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Sample records for profile showed elevated

  1. Identification of genes showing differential expression profile ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to identify genes showing differential expression profile associated withgrowth rate in skeletal muscle tissue of Landrace weanling pig. Two subtracted cDNA populations were generated from mus-culus longissimus muscle tissues of selected pigs with extreme expected ...

  2. Identification of genes showing differential expression profile ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    firmed difference in expression profiles of the identified genes in musculus longissimus muscle tissues between the two Lan- ..... Discussion. The EEF1A2, TSG101 and TTN identified as upregulated genes in high-growth group have been reported to be involved in myotube survival and .... cDNA probes and libraries. Proc.

  3. Using Profile Elevation to Increase the Usefulness of the Self-Directed Search and Other Inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Emily E.; Reardon, Robert C.

    2005-01-01

    The authors explore the construct of profile elevation on interest inventories results. They speak to the need for career counselors to maximize their use of the interest inventory and how they can do that by properly interpreting profile elevation. Profile elevation is defined, and correlates of high and low profile elevation are presented. The…

  4. A search profile for dwellings with elevated radon levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, A.; Andersen, C.E.; Majborn, B.

    1996-01-01

    A search profile for dwellings with elevated radon levels has been employed to investigate possibly radon-prone areas in Denmark and to find houses suitable for radon mitigation studies. The profile is defined as dwellings which are single-family houses with slab-on-grade foundation or partly...... basement/slab-on-grade foundation built on either fractured granitic basement rocks, or fractured limestone. Clayey till areas were also included in the profile in order to confirm earlier findings. Three areas representing these surface geologies were selected for indoor radon measurements with CR-39...... track detectors, and a total of 200 houses matching the profile underwent radon measurements during the winter 1994-95. The distribution of the measured radon concentrations were found in most cases to comply with log-normal distributions. Measurements in the living rooms of houses in each of the three...

  5. IceBridge UAF Lidar Profiler L1B Geolocated Surface Elevation Triplets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA IceBridge UAF Lidar Profiler L1B Geolocated Surface Elevation Triplets data set contains surface profiles of Alaska Glaciers acquired using the airborne...

  6. Complement activation in leprosy: a retrospective study shows elevated circulating terminal complement complex in reactional leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahia El Idrissi, N; Hakobyan, S; Ramaglia, V; Geluk, A; Morgan, B Paul; Das, P Kumar; Baas, F

    2016-06-01

    Mycobacterium leprae infection gives rise to the immunologically and histopathologically classified spectrum of leprosy. At present, several tools for the stratification of patients are based on acquired immunity markers. However, the role of innate immunity, particularly the complement system, is largely unexplored. The present retrospective study was undertaken to explore whether the systemic levels of complement activation components and regulators can stratify leprosy patients, particularly in reference to the reactional state of the disease. Serum samples from two cohorts were analysed. The cohort from Bangladesh included multi-bacillary (MB) patients with (n = 12) or without (n = 46) reaction (R) at intake and endemic controls (n = 20). The cohort from Ethiopia included pauci-bacillary (PB) (n = 7) and MB (n = 23) patients without reaction and MB (n = 15) patients with reaction. The results showed that the activation products terminal complement complex (TCC) (P ≤ 0·01), C4d (P ≤ 0·05) and iC3b (P ≤ 0·05) were specifically elevated in Bangladeshi patients with reaction at intake compared to endemic controls. In addition, levels of the regulator clusterin (P ≤ 0·001 without R; P < 0·05 with R) were also elevated in MB patients, irrespective of a reaction. Similar analysis of the Ethiopian cohort confirmed that, irrespective of a reaction, serum TCC levels were increased significantly in patients with reactions compared to patients without reactions (P ≤ 0·05). Our findings suggests that serum TCC levels may prove to be a valuable tool in diagnosing patients at risk of developing reactions. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  7. Plasma proteome profiling of atherosclerotic disease manifestations reveals elevated levels of the cytoskeletal protein vinculin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars P; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Mickley, Hans

    2014-01-01

    an increased expression profile from group 1 to 4. The top-most elevated protein, vinculin (Vcl) displayed a similar profile. Immunoassays confirmed the expression profile of apo(a) and CRP. A 5-plex SRM-MS assay for Vcl, SAA, CRP, apo(a) and thrombospondin-4 (TSP-4) was developed for multiplex verification...

  8. Multiple sclerosis showing elevation of adenosine deaminase levels in the cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuraki, Miharu; Sakai, Kenji; Odake, Yasuko; Yoshita, Mitsuhiro; Misaki, Kouichi; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Yamada, Masahito

    2017-04-01

    An 80-year-old man developed dysarthria, quadriplegia, sensory disturbance and ataxia in all limbs. Brain and spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multiple enhanced lesions. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of adenosine deaminase (ADA) remarkably elevated. Tuberculosis DNA was not detected, and tuberculosis was not cultured either in the CSF. Brain biopsy revealed the inflammatory demyelinating lesions. With the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, corticosteroid therapy resulted in rapid improvement of his symptoms and MRI abnormalities. CSF levels of ADA also decreased. Multiple sclerosis should be included in differential diagnosis of disorders with ADA elevation in the CSF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Spreadsheet Application Showing the Proper Elevation Angle, Points of Shot and Impact of a Projectile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides the formula for the elevation angle at which a projectile has to be fired in a vacuum from a general position to hit a target at a given distance. A spreadsheet application that models the trajectory is presented, and the problem of finding the points of shot and impact of a projectile moving in a vacuum if three points of the…

  10. Male-benefit sexually antagonistic genotypes show elevated vulnerability to inbreeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieshop, Karl; Berger, David; Arnqvist, Göran

    2017-06-12

    There is theoretical and empirical evidence for strong sexual selection in males having positive effects on population viability by serving to purify the genome of its mutation load at a low demographic cost. However, there is also theoretical and empirical evidence for negative effects of sexual selection on female fitness, and therefore population viability, known as the gender load. This can take the form of sexually antagonistic (SA) genetic variation where alleles with a selective advantage in males pose a detriment to female fitness, and vice versa. Here, using seed beetles, we shed light on a previously unexplored manifestation of the gender load: the effect of SA genetic variation on tolerance to inbreeding. We found that genotypes encoding high male, but low female fitness exhibited significantly greater rates of extinction upon enforced inbreeding relative to genotypes encoding high female but low male fitness. Also, genotypes encoding low fitness in both sexes exhibited greater rates of extinction relative to generally high-fitness genotypes (though marginally non-significant), an expected finding attributable to variation in mutation load across genotypes. Despite follow-up investigations aiming to identify the mechanism(s) underlying these findings, it remains unclear whether the gender load and the mutation load have independent consequences for tolerance to inbreeding, or whether these two types of genetic architecture interact epistatically to render male-benefit genetic variation relatively intolerant to inbreeding. Regardless of the underlying mechanism(s), our results show that male-benefit/female-detriment SA genetic variation poses a previously unseen detriment to population viability due to its elevated vulnerability to inbreeding/homozygosity. This suggests that sexual selection in the context of SA genetic variance for fitness may enhance the gender load on population viability more than previously appreciated, due to selecting for male

  11. High-resolution ground-based GPS measurements show inter-campaign bias in ICESat elevation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, M. R.; Hawley, R. L.; Burkhart, J. F.

    2010-12-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) aboard NASA's Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) collected data from early 2003 to late 2009 with the specific goal of measuring ice-surface elevation changes. While the precision of GLAS instrumentation has been extensively studied over its intended target (ice), its accuracy has only been robustly estimated using independent (terrestrial, non-laser) methods over salt flats. Here, we perform repeat high-precision Global Positioning System (GPS) surveys under ICESat track 0412 to compare directly GLAS elevation data footprints to a coincident GPS ground truth. GLAS data show a campaign-dependent elevation bias ranging from -0.112±0.030 to 0.121±0.071 m. While these biases are within the instrument's goal accuracy of ±0.15 m, there exists a campaign dependency in the bias, which propagates through to estimates of the rate of surface-elevation change. The bias in GLAS-derived rates of elevation change illustrates the importance of long-term, independent validation experiments of satellite altimetry data over ice sheets.

  12. Dryland biological soil crust cyanobacteria show unexpected decreases in abundance under long-term elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, Blaire; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Yeager, Chris M.; Belnap, Jayne; Evans, R. David; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2012-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) cover soil surfaces in many drylands globally. The impacts of 10 years of elevated atmospheric CO2 on the cyanobacteria in biocrusts of an arid shrubland were examined at a large manipulated experiment in Nevada, USA. Cyanobacteria-specific quantitative PCR surveys of cyanobacteria small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes suggested a reduction in biocrust cyanobacterial biomass in the elevated CO2 treatment relative to the ambient controls. Additionally, SSU rRNA gene libraries and shotgun metagenomes showed reduced representation of cyanobacteria in the total microbial community. Taxonomic composition of the cyanobacteria was similar under ambient and elevated CO2 conditions, indicating the decline was manifest across multiple cyanobacterial lineages. Recruitment of cyanobacteria sequences from replicate shotgun metagenomes to cyanobacterial genomes representing major biocrust orders also suggested decreased abundance of cyanobacteria sequences across the majority of genomes tested. Functional assignment of cyanobacteria-related shotgun metagenome sequences indicated that four subsystem categories, three related to oxidative stress, were differentially abundant in relation to the elevated CO2 treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that elevated CO2 affected a generalized decrease in cyanobacteria in the biocrusts and may have favoured cyanobacteria with altered gene inventories for coping with oxidative stress.

  13. Urinary Metabolite Profiles in Premature Infants Show Early Postnatal Metabolic Adaptation and Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sissel J. Moltu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Early nutrition influences metabolic programming and long-term health. We explored the urinary metabolite profiles of 48 premature infants (birth weight < 1500 g randomized to an enhanced or a standard diet during neonatal hospitalization. Methods: Metabolomics using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR was conducted on urine samples obtained during the first week of life and thereafter fortnightly. Results: The intervention group received significantly higher amounts of energy, protein, lipids, vitamin A, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid as compared to the control group. Enhanced nutrition did not appear to affect the urine profiles to an extent exceeding individual variation. However, in all infants the glucogenic amino acids glycine, threonine, hydroxyproline and tyrosine increased substantially during the early postnatal period, along with metabolites of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (succinate, oxoglutarate, fumarate and citrate. The metabolite changes correlated with postmenstrual age. Moreover, we observed elevated threonine and glycine levels in first-week urine samples of the small for gestational age (SGA; birth weight < 10th percentile for gestational age as compared to the appropriate for gestational age infants. Conclusion: This first nutri-metabolomics study in premature infants demonstrates that the physiological adaptation during the fetal-postnatal transition as well as maturation influences metabolism during the breastfeeding period. Elevated glycine and threonine levels were found in the first week urine samples of the SGA infants and emerged as potential biomarkers of an altered metabolic phenotype.

