Document Server

    Skyman, Andreas; Tegnered, Daniel


    Particle transport due to Ion Temperature Gradient/Trapped Electron (ITG/TE) mode turbulence is investigated using the gyrokinetic code GENE. Both a reduced quasilinear (QL) treatment and nonlinear (NL) simulations are performed for typical tokamak parameters corresponding to ITG dominated turbulence. A selfconsistent treatment is used, where the stationary local profiles are calculated corresponding to zero particle flux simultaneously for electrons and trace impurities. The scaling of the stationary profiles with magnetic shear, safety factor, electron-to-ion temperature ratio, collisionality, toroidal sheared rotation, triangularity, and elongation is investigated. In addition, the effect of different main ion mass on the zero flux condition is discussed. The electron density gradient can significantly affect the stationary impurity profile scaling. It is therefore expected, that a selfconsistent treatment will yield results more comparable to experimental results for parameter scans where the stationary b...

  18. Multimodal network models for robust transportation systems. (United States)


    Since transportation infrastructure projects have a lifetime of many decades, project developers must consider : not only the current demand for the project but also the future demand. Future demand is of course uncertain and should : be treated as s...

  19. Advances in dynamic network modeling in complex transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ukkusuri, Satish V


    This book focuses on the latest in dynamic network modeling, including route guidance and traffic control in transportation systems and other complex infrastructure networks. Covers dynamic traffic assignment, flow modeling, mobile sensor deployment and more.

  20. Symmetrization of mathematical model of charge transport in semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M. Blokhin


    Full Text Available A mathematical model of charge transport in semiconductors is considered. The model is a quasilinear system of differential equations. A problem of finding an additional entropy conservation law and system symmetrization are solved.

  1. Mode Choice Model for Public Transport with Categorized Latent Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chen


    Full Text Available Mode choice model for public transport, which integrates structural equation model (SEM and discrete choice model (DCM with categorized latent variables, was presented in this paper. Apart from identifying those important latent variables that affect mode choice for public transport, the objective of this study was also to develop an improved disaggregative model that better explains travel behavior of those decision-makers in choosing public transport. After extensive observations, selective latent variable sets which consist of latent variable components were chosen together with explicit variables in formulating the utility functions. Data collected in Chengdu city, China, were used to calibrate and validate the model. Results showed that the impact of fare on mode choice of public transport escalated in the SEM-DCM integrated model compared with the traditional logit model. The goodness of fit for the integrated model with latent variable sets is 0.201 higher than that of the traditional logit model, which proves that latent variables have an obvious impact on mode choice behavior, and the SEM-DCM integrated model has higher accuracy and stronger explanatory ability. The results are especially helpful for public transport operators to achieve higher mode share split by improving the service quality of public transport in terms of providing more convenience and better service environment for public transport users.

  2. A mesoscale chemical transport model (MEDIUM) nested in a global chemical transport model (MEDIANTE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claveau, J.; Ramaroson, R. [Office National d`Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)


    The lower stratosphere and upper troposphere (UT-LS) are frequently subject to mesoscale or local scale exchange of air masses occurring along discontinuities. This exchange (e.g. downward) can constitute one of the most important source of ozone from the stratosphere down to the middle troposphere where strong mixing dilutes the air mass and competing the non-linear chemistry. The distribution of the chemical species in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere depends upon various source emissions, e.g. from polluted boundary layer or from aircraft emissions. Global models, as well as chemical transport models describe the climatological state of the atmosphere and are not able to describe correctly the stratosphere and troposphere exchange. Mesoscale models go further in the description of smaller scales and can reasonably include a rather detailed chemistry. They can be used to assess the budget of NO{sub x} from aircraft emissions in a mesoscale domain. (author) 4 refs.

  3. Simulation Models in Testing Reliability of Transport Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacyna Marianna


    Full Text Available The paper touches the problem of applying simulation models to assess the reliability of services in transport networks. Investigation of the transport processes in terms of their reliability is a complex decision-making task. The paper describes a method for assessing the reliability of transport process on the base of the criterion of minimizing the normalized lost time of vehicles. The time is wasted in a result of conflict situations occurring in the transport network during the transport process. The study includes stochastic distributions of system input. It enables studying the quality parameters of the transport network equipment, including service providers working under different workload and all kinds of disturbances. The method uses simulation models. Simulation studies were performed with Java Modelling Tools.

  4. One-Dimensional Transport with Equilibrium Chemistry (OTEQ) - A Reactive Transport Model for Streams and Rivers (United States)

    Runkel, Robert L.


    OTEQ is a mathematical simulation model used to characterize the fate and transport of waterborne solutes in streams and rivers. The model is formed by coupling a solute transport model with a chemical equilibrium submodel. The solute transport model is based on OTIS, a model that considers the physical processes of advection, dispersion, lateral inflow, and transient storage. The equilibrium submodel is based on MINTEQ, a model that considers the speciation and complexation of aqueous species, acid-base reactions, precipitation/dissolution, and sorption. Within OTEQ, reactions in the water column may result in the formation of solid phases (precipitates and sorbed species) that are subject to downstream transport and settling processes. Solid phases on the streambed may also interact with the water column through dissolution and sorption/desorption reactions. Consideration of both mobile (waterborne) and immobile (streambed) solid phases requires a unique set of governing differential equations and solution techniques that are developed herein. The partial differential equations describing physical transport and the algebraic equations describing chemical equilibria are coupled using the sequential iteration approach. The model's ability to simulate pH, precipitation/dissolution, and pH-dependent sorption provides a means of evaluating the complex interactions between instream chemistry and hydrologic transport at the field scale. This report details the development and application of OTEQ. Sections of the report describe model theory, input/output specifications, model applications, and installation instructions. OTEQ may be obtained over the Internet at

  5. Modeling atmospheric CO2 concentration profiles and fluxes above sloping terrain at a boreal site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Aalto


    Full Text Available CO2 fluxes and concentrations were simulated in the planetary boundary layer above subarctic hilly terrain using a three dimensional model. The model solves the transport equations in the local scale and includes a vegetation sub-model. A WMO/GAW background concentration measurement site and an ecosystem flux measurement site are located inside the modeled region at a hilltop and above a mixed boreal forest, respectively. According to model results, the concentration measurement at the hill site was representative for continental background. However, this was not the case for the whole model domain. Concentration at few meters above active vegetation represented mainly local variation. Local variation became inseparable from the regional signal at about 60-100 m above ground. Flow over hills changed profiles of environmental variables and height of inversion layer, however CO2 profiles were more affected by upwind land use than topography. The hill site was above boundary layer during night and inside boundary layer during daytime. The CO2 input from model lateral boundaries dominated in both cases. Daily variation in the CO2 assimilation rate was clearly seen in the CO2 profiles. Concentration difference between the hill site and the forest site was about 5ppm during afternoon according to both model and measurements. The average modeled flux to the whole model region was about 40% of measured and modeled local flux at the forest site.

  6. Computational modelling of H+-coupled peptide transport via human PEPT1 (United States)

    Irie, Megumi; Terada, Tomohiro; Katsura, Toshiya; Matsuoka, Satoshi; Inui, Ken-ichi


    H+-coupled peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1) mediates the transport of small peptides and peptide-like drugs in a pH- and voltage-dependent manner. Here, we investigated the transport mechanisms of PEPT1 for neutral and charged substrates by experimental studies and computational simulation. Uptake studies revealed that the Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of glycylsarcosine (Gly-Sar), a neutral substrate, decreased with a fall in pH from 7.4 to 5.5, but at pH 5.0, the Km increased again. In contrast, the Km value of an anionic substrate, ceftibuten, declined steadily with decreasing pH. Based on these findings and information from the literature, we hypothesized the transport mechanisms in which (1) H+ binds to not only the H+-binding site, but also the substrate-binding site; and (2) H+ at the substrate-binding site inhibits the interaction of neutral and cationic substrates, but is necessary for that of anionic substrates. To validate these hypotheses, a computational model was constructed and various properties of substrate transport by PEPT1 were simulated. Our model reproduced the voltage dependence, hyperbolic saturation and bell-shaped pH-profile of Gly-Sar transport. Moreover, the various transport properties of negatively and positively charged substrates were also reconstructed. These findings indicated that the inferred mechanisms are able to sufficiently interpret the transport of both neutral and charged substrates by PEPT1. PMID:15802293

  7. Numerical modelling of multiphase flow and transport processes in landfills. (United States)

    Kindlein, Jonatham; Dinkler, Dieter; Ahrens, Hermann


    Waste material in municipal landfills can be described as heterogeneous porous media, where flow and transport processes of gases and liquids are combined with local material degradation. This paper deals with the basic formulation of a multiphase flow and transport model applicable to the numerical analysis of coupled transport and reaction processes inside landfills. The transport model treats landfills within the framework of continuum mechanics, where flow and transport processes are described on a macroscopic level. The composition of organic and inorganic matter in the solid phase and its degradation are modelled on a microscopic scale. The degradation model captures the different reaction schemes of various microbial activities. Subsequently, transport and reaction processes have to be coupled, since emissions at the surface and from the drainage layer depend on the flow of leachate and gas, the transport of various substances and heat, and the biodegradation of organic matter. The theoretical considerations presented here are fundamental to the development of numerical models for the simulation of multiphase flow and transport processes inside landfills coupled with biochemical reactions and heat generation. The implicit modelling of leachate and gas flows including growth and decay of micro-organisms are innovative contributions to landfill modelling

  8. Statistical modelling of transcript profiles of differentially regulated genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergeant Martin J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vast quantities of gene expression profiling data produced in microarray studies, and the more precise quantitative PCR, are often not statistically analysed to their full potential. Previous studies have summarised gene expression profiles using simple descriptive statistics, basic analysis of variance (ANOVA and the clustering of genes based on simple models fitted to their expression profiles over time. We report the novel application of statistical non-linear regression modelling techniques to describe the shapes of expression profiles for the fungus Agaricus bisporus, quantified by PCR, and for E. coli and Rattus norvegicus, using microarray technology. The use of parametric non-linear regression models provides a more precise description of expression profiles, reducing the "noise" of the raw data to produce a clear "signal" given by the fitted curve, and describing each profile with a small number of biologically interpretable parameters. This approach then allows the direct comparison and clustering of the shapes of response patterns between genes and potentially enables a greater exploration and interpretation of the biological processes driving gene expression. Results Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR-derived time-course data of genes were modelled. "Split-line" or "broken-stick" regression identified the initial time of gene up-regulation, enabling the classification of genes into those with primary and secondary responses. Five-day profiles were modelled using the biologically-oriented, critical exponential curve, y(t = A + (B + CtRt + ε. This non-linear regression approach allowed the expression patterns for different genes to be compared in terms of curve shape, time of maximal transcript level and the decline and asymptotic response levels. Three distinct regulatory patterns were identified for the five genes studied. Applying the regression modelling approach to microarray-derived time course data

  9. Sustainable intermodal freight transportation: Applying the geospatial intermodal freight transport model (United States)

    Comer, Bryan

    To study the energy and environmental impacts of emissions associated with freight transportation, the Geospatial Intermodal Freight Transport (GIFT) model was created as a joint research collaborative between the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) and the University of Delaware (UD). The GIFT model is a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) based model that links the U.S. and Canadian water, rail, and road transportation networks through intermodal transfer facilities to create an intermodal network. The purpose of my thesis is to apply the GIFT model to examine potential public policies related to intermodal freight transportation in the Great Lakes region of the United States. My thesis will consist of two papers. The first paper will examine the environmental, economic, and time-of-delivery tradeoffs associated with freight transportation in the Great Lakes region and examine opportunities for marine vessels to replace a portion of heavy-duty trucks for containerized freight transport. The second paper will explore the potential benefits of using the Great Lakes as a corridor for short-sea shipping as part of a longer intermodal route. The intent of my thesis is to shed light on the current issues associated with freight transport in the Great Lakes region and present public policy alternatives to address said issues. Ideally, this thesis will better inform policymakers on the impacts and tradeoffs associated with freight transportation.

  10. Three-dimensional variations of atmospheric CO2: aircraft measurements and multi-transport model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Satoh


    Full Text Available Numerical simulation and validation of three-dimensional structure of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 is necessary for quantification of transport model uncertainty and its role on surface flux estimation by inverse modeling. Simulations of atmospheric CO2 were performed using four transport models and two sets of surface fluxes compared with an aircraft measurement dataset of Comprehensive Observation Network for Trace gases by AIrLiner (CONTRAIL, covering various latitudes, longitudes, and heights. Under this transport model intercomparison project, spatiotemporal variations of CO2 concentration for 2006–2007 were analyzed with a three-dimensional perspective. Results show that the models reasonably simulated vertical profiles and seasonal variations not only over northern latitude areas but also over the tropics and southern latitudes. From CONTRAIL measurements and model simulations, intrusion of northern CO2 in to the Southern Hemisphere, through the upper troposphere, was confirmed. Furthermore, models well simulated the vertical propagation of seasonal variation in the northern free troposphere. However, significant model-observation discrepancies were found in Asian regions, which are attributable to uncertainty of the surface CO2 flux data. In summer season, differences in latitudinal gradients by the fluxes are comparable to or greater than model-model differences even in the free troposphere. This result suggests that active summer vertical transport sufficiently ventilates flux signals up to the free troposphere and the models could use those for inferring surface CO2 fluxes.

  11. Modeling atmospheric deposition using a stochastic transport model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R.L.


    An advanced stochastic transport model has been modified to include the removal mechanisms of dry and wet deposition. Time-dependent wind and turbulence fields are generated with a prognostic mesoscale numerical model and are used to advect and disperse individually released particles that are each assigned a mass. These particles are subjected to mass reduction in two ways depending on their physical location. Particles near the surface experience a decrease in mass using the concept of a dry deposition velocity, while the mass of particles located within areas of precipitation are depleted using a scavenging coefficient. Two levels of complexity are incorporated into the particle model. The simple case assumes constant values of dry deposition velocity and scavenging coefficient, while the more complex case varies the values according to meteorology, surface conditions, release material, and precipitation intensity. Instantaneous and cumulative dry and wet deposition are determined from the mass loss due to these physical mechanisms. A useful means of validating the model results is with data available from a recent accidental release of Cesium-137 from a steel-processing furnace in Algeciras, Spain in May, 1998. This paper describes the deposition modeling technique, as well as a comparison of simulated concentration and deposition with measurements taken for the Algeciras release.

  12. Modelling coronal electron density and temperature profiles based on solar magnetic field observations (United States)

    Rodríguez Gómez, J. M.; Antunes Vieira, L. E.; Dal Lago, A.; Palacios, J.; Balmaceda, L. A.; Stekel, T.


    The density and temperature profiles in the solar corona are complex to describe, the observational diagnostics is not easy. Here we present a physics-based model to reconstruct the evolution of the electron density and temperature in the solar corona based on the configuration of the magnetic field imprinted on the solar surface. The structure of the coronal magnetic field is estimated from Potential Field Source Surface (PFSS) based on magnetic field from both observational synoptic charts and a magnetic flux transport model. We use an emission model based on the ionization equilibrium and coronal abundances from CHIANTI atomic database 8.0. The preliminary results are discussed in details.

  13. Combining Metabolic Profiling and Gene Expression Analysis to Reveal the Biosynthesis Site and Transport of Ginkgolides in Ginkgo biloba L. (United States)

    Lu, Xu; Yang, Hua; Liu, Xinguang; Shen, Qian; Wang, Ning; Qi, Lian-wen; Li, Ping


    The most unique components of Ginkgo biloba extracts are terpene trilactones (TTLs) including ginkgolides and bilobalide. Study of TTLs biosynthesis has been stagnant in recent years. Metabolic profiling of 40 compounds, including TTLs, flavonoids, and phenolic acids, were globally analyzed in leaf, fibrous root, main root, old stem and young stem extracts of G. biloba. Most of the flavonoids were mainly distributed in the leaf and old stem. Most of phenolic acids were generally distributed among various tissues. The total content of TTLs decreased in the order of the leaf, fibrous root, main root, old stem and young stem. The TTLs were further analyzed in different parts of the main root and old stem. The content of TTLs decreases in the order of the main root periderm, the main root cortex and phloem and the main root xylem. In old stems, the content of TTLs in the cortex and phloem was much higher than both the old stem periderm and xylem. The expression patterns of five key genes in the ginkgolide biosynthetic pathway were measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-Q-PCR). Combining metabolic profiling and RT-Q-PCR, the results showed that the fibrous root and main root periderm tissues were the important biosynthesis sites of ginkgolides. Based on the above results, a model of the ginkgolide biosynthesis site and transport pathway in G. biloba was proposed. In this putative model, ginkgolides are synthesized in the fibrous root and main root periderm, and these compounds are then transported through the old stem cortex and phloem to the leaves. PMID:28603534

  14. Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Robinson


    The purpose of the transport methodology and component analysis is to provide the numerical methods for simulating radionuclide transport and model setup for transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ) site-scale model. The particle-tracking method of simulating radionuclide transport is incorporated into the FEHM computer code and the resulting changes in the FEHM code are to be submitted to the software configuration management system. This Analysis and Model Report (AMR) outlines the assumptions, design, and testing of a model for calculating radionuclide transport in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. In addition, methods for determining colloid-facilitated transport parameters are outlined for use in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) analyses. Concurrently, process-level flow model calculations are being carrier out in a PMR for the unsaturated zone. The computer code TOUGH2 is being used to generate three-dimensional, dual-permeability flow fields, that are supplied to the Performance Assessment group for subsequent transport simulations. These flow fields are converted to input files compatible with the FEHM code, which for this application simulates radionuclide transport using the particle-tracking algorithm outlined in this AMR. Therefore, this AMR establishes the numerical method and demonstrates the use of the model, but the specific breakthrough curves presented do not necessarily represent the behavior of the Yucca Mountain unsaturated zone.

  15. Improving activity transport models for water-cooled nuclear power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrill, K.A


    Eight current models for describing radioactivity transport and radiation field growth around water-cooled nuclear power reactors have been reviewed and assessed. A frequent failing of the models is the arbitrary nature of the determination of the important processes. Nearly all modelers agree that the kinetics of deposition and release of both dissolved and particulate material must be described. Plant data must be used to guide the selection and development of suitable improved models, with a minimum of empirically-based rate constraints being used. Limiting case modelling based on experimental data is suggested as a way to simplify current models and remove their subjectivity. Improved models must consider the recent change to 'coordinated water chemistry' that appears to produce normal solubility behaviour for dissolved iron throughout the fuel cycle in PWRs, but retrograde solubility remains for dissolved nickel. Profiles are suggested for dissolved iron and nickel concentrations around the heat transport system in CANDU reactors, which operate nominally at constant chemistry, i.e., pH{sub T} constant with time, and which use carbon steel isothermal piping. These diagrams are modified for a CANDU reactor with stainless steel piping, in order to show the changes expected. The significance of these profiles for transport in PWRs is discussed for further model improvement. (author)

  16. Transport services quality measurment using SERVQUAL model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Mlađan V.


    Full Text Available Quality in the world is considered to be the most important phenomenon of our age, with a permanent and irreversible growing trend of its emphasis. Many companies have come to the conclusion that high quality of services can provide them with a potential competitive advantage, leading to superior sales results and profit making. The aim of this paper is to test the applicability of service SERVQUAL dimensions and measure the quality of services in the public transport of passengers. Based on the data obtained by researching the views of public transport users in Kragujevac using the SERVQUAL methodology and statistical analysis based on defined service quality dimensions, this research will show the level of quality of urban transport services in Kragujevac and based on this, make recommendations for improving the quality of service.

  17. Advanced transport systems analysis, modeling, and evaluation of performances

    CERN Document Server

    Janić, Milan


    This book provides a systematic analysis, modeling and evaluation of the performance of advanced transport systems. It offers an innovative approach by presenting a multidimensional examination of the performance of advanced transport systems and transport modes, useful for both theoretical and practical purposes. Advanced transport systems for the twenty-first century are characterized by the superiority of one or several of their infrastructural, technical/technological, operational, economic, environmental, social, and policy performances as compared to their conventional counterparts. The advanced transport systems considered include: Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) systems in urban area(s), electric and fuel cell passenger cars, high speed tilting trains, High Speed Rail (HSR), Trans Rapid Maglev (TRM), Evacuated Tube Transport system (ETT), advanced commercial subsonic and Supersonic Transport Aircraft (STA), conventionally- and Liquid Hydrogen (LH2)-fuelled commercial air trans...

  18. Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite: using mission performance data to refine predictive contamination modeling (United States)

    Devaud, Genevieve; Jaross, Glen


    On October 28, 2011, the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite launched at Vandenberg Air Force base aboard a United Launch Alliance Delta II rocket. Included among the five instruments was the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS), an advanced suite of three hyperspectral instruments built by Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation (BATC) for the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Molecular transport modeling is used to predict optical throughput changes due to contaminant accumulation to ensure performance margin to End Of Life. The OMPS Nadir Profiler, operating at the lowest wavelengths of 250 - 310 nm, is most sensitive to contaminant accumulation. Geometry, thermal profile and material properties must be accurately modeled in order to have confidence in the results, yet it is well known that the complex chemistry and process dependent variability of aerospace materials presents a substantial challenge to the modeler. Assumptions about the absorption coefficients, desorption and diffusion kinetics of outgassing species from polymeric materials dramatically affect the model predictions, yet it is rare indeed that on-mission data is analyzed at a later date as a means to compare with modeling results. Optical throughput measurements for the Ozone and Mapping Profiler Suite on the Suomi NPP Satellite indicate that optical throughput degradation between day 145 and day 858 is less than 0.5%. We will show how assumptions about outgassing rates and desorption energies, in particular, dramatically affect the modeled optical throughput and what assumptions represent the on-orbit data.

  19. Modeling Profiles and Signatures of Enrichments (United States)

    Ali, A.; Qualls, C.; Lucas, S. G.; Lombari, G.; Appenzeller, O.


    Anthropogenic and geochemical enrichment of soils and living matter have been well documented 1, 2, 3.Here we report on geochemical, anthropogenic and biological enrichments with heavy metals in Modern Peru and compared this to Modern and ancient data from New Mexico, USA. We established a signature derived from the quantities of 25 metals in various biological, fossil and soil materials. We also speculate that human adaptation to mercury toxicity may occur in remarkably short time spans during the Holocene. We found mercury concentrations in Modern pigeon feathers and llama wool from free foraging birds and animals in Albuquerque, NM, ranging from 0.006 to 0.019 mg/Kg of tissue. The values for Modern Peru ranged from 22.0 to 556 mg/Kg for the same tissues. We discovered, in 64 million-year-old fossilized plants from New Mexico (Paleocene Nacimiento Formation, San Juan Basin), a mercury concentration of 1.11 mg/Kg of fossil, whereas Modern plant material from the Rio Grande Basin in New Mexico contained no mercury. Profiling of metal content of these samples suggests that mercury is a proxy for anthropogenic rather than geochemical enrichment in the localities we examined. We found no overt signs of mercury toxicity in contemporaneous inhabitants of Huancavelica4, Peru; one of the ten most mercury-polluted places in the world and the mercury concentration in their hair is well below modern admissible levels. However, assessment of their annual scalp hair growth-rate showed marked reduction in growth (~ 5cm/yr) versus ~ 16cm/year for normal scalp hair from other continents4. This is consistent with a toxic effect of heavy metals on human metabolism and especially autonomic nervous system function in Huancavelica, Peru. Contemporaneous anthropogenic activities are known to increase heavy metal content in the biosphere with potentially toxic effects on humans. However, signs of human evolutionary adaptation to such toxins might already be evident in Peru4.

  20. Composite Transport Model and Water and Solute Transport across Plant Roots: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangmin X. Kim


    Full Text Available The present review examines recent experimental findings in root transport phenomena in terms of the composite transport model (CTM. It has been a well-accepted conceptual model to explain the complex water and solute flows across the root that has been related to the composite anatomical structure. There are three parallel pathways involved in the transport of water and solutes in roots – apoplast, symplast, and transcellular paths. The role of aquaporins (AQPs, which facilitate water flows through the transcellular path, and root apoplast is examined in terms of the CTM. The contribution of the plasma membrane bound AQPs for the overall water transport in the whole plant level was varying depending on the plant species, age of roots with varying developmental stages of apoplastic barriers, and driving forces (hydrostatic vs. osmotic. Many studies have demonstrated that the apoplastic barriers, such as Casparian bands in the primary anticlinal walls and suberin lamellae in the secondary cell walls, in the endo- and exodermis are not perfect barriers and unable to completely block the transport of water and some solute transport into the stele. Recent research on water and solute transport of roots with and without exodermis triggered the importance of the extension of conventional CTM adding resistances that arrange in series (epidermis, exodermis, mid-cortex, endodermis, and pericycle. The extension of the model may answer current questions about the applicability of CTM for composite water and solute transport of roots that contain complex anatomical structures with heterogeneous cell layers.

  1. Stochastic dynamics modeling solute transport in porous media modeling solute transport in porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Kulasiri, Don


    Most of the natural and biological phenomena such as solute transport in porous media exhibit variability which can not be modeled by using deterministic approaches. There is evidence in natural phenomena to suggest that some of the observations can not be explained by using the models which give deterministic solutions. Stochastic processes have a rich repository of objects which can be used to express the randomness inherent in the system and the evolution of the system over time. The attractiveness of the stochastic differential equations (SDE) and stochastic partial differential equations (SPDE) come from the fact that we can integrate the variability of the system along with the scientific knowledge pertaining to the system. One of the aims of this book is to explaim some useufl concepts in stochastic dynamics so that the scientists and engineers with a background in undergraduate differential calculus could appreciate the applicability and appropriateness of these developments in mathematics. The ideas ...

  2. Model for Estimation Urban Transportation Supply-Demand Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoqun Wu


    Full Text Available The paper establishes an estimation model of urban transportation supply-demand ratio (TSDR to quantitatively describe the conditions of an urban transport system and to support a theoretical basis for transport policy-making. This TSDR estimation model is supported by the system dynamic principle and the VENSIM (an application that simulates the real system. It was accomplished by long-term observation of eight cities’ transport conditions and by analyzing the estimated results of TSDR from fifteen sets of refined data. The estimated results indicate that an urban TSDR can be classified into four grades representing four transport conditions: “scarce supply,” “short supply,” “supply-demand balance,” and “excess supply.” These results imply that transport policies or measures can be quantified to facilitate the process of ordering and screening them.

  3. A generic multistage compartmental model for interpreting gas production profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez, S.; Dijkstra, J.; Dhanoa, M.S.; Bannink, A.; Kebreab, E.; France, J.


    The gas production technique has become a key tool in feed evaluation and rumen fermentation studies. The value of the technique relies on modelling experimental data to obtain estimates of rumen degradation parameters. One of the first models used to describe gas production profiles was the simple


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paryudi Paryudi


    Full Text Available Promotion is a must for a university to get students. With the innocence of the promotion team about the existing student profile, it will cause the team does not know which segment should be the promotion target. The consequence is that the promotion cost will be higher. In order to have a better promotion, we can use direct marketing method. In this method, a profile model of the existing students must be first created. With this profile model, promotion team can focus the promotion only to candidate student match with the model. The advantages of this method are: promotion cost can be reduced, response rate increase, and profit also increase. In order to create a model in direct marketing, we need previous promotion data. Since previous promotion data is not available, two methods in creating preliminary models are proposed. Next, the preliminary models will be tested using data mining software available in the market. Model with minimal accuracy of 75% will be chosen. If there are more than one model with minimal accuracy of 75%, then model with the highest accuracy will be chosen. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Promosi merupakan suatu keharusan bagi sebuah universitas untuk mendapatkan mahasiswa. Dengan masih awamnya tim promosi terhadap profil mahasiswa yang sudah ada, maka tim promosi melakukan promosi tanpa melihat segmen pasar yang harus dituju. Konsekuensinya adalah biaya promosi menjadi lebih mahal. Untuk melakukan promosi dengan lebih baik, dapat menggunakan metode direct marketing. Pada metode ini, model profil dari mahasiswa yang sudah ada harus dibuat terlebih dulu. Dengan menggunakan model profil ini, tim promosi dapat memfokuskan promosi hanya pada calon-calon mahasiswa yang sesuai dengan model. Keuntungan dari metode promosi ini adalah biaya promosi dapat dikurangi, tingkat respon meningkat, dan keuntungan juga meningkat. Untuk membuat model pada direct marketing dibutuhkan data dari promosi sebelumnya. Karena data promosi

  5. Strategic Network Modelling for Passenger Transport Pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, E.-S.


    In the last decade the Netherlands has experienced an economic recession. Now, in 2017, the economy is picking up again. This growth does not only come with advantages because economic growth demands more from the transport system. Congestion is increasing again, the capacity of the train system is

  6. Modelling anisotropic water transport in polymer composite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This work reports anisotropic water transport in a polymer composite consisting of an epoxy matrix reinforced with aligned triangular bars made of vinyl ester. By gravimetric experiments, water diffusion in resin and polymer composites were characterized. Parameters for Fickian diffusion and polymer relaxation ...

  7. Vertical Profiles, Sources, and Transport of PFASs in the Arctic Ocean. (United States)

    Yeung, Leo W Y; Dassuncao, Clifton; Mabury, Scott; Sunderland, Elsie M; Zhang, Xianming; Lohmann, Rainer


    The relative importance of atmospheric versus oceanic transport for poly- and perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) reaching the Arctic Ocean is not well understood. Vertical profiles from the Central Arctic Ocean and shelf water, snow and meltwater samples were collected in 2012; 13 PFASs (C6-C12 PFCAs; C6, 8, 10 PFSAs; MeFOSAA and EtFOSAA; and FOSA) were routinely detected (range: deep water concentrations below 200 m (5-15 pg/L) were slightly higher than measurements (Arctic. Despite low concentrations in deep water, this reservoir is expected to contain most of the PFOS mass in the Arctic (63-180 Mg) and is projected to continue increasing to 2038.

  8. Super parameterization of ocean dynamics for tracer transport models (United States)

    Le Sommer, J.; Bricaud, C.; Madec, G.; Calone, C.; Chanut, J.; Ethe, C.; Perruche, C.


    Ocean mesoscale and submesoscale turbulence contribute to ocean tracer transport and to shaping ocean biogeochemical tracers distribution. Representing adequately tracer transport in ocean models therefore requires to increase model resolution so that the impact of ocean turbulence is adequately accounted for. But due to supercomputers power and storage limitations, global biogeochemical models are not yet run routinely at eddying resolution. Still, because the "effective resolution" of eddying ocean models is much coarser than the physical model grid resolution, tracer transport can be reconstructed to a large extent by computing tracer transport and diffusion with a model grid resolution close to the effective resolution of the physical model. This observation has motivated the implementation of a new capability in NEMO ocean model ( that allows to run the physical model and the tracer transport model at different grid resolutions. Here, we present results obtained with this new capability applied to a synthetic age tracer in a global eddying model configuration. In this model configuration, ocean dynamic is computed at ¼° resolution but tracer transport is computed at 3/4° resolution. The solution obtained is compared to a reference setup, where age tracer is computed at the same grid resolution as ocean dynamics. We discuss possible options for defining the vertical diffusivity coefficient for the tracer transport model based on information from the high resolution grid. We describe the impact of this choice on the distribution and one the penetration of the age tracer. The method described here can found applications in ocean forecasting, such as the Copernicus Marine service operated by Mercator-Ocean, and in Earth System Models for climate applications.

  9. Near Real Time Vertical Profiles of Clouds and Aerosols from the Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) on the International Space Station (United States)

    Yorks, J. E.; McGill, M. J.; Nowottnick, E. P.


    Plumes from hazardous events, such as ash from volcanic eruptions and smoke from wildfires, can have a profound impact on the climate system, human health and the economy. Global aerosol transport models are very useful for tracking hazardous plumes and predicting the transport of these plumes. However aerosol vertical distributions and optical properties are a major weakness of global aerosol transport models, yet a key component of tracking and forecasting smoke and ash. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is an elastic backscatter lidar designed to provide vertical profiles of clouds and aerosols while also demonstrating new in-space technologies for future Earth Science missions. CATS has been operating on the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposed Facility (JEM-EF) of the International Space Station (ISS) since early February 2015. The ISS orbit provides more comprehensive coverage of the tropics and mid-latitudes than sun-synchronous orbiting sensors, with nearly a three-day repeat cycle. The ISS orbit also provides CATS with excellent coverage over the primary aerosol transport tracks, mid-latitude storm tracks, and tropical convection. Data from CATS is used to derive properties of clouds and aerosols including: layer height, layer thickness, backscatter, optical depth, extinction, and depolarization-based discrimination of particle type. The measurements of atmospheric clouds and aerosols provided by the CATS payload have demonstrated several science benefits. CATS provides near-real-time observations of cloud and aerosol vertical distributions that can be used as inputs to global models. The infrastructure of the ISS allows CATS data to be captured, transmitted, and received at the CATS ground station within several minutes of data collection. The CATS backscatter and vertical feature mask are part of a customized near real time (NRT) product that the CATS processing team produces within 6 hours of collection. The continuous near real time CATS data

  10. Finite difference methods for coupled flow interaction transport models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly McGee


    Full Text Available Understanding chemical transport in blood flow involves coupling the chemical transport process with flow equations describing the blood and plasma in the membrane wall. In this work, we consider a coupled two-dimensional model with transient Navier-Stokes equation to model the blood flow in the vessel and Darcy's flow to model the plasma flow through the vessel wall. The advection-diffusion equation is coupled with the velocities from the flows in the vessel and wall, respectively to model the transport of the chemical. The coupled chemical transport equations are discretized by the finite difference method and the resulting system is solved using the additive Schwarz method. Development of the model and related analytical and numerical results are presented in this work.

  11. Keratin dynamics: modeling the interplay between turnover and transport. (United States)

    Portet, Stéphanie; Madzvamuse, Anotida; Chung, Andy; Leube, Rudolf E; Windoffer, Reinhard


    Keratin are among the most abundant proteins in epithelial cells. Functions of the keratin network in cells are shaped by their dynamical organization. Using a collection of experimentally-driven mathematical models, different hypotheses for the turnover and transport of the keratin material in epithelial cells are tested. The interplay between turnover and transport and their effects on the keratin organization in cells are hence investigated by combining mathematical modeling and experimental data. Amongst the collection of mathematical models considered, a best model strongly supported by experimental data is identified. Fundamental to this approach is the fact that optimal parameter values associated with the best fit for each model are established. The best candidate among the best fits is characterized by the disassembly of the assembled keratin material in the perinuclear region and an active transport of the assembled keratin. Our study shows that an active transport of the assembled keratin is required to explain the experimentally observed keratin organization.

  12. Modelling travel time reliability in public transport route choice behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swierstra, A.B.; van Nes, R.; Molin, E.J.E.


    The implementation of travel time reliability (TTR) in route choice behaviour is still not very common in transport models, especially not in a public transport context. The reasons probably are that it is difficult to measure and that there is no agreement how it best can be represented in

  13. A Coupled Model of Multiphase Flow, Reactive Biogeochemical Transport, Thermal Transport and Geo-Mechanics. (United States)

    Tsai, C. H.; Yeh, G. T.


    In this investigation, a coupled model of multiphase flow, reactive biogeochemical transport, thermal transport and geo-mechanics in subsurface media is presented. It iteratively solves the mass conservation equation for fluid flow, thermal transport equation for temperature, reactive biogeochemical transport equations for concentration distributions, and solid momentum equation for displacement with successive linearization algorithm. With species-based equations of state, density of a phase in the system is obtained by summing up concentrations of all species. This circumvents the problem of having to use empirical functions. Moreover, reaction rates of all species are incorporated in mass conservation equation for fluid flow. Formation enthalpy of all species is included in the law of energy conservation as a source-sink term. Finite element methods are used to discretize the governing equations. Numerical experiments are presented to examine the accuracy and robustness of the proposed model. The results demonstrate the feasibility and capability of present model in subsurface media.

  14. Preliminary Results of the first European Source Apportionment intercomparison for Receptor and Chemical Transport Models (United States)

    Belis, Claudio A.; Pernigotti, Denise; Pirovano, Guido


    little detail about the chemical components of this source used in the models. The sensitivity tests show that chemical transport models show better performances when displaying a detailed set of sources (14) than when using a simplified one (only 8). It was also observed that an enhanced vertical profiling can improve the estimation of specific sources, such as industry, under complex meteorological conditions and that an insufficient spatial resolution in urban areas can impact on the capabilities of models to estimate the contribution of diffuse primary sources (e.g. traffic). Both families of models identify traffic and biomass burning as the first and second most contributing categories, respectively, to elemental carbon. The results of this study demonstrate that the source apportionment assessment methodology developed by the JRC is applicable to any kind of SA model. The same methodology is implemented in the on-line DeltaSA tool to support source apportionment model evaluation (

  15. Planetary gear profile modification design based on load sharing modelling (United States)

    Iglesias, Miguel; Fernández Del Rincón, Alfonso; De-Juan, Ana Magdalena; Garcia, Pablo; Diez, Alberto; Viadero, Fernando


    In order to satisfy the increasing demand on high performance planetary transmissions, an important line of research is focused on the understanding of some of the underlying phenomena involved in this mechanical system. Through the development of models capable of reproduce the system behavior, research in this area contributes to improve gear transmission insight, helping developing better maintenance practices and more efficient design processes. A planetary gear model used for the design of profile modifications ratio based on the levelling of the load sharing ratio is presented. The gear profile geometry definition, following a vectorial approach that mimics the real cutting process of gears, is thoroughly described. Teeth undercutting and hypotrochoid definition are implicitly considered, and a procedure for the incorporation of a rounding arc at the tooth tip in order to deal with corner contacts is described. A procedure for the modeling of profile deviations is presented, which can be used for the introduction of both manufacturing errors and designed profile modifications. An easy and flexible implementation of the profile deviation within the planetary model is accomplished based on the geometric overlapping. The contact force calculation and dynamic implementation used in the model are also introduced, and parameters from a real transmission for agricultural applications are presented for the application example. A set of reliefs is designed based on the levelling of the load sharing ratio for the example transmission, and finally some other important dynamic factors of the transmission are analyzed to assess the changes in the dynamic behavior with respect to the non-modified case. Thus, the main innovative aspect of the proposed planetary transmission model is the capacity of providing a simulated load sharing ratio which serves as design variable for the calculation of the tooth profile modifications.

  16. [Analysis of proteomic profile changes of zebrafish embryos during exposure to doxorubicin, built-in the phospholipid transport nanosystem]. (United States)

    Samenkova, N F; Kisrieva, Y S; Petushkova, N A; Kuznetsova, G P; Larina, O V; Trifonova, O P; Karuzina, I I; Ipatova, O M; Lisitsa, A V


    The proteome profile of Danio rerio embryos grown in the medium containing doxorubicin, included in the phospholipid transport nanosystem (doxolip) has been investigated using combination of 1D-electrophoresis with subsequent MALDI-TOF-PMF mass spectrometry. Cultivation of growing of D. rerio embryos in the medium with doxolip caused a substantial increase in expression of the cytoskeletal proteins, a decrease in the number of nuclear proteins involved in DNA and RNA synthesis and disappearance of vitellogenin 2 in comparison with control (the cultivation medium containing the phospholipid transport nanosystem). Analysis of the proteomic profiles of doxolip-treated embryos suggests lower toxicity of doxorubicin incorporated in the phospholipid nanosystem.

  17. One day-old chicks transport: Assessment of thermal profile in a tropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aérica C. Nazareno


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the thermal profile of truck with different levels of box placement during one day-old chicks transport. An experiment was conducted through monitoring of 11 transport loads. A acclimatized truck was used in this research, with maximum capacity of 630 one day-old chicks boxes, totalizing 63,000 animals. The assessment of thermal environment was performed in 5 min intervals, through the following variables: temperature, relative humidity and specific enthalpy. The treatments were registered at two levels of the load (first rack and floor where 17 data loggers were distributed throughout the truck. The experiment used a completely randomized design and geostatistics was used for spatial dependency and Kriging interpolation. The microclimatic conditions of the truck were not as per recommended values, which confirm a heterogeneous distribution of heat and moisture in environment. Regarding the box positioning, the mean values of thermal variables associated with thermal comfort of one day-old chicks was found in the floor area. The most stressful environment for birds inside the truck was located in front and at the center of the truck.

  18. Effect of magnetic islands on profiles, flows, turbulence and transport in nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations (United States)

    Bañón Navarro, A.; Bardóczi, L.; Carter, T. A.; Jenko, F.; Rhodes, T. L.