  14. Elevation Change of Drangajokull, Iceland, from Cloud-Cleared ICESat Repeat Profiles and GPS Ground-Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Christopher A.; Sigurdsson, Oddur; Williams, Richard, Jr.; Hall, Dorothy K.

    2009-01-01

    Located on the Vestfirdir Northwest Fjords), DrangaJokull is the northernmost ice map in Iceland. Currently, the ice cap exceeds 900 m in elevation and covered an area of approx.l46 sq km in August 2004. It was about 204 sq km in area during 1913-1914 and so has lost mass during the 20th century. Drangajokull's size and accessibility for GPS surveys as well as the availability of repeat satellite altimetry profiles since late 2003 make it a good subject for change-detection analysis. The ice cap was surveyed by four GPS-equipped snowmobiles on 19-20 April 2005 and has been profiled in two places by Ice, Cloud. and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) 'repeat tracks,' fifteen times from late to early 2009. In addition, traditional mass-balance measurements have been taken seasonally at a number of locations across the ice cap and they show positive net mass balances in 2004/2005 through 2006/2007. Mean elevation differences between the temporally-closest ICESat profiles and the GPS-derived digital-elevation model (DEM)(ICESat - DEM) are about 1.1 m but have standard deviations of 3 to 4 m. Differencing all ICESat repeats from the DEM shows that the overall elevation difference trend since 2003 is negative with losses of as much as 1.5 m/a from same season to same season (and similar elevation) data subsets. However, the mass balance assessments by traditional stake re-measurement methods suggest that the elevation changes where ICESat tracks 0046 and 0307 cross Drangajokull are not representative of the whole ice cap. Specifically, the area has experienced positive mass balance years during the time frame when ICESat data indicates substantial losses. This analysis suggests that ICESat-derived elevations may be used for multi-year change detection relative to other data but suggests that large uncertainties remain. These uncertainties may be due to geolocation uncertainty on steep slopes and continuing cloud cover that limits temporal and spatial coverage across the

  15. Confinement and stability of plasmas with externally driven steady-state elevated q-profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, Alexander; Stober, Joerg; Fischer, Rainer; Fable, Emiliano; Reich, Matthias [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2015-05-01

    The helicity profile of the magnetic field lines is an important quantity for the operation of Tokamak fusion devices and can be expressed as the so-called safety factor q. It has profound influence on both the stability of the fusion plasma, as well as its confinement properties. Operation scenarios with centrally elevated and flat, or even reversed q-profiles promise fewer central instabilities and better core confinement and are thus considered potentially attractive for future fusion power plants. To verify these predictions, centrally elevated q-profiles are created using external counter current drive, with additional heating power added afterwards to explore the stability limits and transport properties of the resulting plasmas. The tailored q-profiles are calculated using magnetic equilibrium reconstruction constrained by internal motional Stark effect data to confirm to the presence of the desired helicities. They are then used as a basis for simulations of the transport properties with the gyro-Landau-fluid code TGLF. The simulation results are then compared to the experimentally measured kinetic profiles.

  16. Live tissue imaging shows reef corals elevate pH under their calcifying tissue relative to seawater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Venn

    Full Text Available The threat posed to coral reefs by changes in seawater pH and carbonate chemistry (ocean acidification raises the need for a better mechanistic understanding of physiological processes linked to coral calcification. Current models of coral calcification argue that corals elevate extracellular pH under their calcifying tissue relative to seawater to promote skeleton formation, but pH measurements taken from the calcifying tissue of living, intact corals have not been achieved to date. We performed live tissue imaging of the reef coral Stylophora pistillata to determine extracellular pH under the calcifying tissue and intracellular pH in calicoblastic cells. We worked with actively calcifying corals under flowing seawater and show that extracellular pH (pHe under the calicoblastic epithelium is elevated by ∼0.5 and ∼0.2 pH units relative to the surrounding seawater in light and dark conditions respectively. By contrast, the intracellular pH (pHi of the calicoblastic epithelium remains stable in the light and dark. Estimates of aragonite saturation states derived from our data indicate the elevation in subcalicoblastic pHe favour calcification and may thus be a critical step in the calcification process. However, the observed close association of the calicoblastic epithelium with the underlying crystals suggests that the calicoblastic cells influence the growth of the coral skeleton by other processes in addition to pHe modification. The procedure used in the current study provides a novel, tangible approach for future investigations into these processes and the impact of environmental change on the cellular mechanisms underpinning coral calcification.

  17. A 10-Day Developmental Voyage: Converging Evidence from Three Studies Showing that Self-Esteem May Be Elevated and Maintained without Negative Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, S.; Hunter, J. A.; Hayhurst, J.; Boyes, M.; Thomson, R. L.; Clarke, H.; Grocott, A. M.; Stringer, M.; O'Brien, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    Empirical evidence shows that educational experiences in the context of the outdoors lead to elevated self-esteem. Although elevated self-esteem is widely assumed to promote beneficial outcomes, recent evidence suggests that elevated self-esteem may also facilitate a variety of negative outcomes (i.e., increased prejudice, aggression, drug and…

  18. Fingerprinting using extrolite profiles and physiological data shows sub-specific groupings of Penicillium crustosum strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonjak, Silva; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2009-01-01

    if the strains investigated already showed slight adaptations to the selected external parameter. In contrast, PCA analyses of the extrolite data showed groupings of the strains according to their origins and known physiological differences. These groupings are in full agreement with the clustering obtained...... water activity. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed using micromorphological data, temperature- and water-dependent growth rates, and extrolite profiles obtained by HPLC analysis. The micromorphological data were less informative, while the growth-rate data were informative only...

  19. Phenolic Acids from Wheat Show Different Absorption Profiles in Plasma: A Model Experiment with Catheterized Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Natalja; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2013-01-01

    , their concentrations in the plasma and the absorption profiles differed between cinnamic and benzoic acid derivatives. Cinnamic acids derivatives such as ferulic acid and caffeic acid had maximum plasma concentration of 82 ± 20 and 200 ± 7 nM, respectively, and their absorption profiles differed depending on the diet...... consumed. Benzoic acid derivatives showed low concentration in the plasma (acid, with a plasma concentration (4 ± 0.4 μM), much higher than the other plant phenolic acids, likely because it is an intermediate in the phenolic acid metabolism......The concentration and absorption of the nine phenolic acids of wheat were measured in a model experiment with catheterized pigs fed whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone diets. Six pigs in a repeated crossover design were fitted with catheters in the portal vein and mesenteric artery to study...

  20. Embryonic carcinoma cells show specific dielectric resistance profiles during induced differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Öz

    Full Text Available Induction of differentiation in cancer stem cells by drug treatment represents an important approach for cancer therapy. The understanding of the mechanisms that regulate such a forced exit from malignant pluripotency is fundamental to enhance our knowledge of tumour stability. Certain nucleoside analogues, such as 2'-deoxy-5-azacytidine and 1β-arabinofuranosylcytosine, can induce the differentiation of the embryonic cancer stem cell line NTERA 2 D1 (NT2. Such induced differentiation is associated with drug-dependent DNA-damage, cellular stress and the proteolytic depletion of stem cell factors. In order to further elucidate the mode of action of these nucleoside drugs, we monitored differentiation-specific changes of the dielectric properties of growing NT2 cultures using electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS. We measured resistance values of untreated and retinoic acid treated NT2 cells in real-time and compared their impedance profiles to those of cell populations triggered to differentiate with several established substances, including nucleoside drugs. Here we show that treatment with retinoic acid and differentiation-inducing drugs can trigger specific, concentration-dependent changes in dielectric resistance of NT2 cultures, which can be observed as early as 24 hours after treatment. Further, low concentrations of nucleoside drugs induce differentiation-dependent impedance values comparable to those obtained after retinoic acid treatment, whereas higher concentrations induce proliferation defects. Finally, we show that impedance profiles of substance-induced NT2 cells and those triggered to differentiate by depletion of the stem cell factor OCT4 are very similar, suggesting that reduction of OCT4 levels has a dominant function for differentiation induced by nucleoside drugs and retinoic acid. The data presented show that NT2 cells have specific dielectric properties, which allow the early identification of differentiating

  1. Data showing phenotypic profile of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from sepsis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Verma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial virulence factors (VFs influence the site and severity of urinary tract infections (UTI and further leading to sepsis infection. Phenotypic characterisation of VFs specific to sepsis Escherichia coli strains has not been characterized in Indian population till date. In this data article, we have described important VFs of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC that is P fim, Type-1 fim, cell surface hydrophobicity, mannose resistant haemagglutination/mannose sensitive haemagglutination (MRHA/MSHA expression and α-haemolysin production. The data includes a profile of the five VFs investigated in E. coli isolates from sepsis patients (N=78 and control group (N=50 from non-sepsis subjects. We found that P fim phenotype was expressed in 25.3% of E. coli isolates from sepsis patients, whereas Type-1 fimbriae was detected in 30.5%. Cell surface hydrophobicity phenotype was present in 30.5%, α-haemolysin in 26.3% and MRHA/MSHA in 22.1% of sepsis E. coli isolates. None of the control E. coli isolates showed presence of these phenotypes. The combined phenotypic profile of all the five VFs was significantly higher in sepsis patients as compared to the control group.

  2. Measured Deformation Enhancement in Western Greenland Shows the Importance of Viscosity Reduction for Elevated Melt Season Velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, N. T.; Humphrey, N. F.; Harper, J. T.; Meierbachtol, T. W.

    2016-12-01

    There is increasing evidence that much of the bed on the Western Margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is hydrologically isolated during the melt season, making it necessary to understand how ice dynamics regulates basal flow between active and inactive regions of the bed. We present measurements of englacial shear strain rates collected by tilt sensors embedded in a boreholes approximately 670 m deep during the 2015 melt season at a field site on the Western Margin of the GrIS. The measurements demonstrate that shear strain rates during the melt season can increase by a factor of three. The increase in shear strain rates and deformation velocity is well correlated to the surface and basal sliding velocity measured at the field site. Coincident with the enhanced deformation, the effective stress calculated from the surficial strain rate tensor increases from approximately 70-160 kPa. During this period each stress component shows a high degree of variability. The magnitude and range of the effective stress is in agreement with the change in the effective stress necessary to produce the elevated strain rates observed englacially. This result demonstrates that spatially variable flow at the onset of the melt season can result in a significant decrease in the effective ice viscosity. The decrease in the effective ice viscosity is sufficient to increase the deformation velocity from approximately 20 to 40 ma-1. The increase in the deformation velocity is well correlated to the observed increase in basal sliding suggesting that ice softening may be an important mechanism to enhance basal flow in isolated regions of the bed. For a glacier on a hard bed, the rate of basal sliding is controlled by the rate at which the basal ice can deform around bedrock obstacles. In this context, a reduction in the effective viscosity can enhance the basal sliding velocity without a basal friction reduction through local changes in basal water pressure or water storage.