    Neoclassical tearing modes have deleterious effects on plasma confinement and, if they grow large enough, they can lead to discharge termination. Therefore, they impose a major barrier in the development of operating scenarios of present-day tokamaks. Gyrokinetics offers a path toward studying multi-scale interactions with turbulence and the effect on plasma confinement. As a first step toward this goal, we have implemented static magnetic islands in nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations with the GENE code. We investigate the effect of the islands on profiles, flows, turbulence and transport and the scaling of these effects with respect to island size. We find a clear threshold island width, below which the islands have little or no effect while beyond this point the islands significantly perturb flows, increase turbulence and transport. Additionally, we study the effect of radially asymmetric islands on shear flows for the first time. We find that island induced shear flows can regulate turbulent fluctuation levels in the vicinity of the island separatrices. Throughout this work, we focus on experimentally relevant quantities, such as rms levels of density and electron temperature fluctuations, as well as amplitude and phasing of turbulence modulation. These simulations aim to provide guidelines for interpreting experimental results by comparing qualitative trends in the simulations with those obtained in tokamak experiments.

  19. Fractional diffusion models of transport in magnetically confined plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo-Negrete, D. del; Carreras, B. A.; Lynch, V. E.


    Experimental and theoretical evidence suggests that transport in magnetically confined fusion plasmas deviates from the standard diffusion paradigm. Some examples include the confinement time scaling in L-mode plasmas, rapid pulse propagation phenomena, and inward transport in off-axis fueling experiments. The limitations of the diffusion paradigm can be traced back to the restrictive assumptions in which it is based. In particular, Fick's law, one of the cornerstones of diffusive transport, assumes that the fluxes only depend on local quantities, i. e. the spatial gradient of the field (s). another key issue is the Markovian assumption that neglects memory effects. Also, at a microscopic level, standard diffusion assumes and underlying Gaussian, uncorrelated stochastic process (i. e. a Brownian random walk) with well defined characteristic spatio-temporal scales. Motivated by the need to develop models of non-diffusive transport, we discuss here a class of transport models base on the use of fractional derivative operators. The models incorporates in a unified way non-Fickian transport, non-Markovian processes or memory effects, and non-diffusive scaling. At a microscopic level, the models describe an underlying stochastic process without characteristic spatio-temporal scales that generalizes the Brownian random walk. As a concrete case study to motivate and test the model, we consider transport of tracers in three-dimensional, pressure-gradient-driven turbulence. We show that in this system transport is non-diffusive and cannot be described in the context of the standard diffusion parading. In particular, the probability density function (pdf) of the radial displacements of tracers is strongly non-Gaussian with algebraic decaying tails, and the moments of the tracer displacements exhibit super-diffusive scaling. there is quantitative agreement between the turbulence transport calculations and the proposed fractional diffusion model. In particular, the model

  20. Metal transport across biomembranes: emerging models for a distinct chemistry. (United States)

    Argüello, José M; Raimunda, Daniel; González-Guerrero, Manuel


    Transition metals are essential components of important biomolecules, and their homeostasis is central to many life processes. Transmembrane transporters are key elements controlling the distribution of metals in various compartments. However, due to their chemical properties, transition elements require transporters with different structural-functional characteristics from those of alkali and alkali earth ions. Emerging structural information and functional studies have revealed distinctive features of metal transport. Among these are the relevance of multifaceted events involving metal transfer among participating proteins, the importance of coordination geometry at transmembrane transport sites, and the presence of the largely irreversible steps associated with vectorial transport. Here, we discuss how these characteristics shape novel transition metal ion transport models.

  1. Modeling of pollutant emissions from road transport; Modelisation des emissions de polluants par le transport routier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    COPERT III (computer programme to calculate emissions from road transport) is the third version of an MS Windows software programme aiming at the calculation of air pollutant emissions from road transport. COPERT estimates emissions of all regulated air pollutants (CO, NO{sub x}, VOC, PM) produced by different vehicle categories as well as CO{sub 2} emissions on the basis of fuel consumption. This research seminar was organized by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) around the following topics: the uncertainties and sensitiveness analysis of the COPERT III model, the presentation of case studies that use COPERT III for the estimation of road transport emissions, and the future of the modeling of road transport emissions: from COPERT III to ARTEMIS (assessment and reliability of transport emission models and inventory systems). This document is a compilation of 8 contributions to this seminar and dealing with: the uncertainty and sensitiveness analysis of the COPERT III model; the road mode emissions of the ESCOMPTE program: sensitivity study; the sensitivity analysis of the spatialized traffic at the time-aggregation level: application in the framework of the INTERREG project (Alsace); the road transport aspect of the regional air quality plan of Bourgogne region: exhaustive consideration of the road network; intercomparison of tools and methods for the inventory of emissions of road transport origin; evolution of the French park of vehicles by 2025: new projections; application of COPERT III to the French context: a new version of IMPACT-ADEME; the European ARTEMIS project: new structural considerations for the modeling of road transport emissions. (J.S.)

  2. Numerical Modelling on Fate and Transport of Petroleum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    numerical model is developed to simulate the transport of benzene in an ..... unsaturated porous media (Richards 1931; van Genuchten 1980). ... conductivity for unsaturated soil such as Burdine (1953), Brooks and Corey (1964), Mualem.

  3. Strategic transportation model for oil in US waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakovou, E.; Douligeris, C. [Miami Univ., FL (United States)


    This paper presents the development of a strategic transportation model for marine oil transportation in US waters. The model is a high-level strategic decision-making tool that will be used to interface with a risk analysis model, to identify ``weak`` links in the system and evaluate alternative routing and shipping scenarios. It may also be used to provide suggestions for the designation of lightering zones which will enable the U.S. to draw from the general world supply of tanker capacity and reduce oil transportation costs and risks. The model has been developed at the request of the United States Interagency Coordinating Committee for Oil Pollution Research to allow for the quantification of oil transported within the geographic boundaries of the United States, for the analysis of risks and effects of oil spills, and finally the identification of appropriate technologies that will support intervention and mitigation to reduce the impact of spills. (UK)

  4. Modeling of active transmembrane transport in a mixture theory framework. (United States)

    Ateshian, Gerard A; Morrison, Barclay; Hung, Clark T


    This study formulates governing equations for active transport across semi-permeable membranes within the framework of the theory of mixtures. In mixture theory, which models the interactions of any number of fluid and solid constituents, a supply term appears in the conservation of linear momentum to describe momentum exchanges among the constituents. In past applications, this momentum supply was used to model frictional interactions only, thereby describing passive transport processes. In this study, it is shown that active transport processes, which impart momentum to solutes or solvent, may also be incorporated in this term. By projecting the equation of conservation of linear momentum along the normal to the membrane, a jump condition is formulated for the mechano-electrochemical potential of fluid constituents which is generally applicable to nonequilibrium processes involving active transport. The resulting relations are simple and easy to use, and address an important need in the membrane transport literature.

  5. Profile control simulations and experiments on TCV: a controller test environment and results using a model-based predictive controller (United States)

    Maljaars, E.; Felici, F.; Blanken, T. C.; Galperti, C.; Sauter, O.; de Baar, M. R.; Carpanese, F.; Goodman, T. P.; Kim, D.; Kim, S. H.; Kong, M.; Mavkov, B.; Merle, A.; Moret, J. M.; Nouailletas, R.; Scheffer, M.; Teplukhina, A. A.; Vu, N. M. T.; The EUROfusion MST1-team; The TCV-team


    The successful performance of a model predictive profile controller is demonstrated in simulations and experiments on the TCV tokamak, employing a profile controller test environment. Stable high-performance tokamak operation in hybrid and advanced plasma scenarios requires control over the safety factor profile (q-profile) and kinetic plasma parameters such as the plasma beta. This demands to establish reliable profile control routines in presently operational tokamaks. We present a model predictive profile controller that controls the q-profile and plasma beta using power requests to two clusters of gyrotrons and the plasma current request. The performance of the controller is analyzed in both simulation and TCV L-mode discharges where successful tracking of the estimated inverse q-profile as well as plasma beta is demonstrated under uncertain plasma conditions and the presence of disturbances. The controller exploits the knowledge of the time-varying actuator limits in the actuator input calculation itself such that fast transitions between targets are achieved without overshoot. A software environment is employed to prepare and test this and three other profile controllers in parallel in simulations and experiments on TCV. This set of tools includes the rapid plasma transport simulator RAPTOR and various algorithms to reconstruct the plasma equilibrium and plasma profiles by merging the available measurements with model-based predictions. In this work the estimated q-profile is merely based on RAPTOR model predictions due to the absence of internal current density measurements in TCV. These results encourage to further exploit model predictive profile control in experiments on TCV and other (future) tokamaks.

  6. Multicomponent Reactive Transport Modeling in Aquifers (United States)

    Blanco, C. A.; Barajas, D. A.; Donado, L. D.


    This work presents a methodology for calculating reaction rates in a reactive transport system under kinetic and equilibrium conditions for a bidimensional fully saturated homogeneous aquifer [GRDMOMAS,2006]. The system considered is the scenario of precipitation/dissolution of two minerals [Donado et al, In preparation] B4(s) and B5(s) in the presence of three aqueous species, B1, B2 and B3, governed by the reactions B1+B2⇌ B4(s) [1] B1+B3⇌ B5(s) [2] Reaction ([1]) is considered to occur in instantaneous equilibrium, while reaction ([2]) is considered to be a slow (i.e., kinetic) reaction [Cirpka and Valocchi, 2007]. Using the approach proposed by Molins et al. [Water Resour. Res., 40(10), W10301, doi:10.1029/2003WR002970, 2004], two linear combinations of the concentrations of the reacting species, known as the conservative and kinetic components u and uk, are defined in order to decouple the equilibrium reaction from the kinetic one. This way the set of equations which describes the reactive transport system is reduced to two partial differential equations; the first one of them is a second-order linear homogeneous parabolic partial differential equation solely in terms of the conservative component u, which can be solved separately, while the second one is a second-order non-linear non-homogeneous parabolic partial differential equation in terms of both the conservative and kinetic components. An approximate numerical solution of the aforementioned partial differential equations is obtained by applying a mixed solution by means of the finite elements method for flow and finite differences method for transport. A bilinear grid is used for discretizing the flow-reaction domain while the Crank-Nicholson implicit scheme is used for the temporal integration of the equations. The nonlinearity of the second partial differential equation is treated using a predictor-corrector algorithm. The behaviour of the reactive transport system is evaluated in term of two of

  7. Modelling of hydrodynamics and mecury transport in lake Velenje. Part 2, Modelling and model verification


    Kotnik, Jože; Žagar, Dušan; Rajar, Rudi; Horvat, Milena


    PCFLOW3D - a three-dimensional mathematical model that was developed at the Chair of Fluid Mechanics of the Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, University of Ljubljana, was used for hydrodynamic and Hg transport simulations in Lake Velenje. The model is fully non-linear and computes three velocity components, water elevation and pressure. Transport-dispersion equations for salinity and heat (and/or any pollutant) are further used to compute the distributions of these par...

  8. The thermoballistic transport model a novel approach to charge carrier transport in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Lipperheide, Reinhard


    The book presents a comprehensive survey of the thermoballistic approach to charge carrier transport in semiconductors. This semi-classical approach, which the authors have developed over the past decade, bridges the gap between the opposing drift-diffusion and ballistic  models of carrier transport. While incorporating basic features of the latter two models, the physical concept underlying the thermoballistic approach constitutes a novel, unifying scheme. It is based on the introduction of "ballistic configurations" arising from a random partitioning of the length of a semiconducting sample into ballistic transport intervals. Stochastic averaging of the ballistic carrier currents over the ballistic configurations results in a position-dependent thermoballistic current, which is the key element of the thermoballistic concept and forms  the point of departure for the calculation of all relevant transport properties. In the book, the thermoballistic concept and its implementation are developed in great detai...

  9. Object-oriented data model of the municipal transportation (United States)

    Pan, Yuqing; Sheng, Yehua; Zhang, Guiying


    The transportation problem is always one of main questions each big city all over the world faces. Managing the municipal transportation using GIS is becoming the important trend. And the data model is the transportation information system foundation. The organization and storage of the data must consider well in the system design. The data model not only needs to meet the demand that the transportation navigates, but also needs to achieve the good visual effects, also can carry on the management and the maintenance to the traffic information. According to the object-oriented theory and the method, the road is divided into segment, intersection. This paper analyzed the driveway, marking, sign and other transportation facilities and the relationship with the segment, intersection and constructed the municipal transportation data model which is adequate to the demand of vehicles navigation, visual and management. The paper also schemes the the all kinds of transportation data. The practice proves that this data model can satisfy the application demands of traffic management system.

  10. Transport of bacteria in aquifer sediment: experiments and modeling (United States)

    Ding, Dong


    A mathematical model based on the advection-dispersion equation, modified to account for growth, decay, attachment, and detachment of microorganisms, was developed to describe the transport and growth of bacteria in aquifers. Column experiments on the transport of a species of sulfate-reducing bacteria through saturated-aquifer sediment were conducted to gain a quantitative knowledge of the attachment and detachment processes. Relevant parameter values such as the attachment-site capacity of the sediment and the attachment and detachment coefficients under different conditions, were obtained by fitting the experimental data with the non-growth condition transport model. The transport model was then refined and improved to incorporate the microbial sulfate reduction mechanism. To evaluate the applicability of this model, bacterial transport in aquifers under both nutrient-rich and oligotrophic environments was modeled by employing the parameters gained from experiments and from available literature; the model results were consistent with observations reported in former studies. In addition, the results revealed that the distribution of bacteria in the aqueous phase and in the sediments is directly related to the attachment-site capacity of the sediment. Thus, the attachment-site capacity of the sediment is a key factor to evaluate the transport and growth of bacteria in aquifers.

  11. Towards improved quality of GPCR models by usage of multiple templates and profile-profile comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Latek

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs are targets of nearly one third of the drugs at the current pharmaceutical market. Despite their importance in many cellular processes the crystal structures are available for less than 20 unique GPCRs of the Rhodopsin-like class. Fortunately, even though involved in different signaling cascades, this large group of membrane proteins has preserved a uniform structure comprising seven transmembrane helices that allows quite reliable comparative modeling. Nevertheless, low sequence similarity between the GPCR family members is still a serious obstacle not only in template selection but also in providing theoretical models of acceptable quality. An additional level of difficulty is the prediction of kinks and bulges in transmembrane helices. Usage of multiple templates and generation of alignments based on sequence profiles may increase the rate of success in difficult cases of comparative modeling in which the sequence similarity between GPCRs is exceptionally low. Here, we present GPCRM, a novel method for fast and accurate generation of GPCR models using averaging of multiple template structures and profile-profile comparison. In particular, GPCRM is the first GPCR structure predictor incorporating two distinct loop modeling techniques: Modeller and Rosetta together with the filtering of models based on the Z-coordinate. We tested our approach on all unique GPCR structures determined to date and report its performance in comparison with other computational methods targeting the Rhodopsin-like class. We also provide a database of precomputed GPCR models of the human receptors from that class. AVAILABILITY: GPCRM SERVER AND DATABASE:

  12. N-GrAM: New Groningen Author-profiling Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basile, Angelo; Dwyer, Gareth; Medvedeva, Masha; Rawee, Josine; Haagsma, Hessel; Nissim, Malvina


    We describe our participation in the PAN 2017 shared task on Author Profiling, identifying authors’ gender and language variety for English, Spanish, Arabic and Portuguese. We describe both the final, submitted system, and a series of negative results. Our aim was to create a single model for both

  13. ATTILA - Atmospheric Tracer Transport In a Langrangian Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reithmeier, C.; Sausen, R.


    The Lagrangian model ATTILA (atmospheric tracer transport in a Lagrangian model) has been developed to treat the global-scale transport of passive trace species in the atmosphere within the framework of a general circulation model (GCM). ATTILA runs online within the GCM ECHAM4 and uses the GCM produced wind field to advect the centrois of 80.000 to 180.000 constant mass air parcels into which the model atmosphere is divided. Each trace constituent is thereby represented by a mass mixing ratio in each parcel. ATTILA contains state-of-the-art parameterizations of convection, turbulent boundary layer mixing, and interparcel transport and provides an algorithm to map the tracer concentrations from the trajectories to the ECHAM model grid. We use two experiments to evaluate the transport characteristics of ATTILA against observations and the standard semiLagrangian transport scheme of ECHAM. In the first experiment we simulate the distribution of the short-lived tracer Radon ({sup 222}Rn) in order to examine fast vertical transport over continents, and long-range transport from the continents to remote areas. In the second experiment, we simulate the distribution of radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) that was injected into the northern stratosphere during the nuclear weapon tests in the early 60ties, in order to examine upper tropospheric and stratospheric transport characteristics. ATTILA compares well to the observations and in many respects to the semiLagrangian scheme. However, contrary to the semiLagrangian scheme, ATTILA shows a greatly reduced meridional transport in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, and a reduced downward flux from the stratosphere to the troposphere, especially in midlatitudes. Since both transport schemes use the same model meteorology, we conclude that the often cited enhanced meridional transport and overestimated downward flux in ECHAM as described above is rather due to the numerical properties of the semiLagrangian scheme than due to an

  14. Towards a Ubiquitous User Model for Profile Sharing and Reuse (United States)

    de Lourdes Martinez-Villaseñor, Maria; Gonzalez-Mendoza, Miguel; Hernandez-Gress, Neil


    People interact with systems and applications through several devices and are willing to share information about preferences, interests and characteristics. Social networking profiles, data from advanced sensors attached to personal gadgets, and semantic web technologies such as FOAF and microformats are valuable sources of personal information that could provide a fair understanding of the user, but profile information is scattered over different user models. Some researchers in the ubiquitous user modeling community envision the need to share user model's information from heterogeneous sources. In this paper, we address the syntactic and semantic heterogeneity of user models in order to enable user modeling interoperability. We present a dynamic user profile structure based in Simple Knowledge Organization for the Web (SKOS) to provide knowledge representation for ubiquitous user model. We propose a two-tier matching strategy for concept schemas alignment to enable user modeling interoperability. Our proposal is proved in the application scenario of sharing and reusing data in order to deal with overweight and obesity. PMID:23201995

  15. Transport lattice models of heat transport in skin with spatially heterogeneous, temperature-dependent perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Gregory T


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigation of bioheat transfer problems requires the evaluation of temporal and spatial distributions of temperature. This class of problems has been traditionally addressed using the Pennes bioheat equation. Transport of heat by conduction, and by temperature-dependent, spatially heterogeneous blood perfusion is modeled here using a transport lattice approach. Methods We represent heat transport processes by using a lattice that represents the Pennes bioheat equation in perfused tissues, and diffusion in nonperfused regions. The three layer skin model has a nonperfused viable epidermis, and deeper regions of dermis and subcutaneous tissue with perfusion that is constant or temperature-dependent. Two cases are considered: (1 surface contact heating and (2 spatially distributed heating. The model is relevant to the prediction of the transient and steady state temperature rise for different methods of power deposition within the skin. Accumulated thermal damage is estimated by using an Arrhenius type rate equation at locations where viable tissue temperature exceeds 42°C. Prediction of spatial temperature distributions is also illustrated with a two-dimensional model of skin created from a histological image. Results The transport lattice approach was validated by comparison with an analytical solution for a slab with homogeneous thermal properties and spatially distributed uniform sink held at constant temperatures at the ends. For typical transcutaneous blood gas sensing conditions the estimated damage is small, even with prolonged skin contact to a 45°C surface. Spatial heterogeneity in skin thermal properties leads to a non-uniform temperature distribution during a 10 GHz electromagnetic field exposure. A realistic two-dimensional model of the skin shows that tissue heterogeneity does not lead to a significant local temperature increase when heated by a hot wire tip. Conclusions The heat transport system model of the

  16. Collisional broadening of angular correlations in a multiphase transport model (United States)

    Edmonds, Terrence; Li, Qingfeng; Wang, Fuqiang


    Systematic comparisons of jetlike correlation data to radiative and collisional energy loss model calculations are essential to extract transport properties of the quark-gluon medium created in relativistic heavy ion collisions. This paper presents a transport study of collisional broadening of jetlike correlations, by following parton-parton collision history in a multiphase transport (AMPT) model. The correlation shape is studied as functions of the number of parton-parton collisions suffered by a high transverse momentum probe parton (Ncoll) and the azimuth of the probe relative to the reaction plane (ϕfin.probe). Correlation is found to broaden with increasing Ncoll and ϕfin.probe from in- to out-of-plane direction. This study provides a transport model reference for future jet-medium interaction studies.

  17. Model prodrugs for the intestinal oligopeptide transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C U; Andersen, R; Brodin, Birger


    (sigma*) may influence the acid, water or base catalyzed model drug release rates, when released from series of D-Glu-Ala and D-Asp-Ala pro-moieties. Release rates were investigated in both aqueous solutions with varying pH, ionic strength, and buffer concentrations as well as in in vitro biological...... media. The release rates of all the investigated model drug molecules followed first-order kinetics and were dependent on buffer concentration, pH, ionic strength, and model drug electronegativity. The electronegativity of the model drug influenced acid, water and base catalyzed release from D...

  18. Discrete particle model for sheet flow sediment transport in the nearshore

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drake, Thomas G; Calantoni, Joseph


    ...‐related term to widely used energetics sediment transport formulae. Transport predicted by the acceleration term becomes increasingly significant as wave shape approaches the sawtooth profile characteristic of surf zone bores...

  19. Mathematical Model of Ion Transport in Electrodialysis Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Rohman


    Full Text Available Mathematical models of ion transport in electrodialysis process is reviewed and their basics concept is discussed. Three scales of ion transport reviewed are: 1 ion transport in the membrane, where two approaches are used, the irreversible thermodynamics and modeling of the membrane material; 2 ion transport in a three-layer system composed of a membrane with two adjoining diffusion layers; and 3 coupling with hydraulic flow system in an electrodialysis 2D and 3D cell, where the differential equation of convectivediffusion is used. Most of the work carried out in the past implemented NP equations since relatively easily coupled with other equations describing hydrodynamic conditions and ion transport in the surrounding solutions, chemical reactions in the solutions and the membrane, boundary and other conditions. However, it is limited to point ionic transport in homogenous and uniformly - grainy phases of structure. © 2008 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.[Received: 21 January 2008, Accepted: 10 March 2008][How to Cite: F.S. Rohman, N. Aziz (2008. Mathematical Model of Ion Transport in Electrodialysis Process. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 3(1-3: 3-8. doi:10.9767/bcrec.3.1-3.7122.3-8][How to Link/DOI: || or local: ] 

  20. Mathematical Model of Ion Transport in Electrodialysis Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Rohman


    Full Text Available Mathematical models of ion transport in electrodialysis process is reviewed and their basics concept is discussed.Three scales of ion transport reviewed are: 1 ion transport in the membrane, where two approachesare used, the irreversible thermodynamics and modeling of the membrane material; 2 ion transport in athree-layer system composed of a membrane with two adjoining diffusion layers; and 3 coupling with hydraulicflow system in an electrodialysis 2D and 3D cell, where the differential equation of convectivediffusionis used. Most of the work carried out in the past implemented NP equations since relatively easilycoupled with other equations describing hydrodynamic conditions and ion transport in the surrounding solutions,chemical reactions in the solutions and the membrane, boundary and other conditions. However, itis limited to point ionic transport in homogenous and uniformly - grainy phases of structure.© 2008 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.[Received: 21 January 2008, Accepted: 10 March 2008][How to Cite: F.S. Rohman, N. Aziz (2008. Mathematical Model of Ion Transport in Electrodialysis Process. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 3(1-3: 3-8. doi:10.9767/bcrec.3.1-3.16.3-8

  1. Numerical modelling of cuttings transport with foam in inclined wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osunde, O.; Kuru, E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)


    A one dimensional transient state mechanistic model of cuttings transport with foam in inclined wells was developed and solved numerically to predict the optimum foam flow rate (liquid and gas rate) and rheological properties that would maximize cuttings transport efficiency in inclined well. The model was then verified using experimental results obtained by Capo110. A literature review focusing on the mechanism of cuttings transport in wells, foam drilling with a focus on the foam rheology, foam flow and cutting transport with foam was presented. The new model consisted of a detailed sensitivity analysis of the effect of gas and liquid flowing rates, drilling rate, foam rheological properties, borehole geometry, wellbore inclination and the rate of gas and liquid influx from the reservoir on the cutting transport efficiency in inclined wells. One of the conclusions from the study was that the gas injection rate has a significant effect on the cuttings transport process, with a more pronounced effect at lower gas injection rates. The liquid injection rate has little effect on the cuttings transport process with negligible effect at very low or very high gas injection rate. 110 refs., 3 tabs., 16 figs.

  2. Wintertime characteristics of aerosols over middle Indo-Gangetic Plain: Vertical profile, transport and radiative forcing (United States)

    Kumar, M.; Raju, M. P.; Singh, R. K.; Singh, A. K.; Singh, R. S.; Banerjee, T.


    Winter-specific characteristics of airborne particulates over middle Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) were evaluated in terms of aerosol chemical and micro-physical properties under three-dimensional domain. Emphases were made for the first time to identify intra-seasonal variations of aerosols sources, horizontal and vertical transport, effects of regional meteorology and estimating composite aerosol short-wave radiative forcing over an urban region (25°10‧-25°19‧N; 82°54‧-83°4‧E) at middle-IGP. Space-borne passive (Aqua and Terra MODIS, Aura OMI) and active sensor (CALIPSO-CALIOP) based observations were concurrently used with ground based aerosol mass measurement for entire winter and pre-summer months (December, 1, 2014 to March, 31, 2015). Exceptionally high aerosol mass loading was recorded for both PM10 (267.6 ± 107.0 μg m- 3) and PM2.5 (150.2 ± 89.4 μg m- 3) typically exceeding national standard. Aerosol type was mostly dominated by fine particulates (particulate ratio: 0.61) during pre to mid-winter episodes before being converted to mixed aerosol types (ratio: 0.41-0.53). Time series analysis of aerosols mass typically identified three dissimilar aerosol loading episodes with varying attributes, well resemble to that of previous year's observation representing its persisting nature. Black carbon (9.4 ± 3.7 μg m- 3) was found to constitute significant proportion of fine particulates (2-27%) with a strong diurnal profile. Secondary inorganic ions also accounted a fraction of particulates (PM2.5: 22.5%; PM10: 26.9%) having SO4- 2, NO3- and NH4+ constituting major proportion. Satellite retrieved MODIS-AOD (0.01-2.30) and fine mode fractions (FMF: 0.01-1.00) identified intra-seasonal variation with transport of aerosols from upper to middle-IGP through continental westerly. Varying statistical association of columnar and surface aerosol loading both in terms of fine (r; PM2.5: MODIS-AOD: 0.51) and coarse particulates (PM10: MODIS-AOD: 0.53) was

  3. Simulation of windblown dust transport from a mine tailings impoundment using a computational fluid dynamics model. (United States)

    Stovern, Michael; Felix, Omar; Csavina, Janae; Rine, Kyle P; Russell, MacKenzie R; Jones, Robert M; King, Matt; Betterton, Eric A; Sáez, A Eduardo


    Mining operations are potential sources of airborne particulate metal and metalloid contaminants through both direct smelter emissions and wind erosion of mine tailings. The warmer, drier conditions predicted for the Southwestern US by climate models may make contaminated atmospheric dust and aerosols increasingly important, due to potential deleterious effects on human health and ecology. Dust emissions and dispersion of dust and aerosol from the Iron King Mine tailings in Dewey-Humboldt, Arizona, a Superfund site, are currently being investigated through in situ field measurements and computational fluid dynamics modeling. These tailings are heavily contaminated with lead and arsenic. Using a computational fluid dynamics model, we model dust transport from the mine tailings to the surrounding region. The model includes gaseous plume dispersion to simulate the transport of the fine aerosols, while individual particle transport is used to track the trajectories of larger particles and to monitor their deposition locations. In order to improve the accuracy of the dust transport simulations, both regional topographical features and local weather patterns have been incorporated into the model simulations. Results show that local topography and wind velocity profiles are the major factors that control deposition.

  4. Kinetic parameter estimation in N. europaea biofilms using a 2-D reactive transport model. (United States)

    Lauchnor, Ellen G; Semprini, Lewis; Wood, Brian D


    Biofilms of the ammonia oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea were cultivated to study microbial processes associated with ammonia oxidation in pure culture. We explored the hypothesis that the kinetic parameters of ammonia oxidation in N. europaea biofilms were in the range of those determined with batch suspended cells. Oxygen and pH microelectrodes were used to measure dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations and pH above and inside biofilms and reactive transport modeling was performed to simulate the measured DO and pH profiles. A two dimensional (2-D) model was used to simulate advection parallel to the biofilm surface and diffusion through the overlying fluid while reaction and diffusion were simulated in the biofilm. Three experimental studies of microsensor measurements were performed with biofilms: i) NH3 concentrations near the Ksn value of 40 μM determined in suspended cell tests ii) Limited buffering capacity which resulted in a pH gradient within the biofilms and iii) NH3 concentrations well below the Ksn value. Very good fits to the DO concentration profiles both in the fluid above and in the biofilms were achieved using the 2-D model. The modeling study revealed that the half-saturation coefficient for NH3 in N. europaea biofilms was close to the value measured in suspended cells. However, the third study of biofilms with low availability of NH3 deviated from the model prediction. The model also predicted shifts in the DO profiles and the gradient in pH that resulted for the case of limited buffering capacity. The results illustrate the importance of incorporating both key transport and chemical processes in a biofilm reactive transport model. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. High Z neoclassical transport: Application and limitation of analytical formulae for modelling JET experimental parameters (United States)

    Breton, S.; Casson, F. J.; Bourdelle, C.; Angioni, C.; Belli, E.; Camenen, Y.; Citrin, J.; Garbet, X.; Sarazin, Y.; Sertoli, M.; JET Contributors


    Heavy impurities, such as tungsten (W), can exhibit strongly poloidally asymmetric density profiles in rotating or radio frequency heated plasmas. In the metallic environment of JET, the poloidal asymmetry of tungsten enhances its neoclassical transport up to an order of magnitude, so that neoclassical convection dominates over turbulent transport in the core. Accounting for asymmetries in neoclassical transport is hence necessary in the integrated modeling framework. The neoclassical drift kinetic code, NEO [E. Belli and J. Candy, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion P50, 095010 (2008)], includes the impact of poloidal asymmetries on W transport. However, the computational cost required to run NEO slows down significantly integrated modeling. A previous analytical formulation to describe heavy impurity neoclassical transport in the presence of poloidal asymmetries in specific collisional regimes [C. Angioni and P. Helander, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 56, 124001 (2014)] is compared in this work to numerical results from NEO. Within the domain of validity of the formula, the factor for reducing the temperature screening due to poloidal asymmetries had to be empirically adjusted. After adjustment, the modified formula can reproduce NEO results outside of its definition domain, with some limitations: When main ions are in the banana regime, the formula reproduces NEO results whatever the collisionality regime of impurities, provided that the poloidal asymmetry is not too large. However, for very strong poloidal asymmetries, agreement requires impurities in the Pfirsch-Schlüter regime. Within the JETTO integrated transport code, the analytical formula combined with the poloidally symmetric neoclassical code NCLASS [W. A. Houlberg et al., Phys. Plasmas 4, 3230 (1997)] predicts the same tungsten profile as NEO in certain cases, while saving a factor of one thousand in computer time, which can be useful in scoping studies. The parametric dependencies of the temperature


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Lucena Oliveira


    Full Text Available This article discusses the Model Uncertainty of Supply Chain, and proposes a matrix with their transportation modes best suited to their chains. From the detailed analysis of the matrix of uncertainty, it is suggested transportation modes best suited to the management of these chains, so that transport is the most appropriate optimization of the gains previously proposed by the original model, particularly when supply chains are distant from suppliers of raw materials and / or supplies.Here we analyze in detail Agile Supply Chains, which is a result of Uncertainty Supply Chain Model, with special attention to Manaus Industrial Center. This research was done at Manaus Industrial Pole, which is a model of industrial agglomerations, based in Manaus, State of Amazonas (Brazil, which contemplates different supply chains and strategies sharing same infrastructure of transport, handling and storage and clearance process and uses inbound for suppliers of raw material.  The state of art contemplates supply chain management, uncertainty supply chain model, agile supply chains, Manaus Industrial Center (MIC and Brazilian legislation, as a business case, and presents concepts and features, of each one. The main goal is to present and discuss how transport is able to support Uncertainty Supply Chain Model, in order to complete management model. The results obtained confirms the hypothesis of integrated logistics processes are able to guarantee attractivity for industrial agglomerations, and open discussions when the suppliers are far from the manufacturer center, in a logistics management.

  7. Towards a Ubiquitous User Model for Profile Sharing and Reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Hernandez-Gress


    Full Text Available People interact with systems and applications through several devices and are willing to share information about preferences, interests and characteristics. Social networking profiles, data from advanced sensors attached to personal gadgets, and semantic web technologies such as FOAF and microformats are valuable sources of personal information that could provide a fair understanding of the user, but profile information is scattered over different user models. Some researchers in the ubiquitous user modeling community envision the need to share user model’s information from heterogeneous sources. In this paper, we address the syntactic and semantic heterogeneity of user models in order to enable user modeling interoperability. We present a dynamic user profile structure based in Simple Knowledge Organization for the Web (SKOS to provide knowledge representation for ubiquitous user model. We propose a two-tier matching strategy for concept schemas alignment to enable user modeling interoperability. Our proposal is proved in the application scenario of sharing and reusing data in order to deal with overweight and obesity.

  8. Research on wind turbine rotor models using NACA profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vardar, Ali; Alibas, Ilknur [Department of Agricultural Machinery, Faculty of Agriculture, Uludag University, Gorukle Kampusu, 16059 Bursa (Turkey)


    In this study, rotation rates and power coefficients of miniature wind turbine rotor models manufactured using NACA profiles were investigated. For this purpose, miniature rotor models with 310 mm diameter were made from ''Balsa'' wood. When all properties of rotor models were taken into account, a total of 180 various combinations were obtained. Each combination was coded with rotor form code. These model rotors were tested in a wind tunnel measurement system. Rotation rates for each rotor form were determined based on wind speed. Power coefficient values were calculated using power and tip speed rates of wind. Rotor models produced a rotation rate up to 3077 rpm, with a power coefficient rate up to 0.425. Rotor models manufactured by using NACA 4412 profiles with 0 grade twisting angle, 5 grade blade angle, double blades had the highest rotation rate, while those manufactured by using NACA 4415 profiles with 0 grade twisting angle, 18 grade blade angle, 4 blades had the highest power coefficient. (author)

  9. Transportation Sector Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 2 -- Appendices: Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This volume contains input data and parameters used in the model of the transportation sector of the National Energy Modeling System. The list of Transportation Sector Model variables includes parameters for the following: Light duty vehicle modules (fuel economy, regional sales, alternative fuel vehicles); Light duty vehicle stock modules; Light duty vehicle fleet module; Air travel module (demand model and fleet efficiency model); Freight transport module; Miscellaneous energy demand module; and Transportation emissions module. Also included in these appendices are: Light duty vehicle market classes; Maximum light duty vehicle market penetration parameters; Aircraft fleet efficiency model adjustment factors; and List of expected aircraft technology improvements.

  10. Analysis regarding the transport network models. Case study on finding the optimal transport route (United States)

    Stîngă, V.-G.


    Transport networks are studied most of the time from a graph theory perspective, mostly studied in a static way, in order to emphasize their characteristics like: topology, morphology, costs, traffic flows etc. There are many methods used to describe these characteristics at local and global level. Usually when analysing the transport network models, the aim is to achieve minimum capacity transit or minimum cost of operating or investment. Throughout this paper we will get an insight into the many models of the transport network that were presented over the years and we will try to make a short analysis regarding the most important ones. We will make a case study on finding the optimal route by using one of the models presented within this paper.

  11. Transported PDF Modeling of Nonpremixed Turbulent CO/H-2/N-2 Jet Flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, xinyu; Haworth, D. C.; Huckaby, E. David


    Turbulent CO/H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} (“syngas”) flames are simulated using a transported composition probability density function (PDF) method. A consistent hybrid Lagrangian particle/Eulerian mesh algorithm is used to solve the modeled PDF transport equation. The model includes standard k–ϵ turbulence, gradient transport for scalars, and Euclidean minimum spanning tree (EMST) mixing. Sensitivities of model results to variations in the turbulence model, the treatment of radiation heat transfer, the choice of chemical mechanism, and the PDF mixing model are explored. A baseline model reproduces the measured mean and rms temperature, major species, and minor species profiles reasonably well, and captures the scaling that is observed in the experiments. Both our results and the literature suggest that further improvements can be realized with adjustments in the turbulence model, the radiation heat transfer model, and the chemical mechanism. Although radiation effects are relatively small in these flames, consideration of radiation is important for accurate NO prediction. Chemical mechanisms that have been developed specifically for fuels with high concentrations of CO and H{sub 2} perform better than a methane mechanism that was not designed for this purpose. It is important to account explicitly for turbulence–chemistry interactions, although the details of the mixing model do not make a large difference in the results, within reasonable limits.

  12. Cosmic-Ray Transport in Heliospheric Magnetic Structures. II. Modeling Particle Transport through Corotating Interaction Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, Andreas [Université Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Physique Statistique et des Plasmas, CP 231, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Wiengarten, Tobias; Fichtner, Horst [Institut für Theoretische Physik IV, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Effenberger, Frederic [Department of Physics and KIPAC, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Kühl, Patrick; Heber, Bernd [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Christian-Albrecht-Universität zu Kiel, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Raath, Jan-Louis; Potgieter, Marius S. [Centre for Space Research, North-West University, 2520 Potchefstroom (South Africa)


    The transport of cosmic rays (CRs) in the heliosphere is determined by the properties of the solar wind plasma. The heliospheric plasma environment has been probed by spacecraft for decades and provides a unique opportunity for testing transport theories. Of particular interest for the three-dimensional (3D) heliospheric CR transport are structures such as corotating interaction regions (CIRs), which, due to the enhancement of the magnetic field strength and magnetic fluctuations within and due to the associated shocks as well as stream interfaces, do influence the CR diffusion and drift. In a three-fold series of papers, we investigate these effects by modeling inner-heliospheric solar wind conditions with the numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) framework Cronos (Wiengarten et al., referred as Paper I), and the results serve as input to a transport code employing a stochastic differential equation approach (this paper). While, in Paper I, we presented results from 3D simulations with Cronos, the MHD output is now taken as an input to the CR transport modeling. We discuss the diffusion and drift behavior of Galactic cosmic rays using the example of different theories, and study the effects of CIRs on these transport processes. In particular, we point out the wide range of possible particle fluxes at a given point in space resulting from these different theories. The restriction of this variety by fitting the numerical results to spacecraft data will be the subject of the third paper of this series.

  13. Modeling subsurface transport in extensive glaciofluvial and littoral sediments to remediate a municipal drinking water aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bergvall


    Full Text Available Few studies have been carried out that cover the entire transport process of pesticides, from application at the soil surface, through subsurface transport, to contamination of drinking water in esker aquifers. In formerly glaciated regions, such as Scandinavia, many of the most important groundwater resources are situated in glaciofluvial eskers. The purpose of the present study was to model and identify significant processes that govern subsurface transport of pesticides in extensive glaciofluvial and littoral sediments. To simulate the transport processes, we coupled a vadose zone model at soil profile scale to a regional groundwater flow model. The model was applied to a municipal drinking-water aquifer, contaminated with the pesticide-metabolite BAM (2,6-dichlorobenzoamide. At regional scale, with the combination of a ten-meter-deep vadose zone and coarse texture, the observed concentrations could be described by the model without assuming preferential flow. A sensitivity analysis revealed that hydraulic conductivity in the aquifer and infiltration rate accounted for almost half of the model uncertainty. The calibrated model was applied to optimize the location of extraction wells for remediation, which were used to validate the predictive modeling. Running a worst-case scenario, the model showed that the establishment of two remediation wells would clean the aquifer in four years, compared to nine years without them. Further development of the model would require additional field measurements in order to improve the description of macrodispersion in deep, sandy vadose zones. We also suggest that future research should focus on characterization of the variability of hydraulic conductivity and its effect on contaminant transport in eskers.

  14. Examining an important urban transportation management tool: subarea modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueming CHEN


    Full Text Available At present, customized subarea models have been widely used in local transportation planning throughout the United States. The biggest strengths of a subarea model lie in its more detailed and accurate modeling outputs which better meet local planning requirements. In addition, a subarea model can substantially reduce database size and model running time. In spite of these advantages, subarea models remain quite weak in maintaining consistency with a regional model, modeling transit projects, smart growth measures, air quality conformity, and other areas. Both opportunities and threats exist for subarea modeling. In addition to examining subarea models, this paper introduces the decision-making process in choosing a proper subarea modeling approach (windowing versus focusing and software package. This study concludes that subarea modeling will become more popular in the future. More GIS applications, travel surveys, transit modeling, microsimulation software utilization, and other modeling improvements are expected to be incorporated into the subarea modeling process.

  15. Multiscale modeling of fluid transport in tumors. (United States)

    Chapman, S Jonathan; Shipley, Rebecca J; Jawad, Rossa


    A model for fluid flow through the leaky neovasculature and porous interstitium of a solid tumor is developed. A network of isolated capillaries is analyzed in the limit of small capillary radius, and analytical expressions for the hydraulic conductivities and fractional leakage coefficients derived. This model is then homogenized to give a continuum description in terms of the vascular density. The resulting equations comprise a double porous medium with coupled Darcy flow through the interstitium and vasculature.