  3. Endometrial Receptivity Profile in Patients with Premature Progesterone Elevation on the Day of hCG Administration

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    Delphine Haouzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of a premature elevation of serum progesterone level, the day of hCG administration in patients under controlled ovarian stimulation during IVF procedure, on human endometrial receptivity is still debated. In the present study, we investigated the endometrial gene expression profile shifts during the prereceptive and receptive secretory stage in patients with normal and elevated serum progesterone level on the day of hCG administration in fifteen patients under stimulated cycles. Then, specific biomarkers of endometrial receptivity in these two groups of patients were tested. Endometrial biopsies were performed on oocyte retrieval day and on day 3 of embryo transfer, respectively, for each patient. Samples were analysed using DNA microarrays and qRT-PCR. The endometrial gene expression shift from the prereceptive to the receptive stage was altered in patients with high serum progesterone level (>1.5 ng/mL on hCG day, suggesting accelerated endometrial maturation during the periovulation period. This was confirmed by the functional annotation of the differentially expressed genes as it showed downregulation of cell cycle-related genes. Conversely, the profile of endometrial receptivity was comparable in both groups. Premature progesterone rise alters the endometrial gene expression shift between the prereceptive and the receptive stage but does not affect endometrial receptivity.

  4. Metabolic profiles show specific mitochondrial toxicities in vitro in myotube cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Qiuwei, E-mail: qiuwei_xu@merck.com; Vu, Heather; Liu Liping; Wang, Ting-Chuan; Schaefer, William H. [Merck Research Laboratories (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Mitochondrial toxicity has been a serious concern, not only in preclinical drug development but also in clinical trials. In mitochondria, there are several distinct metabolic processes including fatty acid {beta}-oxidation, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), and each process contains discrete but often intimately linked steps. Interruption in any one of those steps can cause mitochondrial dysfunction. Detection of inhibition to OXPHOS can be complicated in vivo because intermediate endogenous metabolites can be recycled in situ or circulated systemically for metabolism in other organs or tissues. Commonly used assays for evaluating mitochondrial function are often applied to ex vivo or in vitro samples; they include various enzymatic or protein assays, as well as functional assays such as measurement of oxygen consumption rate, membrane potential, or acidification rates. Metabolomics provides quantitative profiles of overall metabolic changes that can aid in the unraveling of explicit biochemical details of mitochondrial inhibition while providing a holistic view and heuristic understanding of cellular bioenergetics. In this paper, we showed the application of quantitative NMR metabolomics to in vitro myotube cells treated with mitochondrial toxicants, rotenone and antimycin A. The close coupling of the TCA cycle to the electron transfer chain (ETC) in OXPHOS enables specific diagnoses of inhibition to ETC complexes by discrete biochemical changes in the TCA cycle.

  5. Personality assessment inventory profile and predictors of elevations among dissociative disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnik, Ryan D; Brand, Bethany; Savoca, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Assessing patients with dissociative disorders (DD) using personality tests is difficult. On the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 ( J. N. Butcher, W. G. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989 ), DD patients often obtain elevations on multiple clinical scales as well as on validity scales that were thought to indicate exaggeration yet have been shown to be elevated among traumatized individuals, including those with DD. No research has been conducted to determine how DD patients score on the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; L. C. Morey, 1991 ), which includes the symptom exaggeration scale Negative Impression (NIM) and the malingering scales Malingering Index (MAL) and Rogers Discriminant Function (RDF). The goals of this study were to document the PAI profile of dissociative identity disorder (DID) and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS) patients and to determine how the validity and Schizophrenia scales are related to other PAI scales as well as dissociation. A total of 42 inpatients with DID or DDNOS were assessed on the PAI as well as the Dissociative Experiences Scale-II. The DID/DDNOS patients were elevated on many PAI scales, including NIM and, to a lesser extent, MAL, but not RDF. Dissociation scores significantly and uniquely predicted NIM scores above and beyond Depression and Borderline Features. In addition, after we controlled for MAL and RDF, dissociation was positively associated with NIM. In contrast, after we controlled for the other 2 scales, dissociation was not related to MAL and was negatively related to RDF, indicating that RDF and, to a lesser extent, MAL are better correlates of feigning in DD patients than NIM.

  6. Where is the science? What will it take to show that nutrient profiling systems work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Marilyn S

    2010-04-01

    Nutrient profiling is defined as the science of ranking or categorizing foods on the basis of their nutritional composition. Validity is a general term meaning accuracy. Nutrient profiling systems in the United States have not undergone any systematic validation effort to assess their accuracy against a comparison measure or group of measures. Different types of validation studies should be conducted: content, face, convergent, criterion, and predictive. This article provides a conceptual framework for establishing the validity of nutrient profiling systems with the desired objective of assisting US consumers with food selection to improve diet quality. For a profiling system to work successfully in the American marketplace, it must function well with consumers from most or all cultural groups, from all racial groups, and with low-literate as well as highly literate people. Emphasis should be placed on conducting different types of validation studies and multiple studies with different subpopulation groups. The use of consistent standards to assess the accuracy and usefulness of multiple profiling systems is imperative to successfully identify a nutrient profiling intervention that will have the potential to lead to improved diet quality and eventually to an improved health status in US consumers.

  7. Cytokine profiles show heterogeneity of interferon-β response in multiple sclerosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegen, Harald; Adrianto, Indra; Lessard, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate serum cytokine profiles for their utility to determine the heterogeneous responses to interferon (IFN)-β treatment in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: Patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) or clinically isolated syndrome receiving de novo IFN-β treatment...... were included in this prospective, observational study. Number of relapses and changes in disability were assessed 2 years prior to and 2 years after initiation of treatment. Sera were collected at baseline and after 3 months on therapy. Cytokine levels in sera were assessed by Luminex multiplex assays...... and no worsening of disability. Each subset also had differential changes in cytokine levels after 3 months of IFN-β treatment. CONCLUSIONS: There is heterogeneity in the immunologic pathways of the RRMS population, which correlates with IFN-β response....

  8. Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Contrasting Rice Genotypes Shows Expression Differences during Arsenic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Rai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of arsenic (As in rice ( L. grain is a serious concern worldwide. Long-term exposure to As affects nutritional status in rice grain and is associated with higher rates of skin, bladder, and lung cancers, and heart disease. Genotypic variations in rice for As accumulation or tolerance are prevalent and are regulated by genetic and environmental factors. To understand molecular networks involved in As accumulation, genome-wide expression analysis was performed in roots of low- and high-As accumulating rice genotypes (LARGs and HARGs. Six rice genotypes with contrasting As accumulation potential and tolerance were used in this study. Genome-wide expression analysis suggested their differential response against As stress. This study suggests up- and downregulation of a number of unique genes involved in various pathways and biological processes in response to As stress in rice genotypes. A comparison of gene expression profiles, principal component analysis, and -means clustering suggests that an independent pathway is operating during As stress tolerance or accumulation in contrasting genotypes. It was also observed that the differential behavior of genotype, Nayanmoni, from other LARGs might be due to its different genetic background. -motif profiling of As-induced coexpressed genes in diverse rice genotypes led to the identification of unique -motifs present in differentially expressed genes. This study suggests that the genetic mechanism regulating the differential As accumulation in different genotypes may not be dependent on gene expression at the transcriptional level. However, many genes identified in this study can be analyzed and used for marker–trait associations related to As accumulation in diverse genotypes around the world.

  9. Hurricane Wilma's impact on overall soil elevation and zones within the soil profile in a mangrove forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, K.R.T.; Smith, T. J.; Anderson, G.H.; Ouellette, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Soil elevation affects tidal inundation period, inundation frequency, and overall hydroperiod, all of which are important ecological factors affecting species recruitment, composition, and survival in wetlands. Hurricanes can dramatically affect a site's soil elevation. We assessed the impact of Hurricane Wilma (2005) on soil elevation at a mangrove forest location along the Shark River in Everglades National Park, Florida, USA. Using multiple depth surface elevation tables (SETs) and marker horizons we measured soil accretion, erosion, and soil elevation. We partitioned the effect of Hurricane Wilma's storm deposit into four constituent soil zones: surface (accretion) zone, shallow zone (0–0.35 m), middle zone (0.35–4 m), and deep zone (4–6 m). We report expansion and contraction of each soil zone. Hurricane Wilma deposited 37.0 (± 3.0 SE) mm of material; however, the absolute soil elevation change was + 42.8 mm due to expansion in the shallow soil zone. One year post-hurricane, the soil profile had lost 10.0 mm in soil elevation, with 8.5 mm of the loss due to erosion. The remaining soil elevation loss was due to compaction from shallow subsidence. We found prolific growth of new fine rootlets (209 ± 34 SE g m−2) in the storm deposited material suggesting that deposits may become more stable in the near future (i.e., erosion rate will decrease). Surficial erosion and belowground processes both played an important role in determining the overall soil elevation. Expansion and contraction in the shallow soil zone may be due to hydrology, and in the middle and bottom soil zones due to shallow subsidence. Findings thus far indicate that soil elevation has made substantial gains compared to site specific relative sea-level rise, but data trends suggest that belowground processes, which differ by soil zone, may come to dominate the long term ecological impact of storm deposit.