  16. Stencil method: a Markov model for transport in porous media (United States)

    Delgoshaie, A. H.; Tchelepi, H.; Jenny, P.


    In porous media the transport of fluid is dominated by flow-field heterogeneity resulting from the underlying transmissibility field. Since the transmissibility is highly uncertain, many realizations of a geological model are used to describe the statistics of the transport phenomena in a Monte Carlo framework. One possible way to avoid the high computational cost of physics-based Monte Carlo simulations is to model the velocity field as a Markov process and use Markov Chain Monte Carlo. In previous works multiple Markov models for discrete velocity processes have been proposed. These models can be divided into two general classes of Markov models in time and Markov models in space. Both of these choices have been shown to be effective to some extent. However some studies have suggested that the Markov property cannot be confirmed for a temporal Markov process; Therefore there is not a consensus about the validity and value of Markov models in time. Moreover, previous spacial Markov models have only been used for modeling transport on structured networks and can not be readily applied to model transport in unstructured networks. In this work we propose a novel approach for constructing a Markov model in time (stencil method) for a discrete velocity process. The results form the stencil method are compared to previously proposed spacial Markov models for structured networks. The stencil method is also applied to unstructured networks and can successfully describe the dispersion of particles in this setting. Our conclusion is that both temporal Markov models and spacial Markov models for discrete velocity processes can be valid for a range of model parameters. Moreover, we show that the stencil model can be more efficient in many practical settings and is suited to model dispersion both on structured and unstructured networks.

  17. Biophysical Modeling of Cross-Shore Plankton Transport (United States)

    Fujimura, A.; Reniers, A.; Paris, C. B.; Shanks, A.; MacMahan, J.; Morgan, S.


    Coastal ecosystems are influenced by cross-shore flows. Processes that create coastal plankton distributions are not well understood, even though possible mechanisms of plankton transport in the surf zone have been investigated. Our data from a rip-channeled beach show that concentrations of zooplankton and phytoplankton are higher in the surf zone than offshore. To examine how plankton are transported toward the shore, we used a coupled biophysical model, comprised of Delft3D wave/flow simulations and an individual-based model for tracking plankton. Model results indicate that onshore delivery of zooplankton is enhanced by Stokes drift, wave-driven bottom boundary streaming, alongshore topographic variability, and turbulence-dependent sinking behavior of zooplankton. Phytoplankton sinking may also be accelerated by turbulence, but the mechanism differs from that which affects zooplankton. Turbulence has the potential to increase phytoplankton growth rates. Therefore, the phytoplankton transport model includes turbulence-induced sinking velocity and growth rate, although the latter appears to have little influence on phytoplankton distributions. Modeled phytoplankton concentrations in the surf zone are much lower than expected, although the zooplankton transport model qualitatively reproduced our observations. Thus, there must be other possible factors influencing phytoplankton transport, some of which will be discussed.

  18. Aeolian Sediment Transport Integration in General Stratigraphic Forward Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Salles


    Full Text Available A large number of numerical models have been developed to simulate the physical processes involved in saltation, and, recently to investigate the interaction between soil vegetation cover and aeolian transport. These models are generally constrained to saltation of monodisperse particles while natural saltation occurs over mixed soils. We present a three-dimensional numerical model of steady-state saltation that can simulate aeolian erosion, transport and deposition for unvegetated mixed soils. Our model simulates the motion of saltating particles using a cellular automata algorithm. A simple set of rules is used and takes into account an erosion formula, a transport model, a wind exposition function, and an avalanching process. The model is coupled to the stratigraphic forward model Sedsim that accounts for a larger number of geological processes. The numerical model predicts a wide range of typical dune shapes, which have qualitative correspondence to real systems. The model reproduces the internal structure and composition of the resulting aeolian deposits. It shows the complex formation of dune systems with cross-bedding strata development, bounding surfaces overlaid by fine sediment and inverse grading deposits. We aim to use it to simulate the complex interactions between different sediment transport processes and their resulting geological morphologies.

  19. Alfvén eigenmode stability and critical gradient energetic particle transport using the Trapped-Gyro-Landau-Fluid model (United States)

    Sheng, He; Waltz, R. E.; Staebler, G. M.


    The Trapped-Gyro-Landau-Fluid (TGLF) transport model is a physically realistic and comprehensive theory based on a local quasilinear transport model fitted to linear and nonlinear GYRO gyrokinetic simulations [Staebler et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 55909 (2007)]. This work presents the first use of the TGLF model to treat low-n Alfvén eigenmode (AE) stability and energetic particle (EP) transport. TGLF accurately recovers the local GYRO toroidicity-induced AE (TAE) and energetic particle mode (EPM) linear growth and frequency rates for a fusion alpha case. With a very high grid resolution, TGLF can quickly find the critical EP pressure gradient profile for stiff EP transport based on an AE linear threshold given the background thermal plasma profiles in DIII-D. The TGLF critical gradient profile using the recipe γAE = 0, that is the linear AE growth rate without additional driving rates from the background plasma gradients, matches the more expensive linear GYRO results with a single worst toroidal mode number n. TGLF can easily find the minimum critical gradient profile with testing multiple ns. From a database of runs using a newly developed TGLFEP code, a rough but insightful parametric "power law" scaling for critical EP beta is demonstrated. An important toroidal stabilization condition on the EP pressure gradient pEP/LpEP drive is isolated: R /LpEP>CR ˜ 3 , where LpEP is the EP pressure gradient length and R is the tokamak major radius. This paper also demonstrates that relaxation of the fixed slowing down EP profile shape approximation often used to find the critical EP density profile has little effect on the resulting EP transport. The single EP species critical gradient model is generalized to handle two EP species.

  20. RANS-VOF modeling of hydrodynamics and sand transport under full-scale non-breaking and breaking waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Mora, Maria de Los Angeles; Ribberink, Jan S.; van der Zanden, Joep; van der Werf, Jebbe J.; Jacobsen, N.G.; Lynett, P.; Lynett, Patrick


    A 2D RANS-VOF model is used to simulate the flow and sand transport for two different full-scale laboratory experiments: i) non-breaking waves over a horizontal sand bed (Schretlen et al., 2011) and ii) plunging breaking waves over a barred mobile bed profile (Van der Zanden et al., 2016). For the

  1. The Colombian Strategic Freight Transport Model Based on Product Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Cantillo


    Full Text Available Freight transport modelling at interregional scale is relevant for planning issues. However, freight modelling processes are complex because it is not easy to define the relevant variables in the analysis, and to obtain the required information on freight movements through the network. These facts raise the need to adapt the modelling framework to each context.This paper proposes a strategic national freight transport modelling framework developed as a variant of the traditional four-step modelling process with additional steps to estimate traffic flows from freight flows and to consider empty trips. The country of Colombia is used as the case study to implement and calibrate the proposed model. The data, data sources, and modelling methodologies used for each step are explained. In addition, data limitations and measures taken to complement the available data are discussed. From the implementation, the authors identify a set of advantages derived from the modelling approaches considered and suggestions for improvement.

  2. Sustainable logistics and transportation optimization models and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Gakis, Konstantinos; Pardalos, Panos


    Focused on the logistics and transportation operations within a supply chain, this book brings together the latest models, algorithms, and optimization possibilities. Logistics and transportation problems are examined within a sustainability perspective to offer a comprehensive assessment of environmental, social, ethical, and economic performance measures. Featured models, techniques, and algorithms may be used to construct policies on alternative transportation modes and technologies, green logistics, and incentives by the incorporation of environmental, economic, and social measures. Researchers, professionals, and graduate students in urban regional planning, logistics, transport systems, optimization, supply chain management, business administration, information science, mathematics, and industrial and systems engineering will find the real life and interdisciplinary issues presented in this book informative and useful.

  3. Transport modeling of sorbing tracers in artificial fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keum, Dong Kwon; Baik, Min Hoon; Park, Chung Kyun; Cho, Young Hwan; Hahn, Phil Soo


    This study was performed as part of a fifty-man year attachment program between AECL (Atomic Energy Canada Limited) and KAERI. Three kinds of computer code, HDD, POMKAP and VAMKAP, were developed to predict transport of contaminants in fractured rock. MDDM was to calculate the mass transport of contaminants in a single fracture using a simple hydrodynamic dispersion diffusion model. POMKAP was to predict the mass transport of contaminants by a two-dimensional variable aperture model. In parallel with modeling, the validation of models was also performed through the analysis of the migration experimental data obtained in acrylic plastic and granite artificial fracture system at the Whiteshell laboratories, AECL, Canada. (author). 34 refs., 11 tabs., 76 figs.

  4. Modelling of human transplacental transport as performed in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Line; Mørck, Thit Aarøe; Zuri, Giuseppina


    Placenta perfusion models are very effective when studying the placental mechanisms in order to extrapolate to real-life situations. The models are most often used to investigate the transport of substances between mother and foetus, including the potential metabolism of these. We have studied...... the relationships between maternal and foetal exposures to various compounds including pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated flame retardants, nanoparticles as well as recombinant human antibodies. The compounds have been studied in the human placenta perfusion model and to some extent...... in vitro with an established human monolayer trophoblast cell culture model. Results from our studies distinguish placental transport of substances by physicochemical properties, adsorption to placental tissue, binding to transport and receptor proteins and metabolism. We have collected data from different...

  5. Numerical modelling of cuttings transport with foam in vertical wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.; Kuru, E. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada)


    Development of a one-dimensional unsteady-state mathematical model is described. The model was developed to simulate the transport of cuttings with foam in vertical wells. Numerical solution was used to predict average cuttings concentration in the well as a function of the drilling rate, the gas and the liquid injection rates, the rate of gas and liquid influx from the reservoir, and the borehole geometry. The effects of key drilling parameters on the efficiency of cuttings transport with foam in vertical wells was determined by sensitivity analyses. Verification of model predictions and the results of the sensitivity analyses are presented. The model is claimed to be useful in writing computer programs for design purposes to determine optimal volumetric gas/liquid flow rates, injection pressure and back pressure required to drill vertical wells. It can also be used to develop guidelines for use in operational control of cutting transport with foam. 37 refs., 2 tabs., 13 figs.

  6. GIS model to evaluate the accessibility to major transport ways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Tache


    Full Text Available In order to ensure a balanced accessibility to major transport ways, supporting spatial development and economic growth, a GIS model to assess accessibility it was proposed. The model is measuring the average cost of travel (by car, usually from a point to a predetermined number of destinations measured in units of time (minutes. Using the ARCGIS Spatial Analyst module, accessibility territorial indicators were calculated and presented as cartograms and maps that are outlining the accessibility to major transportation routes and to major cities. The proposed model to assess accessibility was tested for Tulcea county (NUTS III level and for the South East region (NUTS II level.

  7. Influence of pollen transport dynamics on sire profiles and multiple paternity in flowering plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall J Mitchell

    Full Text Available In many flowering plants individual fruits contain a mixture of half- and full- siblings, reflecting pollination by several fathers. To better understand the mechanisms generating multiple paternity within fruits we present a theoretical framework linking pollen carryover with patterns of pollinator movement. This 'sire profile' model predicts that species with more extensive pollen carryover will have a greater number of mates. It also predicts that flowers on large displays, which are often probed consecutively during a single pollinator visitation sequence, will have a lower effective number of mates. We compared these predictions with observed values for bumble bee-pollinated Mimulus ringens, which has restricted carryover, and hummingbird-pollinated Ipomopsis aggregata, which has extensive carryover. The model correctly predicted that the effective number of mates is much higher in the species with more extensive carryover. This work extends our knowledge of plant mating systems by highlighting mechanisms influencing the genetic composition of sibships.

  8. Radiative Transport Modelling of Thermal Barrier Coatings (United States)


    Figure 1. Schematic of multiple scatter events inside a TBC D l1 l2 l3 l4l5 5 Two random walk simulation codes were adapted and improved upon, particular n = 2 scatter event. l1 lb 1 2 l2 db DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. 11 The solution to Eq. (13...development of the new model (Task 2) and in testing it (Task 3). Some model parameter definitions are shown in Figure 1. The scattering medium is

  9. On the Economic Order Quantity Model With Transportation Costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.I. Birbil (Ilker); K. Bulbul; J.B.G. Frenk (Hans); H.M. Mulder (Martyn)


    textabstractWe consider an economic order quantity type model with unit out-of-pocket holding costs, unit opportunity costs of holding, fixed ordering costs and general transportation costs. For these models, we analyze the associated optimization problem and derive an easy procedure for determining

  10. A transport model for prediction of wildfire behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linn, R.R.


    Wildfires are a threat to human life and property, yet they are an unavoidable part of nature. In the past people have tried to predict wildfire behavior through the use of point functional models but have been unsuccessful at adequately predicting the gross behavior of the broad spectrum of fires that occur in nature. The majority of previous models do not have self-determining propagation rates. The author uses a transport approach to represent this complicated problem and produce a model that utilizes a self-determining propagation rate. The transport approach allows one to represent a large number of environments including transition regions such as those with nonhomogeneous vegetation and terrain. Some of the most difficult features to treat are the imperfectly known boundary conditions and the fine scale structure that is unresolvable, such as the specific location of the fuel or the precise incoming winds. The author accounts for the microscopic details of a fire with macroscopic resolution by dividing quantities into mean and fluctuating parts similar to what is done in traditional turbulence modelling. The author develops a complicated model that includes the transport of multiple gas species, such as oxygen and volatile hydrocarbons, and tracks the depletion of various fuels and other stationary solids and liquids. From this model the author also forms a simplified local burning model with which he performs a number of simulations for the purpose of demonstrating the properties of a self-determining transport-based wildfire model.

  11. Spatial Economics Model Predicting Transport Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Bo


    Full Text Available It is extremely important to predict the logistics requirements in a scientific and rational way. However, in recent years, the improvement effect on the prediction method is not very significant and the traditional statistical prediction method has the defects of low precision and poor interpretation of the prediction model, which cannot only guarantee the generalization ability of the prediction model theoretically, but also cannot explain the models effectively. Therefore, in combination with the theories of the spatial economics, industrial economics, and neo-classical economics, taking city of Zhuanghe as the research object, the study identifies the leading industry that can produce a large number of cargoes, and further predicts the static logistics generation of the Zhuanghe and hinterlands. By integrating various factors that can affect the regional logistics requirements, this study established a logistics requirements potential model from the aspect of spatial economic principles, and expanded the way of logistics requirements prediction from the single statistical principles to an new area of special and regional economics.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    D. Mani Kongnine

    un composé ferromagnétique, le Pr2Co7 , est faite. 2. MODELE DU BIPOLARON. Plusieurs modèles théoriques expliquent la non linéarité de la résistivité parmi lesquels celui du bipolaron. D'après ce modèle, les bipolarons ...

  13. 3D data model of transportation network in city (United States)

    Zuo, Xiao-qing; Li, Qing-quan; Yang, Bi-sheng


    Modern data-capture technology, especially digital photogrammetry technology, provides abundant data resources for digital city. Transportation network, forming framework of city, is an important component of city and a vital fundamental data of ITS and LBS (Location-based Services). Therefore, developing a data model is very valuable and significant which can describe 3D feature of city road network and support 3D navigation. Nowadays existing 3D GIS data models pay less attention to the support of transportation application, such as 3D vehicle navigation and traffic simulation, and previous GIS for transportation (GIS-T) data models failed to support 3D visualization. In view of it, we developed a 3D data model for transportation network that (1) supports of linear referencing system (LRS) and dynamic segmentation, (2) makes network topology build on the basis of 3D geometry network, and (3) realizes the transformation between linear coordinate and spatial coordinate. A performance study depicts that the proposed model can not only realize 3D visualization but also have transportation analysis (such 3D Vehicle navigation) more efficiently and conveniently.

  14. Time-dependent scenario modeling of the Tokamak Physics Experiment using a theory-based transport model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinsey, J.; Kritz, A. [Department of Physics, 16 Memorial Dr. East, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Bonoli, P.; Porkolab, M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology Plasma Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)


    Predictive transport and current drive simulations are presented for the time evolution of the temperature and density profiles in the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). [W. M. Nevins {ital et} {ital al}., {ital Proceedings} {ital of} {ital the} {ital International} {ital Conference} {ital on} {ital Plasma} {ital Physics} {ital and} {ital Controlled} {ital Nuclear} {ital Fusion} {ital Research}, W{umlt u}rzburg, 1992 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1992), Vol. 3, p. 279]. A distinguishing feature of this study is that we use a theoretically derived transport model that has been empirically calibrated against Ohmic, low-confinement and high-confinement mode discharges from seven different tokamaks. Heating and deposition profiles predicted by the ACCOME current drive and magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium code [R. S. Devoto {ital et} {ital al}., Nucl. Fusion {bold 32}, 773 (1992)] are incorporated into the time-dependent BALDUR one-and-one-half dimensional transport code [C. E. Singer {ital et} {ital al}., Comput. Phys. Commun. {bold 49}, 275 (1988)]. We consider various scenarios of fast wave, lower hybrid, and neutral beam heating and current drive and evaluate the effects on the evolution of density and temperature profiles. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. B. Patel


    Full Text Available During a vehicle development program, load data representing severe customer usage is required. The dilemma faced by a design engineer during the design process is that during the initial stage, only predicted loads estimated from historical targets are available, whereas the actual loads are available only at the fag end of the process. At the same time, changes required, if any, are easier and inexpensive during the initial stages of the design process whereas they are extremely costly in the latter stages of the process. The use of road profiles and vehicle models to predict the load acting on the whole vehicle is currently being researched. This work hinges on the ability to accurately measure road profiles. The objective of the work is to develop an algorithm, using MATLAB Simulink software, to convert the input signals into measured road profile. The algorithm is checked by the MATLAB Simulink 4 degrees of freedom half car model. To make the whole Simulink model more realistic, accelerometer and laser sensor properties are introduced. The present work contains the simulation of the mentioned algorithm with a half car model and studies the results in distance, time, and the frequency domain.

  16. Hidden Markov Models for the Activity Profile of Terrorist Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Raghavan, Vasanthan; Tartakovsky, Alexander G


    The main focus of this work is on developing models for the activity profile of a terrorist group, detecting sudden spurts and downfalls in this profile, and in general, tracking it over a period of time. Toward this goal, a d-state hidden Markov model (HMM) that captures the latent states underlying the dynamics of the group and thus its activity profile is developed. The simplest setting of d = 2 corresponds to the case where the dynamics are coarsely quantized as Active and Inactive, respectively. Two strategies for spurt detection and tracking are developed here: a model-independent strategy that uses the exponential weighted moving-average (EWMA) filter to track the strength of the group as measured by the number of attacks perpetrated by it, and a state estimation strategy that exploits the underlying HMM structure. The EWMA strategy is robust to modeling uncertainties and errors, and tracks persistent changes (changes that last for a sufficiently long duration) in the strength of the group. On the othe...

  17. River longitudinal profiles and bedrock incision models: Stream power and the influence of sediment supply (United States)

    Sklar, Leonard; Dietrich, William E.

    The simplicity and apparent mechanistic basis of the stream power river incision law have led to its wide use in empirical and theoretical studies. Here we identify constraints on its calibration and application, and present a mechanistic theory for the effects of sediment supply on incision rates which spotlights additional limitations on the applicability of the stream power law. On channels steeper than about 20%, incision is probably dominated by episodic debris flows, and on sufficiently gentle slopes, sediment may bury the bedrock and prevent erosion. These two limits bound the application of the stream power law and strongly constrain the possible combination of parameters in the law. In order to avoid infinite slopes at the drainage divide in numerical models of river profiles using the stream power law it is commonly assumed that the first grid cell is unchanneled. We show, however, that the size of the grid may strongly influence the calculated equilibrium relief. Analysis of slope-drainage area relationships for a river network in a Northern California watershed using digital elevation data and review of data previously reported by Hack reveal that non-equilibrium profiles may produce well defined slope-area relationships (as expected in equilibrium channels), but large differences between tributaries may point to disequilibrium conditions. To explore the role of variations in sediment supply and transport capacity in bedrock incision we introduce a mechanistic model for abrasion of bedrock by saltating bedload. The model predicts that incision rates reach a maximum at intermediate levels of sediment supply and transport capacity. Incision rates decline away from the maximum with either decreasing supply (due to a shortage of tools) or increasing supply (due to gradual bed alluviation), and with either decreasing transport capacity (due to less energetic particle movement) or increasing transport capacity (due less frequent particle impacts per unit bed

  18. Assessment of parametric uncertainty for groundwater reactive transport modeling, (United States)

    Shi, Xiaoqing; Ye, Ming; Curtis, Gary P.; Miller, Geoffery L.; Meyer, Philip D.; Kohler, Matthias; Yabusaki, Steve; Wu, Jichun


    The validity of using Gaussian assumptions for model residuals in uncertainty quantification of a groundwater reactive transport model was evaluated in this study. Least squares regression methods explicitly assume Gaussian residuals, and the assumption leads to Gaussian likelihood functions, model parameters, and model predictions. While the Bayesian methods do not explicitly require the Gaussian assumption, Gaussian residuals are widely used. This paper shows that the residuals of the reactive transport model are non-Gaussian, heteroscedastic, and correlated in time; characterizing them requires using a generalized likelihood function such as the formal generalized likelihood function developed by Schoups and Vrugt (2010). For the surface complexation model considered in this study for simulating uranium reactive transport in groundwater, parametric uncertainty is quantified using the least squares regression methods and Bayesian methods with both Gaussian and formal generalized likelihood functions. While the least squares methods and Bayesian methods with Gaussian likelihood function produce similar Gaussian parameter distributions, the parameter distributions of Bayesian uncertainty quantification using the formal generalized likelihood function are non-Gaussian. In addition, predictive performance of formal generalized likelihood function is superior to that of least squares regression and Bayesian methods with Gaussian likelihood function. The Bayesian uncertainty quantification is conducted using the differential evolution adaptive metropolis (DREAM(zs)) algorithm; as a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, it is a robust tool for quantifying uncertainty in groundwater reactive transport models. For the surface complexation model, the regression-based local sensitivity analysis and Morris- and DREAM(ZS)-based global sensitivity analysis yield almost identical ranking of parameter importance. The uncertainty analysis may help select appropriate likelihood

  19. Antarctic circumpolar transport and the southern mode: a model investigation of interannual to decadal timescales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. Hughes


    Full Text Available It is well-established that, at periods shorter than a year, variations in Antarctic circumpolar transport are reflected in a barotropic mode, known as the southern mode, in which sea level and bottom pressure varies coherently around Antarctica. Here, we use two multidecadal ocean model runs to investigate the behaviour of the southern mode at timescales on which density changes become important, leading to a baroclinic component to the adjustment. We find that the concept of a southern mode in bottom pressure remains valid, and remains a direct measure of the circumpolar transport, with changes at the northern boundary playing only a small role even on decadal timescales. However, at periods longer than about 5 years, density changes start to play a role, leading to a surface intensification of the vertical profile of the transport. We also find that barotropic currents on the continental slope account for a significant fraction of the variability, and produce surface intensification in the meridional-integral flow. Circumpolar sea level and transport are related at all investigated timescales. However, the role of density variations results in a ratio of sea level change to transport which becomes larger at longer timescales. This means that any long-term transport monitoring strategy based on present measurement systems must involve multiplying the observed quantity by a factor which depends on frequency.

  20. Observed and Modeled Sediment Transport Around Katama Inlet, Martha's Vineyard (United States)

    Hopkins, J.; Elgar, S.; Raubenheimer, B.


    Katama Inlet, connecting Katama Bay to the Atlantic Ocean on the southern shoreline of Martha's Vineyard, MA, has migrated eastward more than 2.5 km since it was breached during the Patriot's Day storm in 2007. This morphological evolution, typical of the inlet's decadal cycle of breach-migration-closure, is owing to sediment transport driven by wave-orbital velocities, breaking-wave-generated mean currents, and tidal flows. Here, the rapidly evolving shoreline near Katama Inlet and on the southern edge of Martha's Vineyard is investigated using field observations and numerical model simulations. The bathymetry was surveyed in summer 2013 and 2014, and tides, waves, and currents were measured for a month in August 2013 and 2014 in the surf zone (~2 m water depth), on the outer edge of the ebb shoal offshore of the inlet mouth (~6 m depth), and on the inner continental shelf (~7 m depth). The model [Delft3D with coupled waves (SWAN) and currents] skillfully simulates observed wave heights, wave directions, and tidal currents, and is used here to estimate sediment transport rates. Model results suggest that during the relatively calm August conditions there is little transport on the inner shelf, but there is significant transport that changes directions with the tide on the outer ebb shoal. Transport rates in the surf zone decrease and become more unidirectional (wave-driven) with distance away (west) from the mouth of the inlet. In August, transport of suspended sediments is relatively more important on the outer ebb shoal than near the surf zone, where bedload transport dominates. The relative impact of these types of simulated transport on the migration of Katama Inlet will be discussed. Funded by ONR, ASD(R&E), NSF, and NDSEG.

  1. Computer-Supported Modelling of Multi modal Transportation Networks Rationalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratko Zelenika


    Full Text Available This paper deals with issues of shaping and functioning ofcomputer programs in the modelling and solving of multimoda Itransportation network problems. A methodology of an integrateduse of a programming language for mathematical modellingis defined, as well as spreadsheets for the solving of complexmultimodal transportation network problems. The papercontains a comparison of the partial and integral methods ofsolving multimodal transportation networks. The basic hypothesisset forth in this paper is that the integral method results inbetter multimodal transportation network rationalization effects,whereas a multimodal transportation network modelbased on the integral method, once built, can be used as the basisfor all kinds of transportation problems within multimodaltransport. As opposed to linear transport problems, multimodaltransport network can assume very complex shapes. This papercontains a comparison of the partial and integral approach totransp01tation network solving. In the partial approach, astraightforward model of a transp01tation network, which canbe solved through the use of the Solver computer tool within theExcel spreadsheet inteiface, is quite sufficient. In the solving ofa multimodal transportation problem through the integralmethod, it is necessmy to apply sophisticated mathematicalmodelling programming languages which supp01t the use ofcomplex matrix functions and the processing of a vast amountof variables and limitations. The LINGO programming languageis more abstract than the Excel spreadsheet, and it requiresa certain programming knowledge. The definition andpresentation of a problem logic within Excel, in a manner whichis acceptable to computer software, is an ideal basis for modellingin the LINGO programming language, as well as a fasterand more effective implementation of the mathematical model.This paper provides proof for the fact that it is more rational tosolve the problem of multimodal transportation networks by

  2. Modeling of Aerosol Vertical Profiles Using GIS and Remote Sensing. (United States)

    Wong, Man Sing; Nichol, Janet E; Lee, Kwon Ho


    The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) by climatologists, environmentalists and urban planners for three dimensional modeling and visualization of the landscape is well established. However no previous study has implemented these techniques for 3D modeling of atmospheric aerosols because air quality data is traditionally measured at ground points, or from satellite images, with no vertical dimension. This study presents a prototype for modeling and visualizing aerosol vertical profiles over a 3D urban landscape in Hong Kong. The method uses a newly developed technique for the derivation of aerosol vertical profiles from AERONET sunphotometer measurements and surface visibility data, and links these to a 3D urban model. This permits automated modeling and visualization of aerosol concentrations at different atmospheric levels over the urban landscape in near-real time. Since the GIS platform permits presentation of the aerosol vertical distribution in 3D, it can be related to the built environment of the city. Examples are given of the applications of the model, including diagnosis of the relative contribution of vehicle emissions to pollution levels in the city, based on increased near-surface concentrations around weekday rush-hour times. The ability to model changes in air quality and visibility from ground level to the top of tall buildings is also demonstrated, and this has implications for energy use and environmental policies for the tall mega-cities of the future.

  3. Modeling of Aerosol Vertical Profiles Using GIS and Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Ho Lee


    Full Text Available The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS and Remote Sensing (RS by climatologists, environmentalists and urban planners for three dimensional modeling and visualization of the landscape is well established. However no previous study has implemented these techniques for 3D modeling of atmospheric aerosols because air quality data is traditionally measured at ground points, or from satellite images, with no vertical dimension. This study presents a prototype for modeling and visualizing aerosol vertical profiles over a 3D urban landscape in Hong Kong. The method uses a newly developed technique for the derivation of aerosol vertical profiles from AERONET sunphotometer measurements and surface visibility data, and links these to a 3D urban model. This permits automated modeling and visualization of aerosol concentrations at different atmospheric levels over the urban landscape in near-real time. Since the GIS platform permits presentation of the aerosol vertical distribution in 3D, it can be related to the built environment of the city. Examples are given of the applications of the model, including diagnosis of the relative contribution of vehicle emissions to pollution levels in the city, based on increased near-surface concentrations around weekday rush-hour times. The ability to model changes in air quality and visibility from ground level to the top of tall buildings is also demonstrated, and this has implications for energy use and environmental policies for the tall mega-cities of the future.

  4. GIS-Based Analytical Tools for Transport Planning: Spatial Regression Models for Transportation Demand Forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Becker Lopes


    Full Text Available Considering the importance of spatial issues in transport planning, the main objective of this study was to analyze the results obtained from different approaches of spatial regression models. In the case of spatial autocorrelation, spatial dependence patterns should be incorporated in the models, since that dependence may affect the predictive power of these models. The results obtained with the spatial regression models were also compared with the results of a multiple linear regression model that is typically used in trips generation estimations. The findings support the hypothesis that the inclusion of spatial effects in regression models is important, since the best results were obtained with alternative models (spatial regression models or the ones with spatial variables included. This was observed in a case study carried out in the city of Porto Alegre, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in the stages of specification and calibration of the models, with two distinct datasets.

  5. Catalog of selected heavy duty transport energy management models (United States)

    Colello, R. G.; Boghani, A. B.; Gardella, N. C.; Gott, P. G.; Lee, W. D.; Pollak, E. C.; Teagan, W. P.; Thomas, R. G.; Snyder, C. M.; Wilson, R. P., Jr.


    A catalog of energy management models for heavy duty transport systems powered by diesel engines is presented. The catalog results from a literature survey, supplemented by telephone interviews and mailed questionnaires to discover the major computer models currently used in the transportation industry in the following categories: heavy duty transport systems, which consist of highway (vehicle simulation), marine (ship simulation), rail (locomotive simulation), and pipeline (pumping station simulation); and heavy duty diesel engines, which involve models that match the intake/exhaust system to the engine, fuel efficiency, emissions, combustion chamber shape, fuel injection system, heat transfer, intake/exhaust system, operating performance, and waste heat utilization devices, i.e., turbocharger, bottoming cycle.

  6. Modeling transport and deposition of the Mekong River sediment (United States)

    Xue, Zuo; He, Ruoying; Liu, J. Paul; Warner, John C.


    A Coupled Wave–Ocean–SedimentTransport Model was used to hindcast coastal circulation and fine sedimenttransport on the Mekong shelf in southeastern Asian in 2005. Comparisons with limited observations showed that the model simulation captured the regional patterns and temporal variability of surface wave, sea level, and suspended sediment concentration reasonably well. Significant seasonality in sedimenttransport was revealed. In summer, a large amount of fluvial sediments was delivered and deposited near the MekongRiver mouth. In the following winter, strong ocean mixing, and coastal current lead to resuspension and southwestward dispersal of a small fraction of previously deposited sediments. Model sensitivity experiments (with reduced physics) were performed to investigate the impact of tides, waves, and remotely forced ambient currents on the transport and dispersal of the fluvial sediment. Strong wave mixing and downwelling-favorable coastal current associated with the more energetic northeast monsoon in the winter season are the main factors controlling the southwestward along-shelf transport.

  7. Multiscale modeling for fluid transport in nanosystems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jonathan W.; Jones, Reese E.; Mandadapu, Kranthi Kiran; Templeton, Jeremy Alan; Zimmerman, Jonathan A.


    Atomistic-scale behavior drives performance in many micro- and nano-fluidic systems, such as mircrofludic mixers and electrical energy storage devices. Bringing this information into the traditionally continuum models used for engineering analysis has proved challenging. This work describes one such approach to address this issue by developing atomistic-to-continuum multi scale and multi physics methods to enable molecular dynamics (MD) representations of atoms to incorporated into continuum simulations. Coupling is achieved by imposing constraints based on fluxes of conserved quantities between the two regions described by one of these models. The impact of electric fields and surface charges are also critical, hence, methodologies to extend finite-element (FE) MD electric field solvers have been derived to account for these effects. Finally, the continuum description can have inconsistencies with the coarse-grained MD dynamics, so FE equations based on MD statistics were derived to facilitate the multi scale coupling. Examples are shown relevant to nanofluidic systems, such as pore flow, Couette flow, and electric double layer.

  8. The Extended Generalized Cost Concept and its Application in Freight Transport and General Equilibrium Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavasszy, L.; Davydenko, I.; Ruijgrok, K.


    The integration of Spatial Equilibrium models and Freight transport network models is important to produce consistent scenarios for future freight transport demand. At various spatial scales, we see the changes in production, trade, logistics networking and transportation, being driven by

  9. Ionospheric topside models compared with experimental electron density profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Radicella


    Full Text Available Recently an increasing number of topside electron density profiles has been made available to the scientific community on the Internet. These data are important for ionospheric modeling purposes, since the experimental information on the electron density above the ionosphere maximum of ionization is very scarce. The present work compares NeQuick and IRI models with the topside electron density profiles available in the databases of the ISIS2, IK19 and Cosmos 1809 satellites. Experimental electron content from the F2 peak up to satellite height and electron densities at fixed heights above the peak have been compared under a wide range of different conditions. The analysis performed points out the behavior of the models and the improvements needed to be assessed to have a better reproduction of the experimental results. NeQuick topside is a modified Epstein layer, with thickness parameter determined by an empirical relation. It appears that its performance is strongly affected by this parameter, indicating the need for improvements of its formulation. IRI topside is based on Booker's approach to consider two parts with constant height gradients. It appears that this formulation leads to an overestimation of the electron density in the upper part of the profiles, and overestimation of TEC.

  10. A continuous time random walk model for Darcy-scale anomalous transport in heterogeneous porous media. (United States)

    Comolli, Alessandro; Hakoun, Vivien; Dentz, Marco


    Achieving the understanding of the process of solute transport in heterogeneous porous media is of crucial importance for several environmental and social purposes, ranging from aquifers contamination and remediation, to risk assessment in nuclear waste repositories. The complexity of this aim is mainly ascribable to the heterogeneity of natural media, which can be observed at all the scales of interest, from pore scale to catchment scale. In fact, the intrinsic heterogeneity of porous media is responsible for the arising of the well-known non-Fickian footprints of transport, including heavy-tailed breakthrough curves, non-Gaussian spatial density profiles and the non-linear growth of the mean squared displacement. Several studies investigated the processes through which heterogeneity impacts the transport properties, which include local modifications to the advective-dispersive motion of solutes, mass exchanges between some mobile and immobile phases (e.g. sorption/desorption reactions or diffusion into solid matrix) and spatial correlation of the flow field. In the last decades, the continuous time random walk (CTRW) model has often been used to describe solute transport in heterogenous conditions and to quantify the impact of point heterogeneity, spatial correlation and mass transfer on the average transport properties [1]. Open issues regarding this approach are the possibility to relate measurable properties of the medium to the parameters of the model, as well as its capability to provide predictive information. In a recent work [2] the authors have shed new light on understanding the relationship between Lagrangian and Eulerian dynamics as well as on their evolution from arbitrary initial conditions. On the basis of these results, we derive a CTRW model for the description of Darcy-scale transport in d-dimensional media characterized by spatially random permeability fields. The CTRW approach models particle velocities as a spatial Markov process, which is

  11. Radon transport in fractured soil. Laboratory experiments and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, A.


    Radon (Rn-222) transport in fractured soil has been investigated by laboratory experiments and by modelling. Radon transport experiments have been performed with two sand columns (homogeneous and inhomogeneous) and one undisturbed clayey till column containing a net of preferential flow paths (root holes). A numerical model (the finite-element model FRACTRAN) and an analytic model (a pinhole model) have been applied in simulations if soil gas and radon transport in fractured soil. Experiments and model calculations are included in a discussion of radon entry rates into houses placed on fractured soil. The main conclusion is, that fractures does not in general alter transport of internally generated radon out of soil, when the pressure and flow conditions in the soil is comparable to the conditions prevailing under a house. This indicates the important result, that fractures in soil have no impact on radon entry into a house beyond that of an increased gas permeability, but a more thorough investigation of this subject is needed. Only in the case where the soil is exposed to large pressure gradients, relative to gradients induced by a house, may it be possible to observe effects of radon exchange between fractures and matrix. (au) 52 tabs., 60 ill., 5 refs.

  12. A coupled energy transport and hydrological model for urban canopies (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Bou-Zeid, E.; Smith, J. A.


    Urban land-atmosphere interaction has been attracting more research efforts in order to understand the complex physics of flow and mass and heat transport in urban surfaces and the lower urban atmosphere. In this work, we developed and implemented a new physically-based single-layer urban canopy model, coupling the surface exchange of energy and the subsurface transport of water/soil moisture. The new model incorporates sub-facet heterogeneity for each urban surface (roof, wall or ground). This better simulates the energy transport in urban canopy layers, especially over low-intensity built (suburban type) terrains that include a significant fraction of vegetated surfaces. We implemented detailed urban hydrological models for both natural terrains (bare soil and vegetation) and porous engineered materials with water-holding capacity (concrete, gravel, etc). The skill of the new scheme was tested against experimental data collected through a wireless sensor network deployed over the campus of Princeton University. The model performance was found to be robust and insensitive to changes in weather conditions or seasonal variability. Predictions of the volumetric soil water content were also in good agreement with field measurements, highlighting the model capability of capturing subsurface water transport for urban lawns. The new model was also applied to a case study assessing different strategies, i.e. white versus green roofs, in the mitigation of urban heat island effect.

  13. A transport model for computer simulation of wildfires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linn, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)


    Realistic self-determining simulation of wildfires is a difficult task because of a large variety of important length scales (including scales on the size of twigs or grass and the size of large trees), imperfect data, complex fluid mechanics and heat transfer, and very complicated chemical reactions. The author uses a transport approach to produce a model that exhibits a self-determining propagation rate. The transport approach allows him to represent a large number of environments such as those with nonhomogeneous vegetation and terrain. He accounts for the microscopic details of a fire with macroscopic resolution by dividing quantities into mean and fluctuating parts similar to what is done in traditional turbulence modeling. These divided quantities include fuel, wind, gas concentrations, and temperature. Reaction rates are limited by the mixing process and not the chemical kinetics. The author has developed a model that includes the transport of multiple gas species, such as oxygen and volatile hydrocarbons, and tracks the depletion of various fuels and other stationary solids and liquids. From this model he develops a simplified local burning model with which he performs a number of simulations that demonstrate that he is able to capture the important physics with the transport approach. With this simplified model he is able to pick up the essence of wildfire propagation, including such features as acceleration when transitioning to upsloping terrain, deceleration of fire fronts when they reach downslopes, and crowning in the presence of high winds.

  14. Consistency between 2D-3D Sediment Transport models (United States)

    Villaret, Catherine; Jodeau, Magali


    Sediment transport models have been developed and applied by the engineering community to estimate transport rates and morphodynamic bed evolutions in river flows, coastal and estuarine conditions. Environmental modelling systems like the open-source Telemac modelling system include a hierarchy of models from 1D (Mascaret), 2D (Telemac-2D/Sisyphe) and 3D (Telemac-3D/Sedi-3D) and include a wide range of processes to represent sediment flow interactions under more and more complex situations (cohesive, non-cohesive and mixed sediment). Despite some tremendous progresses in the numerical techniques and computing resources, the quality/accuracy of model results mainly depend on the numerous choices and skills of the modeler. In complex situations involving stratification effects, complex geometry, recirculating flows… 2D model assumptions are no longer valid. A full 3D turbulent flow model is then required in order to capture the vertical mixing processes and to represent accurately the coupled flow/sediment distribution. However a number of theoretical and numerical difficulties arise when dealing with sediment transport modelling in 3D which will be high-lighted : (1) Dependency of model results to the vertical grid refinement and choice of boundary conditions and numerical scheme (2) The choice of turbulence model determines also the sediment vertical distribution which is governed by a balance between the downward settling term and upward turbulent diffusion. (3) The use of different numerical schemes for both hydrodynamics (mean and turbulent flow) and sediment transport modelling can lead to some inconsistency including a mismatch in the definition of numerical cells and definition of boundary conditions. We discuss here those present issues and present some detailed comparison between 2D and 3D simulations on a set of validation test cases which are available in the Telemac 7.2 release using both cohesive and non-cohesive sediments.