  10. Metabolic profiling of plasma amino acids shows that histidine increases following the consumption of pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samman S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Samir Samman,1 Ben Crossett,2 Miles Somers,1 Kirstine J Bell,1 Nicole T Lai,1,3 David R Sullivan,3 Peter Petocz4 1Discipline of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2Discipline of Proteomics and Biotechnology, School of Molecular Bioscience, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4Department of Statistics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Amino acid (AA status is determined by factors including nutrition, metabolic rate, and interactions between the metabolism of AA, carbohydrates, and lipids. Analysis of the plasma AA profile, together with markers of glucose and lipid metabolism, will shed light on metabolic regulation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the acute responses to the consumption of meals containing either pork (PM or chicken (CM, and to identify relationships between plasma AA and markers of glycemic and lipemic control. A secondary aim was to explore AA predictors of plasma zinc concentrations. Ten healthy adults participated in a postprandial study on two separate occasions. In a randomized cross-over design, participants consumed PM or CM. The concentrations of 21 AA, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids, and zinc were determined over 5 hours postprandially. The meal composition did not influence glucose, insulin, triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acid, or zinc concentrations. Plasma histidine was higher following the consumption of PM (P=0.014, with consistently higher changes observed after 60 minutes (P<0.001. Greater percentage increases were noted at limited time points for valine and leucine + isoleucine in those who consumed CM compared to PM. In linear regression, some AAs emerged as predictors of the metabolic responses, irrespective of the meal that was consumed. The present study demonstrates that a single meal of PM or CM produces a differential profile of AA in the

  11. OA03.06. A clinical study to evaluate the efficacy of amritadya guggulu on elevated lipid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, U Ajay

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Hyperlipidaemia has gained world wide interest in its ability to participate in the pathology of atherosclerotic diseases like coronary heart disease (CHD) which dominates the scenario of diseases causing morbidity and mortality in the world. Hyperlipidaemia is a term used to denote raised serum levels of cholesterol or triglycerides or both. Raised cholesterol is estimated to cause 18% of the global cerebrovascular disease and 56% of global ischemic heart disease. Overall this amounts to about 4.4 million deaths (7.9% of total) annually. Raised total cholesterol is a major cause of disease burden in both the developed and developing world as a risk factor for ischemic heart disease and stroke. Every 1% decrease in cholesterol decreases CHD risk by 2.5%. Method: Randomized single group, single intervention observational study of sample size: 30. Assessment was done based on lipid profile values pre and post treatment. One tab “Amritadya Guggulu”, 475mg TID with water, after food, for a period 30 days. Follow up was taken on 31st day. Result: After treatment S.Cholesterol showed an average of 21.96% decrease, On S.LDL at an average of 30.47% decrease, On S.VLDL average of 20.77% decrease, S. TRIGLYCERIDES average of 26.32% decrease at p0.5. 60% of patients had an average increase in S.HDL by 9.27% and 28.30% decrease in other parameters, however 40% of patients had an average decrease of 8.62% and 23.01% decrease in other parameters in S.HDL. Conclusion: Amritadya guggulu has given significant result on elevated lipid profile, even though it has decreased S.HDL in minority patients, the change may be corrected, subject to lifestyle changes.

  12. Hawthorn Fruit Extract Elevates Expression of Nrf2/HO-1 and Improves Lipid Profiles in Ovariectomized Rats

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    Jeong-Hyun Yoo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge extract on the lipid profiles and antioxidant properties in ovariectomized (OVX rats. After ovariectomy, the rats were randomly divided into four groups: the non-OVX control (Sham, the OVX-control (OVX, the OVX + 100 mg/kg b.w. of hawthorn extract (OL, and the OVX + 200 mg/kg b.w. of hawthorn extract (OH. The final body weights of the OVX group were significantly increased, but the increment was significantly decreased in hawthorn groups (p < 0.05. The serum total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol levels were significantly elevated in the OVX group, whereas the hawthorn groups showed a significant decrease in these levels (p < 0.05. The hepatic triglyceride (TG and malondialdehyde (MDA levels were significantly reduced in the hawthorn groups compared with the OVX group (p < 0.05. The mRNA expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor (Nrf2, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were significantly decreased in the OVX group, whereas the hawthorn groups exhibited a significant increase in expression (p < 0.05. The protein expressions of Nrf2, HO-1, and GPx were lower in the OVX group than the Sham group (p < 0.05. The oral administration of hawthorn extract reversed the suppression of protein levels. These results suggest that hawthorn extract could have protective effects in OVX rats by improving lipid profiles, decreasing oxidative stress, and improving the antioxidant defense system.

  13. A Newly Emergent Turkey Arthritis Reovirus Shows Dominant Enteric Tropism and Induces Significantly Elevated Innate Antiviral and T Helper-1 Cytokine Responses.

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    Tamer A Sharafeldin

    Full Text Available Newly emergent turkey arthritis reoviruses (TARV were isolated from tendons of lame 15-week-old tom turkeys that occasionally had ruptured leg tendons. Experimentally, these TARVs induced remarkable tenosynovitis in gastrocnemius tendons of turkey poults. The current study aimed to characterize the location and the extent of virus replication as well as the cytokine response induced by TARV during the first two weeks of infection. One-week-old male turkeys were inoculated orally with TARV (O'Neil strain. Copy numbers of viral genes were estimated in intestines, internal organs and tendons at ½, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 14 days Post inoculation (dpi. Cytokine profile was measured in intestines, spleen and leg tendons at 0, 4, 7 and 14 dpi. Viral copy number peaked in jejunum, cecum and bursa of Fabricius at 4 dpi. Copy numbers increased dramatically in leg tendons at 7 and 14 dpi while minimal copies were detected in internal organs and blood during the same period. Virus was detected in cloacal swabs at 1-2 dpi, and peaked at 14 dpi indicating enterotropism of the virus and its early shedding in feces. Elevation of IFN-α and IFN-β was observed in intestines at 7 dpi as well as a prominent T helper-1 response (IFN-γ at 7 and 14 dpi. IFN-γ and IL-6 were elevated in gastrocnemius tendons at 14 dpi. Elevation of antiviral cytokines in intestines occurred at 7dpi when a significant decline of viral replication in intestines was observed. T helper-1 response in intestines and leg tendons was the dominant T-helper response. These results suggest the possible correlation between viral replication and cytokine response in early infection of TARV in turkeys. Our findings provide novel insights which help elucidate viral pathogenesis in turkey tendons infected with TARV.

  14. Different methods to quantify Listeria monocytogenesbiofilms cells showed different profile in their viability

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    Lizziane Kretli Winkelströter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen able to adhere and to form biofilms in several materials commonly present in food processing plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance of Listeria monocytogenes attached to abiotic surface, after treatment with sanitizers, by culture method, microscopy and Quantitative Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR. Biofilms of L. monocytogenes were obtained in stainless steel coupons immersed in Brain Heart Infusion Broth, under agitation at 37 °C for 24 h. The methods selected for this study were based on plate count, microscopic count with the aid of viability dyes (CTC-DAPI, and qPCR. Results of culture method showed that peroxyacetic acid was efficient to kill sessile L. monocytogenes populations, while sodium hypochlorite was only partially effective to kill attached L. monocytogenes (p < 0.05. When, viability dyes (CTC/DAPI combined with fluorescence microscopy and qPCR were used and lower counts were found after treatments (p < 0.05. Selective quantification of viable cells of L. monocytogenes by qPCR using EMA revelead that the pre-treatment with EMA was not appropriate since it also inhibited amplification of DNA from live cells by ca. 2 log. Thus, the use of CTC counts was the best method to count viable cells in biofilms.

  15. Efferent Vestibular Neurons Show Homogenous Discharge Output But Heterogeneous Synaptic Input Profile In Vitro.

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    Miranda A Mathews

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of our sense of balance we still know remarkably little about the central control of the peripheral balance system. While previous work has shown that activation of the efferent vestibular system results in modulation of afferent vestibular neuron discharge, the intrinsic and synaptic properties of efferent neurons themselves are largely unknown. Here we substantiate the location of the efferent vestibular nucleus (EVN in the mouse, before characterizing the input and output properties of EVN neurons in vitro. We made transverse serial sections through the brainstem of 4-week-old mice, and performed immunohistochemistry for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT, both expressed in the EVN of other species. We also injected fluorogold into the posterior canal and retrogradely labelled neurons in the EVN of ChAT:: tdTomato mice expressing tdTomato in all cholinergic neurons. As expected the EVN lies dorsolateral to the genu of the facial nerve (CNVII. We then made whole-cell current-, and voltage-clamp recordings from visually identified EVN neurons. In current-clamp, EVN neurons display a homogeneous discharge pattern. This is characterized by a high frequency burst of action potentials at the onset of a depolarizing stimulus and the offset of a hyperpolarizing stimulus that is mediated by T-type calcium channels. In voltage-clamp, EVN neurons receive either exclusively excitatory or inhibitory inputs, or a combination of both. Despite this heterogeneous mixture of inputs, we show that synaptic inputs onto EVN neurons are predominantly excitatory. Together these findings suggest that the inputs onto EVN neurons, and more specifically the origin of these inputs may underlie EVN neuron function.

  16. Plasma and serum lipidomics of healthy white adults shows characteristic profiles by subjects' gender and age.

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    Masaki Ishikawa

    Full Text Available Blood is a commonly used biofluid for biomarker discovery. Although blood lipid metabolites are considered to be potential biomarker candidates, their fundamental properties are not well characterized. We aimed to (1 investigate the matrix type (serum vs. plasma that may be preferable for lipid biomarker exploration, (2 elucidate age- and gender-associated differences in lipid metabolite levels, and (3 examine the stability of lipid metabolites in matrix samples subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we performed lipidomic analyses for fasting plasma and serum samples for four groups (15 subjects/group of young and elderly (25-34 and 55-64 years old, respectively males and females and for an additional aliquot of samples from young males, which were subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Lysophosphatidylcholine and diacylglycerol levels were higher in serum than in plasma samples, suggesting that the clotting process influences serum lipid metabolite levels. Gender-associated differences highlighted that the levels of many sphingomyelin species were significantly higher in females than in males, irrespective of age and matrix (plasma and serum. Age-associated differences were more prominent in females than in males, and in both matrices, levels of many triacylglycerols were significantly higher in elderly females than in young females. Plasma and serum levels of most lipid metabolites were reduced by freeze-thawing. Our results indicate that plasma is an optimal matrix for exploring lipid biomarkers because it represents the original properties of an individual's blood sample. In addition, the levels of some blood lipid species of healthy adults showed gender- and age-associated differences; thus, this should be considered during biomarker exploration and its application in diagnostics. Our fundamental findings on sample selection and handling procedures for measuring blood lipid metabolites

  17. Profiles of paralytic shellfish toxins in bivalves of low and elevated toxicities following exposure to Gymnodinium catenatum blooms in Portuguese estuarine and coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Maria João; Vale, Carlos; Ferreira, João Gomes

    2015-11-01

    Profiles of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) were examined in 405 composite samples of Mytilus spp., Cerastoderma edule, Donax trunculus and Spisula solida collected between 2007 and 2012 from natural production areas in two estuaries (Aveiro and Mondego), two coastal lagoons (Óbidos and Formosa), and three open coastal areas (Aguda, Comporta and Culatra). Toxin concentrations were obtained from the biotoxin monitoring programme database. Episodes of PST toxicity in Portugal have been associated with Gymnodinium catenatum blooms. Toxin profiles for each species showed no trend over the surveyed years. In general, profiles differ only slightly among areas, except for Óbidos. However, toxin profiles in bivalves varied between low and elevated toxicities, corresponding to below and above the PST regulatory limit, respectively. The ratio R1=(C1+2):B1, which were the main toxins produced by G. catenatum cells, decreased considerably between elevated and low toxicity cockles, indicating the elimination of C1+2 or conversion of compounds into B1. R2=[(dcSTX)+(dcGTX2+3)]:[(C1+2)+(B1)], which represents the ratio of minor to major toxins in G. catenatum cells, increased substantially in wedge clams (D. trunculus) of low toxicity and less markedly in cockles (C. edule) and mussels (Mytilus spp.). These differences are interpreted as the predominance of a biotransformation phase after exposure to the algal bloom. The toxin profile of surf clams (S. solida) was dominated by decarbamoyl compounds, reflecting intense biotransformation during exposure to blooms. The higher ratio R2 in low toxicity samples suggests that elimination of the produced decarbamoyl toxins was slower than biotransformation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fine root chemistry and decomposition in model communities of north-temperate tree species show little response to elevated atmospheric CO2 and varying soil resource availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, J S; Pregitzer, K S; Zak, D R; Holmes, W E; Schmidt, K