  15. Computer-based modelling and optimization in transportation

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Riccardo


    This volume brings together works resulting from research carried out by members of the EURO Working Group on Transportation (EWGT) and presented during meetings and workshops organized by the Group under the patronage of the Association of European Operational Research Societies in 2012 and 2013. The main targets of the EWGT include providing a forum to share research information and experience, encouraging joint research and the development of both theoretical methods and applications, and promoting cooperation among the many institutions and organizations which are leaders at national level in the field of transportation and logistics. The primary fields of interest concern operational research methods, mathematical models and computation algorithms, to solve and sustain solutions to problems mainly faced by public administrations, city authorities, public transport companies, service providers and logistic operators. Related areas of interest are: land use and transportation planning, traffic control and ...

  16. Transport of bacteria in porous media: II. A model for convective Transport and growth. (United States)

    Sarkar, A K; Georgiou, G; Sharma, M M


    A model is presented for the coupled processes of bacterial growth and convective transport of bacteria has been modeled using a fractional flow approach. The various mechanisms of bacteria retention can be incorporated into the model through selection of an appropriate shape of the fractional flow curve. Permeability reduction due to pore plugging by bacteria was simulated using the effective medium theory. In porous media, the rates of transport and growth of bacteria, the generation of metabolic products, and the consumption of nutrients are strongly coupled processes. Consequently, the set of governing conservation equations form a set of coupled, nonlinear partial differential equations that were solved numerically. Reasonably good agreement between the model and experimental data has been obtained indicating that the physical processes incorporated in the model are adequate. The model has been used to predict the in situ transport and growth of bacteria, nutrient consumption, and metabolite production. It can be particularly useful in simulating laboratory experiments and in scaling microbial-enhanced oil recovery or bioremediation processes to the field. (c) 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  17. Luminescence signal profiling: a new proxy for sedimentologically "invisible" marine Mass Transport Deposits (MTDs) (United States)

    López, Gloria I.; Bialik, Or; Waldmann, Nicolas


    obtained on both, already split-opened cores. Both cores depicted the monotonous characteristics of homogeneousness down-core as per most of the results obtained from the non-destructive and destructive tests. One of the cores showed several small higher energy events, including a Mass Transport Deposit (MTD) within its first 10 cm, only fully visible on the CT scan imaging, the PPSL profile and particle size distribution plot. This initial investigation demonstrates the feasibility and usefulness of luminescence profiling as a new sedimentological and petrophysical proxy to better visualize homogeneous yet complex, fine-grained, underwater archives. Moreover, it helps to understand the continuity of the stratigraphy and linearity of deposition of the sediment, besides assisting on the estimation of relative ages provided that good OSL ages are obtained throughout the recovered archive.

  18. Seasonal Transport in Mars' Mesosphere revealed by Nitric Oxide Nightglow vertical profiles and global images from IUVS/MAVEN (United States)

    Stiepen, Arnaud; Stewart, Ian; Jain, Sonal; Schneider, Nicholas; Deighan, Justin; Gonzàlez-Galindo, Francisco; Gérard, Jean-Claude; Stevens, Michael; Bougher, Stephen; Milby, Zachariah; Evans, Scott; Chaffin, Michael; McClintock, William; Clarke, John; Holsclaw, Greg; Montmessin, Franck; Lefèvre, Franck; Lo, Daniel; Jakosky, Bruce


    We analyze the ultraviolet nightglow in the atmosphere of Mars through Nitric Oxide (NO) δ and γ bands emissions. On the dayside thermosphere of Mars, solar extreme ultraviolet radiation partly dissociates CO2 and N2 molecules. O(3P) and N(4S) atoms are carried by the day-to-night hemispheric transport. They preferentially descend in the nightside mesosphere in the winter hemisphere, where they can radiatively recombine to form NO(C2Π). The excited molecules promptly relax by emitting photons in the UV δ bands and in the γ bands through cascades via the A2Σ, v' = 0 state. These emissions are thus indicators of the N and O atom fluxes transported from the dayside to Mars' nightside and the winter descending circulation pattern from the nightside thermosphere to the mesosphere (e.g. Bertaux et al., 2005 ; Bougher et al., 1990 ; Cox et al., 2008 ; Gagné et al., 2013 ; Gérard et al., 2008 ; Stiepen et al., 2015). Observations of these emissions have been accumulated on a large dataset of nightside disk images and vertical profiles obtained at the limb by the Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS, McClintock et al., 2015) instrument when the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft is at its apoapsis and its periapsis phases along its orbit, respectively. We present discussion on the variability in the brightness, altitude and topside scale height of the emission with season, geographical position and local time and possible interpretation for local and global changes in the mesosphere dynamics. IUVS images and limb scans reveal unexpected complex structure of the emission. The brightest emission is observed close to the winter pole. The emission is also surprisingly more intense in some sectors located close to the equator : at 120˚ and 150˚ longitude. Observations also reveal spots and streaks, indicating irregularities in the wind circulation pattern and possible impact of waves and tides. The disk images and limb profiles are compared to

  19. Pulse Propagation in a simple probabilistic transport model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Milligen, B. Ph. [Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT; Carreras, Benjamin A [ORNL; Lynch, Vickie E [ORNL; Sanchez, Raul [ORNL


    The response to perturbations of a simplified transport model is studied. The model is used as a paradigmatic example of transport controlled by a critical gradient. Long-time system behavior is diffusive when most of the system is sub-critical. However, when the critical mechanism becomes significant, it is observed to dominate the system behavior at both short- and long-time scales. While the pulse amplitude decays in an approximately diffusive manner at long times for weakly critical situations, the pulse shape is not self-similar.

  20. Cuttings Transport Models and Experimental Visualization of Underbalanced Horizontal Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Wei


    Full Text Available Aerated underbalanced horizontal drilling technology has become the focus of the drilling industry at home and abroad, and one of the engineering core issues is the horizontal borehole cleaning. Therefore, calculating the minimum injection volume of gas and liquid accurately is essential for the construction in aerated underbalanced horizontal drilling. This paper establishes a physical model of carrying cuttings and borehole cleaning in wellbore of horizontal well and a critical transport mathematical model according to gas-liquid-solid flow mechanism and large plane dunes particle transport theory.

  1. Reconstructed jets in a multi-phase transport model (United States)

    Ma, Guo-Liang


    With a framework of a multiphase transport model, we studied various of properties of fully reconstructed jets, including dijet asymmetry, jet shape, jet fragmentation function, jet azimuthal anisotropy, and overall momentum balance of dijet events. Our studies concentrate on the stage evolution of these full jet observables in heavy-ion collisions. We demonstrate that the medium modification effect on these observables mainly arises from strong interactions between jet and partonic matter, with further slight modifications from hadronization and hadronic rescatterings. Our model results provide a dynamical understanding of jet transport process in high-energy heavy-ion collisions.

  2. Modelling nitrate transport and turnover in a lowland catchment system (United States)

    Wriedt, Gunter; Rode, Michael


    SummaryNitrate transport in groundwater dominated lowland catchment systems is influenced by complex and spatially distributed physical and chemical interactions. A modelling approach was developed combining a distributed soil nitrogen model with a three-dimensional groundwater model and a reactive transport model linking nitrate turnover and availability of reaction partners such as pyrite and organic matter. The modelling approach was applied to a hypothetical case study based on data from the pleistocene lowland catchment "Schaugraben" (20 km 2) in the North of Saxony-Anhalt, with focus on the investigation of interactions of spatially distributed transport and chemical processes. The modelling approach could successfully simulate transport and turnover of nitrate in a groundwater dominated catchment. The advancement of the nitrate front and the corresponding depletion of pyrite as well as the distribution of seepage fluxes and nitrate concentrations in seepage water in the channel system showed distinct spatial variation. Surface water nitrate concentrations corresponding to the average soil leachate concentrations were not completely reached after a simulation period of 200 years for a conservative transport simulation. Under reactive conditions, about 80% of the nitrate was lost due to denitrification. Given a uniformly distributed input of nitrate, drain loads developed in a sigmoidal curve defined only by travel time distribution. The average travel time was 93 years. A distributed input of nitrate resulted in reduction of travel time to 80 years due to the different arrangement of source areas and flow. The modelling approach is a step towards bridging the gap between simple large scale models and detailed small scale studies, maintaining process orientation while allowing to consider landscape heterogeneity.

  3. Transport modeling of the DIII-D high {{\\beta}_{p}} scenario and extrapolations to ITER steady-state operation (United States)

    McClenaghan, J.; Garofalo, A. M.; Meneghini, O.; Smith, S. P.; Leuer, J. A.; Staebler, G. M.; Lao, L. L.; Park, J. M.; Ding, S. Y.; Gong, X.; Qian, J.


    Transport modeling of a proposed ITER steady-state scenario based on DIII-D high poloidal-beta ({βp} ) discharges finds that ITB formation can occur with either sufficient rotation or a negative central shear q-profile. The high {βp} scenario is characterized by a large bootstrap current fraction (80%) which reduces the demands on the external current drive, and a large radius internal transport barrier which is associated with excellent normalized confinement. Modeling predictions of the electron transport in the high {βp} scenario improve as {{q}95} approaches levels similar to typical existing models of ITER steady-state and the ion transport is turbulence dominated. Typical temperature and density profiles from the non-inductive high {βp} scenario on DIII-D are scaled according to 0D modeling predictions of the requirements for achieving a Q=5 steady-state fusion gain in ITER with ‘day one’ heating and current drive capabilities. Then, TGLF turbulence modeling is carried out under systematic variations of the toroidal rotation and the core q-profile. A high bootstrap fraction, high {βp} scenario is found to be near an ITB formation threshold, and either strong negative central magnetic shear or rotation in a high bootstrap fraction are found to successfully provide the turbulence suppression required to achieve Q=5 .

  4. The Effect of Air Density on Sand Transport Structures and the Adobe Abrasion Profile: A Field Wind-Tunnel Experiment Over a Wide Range of Altitude (United States)

    Han, Qingjie; Qu, Jianjun; Dong, Zhibao; Zu, Ruiping; Zhang, Kecun; Wang, Hongtao; Xie, Shengbo


    Aeolian sand transport results from interactions between the surface and the airflow above. Air density strongly constrains airflow characteristics and the resulting flow of sand, and therefore should not be neglected in sand transport models. In the present study, we quantify the influence of air density on the sand flow structure, sand transport rate, adobe abrasion profiles, and abrasion rate using a portable wind-tunnel in the field. For a given wind speed, the flow's ability to transport sand decreases at low air density, so total sand transport decreases, but the saltation height increases. Thus, the damage to human structures increases compared with what occurs at lower altitudes. The adobe abrasion rate by the cloud of blowing sand decreases exponentially with increasing height above the surface, while the wind erosion and dust emission intensity both increase with increasing air density. Long-term feedback processes between air density and wind erosion suggest that the development of low-altitude areas due to long-term deflation plays a key role in dust emission, and will have a profound significance for surface Aeolian processes and geomorphology.

  5. Modelling of sediment transport and morphological evolution under the combined action of waves and currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Franz


    Full Text Available Coastal defence structures are often constructed to prevent beach erosion. However, poorly designed structures may cause serious erosion problems in the downdrift direction. Morphological models are useful tools to predict such impacts and assess the efficiency of defence structures for different scenarios. Nevertheless, morphological modelling is still a topic under intense research effort. The processes simulated by a morphological model depend on model complexity. For instance, undertow currents are neglected in coastal area models (2DH, which is a limitation for simulating the evolution of beach profiles for long periods. Model limitations are generally overcome by predefining invariant equilibrium profiles that are allowed to shift offshore or onshore. A more flexible approach is described in this paper, which can be generalised to 3-D models. The present work is based on the coupling of the MOHID modelling system and the SWAN wave model. The impacts of different designs of detached breakwaters and groynes were simulated in a schematic beach configuration following a 2DH approach. The results of bathymetry evolution are in agreement with the patterns found in the literature for several existing structures. The model was also tested in a 3-D test case to simulate the formation of sandbars by undertow currents. The findings of this work confirmed the applicability of the MOHID modelling system to study sediment transport and morphological changes in coastal zones under the combined action of waves and currents. The same modelling methodology was applied to a coastal zone (Costa da Caparica located at the mouth of a mesotidal estuary (Tagus Estuary, Portugal to evaluate the hydrodynamics and sediment transport both in calm water conditions and during events of highly energetic waves. The MOHID code is available in the GitHub repository.

  6. Modelling of sediment transport and morphological evolution under the combined action of waves and currents (United States)

    Franz, Guilherme; Delpey, Matthias T.; Brito, David; Pinto, Lígia; Leitão, Paulo; Neves, Ramiro


    Coastal defence structures are often constructed to prevent beach erosion. However, poorly designed structures may cause serious erosion problems in the downdrift direction. Morphological models are useful tools to predict such impacts and assess the efficiency of defence structures for different scenarios. Nevertheless, morphological modelling is still a topic under intense research effort. The processes simulated by a morphological model depend on model complexity. For instance, undertow currents are neglected in coastal area models (2DH), which is a limitation for simulating the evolution of beach profiles for long periods. Model limitations are generally overcome by predefining invariant equilibrium profiles that are allowed to shift offshore or onshore. A more flexible approach is described in this paper, which can be generalised to 3-D models. The present work is based on the coupling of the MOHID modelling system and the SWAN wave model. The impacts of different designs of detached breakwaters and groynes were simulated in a schematic beach configuration following a 2DH approach. The results of bathymetry evolution are in agreement with the patterns found in the literature for several existing structures. The model was also tested in a 3-D test case to simulate the formation of sandbars by undertow currents. The findings of this work confirmed the applicability of the MOHID modelling system to study sediment transport and morphological changes in coastal zones under the combined action of waves and currents. The same modelling methodology was applied to a coastal zone (Costa da Caparica) located at the mouth of a mesotidal estuary (Tagus Estuary, Portugal) to evaluate the hydrodynamics and sediment transport both in calm water conditions and during events of highly energetic waves. The MOHID code is available in the GitHub repository.

  7. Intelligent Transportation and Evacuation Planning A Modeling-Based Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Naser, Arab


    Intelligent Transportation and Evacuation Planning: A Modeling-Based Approach provides a new paradigm for evacuation planning strategies and techniques. Recently, evacuation planning and modeling have increasingly attracted interest among researchers as well as government officials. This interest stems from the recent catastrophic hurricanes and weather-related events that occurred in the southeastern United States (Hurricane Katrina and Rita). The evacuation methods that were in place before and during the hurricanes did not work well and resulted in thousands of deaths. This book offers insights into the methods and techniques that allow for implementing mathematical-based, simulation-based, and integrated optimization and simulation-based engineering approaches for evacuation planning. This book also: Comprehensively discusses the application of mathematical models for evacuation and intelligent transportation modeling Covers advanced methodologies in evacuation modeling and planning Discusses principles a...

  8. A mathematical model of inter-terminal transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Voß, Stefan; Stahlbock, Robert


    We present a novel integer programming model for analyzing inter-terminal transportation (ITT) in new and expanding sea ports. ITT is the movement of containers between terminals (sea, rail or otherwise) within a port. ITT represents a significant source of delay for containers being transshipped......, which costs ports money and affects a port’s reputation. Our model assists ports in analyzing the impact of new infrastructure, the placement of terminals, and ITT vehicle investments. We provide analysis of ITT at two ports, the port of Hamburg, Germany and the Maasvlakte 1 & 2 area of the port...... contains special structures to model the long term loading and unloading of vehicles, and our model is general enough to model a number of important real-world aspects of ITT, such as traffic congestion, penalized late container delivery, multiple ITT transportation modes, and port infrastructure...

  9. Auroral E-region electron density height profile modificationby electric field driven vertical plasma transport:some evidence in EISCAT CP-1 data statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bösinger


    Full Text Available A model developed several years ago by Huuskonen et al. (1984 predicted that vertical transport of ions in the nocturnal auroral E-region ionosphere can shift the electron density profiles in altitude during times of sufficiently large electric fields. If the vertical plasma transport effect was to operate over a sufficiently long enough time, then the real height of the E-region electron maximum should be shifted some km upwards (downwards in the eastward (westward auroral electrojet, respectively, when the electric field is strong, exceeding, say, 50 mV/m. Motivated by these predictions and the lack of any experimental verification so far, we made use of the large database of the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT radar to investigate if the anticipated vertical plasma transport is at work in the auroral E-region ionosphere and thus to test the Huuskonen et al. (1984 model. For this purpose a new type of EISCAT data display was developed which enabled us to order a large number of electron density height profiles, collected over 16 years of EISCAT operation, according to the electric field magnitude and direction as measured at the same time at the radar's magnetic field line in the F-region. Our analysis shows some signatures in tune with a vertical plasma transport in the auroral E-region of the type predicted by the Huuskonen et al. model. The evidence brought forward is, however, not unambiguous and requires more rigorous analysis.

    Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; plasma convection; electric fields and currents

  10. Analytical model of reactive transport processes with spatially variable coefficients. (United States)

    Simpson, Matthew J; Morrow, Liam C


    Analytical solutions of partial differential equation (PDE) models describing reactive transport phenomena in saturated porous media are often used as screening tools to provide insight into contaminant fate and transport processes. While many practical modelling scenarios involve spatially variable coefficients, such as spatially variable flow velocity, v(x), or spatially variable decay rate, k(x), most analytical models deal with constant coefficients. Here we present a framework for constructing exact solutions of PDE models of reactive transport. Our approach is relevant for advection-dominant problems, and is based on a regular perturbation technique. We present a description of the solution technique for a range of one-dimensional scenarios involving constant and variable coefficients, and we show that the solutions compare well with numerical approximations. Our general approach applies to a range of initial conditions and various forms of v(x) and k(x). Instead of simply documenting specific solutions for particular cases, we present a symbolic worksheet, as supplementary material, which enables the solution to be evaluated for different choices of the initial condition, v(x) and k(x). We also discuss how the technique generalizes to apply to models of coupled multispecies reactive transport as well as higher dimensional problems.

  11. Incorporating transportation network modeling tools within transportation economic impact studies of disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wen


    Full Text Available Transportation system disruption due to a disaster results in "ripple effects" throughout the entire transportation system of a metropolitan region. Many researchers have focused on the economic costs of transportation system disruptions in transportation-related industries, specifïcally within commerce and logistics, in the assessment of the regional economic costs. However, the foundation of an assessment of the regional economic costs of a disaster needs to include the evaluation of consumer surplus in addition to the direct cost for reconstruction of the regional transportation system. The objective of this study is to propose a method to estimate the regional consumer surplus based on indirect economic costs of a disaster on intermodal transportation systems in the context of diverting vehicles and trains. The computational methods used to assess the regional indirect economic costs sustained by the highway and railroad system can utilize readily available state departments of transportation (DOTs and metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs traffic models allowing prioritization of regional recovery plans after a disaster and strengthening of infrastructure before a disaster. Hurricane Katrina is one of the most devastating hurricanes in the history of the United States. Due to the significance of Hurricane Katrina, a case study is presented to evaluate consumer surplus in the Gulf Coast Region of Mississippi. Results from the case study indicate the costs of rerouting and congestion delays in the regional highway system and the rent costs of right-of-way in the regional railroad system are major factors of the indirect costs in the consumer surplus.

  12. Modeling biogechemical reactive transport in a fracture zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinero, Jorge; Samper, Javier; Yang, Chan Bing, and Zhang, Guoxiang; Guoxiang, Zhang


    A coupled model of groundwater flow, reactive solute transport and microbial processes for a fracture zone of the Aspo site at Sweden is presented. This is the model of the so-called Redox Zone Experiment aimed at evaluating the effects of tunnel construction on the geochemical conditions prevailing in a fracture granite. It is found that a model accounting for microbially-mediated geochemical processes is able to reproduce the unexpected measured increasing trends of dissolved sulfate and bicarbonate. The model is also useful for testing hypotheses regarding the role of microbial processes and evaluating the sensitivity of model results to changes in biochemical parameters.

  13. Coupling of Groundwater Transport and Plant Uptake Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rein, Arno; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Trapp, Stefan


    Plants significantly influence contaminant transport and fate. Important processes are uptake of soil and groundwater contaminants, as well as biodegradation in plants and their root zones. Models for the prediction of chemical uptake into plants are required for the setup of mass balances in env...... to groundwater transport simulation tools. Exemplary simulations of plant uptake were carried out, in order to estimate concentrations in the soilplant- air system and the influence of plants on contaminant mass fluxes from soil to groundwater.......Plants significantly influence contaminant transport and fate. Important processes are uptake of soil and groundwater contaminants, as well as biodegradation in plants and their root zones. Models for the prediction of chemical uptake into plants are required for the setup of mass balances...

  14. Review of modeling and control during transport airdrop process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Xu


    Full Text Available This article presents the review of modeling and control during the airdrop process of transport aircraft. According to the airdrop height, technology can be classified into high and low altitude airdrop and in this article, the research is reviewed based on the two scenarios. While high altitude airdrop is mainly focusing on the precise landing control of cargo, the low altitude flight airdrop is on the control of transport aircraft dynamics to ensure flight safety. The history of high precision airdrop system is introduced first, and then the modeling and control problem of the ultra low altitude airdrop in transport aircraft is presented. Finally, the potential problems and future direction of low altitude airdrop are discussed.

  15. A Coupled Chemical and Mass Transport Model for Concrete Durability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Mønster; Johannesson, Björn; Geiker, Mette Rica


    In this paper a general continuum theory is used to evaluate the service life of cement based materials, in terms of mass transport processes and chemical degradation of the solid matrix. The model established is a reactive mass transport model, based on an extended version of the Poisson...... their individual sorption hysteresis isotherm which is of great importance when describing non fully water saturated system e.g. caused by time depended boundary conditions. Chemical equilibrium is also established in each node of the discrete system, where the rate of chemical degradation is determined...... by the rate of mass transport only. A consequence of the source or sink term, is the assumption that equilibrium is reached instantaneously in each time step considered. Some numerical problems was found, where the residual requirements for the chemical equilibrium was not reached. Small imbalances, in e...

  16. A new turbulence-based model for sand transport (United States)

    Mayaud, Jerome; Wiggs, Giles; Bailey, Richard


    Knowledge of the changing rate of sediment flux in space and time is essential for quantifying surface erosion and deposition in desert landscapes. While many aeolian studies have relied on time-averaged parameters such as wind velocity (U) and wind shear velocity (u*) to determine sediment flux, there is increasing evidence that high-frequency turbulence is an important driving force behind the entrainment and transport of sand. However, turbulence has yet to be incorporated into a functional sand transport model that can be used for predictive purposes. In this study we present a new transport model (the 'turbulence model') that accounts for high-frequency variations in the horizontal (u) and vertical (w) components of wind flow. The turbulence model is fitted to wind velocity and sediment transport data from a field experiment undertaken in Namibia's Skeleton Coast National Park, and its performance at three temporal resolutions (10 Hz, 1 Hz, 1 min) is compared to two existing models that rely on time-averaged wind velocity data (Radok, 1977; Dong et al., 2003). The validity of the three models is analysed under a variety of saltation conditions, using a 2-hour (1 Hz measurement resolution) dataset from the Skeleton Coast and a 5-hour (1 min measurement resolution) dataset from the southwestern Kalahari Desert. The turbulence model is shown to outperform the Radok and Dong models when predicting total saltation count over the three experimental periods. For all temporal resolutions presented in this study (10 Hz-10 min), the turbulence model predicted total saltation count to within at least 0.34%, whereas the Radok and Dong models over- or underestimated total count by up to 5.50% and 20.53% respectively. The strong performance of the turbulence model can be attributed to a lag in mass flux response built into its formulation, which can be adapted depending on the temporal resolution of investigation. This accounts for the inherent lag within the physical

  17. Constructing Prediction Models from Expression Profiles for Large Scale lncRNA-miRNA Interaction Profiling. (United States)

    Huang, Yu-An; Chan, Keith C C; You, Zhu-Hong


    The interaction of miRNA and lncRNA is known to be important for gene regulations. However, not many computational approaches have been developed to analyse known interactions and predict the unknown ones. Given that there are now more evidences that suggest that lncRNA-miRNA interactions are closely related to their relative expression levels in the form of a titration mechanism, we analyzed the patterns in large-scale expression profiles of known lncRNA-miRNA interactions. From these uncovered patterns, we noticed that lncRNAs tend to interact collaboratively with miRNAs of similar expression profiles, and vice versa. By representing known interaction between lncRNA and miRNA as a bipartite graph, we propose here a technique, called EPLMI, to construct a prediction model from such a graph. EPLMI performs its tasks based on the assumption that lncRNAs that are highly similar to each other tend to have similar interaction or non-interaction patterns with miRNAs and vice versa. The effectiveness of the prediction model so constructed has been evaluated using the latest dataset of lncRNA-miRNA interactions. The results show that the prediction model can achieve AUCs of 0.8522 and 0.8447±0.0017 based on LOOCV and 5-fold cross validation. Using this model, we show that lncRNA-miRNA interactions can be reliably predicted. We also show that we can use it to select the most likely lncRNA targets that specific miRNAs would interact with. We believe that the prediction models discovered by EPLMI can yield great insights for further research on ceRNA regulation network. To the best of our knowledge, EPLMI is the first technique that is developed for large-scale lncRNA-miRNA interaction profiling. Matlab codes and dataset are available at Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  18. Element-specific density profiles in interacting biomembrane models (United States)

    Schneck, Emanuel; Rodriguez-Loureiro, Ignacio; Bertinetti, Luca; Marin, Egor; Novikov, Dmitri; Konovalov, Oleg; Gochev, Georgi


    Surface interactions involving biomembranes, such as cell-cell interactions or membrane contacts inside cells play important roles in numerous biological processes. Structural insight into the interacting surfaces is a prerequisite to understand the interaction characteristics as well as the underlying physical mechanisms. Here, we work with simplified planar experimental models of membrane surfaces, composed of lipids and lipopolymers. Their interaction is quantified in terms of pressure-distance curves using ellipsometry at controlled dehydrating (interaction) pressures. For selected pressures, their internal structure is investigated by standing-wave x-ray fluorescence (SWXF). This technique yields specific density profiles of the chemical elements P and S belonging to lipid headgroups and polymer chains, as well as counter-ion profiles for charged surfaces.

  19. Comparison of mechanistic transport cycle models of ABC exporters. (United States)

    Szöllősi, Dániel; Rose-Sperling, Dania; Hellmich, Ute A; Stockner, Thomas


    ABC (ATP binding cassette) transporters, ubiquitous in all kingdoms of life, carry out essential substrate transport reactions across cell membranes. Their transmembrane domains bind and translocate substrates and are connected to a pair of nucleotide binding domains, which bind and hydrolyze ATP to energize import or export of substrates. Over four decades of investigations into ABC transporters have revealed numerous details from atomic-level structural insights to their functional and physiological roles. Despite all these advances, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanistic principles of ABC transporter function remains elusive. The human multidrug resistance transporter ABCB1, also referred to as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), is one of the most intensively studied ABC exporters. Using ABCB1 as the reference point, we aim to compare the dominating mechanistic models of substrate transport and ATP hydrolysis for ABC exporters and to highlight the experimental and computational evidence in their support. In particular, we point out in silico studies that enhance and complement available biochemical data. "This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Beyond the Structure-Function Horizon of Membrane Proteins edited by Ute Hellmich, Rupak Doshi and Benjamin McIlwain." Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Visual Modelling of Data Warehousing Flows with UML Profiles (United States)

    Pardillo, Jesús; Golfarelli, Matteo; Rizzi, Stefano; Trujillo, Juan

    Data warehousing involves complex processes that transform source data through several stages to deliver suitable information ready to be analysed. Though many techniques for visual modelling of data warehouses from the static point of view have been devised, only few attempts have been made to model the data flows involved in a data warehousing process. Besides, each attempt was mainly aimed at a specific application, such as ETL, OLAP, what-if analysis, data mining. Data flows are typically very complex in this domain; for this reason, we argue, designers would greatly benefit from a technique for uniformly modelling data warehousing flows for all applications. In this paper, we propose an integrated visual modelling technique for data cubes and data flows. This technique is based on UML profiling; its feasibility is evaluated by means of a prototype implementation.

  1. Transport models for relativistic heavy-ion collisions at Relativistic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Apr 29, 2015 ... Transport models for relativistic heavy-ion collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and Large Hadron Collider. Subrata Pal. Volume 84 Issue 5 May 2015 pp ... Subrata Pal1. Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India ...

  2. Tracking cellular telephones as an input for developing transport models

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K


    Full Text Available of tracking cellular telephones and using the data to populate transport and other models. We report here on one of the pilots, known as DYNATRACK (Dynamic Daily Path Tracking), a larger experiment conducted in 2007 with a more heterogeneous group of commuters...

  3. Development of numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Dobson


    This report describes the methods used to develop numerical grids of the unsaturated hydrogeologic system beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Numerical grid generation is an integral part of the development of the unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport model, a complex, three-dimensional (3-D) model of Yucca Mountain. This revision contains changes made to improve the clarity of the description of grid generation. The numerical grids, developed using current geologic, hydrogeologic, and mineralogic data, provide the necessary framework to: (1) develop calibrated hydrogeologic property sets and flow fields, (2) test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport, and (3) predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic and thermal-loading conditions. The technical scope, content, and management for the current revision of this report are described in the planning document ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 2). Grids generated and documented in this report supersede those documented in Revision 00 of this report, ''Development of Numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 159356]). The grids presented in this report are the same as those developed in Revision 01 (BSC 2003 [DIRS 160109]); however, the documentation of the development of the grids in Revision 02 has been updated to address technical inconsistencies and achieve greater transparency, readability, and traceability. The constraints, assumptions, and limitations associated with this report are discussed in the appropriate sections that follow.

  4. Modeling marine surface microplastic transport to assess optimal removal locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sherman, Peter; Van Sebille, Erik|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831921


    Marine plastic pollution is an ever-increasing problem that demands immediate mitigation and reduction plans. Here, a model based on satellite-tracked buoy observations and scaled to a large data set of observations on microplastic from surface trawls was used to simulate the transport of plastics

  5. Modeling the fate and transport of plastic debris in freshwaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, Merel; Besseling, Ellen; Kroeze, Carolien; Wenzel, van Annemarie P.; Koelmans, Albert A.


    Contamination with plastic debris has been recognized as one of today’s major environmental quality problems. Because most of the sources are land based, concerns are increasingly focused on the freshwater and terrestrial environment. Fate and transport models for plastic debris can complement

  6. In vitro placental model optimization for nanoparticle transport studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartwright, Laura; Poulsen, Marie Sønnegaard; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck


    on polycarbonate membranes (3.0 μm pore size) was four times higher for the 50 nm particles compared with the 100 nm particles. CONCLUSION: The BeWo cell line has been optimized and shown to be a valid in vitro model for studying the transplacental transport of nanoparticles. Fluorescent polystyrene nanoparticle...

  7. Development of a transport model for the microbial degradation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A mathematical model for first order reaction rate under isothermal condition was developed for predicting the diffusivity and transport rate of anthracene and pyrene during biodegradation using two microbial strains (corynebacteria spp and pseudomonas putida) in a heterogeneous porous medium. The formulation ...

  8. Solving vertical transport and chemistry in air pollution models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J.F. Berkvens (Patrick); M.A. Botchev; J.G. Verwer (Jan); M.C. Krol; W. Peters


    textabstractFor the time integration of stiff transport-chemistry problems from air pollution modelling, standard ODE solvers are not feasible due to the large number of species and the 3D nature. The popular alternative, standard operator splitting, introduces artificial transients for short-lived

  9. Modelling two-phase transport of 3H/3He

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.; Schaap, J.D.; Leijnse, T.; Broers, H.P.; Bierkens, M.F.P.


    Degassing of groundwater by excess denitrification of agricultural pollution complicates the interpretation of 3H/3He data and hinders the estimation of travel times in nitrate pollution studies. In this study we used a two-phase flow and transport model (STOMP) to evaluate the method presented by

  10. Numerical modelling on fate and transport of petroleum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 124; Issue 3. Numerical modelling on ... The vertical transport of petroleum hydrocarbons from a surface spill through an unsaturated subsurface system is of major concern in assessing the vulnerability of groundwater contamination. A realistic representation on ...

  11. Solving vertical transport and chemistry in air pollution models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkvens, P.J.F.; Bochev, Mikhail A.; Krol, M.C.; Peters, W.; Verwer, J.G.


    For the time integration of stiff transport-chemistry problems from air pollution modelling, standard ODE solvers are not feasible due to the large number of species and the 3D nature. The popular alternative, standard operator splitting, introduces artificial transients for short-lived species.

  12. Transport of Pathogen Surrogates in Soil Treatment Units: Numerical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Morales


    Full Text Available Segmented mesocosms (n = 3 packed with sand, sandy loam or clay loam soil were used to determine the effect of soil texture and depth on transport of two septic tank effluent (STE-borne microbial pathogen surrogates—green fluorescent protein-labeled E. coli (GFPE and MS-2 coliphage—in soil treatment units. HYDRUS 2D/3D software was used to model the transport of these microbes from the infiltrative surface. Mesocosms were spiked with GFPE and MS-2 coliphage at 105 cfu/mL STE and 105–106 pfu/mL STE, respectively. In all soils, removal rates were >99.99% at 25 cm. The transport simulation compared (1 optimization; and (2 trial-and-error modeling approaches. Only slight differences between the transport parameters were observed between these approaches. Treating both the die-off rates and attachment/detachment rates as variables resulted in an overall better model fit, particularly for the tailing phase of the experiments. Independent of the fitting procedure, attachment rates computed by the model were higher in sandy and sandy loam soils than clay, which was attributed to unsaturated flow conditions at lower water content in the coarser-textured soils. Early breakthrough of the bacteria and virus indicated the presence of preferential flow in the system in the structured clay loam soil, resulting in faster movement of water and microbes through the soil relative to a conservative tracer (bromide.

  13. Modelling of transport phenomena and defects in crystal growth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... transport and defect phenomena involoved in the growth process with the ultimate aim of integrating them into a comprehensive numerical model. The sources of dislocation nucleation in the growing crystal are discussed, and the propagation and multiplication of these under the action of thermal stresses is discussed.

  14. A Cellular Automata Models of Evolution of Transportation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Paszkowski


    Full Text Available We present a new approach to modelling of transportation networks. Supply of resources and their influence on the evolution of the consuming environment is a princqral problem considered. ne present two concepts, which are based on cellular automata paradigm. In the first model SCAM4N (Simple Cellular Automata Model of Anastomosing Network, the system is represented by a 2D mesh of elementary cells. The rules of interaction between them are introduced for modelling ofthe water flow and other phenomena connected with anastomosing river: Due to limitations of SCAMAN model, we introduce a supplementary model. The MANGraCA (Model of Anastomosing Network with Graph of Cellular Automata model beside the classical mesh of automata, introduces an additional structure: the graph of cellular automata, which represents the network pattern. Finally we discuss the prospective applications ofthe models. The concepts of juture implementation are also presented.

  15. Significance of flow clustering and sequencing on sediment transport: 1D sediment transport modelling (United States)

    Hassan, Kazi; Allen, Deonie; Haynes, Heather


    This paper considers 1D hydraulic model data on the effect of high flow clusters and sequencing on sediment transport. Using observed flow gauge data from the River Caldew, England, a novel stochastic modelling approach was developed in order to create alternative 50 year flow sequences. Whilst the observed probability density of gauge data was preserved in all sequences, the order in which those flows occurred was varied using the output from a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) with generalised Pareto distribution (GP). In total, one hundred 50 year synthetic flow series were generated and used as the inflow boundary conditions for individual flow series model runs using the 1D sediment transport model HEC-RAS. The model routed graded sediment through the case study river reach to define the long-term morphological changes. Comparison of individual simulations provided a detailed understanding of the sensitivity of channel capacity to flow sequence. Specifically, each 50 year synthetic flow sequence was analysed using a 3-month, 6-month or 12-month rolling window approach and classified for clusters in peak discharge. As a cluster is described as a temporal grouping of flow events above a specified threshold, the threshold condition used herein is considered as a morphologically active channel forming discharge event. Thus, clusters were identified for peak discharges in excess of 10%, 20%, 50%, 100% and 150% of the 1 year Return Period (RP) event. The window of above-peak flows also required cluster definition and was tested for timeframes 1, 2, 10 and 30 days. Subsequently, clusters could be described in terms of the number of events, maximum peak flow discharge, cumulative flow discharge and skewness (i.e. a description of the flow sequence). The model output for each cluster was analysed for the cumulative flow volume and cumulative sediment transport (mass). This was then compared to the total sediment transport of a single flow event of equivalent flow volume

  16. Sample selection and taste correlation in discrete choice transport modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabit, Stefan Lindhard


    many issues that deserve attention. This thesis investigates how sample selection can affect estimation of discrete choice models and how taste correlation should be incorporated into applied mixed logit estimation. Sampling in transport modelling is often based on an observed trip. This may cause...... explain counterintuitive results in value of travel time estimation. However, the results also point at the difficulty of finding suitable instruments for the selection mechanism. Taste heterogeneity is another important aspect of discrete choice modelling. Mixed logit models are designed to capture...... observed as well as unobserved heterogeneity in tastes. But just as there are many reasons to expect unobserved heterogeneity, there is no reason to expect these tastes for different things to be independent. This is rarely accounted for in transportation research. Here three separate investigations...

  17. Paving the road from transport models to “new mobilities” models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Simon; Jensen, Ole B.; Kaplan, Sigal


    For half a century, tremendous efforts have been invested in developing transport models as a decision aid for policy makers in designing effective policy interventions and deciding among costly public projects for the benefit of the population. Transport and activity-based models are often criti...

  18. Combining Deterministic structures and stochastic heterogeneity for transport modeling (United States)

    Zech, Alraune; Attinger, Sabine; Dietrich, Peter; Teutsch, Georg


    Contaminant transport in highly heterogeneous aquifers is extremely challenging and subject of current scientific debate. Tracer plumes often show non-symmetric but highly skewed plume shapes. Predicting such transport behavior using the classical advection-dispersion-equation (ADE) in combination with a stochastic description of aquifer properties requires a dense measurement network. This is in contrast to the available information for most aquifers. A new conceptual aquifer structure model is presented which combines large-scale deterministic information and the stochastic approach for incorporating sub-scale heterogeneity. The conceptual model is designed to allow for a goal-oriented, site specific transport analysis making use of as few data as possible. Thereby the basic idea is to reproduce highly skewed tracer plumes in heterogeneous media by incorporating deterministic contrasts and effects of connectivity instead of using unimodal heterogeneous models with high variances. The conceptual model consists of deterministic blocks of mean hydraulic conductivity which might be measured by pumping tests indicating values differing in orders of magnitudes. A sub-scale heterogeneity is introduced within every block. This heterogeneity can be modeled as bimodal or log-normal distributed. The impact of input parameters, structure and conductivity contrasts is investigated in a systematic manor. Furthermore, some first successful implementation of the model was achieved for the well known MADE site.

  19. Modeling transport kinetics in clinoptilolite-phosphate rock systems (United States)

    Allen, E. R.; Ming, D. W.; Hossner, L. R.; Henninger, D. L.


    Nutrient release in clinoptilolite-phosphate rock (Cp-PR) systems occurs through dissolution and cation-exchange reactions. Investigating the kinetics of these reactions expands our understanding of nutrient release processes. Research was conducted to model transport kinetics of nutrient release in Cp-PR systems. The objectives were to identify empirical models that best describe NH4, K, and P release and define diffusion-controlling processes. Materials included a Texas clinoptilolite (Cp) and North Carolina phosphate rock (PR). A continuous-flow thin-disk technique was used. Models evaluated included zero order, first order, second order, parabolic diffusion, simplified Elovich, Elovich, and power function. The power-function, Elovich, and parabolic-diffusion models adequately described NH4, K, and P release. The power-function model was preferred because of its simplicity. Models indicated nutrient release was diffusion controlled. Primary transport processes controlling nutrient release for the time span observed were probably the result of a combination of several interacting transport mechanisms.

  20. Modeling surf zone tracer plumes: 2. Transport and dispersion (United States)

    Clark, David B.; Feddersen, Falk; Guza, R. T.


    Five surf zone dye tracer releases from the HB06 experiment are simulated with a tracer advection diffusion model coupled to a Boussinesq surf zone model (funwaveC). Model tracer is transported and stirred by currents and eddies and diffused with a breaking wave eddy diffusivity, set equal to the breaking wave eddy viscosity, and a small (0.01 m2 s-1) background diffusivity. Observed and modeled alongshore parallel tracer plumes, transported by the wave driven alongshore current, have qualitatively similar cross-shore structures. Although the model skill for mean tracer concentration is variable (from negative to 0.73) depending upon release, cross-shore integrated tracer moments (normalized by the cross-shore tracer integral) have consistently high skills (≈0.9). Modeled and observed bulk surf zone cross-shore diffusivity estimates are also similar, with 0.72 squared correlation and skill of 0.4. Similar to the observations, the model bulk (absolute) cross-shore diffusivity is consistent with a mixing length parameterization based on low-frequency (0.001-0.03 Hz) eddies. The model absolute cross-shore dispersion is dominated by stirring from surf zone eddies and does not depend upon the presence of the breaking wave eddy diffusivity. Given only the bathymetry and incident wave field, the coupled Boussinesq-tracer model qualitatively reproduces the observed cross-shore absolute tracer dispersion, suggesting that the model can be used to study surf zone tracer dispersion mechanisms.

  1. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Y.; Yabusaki, S.B.; Kincaid, C.T.; Skaggs, R.L.; Walters, W.H.


    SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction with the sediment transport, SERATRA computed radionuclide levels in dissolved, suspended sediment, and bed sediment forms for four radionuclides (/sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu, and /sup 3/H). By accounting for time-dependent sediment-radionuclide interaction in the water column and bed, SERATA is a physically explicit model of radionuclide fate and migration. Sediment and radionuclide concentrations calculated by SERATA in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system are in reasonable agreement with measured values. SERATRA is in the field performance phase of an extensive testing program designed to establish the utility of the model as a site assessment tool. The model handles not only radionuclides but other contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals and other toxic chemicals. Now that the model has been applied to four field sites, including the latest study of the Cattaraugus Creek stream system, it is recommended that a final model be validated through comparison of predicted results with field data from a carefully controlled tracer test at a field site. It is also recommended that a detailed laboratory flume be tested to study cohesive sediment transport, deposition, and erosion characteristics. The lack of current understanding of these characteristics is one of the weakest areas hindering the accurate assessment of the migration of radionuclides sorbed by fine sediments of silt and clay.

  2. Colloid transport in saturated porous media: Elimination of attachment efficiency in a new colloid transport model (United States)

    Landkamer, Lee L.; Harvey, Ronald W.; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Ryan, Joseph N.


    A colloid transport model is introduced that is conceptually simple yet captures the essential features of colloid transport and retention in saturated porous media when colloid retention is dominated by the secondary minimum because an electrostatic barrier inhibits substantial deposition in the primary minimum. This model is based on conventional colloid filtration theory (CFT) but eliminates the empirical concept of attachment efficiency. The colloid deposition rate is computed directly from CFT by assuming all predicted interceptions of colloids by collectors result in at least temporary deposition in the secondary minimum. Also, a new paradigm for colloid re-entrainment based on colloid population heterogeneity is introduced. To accomplish this, the initial colloid population is divided into two fractions. One fraction, by virtue of physiochemical characteristics (e.g., size and charge), will always be re-entrained after capture in a secondary minimum. The remaining fraction of colloids, again as a result of physiochemical characteristics, will be retained “irreversibly” when captured by a secondary minimum. Assuming the dispersion coefficient can be estimated from tracer behavior, this model has only two fitting parameters: (1) the fraction of the initial colloid population that will be retained “irreversibly” upon interception by a secondary minimum, and (2) the rate at which reversibly retained colloids leave the secondary minimum. These two parameters were correlated to the depth of the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) secondary energy minimum and pore-water velocity, two physical forces that influence colloid transport. Given this correlation, the model serves as a heuristic tool for exploring the influence of physical parameters such as surface potential and fluid velocity on colloid transport.

  3. Five-Factor Model personality profiles of drug users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crum Rosa M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Personality traits are considered risk factors for drug use, and, in turn, the psychoactive substances impact individuals' traits. Furthermore, there is increasing interest in developing treatment approaches that match an individual's personality profile. To advance our knowledge of the role of individual differences in drug use, the present study compares the personality profile of tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, and heroin users and non-users using the wide spectrum Five-Factor Model (FFM of personality in a diverse community sample. Method Participants (N = 1,102; mean age = 57 were part of the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA program in Baltimore, MD, USA. The sample was drawn from a community with a wide range of socio-economic conditions. Personality traits were assessed with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R, and psychoactive substance use was assessed with systematic interview. Results Compared to never smokers, current cigarette smokers score lower on Conscientiousness and higher on Neuroticism. Similar, but more extreme, is the profile of cocaine/heroin users, which score very high on Neuroticism, especially Vulnerability, and very low on Conscientiousness, particularly Competence, Achievement-Striving, and Deliberation. By contrast, marijuana users score high on Openness to Experience, average on Neuroticism, but low on Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. Conclusion In addition to confirming high levels of negative affect and impulsive traits, this study highlights the links between drug use and low Conscientiousness. These links provide insight into the etiology of drug use and have implications for public health interventions.

  4. Model documentation report: Transportation sector model of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Transportation Model (TRAN). The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated by the model. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of TRAN for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirements of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports (Public Law 93-275, 57(b)(1)). Third, it permits continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements.

  5. Modeling Mercury Fate and Transport in Aquatic Systems (United States)

    Massoudieh, Arash; Žagar, Dušan; Green, Peter G.; Cabrera-Toledo, Carlos; Horvat, Milena; Ginn, Timothy R.; Barkouki, Tammer; Weathers, Tess; Bombardelli, Fabian A.

    Mercury in the aquatic environment is a neurotoxin with several known adverse effects on the natural ecosystem and the human health. Mathematical modeling is a cost-effective way for assessing the risk associated with mercury to aquatic organisms and for developing management plans for the reduction of mercury exposure in such systems. However, the analysis of mercury fate and transport in the aquatic environment requires multiple disciplines of science ranging from sediment transport and hydraulics, to geochemistry and microbiology. Also, it involves the knowledge of some less understood processes such as the microbial and diagenetic processes affecting the chemical speciation of mercury and various mechanisms involved in the mass-exchange of mercury species between the benthic sediments and the overlying water. Due to these complexities, there are many challenges involved in developing an integrated mercury fate and transport model in aquatic systems. This paper identifies the various processes that are potentially important in mercury fate and transport as well as the knowns and unknowns about these processes. Also, an integrated multi-component reactive transport modeling approach is suggested to capture several of those processes. This integrated modeling framework includes the coupled advective-dispersive transport of mercury species in the water body, both in dissolved phase and as associated to mobile suspended sediments. The flux of mercury in the benthic sediments as a result of diffusive mass exchange, bio-dispersion, and hyporheic flow, and the flow generated due to consolidation of newly deposited sediments is also addressed. The model considers in addition the deposition and resuspension of sediments and their effect on the mass exchange of mercury species between the top water and the benthic sediments. As for the biogeochemical processes, the effect of redox stratification and activities of sulfate and iron-reducing bacteria on the methylation of

  6. A model for quantification of temperature profiles via germination times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pipper, Christian Bressen; Adolf, Verena Isabelle; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik


    Current methodology to quantify temperature characteristics in germination of seeds is predominantly based on analysis of the time to reach a given germination fraction, that is, the quantiles in the distribution of the germination time of a seed. In practice interpolation between observed...... germination fractions at given monitoring times is used to obtain the time to reach a given germination fraction. As a consequence the obtained value will be highly dependent on the actual monitoring scheme used in the experiment. In this paper a link between currently used quantile models for the germination...... time and a specific type of accelerated failure time models is provided. As a consequence the observed number of germinated seeds at given monitoring times may be analysed directly by a grouped time-to-event model from which characteristics of the temperature profile may be identified and estimated...

  7. Determine Canopy Turbulent Transport and Evapotranspiration Partition With the Help of a new Soil Water Isotope Model (United States)

    Cuntz, M.; Haverd, V.; Griffith, D. W.; Keitel, C.; Tadros, C.; Twining, J.


    We determine the profile of turbulent transport and evapotranspiration ET partition in a Eucalypt forest for a two-week period. We therefore optimise agreement between modelled and measured vertical profiles of temperature T, water vapour H2O, carbon dioxide CO2, and deuterium content of water vapour HDO. Modelled T and concentration profiles are derived from Lagrangian dispersion theory together with a Soil Vegetation Atmospheric Transfer (SVAT) model, which was enhanced by a new scheme for coupled transport of heat, water and stable isotopes in soil and litter, Soil-Litter-Iso. We first present the new water isotope model Soil-Litter-iso, which is suitable for SVAT modelling but also as part of a land surface scheme. The model permits using thick soil layers and large times steps, resulting in significantly improved computational efficiency compared with existing isotopically-enabled soil models of similar complexity. Deuterium contents δD of soil evaporation and vertically-resolved transpiration as prior estimates for the optimisation are then derived using the SVAT model with Soil-Litter-Iso for the isotopic soil evaporates and an advection-diffusion model for leaf water and transpiration isotopes. Predictions of δD in soil evaporate were validated using soil chamber measurements, while the transpirates were validated using isotopic analyses of leaf and xylem water, combined with leaf-level gas exchange measurements. Hence, modelled T and concentration profiles are generated using Lagrangian dispersion theory combined with source/sink distributions of sensible heat, CO2, H2O and HDO coming from the SVAT model. Optimisation of turbulent transport and ET partition was then performed twice: once using only T, CO2 and H2O profiles and a second time including δD of water vapour as well. The modelled concentration profiles resulting from inclusion of δD demonstrate our ability to make consistent estimates of both the source distributions and δD of the water

  8. Modeling and simulation of transport phenomena in ionic gels (United States)

    Leichsenring, Peter; Wallmersperger, Thomas


    Ionic hydrogels belong to the class of polyelectrolyte gels or ionic gels. Their ability to swell or shrink under different environmental conditions such as change of pH, ion concentration or temperature make them promising materials, e.g. for microsensoric or microactuatoric devices. The hydrogel swelling exhibits nonlinear effects due to the occurrence of different interacting transport phenomena. Numerical simulations are an essential part in the ongoing development of microsensors and microactuators. In order to determine transport effects due to diffusion, migration and convection a multiphase mesoscale model based on the Theory of Porous Media is applied. The governing field equations are solved in the transient regime by applying the Finite Element Method. By means of the derived numerical framework a detailed investigation of the different transport phenomena is carried out. Numerical experiments are performed to characterize the dominating transfer phenomena for ionic gels under chemical stimulation.

  9. Multimodal Transport System Coevolution Model Based on Synergetic Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenling Feng


    Full Text Available This study investigates multimodal transport system evolution law with the consideration of synergetic theory. Compared with previous studies, this paper focuses on understanding influencing factors of system collaborative development. In particular, we have applied a multimodal system order parameter model to obtain the order parameter. Based on order parameters, the coevolution equations of the multimodal transport system are constructed with consideration of cooperation and competitive relationship between the subsystems. We set out the multimodal system followed the coevolution law of the freight system and dominated by the combined effects of order parameter line length and freight density. The results show that the coordination effects between railway, road, and water subsystems are stronger than aviation subsystem; the railway system is the short plank of the system. Some functional implications from this study are also discussed. Finally the results indicate that expansion of railway system capacity and mutual cooperation within the subsystems are required to reach an optimal multimodal transport system.

  10. Modelling of Transport Phenomena at Cement Matrix—Aggregate Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Breugel, Klaas; Koenders, Eddie; Ye, Guang


    The performance of a heterogeneous material like concrete is largely determined by the many interfaces in this material. This contribution focuses on the potential of numerical simulation models to investigate the character of the matrix-aggregate interfacial zone and to simulate hydration-induce......-induced moisture transport from the water-rich interfacial zone to the drying bulk paste. Typical features of the simulation model are presented, as well as results of the numerical analysis of the effect of moisture transport within the hardening paste.......The performance of a heterogeneous material like concrete is largely determined by the many interfaces in this material. This contribution focuses on the potential of numerical simulation models to investigate the character of the matrix-aggregate interfacial zone and to simulate hydration...

  11. Integration of computational modeling with membrane transport studies reveals new insights into amino acid exchange transport mechanisms (United States)

    Widdows, Kate L.; Panitchob, Nuttanont; Crocker, Ian P.; Please, Colin P.; Hanson, Mark A.; Sibley, Colin P.; Johnstone, Edward D.; Sengers, Bram G.; Lewis, Rohan M.; Glazier, Jocelyn D.


    Uptake of system L amino acid substrates into isolated placental plasma membrane vesicles in the absence of opposing side amino acid (zero-trans uptake) is incompatible with the concept of obligatory exchange, where influx of amino acid is coupled to efflux. We therefore hypothesized that system L amino acid exchange transporters are not fully obligatory and/or that amino acids are initially present inside the vesicles. To address this, we combined computational modeling with vesicle transport assays and transporter localization studies to investigate the mechanisms mediating [14C]l-serine (a system L substrate) transport into human placental microvillous plasma membrane (MVM) vesicles. The carrier model provided a quantitative framework to test the 2 hypotheses that l-serine transport occurs by either obligate exchange or nonobligate exchange coupled with facilitated transport (mixed transport model). The computational model could only account for experimental [14C]l-serine uptake data when the transporter was not exclusively in exchange mode, best described by the mixed transport model. MVM vesicle isolates contained endogenous amino acids allowing for potential contribution to zero-trans uptake. Both L-type amino acid transporter (LAT)1 and LAT2 subtypes of system L were distributed to MVM, with l-serine transport attributed to LAT2. These findings suggest that exchange transporters do not function exclusively as obligate exchangers.—Widdows, K. L., Panitchob, N., Crocker, I. P., Please, C. P., Hanson, M. A., Sibley, C. P., Johnstone, E. D., Sengers, B. G., Lewis, R. M., Glazier, J. D. Integration of computational modeling with membrane transport studies reveals new insights into amino acid exchange transport mechanisms. PMID:25761365

  12. A model of recovering the parameters of fast nonlocal heat transport in magnetic fusion plasmas (United States)

    Kukushkin, A. B.; Kulichenko, A. A.; Sdvizhenskii, P. A.; Sokolov, A. V.; Voloshinov, V. V.


    A model is elaborated for interpreting the initial stage of the fast nonlocal transport events, which exhibit immediate response, in the diffusion time scale, of the spatial profile of electron temperature to its local perturbation, while the net heat flux is directed opposite to ordinary diffusion (i.e. along the temperature gradient). We solve the inverse problem of recovering the kernel of the integral equation, which describes nonlocal (superdiffusive) transport of energy due to emission and absorption of electromagnetic (EM) waves with long free path and strong reflection from the vacuum vessel’s wall. To allow for the errors of experimental data, we use the method based on the regularized (in the framework of an ill-posed problem, using the parametric models) approximation of available experimental data. The model is applied to interpreting the data from stellarator LHD and tokamak TFTR. The EM wave transport is considered here in the single-group approximation, however the limitations of the physics model enable us to identify the spectral range of the EM waves which might be responsible for the observed phenomenon.

  13. 3D modeling of groundwater heat transport in the shallow Westliches Leibnitzer Feld aquifer, Austria (United States)

    Rock, Gerhard; Kupfersberger, Hans


    For the shallow Westliches Leibnitzer feld aquifer (45 km2) we applied the recently developed methodology by Kupfersberger et al. (2017a) to derive the thermal upper boundary for a 3D heat transport model from observed air temperatures. We distinguished between land uses of grass and agriculture, sealed surfaces, forest and water bodies. To represent the heat flux from heated buildings and the mixture between different land surfaces in urban areas we ran the 1D vertical heat conduction module SoilTemp which is coupled to the heat transport model (using FEFLOW) on a time step basis. Over a simulation period of 23 years the comparison between measured and observed groundwater temperatures yielded NSE values ranging from 0.41 to 0.92 including readings at different depths. The model results showed that the thermal input signals lead to distinctly different vertical groundwater temperature distributions. To overcome the influence of specific warm or cold years we introduced the computation of an annual averaged groundwater temperature profile. With respect to the use of groundwater cooling or heating facilities we evaluated the application of vertically averaged statistical groundwater temperature distributions compared to the use of temperature distributions at selected dates. We concluded that the heat transport model serves well as an aquifer scale management tool to optimize the use of the shallow subsurface for thermal purposes and to analyze the impacts of corresponding measures on groundwater temperatures.

  14. Effect of doping and stoichiometric profile on transport in SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor (United States)

    Halilov, S.


    Based on analytical consideration and numerical simulations, it is shown how the mutually adjusted doping and stoichiometric profile results in improved frequency response and current gain in Si1-x Ge x -based heterojunction bipolar transistor. The closed-form expressions are derived for the dopant distribution within a certain mobility model which is parametrized in terms of the impurity concentration and stoichiometric grading on the same footing. With proper parametrization of the mobility, the method is suitable in both limits of high alloy scattering/low crystal ordering and low alloy scattering/highly ordered stoichiometrically graded structure. The work is corroborated by device simulations of a single-side HBT 30% stoichiometrically graded base, with detailed IV-curve, Gummel and AC analysis. It is shown that the distinct impurity distribution results in a reduced space-charge region, contributes to an effective electric field assisting the diffusion of the minority carriers and results in the saturation current density increased by 50%, the AC gain increased by 90%, the four-fold increase of the DC current gain, and improves the transition frequency from 274 to 358 GHz as compared to the case of the uniformly distributed acceptors. The obtained results may serve as a practical guide in design of highly-graded heterojunction bipolar transistors with efficient frequency response, high gain and enhanced power.

  15. A Model for the Transport of Sea-Spray Aerosols in the Coastal Zone (United States)

    Piazzola, J.; Tedeschi, G.; Demoisson, A.


    We study the dynamics of sea-spray particles in the coastal region of La Reunion Island on the basis of numerical simulations using the transport aerosol model MACMod (Marine Aerosol Concentration Model) and a survey of the aerosol size distributions measured at four locations at two different heights in the north-west part of the island. This allows evaluation of the performance of our model in case of pure marine air masses with implementation of accurate boundary conditions. First of all, an estimate of the aerosol concentration at 10-m height at the upwind boundary of the calculation domain is obtained using a revisited version of the MEDEX (Mediterranean Extinction) model. Estimates of the vertical profile of aerosol concentrations are then provided using aerosol data obtained at two different heights at the upwind boundary of the calculation domain. A parametrization of the vertical profiles of aerosol concentrations for maritime environment is proposed. The results are then compared to the vertical profiles of 0.532 m aerosol particle extinction coefficient obtained from lidar data provided by the Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and also to the data provided by the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). This allows validation of the complete vertical profiles in the mixed layer and shows the validity of satellite data for determination of the vertical profiles. Two kinds of simulation were made: one without a particle advection flux at the upwind boundary of the numerical domain, whereas the second simulation was made with a particle advection flux. In the first case, the influence of the distance to the shoreline on the local sea-spray dynamics is investigated. In the second set of simulation, the particles issued from the local production in the surf zone near the shoreline are mixed with aerosols advected from the remote ocean. A good agreement between the model calculations using our boundary conditions and the data was found. The

  16. Preliminary study on performance of a coupled hydrodynamic and sediment transport model on small domain (United States)

    Rasyif, Teuku M.; Kato, Shigeru; Syamsidik, Okabe, Takumi


    Numerical simulation is one of the useful tools to analyze natural phenomena in the earth such as the tsunami disaster. Several numerical models can simulate the tsunami wave from its generation, propagation, and inundation. However, most tsunami models do not include the sediment transport module. The tsunami wave actually induces a lot of sediment during the propagation in the coastal area. In the case of Indian Ocean Tsunami in 2004, massive morphological changes were caused by the tsunami waves around Sumatra coast. In Aceh, some areas eroded by the tsunami wave were living place for a local community. It is indispensable for the resident in the coastal area to estimate the risk of morphological changes due to a tsunami wave. Therefore, a model that can investigate the morphological changes due tsunami wave is necessary. The result of this model can be used to consider a countermeasure for tsunami wave impact in the coastal area, such as land-use management and planning. The COMCOT-SED model had been developed by several researchers. This model combines the hydrodynamic module and the sediment module. The aim of this study is to get general information about performance of the COMCOT-SED model and to modify the model for more accurate results. Firstly, the model was demonstrated in the ideal condition to confirm the model validity. Then, we evaluated the model performance comparing the model results and the laboratory experiment data which was conducted by other researcher. The authors found that the results of water level and bottom profile by the original model in the ideal condition are not suitable. The model modification will give us more suitable results. The modified model will be applied to simulate the tsunami wave and sediment transport in the small area.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilkyoung Shin,Byung Yunn,Todd Satogata,Shahid Ahmed


    The transverse focusing effect in RF cavities plays a considerable role in beam dynamics for low-energy beamline sections and can contribute to beam breakup (BBU) instability. The purpose of this analysis is to examine RF cavity models in simulation codes which will be used for BBU experiments at Jefferson Lab and improve BBU simulation results. We review two RF cavity models in the simulation codes elegant and TDBBU (a BBU simulation code developed at Jefferson Lab). elegant can include the Rosenzweig-Serafini (R-S) model for the RF focusing effect. Whereas TDBBU uses a model from the code TRANSPORT which considers the adiabatic damping effect, but not the RF focusing effect. Quantitative comparisons are discussed for the CEBAF beamline. We also compare the R-S model with the results from numerical simulations for a CEBAF-type 5-cell superconducting cavity to validate the use of the R-S model as an improved low-energy RF cavity transport model in TDBBU. We have implemented the R-S model in TDBBU. It will improve BBU simulation results to be more matched with analytic calculations and experimental results.

  18. An extended convection diffusion model for red blood cell-enhanced transport of thrombocytes and leukocytes (United States)

    Hund, S J; Antaki, J F


    Transport phenomena of platelets and white blood cells (WBCs) are fundamental to the processes of vascular disease and thrombosis. Unfortunately, the dilute volume occupied by these cells is not amenable to fluid-continuum modeling, and yet the cell count is large enough that modeling each individual cell is impractical for most applications. The most feasible option is to treat them as dilute species governed by convection and diffusion; however, this is further complicated by the role of the red blood cell (RBC) phase on the transport of these cells. We therefore propose an extended convection–diffusion (ECD) model based on the diffusive balance of a fictitious field potential, Ψ, that accounts for the gradients of both the dilute phase and the local hematocrit. The ECD model was applied to the flow of blood in a tube and between parallel plates in which a profile for the RBC concentration field was imposed and the resulting platelet concentration field predicted. Compared to prevailing enhanced-diffusion models that dispersed the platelet concentration field, the ECD model was able to simulate a near-wall platelet excess, as observed experimentally. The extension of the ECD model depends only on the ability to prescribe the hematocrit distribution, and therefore may be applied to a wide variety of geometries to investigate platelet-mediated vascular disease and device-related thrombosis. PMID:19809124

  19. Modeling of Switching and Hysteresis in Molecular Transport (United States)

    Samanta, Manoj P.; Partridge, Harry (Technical Monitor)


    The conventional way of modeling current transport in two and three terminal molecular devices could be inadequate for certain cases involving switching and hysteresis. Here we present an alternate approach. Contrary to the regular way where applied bias directly modulates the conducting energy levels of the molecule, our method introduces a nonlinear potential energy surface varying with the applied bias as a control parameter. A time-dynamics is also introduced properly accounting for switching and hysteresis behavior. Although the model is phenomenological at this stage, we believe any detailed model would contain similar descriptions at its core.

  20. The dual-gate lumen model of renal monoamine transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marty Hinz


    Full Text Available Marty Hinz1, Alvin Stein2, Thomas Uncini31Clinical Research, NeuroResearch Clinics, Inc. Cape Coral, Florida, USA; 2Stein Orthopedic Associates, Plantation, Florida, USA; 3DBS Labs, Duluth, Minnesota, USAAbstract: The three-phase response of urinary serotonin and dopamine in subjects ­simultaneously taking amino acid precursors of serotonin and dopamine has been defined.1,2 No model exists regarding the renal etiology of the three-phase response. This writing outlines a model explaining the origin of the three-phase response of urinary serotonin and dopamine. A “dual-gate lumen transporter model” for the basolateral monoamine transporters of the kidneys is proposed as being the etiology of the three-phase urinary serotonin and dopamine responses.Purpose: The purpose of this writing is to document the internal renal function model that has evolved in research during large-scale assay with phase interpretation of urinary serotonin and dopamine.Patients and methods: In excess of 75,000 urinary monoamine assays from more than 7,500 patients were analyzed. The serotonin and the dopamine phase were determined for specimens submitted in the competitive inhibition state. The phase determination findings were then correlated with peer-reviewed literature.Results: The correlation between the three-phase response of urinary serotonin and dopamine with internal renal processes of the bilateral monoamine transporter and the apical monoamine transporter of the proximal convoluted renal tubule cells is defined.Conclusion: The phase of urinary serotonin and dopamine is dependent on the status of the serotonin gate, dopamine gate, and lumen of the basolateral monoamine transporter while in the competitive inhibition state.Keywords: serotonin, dopamine, basolateral, apical, kidney, proximal

  1. Effective ADE models for first-order mobile-immobile solute transport: Limits on validity and modeling implications (United States)

    Hansen, Scott K.


    Quasi-1D mobile-immobile transport processes which have exponentially distributed random waiting times in both mobile and immobile states are common in hydrologic models (for example, of transport subject to kinetic sorption). The central limit theorem implies that eventually such transport will be expressible with an effective ADE (i.e. a generalization of the common retardation factor approach with an added Fickian dispersion coefficient accounting for the effect of trapping). Previous works have determined formulae for the value of this coefficient based on the transport properties. However, the time until convergence to Gaussian behavior has not previously been quantified. To this end, exact Green's functions characterizing the transport at all times are derived for the case of pure advection. The Green's functions are expressed in terms of three dimensionless parameters, representing location, time, and capacity coefficient. In the pre-Gaussian regime, a parametric study characterizing concentration profile asymmetry as a function of the capacity coefficient is performed. Next, heuristics are presented in terms of the dimensionless parameters for the time until the effective ADE adequately reflects reality. For strongly retarded solute, the time until effective ADE validity is found inversely proportional to release (e.g., desorption) rate. The nature of the effective dispersion coefficient is examined, and the possibility of large trapping-driven dispersion even in cases where batch experiments would detect negligible trapping is demonstrated. Collectively, these results call into question reliance on retardation factors derived from batch experiments for many practical transport modeling efforts; knowledge of both the trapping and release kinetics appears essential.

  2. Evaluation of 10 cross-shore sediment transport morphological models

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schoonees, JS


    Full Text Available of beach profile change is pursued mainly to allow prediction of beach evolution in the vicinity of planned or existing coastal developments. The types of coastal engineering problems for which predictive tools are needed... envelopes for the planning/construction of pipelines and structures such as tidal pools. In the past, the prediction of beach evolution was mainly conducted by relying on experience and on the results of hydraulic model...

  3. A reactive transport model for mercury fate in soil--application to different anthropogenic pollution sources. (United States)

    Leterme, Bertrand; Blanc, Philippe; Jacques, Diederik


    Soil systems are a common receptor of anthropogenic mercury (Hg) contamination. Soils play an important role in the containment or dispersion of pollution to surface water, groundwater or the atmosphere. A one-dimensional model for simulating Hg fate and transport for variably saturated and transient flow conditions is presented. The model is developed using the HP1 code, which couples HYDRUS-1D for the water flow and solute transport to PHREEQC for geochemical reactions. The main processes included are Hg aqueous speciation and complexation, sorption to soil organic matter, dissolution of cinnabar and liquid Hg, and Hg reduction and volatilization. Processes such as atmospheric wet and dry deposition, vegetation litter fall and uptake are neglected because they are less relevant in the case of high Hg concentrations resulting from anthropogenic activities. A test case is presented, assuming a hypothetical sandy soil profile and a simulation time frame of 50 years of daily atmospheric inputs. Mercury fate and transport are simulated for three different sources of Hg (cinnabar, residual liquid mercury or aqueous mercuric chloride), as well as for combinations of these sources. Results are presented and discussed with focus on Hg volatilization to the atmosphere, Hg leaching at the bottom of the soil profile and the remaining Hg in or below the initially contaminated soil layer. In the test case, Hg volatilization was negligible because the reduction of Hg(2+) to Hg(0) was inhibited by the low concentration of dissolved Hg. Hg leaching was mainly caused by complexation of Hg(2+) with thiol groups of dissolved organic matter, because in the geochemical model used, this reaction only had a higher equilibrium constant than the sorption reactions. Immobilization of Hg in the initially polluted horizon was enhanced by Hg(2+) sorption onto humic and fulvic acids (which are more abundant than thiols). Potential benefits of the model for risk management and remediation of

  4. Analysis and high resolution modelling of black carbon vertical profiles measured over three Italian valleys (United States)

    Gandolfi, Ilaria; Curci, Gabriele; Falasca, Serena; Ferrero, Luca


    Analysis and high resolution modelling of black carbon vertical profiles measured over three Italian valleys Ilaria Gandolfi1,2, Gabriele Curci1,2, Serena Falasca1,2, Luca Ferrero3 1 Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy 2 Center of Excellence CETEMPS, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy 3 POLARIS Research Centre, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126, Milan, Italy Last decades were characterized by a growing interest in aerosols: mainly for their effect on human health and on the energy balance of solar and planetary radiation, thus their role in climate change. In this study, we analyze the evolution of vertical profile of black carbon (BC) through tethered balloon observations and chemistry-transport modelling. Black carbon is regarded as the second most important anthropogenic climate forcing agent and its concentration varies significantly depending on the altitude and the sources on the territory. In winter of 2010 University Of Milan Bicocca conducted three intensive measurements campaigns over three Italian basin valleys (Terni, Po Valley, Passiria Valley). The choice of the valleys was made taking into consideration the orography and the river basin structure. The measurement campaign was based on a helium-filled tethered balloon, on which the instrumentation for the analysis has been mounted; the instrumentation consisted on a meteorological station, an OPC, a cascade impactor and a micro-Aethalometer. Subsequently, at University of L'Aquila simulations were produced to help interpretation of these vertical aerosol profiles (mass, composition and distribution) and related optical properties (scattering, absorption) using a chemistry-transport model (WRF-CHIMERE) at high horizontal resolution (1 km). The analysis focused primarily on the calculation of the heating rate and of the Direct Radiative Effect (DRE), and on the analysis of the

  5. Nearshore Tsunami Inundation Model Validation: Toward Sediment Transport Applications (United States)

    Apotsos, Alex; Buckley, Mark; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Jaffe, Bruce; Vatvani, Deepak


    Model predictions from a numerical model, Delft3D, based on the nonlinear shallow water equations are compared with analytical results and laboratory observations from seven tsunami-like benchmark experiments, and with field observations from the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. The model accurately predicts the magnitude and timing of the measured water levels and flow velocities, as well as the magnitude of the maximum inundation distance and run-up, for both breaking and non-breaking waves. The shock-capturing numerical scheme employed describes well the total decrease in wave height due to breaking, but does not reproduce the observed shoaling near the break point. The maximum water levels observed onshore near Kuala Meurisi, Sumatra, following the 26 December 2004 tsunami are well predicted given the uncertainty in the model setup. The good agreement between the model predictions and the analytical results and observations demonstrates that the numerical solution and wetting and drying methods employed are appropriate for modeling tsunami inundation for breaking and non-breaking long waves. Extension of the model to include sediment transport may be appropriate for long, non-breaking tsunami waves. Using available sediment transport formulations, the sediment deposit thickness at Kuala Meurisi is predicted generally within a factor of 2.

  6. Thermodynamic Modeling of Gas Transport in Glassy Polymeric Membranes (United States)

    Minelli, Matteo; Sarti, Giulio Cesare


    Solubility and permeability of gases in glassy polymers have been considered with the aim of illustrating the applicability of thermodynamically-based models for their description and prediction. The solubility isotherms are described by using the nonequilibrium lattice fluid (NELF) (model, already known to be appropriate for nonequilibrium glassy polymers, while the permeability isotherms are described through a general transport model in which diffusivity is the product of a purely kinetic factor, the mobility coefficient, and a thermodynamic factor. The latter is calculated from the NELF model and mobility is considered concentration-dependent through an exponential relationship containing two parameters only. The models are tested explicitly considering solubility and permeability data of various penetrants in three glassy polymers, PSf, PPh and 6FDA-6FpDA, selected as the reference for different behaviors. It is shown that the models are able to calculate the different behaviors observed, and in particular the permeability dependence on upstream pressure, both when it is decreasing as well as when it is increasing, with no need to invoke the onset of additional plasticization phenomena. The correlations found between polymer and penetrant properties with the two parameters of the mobility coefficient also lead to the predictive ability of the transport model. PMID:28825619

  7. LIDAR vertical profiles over the Oil Sands Region: an important tool in understanding atmospheric particulate matter transport, mixing and transformation (United States)

    Strawbridge, K. B.


    LIDAR technology is an excellent tool to probe the complex vertical structure of the atmosphere at high spatial and temporal resolution. This provides the critical vertical context for the interpretation of ground-based chemistry measurements, airborne measurements and model verification and validation. In recent years, Environment Canada has designed an autonomous aerosol LIDAR system that can be deployed to remote areas such as the oil sands. Currently two autonomous LIDAR systems are making measurements in the oil sands region, one since December, 2012 and the other since July, 2013. The LIDAR transmitter emits two wavelengths (1064nm and 532nm) and the detector assembly collects four channels (1064nm backscatter, 532nm backscatter and 532nm depolarization, 607 nm nitrogen channel). Aerosol profiles from near ground to 20 km are collected every 10-60 s providing sufficient resolution to probe atmospheric dynamics, mixing and transport. The depolarization channel provides key information in identifying and discriminating the various aerosol layers aloft such as dust, forest fire plumes, industrial plume sources or ice crystals. The vertical resolution of the LIDAR can determine whether industrial plumes remain aloft or mix down to the surface and also provide estimates as to the concentration of the particulate at various altitudes. It operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week except during precipitation events. The system is operated remotely and the data are updated every hour to a website to allow near real-time capability. An intensive measurement campaign will be carried out in August and September of 2013 and will provide coincident airborne and ground-based measurements for the two LIDAR systems. The first results from this field study will be presented as well as some statistics on the frequency and evolution of plume events that were detected by the LIDARs.

  8. Macroscopic Modeling of Transport Phenomena in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anders Christian

    An increasing need for energy efficiency and high energy density has sparked a growing interest in direct methanol fuel cells for portable power applications. This type of fuel cell directly generates electricity from a fuel mixture consisting of methanol and water. Although this technology...... for studying their transport. In this PhD dissertation the macroscopic transport phenomena governing direct methanol fuel cell operation are analyzed, discussed and modeled using the two-fluid approach in the computational fluid dynamics framework of CFX 14. The overall objective of this work is to extend...... the present fundamental understanding of direct methanol fuel cell operation by developing a three-dimensional, two-phase, multi-component, non-isotherm mathematical model including detailed non-ideal thermodynamics, non-equilibrium phase change and non-equilibrium sorption-desorption of methanol and water...

  9. Modelling reactive transport in a phosphogypsum dump, Venezia, Italia (United States)

    Calcara, Massimo; Borgia, Andrea; Cattaneo, Laura; Bartolo, Sergio; Clemente, Gianni; Glauco Amoroso, Carlo; Lo Re, Fabio; Tozzato, Elena


    We develop a reactive-transport porous media flow model for a phosphogypsum dump located on the intertidal deposits of the Venetian Lagoon: 1. we construct a complex conceptual and geologic model from field data using the GMS™ graphical user interface; 2. the geological model is mapped onto a rectangular MODFLOW grid; 3. using the TMT2 FORTRAN90 code we translate this grid into the MESH, INCON and GENER input files for the TOUGH2 series of codes; 4. we run TOUGH-REACT to model flow and reactive transport in the dump and the sediments below it. The model includes 3 different dump materials (phosphogypsum, bituminous and hazardous wastes) with the pores saturated by specific fluids. The sediments below the dump are formed by an intertidal sequence of calcareous sands and silts, in addition to clays and organic deposits, all of which are initially saturated with lagoon salty waters. The recharge rain-water dilutes the dump fluids. In turn, the percolates from the dump react with the underlying sediments and the sea water that saturates them. Simulation results have been compared with chemical sampled analyses. In fact, in spite of the simplicity of our model we are able to show how the pH becomes neutral at a short distance below the dump, a fact observed during aquifer monitoring. The spatial and temporal evolution of dissolution and precipitation reactions occur in our model much alike reality. Mobility of some elements, such as divalent iron, are reduced by specific and concurrent conditions of pH from near-neutrality to moderately high values and positive redox potential; opposite conditions favour mobility of potentially toxic metals such as Cr, As Cd and Pb. Vertical movement are predominant. Trend should be therefore heavily influenced by pH and Eh values. If conditions are favourable to mobility, concentration of these substances in the bottom strata could be high. However, simulation suggest that the sediments tend to reduce the transport potential of

  10. Anomalous solute transport in saturated porous media: Relating transport model parameters to electrical and nuclear magnetic resonance properties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swanson, Ryan D; Binley, Andrew; Keating, Kristina; France, Samantha; Osterman, Gordon; Day‐Lewis, Frederick D; Singha, Kamini


    The advection‐dispersion equation (ADE) fails to describe commonly observed non‐Fickian solute transport in saturated porous media, necessitating the use of other models such as the dual‐domain mass‐transfer (DDMT) model...

  11. Cuttings Transport Models and Experimental Visualization of Underbalanced Horizontal Drilling


    Na Wei; YingFeng Meng; Gao Li; LiPing Wan; ZhaoYang Xu; XiaoFeng Xu; YuRui Zhang


    Aerated underbalanced horizontal drilling technology has become the focus of the drilling industry at home and abroad, and one of the engineering core issues is the horizontal borehole cleaning. Therefore, calculating the minimum injection volume of gas and liquid accurately is essential for the construction in aerated underbalanced horizontal drilling. This paper establishes a physical model of carrying cuttings and borehole cleaning in wellbore of horizontal well and a critical transport ma...

  12. Multiphysical modelling of fluid transport through osteo-articular media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault Lemaire


    Full Text Available In this study, a multiphysical description of fluid transport through osteo-articular porous media is presented. Adapted from the model of Moyne and Murad, which is intended to describe clayey materials behaviour, this multiscale modelling allows for the derivation of the macroscopic response of the tissue from microscopical information. First the model is described. At the pore scale, electrohydrodynamics equations governing the electrolyte movement are coupled with local electrostatics (Gauss-Poisson equation, and ionic transport equations. Using a change of variables and an asymptotic expansion method, the macroscopic description is carried out. Results of this model are used to show the importance of couplings effects on the mechanotransduction of compact bone remodelling.Neste estudo uma descrição multifísica do transporte de fluidos em meios porosos osteo articulares é apresentada. Adaptado a partir do modelo de Moyne e Murad proposto para descrever o comportamento de materiais argilosos a modelagem multiescala permite a derivação da resposta macroscópica do tecido a partir da informação microscópica. Na primeira parte o modelo é apresentado. Na escala do poro as equações da eletro-hidrodinâmica governantes do movimento dos eletrolitos são acopladas com a eletrostática local (equação de Gauss-Poisson e as equações de transporte iônico. Usando uma mudança de variáveis e o método de expansão assintótica a derivação macroscópica é conduzida. Resultados do modelo proposto são usados para salientar a importância dos efeitos de acoplamento sobre a transdução mecânica da remodelagem de ossos compactados.

  13. Impact of transport model errors on the global and regional methane emissions estimated by inverse modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Locatelli, R.; Bousquet, P.; Chevallier, F.; Fortems-Cheney, A.; Szopa, S.; Saunois, M.; Agusti-Panareda, A.; Bergmann, D.; Bian, H.; Cameron-Smith, P.; Chipperfield, M.P.; Gloor, E.; Houweling, S.; Kawa, S.R.; Krol, M.C.; Patra, P.K.; Prinn, R.G.; Rigby, M.; Saito, R.; Wilson, C.