    2005-12-01

    Rising atmospheric [CO2] has the potential to alter soil carbon (C) cycling by increasing the content of recalcitrant constituents in plant litter, thereby decreasing rates of decomposition. Because fine root turnover constitutes a large fraction of annual NPP, changes in fine root decomposition are especially important. These responses will likely be affected by soil resource availability and the life history characteristics of the dominant tree species. We evaluated the effects of elevated atmospheric [CO2] and soil resource availability on the production and chemistry, mycorrhizal colonization, and decomposition of fine roots in an early- and late-successional tree species that are economically and ecologically important in north temperate forests. Open-top chambers were used to expose young trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum) trees to ambient (36 Pa) and elevated (56 Pa) atmospheric CO2. Soil resource availability was composed of two treatments that bracketed the range found in the Upper Lake States, USA. After 2.5 years of growth, sugar maple had greater fine root standing crop due to relatively greater allocation to fine roots (30% of total root biomass) relative to aspen (7% total root biomass). Relative to the low soil resources treatment, aspen fine root biomass increased 76% with increased soil resource availability, but only under elevated [CO2]. Sugar maple fine root biomass increased 26% with increased soil resource availability (relative to the low soil resources treatment), and showed little response to elevated [CO2]. Concentrations of N and soluble phenolics, and C/N ratio in roots were similar for the two species, but aspen had slightly higher lignin and lower condensed tannins contents compared to sugar maple. As predicted by source-sink models of carbon allocation, pooled constituents (C/N ratio, soluble phenolics) increased in response to increased relative carbon availability (elevated [CO2]/low soil resource

  19. Allergic asthmatics show divergent lipid mediator profiles from healthy controls both at baseline and following birch pollen provocation.

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    Susanna L Lundström

    Full Text Available Asthma is a respiratory tract disorder characterized by airway hyper-reactivity and chronic inflammation. Allergic asthma is associated with the production of allergen-specific IgE and expansion of allergen-specific T-cell populations. Progression of allergic inflammation is driven by T-helper type 2 (Th2 mediators and is associated with alterations in the levels of lipid mediators.Responses of the respiratory system to birch allergen provocation in allergic asthmatics were investigated. Eicosanoids and other oxylipins were quantified in the bronchoalveolar lumen to provide a measure of shifts in lipid mediators associated with allergen challenge in allergic asthmatics.Eighty-seven lipid mediators representing the cyclooxygenase (COX, lipoxygenase (LOX and cytochrome P450 (CYP metabolic pathways were screened via LC-MS/MS following off-line extraction of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF. Multivariate statistics using OPLS were employed to interrogate acquired oxylipin data in combination with immunological markers.Thirty-two oxylipins were quantified, with baseline asthmatics possessing a different oxylipin profile relative to healthy individuals that became more distinct following allergen provocation. The most prominent differences included 15-LOX-derived ω-3 and ω-6 oxylipins. Shared-and-Unique-Structures (SUS-plot modeling showed a correlation (R(2 = 0.7 between OPLS models for baseline asthmatics (R(2Y[cum] = 0.87, Q(2[cum] = 0.51 and allergen-provoked asthmatics (R(2Y[cum] = 0.95, Q(2[cum] = 0.73, with the majority of quantified lipid mediators and cytokines contributing equally to both groups. Unique structures for allergen provocation included leukotrienes (LTB(4 and 6-trans-LTB(4, CYP-derivatives of linoleic acid (epoxides/diols, and IL-10.Differences in asthmatic relative to healthy profiles suggest a role for 15-LOX products of both ω-6 and ω-3 origin in allergic inflammation. Prominent differences at baseline levels indicate

  20. Geology, Bedrock, Data contains 10 foot elevation contours (1 foot in some areas) showing the approximate bedrock surface elevation within McLain State Park, Houghton, County, Michigan. Contours were generated with the Surfer 12 software package using soil test borings and, Published in 2014, Not Applicable scale, Michigan Coastal Zone Management Program.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geology, Bedrock dataset current as of 2014. Data contains 10 foot elevation contours (1 foot in some areas) showing the approximate bedrock surface elevation within...

  1. Clinical characteristics and risk profile of patients with elevated baseline serum tryptase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellinger, C; Hemmer, W; Wöhrl, S; Sesztak-Greinecker, G; Jarisch, R; Wantke, F

    2014-01-01

    The clinical relevance of elevated basal serum tryptase (eBST ≥ 11.4 ng/ml) often remains unclear. BST was assessed in 15,298 patients attending our outpatient clinic. Frequency and severity of anaphylaxis was compared in 900 patients with eBST and 900 patients with normal BST. The prevalence of eBST was evaluated in patients with drug reactions, urticaria, gastrointestinal symptoms or venom allergy. Mast cell-associated symptoms were recorded prospectively in 100 patients with eBST and 100 controls using a standardised questionnaire. 5.9% (n=900) of 15,298 patients had eBST ≥11.4 ng/ml (mean 20 ± 21 ng/ml, 11.4-390 ng/ml). In 47% of them BST was meteorism, muscle/bone ache, vertigo, tachycardia, flush, palpitations, diarrhoea and oedema were associated with eBST (p20 ng/ml) eBST. eBST was significantly associated with adverse reactions to drugs (34%), radio contrast media (15%) and insect stings (24%) (p20 ng/ml (BST 20 ng/ml: 12.4%). In clinical practice it appears reasonable to assess BST, besides after anaphylactic reactions also in patients suffering repeatedly from vertigo, flush, tachycardia, palpitations, oedema and nausea. Even patients with slightly eBST have a higher risk of anaphylaxis and experience more severe reactions. Copyright © 2013 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of genes showing differential expression profile associated with growth rate in skeletal muscle tissue of Landrace weanling pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Yuuta; Sukegawa, Shin; Yamashita, Mai; Katsuda, Naoki; Tong, Bin; Ohta, Takeshi; Kose, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Takahisa

    2016-06-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to identify genes showing differential expression profile associated with growth rate in skeletal muscle tissue of Landrace weanling pig. Two subtracted cDNA populations were generated from musculus longissimus muscle tissues of selected pigs with extreme expected breeding values at the age of 100 kg. Three upregulated genes (EEF1A2, TSG101 and TTN) and six downregulated genes (ATP5B, ATP5C1, COQ3, HADHA, MYH1 and MYH7) in pig with genetic propensity for higher growth rate were identified by sequence analysis of 12 differentially expressed clones selected by differential screening following the generation of the subtracted cDNA population. Real-time PCR analysis confirmed difference in expression profiles of the identified genes in musculus longissimus muscle tissues between the two Landrace weanling pig groups with divergent genetic propensity for growth rate. Further, differential expression of the identified genes except for the TTN was validated by Western blot analysis. Additionally, the eight genes other than the ATP5C1 colocalized with the same chromosomal positions as QTLs that have been previously identified for growth rate traits. Finally, the changes of expression predicted from gene function suggested association of upregulation of expression of the EEF1A2, TSG101 and TTN genes and downregulation of the ATP5B, ATP5C1, COQ3, HADHA, MYH1 and MYH7 gene expression with increased growth rate. The identified genes will provide an important insight in understanding the molecular mechanism underlying growth rate in Landrace pig breed.

  3. Elevation profile influence at key contractual performance parameters for LDS (Leak Detection Systems) based on compensated volume balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebenberg, Lieb [TRANSNET Pipeline, Durban (South Africa); Bueno, David; Passos, Rafaela [KANOPUS Consulting, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes and discusses procedures and correlations to estimate performance parameters for Leak Detection Systems based on Compensation Volume Balance, at the portions not usually covered by international standards (like, API RP 1130). These parameters include: minimum acceptable leakage to be detected, under steady state conditions, based on flow measurement uncertainty, observed for both pipeline head and tail; an actual flow rate uncertainty against the one informed by the flow meter manufacturer documentation; the reference flow rate for steady state conditions; and the sensitivity one may expect for the system against a given probability of false alarms (i.e., the ways to correlate reliability, the main performance parameter as per API RP 1130 and sensitivity, the second one). A question usually not considered is: how the elevation profile may affect some of these parameters. That is the second main objective addressed herein, with actual examples employed in a South African multi product pipeline. (author)

  4. Detailed characterization of multiple myeloma circulating tumor cells shows unique phenotypic, cytogenetic, functional, and circadian distribution profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Bruno; Paino, Teresa; Sayagues, Jose-Maria; Garayoa, Mercedes; San-Segundo, Laura; Martín, Montserrat; Mota, Ines; Sanchez, María-Luz; Bárcena, Paloma; Aires-Mejia, Irene; Corchete, Luis; Jimenez, Cristina; Garcia-Sanz, Ramon; Gutierrez, Norma C; Ocio, Enrique M; Mateos, Maria-Victoria; Vidriales, Maria-Belen; Orfao, Alberto; San Miguel, Jesús F

    2013-11-21

    Circulating myeloma tumor cells (CTCs) as defined by the presence of peripheral blood (PB) clonal plasma cells (PCs) are a powerful prognostic marker in multiple myeloma (MM). However, the biological features of CTCs and their pathophysiological role in MM remains unexplored. Here, we investigate the phenotypic, cytogenetic, and functional characteristics as well as the circadian distribution of CTCs vs paired bone marrow (BM) clonal PCs from MM patients. Our results show that CTCs typically represent a unique subpopulation of all BM clonal PCs, characterized by downregulation (P < .05) of integrins (CD11a/CD11c/CD29/CD49d/CD49e), adhesion (CD33/CD56/CD117/CD138), and activation molecules (CD28/CD38/CD81). Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of fluorescence-activated cell sorter-sorted CTCs also unraveled different cytogenetic profiles vs paired BM clonal PCs. Moreover, CTCs were mostly quiescent and associated with higher clonogenic potential when cocultured with BM stromal cells. Most interestingly, CTCs showed a circadian distribution which fluctuates in a similar pattern to that of CD34(+) cells, and opposite to stromal cell-derived factor 1 plasma levels and corresponding surface expression of CXC chemokine receptor 4 on clonal PCs, suggesting that in MM, CTCs may egress to PB to colonize/metastasize other sites in the BM during the patients' resting period.

  5. Missouri Marketing Education Competency Profile. Cross-Referenced to Marketing Education Resources and the Missouri Show-Me Standards. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This packet consists of explanatory materials on the Missouri Marketing Education Competency Profile and related information. Section 1 describes the mission of marketing education, marketing occupations, curriculum framework, and curriculum alignment for the 1996 profile. Section 2 addresses 1996 revisions to the Missouri Marketing Education Core…

  6. Helicobacter pylori strains from a Nigerian cohort show divergent antibiotic resistance rates and a uniform pathogenicity profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Harrison

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori is a factor preventing its successful eradication. Particularly in developing countries, resistance against commonly used antibiotics is widespread. Here, we present an epidemiological study from Nigeria with 111 isolates. We analyzed the associated disease outcome, and performed a detailed characterization of these isolated strains with respect to their antibiotic susceptibility and their virulence characteristics. Furthermore, statistical analysis was performed on microbiological data as well as patient information and the results of the gastroenterological examination. We found that the variability concerning the production of virulence factors between strains was minimal, with 96.4% of isolates being CagA-positive and 92.8% producing detectable VacA levels. In addition, high frequency of bacterial resistance was observed for metronidazole (99.1%, followed by amoxicillin (33.3%, clarithromycin (14.4% and tetracycline (4.5%. In conclusion, this study indicated that the infection rate of H. pylori infection within the cohort in the present study was surprisingly low (36.6%. Furthermore, an average gastric pathology was observed by histological grading and bacterial isolates showed a uniform pathogenicity profile while indicating divergent antibiotic resistance rates.

  7. Speed and direction response profiles of neurons in macaque MT and MST show modest constraint line tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijnhouwer, Jacob; Noest, André J; Lankheet, Martin J M; van den Berg, Albert V; van Wezel, Richard J A

    2013-01-01

    Several models of heading detection during smooth pursuit rely on the assumption of local constraint line tuning to exist in large scale motion detection templates. A motion detector that exhibits pure constraint line tuning responds maximally to any 2D-velocity in the set of vectors that can be decomposed into the central, or classic, preferred velocity (the shortest vector that still yields the maximum response) and any vector orthogonal to that. To test this assumption, we measured the firing rates of isolated middle temporal (MT) and medial superior temporal (MST) neurons to random dot stimuli moving in a range of directions and speeds. We found that as a function of 2D velocity, the pooled responses were best fit with a 2D Gaussian profile with a factor of elongation, orthogonal to the central preferred velocity, of roughly 1.5 for MST and 1.7 for MT. This means that MT and MST cells are more sharply tuned for speed than they are for direction; and that they indeed show some level of constraint line tuning. However, we argue that the observed elongation is insufficient to achieve behavioral heading discrimination accuracy on the order of 1-2 degrees as reported before.

  8. ASD and schizophrenia show distinct developmental profiles in common genetic overlap with population-based social communication difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Pourcain, B; Robinson, E B; Anttila, V; Sullivan, B B; Maller, J; Golding, J; Skuse, D; Ring, S; Evans, D M; Zammit, S; Fisher, S E; Neale, B M; Anney, R J L; Ripke, S; Hollegaard, M V; Werge, T; Ronald, A; Grove, J; Hougaard, D M; Børglum, A D; Mortensen, P B; Daly, M J; Davey Smith, G

    2017-01-03

    Difficulties in social communication are part of the phenotypic overlap between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia. Both conditions follow, however, distinct developmental patterns. Symptoms of ASD typically occur during early childhood, whereas most symptoms characteristic of schizophrenia do not appear before early adulthood. We investigated whether overlap in common genetic influences between these clinical conditions and impairments in social communication depends on the developmental stage of the assessed trait. Social communication difficulties were measured in typically-developing youth (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, N⩽5553, longitudinal assessments at 8, 11, 14 and 17 years) using the Social Communication Disorder Checklist. Data on clinical ASD (PGC-ASD: 5305 cases, 5305 pseudo-controls; iPSYCH-ASD: 7783 cases, 11 359 controls) and schizophrenia (PGC-SCZ2: 34 241 cases, 45 604 controls, 1235 trios) were either obtained through the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) or the Danish iPSYCH project. Overlap in genetic influences between ASD and social communication difficulties during development decreased with age, both in the PGC-ASD and the iPSYCH-ASD sample. Genetic overlap between schizophrenia and social communication difficulties, by contrast, persisted across age, as observed within two independent PGC-SCZ2 subsamples, and showed an increase in magnitude for traits assessed during later adolescence. ASD- and schizophrenia-related polygenic effects were unrelated to each other and changes in trait-disorder links reflect the heterogeneity of genetic factors influencing social communication difficulties during childhood versus later adolescence. Thus, both clinical ASD and schizophrenia share some genetic influences with impairments in social communication, but reveal distinct developmental profiles in their genetic links, consistent with the onset of clinical symptoms.Molecular Psychiatry advance online

  9. Osteoprotegerin levels in ST-elevation myocardial infarction: Temporal profile and association with myocardial injury and left ventricular function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Shetelig

    Full Text Available Elevated levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG have been associated with adverse outcomes in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI. However, the role of OPG in myocardial injury and adverse remodeling in STEMI patients remains unclear. The aims of this observational cohort study were to evaluate: 1 the temporal profile of OPG during STEMI, 2 possible associations between OPG measured acutely and after 4 months, with infarct size, adverse left ventricular (LV remodeling, microvascular obstruction (MVO and myocardial salvage and 3 the effect of heparin administration on OPG levels.Blood samples were drawn repeatedly from 272 STEMI patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR was performed in the acute phase and after 4 months. The effect of heparin administration on OPG levels was studied in 20 patients referred to elective coronary angiography.OPG levels measured acutely were significantly higher than Day 1 and during follow-up. OPG levels were correlated with age. No association was found between early OPG levels and CMR measurements at 4 months. Patients with >median OPG levels measured at Day 1 had larger final infarct size, lower LV ejection fraction (LVEF at 4 months and higher frequency of MVO. There were no associations between OPG and change in end-diastolic volume or myocardial salvage. OPG remained associated with infarct size and LVEF after adjustment for relevant covariates, except peak troponin T and CRP. A 77% increase in OPG levels following heparin administration was found in patients undergoing elective coronary angiography.OPG was found to be associated with myocardial injury, but not with LV remodeling or myocardial salvage. The use of OPG as a biomarker in STEMI patients seems to be limited by a strong association with age, confounding effect of heparin administration, and little additive value to established biomarkers.

  10. Osteoprotegerin levels in ST-elevation myocardial infarction: Temporal profile and association with myocardial injury and left ventricular function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetelig, Christian; Limalanathan, Shanmuganathan; Eritsland, Jan; Hoffmann, Pavel; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Gran, Jon Michael; Aukrust, Pål; Ueland, Thor; Andersen, Geir Øystein

    2017-01-01

    Background Elevated levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been associated with adverse outcomes in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, the role of OPG in myocardial injury and adverse remodeling in STEMI patients remains unclear. The aims of this observational cohort study were to evaluate: 1) the temporal profile of OPG during STEMI, 2) possible associations between OPG measured acutely and after 4 months, with infarct size, adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling, microvascular obstruction (MVO) and myocardial salvage and 3) the effect of heparin administration on OPG levels. Methods Blood samples were drawn repeatedly from 272 STEMI patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) was performed in the acute phase and after 4 months. The effect of heparin administration on OPG levels was studied in 20 patients referred to elective coronary angiography. Results OPG levels measured acutely were significantly higher than Day 1 and during follow-up. OPG levels were correlated with age. No association was found between early OPG levels and CMR measurements at 4 months. Patients with >median OPG levels measured at Day 1 had larger final infarct size, lower LV ejection fraction (LVEF) at 4 months and higher frequency of MVO. There were no associations between OPG and change in end-diastolic volume or myocardial salvage. OPG remained associated with infarct size and LVEF after adjustment for relevant covariates, except peak troponin T and CRP. A 77% increase in OPG levels following heparin administration was found in patients undergoing elective coronary angiography. Conclusions OPG was found to be associated with myocardial injury, but not with LV remodeling or myocardial salvage. The use of OPG as a biomarker in STEMI patients seems to be limited by a strong association with age, confounding effect of heparin administration, and little additive value to established biomarkers. PMID

  11. Nitrogen-Efficient and Nitrogen-Inefficient Indian Mustard Showed Differential Expression Pattern of Proteins in Response to Elevated CO2 and Low Nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Peerzada Y; Ganie, Arshid H; Khan, Ishrat; Qureshi, Mohammad I; Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Sarwat, Maryam; Iqbal, Muhammad; Ahmad, Altaf

    2016-01-01

    Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) are two essential elements that influence plant growth and development. The C and N metabolic pathways influence each other to affect gene expression, but little is known about which genes are regulated by interaction between C and N or the mechanisms by which the pathways interact. In the present investigation, proteome analysis of N-efficient and N-inefficient Indian mustard, grown under varied combinations of low-N, sufficient-N, ambient [CO2], and elevated [CO2] was carried out to identify proteins and the encoding genes of the interactions between C and N. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) revealed 158 candidate protein spots. Among these, 72 spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF). The identified proteins are related to various molecular processes including photosynthesis, energy metabolism, protein synthesis, transport and degradation, signal transduction, nitrogen metabolism and defense to oxidative, water and heat stresses. Identification of proteins like PII-like protein, cyclophilin, elongation factor-TU, oxygen-evolving enhancer protein and rubisco activase offers a peculiar overview of changes elicited by elevated [CO2], providing clues about how N-efficient cultivar of Indian mustard adapt to low N supply under elevated [CO2] conditions. This study provides new insights and novel information for a better understanding of adaptive responses to elevated [CO2] under N deficiency in Indian mustard.

  12. Nitrogen-efficient and nitrogen-inefficient Indian mustard cultivars show differential protein expression in response to elevated CO2 and low nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peerjada Yasir Yousof

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon (C and nitrogen (N are two essential elements that influence plant growth and development. The C and N metabolic pathways influence each other to affect gene expression, but little is known about which genes are regulated by interaction between C and N or the mechanisms by which the pathways interact. In the present investigation, proteome analysis of N-efficient and N-inefficient Indian mustard, grown under varied combinations of low-N, sufficient-N, ambient [CO2] and elevated [CO2] was carried out to identify proteins and the encoding genes of the interactions between C and N. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE revealed 158 candidate protein spots. Among these, 72 spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF. The identified proteins are related to various molecular processes including photosynthesis, energy metabolism, protein synthesis, transport and degradation, signal transduction, nitrogen metabolism and defense to oxidative, water and heat stresses. Identification of proteins like PII-like protein, cyclophilin, elongation factor-TU, oxygen-evolving enhancer protein and rubisco activase offers a peculiar overview of changes elicited by elevated [CO2], providing clues about how N-efficient cultivar of Indian mustard adapt to low N supply under elevated [CO2] conditions. This study provides new insights and novel information for a better understanding of adaptive responses to elevated [CO2] under N deficiency in Indian mustard.