    A modelling experiment has been conceived to assess the impact of transport model errors on methane emissions estimated in an atmospheric inversion system. Synthetic methane observations, obtained from 10 different model outputs from the international TransCom-CH4 model inter-comparison exercise,

  14. Electron Temperature Fluctuation Measurements and Transport Model Validation at Alcator C-Mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Anne [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)


    The tokamak is a type of toroidal device used to confine a fusion plasma using large magnetic fields. Tokamaks and stellarators the leading devices for confining plasmas for fusion, and the capability to predict performance in these magnetically confined plasmas is essential for developing a sustainable fusion energy source. The magnetic configuration of tokamaks and stellarators does not exist in Nature, yet, the fundamental processes governing transport in fusion plasmas are universal – turbulence and instabilities, driven by inhomogeneity and asymmetry in the plasma, conspire to transport heat and particles across magnetic field lines and can play critical roles in impurity confinement and generation of intrinsic rotation. Turbulence exists in all plasmas, and in neutral fluids as well. The study of turbulence is essential to developing a fundamental understanding of the nature of the fourth state of matter, plasmas. Experimental studies of turbulence in tokamaks date back to early scattering observations from the late 1970s. Since that time, great advances in turbulence diagnostics have been made, all of which have significantly enhanced our knowledge and understanding of turbulence in tokamaks. Through comparisons with advanced gyrokinetic theory and turbulent-transport models a great deal of evidence exists to implicate turbulent-driven transport as an important mechanism determining transport in all channels: heat, particle and momentum However, prediction and control of turbulent-driven transport remains elusive. Key to development of predictive transport models for magnetically confined fusion plasmas is validation of the nonlinear gyrokinetic transport model, which describes transport due to turbulence. Validation of gyrokinetic codes must include detailed and quantitative comparisons with measured turbulence characteristics, in addition to comparisons with inferred transport levels and equilibrium profiles. For this reason, advanced plasma diagnostics

  15. Modeling Nitrogen Fate and Transport at the Sediment-Water ... (United States)

    Diffusive mass transfer at media interfaces exerts control on the fate and transport of pollutants originating from agricultural and urban landscapes and affects the con-ditions of water bodies. Diffusion is essentially a physical process affecting the distribution and fate of various environmental pollutants such as nutrients, pesticides, metals, PCBs, PAHs, etc. Environmental problems caused by excessive use of agricultural chemicals (e.g., pesticides and fertilizers) and improper discharge of industrial waste and fuel leaks are all influenced by the diffusive nature of pollutants in the environment. Eutrophication is one such environmental problem where the sediment-water interface exerts a significant physical and geochemical control on the eutrophic condition of the stressed water body. Exposure of streams and lakes to contaminated sediment is another common environmental problem whereby transport of the contaminant (PCBs, PAHs, and other organic contaminants) across the sediment water can increase the risk for exposure to the chemicals and pose a significant health hazard to aquatic life and human beings. This chapter presents analytical and numerical models describing fate and transport phenomena at the sediment-water interface in freshwater ecosystems, with the primary focus on nitrogen cycling and the applicability of the models to real-world environmental problems and challenges faced in their applications. The first model deals with nitrogen cycling

  16. One-dimensional numerical modeling of sediment transport and bed deformation in open channels (United States)

    El Kadi Abderrezzak, Kamal; Paquier, André


    A one-dimensional numerical model for simulating unsteady flow and sediment transport in open channels is presented and tested. The flow hydrodynamics is represented by the shallow water equations, and the bed morphodynamics is represented by the Exner equation and an additional equation describing the nonequilibrium sediment transport. Sediment size distribution is represented by the median grain diameter and the standard deviation, instead of the usual modeling with multiple particle size classes. Various methods for computing bed elevation changes at a cross section due to erosion or deposition of sediment are proposed and tested, including an innovative approach that relates the spatial pattern of erosion and deposition rates to boundary shear stress distribution, which is calculated by the Merged Perpendicular Method. An explicit finite difference scheme is employed for solving the water and sediment governing equations. The pertinence of the model is examined for two hypothetical cases. The model is then tested on one set of laboratory experiments on bed degradation under steady flow, showing excellent model data fit, and indicating that incorporating a nonequilibrium sediment transport equation into the model structure is an important element in reproducing the bed degradation process. Finally, the model is applied to simulate the morphological changes taking place in the Ha!Ha! River (Quebec) after the failure of the Ha!Ha! Dyke on July 1996. Relevant results can be obtained in terms of changes in longitudinal bed profile and cross-sectional geometry as well as water levels, although some discrepancies are obtained between the simulated and surveyed cross-sectional geometries, mainly because bank failure and channel widening are not modeled.

  17. Wind Profiles and Wave Spectra for Potential Wind Farms in South China Sea. Part I: Wind Speed Profile Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichao Liu


    Full Text Available With the setting of wind energy harvesting moving from coastal waters to deep waters, the South China Sea has been deemed to offer great potential for the construction of floating wind farms thanks to the abundance of wind energy resources. An engineering model describing the wind profiles and wave spectra specific to the South China Sea conditions, which is the precondition for offshore wind farm construction, has, however, not yet been proposed. In the present study, a series of numerical simulations have been conducted using the Weather Forecast and Research model. Through analyzing the wind and wave information extracted from the numerical simulation results, engineering models to calculate vertical profiles of wind speeds and wave spectra have been postulated. While the present paper focuses on the wind profile model, a companion paper articulates the wave spectrum model. For wind profiles under typhoon conditions, the power-law and log-law models have been found applicable under the condition that the Hellmann exponent α or the friction velocity u * are modified to vary with the wind strength. For wind profiles under non-typhoon conditions, the log-law model is revised to take into consideration the influence of the atmospheric stability.

  18. How Open Data Shapes In Silico Transporter Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriane Montanari


    Full Text Available Chemical compound bioactivity and related data are nowadays easily available from open data sources and the open medicinal chemistry literature for many transmembrane proteins. Computational ligand-based modeling of transporters has therefore experienced a shift from local (quantitative models to more global, qualitative, predictive models. As the size and heterogeneity of the data set rises, careful data curation becomes even more important. This includes, for example, not only a tailored cutoff setting for the generation of binary classes, but also the proper assessment of the applicability domain. Powerful machine learning algorithms (such as multi-label classification now allow the simultaneous prediction of multiple related targets. However, the more complex, the less interpretable these models will get. We emphasize that transmembrane transporters are very peculiar, some of which act as off-targets rather than as real drug targets. Thus, careful selection of the right modeling technique is important, as well as cautious interpretation of results. We hope that, as more and more data will become available, we will be able to ameliorate and specify our models, coming closer towards function elucidation and the development of safer medicine.

  19. Analysis of Intelligent Transportation Systems Using Model-Driven Simulations. (United States)

    Fernández-Isabel, Alberto; Fuentes-Fernández, Rubén


    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSs) integrate information, sensor, control, and communication technologies to provide transport related services. Their users range from everyday commuters to policy makers and urban planners. Given the complexity of these systems and their environment, their study in real settings is frequently unfeasible. Simulations help to address this problem, but present their own issues: there can be unintended mistakes in the transition from models to code; their platforms frequently bias modeling; and it is difficult to compare works that use different models and tools. In order to overcome these problems, this paper proposes a framework for a model-driven development of these simulations. It is based on a specific modeling language that supports the integrated specification of the multiple facets of an ITS: people, their vehicles, and the external environment; and a network of sensors and actuators conveniently arranged and distributed that operates over them. The framework works with a model editor to generate specifications compliant with that language, and a code generator to produce code from them using platform specifications. There are also guidelines to help researchers in the application of this infrastructure. A case study on advanced management of traffic lights with cameras illustrates its use.

  20. Analysis of Intelligent Transportation Systems Using Model-Driven Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Fernández-Isabel


    Full Text Available Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSs integrate information, sensor, control, and communication technologies to provide transport related services. Their users range from everyday commuters to policy makers and urban planners. Given the complexity of these systems and their environment, their study in real settings is frequently unfeasible. Simulations help to address this problem, but present their own issues: there can be unintended mistakes in the transition from models to code; their platforms frequently bias modeling; and it is difficult to compare works that use different models and tools. In order to overcome these problems, this paper proposes a framework for a model-driven development of these simulations. It is based on a specific modeling language that supports the integrated specification of the multiple facets of an ITS: people, their vehicles, and the external environment; and a network of sensors and actuators conveniently arranged and distributed that operates over them. The framework works with a model editor to generate specifications compliant with that language, and a code generator to produce code from them using platform specifications. There are also guidelines to help researchers in the application of this infrastructure. A case study on advanced management of traffic lights with cameras illustrates its use.

  1. How Open Data Shapes In Silico Transporter Modeling. (United States)

    Montanari, Floriane; Zdrazil, Barbara


    Chemical compound bioactivity and related data are nowadays easily available from open data sources and the open medicinal chemistry literature for many transmembrane proteins. Computational ligand-based modeling of transporters has therefore experienced a shift from local (quantitative) models to more global, qualitative, predictive models. As the size and heterogeneity of the data set rises, careful data curation becomes even more important. This includes, for example, not only a tailored cutoff setting for the generation of binary classes, but also the proper assessment of the applicability domain. Powerful machine learning algorithms (such as multi-label classification) now allow the simultaneous prediction of multiple related targets. However, the more complex, the less interpretable these models will get. We emphasize that transmembrane transporters are very peculiar, some of which act as off-targets rather than as real drug targets. Thus, careful selection of the right modeling technique is important, as well as cautious interpretation of results. We hope that, as more and more data will become available, we will be able to ameliorate and specify our models, coming closer towards function elucidation and the development of safer medicine.

  2. FinROSE - middle atmospheric chemistry transport model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damski, J.; Thoelix, L.; Backman, L. (Research and Development, Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (FI)); Taalas, P. (Regional and Technical Cooperation for Development Dept. World Meteorological Organization, Geneve (CH)); Kulmala, M. (Helsinki Univ. (FI). Div. of Atmospheric Sciences)


    The development and performance of a three-dimensional global middle atmospheric chemistry transport model FinROSE is described. The FinROSE chemistry transport model includes a numerical scheme for stratospheric chemistry with parameterizations for heterogeneous processing on polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) and on liquid binary aerosols together with a parameterisation of large nitric acid trihydrate particles (i.e. NAT-rocks) and PSC sedimentation. The total number of trace species in the model is 34 and the total number of gas-phase reactions, photodissociation processes and heterogeneous reactions is about 150. The model is forced by external wind and temperature fields. The simulations are normally performed in a 5 deg x 10 deg (lat. x long.) grid from the surface up to around 0.1 hPa, with a vertical resolution of ca. 1.5 km in the stratosphere. Long-term simulations (40 to 50 years) have been done using winds and temperatures from ECMWF ERA40 analyses. The performance of the model in describing the stratospheric composition and chemistry is shown and evaluated in this paper. In general, the FinROSE results show a good comparison with measured total ozone. Also the timing, the depth and the deepening of the Antarctic ozone hole, and the responsible processes are captured well in the model simulations. (orig.)

  3. Analysis of Intelligent Transportation Systems Using Model-Driven Simulations (United States)

    Fernández-Isabel, Alberto; Fuentes-Fernández, Rubén


    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSs) integrate information, sensor, control, and communication technologies to provide transport related services. Their users range from everyday commuters to policy makers and urban planners. Given the complexity of these systems and their environment, their study in real settings is frequently unfeasible. Simulations help to address this problem, but present their own issues: there can be unintended mistakes in the transition from models to code; their platforms frequently bias modeling; and it is difficult to compare works that use different models and tools. In order to overcome these problems, this paper proposes a framework for a model-driven development of these simulations. It is based on a specific modeling language that supports the integrated specification of the multiple facets of an ITS: people, their vehicles, and the external environment; and a network of sensors and actuators conveniently arranged and distributed that operates over them. The framework works with a model editor to generate specifications compliant with that language, and a code generator to produce code from them using platform specifications. There are also guidelines to help researchers in the application of this infrastructure. A case study on advanced management of traffic lights with cameras illustrates its use. PMID:26083232

  4. Comparison between Simulations and Transport Models for Imbalanced Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence (United States)

    Ng, C. S.; Dennis, T. J.


    One-dimensional (1D) turbulence transport models have long been applied rather successfully in modeling solar wind turbulence. However, direct comparison of such models with full simulations of solar wind turbulence is difficult due to the large scale of the system. As a first step in this direction, we present results from a series of 3D simulations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence based on reduced MHD equations. Alfven waves are launched from both ends of a long tube along the background uniform magnetic field so that turbulence develops due to collision between counter propagating Alfven waves in the interior region. Waves are launched randomly with specified correlation time Tc such that the length of the tube, L, is greater than (but of the same order of) VATc such that turbulence can fill most of the tube. While waves at both ends are launched with equal power, turbulence generated is imbalanced in general, with normalized cross-helicity gets close to -1 at one end and 1 at the other end. We will present our latest simulations at different resolutions with decreasing dissipation (resistivity and viscosity) levels and compare with model outputs from turbulence transport models regarding energy cascade, correlation length scales, etc., and discuss the validity of different assumptions employed in such models. This work is supported by a NASA grant NNX15AU61G.

  5. A coupled vegetation/sediment transport model for dryland environments (United States)

    Mayaud, Jerome R.; Bailey, Richard M.; Wiggs, Giles F. S.


    Dryland regions are characterized by patchy vegetation, erodible surfaces, and erosive aeolian processes. Understanding how these constituent factors interact and shape landscape evolution is critical for managing potential environmental and anthropogenic impacts in drylands. However, modeling wind erosion on partially vegetated surfaces is a complex problem that has remained challenging for researchers. We present the new, coupled cellular automaton Vegetation and Sediment TrAnsport (ViSTA) model, which is designed to address fundamental questions about the development of arid and semiarid landscapes in a spatially explicit way. The technical aspects of the ViSTA model are described, including a new method for directly imposing oblique wind and transport directions onto a cell-based domain. Verification tests for the model are reported, including stable state solutions, the impact of drought and fire stress, wake flow dynamics, temporal scaling issues, and the impact of feedbacks between sediment movement and vegetation growth on landscape morphology. The model is then used to simulate an equilibrium nebkha dune field, and the resultant bed forms are shown to have very similar size and spacing characteristics to nebkhas observed in the Skeleton Coast, Namibia. The ViSTA model is a versatile geomorphological tool that could be used to predict threshold-related transitions in a range of dryland ecogeomorphic systems.

  6. An automated system for selective and continuous measurements of vertical thoron profiles for the determination of transport times near the ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Plake


    Full Text Available The quantification of in-canopy transport times is of major importance for the investigation of sources, sinks and net fluxes of reactive trace gases within plant canopies. The Damköhler number, which compares timescales of chemical reactions with transport times, is a widely applied measure to evaluate flux divergences. In this study we present and evaluate a novel automated measurement system for selective vertical thoron (Tn profiles near the Earth's surface and demonstrate its suitability for the direct and reliable determination of transport times within a natural grassland canopy. For the first time, we perform a rigorous determination of systematic and random uncertainties of Tn (and Rn concentrations under field conditions for this type of measurement system. The obtained median precisions for three concentration classes (> 100 Bq m−3, 100–15 Bq m−3, −3 were 8.8%, 23.2% and 132.1% for Tn (and 16.6%, 25.0%, 99.2% for Rn. We calculate in-canopy transport times (τ and propagate their uncertainty from the individual errors of the Tn concentration measurements. A quality assessment of τ for the field experiment during a period of 51 days revealed good data quality with 44% of the relative uncertainties below 50%. The occurrence of transport time uncertainties higher than 100% was caused by absolute Tn gradients lower than 70 Bq m−3 m−1, which was found for 22% of all determined transport times. In addition, the method was found to be highly sensitive to the Tn concentrations at the upper of the two inlet heights (zu. Low values of CTnzu result in high absolute uncertainties of the transport time. A comparison with empirical parameterizations revealed a much lower scatter for the τ values determined from our measurements. We found an excellent agreement with τ values obtained by the in-canopy resistance approach used, e.g., in the SURFATM model during daytime, while the SURFATM model significantly overestimated transport times

  7. Alterations of urinary metabolite profile in model diabetic nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stec, Donald F. [Vanderbilt Institute of Chemical Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Wang, Suwan; Stothers, Cody [Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Avance, Josh [Berea College, 1916 CPO, Berea, KY 40404 (United States); Denson, Deon [Choctaw Central High School, Philadelphia, MS 39350 (United States); Harris, Raymond [Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Voziyan, Paul, E-mail: [Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)


    Highlights: • {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy was employed to study urinary metabolite profile in diabetic mouse models. • Mouse urinary metabolome showed major changes that are also found in human diabetic nephropathy. • These models can be new tools to study urinary biomarkers that are relevant to human disease. - Abstract: Countering the diabetes pandemic and consequent complications, such as nephropathy, will require better understanding of disease mechanisms and development of new diagnostic methods. Animal models can be versatile tools in studies of diabetic renal disease when model pathology is relevant to human diabetic nephropathy (DN). Diabetic models using endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) knock-out mice develop major renal lesions characteristic of human disease. However, it is unknown whether they can also reproduce changes in urinary metabolites found in human DN. We employed Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic mouse models of DN, i.e. STZ-eNOS{sup −/−} C57BLKS and eNOS{sup −/−} C57BLKS db/db, with the goal of determining changes in urinary metabolite profile using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Six urinary metabolites with significantly lower levels in diabetic compared to control mice have been identified. Specifically, major changes were found in metabolites from tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and aromatic amino acid catabolism including 3-indoxyl sulfate, cis-aconitate, 2-oxoisocaproate, N-phenyl-acetylglycine, 4-hydroxyphenyl acetate, and hippurate. Levels of 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid and hippuric acid showed the strongest reverse correlation to albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), which is an indicator of renal damage. Importantly, similar changes in urinary hydroxyphenyl acetate and hippurate were previously reported in human renal disease. We demonstrated that STZ-eNOS{sup −/−} C57BLKS and eNOS{sup −/−} C57BLKS db/db mouse models can recapitulate changes in urinary metabolome found in human DN and therefore can be

  8. A global stratospheric bromine monoxide climatology based on the BASCOE chemical transport model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Theys


    Full Text Available A new climatology of stratospheric BrO profiles based on a parameterization using dynamical and chemical indicators has been developed, with the aim to apply it to the retrieval of tropospheric BrO columns from space nadir measurements. The adopted parameterization is based on three years of output data from the 3-D chemistry transport model BASCOE. The impact of the atmospheric dynamics on the stratospheric BrO distribution is treated by means of Bry/ozone correlations built from 3-D-CTM model results, while photochemical effects are taken into account using stratospheric NO2 columns as an indicator of the BrO/Bry ratio. The model simulations have been optimized for bromine chemistry and budget, and validated through comparisons using an extensive data set of ground-based, balloon-borne and satellite limb (SCIAMACHY stratospheric BrO observations.

  9. Impact of mineralogical heterogeneity on reactive transport modelling (United States)

    Liu, Min; Shabaninejad, Mehdi; Mostaghimi, Peyman


    Impact of mineralogical heterogeneity of rocks in reactive modelling is investigated by applying a pore scale model based on the Lattice Boltzmann and Finite Volume Methods. Mass transport, chemical reaction and solid structure modification are included in the model. A two-dimensional mineral map of a sandstone rock is acquired using the imaging technique of QEMSCAN SEM with Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The mineralogical heterogeneity is explored by conducting multi-mineral reaction simulations on images containing various minerals. The results are then compared with the prediction of single mineral dissolution modelling. Dissolution patterns and permeability variations of multi-mineral and single mineral reactions are presented. The errors of single mineral reaction modelling are also estimated. Numerical results show that mineralogical heterogeneity can cause significant errors in permeability prediction, if a uniform mineral distribution is assumed. The errors are smaller in high Péclet regimes than in low Péclet regimes in this sample.

  10. Fluid transport and ion fluxes in mammalian kidney proximal tubule: a model analysis of isotonic transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Møbjerg, N.; Sørensen, J. N.


    'blocking' of apical water channels and in 'aquaporin-null' simulation. Reduced rate of volume reabsorption in AQP(-/-) mice would also require decreased apical sodium permeability. Paracellular convection accounts for approx. 36% of the net Na+ absorption, and the model epithelium accomplishes uphill water...... simulates major physiological features of proximal tubule, including significantly lower water permeability of the AQP1-null preparation, and a ratio of net sodium uptake and oxygen consumption exceeding that predicted from stoichiometry of the Na+/K+-pump. Physical properties of interspace basement......Aim: By mathematical modelling, we analyse conditions for near-isotonic and isotonic transport by mammalian kidney proximal tubule. Methods: The model comprises compliant lateral intercellular space (lis) and cells, and infinitely large luminal and peritubular compartments with diffusible species...

  11. Fluid transport and ion fluxes in mammalian kidney proximal tubule: a model analysis of isotonic transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, E.H.; Møbjerg, N.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    'blocking' of apical water channels and in 'aquaporin-null' simulation. Reduced rate of volume reabsorption in AQP(-/-) mice would also require decreased apical sodium permeability. Paracellular convection accounts for approx. 36% of the net Na+ absorption, and the model epithelium accomplishes uphill water...... simulates major physiological features of proximal tubule, including significantly lower water permeability of the AQP1-null preparation, and a ratio of net sodium uptake and oxygen consumption exceeding that predicted from stoichiometry of the Na+/K+-pump. Physical properties of interspace basement......Aim: By mathematical modelling, we analyse conditions for near-isotonic and isotonic transport by mammalian kidney proximal tubule. Methods: The model comprises compliant lateral intercellular space (lis) and cells, and infinitely large luminal and peritubular compartments with diffusible species...

  12. Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.L. Hardin


    The Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report (EBS PMR) is one of nine PMRs supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) being developed by the Yucca Mountain Project for the Site Recommendation Report (SRR). The EBS PMR summarizes the development and abstraction of models for processes that govern the evolution of conditions within the emplacement drifts of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Details of these individual models are documented in 23 supporting Analysis/Model Reports (AMRs). Nineteen of these AMRs are for process models, and the remaining 4 describe the abstraction of results for application in TSPA. The process models themselves cluster around four major topics: ''Water Distribution and Removal Model, Physical and Chemical Environment Model, Radionuclide Transport Model, and Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model''. One AMR (Engineered Barrier System-Features, Events, and Processes/Degradation Modes Analysis) summarizes the formal screening analysis used to select the Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) included in TSPA and those excluded from further consideration. Performance of a potential Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository depends on both the natural barrier system (NBS) and the engineered barrier system (EBS) and on their interactions. Although the waste packages are generally considered as components of the EBS, the EBS as defined in the EBS PMR includes all engineered components outside the waste packages. The principal function of the EBS is to complement the geologic system in limiting the amount of water contacting nuclear waste. A number of alternatives were considered by the Project for different EBS designs that could provide better performance than the design analyzed for the Viability Assessment. The design concept selected was Enhanced Design Alternative II (EDA II).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Handayanti


    Full Text Available The research, entitled "Analysis Students’ Profile Mental Models High School on the rate of reaction" aims to obtain an overview of high school students' mental modelson the rate of reaction. The method used is descriptive research method, involving 32 students of class XI IPA who come from high schools in the district of Ciamis. The data was collected by a research instrument diagnostic tests, interview guides and documentation of study. Research results showed that students' understanding of the sub-microscopic level on the subject matter of rate of reaction is still low compared to other levels of chemical representation. Meanwhile, the category of mental models of the students on the subject matter of rate of reaction varied for each level of chemical representation. The chemical representation relationship with the category ofmental models of high school students on the subject matter of rate of reactionis almost in line with the previous analysis, which is based on the comparison betweenthe characteristics of the chemical representation and mental models of its catagory

  14. Transport Studies and Modeling in PEM Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittelsteadt, Cortney K. [Giner, Inc., Auburndale, MA (United States); Xu, Hui [Giner, Inc., Auburndale, MA (United States); Brawn, Shelly [Giner, Inc., Auburndale, MA (United States)


    This project’s aim was to develop fuel cell components (i.e. membranes, gas-diffusion media (GDM), bipolar plates and flow fields) that possess specific properties (i.e. water transport and conductivity). A computational fluid dynamics model was developed to elucidate the effect of certain parameters on these specific properties. Ultimately, the model will be used to determine sensitivity of fuel cell performance to component properties to determine limiting components and to guide research. We have successfully reached our objectives and achieved most of the milestones of this project. We have designed and synthesized a variety of hydrocarbon block polymer membranes with lower equivalent weight, structure, chemistry, phase separation and process conditions. These membranes provide a broad selection with optimized water transport properties. We have also designed and constructed a variety of devices that are capable of accurately measuring the water transport properties (water uptake, water diffusivity and electro-osmatic drag) of these membranes. These transport properties are correlated to the membranes’ structures derived from X-ray and microscopy techniques to determine the structure-property relationship. We successfully integrated hydrocarbon membrane MEAs with a current distribution board (CBD) to study the impact of hydrocarbon membrane on water transport in fuel cells. We have designed and fabricated various GDM with varying substrate, diffusivity and micro-porous layers (MPL) and characterized their pore structure, tortuosity and hydrophobicity. We have derived a universal chart (MacMullin number as function of wet proofing and porosity) that can be used to characterize various GDM. The abovementioned GDMs have been evaluated in operating fuel cells; their performance is correlated to various pore structure, tortuosity and hydrophobicity of the GDM. Unfortunately, determining a universal relationship between the MacMullin number and these properties

  15. Predicting subsurface uranium transport: Mechanistic modeling constrained by experimental data (United States)

    Ottman, Michael; Schenkeveld, Walter D. C.; Kraemer, Stephan


    Depleted uranium (DU) munitions and their widespread use throughout conflict zones around the world pose a persistent health threat to the inhabitants of those areas long after the conclusion of active combat. However, little emphasis has been put on developing a comprehensive, quantitative tool for use in remediation and hazard avoidance planning in a wide range of environments. In this context, we report experimental data on U interaction with soils and sediments. Here, we strive to improve existing risk assessment modeling paradigms by incorporating a variety of experimental data into a mechanistic U transport model for subsurface environments. 20 different soils and sediments from a variety of environments were chosen to represent a range of geochemical parameters that are relevant to U transport. The parameters included pH, organic matter content, CaCO3, Fe content and speciation, and clay content. pH ranged from 3 to 10, organic matter content from 6 to 120 g kg-1, CaCO3 from 0 to 700 g kg-1, amorphous Fe content from 0.3 to 6 g kg-1 and clay content from 4 to 580 g kg-1. Sorption experiments were then performed, and linear isotherms were constructed. Sorption experiment results show that among separate sets of sediments and soils, there is an inverse correlation between both soil pH and CaCO¬3 concentration relative to U sorptive affinity. The geological materials with the highest and lowest sorptive affinities for U differed in CaCO3 and organic matter concentrations, as well as clay content and pH. In a further step, we are testing if transport behavior in saturated porous media can be predicted based on adsorption isotherms and generic geochemical parameters, and comparing these modeling predictions with the results from column experiments. The comparison of these two data sets will examine if U transport can be effectively predicted from reactive transport modeling that incorporates the generic geochemical parameters. This work will serve to show

  16. Geocoronal Balmer α line profile observations and forward-model analysis (United States)

    Mierkiewicz, E. J.; Bishop, J.; Roesler, F. L.; Nossal, S. M.


    High spectral resolution geocoronal Balmer α line profile observations from Pine Bluff Observatory (PBO) are presented in the context of forward-model analysis. Because Balmer series column emissions depend significantly on multiple scattering, retrieval of hydrogen parameters of general aeronomic interest from these observations (e.g., the hydrogen column abundance) currently requires a forward modeling approach. This capability is provided by the resonance radiative transfer code LYAO_RT. We have recently developed a parametric data-model comparison search procedure employing an extensive grid of radiative transport model input parameters (defining a 6-dimensional parameter space) to map-out bounds for feasible forward model retrieved atomic hydrogen density distributions. We applied this technique to same-night (March, 2000) ground-based Balmer α data from PBO and geocoronal Lyman β measurements from the Espectrógrafo Ultravioleta extremo para la Radiación Difusa (EURD) instrument on the Spanish satellite MINISAT-1 (provided by J.F. Gómez and C. Morales of the Laboratorio de Astrofisica Espacial y Física Fundamental, INTA, Madrid, Spain) in order to investigate the modeling constraints imposed by two sets of independent geocoronal intensity measurements, both of which rely on astronomical calibration methods. In this poster we explore extending this analysis to the line profile information also contained in the March 2000 PBO Balmer α data set. In general, a decrease in the Doppler width of the Balmer α emission with shadow altitude is a persistent feature in every night of PBO observations in which a wide range of shadow altitudes are observed. Preliminary applications of the LYAO_RT code, which includes the ability to output Doppler line profiles for both the singly and multiply scattered contributions to the Balmer α emission line, displays good qualitative agreement with regard to geocoronal Doppler width trends observed from PBO. Model-data Balmer

  17. Combined time-lapse magnetic resonance imaging and modeling to investigate colloid deposition and transport in porous media. (United States)

    Lehoux, Alizée P; Faure, Pamela; Lafolie, François; Rodts, Stéphane; Courtier-Murias, Denis; Coussot, Philippe; Michel, Eric


    Colloidal particles can act as vectors of adsorbed pollutants in the subsurface, or be themselves pollutants. They can reach the aquifer and impair groundwater quality. The mechanisms of colloid transport and deposition are often studied in columns filled with saturated porous media. Time-lapse profiles of colloid concentration inside the columns have occasionally been derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data recorded in transport experiments. These profiles are valuable, in addition to particle breakthrough curves (BTCs), for testing and improving colloid transport models. We show that concentrations could not be simply computed from MRI data when both deposited and suspended colloids contributed to the signal. We propose a generic method whereby these data can still be used to quantitatively appraise colloid transport models. It uses the modeled suspended and deposited particle concentrations to compute modeled MRI data that are compared to the experimental data. We tested this method by performing transport experiments with sorbing colloids in sand, and assessed for the first time the capacity of the model calibrated from BTCs to reproduce the MRI data. Interestingly, the dispersion coefficient and deposition rate calibrated from the BTC were respectively overestimated and underestimated compared with those calibrated from the MRI data, suggesting that these quantities, when determined from BTCs, need to be interpreted with care. In a broader perspective, we consider that combining MRI and modeling offers great potential for the quantitative analysis of complex MRI data recorded during transport experiments in complex environmentally relevant porous media, and can help improve our understanding of the fate of colloids and solutes, first in these media, and later in soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Using transportation demand models to assess regional noise exposure (United States)

    Kaliski, Kenneth


    In the United States, most metropolitan areas run some type of transportation demand model to estimate regional travel patterns, and, to some extent, air pollution. The more advanced of these models accurately represent the geographic contours of the roadways (in contrast to the older straight-line node and link models). This allows an almost seamless integration of these new transportation demand models into noise prediction models. Combined with the locations of individual homes from a separate E911 database, we can readily make estimates of the noise exposure of populations over large areas. In this paper, the regional traffic noise exposure of residences of Chittenden County, VT is estimated and mapped. It was found that 30% of the residences are exposed to noise levels exceeding the WHO sleep disturbance level of 45 dB LAeq(8) and 20% of residences are exposed to levels exceeding the WHO ``serious annoyance'' level of 55 dB LAeq(16). Maps show noise contours as well as individual homes color coded based on relative day and night noise exposure levels. Measured sound level data are given for particular locations to validate the predictions.

  19. Tissue-specific transcript profiling for ABC transporters in the sequestering larvae of the phytophagous leaf beetle Chrysomela populi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja S Strauss

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insects evolved ingenious adaptations to use extraordinary food sources. Particularly, the diet of herbivores enriched with noxious plant secondary metabolites requires detoxification mechanisms. Sequestration, which involves the uptake, transfer, and concentration of occasionally modified phytochemicals into specialized tissues or hemolymph, is one of the most successful detoxification strategies found in most insect orders. Due to the ability of ATP-binding cassette (ABC carriers to transport a wide range of molecules including phytochemicals and xenobiotics, it is highly likely that they play a role in this sequestration process. To shed light on the role of ABC proteins in sequestration, we describe an inventory of putative ABC transporters in various tissues in the sequestering juvenile poplar leaf beetle, Chrysomela populi. RESULTS: In the transcriptome of C. populi, we predicted 65 ABC transporters. To link the proteins with a possible function, we performed comparative phylogenetic analyses with ABC transporters of other insects and of humans. While tissue-specific profiling of each ABC transporter subfamily suggests that ABCB, C and G influence the plant metabolite absorption in the gut, ABCC with 14 members is the preferred subfamily responsible for the excretion of these metabolites via Malpighian tubules. Moreover, salicin, which is sequestered from poplar plants, is translocated into the defensive glands for further deterrent production. In these glands and among all identified ABC transporters, an exceptionally high transcript level was observed only for Cpabc35 (Cpmrp. RNAi revealed the deficiency of other ABC pumps to compensate the function of CpABC35, demonstrating its key role during sequestration. CONCLUSION: We provide the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of the ABC family in a phytophagous beetle species. RNA-seq data from different larval tissues propose the importance of ABC pumps to achieve a

  20. Particle transport model sensitivity on wave-induced processes (United States)

    Staneva, Joanna; Ricker, Marcel; Krüger, Oliver; Breivik, Oyvind; Stanev, Emil; Schrum, Corinna


    Different effects of wind waves on the hydrodynamics in the North Sea are investigated using a coupled wave (WAM) and circulation (NEMO) model system. The terms accounting for the wave-current interaction are: the Stokes-Coriolis force, the sea-state dependent momentum and energy flux. The role of the different Stokes drift parameterizations is investigated using a particle-drift model. Those particles can be considered as simple representations of either oil fractions, or fish larvae. In the ocean circulation models the momentum flux from the atmosphere, which is related to the wind speed, is passed directly to the ocean and this is controlled by the drag coefficient. However, in the real ocean, the waves play also the role of a reservoir for momentum and energy because different amounts of the momentum flux from the atmosphere is taken up by the waves. In the coupled model system the momentum transferred into the ocean model is estimated as the fraction of the total flux that goes directly to the currents plus the momentum lost from wave dissipation. Additionally, we demonstrate that the wave-induced Stokes-Coriolis force leads to a deflection of the current. During the extreme events the Stokes velocity is comparable in magnitude to the current velocity. The resulting wave-induced drift is crucial for the transport of particles in the upper ocean. The performed sensitivity analyses demonstrate that the model skill depends on the chosen processes. The results are validated using surface drifters, ADCP, HF radar data and other in-situ measurements in different regions of the North Sea with a focus on the coastal areas. The using of a coupled model system reveals that the newly introduced wave effects are important for the drift-model performance, especially during extremes. Those effects cannot be neglected by search and rescue, oil-spill, transport of biological material, or larva drift modelling.

  1. Building 235-F Goldsim Fate And Transport Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, G. A.; Phifer, M. A.


    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel, at the request of Area Completion Projects (ACP), evaluated In-Situ Disposal (ISD) alternatives that are under consideration for deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of Building 235-F and the Building 294-2F Sand Filter. SRNL personnel developed and used a GoldSim fate and transport model, which is consistent with Musall 2012, to evaluate relative to groundwater protection, ISD alternatives that involve either source removal and/or the grouting of portions or all of 235-F. This evaluation was conducted through the development and use of a Building 235-F GoldSim fate and transport model. The model simulates contaminant release from four 235-F process areas and the 294-2F Sand Filter. In addition, it simulates the fate and transport through the vadose zone, the Upper Three Runs (UTR) aquifer, and the Upper Three Runs (UTR) creek. The model is designed as a stochastic model, and as such it can provide both deterministic and stochastic (probabilistic) results. The results show that the median radium activity concentrations exceed the 5 ?Ci/L radium MCL at the edge of the building for all ISD alternatives after 10,000 years, except those with a sufficient amount of inventory removed. A very interesting result was that grouting was shown to basically have minimal effect on the radium activity concentration. During the first 1,000 years grouting may have some small positive benefit relative to radium, however after that it may have a slightly deleterious effect. The Pb-210 results, relative to its 0.06 ?Ci/L PRG, are essentially identical to the radium results, but the Pb-210 results exhibit a lesser degree of exceedance. In summary, some level of inventory removal will be required to ensure that groundwater standards are met.

  2. Modeling Electrokinetic Flows by the Smoothed Profile Method (United States)

    Luo, Xian; Beskok, Ali; Karniadakis, George Em


    We propose an efficient modeling method for electrokinetic flows based on the Smoothed Profile Method (SPM) [1–4] and spectral element discretizations. The new method allows for arbitrary differences in the electrical conductivities between the charged surfaces and the the surrounding electrolyte solution. The electrokinetic forces are included into the flow equations so that the Poisson-Boltzmann and electric charge continuity equations are cast into forms suitable for SPM. The method is validated by benchmark problems of electroosmotic flow in straight channels and electrophoresis of charged cylinders. We also present simulation results of electrophoresis of charged microtubules, and show that the simulated electrophoretic mobility and anisotropy agree with the experimental values. PMID:20352076

  3. Genome-Wide Characterization and Expression Profiling of Sugar Transporter Family in the Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zezhong Yang


    Full Text Available Sugar transporters (STs play pivotal roles in the growth, development, and stress responses of phloem-sucking insects, such as the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. In this study, 137 sugar transporters (STs were identified based on analysis of the genome and transcriptome of B. tabaci MEAM1. B. tabaci MEAM1 encodes a larger number of STs than other selected insects. Phylogenetic and molecular evolution analysis showed that the 137 STs formed three expanded clades and that the genes in Sternorrhyncha expanded clades had accelerated rates of evolution. B. tabaci sugar transporters (BTSTs were divided into three groups based on their expression profiles across developmental stages; however, no host-specific BTST was found in B. tabaci fed on different host plants. Feeding of B. tabaci adults with feeding diet containing dsRNA significantly reduced the transcript level of the target genes in B. tabaci and mortality was significantly improved in B. tabaci fed on dsRNA compared to the control, which indicates the sugar transporters may be used as potential RNAi targets for B. tabaci bio-control. These results provide a foundation for further studies of STs in B. tabaci.

  4. Energy Models for One-Carrier Transport in Semiconductor Devices (United States)

    Jerome, Joseph W.; Shu, Chi-Wang


    Moment models of carrier transport, derived from the Boltzmann equation, made possible the simulation of certain key effects through such realistic assumptions as energy dependent mobility functions. This type of global dependence permits the observation of velocity overshoot in the vicinity of device junctions, not discerned via classical drift-diffusion models, which are primarily local in nature. It was found that a critical role is played in the hydrodynamic model by the heat conduction term. When ignored, the overshoot is inappropriately damped. When the standard choice of the Wiedemann-Franz law is made for the conductivity, spurious overshoot is observed. Agreement with Monte-Carlo simulation in this regime required empirical modification of this law, or nonstandard choices. Simulations of the hydrodynamic model in one and two dimensions, as well as simulations of a newly developed energy model, the RT model, are presented. The RT model, intermediate between the hydrodynamic and drift-diffusion model, was developed to eliminate the parabolic energy band and Maxwellian distribution assumptions, and to reduce the spurious overshoot with physically consistent assumptions. The algorithms employed for both models are the essentially non-oscillatory shock capturing algorithms. Some mathematical results are presented and contrasted with the highly developed state of the drift-diffusion model.

  5. Structural acoustics model of the violin radiativity profile. (United States)

    Bissinger, George


    Violin radiativity profiles are dominated by the Helmholtz-like A0 cavity mode ( approximately 280 Hz), first corpus bending modes B1(-) and B1(+) ( approximately 500 Hz), and BH and bridge-filter peaks ( approximately 2.4 kHz and approximately 3.5 kHz, respectively), with falloff above approximately 4 kHz. The B1 modes-dependent on two low-lying free-plate modes--are proposed to excite A0 via coupling to B1-driven in-phase f-hole volume flows. VIOCADEAS data show that A0 radiativity increases primarily as A0-B1(-) frequency difference decreases, consistent with Meinel's 1937 experiment for too-thick/too-thin plate thicknesses, plus sound post removal and violin octet baritone results. The vibration-->acoustic energy filter, F(RAD), computed from shape-material-independent radiation and total damping, peaks at the critical frequency f(crit), estimated from a free-plate mode by analogy to flat-plate bending. Experimentally, f(crit) decreased as this plate mode (and B1(+)) frequency increased. Simulations show that increasing plate thicknesses lowers f(crit), reduces F(RAD), and moves the spectral balance toward lower frequencies. Incorporating string-->corpus filters (including bridge versus bridge-island impedances) provides a model for overall violin radiativity. This model-with B1 and A0-B1 couplings, and f(crit) (computed from a free-plate mode important to B1) strongly affecting the lowest and highest parts of the radiativity profile-substantiates prior empirical B1--sound quality linkages.

  6. Correlations and non-local transport in a critical-gradient fluctuation model (United States)

    Nicolau, J. H.; García, L.; Carreras, B. A.


    A one-dimensional model based on critical-gradient fluctuation dynamics is used to study turbulent transport in magnetically confined plasmas. The model exhibits the selforganized criticality (SOC) dynamics. At the steady state, two regions are found: the outer one is close to critical state and the inner one remaining at the subcritical gradient. The gradient- flux relation exhibits a parabola-like profile centered in the most probable gradient following experimental studies. This is a signature of the non-locality of particle transport driven by avalanches: at the given position transport is due to gradients situated into closer but different positions. The R/S analysis, applied to the fluxes dynamics reveals memory and correlation. Different H exponents corresponding to different dynamical behavior are obtained. The flux at the edge exhibits long time correlations, which can be suppressed if the external drive or the system size is modified. On the other hand, we found that in the sub-critical region the quasiperiodicity is present in the avalanches.

  7. A fully resolved fluid-structure-muscle-activation model for esophageal transport (United States)

    Kou, Wenjun; Bhalla, Amneet P. S.; Griffith, Boyce E.; Johnson, Mark; Patankar, Neelesh A.