  13. Progesterone profiles around the time of insemination do not show clear differences between of pregnant and not pregnant dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorzecka, Justyna; Codrea, Marius Cosmin; Friggens, Nicolas C

    2011-01-01

    differences between the groups. However, the analysis correctly classified 75% of true pregnant cows. Conversely, only 60% of not pregnant animals were classified as such by the discriminate analysis. Individual analysis of progesterone profile features in pregnant and not pregnant groups of estrous cycles...

  14. Hawthorn Fruit Extract Elevates Expression of Nrf2/HO-1 and Improves Lipid Profiles in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jeong-Hyun; Liu, Yanan; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2016-05-13

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge) extract on the lipid profiles and antioxidant properties in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. After ovariectomy, the rats were randomly divided into four groups: the non-OVX control (Sham), the OVX-control (OVX), the OVX + 100 mg/kg b.w. of hawthorn extract (OL), and the OVX + 200 mg/kg b.w. of hawthorn extract (OH). The final body weights of the OVX group were significantly increased, but the increment was significantly decreased in hawthorn groups (p hawthorn groups showed a significant decrease in these levels (p hawthorn groups compared with the OVX group (p hawthorn groups exhibited a significant increase in expression (p hawthorn extract reversed the suppression of protein levels. These results suggest that hawthorn extract could have protective effects in OVX rats by improving lipid profiles, decreasing oxidative stress, and improving the antioxidant defense system.

  15. A Mouse Model of Hyperproliferative Human Epithelium Validated by Keratin Profiling Shows an Aberrant Cytoskeletal Response to Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samal Zhussupbekova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A validated animal model would assist with research on the immunological consequences of the chronic expression of stress keratins KRT6, KRT16, and KRT17, as observed in human pre-malignant hyperproliferative epithelium. Here we examine keratin gene expression profile in skin from mice expressing the E7 oncoprotein of HPV16 (K14E7 demonstrating persistently hyperproliferative epithelium, in nontransgenic mouse skin, and in hyperproliferative actinic keratosis lesions from human skin. We demonstrate that K14E7 mouse skin overexpresses stress keratins in a similar manner to human actinic keratoses, that overexpression is a consequence of epithelial hyperproliferation induced by E7, and that overexpression further increases in response to injury. As stress keratins modify local immunity and epithelial cell function and differentiation, the K14E7 mouse model should permit study of how continued overexpression of stress keratins impacts on epithelial tumor development and on local innate and adaptive immunity.

  16. Individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum show sensory processing differences as measured by the sensory profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, Carly; Arroyo, Monica S; Dunn, Winnie; Strominger, Zoe; Sherr, Elliott H; Marco, Elysa

    2015-09-01

    Given reports of high pain thresholds and reduced auditory response in individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC), this study investigated whether affected participants report atypical experiences and behaviors on a well-established sensory processing measure. Fourteen participants with AgCC (ages 11-59) completed the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (Brown & Dunn, 2001). Sensory profile scales were classified as "Atypical" if they were more than 1 standard deviation from the mean. Fifty-seven percent of participants with AgCC reported reduced sensory registration as compared to an expected 16% of the normative sample. Similarly, 50% of the AgCC participants reported atypically increased auditory processing difficulties. Using a well-established sensory processing questionnaire, participants with AgCC reported measurable differences in multiple aspects of sensory processing. The most notable difference was in the quadrant of low sensory registration, suggesting that individuals with AgCC may require sensory information to be presented more slowly or at a higher intensity for adequate processing. The sensory modality that was most affected was the auditory system, which is consistent with increased rates of language disorders and autism spectrum disorders in this population. Understanding sensory processing in individuals with AgCC can both elucidate the role of interhemispheric transfer in the development of intact sensory processing as well as contribute to our knowledge of the role of the corpus callosum in a range of disorders in which sensory processes are impacted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. IceBridge Merged Photon Counting Lidar/Profiler L4 Surface Slope and Elevations V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains geolocated surface elevation measurements captured over Antarctica using the Sigma Space Mapping Photon Counting Lidar and Riegl Laser...

  18. Transcriptome profiling of low temperature-treated cassava apical shoots showed dynamic responses of tropical plant to cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Dong; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Peng

    2012-02-10

    Cassava is an important tropical root crop adapted to a wide range of environmental stimuli such as drought and acid soils. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Thus far, there is limited information about gene regulation and signalling pathways related to the cold stress response in cassava. The development of microarray technology has accelerated the study of global transcription profiling under certain conditions. A 60-mer oligonucleotide microarray representing 20,840 genes was used to perform transcriptome profiling in apical shoots of cassava subjected to cold at 7°C for 0, 4 and 9 h. A total of 508 transcripts were identified as early cold-responsive genes in which 319 sequences had functional descriptions when aligned with Arabidopsis proteins. Gene ontology annotation analysis identified many cold-relevant categories, including 'Response to abiotic and biotic stimulus', 'Response to stress', 'Transcription factor activity', and 'Chloroplast'. Various stress-associated genes with a wide range of biological functions were found, such as signal transduction components (e.g., MAP kinase 4), transcription factors (TFs, e.g., RAP2.11), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes (e.g., catalase 2), as well as photosynthesis-related genes (e.g., PsaL). Seventeen major TF families including many well-studied members (e.g., AP2-EREBP) were also involved in the early response to cold stress. Meanwhile, KEGG pathway analysis uncovered many important pathways, such as 'Plant hormone signal transduction' and 'Starch and sucrose metabolism'. Furthermore, the expression changes of 32 genes under cold and other abiotic stress conditions were validated by real-time RT-PCR. Importantly, most of the tested stress-responsive genes were primarily expressed in mature leaves, stem cambia, and fibrous roots rather than apical buds and young leaves. As a response to cold stress in cassava, an increase in transcripts and enzyme activities of

  19. Transcriptome profiling of low temperature-treated cassava apical shoots showed dynamic responses of tropical plant to cold stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Dong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cassava is an important tropical root crop adapted to a wide range of environmental stimuli such as drought and acid soils. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Thus far, there is limited information about gene regulation and signalling pathways related to the cold stress response in cassava. The development of microarray technology has accelerated the study of global transcription profiling under certain conditions. Results A 60-mer oligonucleotide microarray representing 20,840 genes was used to perform transcriptome profiling in apical shoots of cassava subjected to cold at 7°C for 0, 4 and 9 h. A total of 508 transcripts were identified as early cold-responsive genes in which 319 sequences had functional descriptions when aligned with Arabidopsis proteins. Gene ontology annotation analysis identified many cold-relevant categories, including 'Response to abiotic and biotic stimulus', 'Response to stress', 'Transcription factor activity', and 'Chloroplast'. Various stress-associated genes with a wide range of biological functions were found, such as signal transduction components (e.g., MAP kinase 4, transcription factors (TFs, e.g., RAP2.11, and reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging enzymes (e.g., catalase 2, as well as photosynthesis-related genes (e.g., PsaL. Seventeen major TF families including many well-studied members (e.g., AP2-EREBP were also involved in the early response to cold stress. Meanwhile, KEGG pathway analysis uncovered many important pathways, such as 'Plant hormone signal transduction' and 'Starch and sucrose metabolism'. Furthermore, the expression changes of 32 genes under cold and other abiotic stress conditions were validated by real-time RT-PCR. Importantly, most of the tested stress-responsive genes were primarily expressed in mature leaves, stem cambia, and fibrous roots rather than apical buds and young leaves. As a response to cold stress in cassava, an increase

  20. A Mouse Model of Hyperproliferative Human Epithelium Validated by Keratin Profiling Shows an Aberrant Cytoskeletal Response to Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhussupbekova, Samal; Sinha, Rohit; Kuo, Paula; Lambert, Paul F; Frazer, Ian H; Tuong, Zewen K

    2016-07-01

    A validated animal model would assist with research on the immunological consequences of the chronic expression of stress keratins KRT6, KRT16, and KRT17, as observed in human pre-malignant hyperproliferative epithelium. Here we examine keratin gene expression profile in skin from mice expressing the E7 oncoprotein of HPV16 (K14E7) demonstrating persistently hyperproliferative epithelium, in nontransgenic mouse skin, and in hyperproliferative actinic keratosis lesions from human skin. We demonstrate that K14E7 mouse skin overexpresses stress keratins in a similar manner to human actinic keratoses, that overexpression is a consequence of epithelial hyperproliferation induced by E7, and that overexpression further increases in response to injury. As stress keratins modify local immunity and epithelial cell function and differentiation, the K14E7 mouse model should permit study of how continued overexpression of stress keratins impacts on epithelial tumor development and on local innate and adaptive immunity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical Profile and Mortality of ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients Receiving Thrombolytic Therapy in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Sulaiman, Kadhim; Al-Habib, Khalid; Al Suwaidi, Jassim; Al-Motarreb, Ahmed; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi; Al Saif, Shukri; Al Faleh, Hussam; Almahmeed, Wael; Asaad, Nidal; Amin, Haitham; Al-Lawati, Jawad; Hersi, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about thrombolytic therapy patterns in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in the Middle East. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical profile and mortality of STEMI patients who arrived in hospital within 12 hours from pain onset and received thrombolytic therapy. Patients and Methods: This was a prospective, multinational, multi-centre, observational survey of consecutive acute coronary syndrome patients admitted to 65 hospitals in six Middle Eastern countries during the period between October 2008 and June 2009, as part of Gulf RACE-II (Registry of Acute Coronary Events). Analyses were performed using univariate statistics. Results: Out of 2,465 STEMI patients, 66% (n = 1,586) were thrombolysed with namely: streptokinase (43%), reteplase (44%), tenecteplase (10%), and alteplase (3%). 22.7% received no reperfusion. Median age of the study cohort was 50 (45-59) years with majority being males (91%). The overall median symptom onset-to-presentation and door-to-needle times were 165 (95- 272) minutes and 38 (24-60) minutes, respectively. Generally, patients presenting with higher GRACE risk scores were treated with newer thrombolytic agents (reteplase and tenecteplase) (P < 0.001). The use of newer thrombolytic agents was associated with a significantly lower mortality at both 1-month (0.8% vs. 1.7% vs. 4.2%; P = 0.014) and 1-year (0% vs. 1.7% vs. 3.4%; P = 0.044) compared to streptokinase use. Conclusions: Majority of STEMI patients from the Middle East were thrombolysed with streptokinase and reteplase in equal numbers. Nearly one-fifth of patients did not receive any reperfusion therapy. There was inappropriately long symptom-onset to hospital presentation as well as door-to-needle times. Use of newer thrombolytic agents in high risk patients was appropriate. Newer thrombolytic agents were associated with significantly lower mortality at 1-month and 1-year compared to the older agent, streptokinase

  2. Colitic scid mice fed Lactobacillus spp. show an ameliorated gut histopathology and an altered cytokine profile by local T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Peter Lange; Paerregaard, Anders; Gad, Monika; Kristensen, Nanna Ny; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    2005-09-01

    Scid mice transplanted with CD4 T blast cells develop colitis. We investigated if the disease was influenced in colitic mice treated with antibiotic and fed Lactobacillus spp. Colitic scid mice were treated for 1 week with antibiotics (vancomycin/meropenem) followed or not followed by a 3-week administration of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM-12246 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus 19070-2 at 2x10 live bacteria/mouse/24 hours. After 12 weeks, the rectums were removed for histology, and CD4 T cells from the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) were polyclonally activated for cytokine measurements. Irrespective of no treatment or treatments with antibiotics and probiotics, all mice transplanted with T cell blasts lost 10% of their body weight during the 12-week experimental period, whereas the nontransplanted mice had a 10% weight increase (Pprobiotics showed severe gut inflammation, whereas only 2 of the 7 mice fed probiotics showed signs of severe colitis (Pprobiotics. Our data suggest that probiotics added to the drinking water may ameliorate local histopathological changes and influence local cytokine levels in colitic mice but not alter the colitis-associated weight loss.