    Esophageal transport is a mechanical and physiological process that transfers the ingested food bolus from the pharynx to the stomach through a multi-layered esophageal tube. The process involves interactions between the bolus, esophageal wall composed of mucosal, circular muscle (CM) and longitudinal muscle (LM) layers, and neurally coordinated muscle activation including CM contraction and LM shortening. In this work, we present a 3D fully-resolved model of esophageal transport based on the immersed boundary method. The model describes the bolus as a Newtonian fluid, the esophageal wall as a multi-layered elastic tube represented by springs and beams, and the muscle activation as a traveling wave of sequential actuation/relaxation of muscle fibers, represented by springs with dynamic rest lengths. Results on intraluminal pressure profile and bolus shape will be shown, which are qualitatively consistent with experimental observations. Effects of activating CM contraction only, LM shortening only or both, for the bolus transport, are studied. A comparison among them can help to identify the role of each type of muscle activation. The support of grant R01 DK56033 and R01 DK079902 from NIH is gratefully acknowledged.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Ortega, Alba


    Full Text Available The transport sector in Spain is a branch of economic activity which is already of great importanceaccording to its own invoicing, value added and occupation figures, in addition to its indirect economic effects. It has an additional strategic value for economic policy, since it constitutes a fundamental part ofthe cost of placing products on increasing markets in a competitive manner. The mobility and trans-portation of passengers in cities in turn plays an essential role in the economic and social activity. All of these reasons, in addition to the recent significant problems of ustainability which this priority sector is currently confronting in all aspects, justify an interest in a study which attempts to obtaina profile of this public service by using a strategic analysis through the application of the traditional Porter Five Forces Model. The application of this model will allow us to obtain a general strategic vision which, when combined with a maturity analysis, ill provide a more in-depth knowledge of the object under study, that will serve as a basis for subsequent analyses of the collective urban public transport service.

  9. Modelling of Sediment Transport in Beris Fishery Port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Ardani


    Full Text Available In this paper, the large amount of sedimentation and the resultant shoreline advancements at the breakwaters of Beris Fishery Port are studied. A series of numerical modeling of waves, sediment transport, and shoreline changes were conducted to predict the complicated equilibrium shoreline. The outputs show that the nearshore directions of wave components are not perpendicular to the coast which reveals the existence of longshore currents and consequently sediment transport along the bay. Considering the dynamic equilibrium condition of the bay, the effect of the existing sediment resources in the studied area is also investigated. The study also shows that in spite of the change of the diffraction point of Beris Bay after the construction of the fishery port, the bay is approaching its dynamic equilibrium condition, and the shoreline advancement behind secondary breakwater will stop before blocking the entrance of the port. The probable solutions to overcome the sedimentation problem at the main breakwater are also discussed.

  10. Land transportation model for supply chain manufacturing industries (United States)

    Kurniawan, Fajar


    Supply chain is a system that integrates production, inventory, distribution and information processes for increasing productivity and minimize costs. Transportation is an important part of the supply chain system, especially for supporting the material distribution process, work in process products and final products. In fact, Jakarta as the distribution center of manufacturing industries for the industrial area. Transportation system has a large influences on the implementation of supply chain process efficiency. The main problem faced in Jakarta is traffic jam that will affect on the time of distribution. Based on the system dynamic model, there are several scenarios that can provide solutions to minimize timing of distribution that will effect on the cost such as the construction of ports approaching industrial areas other than Tanjung Priok, widening road facilities, development of railways system, and the development of distribution center.

  11. Kinematic Models for Soil Moisture and Solute Transport (United States)

    Charbeneau, Randall J.


    The kinematic theory of soil moisture and solute transport in the vertical direction for unsaturated groundwater recharge is considered. The general theory of kinematic models is reviewed and applied for an isolated wetting event wherein the soil starts at and eventually drains to field capacity. Analytical expressions are developed for the water content and moisture flux as a function of depth and time. The approach is extended for an arbitrary sequence of surface flux or water content boundary conditions. The transport of a solute with a general nonlinear sorption isotherm is also considered. It is shown that for the general isotherm the vertical displacement of a solute isochore during an arbitrary wetting sequence depends only on the total depth of water infiltrated and not on how the infiltration rate varies with time.

  12. Gene Expression Profiles Suggest Iron Transport Pathway in the Lactating Human Epithelial Cell. (United States)

    Cai, Chenxi; Eck, Peter; Friel, James K


    The molecular background of iron excretion into breast milk has not been determined in humans. We determined the expression of known iron transporters in mRNA extracted from human milk fat globules to deduce which known transporters are responsible for iron excretion into human milk. The expression of iron transporters in mRNA from human milk fat globules and mouse mammary epithelial cell lines was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression of the transferrin receptor 1 (TFRC), divalent metal transporter 1 (SLC11A2), transferrin (TF), and lactoferrin (LTF) was confirmed in RNA isolated from the human milk fat globule. Similar expression was observed in the mouse mammary epithelial cell line HC11 in resting and lactating phenotypes. No iron export protein could be determined in the RNA isolated from fat globules in human breast milk and a human mammary epithelial cell line. The lack of iron exporters in the human mammary epithelia, in conjunction with the presence of lactoferrin suggests that transmembrane transport is not a major route of iron excretion into human milk.

  13. Surface transportation security and reliability information system model deployment : iFlorida final concept of operations (United States)


    FDOT began design of a Surface Transportation Security and Reliability Information System Model Deployment in May 2003. This model deployment focuses on enhancing the security and reliability of the surface transportation system through the widesprea...

  14. Integrated land-use and transport modelling using OTP to determine lowest cost trips

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, Q


    Full Text Available This presentation discusses the link between economic infrastructure, that includes transport, and social infrastructure that includes social well-being and the basic necessities of people. It shows how transport models and urban models influence...

  15. Modeling of a Small Transportation Company's Start-Up with Limited Data during Economic Recession

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xiaoping Fang; Jake Ansell; Weiya Chen


    .... Since the transportation market is segmented by business type and transportation distance, a polynomial model and logistic curve model were constructed to forecast the growth trend of each segmented...

  16. Optimization of atmospheric transport models on HPC platforms (United States)

    de la Cruz, Raúl; Folch, Arnau; Farré, Pau; Cabezas, Javier; Navarro, Nacho; Cela, José María


    The performance and scalability of atmospheric transport models on high performance computing environments is often far from optimal for multiple reasons including, for example, sequential input and output, synchronous communications, work unbalance, memory access latency or lack of task overlapping. We investigate how different software optimizations and porting to non general-purpose hardware architectures improve code scalability and execution times considering, as an example, the FALL3D volcanic ash transport model. To this purpose, we implement the FALL3D model equations in the WARIS framework, a software designed from scratch to solve in a parallel and efficient way different geoscience problems on a wide variety of architectures. In addition, we consider further improvements in WARIS such as hybrid MPI-OMP parallelization, spatial blocking, auto-tuning and thread affinity. Considering all these aspects together, the FALL3D execution times for a realistic test case running on general-purpose cluster architectures (Intel Sandy Bridge) decrease by a factor between 7 and 40 depending on the grid resolution. Finally, we port the application to Intel Xeon Phi (MIC) and NVIDIA GPUs (CUDA) accelerator-based architectures and compare performance, cost and power consumption on all the architectures. Implications on time-constrained operational model configurations are discussed.

  17. Alterations of urinary metabolite profile in model diabetic nephropathy. (United States)

    Stec, Donald F; Wang, Suwan; Stothers, Cody; Avance, Josh; Denson, Deon; Harris, Raymond; Voziyan, Paul


    Countering the diabetes pandemic and consequent complications, such as nephropathy, will require better understanding of disease mechanisms and development of new diagnostic methods. Animal models can be versatile tools in studies of diabetic renal disease when model pathology is relevant to human diabetic nephropathy (DN). Diabetic models using endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) knock-out mice develop major renal lesions characteristic of human disease. However, it is unknown whether they can also reproduce changes in urinary metabolites found in human DN. We employed Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic mouse models of DN, i.e. STZ-eNOS(-/-) C57BLKS and eNOS(-/-) C57BLKS db/db, with the goal of determining changes in urinary metabolite profile using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Six urinary metabolites with significantly lower levels in diabetic compared to control mice have been identified. Specifically, major changes were found in metabolites from tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and aromatic amino acid catabolism including 3-indoxyl sulfate, cis-aconitate, 2-oxoisocaproate, N-phenyl-acetylglycine, 4-hydroxyphenyl acetate, and hippurate. Levels of 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid and hippuric acid showed the strongest reverse correlation to albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), which is an indicator of renal damage. Importantly, similar changes in urinary hydroxyphenyl acetate and hippurate were previously reported in human renal disease. We demonstrated that STZ-eNOS(-/-) C57BLKS and eNOS(-/-) C57BLKS db/db mouse models can recapitulate changes in urinary metabolome found in human DN and therefore can be useful new tools in metabolomic studies relevant to human pathology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Transportation Sector Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Transportation Model (TRAN). The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated by the model. The NEMS Transportation Model comprises a series of semi-independent models which address different aspects of the transportation sector. The primary purpose of this model is to provide mid-term forecasts of transportation energy demand by fuel type including, but not limited to, motor gasoline, distillate, jet fuel, and alternative fuels (such as CNG) not commonly associated with transportation. The current NEMS forecast horizon extends to the year 2010 and uses 1990 as the base year. Forecasts are generated through the separate consideration of energy consumption within the various modes of transport, including: private and fleet light-duty vehicles; aircraft; marine, rail, and truck freight; and various modes with minor overall impacts, such as mass transit and recreational boating. This approach is useful in assessing the impacts of policy initiatives, legislative mandates which affect individual modes of travel, and technological developments. The model also provides forecasts of selected intermediate values which are generated in order to determine energy consumption. These elements include estimates of passenger travel demand by automobile, air, or mass transit; estimates of the efficiency with which that demand is met; projections of vehicle stocks and the penetration of new technologies; and estimates of the demand for freight transport which are linked to forecasts of industrial output. Following the estimation of energy demand, TRAN produces forecasts of vehicular emissions of the following pollutants by source: oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen, total carbon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viner, B.


    The atmospheric release of tritium oxide (HTO) potentially impacts human health, typically through inhalation or absorption. Due to HTO's similarity to water, vegetation will absorb HTO by solution in the leaf water and then re-emit it, creating a number of secondary sources of HTO. Currently, models used for emergency response at Savannah River Site incorporate the transport and deposition of HTO but do not provide estimates for its potential re-emission from vegetation or soil surface though re-emission could result in prolonged exposure and greater than predicted dose for an individual downwind. A simple model of HTO transport, deposition and re-emission has been developed to examine the potential increase in exposure and dose. The model simulates an initial release of HTO that moves with a mean wind and expands through diffusion as a Gaussian puff. Deposition is modeled using previous estimates of deposition velocity for HTO and re-emission is modeled using a time constant that describes how quickly HTO is transferred between the surface and atmosphere. Additional puffs are created to simulate re-emission of HTO as well as horizontal diffusion across model grid cells. An evaluation of field data indicates that the use of a re-emission module tends to improve model predictions through improved prediction of peak concentration magnitude and location. When considering dose, nearly all of the released material is included in the dose calculation when re-emission is included. Although exposure to HTO through re-emission occurs over a few hours, the incremental increase in dose is relatively small because the atmospheric concentration of re-emitted HTO is much lower than the initial release.

  20. Combining the ICM Eutrophication Model with the SEDZLJ Sediment Transport Model (United States)


    ER D C/ EL T R -1 2 -1 7 Dredging Operations and Environmental Research Program Combining the ICM Eutrophication Model with the SEDZLJ...Dredging Operations and Environmental Research Program ERDC/EL TR-12-17 August 2012 Combining the ICM Eutrophication Model with the SEDZLJ...formulation of the SEDZLJ sediment transport model, coupling of the model with the ICM eutrophication model, validation of the combined codes on a

  1. An in vitro transport model for rapid screening and predicting the permeability of candidate compounds at blood-brain barrier. (United States)

    Yang, Zhi-Hong; Sun, Xiao; Mei, Chao; Sun, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Xiao-Dong; Chang, Qi


    The aim of this study was to design and develop a simple in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeation model for elementarily and rapidly predicting the permeability of candidate compounds at BBB and further evaluating whether P-glycoprotein (P-gp) affects them across BBB. The model was mainly composed of cultured rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (rBMECs), glass contraption, and micropore membrane. First, we evaluated the model by morphological observation. Second, the restriction effects of paracellular transport were verified by measuring marker probes transport, and monitoring transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and leakage. Finally, protein expression and activity of P-gp were confirmed by carrying out Western blot analysis and polarized transport of rhodamine-123 (Rho123) in rBMECs. The rBMECs retained both endothelial cells and BBB features. The rBMECs model reproducibly attained approximately 130 Ω cm² on the steady-state TEER value, and displayed a barrier function to marker probes transport by decreasing the permeability. Protein band of 170 kDa manifested the existence of P-gp in the rBMECs, and the findings of cyclosporin A-sensitive decrease of Rho123 efflux confirmed the presence of P-gp activity. A simple, rapid, and convenient in vitro BBB permeation model was successfully established and applied to evaluate the BBB transport profiles of three natural flavonoids: quercetin, naringenin, and rutin.

  2. Profiling Patients’ Healthcare Needs to Support Integrated, Person-Centered Models for Long-Term Disease Management (Profile: Research Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianne MJ Elissen


    Full Text Available Background: This article presents the design of PROFILe, a study investigating which (biomedical and non-(biomedical patient characteristics should guide more tailored chronic care. Based on this insight, the project aims to develop and validate ‘patient profiles’ that can be used in practice to determine optimal treatment strategies for subgroups of chronically ill with similar healthcare needs and preferences. Methods/Design: PROFILe is a practice-based research comprising four phases. The project focuses on patients with type 2 diabetes. During the first study phase, patient profiles are drafted based on a systematic literature research, latent class growth modeling, and expert collaboration. In phase 2, the profiles are validated from a clinical, patient-related and statistical perspective. Phase 3 involves a discrete choice experiment to gain insight into the patient preferences that exist per profile. In phase 4, the results from all analyses are integrated and recommendations formulated on which patient characteristics should guide tailored chronic care. Discussion: PROFILe is an innovative study which uses a uniquely holistic approach to assess the healthcare needs and preferences of chronically ill. The patient profiles resulting from this project must be tested in practice to investigate the effects of tailored management on patient experience, population health and costs.

  3. Transportation (United States)


    container. It now permits free transit of shipping containers from their western ports, if transported by rail directly to the U.S. ( Mireles , 2005, p...Transportation Industry Study Seminar. Mireles , Richard, Castillo. (2005, January). A Cure for West Coast Congestion. Logistics Today, Vol. 46, Issue 1. 1

  4. Average waiting time profiles of uniform DQDB model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, N.S.V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Maly, K.; Olariu, S.; Dharanikota, S.; Zhang, L.; Game, D. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science


    The Distributed Queue Dual Bus (DQDB) system consists of a linear arrangement of N nodes that communicate with each other using two contra-flowing buses; the nodes use an extremely simple protocol to send messages on these buses. This simple, but elegant, system has been found to be very challenging to analyze. We consider a simple and uniform abstraction of this model to highlight the fairness issues in terms of average waiting time. We introduce a new approximation method to analyze the performance of DQDB system in terms of the average waiting time of a node expressed as a function of its position. Our approach abstracts the intimate relationship between the load of the system and its fairness characteristics, and explains all basic behavior profiles of DQDB observed in previous simulation. For the uniform DQDB with equal distance between adjacent nodes, we show that the system operates under three basic behavior profiles and a finite number of their combinations that depend on the load of the network. Consequently, the system is not fair at any load in terms of the average waiting times. In the vicinity of a critical load of 1 {minus} 4/N, the uniform network runs into a state akin to chaos, where its behavior fluctuates from one extreme to the other with a load variation of 2/N. Our analysis is supported by simulation results. We also show that the main theme of the analysis carries over to the general (non-uniform) DQDB; by suitably choosing the inter-node distances, the DQDB can be made fair around some loads, but such system will become unfair as the load changes.

  5. Heat transport modelling in EXTRAP T2R (United States)

    Frassinetti, L.; Brunsell, P. R.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.


    A model to estimate the heat transport in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch (RFP) is described. The model, based on experimental and theoretical results, divides the RFP electron heat diffusivity χe into three regions, one in the plasma core, where χe is assumed to be determined by the tearing modes, one located around the reversal radius, where χe is assumed not dependent on the magnetic fluctuations and one in the extreme edge, where high χe is assumed. The absolute values of the core and of the reversal χe are determined by simulating the electron temperature and the soft x-ray and by comparing the simulated signals with the experimental ones. The model is used to estimate the heat diffusivity and the energy confinement time during the flat top of standard plasmas, of deep F plasmas and of plasmas obtained with the intelligent shell.

  6. Environmental Transport Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Wasiolek


    This analysis report is one of the technical reports documenting the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) for the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows relationships among the reports developed for biosphere modeling and biosphere abstraction products for the TSPA-LA, as identified in the ''Technical Work Plan for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]) (TWP). This figure provides an understanding of how this report contributes to biosphere modeling in support of the license application (LA). This report is one of the five reports that develop input parameter values for the biosphere model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes the conceptual model and the mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the Biosphere Model Report in Figure 1-1, contain detailed description of the model input parameters. The output of this report is used as direct input in the ''Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis'' and in the ''Disruptive Event Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis'' that calculate the values of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater and volcanic ash exposure scenarios, respectively. The purpose of this analysis was to develop biosphere model parameter values related to radionuclide transport and accumulation in the environment. These parameters support calculations of radionuclide concentrations in the environmental media (e.g., soil, crops, animal products, and air) resulting from a given radionuclide concentration at the source of contamination (i.e., either in groundwater or in volcanic ash). The analysis

  7. MOZART, a global chemical transport model for ozone and related chemical tracers: 1. Model description (United States)

    Brasseur, G. P.; Hauglustaine, D. A.; Walters, S.; Rasch, P. J.; Müller, J.-F.; Granier, C.; Tie, X. X.


    We present a new global three-dimensional chemical-transport model (called MOZART) developed in the framework of the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM) and aimed at studying the distribution and budget of tropospheric ozone and its precursors. The model, developed with a horizontal resolution of 2.8° in longitude and latitude, includes 25 levels in the vertical between the Earth's surface and an upper boundary located at approximately 35 km altitude. In its present configuration the model calculates the global distribution of 56 chemical constituents with a timestep of 20 min, and accounts for surface emission and deposition, large-scale advective transport, subscale convective and boundary layer exchanges, chemical and photochemical transformations, as well as wet scavenging. Transport is simulated "off line" from CCM with dynamical variables provided every 3 hours from preestablished history tapes. Advection is calculated using the semi-Lagrangian transport scheme [Rasch and Williamson, 1990] developed for the MATCH model of Rasch et al. [1997]. Convective and boundary layer transports are expressed according to Hack [1994] and Holtslag and Boville [1993], respectively. A detailed evaluation of the model results is provided in a companion paper [Hauglustaine et al., this issue]. An analysis of the spatial and temporal variability in the chemical fields predicted by the model suggests that regional events such as summertime ozone episodes in polluted areas can be simulated by MOZART.

  8. Modeling interfacial area transport in multi-fluid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Many typical chemical engineering operations are multi-fluid systems. They are carried out in distillation columns (vapor/liquid), liquid-liquid contactors (liquid/liquid) and other similar devices. An important parameter is interfacial area concentration, which determines the rate of interfluid heat, mass and momentum transfer and ultimately, the overall performance of the equipment. In many cases, the models for determining interfacial area concentration are empirical and can only describe the cases for which there is experimental data. In an effort to understand multiphase reactors and the mixing process better, a multi-fluid model has been developed as part of a research effort to calculate interfacial area transport in several different types of in-line static mixers. For this work, the ensemble-averaged property conservation equations have been derived for each fluid and for the mixture. These equations were then combined to derive a transport equation for the interfacial area concentration. The final, one-dimensional model was compared to interfacial area concentration data from two sizes of Kenics in-line mixer, two sizes of concurrent jet and a Tee mixer. In all cases, the calculated and experimental data compared well with the highest scatter being with the Tee mixer comparison.

  9. Impact of transport model errors on the global and regional methane emissions estimated by inverse modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Locatelli


    Full Text Available A modelling experiment has been conceived to assess the impact of transport model errors on methane emissions estimated in an atmospheric inversion system. Synthetic methane observations, obtained from 10 different model outputs from the international TransCom-CH4 model inter-comparison exercise, are combined with a prior scenario of methane emissions and sinks, and integrated into the three-component PYVAR-LMDZ-SACS (PYthon VARiational-Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique model with Zooming capability-Simplified Atmospheric Chemistry System inversion system to produce 10 different methane emission estimates at the global scale for the year 2005. The same methane sinks, emissions and initial conditions have been applied to produce the 10 synthetic observation datasets. The same inversion set-up (statistical errors, prior emissions, inverse procedure is then applied to derive flux estimates by inverse modelling. Consequently, only differences in the modelling of atmospheric transport may cause differences in the estimated fluxes. In our framework, we show that transport model errors lead to a discrepancy of 27 Tg yr−1 at the global scale, representing 5% of total methane emissions. At continental and annual scales, transport model errors are proportionally larger than at the global scale, with errors ranging from 36 Tg yr−1 in North America to 7 Tg yr−1 in Boreal Eurasia (from 23 to 48%, respectively. At the model grid-scale, the spread of inverse estimates can reach 150% of the prior flux. Therefore, transport model errors contribute significantly to overall uncertainties in emission estimates by inverse modelling, especially when small spatial scales are examined. Sensitivity tests have been carried out to estimate the impact of the measurement network and the advantage of higher horizontal resolution in transport models. The large differences found between methane flux estimates inferred in these different configurations highly

  10. Personality profile of adult ADHD: the alternative five factor model. (United States)

    Valero, Sergi; Ramos-Quiroga, Antoni; Gomà-i-Freixanet, Montserrat; Bosch, Rosa; Gómez-Barros, Nuria; Nogueira, Mariana; Palomar, Gloria; Corrales, Montse; Casas, Miquel


    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most frequently diagnosed disorders in childhood affecting around 3% to 5% of adults worldwide. Most of the studies have been carried out using the Five Factor Model (FFM). Given the value and importance of describing adult ADHD in terms of general personality structure for a better conceptualization of this disorder, this study contributes adding new data on an Alternative Five Factor Model (AFFM) of personality. The aim of the present study is twofold: To assess the personality profile of adults with ADHD under the AFFM perspective, and to test the discriminant validity of the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ) in differentiating ADHD subjects vs. normal range controls. A sample of 217 adults (64% male) meeting ADHD diagnosis (DSM-IV) was paired by age and sex with 434 normal-range controls. Logistic regression analysis showed that high scores on Neuroticism-Anxiety, Impulsivity and General Activity, and low on Work Activity were the most powerful predictors of being endorsed with an ADHD diagnosis. Results may suggest refinements in the personality assessment of ADHD as it seems that the ZKPQ provides more specific subscales for the description and conceptualization of this disorder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The balance model for heat transport from hydrolytic reaction mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janacova Dagmar


    Full Text Available The content of the paper is the industrial application of enzyme hydrolysis of tanning solids waste with a view to minimizing the price of enzyme hydrolysate product, which has widely used. On the base of the energy balance of the enzymatic hydrolysis we estimated the critical minimal charge of a tanning drum. We performed of the critical minimal on the basis of a balance model for heat transport from reaction mixture into the environment through reactor wall. Employing a tanning drum for hydrolytic reaction allows to process tanning wastes in the place of their origin. It means thus considerably to enhancing economics of the whole process.

  12. A Model of Dispersion in Pollutant Transport; Un modelo de dispersion en el transporte de contaminantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maron Dominguez, David Ernesto [Instituto Superior Politecnico Jose A. Echeverrria (Cuba)


    A numeric model is show for the solution of the inverse problem in pollutant transport. Quadratic and cubic elements were used in the discretization by the MEF of the equation of the dispersion. The algorithms of the inverse model are verified and compared with analytic solutions reported in the literature. The application of the model to the calibration of the parameters of a wetland used a s a filter in the treatment of wastewater is shown. The wetland was created in the laboratory and measurements of sodium fluorescein concentrations of a test were used as tracer. The dispersion coefficient, the retardation coefficient, the degradation coefficient, and the parameter of weight of the discretization in time were gauged. The results shown prove the good approximation of the dispersion coefficient obtained with a value estimated by another method. The graphs of the adjustments obtained are also shown. [Spanish] Se muestra un modelo numerico para la resolucion del problema inverso en el transporte de contaminantes. Se emplearon elementos cuadraticos y cubicos en la discretizacion por el metodo de los elementos finitos de la ecuacion de la ecuacion de la dispersion. Se verifican y se comparan los algoritmos del modelo inverso con una solucion analitica reportada en la literatura. Se muestra la aplicacion del modelo a la calibracion de los parametros de un humedal utilizado como filtro en el tratamiento de agua residuales. El humedal se construyo en el laboratorio y se utilizaron mediciones de concentraciones de fluoresceina sodica de una prueba de trazado. Se calibraron el coeficiente de dispersion, el coeficiente de retardo, el coeficiente de degradacion y el parametro de peso de la discretizacion en el tiempo. Se muestran los resultados obtenidos, comprobandose la buena aproximacion del coeficiente de dispersion con un valor estimado por otro metodo. Se muestran las graficas de los ajustes que se lograron.

  13. Three dimensional heat transport modeling in Vossoroca reservoir (United States)

    Arcie Polli, Bruna; Yoshioka Bernardo, Julio Werner; Hilgert, Stephan; Bleninger, Tobias


    Freshwater reservoirs are used for many purposes as hydropower generation, water supply and irrigation. In Brazil, according to the National Energy Balance of 2013, hydropower energy corresponds to 70.1% of the Brazilian demand. Superficial waters (which include rivers, lakes and reservoirs) are the most used source for drinking water supply - 56% of the municipalities use superficial waters as a source of water. The last two years have shown that the Brazilian water and electricity supply is highly vulnerable and that improved management is urgently needed. The construction of reservoirs affects physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the water body, e.g. stratification, temperature, residence time and turbulence reduction. Some water quality issues related to reservoirs are eutrophication, greenhouse gas emission to the atmosphere and dissolved oxygen depletion in the hypolimnion. The understanding of the physical processes in the water body is fundamental to reservoir management. Lakes and reservoirs may present a seasonal behavior and stratify due to hydrological and meteorological conditions, and especially its vertical distribution may be related to water quality. Stratification can control heat and dissolved substances transport. It has been also reported the importance of horizontal temperature gradients, e.g. inflows and its density and processes of mass transfer from shallow to deeper regions of the reservoir, that also may impact water quality. Three dimensional modeling of the heat transport in lakes and reservoirs is an important tool to the understanding and management of these systems. It is possible to estimate periods of large vertical temperature gradients, inhibiting vertical transport and horizontal gradients, which could be responsible for horizontal transport of heat and substances (e.g. differential cooling or inflows). Vossoroca reservoir was constructed in 1949 by the impoundment of São João River and is located near to

  14. Two-dimensional numerical modelling of dissolved and particulate pollutant transport in the Three Gorges Reservoir (United States)

    Hu, W.; Wang, L.-J.; Chen, H.; Holbach, A.; Zheng, B.-H.; Norra, S.; Westrich, B.


    After impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in 2003, hydrological regimes of the Yangtze River, upstream and downstream of the Three Gorges Dam, have been changed enormously, leading to significant environmental, ecological and social impacts. Nutrients and pollutants from agriculture, industry and municipalities are of concern due to their impact on the aquatic environment and hence, transport behavior of sediment associated pollutants must be modeled and analyzed to establish a sustainable water reservoir management. As part of the Chinese-German Yangtze-Project [1], two-dimensional numerical model TELEMAC is applied to study the dissolved and particulate pollutant transport at different locations of concern in the TGR. In-situ measurement campaigns for morphology and water quality data using mobile measuring device (MINIBAT) are carried out to provide detailed information for the different water bodies at different time. Additional morphological data are taken from cross-section profiles in the literature, the digital elevation model (DEM) of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) from CGIAR. Daily and hourly water level and discharge, suspended sediment concentration and pollutant loads are obtained from the authorities and extracted from literature. The model describes the spatial-temporal flow field, transport and dispersion of sediment associated pollutants with emphasis on the dynamic interaction and mutual influence of the river Yangtze, its major tributaries and adjacent lagoon-like dead water bodies due to the 30 meter annual reservoir water level fluctuation. Since algae bloom, especially in the tributaries and side arms of the mainstream, is one of the major issues occurred after 2003, the results of the numerical modeling together with the statistical analysis of the MINIBAT measurements are used for the eutrophication status analysis. Acknowledgments The Yangtze-Project is funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF

  15. Environmental Transport Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. A. Wasiolek


    This analysis report is one of the technical reports documenting the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows relationships among the reports developed for biosphere modeling and biosphere abstraction products for the TSPA, as identified in the ''Technical Work Plan: for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (TWP) (BSC 2003 [163602]). Some documents in Figure 1-1 may be under development and not available when this report is issued. This figure provides an understanding of how this report contributes to biosphere modeling in support of the license application (LA), but access to the listed documents is not required to understand the contents of this report. This report is one of the reports that develops input parameter values for the biosphere model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2003 [160699]) describes the conceptual model, the mathematical model, and the input parameters. The purpose of this analysis is to develop biosphere model parameter values related to radionuclide transport and accumulation in the environment. These parameters support calculations of radionuclide concentrations in the environmental media (e.g., soil, crops, animal products, and air) resulting from a given radionuclide concentration at the source of contamination (i.e., either in groundwater or volcanic ash). The analysis was performed in accordance with the TWP (BSC 2003 [163602]). This analysis develops values of parameters associated with many features, events, and processes (FEPs) applicable to the reference biosphere (DTN: M00303SEPFEPS2.000 [162452]), which are addressed in the biosphere model (BSC 2003 [160699]). The treatment of these FEPs is described in BSC (2003 [160699

  16. Modeling of U-series Radionuclide Transport Through Soil at Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico (United States)

    Pekar, K. E.; Goodell, P. C.; Walton, J. C.; Anthony, E. Y.; Ren, M.


    The Nopal I uranium deposit is located at Pena Blanca in Chihuahua, Mexico. Mining of high-grade uranium ore occurred in the early 1980s, with the ore stockpiled nearby. The stockpile was mostly cleared in the 1990s; however, some of the high-grade boulders have remained there, creating localized sources of radioactivity for a period of 25-30 years. This provides a unique opportunity to study radionuclide transport, because the study area did not have any uranium contamination predating the stockpile in the 1980s. One high-grade boulder was selected for study based upon its shape, location, and high activity. The presumed drip-line off of the boulder was marked, samples from the boulder surface were taken, and then the boulder was moved several feet away. Soil samples were taken from directly beneath the boulder, around the drip-line, and down slope. Eight of these samples were collected in a vertical profile directly beneath the boulder. Visible flakes of boulder material were removed from the surficial soil samples, because they would have higher concentrations of U-series radionuclides and cause the activities in the soil samples to be excessively high. The vertical sampling profile used 2-inch thicknesses for each sample. The soil samples were packaged into thin plastic containers to minimize the attenuation and to standardize sample geometry, and then they were analyzed by gamma-ray spectroscopy with a Ge(Li) detector for Th-234, Pa-234, U-234, Th-230, Ra-226, Pb-214, Bi-214, and Pb-210. The raw counts were corrected for self-attenuation and normalized using BL-5, a uranium standard from Beaverlodge, Saskatchewan. BL-5 allowed the counts obtained on the Ge(Li) to be referenced to a known concentration or activity, which was then applied to the soil unknowns for a reliable calculation of their concentrations. Gamma ray spectra of five soil samples from the vertical profile exhibit decreasing activities with increasing depth for the selected radionuclides

  17. Direct measurements of safety factor profiles with motional Stark effect for KSTAR tokamak discharges with internal transport barriers (United States)

    Ko, J.; Chung, J.


    The safety factor profile evolutions have been measured from the plasma discharges with the external current drive mechanism such as the multi-ion-source neutral beam injection for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) for the first time. This measurement has been possible by the newly installed motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic system that utilizes the polarized Balmer-alpha emission from the energetic neutral deuterium atoms induced by the Stark effect under the Lorentz electric field. The 25-channel KSTAR MSE diagnostic is based on the conventional photoelastic modulator approach with the spatial and temporal resolutions less than 2 cm (for the most of the channels except 2 to 3 channels inside the magnetic axis) and about 10 ms, respectively. The strong Faraday rotation imposed on the optical elements in the diagnostic system is calibrated out from a separate and well-designed polarization measurement procedure using an in-vessel reference polarizer during the toroidal-field ramp-up phase before the plasma experiment starts. The combination of the non-inductive current drive during the ramp-up and shape control enables the formation of the internal transport barrier where the pitch angle profiles indicate flat or slightly hollow profiles in the safety factor.

  18. The energy logistic model for analyses of transportation- and energy systems; Energilogistikmodell foer systemberaekningar av transport- och energifoersoerjningssystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinge, M.


    The Energy Logistic Model has been improved to become a tool for analysis of all production processes, transportation systems and systems including several energy users and several fuels. Two cases were studied. The first case deals with terminal equipment for inter modal transport systems and the second case deals with diesel fuelled trucks, cranes and machines in the Goeteborg area. In both cases, the environmental improvements of the city air quality are analyzed when natural gas is substituted for diesel oil. The comparison between inter modal transport and road haulage shows that the environmental impacts from the operations at the terminal are limited, and that the potential for environmental benefits when using inter modal transport is improving with the transportation distance. The choice of electricity production system is of great importance when calculating the environmental impact from railway traffic in the total analysis of the transportation system. 13 refs, 27 tabs

  19. Dust vertical profile impact on global radiative forcing estimation using a coupled chemical-transport–radiative-transfer model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang


    Full Text Available Atmospheric mineral dust particles exert significant direct radiative forcings and are important drivers of climate and climate change. We used the GEOS-Chem global three-dimensional chemical transport model (CTM coupled with the Fu-Liou-Gu (FLG radiative transfer model (RTM to investigate the dust radiative forcing and heating rate based on different vertical profiles for April 2006. We attempt to actually quantify the sensitivities of radiative forcing to dust vertical profiles, especially the discrepancies between using realistic and climatological vertical profiles. In these calculations, dust emissions were constrained by observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD. The coupled calculations utilizing a more realistic dust vertical profile simulated by GEOS-Chem minimize the physical inconsistencies between 3-D CTM aerosol fields and the RTM. The use of GEOS-Chem simulated vertical profile of dust extinction, as opposed to the FLG prescribed vertical profile, leads to greater and more spatially heterogeneous changes in the estimated radiative forcing and heating rate produced by dust. Both changes can be attributed to a different vertical structure between dust and non-dust source regions. Values of the dust vertically resolved AOD per grid level (VRAOD are much larger in the middle troposphere, though smaller at the surface when the GEOS-Chem simulated vertical profile is used, which leads to a much stronger heating rate in the middle troposphere. Compared to the FLG vertical profile, the use of GEOS-Chem vertical profile reduces the solar radiative forcing at the top of atmosphere (TOA by approximately 0.2–0.25 W m−2 over the African and Asian dust source regions. While the Infrared (IR radiative forcing decreases 0.2 W m−2 over African dust belt, it increases 0.06 W m−2 over the Asian dust belt when the GEOS-Chem vertical profile is used. Differences in the solar radiative forcing at the surface between the use of the GEOS-Chem and

  20. sedFlow - a tool for simulating fractional bedload transport and longitudinal profile evolution in mountain streams (United States)

    Heimann, F. U. M.; Rickenmann, D.; Turowski, J. M.; Kirchner, J. W.


    Especially in mountainous environments, the prediction of sediment dynamics is important for managing natural hazards, assessing in-stream habitats and understanding geomorphic evolution. We present the new modelling tool {sedFlow} for simulating fractional bedload transport dynamics in mountain streams. sedFlow is a one-dimensional model that aims to realistically reproduce the total transport volumes and overall morphodynamic changes resulting from sediment transport events such as major floods. The model is intended for temporal scales from the individual event (several hours to few days) up to longer-term evolution of stream channels (several years). The envisaged spatial scale covers complete catchments at a spatial discretisation of several tens of metres to a few hundreds of metres. sedFlow can deal with the effects of streambeds that slope uphill in a downstream direction and uses recently proposed and tested approaches for quantifying macro-roughness effects in steep channels. sedFlow offers different options for bedload transport equations, flow-resistance relationships and other elements which can be selected to fit the current application in a particular catchment. Local grain-size distributions are dynamically adjusted according to the transport dynamics of each grain-size fraction. sedFlow features fast calculations and straightforward pre- and postprocessing of simulation data. The high simulation speed allows for simulations of several years, which can be used, e.g., to assess the long-term impact of river engineering works or climate change effects. In combination with the straightforward pre- and postprocessing, the fast calculations facilitate efficient workflows for the simulation of individual flood events, because the modeller gets the immediate results as direct feedback to the selected parameter inputs. The model is provided together with its complete source code free of charge under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL) (www

  1. Country analysis briefs: 1994. Profiles of major world energy producers, consumers, and transport centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Country Analysis Briefs: 1994 is a compilation of country profiles prepared by the Energy Markets and Contingency Information Division (EMCID) of the Office of Energy Markets and End Use. EMCID maintains Country Analysis Briefs (CABs) for specific countries or geographical areas that are important to world energy markets. As a general rule, CABs are prepared for all members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), major non-OPEC oil producers (i.e., the North Sea, Russia), major energy transit areas (i.e., Ukraine), and other areas of current interest to energy analysts and policy makers. As of January 1995, EMCID maintained over 40 CABs, updated on an annual schedule and subject to revision as events warrant. This report includes 25 CABs updated during 1994. All CABs contain a profile section, a map showing the country`s location, and a narrative section. The profile section includes outlines of the country`s economy, energy sector, and environment. The narrative provides further information and discussion of these topics. Some CABs also include a detailed map displaying locations of major oil and gas fields, pipelines, ports, etc. These maps were created as a result of special individual requests and so are not typically a standard feature of the CABs. They are presented here wherever available as a supplement to the information contained in the CABs.

  2. Transportation and transformation of mercury in a calcine profile in the Wanshan Mercury Mine, SW China. (United States)

    Yin, Runsheng; Gu, Chunhao; Feng, Xinbin; Zheng, Lirong; Hu, Ningning


    Calcination of Hg ores has resulted in serious contamination of mercury (Hg) in the environment. To understand the mobilization of Hg in the calcine pile, the speciation of Hg in a profile of a large calcine pile in the Wanshan Mercury Mine, SW China was investigated using the X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES), to understand the mobilization of Hg in the calcine pile. Higher concentrations of Hg were observed at the 30-50 cm depth of the profile, corresponding to a cemented layer. This layer is observed in the entire pile, and was formed due to cementation of calcines. Hg species in calcines include cinnabar (α-HgS), metacinnabar (β-HgS), elemental Hg(0), and minor mercuric chloride (HgCl2), but these Hg species show dramatic changes in the profile. Variations in Hg speciation suggest that extensive mobilization of Hg can occur during weathering processes. We show that the cemented layer can prevent the leaching of Hg and the emission of Hg(0) from the pile. High MeHg concentrations were found near the cemented layer, indicating Hg methylation occurs. This study provides important insights into the environmental risk of Hg in mining areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A computerized coal-water slurry transportation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljubicic, B.R.; Trostad, B. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Bukurov, Z.; Cvijanovic, P. [Univ. of Novi Sad (Yugoslavia)


    Coal-water fuel (CWF) technology has been developed to the point where full-scale commercialization is just a matter of gaining sufficient market confidence in the price stability of alternate fossil fuels. In order to generalize alternative fuel cost estimates for the desired combinations of processing and/or transportation, a great deal of flexibility is required owing to the understood lack of precision in many of the newly emerging coal technologies. Previously, decisions regarding the sequential and spatial arrangement of the various process steps were made strictly on the basis of experience, simplified analysis, and intuition. Over the last decade, computer modeling has progressed from empirically based correlation to that of intricate mechanistic analysis. Nomograms, charts, tables, and many simple rules of thumb have been made obsolete by the availability of complex computer models. Given the ability to view results graphically in real or near real time, the engineer can immediately verify, from a practical standpoint, whether the initial assumptions and inputs were indeed valid. If the feasibility of a project is being determined in the context of a lack of specific data, the ability to provide a dynamic software-based solution is crucial. Furthermore, the resulting model can be used to establish preliminary operating procedures, test control logic, and train plant/process operators. Presented in this paper is a computerized model capable of estimating the delivered cost of CWF. The model uses coal-specific values, process and transport requirements, terrain factors, and input costs to determine the final operating configuration, bill of materials, and, ultimately, the capital, operating, and unit costs.

  4. Neuro-Fuzzy Prediction of Cooperation Interaction Profile of Flexible Road Train Based on Hybrid Automaton Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banjanovic-Mehmedovic Lejla


    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of traffic information is important in many applications in relation to Intelligent Transport systems (ITS, since it reduces the uncertainty of future traffic states and improves traffic mobility. There is a lot of research done in the field of traffic information predictions such as speed, flow and travel time. The most important research was done in the domain of cooperative intelligent transport system (C-ITS. The goal of this paper is to introduce the novel cooperation behaviour profile prediction through the example of flexible Road Trains useful road cooperation parameter, which contributes to the improvement of traffic mobility in Intelligent Transportation Systems. This paper presents an approach towards the control and cooperation behaviour modelling of vehicles in the flexible Road Train based on hybrid automaton and neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS prediction of cooperation profile of the flexible Road Train. Hybrid automaton takes into account complex dynamics of each vehicle as well as discrete cooperation approach. The ANFIS is a particular class of the ANN family with attractive estimation and learning potentials. In order to provide statistical analysis, RMSE (root mean square error, coefficient of determination (R2 and Pearson coefficient (r, were utilized. The study results suggest that ANFIS would be an efficient soft computing methodology, which could offer precise predictions of cooperative interactions between vehicles in Road Train, which is useful for prediction mobility in Intelligent Transport systems.

  5. Co-evolution of transportation and land use : modeling historical dependencies in land use and transportation decision making. (United States)


    The interaction between land use and transportation has long been the central issue in urban and regional planning. Models of such : interactions provide vital information to support many public policy decisions, such as land supply, infrastructure p...

  6. User profile modeling for building recommendation systems: a theoretical study and state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARTH, F. J.


    Full Text Available The goal of this tutorial is to describe and synthesize the concepts and techniques used in the design of recommendation systems that can deal with user profiles. The development of such recommendation systems requires solutions of two sub problems: (i the creation and maintenance of user profile, and; (ii the appropriate use of user profiles. This work is a theoretical tutorial on this subject. This is a useful text for people who are interested in the theoretical foundations of modeling user profile and recommendation systems. This text presents illustrative diagrams that summarize the main components used in the modeling of user profiles

  7. A mechanistic physicochemical model of carbon dioxide transport in blood. (United States)

    O'Neill, David P; Robbins, Peter A


    A number of mathematical models have been produced that, given the Pco2 and Po2 of blood, will calculate the total concentrations for CO2 and O2 in blood. However, all these models contain at least some empirical features, and thus do not represent all of the underlying physicochemical processes in an entirely mechanistic manner. The aim of this study was to develop a physicochemical model of CO2 carriage by the blood to determine whether our understanding of the physical chemistry of the major chemical components of blood together with their interactions is sufficiently strong to predict the physiological properties of CO2 carriage by whole blood. Standard values are used for the ionic composition of the blood, the plasma albumin concentration, and the hemoglobin concentration. All Km values required for the model are taken from the literature. The distribution of bicarbonate, chloride, and H+ ions across the red blood cell membrane follows that of a Gibbs-Donnan equilibrium. The system of equations that results is solved numerically using constraints for mass balance and electroneutrality. The model reproduces the phenomena associated with CO2 carriage, including the magnitude of the Haldane effect, very well. The structural nature of the model allows various hypothetical scenarios to be explored. Here we examine the effects of 1) removing the ability of hemoglobin to form carbamino compounds; 2) allowing a degree of Cl- binding to deoxygenated hemoglobin; and 3) removing the chloride (Hamburger) shift. The insights gained could not have been obtained from empirical models. This study is the first to incorporate a mechanistic model of chloride-bicarbonate exchange between the erythrocyte and plasma into a full physicochemical model of the carriage of carbon dioxide in blood. The mechanistic nature of the model allowed a theoretical study of the quantitative significance for carbon dioxide transport of carbamino compound formation; the putative binding of chloride

  8. A semi-analytical method for simulating matrix diffusion in numerical transport models. (United States)

    Falta, Ronald W; Wang, Wenwen


    A semi-analytical approximation for transient matrix diffusion is developed for use in numerical contaminant transport simulators. This method is an adaptation and extension of the heat conduction method of Vinsome and Westerveld (1980) used to simulate heat losses during thermally enhanced oil recovery. The semi-analytical method is used in place of discretization of the low permeability materials, and it represents the concentration profile in the low permeability materials with a fitting function that is adjusted in each element at each time-step. The resulting matrix diffusion fluxes are added to the numerical model as linear concentration-dependent source/sink terms. Since only the high permeability zones need to be discretized, the numerical formulation is extremely efficient compared to traditional approaches that require discretization of both the high and low permeability zones. The semi-analytical method compares favorably with the analytical solution for transient one-dimensional diffusion with first order decay, with a two-layer aquifer/aquitard solution, with the solution for transport in a fracture with matrix diffusion and decay, and with a fully numerical solution for transport in a thin sand zone bounded by clay with variable decay rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Modeling sediment transport in Qatar: Application for coastal development planning. (United States)

    Yousif, Ruqaiya; Warren, Christopher; Ben-Hamadou, Radhouan; Husrevoglu, Sinan


    Hydrodynamics and sediment transport are key physical processes contributing to habitat structure within the marine environment. Coastal development that results in the alteration of these processes (e.g., changing water flushing and/or sedimentation rates) can have detrimental impacts on sensitive systems. This is a current, relevant issue in Qatar as its coastal regions continue to be developed, not only around the capital of Doha, but in many areas around this Arabian Gulf peninsula. The northeastern Qatari coast is comprised of diverse and sensitive flora and fauna such as seagrass and macroalgae meadows, coral reefs and patches, turtles, and dugongs that tolerate harsh environmental conditions. In the near future, this area may see a rise in anthropogenic activity in the form of coastal development projects. These projects will add to existing natural stresses, such as high temperature, high salinity, and low rates of precipitation. Consequently, there is a need to characterize this area and assess the potential impacts that these anthropogenic activities may have on the region. In the present study, a novel sediment transport model is described and used to demonstrate the potential impact of altering hydrodynamics and subsequent sediment transport along the northeastern Qatar nearshore marine environment. The developed models will be tested using potential scenarios of future anthropogenic activities forecasted to take place in the area. The results will show the effects on water and sediment behavior and provide a scientific approach for key stakeholders to make decisions with respect to the management of the considered coastal zone. Furthermore, it provides a tool and framework that can be utilized in environmental impact assessment and associated hydrodynamic studies along other areas of the Qatari coastal zone. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;00:000-000. ©2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  10. Low-Rank Kalman Filtering in Subsurface Contaminant Transport Models

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad


    Understanding the geology and the hydrology of the subsurface is important to model the fluid flow and the behavior of the contaminant. It is essential to have an accurate knowledge of the movement of the contaminants in the porous media in order to track them and later extract them from the aquifer. A two-dimensional flow model is studied and then applied on a linear contaminant transport model in the same porous medium. Because of possible different sources of uncertainties, the deterministic model by itself cannot give exact estimations for the future contaminant state. Incorporating observations in the model can guide it to the true state. This is usually done using the Kalman filter (KF) when the system is linear and the extended Kalman filter (EKF) when the system is nonlinear. To overcome the high computational cost required by the KF, we use the singular evolutive Kalman filter (SEKF) and the singular evolutive extended Kalman filter (SEEKF) approximations of the KF operating with low-rank covariance matrices. The SEKF can be implemented on large dimensional contaminant problems while the usage of the KF is not possible. Experimental results show that with perfect and imperfect models, the low rank filters can provide as much accurate estimates as the full KF but at much less computational cost. Localization can help the filter analysis as long as there are enough neighborhood data to the point being analyzed. Estimating the permeabilities of the aquifer is successfully tackled using both the EKF and the SEEKF.

  11. Monte Carlo path sampling approach to modeling aeolian sediment transport (United States)

    Hardin, E. J.; Mitasova, H.; Mitas, L.


    Coastal communities and vital infrastructure are subject to coastal hazards including storm surge and hurricanes. Coastal dunes offer protection by acting as natural barriers from waves and storm surge. During storms, these landforms and their protective function can erode; however, they can also erode even in the absence of storms due to daily wind and waves. Costly and often controversial beach nourishment and coastal construction projects are common erosion mitigation practices. With a more complete understanding of coastal morphology, the efficacy and consequences of anthropogenic activities could be better predicted. Currently, the research on coastal landscape evolution is focused on waves and storm surge, while only limited effort is devoted to understanding aeolian forces. Aeolian transport occurs when the wind supplies a shear stress that exceeds a critical value, consequently ejecting sand grains into the air. If the grains are too heavy to be suspended, they fall back to the grain bed where the collision ejects more grains. This is called saltation and is the salient process by which sand mass is transported. The shear stress required to dislodge grains is related to turbulent air speed. Subsequently, as sand mass is injected into the air, the wind loses speed along with its ability to eject more grains. In this way, the flux of saltating grains is itself influenced by the flux of saltating grains and aeolian transport becomes nonlinear. Aeolian sediment transport is difficult to study experimentally for reasons arising from the orders of magnitude difference between grain size and dune size. It is difficult to study theoretically because aeolian transport is highly nonlinear especially over complex landscapes. Current computational approaches have limitations as well; single grain models are mathematically simple but are computationally intractable even with modern computing power whereas cellular automota-based approaches are computationally efficient

  12. Are sucrose transporter expression profiles linked with patterns of biomass partitioning in Sorghum phenotypes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricky J Milne


    Full Text Available Sorghum bicolor is a genetically diverse C4 monocotyledonous species, encompassing varieties capable of producing high grain yields as well as sweet types which accumulate soluble sugars (predominantly sucrose within their stems to high concentrations. Sucrose produced in leaves (sources enters the phloem and is transported to regions of growth and storage (sinks. It is likely that sucrose transporter (SUT proteins play pivotal roles in phloem loading and the delivery of sucrose to growth and storage sinks in all Sorghum ecotypes. Six SUTs are present in the published Sorghum genome, based on the BTx623 grain cultivar. Homologues of these SUTs were cloned and sequenced from the sweet cultivar Rio, and compared with the publically available genome information. SbSUT5 possessed nine amino acid sequence differences between the two varieties. Two of the remaining five SUTs exhibited single variations in their amino acid sequences (SbSUT1 and SbSUT2 whilst the rest shared identical sequences. Complementation of a mutant Saccharomyces yeast strain (SEY6210, unable to grow upon sucrose as the sole carbon source, demonstrated that the Sorghum SUTs were capable of transporting sucrose. SbSUT1, SbSUT4 and SbSUT6 were highly expressed in mature leaf tissues and hence could contribute to phloem loading. In contrast, SbSUT2 and SbSUT5 were expressed most strongly in sinks consistent with a functional role of facilitating sucrose import into stem storage pools and developing inflorescences.

  13. Are sucrose transporter expression profiles linked with patterns of biomass partitioning in Sorghum phenotypes? (United States)

    Milne, Ricky J; Byrt, Caitlin S; Patrick, John W; Grof, Christopher P L


    Sorghum bicolor is a genetically diverse C4 monocotyledonous species, encompassing varieties capable of producing high grain yields as well as sweet types which accumulate soluble sugars (predominantly sucrose) within their stems to high concentrations. Sucrose produced in leaves (sources) enters the phloem and is transported to regions of growth and storage (sinks). It is likely that sucrose transporter (SUT) proteins play pivotal roles in phloem loading and the delivery of sucrose to growth and storage sinks in all Sorghum ecotypes. Six SUTs are present in the published Sorghum genome, based on the BTx623 grain cultivar. Homologues of these SUTs were cloned and sequenced from the sweet cultivar Rio, and compared with the publically available genome information. SbSUT5 possessed nine amino acid sequence differences between the two varieties. Two of the remaining five SUTs exhibited single variations in their amino acid sequences (SbSUT1 and SbSUT2) whilst the rest shared identical sequences. Complementation of a mutant Saccharomyces yeast strain (SEY6210), unable to grow upon sucrose as the sole carbon source, demonstrated that the Sorghum SUTs were capable of transporting sucrose. SbSUT1, SbSUT4, and SbSUT6 were highly expressed in mature leaf tissues and hence may contribute to phloem loading. In contrast, SbSUT2 and SbSUT5 were expressed most strongly in sinks consistent with a possible role of facilitating sucrose import into stem storage pools and developing inflorescences.

  14. Production of lightning NOx and its vertical distribution calculated from three-dimensional cloud-scale chemical transport model simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Ott, Lesley E.


    A three-dimensional (3-D) cloud-scale chemical transport model that includes a parameterized source of lightning NOx on the basis of observed flash rates has been used to simulate six midlatitude and subtropical thunderstorms observed during four field projects. Production per intracloud (PIC) and cloud-to-ground (PCG) flash is estimated by assuming various values of PIC and PCG for each storm and determining which production scenario yields NOx mixing ratios that compare most favorably with in-cloud aircraft observations. We obtain a mean PCG value of 500 moles NO (7 kg N) per flash. The results of this analysis also suggest that on average, PIC may be nearly equal to PCG, which is contrary to the common assumption that intracloud flashes are significantly less productive of NO than are cloud-to-ground flashes. This study also presents vertical profiles of the mass of lightning NOx after convection based on 3-D cloud-scale model simulations. The results suggest that following convection, a large percentage of lightning NOx remains in the middle and upper troposphere where it originated, while only a small percentage is found near the surface. The results of this work differ from profiles calculated from 2-D cloud-scale model simulations with a simpler lightning parameterization that were peaked near the surface and in the upper troposphere (referred to as a “C-shaped” profile). The new model results (a backward C-shaped profile) suggest that chemical transport models that assume a C-shaped vertical profile of lightning NOx mass may place too much mass near the surface and too little in the middle troposphere.

  15. The Extended Generalized Cost Concept and its Application in Freight Transport and General Equilibrium Modeling


    Tavasszy, L; Davydenko, I.; Ruijgrok, K.


    The integration of Spatial Equilibrium models and Freight transport network models is important to produce consistent scenarios for future freight transport demand. At various spatial scales, we see the changes in production, trade, logistics networking and transportation, being driven by mass-individualization and changes in factor costs. In this paper we focus on the latter driver for changes in freight transport. The cost of interaction plays an important role in many modeling frameworks t...

  16. Modelling of transport and biogeochemical processes in pollution plumes: Literature review of model development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brun, A.; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard


    A literature survey shows how biogeochemical (coupled organic and inorganic reaction processes) transport models are based on considering the complete biodegradation process as either a single- or as a two-step process. It is demonstrated that some two-step process models rely on the Partial Equi....... A second paper [J. Hydrol. 256 (2002) 230-249], reports the application of the model to a field study of biogeochemical transport processes in a landfill plume in Denmark (Vejen). (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  17. Multiscale modeling of spin transport across a diffuse interface (United States)

    Chureemart, J.; Cuadrado, R.; Chureemart, P.; Chantrell, R. W.


    We present multiscale calculations to describe the spin transport behavior of the Co/Cu bilayer structure including the effect of the interface. The multiscale approach introduces the connection between the ab initio calculation used to describe the electronic structure of the system and the generalized spin accumulation model employed to describe the spin transport behavior. We have applied our model to atomically smooth and diffuse interfaces. The results demonstrate the huge importance of the use of first principle calculations, not only due to the interfacial coordinates optimization but also the magnetic and electronic properties obtained through the electronic structure. The system including the effect of interface with and without the charge fluctuation are studied. The results indicate that changes of electronic structure at the Co/Cu interface give rise to an interfacial resistance distributed over several atomic planes, similar to the effect of interface diffusion. We argue that even atomically smooth Co/Cu interfaces have properties analogous to a diffuse interface due to the variation of electronic structure at the interface.

  18. Model Transport: Towards Scalable Transfer Learning on Manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freifeld, Oren; Hauberg, Søren; Black, Michael J.


    ordinary Rn-transfer learning ideas, the manifold structure prevents it. We overcome this by basing our method on inner-product-preserving parallel transport, a well-known tool widely used in other problems of statistics on manifolds in computer vision. At first, this straightforward idea seems to suffer......We consider the intersection of two research fields: transfer learning and statistics on manifolds. In particular, we consider, for manifold-valued data, transfer learning of tangent-space models such as Gaussians distributions, PCA, regression, or classifiers. Though one would hope to simply use...... “commutes” with learning. Consequently, our compact framework, applicable to a large class of manifolds, is not restricted by the size of either the training or test sets. We demonstrate the approach by transferring PCA and logistic-regression models of real-world data involving 3D shapes and image...

  19. Mass transport measurements and modeling for chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, T.L.; Chiang, D.Y.; Fiadzo, O.G.; Hablutzel, N. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering


    This project involves experimental and modeling investigation of densification behavior and mass transport in fiber preforms and partially densified composites, and application of these results to chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) process modeling. This supports work on-going at ORNL in process development for fabrication of ceramic matrix composite (CMC) tubes. Tube-shaped composite preforms are fabricated at ORNL with Nextel{trademark} 312 fiber (3M Corporation, St. Paul, MN) by placing and compressing several layers of braided sleeve on a tubular mandrel. In terms of fiber architecture these preforms are significantly different than those made previously with Nicalon{trademark} fiber (Nippon Carbon Corp., Tokyo, Japan) square weave cloth. The authors have made microstructure and permeability measurements on several of these preforms and a few partially densified composites so as to better understand their densification behavior during CVI.

  20. Modeling water infiltration and pesticides transport in unsaturated zone of a sedimentary aquifer (United States)

    Sidoli, Pauline; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael; Baran, Nicole; Lassabatère, Laurent


    Groundwater quality monitoring has become an important environmental, economic and community issue since increasing needs drinking water at the same time with high anthropic pressure on aquifers. Leaching of various contaminants as pesticide into the groundwater is closely bound to water infiltration in the unsaturated zone which whom solute transport can occur. Knowledge's about mechanisms involved in the transfer of pesticides in the deep unsaturated zone are lacking today. This study aims to evaluate and to model leaching of pesticides and metabolites in the unsaturated zone, very heterogeneous, of a fluvio-glacial aquifer, in the South-East of France, where contamination of groundwater resources by pesticides is frequently observed as a consequence of intensive agricultural activities. Water flow and pesticide transport were evaluated from column tests under unsaturated conditions and from adsorption batch experiments onto the predominant lithofacies collected, composed of a mixture of sand and gravel. A maize herbicide, S-metolachlor, applied on the study site and worldwide and its two major degradation products (metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid and metolachlor oxanilic acid) were studied here. A conservative tracer, bromide ion, was used to determine water dispersive parameters of porous media. Elution curves were obtained from pesticide concentrations analyzed by an ultra-performance liquid chromatography system interfaced to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer and from bromide concentrations measured by ionic chromatography system. Experimental data were implemented into Hydrus to model flow and solute transfer through a 1D profile in the vadose zone. Nonequilibrium solute transport model based on dual-porosity model with mobile and immobile water is fitting correctly elution curves. Water dispersive parameters show flow pattern realized in the mobile phase. Exchanges between mobile and immobile water are very limited. Because of low adsorptions onto

  1. Modelling of sand transport under wave-generated sheet flows with a RANS diffusion model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassan, Wael; Ribberink, Jan S.


    A 1DV-RANS diffusion model is used to study sand transport processes in oscillatory flat-bed/sheet flow conditions. The central aim is the verification of the model with laboratory data and to identify processes controlling the magnitude and direction (‘onshore’/‘offshore’) of the net time-averaged

  2. Inverse modeling of methane sources and sinks using the adjoint of a global transport model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houweling, S; Kaminski, T; Dentener, F; Lelieveld, J; Heimann, M


    An inverse modeling method is presented to evaluate the sources and sinks of atmospheric methane. An adjoint version of a global transport model has been used to estimate these fluxes at a relatively high spatial and temporal resolution. Measurements from 34 monitoring stations and 11 locations

  3. Process Modeling of Flow, Transport, and Biodegradation in Landfill Bioreactors (United States)

    Oldenburg, C. M.; Borglin, S. E.; Hazen, T. C.


    The need to control gas and leachate production and minimize refuse volume has motivated laboratory experiments and model development for design and assessment of bioremediation treatment processes. In parallel with landfill bioreactor laboratory experiments, we have developed T2LBM, a module for the TOUGH2 multiphase flow and transport simulator that implements a Landfill Bioreactor Model. T2LBM provides simulation capability for the processes of aerobic or anaerobic biodegradation of municipal solid waste and the associated three-dimensional flow and transport of gas, liquid, and heat through the refuse mass. T2LBM considers the components water, acetic acid, carbon dioxide, methane, oxygen, and nitrogen in aqueous and gas phases, with partitioning specified by temperature-dependent Henry's coefficients. T2LBM incorporates a Monod kinetic rate law for the exothermic biodegradation of acetic acid in the aqueous phase by either aerobic or anaerobic microbes as controlled by the local oxygen concentration. Methane and carbon dioxide generation due to biodegradation with corresponding thermal effects are modeled. Acetic acid is considered a proxy for all biodegradable substrates in the refuse. Aerobic and anaerobic microbes are assumed to be immobile and not limited by nutrients in their growth. Although a simplification of complex landfill processes, T2LBM shows reasonable agreement to published laboratory experiments of biodegradation and gas production depending on the choice of numerous input parameters. Simulations of the landfill bioreactor laboratory experiments show that the mechanistic approach of T2LBM can be used to model bioremediation assessment indicators such as oxygen consumption associated with respiration tests. This work was supported by Laboratory Directed Research and Development Funds at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory under Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098.

  4. Modeling Blazar Spectra by Solving an Electron Transport Equation (United States)

    Lewis, Tiffany; Finke, Justin; Becker, Peter A.


    Blazars are luminous active galaxies across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, but the spectral formation mechanisms, especially the particle acceleration, in these sources are not well understood. We develop a new theoretical model for simulating blazar spectra using a self-consistent electron number distribution. Specifically, we solve the particle transport equation considering shock acceleration, adiabatic expansion, stochastic acceleration due to MHD waves, Bohm diffusive particle escape, synchrotron radiation, and Compton radiation, where we implement the full Compton cross-section for seed photons from the accretion disk, the dust torus, and 26 individual broad lines. We used a modified Runge-Kutta method to solve the 2nd order equation, including development of a new mathematical method for normalizing stiff steady-state ordinary differential equations. We show that our self-consistent, transport-based blazar model can qualitatively fit the IR through Fermi g-ray data for 3C 279, with a single-zone, leptonic configuration. We use the solution for the electron distribution to calculate multi-wavelength SED spectra for 3C 279. We calculate the particle and magnetic field energy densities, which suggest that the emitting region is not always in equipartition (a common assumption), but sometimes matter dominated. The stratified broad line region (based on ratios in quasar reverberation mapping, and thus adding no free parameters) improves our estimate of the location of the emitting region, increasing it by ~5x. Our model provides a novel view into the physics at play in blazar jets, especially the relative strength of the shock and stochastic acceleration, where our model is well suited to distinguish between these processes, and we find that the latter tends to dominate.

  5. Impact of Transport Zone Number in Simulation Models on Cost-Benefit Analysis Results in Transport Investments (United States)

    Chmielewski, Jacek


    Nowadays, feasibility studies need to be prepared for all planned transport investments, mainly those co-financed with UE grants. One of the fundamental aspect of feasibility study is the economic justification of an investment, evaluated in an area of so called cost-benefit analysis (CBA). The main goal of CBA calculation is to prove that a transport investment is really important for the society and should be implemented as economically efficient one. It can be said that the number of hours (PH – passengers hours) in trips and travelled kilometres (PK – passengers kilometres) are the most important for CBA results. The differences between PH and PK calculated for particular investment scenarios are the base for benefits calculation. Typically, transport simulation models are the best source for such data. Transport simulation models are one of the most powerful tools for transport network planning. They make it possible to evaluate forecast traffic volume and passenger flows in a public transport system for defined scenarios of transport and area development. There are many different transport models. Their construction is often similar, and they mainly differ in the level of their accuracy. Even models for the same area may differ in this matter. Typically, such differences come from the accuracy of supply side representation: road and public transport network representation. In many cases only main roads and a public transport network are represented, while local and service roads are eliminated as a way of reality simplification. This also enables a faster and more effective calculation process. On the other hand, the description of demand part of these models based on transport zones is often stable. Difficulties with data collection, mainly data on land use, resulted in the lack of changes in the analysed land division into so called transport zones. In this paper the author presents an influence of land division on the results of traffic analyses, and

  6. pHMM-tree: phylogeny of profile hidden Markov models. (United States)

    Huo, Luyang; Zhang, Han; Huo, Xueting; Yang, Yasong; Li, Xueqiong; Yin, Yanbin


    Protein families are often represented by profile hidden Markov models (pHMMs). Homology between two distant protein families can be determined by comparing the pHMMs. Here we explored the idea of building a phylogeny of protein families using the distance matrix of their pHMMs. We developed a new software and web server (pHMM-tree) to allow four major types of inputs: (i) multiple pHMM files, (ii) multiple aligned protein sequence files, (iii) mixture of pHMM and aligned sequence files and (iv) unaligned protein sequences in a single file. The output will be a pHMM phylogeny of different protein families delineating their relationships. We have applied pHMM-tree to build phylogenies for CAZyme (carbohydrate active enzyme) classes and Pfam clans, which attested its usefulness in the phylogenetic representation of the evolutionary relationship among distant protein families. This software is implemented in C/C ++ and is available at or Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  7. Mechanistic modeling of microbial interactions at pore to profile scale resolve methane emission dynamics from permafrost soil (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Or, Dani


    The sensitivity of polar regions to raising global temperatures is reflected in rapidly changing hydrological processes associated with pronounced seasonal thawing of permafrost soil and increased biological activity. Of particular concern is the potential release of large amounts of soil carbon and stimulation of other soil-borne greenhouse gas emissions such as methane. Soil methanotrophic and methanogenic microbial communities rapidly adjust their activity and spatial organization in response to permafrost thawing and other environmental factors. Soil structural elements such as aggregates and layering affect oxygen and nutrient diffusion processes thereby contributing to methanogenic activity within temporal anoxic niches (hot spots). We developed a mechanistic individual-based model to quantify microbial activity dynamics in soil pore networks considering transport processes and enzymatic activity associated with methane production in soil. The model was upscaled from single aggregates to the soil profile where freezing/thawing provides macroscopic boundary conditions for microbial activity at different soil depths. The model distinguishes microbial activity in aerate bulk soil from aggregates (or submerged profile) for resolving methane production and oxidation rates. Methane transport pathways by diffusion and ebullition of bubbles vary with hydration dynamics. The model links seasonal thermal and hydrologic dynamics with evolution of microbial community composition and function affecting net methane emissions in good agreement with experimental data. The mechanistic model enables systematic evaluation of key controlling factors in thawing permafrost and microbial response (e.g., nutrient availability and enzyme activity) on long-term methane emissions and carbon decomposition rates in the rapidly changing polar regions.

  8. P-adic model of transport in porous disordered media (United States)

    Khrennikov, Adrei Yu.; Oleschko, Klaudia


    The soil porosity and permeability are the most important quantitative indicators of soil dynamics under the land-use change. The main problema in the modeling of this dynamic is still poor correlation between the real measuring data and the mathematical and computer simulation models. In order to overpassed this deep divorce we have designed a new technique, able to compare the data arised from the multiscale image analices and time series of the basic physical properties dynamics in porous media studied in time and space. We present a model of the diffusion reaction type describing transport in disordered porous media, e.g., water or oil flow in a complex network of pores. Our model is based on p-adic representation of such networks. This is a kind of fractal representation. We explore advantages of p- adic representation, namely, the possibility to endow p-adic trees with an algebraic structure and ultrametric topology and, hence, to apply analysis which have (at least some) similarities with ordinary real analysis on the straight line. We present the system of two diffusion reaction equations describing propagation of particles in networks of pores in disordered media. As an application, one can consider water transport through the soil pore Networks, or oil flow through capillaries nets. Under some restrictions on potentials and rate coefficients we found the stationary regime corresponding to water content or concentration of oil in a cluster of capillaries. Usage of p-adic analysis (in particular, p-adic wavelets) gives a possibility to find the stationary solution in the analytic form which makes possible to present a clear pedological or geological picture of the process. The mathematical model elaborated in this paper (Khrennikov, 2013) can be applied to variety of problems from water concentration in aquifers to the problem of formation of oil reservoirs in disordered media with porous structures. Another possible application may have real practical

  9. A reactive transport model for Marcellus shale weathering (United States)

    Heidari, Peyman; Li, Li; Jin, Lixin; Williams, Jennifer Z.; Brantley, Susan L.


    Shale formations account for 25% of the land surface globally and contribute a large proportion of the natural gas used in the United States. One of the most productive shale-gas formations is the Marcellus, a black shale that is rich in organic matter and pyrite. As a first step toward understanding how Marcellus shale interacts with water in the surface or deep subsurface, we developed a reactive transport model to simulate shale weathering under ambient temperature and pressure conditions, constrained by soil and water chemistry data. The simulation was carried out for 10,000 years since deglaciation, assuming bedrock weathering and soil genesis began after the last glacial maximum. Results indicate weathering was initiated by pyrite dissolution for the first 1000 years, leading to low pH and enhanced dissolution of chlorite and precipitation of iron hydroxides. After pyrite depletion, chlorite dissolved slowly, primarily facilitated by the presence of CO2 and organic acids, forming vermiculite as a secondary mineral. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the most important controls on weathering include the presence of reactive gases (CO2 and O2), specific surface area, and flow velocity of infiltrating meteoric water. The soil chemistry and mineralogy data could not be reproduced without including the reactive gases. For example, pyrite remained in the soil even after 10,000 years if O2 was not continuously present in the soil column; likewise, chlorite remained abundant and porosity remained small if CO2 was not present in the soil gas. The field observations were only simulated successfully when the modeled specific surface areas of the reactive minerals were 1-3 orders of magnitude smaller than surface area values measured for powdered minerals. Small surface areas could be consistent with the lack of accessibility of some fluids to mineral surfaces due to surface coatings. In addition, some mineral surface is likely interacting only with equilibrated pore

  10. Modeling watershed-scale solute transport using an integrated, process-based hydrologic model with applications to bacterial fate and transport (United States)

    Niu, Jie; Phanikumar, Mantha S.


    Distributed hydrologic models that simulate fate and transport processes at sub-daily timescales are useful tools for estimating pollutant loads exported from watersheds to lakes and oceans downstream. There has been considerable interest in the application of integrated process-based hydrologic models in recent years. While the models have been applied to address questions of water quantity and to better understand linkages between hydrology and land surface processes, routine applications of these models to address water quality issues are currently limited. In this paper, we first describe a general process-based watershed-scale solute transport modeling framework, based on an operator splitting strategy and a Lagrangian particle transport method combined with dispersion and reactions. The transport and the hydrologic modules are tightly coupled and the interactions among different hydrologic components are explicitly modeled. We test transport modules using data from plot-scale experiments and available analytical solutions for different hydrologic domains. The numerical solutions are also compared with an analytical solution for groundwater transit times with interactions between surface and subsurface flows. Finally, we demonstrate the application of the model to simulate bacterial fate and transport in the Red Cedar River watershed in Michigan and test hypotheses about sources and transport pathways. The watershed bacterial fate and transport model is expected to be useful for making near real-time predictions at marine and freshwater beaches.

  11. Understanding the influence of current profile and RF heating on impurity transport in advanced tokamak scenarios (United States)

    Victor, B. S.; Allen, S. L.; Holcomb, C. T.; Thomas, D. M.; Petrie, T. W.; Unterberg, E. A.; Grierson, B. A.; Hollmann, E. M.; Thome, K. E.


    Recent DIII-D experiments show that the advanced tokamak hybrid scenario is compatible with a tungsten (W) divertor. The hybrid scenario, with on-axis electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) and qmin 1, shows no degradation in βn or energy confinement compared to an all-carbon divertor. In contrast, a high qmin scenario (qmin >= 1.5) with off-axis ECCD experiences on-axis W accumulation throughout the discharge. With the application of on-axis ECCD in the hybrid scenario, the velocity to diffusion ratio (V/D) calculated with STRAHL reverses sign in the core, producing an off-axis peak in the W density profile. These results indicate that plasmas with broader current density profiles and off-axis ECCD are more susceptible to high-Z impurity accumulation. Results from the hybrid plasmas show the feasibility of a steady-state scenario with a W divertor, thus improving the physics basis of Q=5 steady-state operation on ITER. Supported by US DOE under DE-AC52-07NA27344 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  12. How uncertainty in socio-economic variables affects large-scale transport model forecasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzo, Stefano; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo


    time, especially with respect to large-scale transport models. The study described in this paper contributes to fill the gap by investigating the effects of uncertainty in socio-economic variables growth rate projections on large-scale transport model forecasts, using the Danish National Transport...

  13. Vertical radar profiles for the calibration of unsaturated flow models under dynamic water table conditions (United States)

    Cassiani, G.; Gallotti, L.; Ventura, V.; Andreotti, G.


    The identification of flow and transport characteristics in the vadose zone is a fundamental step towards understanding the dynamics of contaminated sites and the resulting risk of groundwater pollution. Borehole radar has gained popularity for the monitoring of moisture content changes, thanks to its apparent simplicity and its high resolution characteristics. However, cross-hole radar requires closely spaced (a few meters), plastic-cased boreholes, that are rarely available as a standard feature in sites of practical interest. Unlike cross-hole applications, Vertical Radar Profiles (VRP) require only one borehole, with practical and financial benefits. High-resolution, time-lapse VRPs have been acquired at a crude oil contaminated site in Trecate, Northern Italy, on a few existing boreholes originally developed for remediation via bioventing. The dynamic water table conditions, with yearly oscillations of roughly 5 m from 6 to 11 m bgl, offers a good opportunity to observe via VRP a field scale drainage-imbibition process. Arrival time inversion has been carried out using a regularized tomographic algorithm, in order to overcome the noise introduced by first arrival picking. Interpretation of the vertical profiles in terms of moisture content has been based on standard models (Topp et al., 1980; Roth et al., 1990). The sedimentary sequence manifests itself as a cyclic pattern in moisture content over most of the profiles. We performed preliminary Richards' equation simulations with time varying later table boundary conditions, in order to estimate the unsaturated flow parameters, and the results have been compared with laboratory evidence from cores.

  14. Structure-Activity Relationship, Pharmacological Characterization, and Molecular Modeling of Noncompetitive Inhibitors of the Betaine/γ-Aminobutyric Acid Transporter 1 (BGT1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lars; Al-Khawaja, Anas; Kickinger, Stefanie


    BGT1 activity and an improved off-target profile compared to 5. We performed radioligand-based uptake studies at chimeric constructs between BGT1 and GAT3, experiments with site-directed mutated transporters, and computational docking in a BGT1 homology model based on the newly determined X...

  15. Modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, Francesco [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica e Alimentare - Università degli studi di Salerno Via Ponte Don Melillo - 84084 Fisciano SA (Italy)


    Innovative heating research on cooking, pasteurization/sterilization, defrosting, thawing and drying, often focuses on areas which include the assessment of processing time, evaluation of heating uniformity, studying the impact on quality attributes of the final product as well as considering the energy efficiency of these heating processes. During the last twenty years, so-called electro-heating-processes (radio-frequency - RF, microwaves - MW and ohmic - OH) gained a wide interest in industrial food processing and many applications using the above mentioned technologies have been developed with the aim of reducing processing time, improving process efficiency and, in many cases, the heating uniformity. In the area of innovative heating, electro-heating accounts for a considerable portion of both the scientific literature and commercial applications, which can be subdivided into either direct electro-heating (as in the case of OH heating) where electrical current is applied directly to the food or indirect electro-heating (e.g. MW and RF heating) where the electrical energy is firstly converted to electromagnetic radiation which subsequently generates heat within a product. New software packages, which make easier solution of PDEs based mathematical models, and new computers, capable of larger RAM and more efficient CPU performances, allowed an increasing interest about modelling transport phenomena in systems and processes - as the ones encountered in food processing - that can be complex in terms of geometry, composition, boundary conditions but also - as in the case of electro-heating assisted applications - in terms of interaction with other physical phenomena such as displacement of electric or magnetic field. This paper deals with the description of approaches used in modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context such as RF, MW and OH assisted heating.

  16. Expression Profile of Cationic Amino Acid Transporters in Rats with Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Ray Hsu


    Full Text Available Purpose. The transcellular arginine transportation via cationic amino acid transporter (CAT is the rate-limiting step in nitric oxide (NO synthesis, which is crucial in intraocular inflammation. In this study, CAT isoforms and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression was investigated in endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU. Methods. EIU was induced in Lewis rats by lipopolysaccharide (LPS injection. In the treatment group, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib before EIU induction. After 24 hours, leukocyte quantification, NO measurement of the aqueous humor, and histopathological examination were evaluated. The expression of CAT isoforms and iNOS was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB binding activity was evaluated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 was used to validate the in vivo findings. Results. LPS significantly stimulated iNOS, CAT-2A, and CAT-2B mRNA and protein expression but did not affect CAT-1 in EIU rats and RAW 264.7 cells. Bortezomib attenuated inflammation and inhibited iNOS, CAT-2A, and CAT-2B expression through NF-κB inhibition. Conclusions. CAT-2 and iNOS, but not CAT-1, are specifically involved in EIU. NF-κB is essential in the induction of CAT-2 and iNOS in EIU.

  17. High performance modelling of the transport of energetic particles for photon radiotherapy. (United States)

    Birindelli, Gabriele; Feugeas, Jean-Luc; Caron, Jérôme; Dubroca, Bruno; Kantor, Guy; Page, Jonathan; Pichard, Teddy; Tikhonchuk, Vladimir; Nicolaï, Philippe


    This work consists of the validation of a new Grid Based Boltzmann Solver (GBBS) conceived for the description of the transport and energy deposition by energetic particles for radiotherapy purposes. The entropic closure and a compact mathematical formulation allow our code (M1) to calculate the delivered dose with an accuracy comparable to the Monte-Carlo (MC) codes with a computational time that is reduced to the order of few minutes without any special processing power requirement. A validation protocol with heterogeneity inserts has been defined for different photon sources. The comparison with the MC calculated depth-dose curves and transverse profiles of the beam at different depths shows an excellent accuracy of the M1 model. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Model Predictive Control of Hybrid Thermal Energy Systems in Transport Refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan; Alleyne, Andrew


    by simply shifting the charging to the time when vehicle is moving above a threshold speed. Subsequently, a cascade control structure is proposed consisting of (i) an outer loop controller that schedules the TES charging profile using a receding horizon optimization, and (ii) an inner loop model predictive......A predictive control scheme is designed to control a transport refrigeration system, such as a delivery truck, that includes a vapor compression cycle configured in parallel with a thermal energy storage (TES) unit. A novel approach to TES utilization is introduced and is based on the current...... and future estimate of the vehicle driving state and load prediction. This assumes vehicle communications are aware of the traffic state along the prescribed delivery route. For the test case under consideration, this paper first shows that a 17% savings in energy use is achieved for charging the TES...

  19. Plasma transport modelling in the inner magnetosphere: effects of magnetic field, electric field and exospheric models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Woelfflé


    Full Text Available A qualitative study is performed on plasma transport modelling in the inner magnetosphere, revealing the significance of a model use choice and its parameterization. First, we examine particle transport using comparative analysis of both magnetic and electric field models. This work reveals that the electric field plays an important role in understanding particle dynamics and the models lead to various results in terms of plasma source, energy and particle trajectory. We then concentrate particularly on proton loss assessment considering the charge exchange phenomenon. For that, models are needed to provide a neutral hydrogen density estimation. So, exospheric models were tested in light of the Dynamics Explorer 1 measurements analysed by Rairden.

  20. Photo-chemical transport modelling of tropospheric ozone: A review (United States)

    Sharma, Sumit; Sharma, Prateek; Khare, Mukesh


    Ground level ozone (GLO), a secondary pollutant having adverse impact on human health, ecology, and agricultural productivity, apart from being a major contributor to global warming, has been a subject matter of several studies. In order to identify appropriate strategies to control GLO levels, accurate assessment and prediction is essential, for which elaborate simulation and modelling is required. Several studies have been undertaken in the past to simulate GLO levels at different scales and for various applications. It is important to evaluate these studies, widely spread over in literature. This paper aims to critically review various studies that have been undertaken, especially in the past 15 years (2000-15) to model GLO. The review has been done of the studies that range over different spatial scales - urban to regional and continental to global. It also includes a review of performance evaluation and sensitivity analysis of photo-chemical transport models in order to assess the extent of application of these models and their predictive capability. The review indicates following major findings: (a) models tend to over-estimate the night-time GLO concentrations due to limited titration of GLO with NO within the model; (b) dominance of contribution from far-off regional sources to average ozone concentration in the urban region and higher contribution of local sources during days of high ozone episodes; requiring strategies for controlling precursor emissions at both regional and local scales; (c) greater influence of NOx over VOC in export of ozone from urban regions due to shifting of urban plumes from VOC-sensitive regime to NOx-sensitive as they move out from city centres to neighbouring rural regions; (d) models with finer resolution inputs perform better to a certain extent, however, further improvement in resolutions (beyond 10 km) did not show improvement always; (e) future projections show an increase in GLO concentrations mainly due to rise in

  1. Compendium of Material Composition Data for Radiation Transport Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConn, Ronald J.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Pagh, Richard T.; Rucker, Robert A.; Williams III, Robert


    Introduction Meaningful simulations of radiation transport applications require realistic definitions of material composition and densities. When seeking that information for applications in fields such as homeland security, radiation shielding and protection, and criticality safety, researchers usually encounter a variety of materials for which elemental compositions are not readily available or densities are not defined. Publication of the Compendium of Material Composition Data for Radiation Transport Modeling, Revision 0, in 2006 was the first step toward mitigating this problem. Revision 0 of this document listed 121 materials, selected mostly from the combined personal libraries of staff at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and thus had a scope that was recognized at the time to be limited. Neve