  3. Genome-wide expression profiling shows transcriptional reprogramming in Fusarium graminearum by Fusarium graminearum virus 1-DK21 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Won

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fusarium graminearum virus 1 strain-DK21 (FgV1-DK21 is a mycovirus that confers hypovirulence to F. graminearum, which is the primary phytopathogenic fungus that causes Fusarium head blight (FHB disease in many cereals. Understanding the interaction between mycoviruses and plant pathogenic fungi is necessary for preventing damage caused by F. graminearum. Therefore, we investigated important cellular regulatory processes in a host containing FgV1-DK21 as compared to an uninfected parent using a transcriptional approach. Results Using a 3′-tiling microarray covering all known F. graminearum genes, we carried out genome-wide expression analyses of F. graminearum at two different time points. At the early point of growth of an infected strain as compared to an uninfected strain, genes associated with protein synthesis, including ribosome assembly, nucleolus, and ribosomal RNA processing, were significantly up-regulated. In addition, genes required for transcription and signal transduction, including fungal-specific transcription factors and cAMP signaling, respectively, were actively up-regulated. In contrast, genes involved in various metabolic pathways, particularly in producing carboxylic acids, aromatic amino acids, nitrogen compounds, and polyamines, showed dramatic down-regulation at the early time point. Moreover, genes associated with transport systems localizing to transmembranes were down-regulated at both time points. Conclusion This is the first report of global change in the prominent cellular pathways in the Fusarium host containing FgV1-DK21. The significant increase in transcripts for transcription and translation machinery in fungal host cells seems to be related to virus replication. In addition, significant down-regulation of genes required for metabolism and transporting systems in a fungal host containing the virus appears to be related to the host defense mechanism and fungal virulence. Taken together

  4. The transcriptional profile of mesenchymal stem cell populations in primary osteoporosis is distinct and shows overexpression of osteogenic inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Benisch

    Full Text Available Primary osteoporosis is an age-related disease characterized by an imbalance in bone homeostasis. While the resorptive aspect of the disease has been studied intensely, less is known about the anabolic part of the syndrome or presumptive deficiencies in bone regeneration. Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSC are the primary source of osteogenic regeneration. In the present study we aimed to unravel whether MSC biology is directly involved in the pathophysiology of the disease and therefore performed microarray analyses of hMSC of elderly patients (79-94 years old suffering from osteoporosis (hMSC-OP. In comparison to age-matched controls we detected profound changes in the transcriptome in hMSC-OP, e.g. enhanced mRNA expression of known osteoporosis-associated genes (LRP5, RUNX2, COL1A1 and of genes involved in osteoclastogenesis (CSF1, PTH1R, but most notably of genes coding for inhibitors of WNT and BMP signaling, such as Sclerostin and MAB21L2. These candidate genes indicate intrinsic deficiencies in self-renewal and differentiation potential in osteoporotic stem cells. We also compared both hMSC-OP and non-osteoporotic hMSC-old of elderly donors to hMSC of ∼30 years younger donors and found that the transcriptional changes acquired between the sixth and the ninth decade of life differed widely between osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic stem cells. In addition, we compared the osteoporotic transcriptome to long term-cultivated, senescent hMSC and detected some signs for pre-senescence in hMSC-OP.Our results suggest that in primary osteoporosis the transcriptomes of hMSC populations show distinct signatures and little overlap with non-osteoporotic aging, although we detected some hints for senescence-associated changes. While there are remarkable inter-individual variations as expected for polygenetic diseases, we could identify many susceptibility genes for osteoporosis known from genetic studies. We also found new candidates, e.g. MAB21L

  5. Transcriptome profiling shows gene regulation patterns in a flavonoid pathway in response to exogenous phenylalanine in Boesenbergia rotunda cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Md-Mustafa, Noor Diyana; Khalid, Norzulaani; Gao, Huan; Peng, Zhiyu; Alimin, Mohd Firdaus; Bujang, Noraini; Ming, Wong Sher; Mohd-Yusuf, Yusmin; Harikrishna, Jennifer A; Othman, Rofina Yasmin

    2014-11-18

    Panduratin A extracted from Boesenbergia rotunda is a flavonoid reported to possess a range of medicinal indications which include anti-dengue, anti-HIV, anti-cancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Boesenbergia rotunda is a plant from the Zingiberaceae family commonly used as a food ingredient and traditional medicine in Southeast Asia and China. Reports on the health benefits of secondary metabolites extracted from Boesenbergia rotunda over the last few years has resulted in rising demands for panduratin A. However large scale extraction has been hindered by the naturally low abundance of the compound and limited knowledge of its biosynthetic pathway. Transcriptome sequencing and digital gene expression (DGE) analysis of native and phenylalanine treated Boesenbergia rotunda cell suspension cultures were carried out to elucidate the key genes differentially expressed in the panduratin A biosynthetic pathway. Based on experiments that show increase in panduratin A production after 14 days post treatment with exogenous phenylalanine, an aromatic amino acid derived from the shikimic acid pathway, total RNA of untreated and 14 days post-phenylalanine treated cell suspension cultures were extracted and sequenced using next generation sequencing technology employing an Illumina-Solexa platform. The transcriptome data generated 101, 043 unigenes with 50, 932 (50.41%) successfully annotated in the public protein databases; including 49.93% (50, 447) in the non-redundant (NR) database, 34.63% (34, 989) in Swiss-Prot, 24,07% (24, 316) in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and 16.26% (16, 426) in Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG). Through DGE analysis, we found that 14, 644 unigenes were up-regulated and 14, 379 unigenes down-regulated in response to exogenous phenylalanine treatment. In the phenylpropanoid pathway leading to the proposed panduratin A production, 2 up-regulated phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), 3 up-regulated 4-coumaroyl

  6. T-type calcium channel Cav3.2 deficient mice show elevated anxiety, impaired memory and reduced sensitivity to psychostimulants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe eGangarossa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The fine-tuning of neuronal excitability relies on a tight control of Ca2+ homeostasis. The low voltage-activated T-type calcium channels (Cav3.1, Cav3.2 and Cav3.3 isoforms play a critical role in regulating these processes. Despite their wide expression throughout the central nervous system, the implication of T-type Cav3.2 isoform in brain functions is still poorly characterized. Here we investigate the effect of genetic ablation of this isoform in affective disorders, including anxiety, cognitive functions as well as sensitivity to drugs of abuse. Using a wide range of behavioral assays we show that genetic ablation of the cacna1h gene results in an anxiety-like phenotype, whereas novelty-induced locomotor activity is unaffected. Deletion of the T-type channel Cav3.2 also triggers impairment of hippocampus-dependent recognition memories. Acute and sensitized hyperlocomotion induced by d-amphetamine and cocaine are dramatically reduced in T-type Cav3.2 deficient mice. In addition, the administration of the T-type blocker TTA-A2 prevented the expression of locomotor sensitization observed in wildtype mice. In conclusion, our data reveal that physiological activity of this specific Ca2+ channel is required for affective and cognitive behaviors. Moreover, our work highlights the interest of T-type channel blockers as therapeutic strategies to reverse drug-associated alterations.

  7. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature on the soil profile methane distribution and diffusion in rice-wheat rotation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Chen, Zhaozhi; Zhang, Man; Zhang, Heng; Zhang, Xuhui; Pan, Genxing; Zou, Jianwen; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this experiment was to determine the impacts of climate change on soil profile concentrations and diffusion effluxes of methane in a rice-wheat annual rotation ecosystem in Southeastern China. We initiated a field experiment with four treatments: ambient conditions (CKs), CO2 concentration elevated to ~500 μmol/mol (FACE), temperature elevated by ca. 2°C (T) and combined elevation of CO2 concentration and temperature (FACE+T). A multilevel sampling probe was designed to collect the soil gas at four different depths, namely, 7 cm, 15 cm, 30 cm and 50 cm. Methane concentrations were higher during the rice season and decreased with depth, while lower during the wheat season and increased with depth. Compared to CK, mean methane concentration was increased by 42%, 57% and 71% under the FACE, FACE+T and T treatments, respectively, at the 7 cm depth during the rice season (pCO2 concentration and temperature could significantly increase soil profile methane concentrations and their effluxes from a rice-wheat field annual rotation ecosystem (p<0.05). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Adolescent C57BL/6J mice show elevated alcohol intake, but reduced taste aversion, as compared to adult mice: a potential behavioral mechanism for binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein, Sarah E; Spanos, Marina; Hodge, Clyde W

    2011-10-01

    Binge alcohol drinking during adolescence is a serious health problem that may increase future risk of an alcohol use disorder. Although there are several different procedures by which to preclinically model binge-like alcohol intake, limited-access procedures offer the advantage of achieving high voluntary alcohol intake and pharmacologically relevant blood alcohol concentrations (BACs). Therefore, in the current study, developmental differences in binge-like alcohol drinking using a limited-access cycling procedure were examined. In addition, as alcohol drinking has been negatively correlated with sensitivity to the aversive properties of alcohol, we examined developmental differences in sensitivity to an alcohol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Binge-like alcohol consumption was investigated in adolescent (4 weeks) and adult (10 weeks) male C57BL/6J mice for 2 to 4 h/d for 16 days. Developmental differences in sensitivity to an alcohol-induced CTA were examined in adolescent and adult mice, with saline or alcohol (3 or 4 g/kg) repeatedly paired with the intake of a novel tastant (NaCl). Adolescent mice showed a significant increase in alcohol intake as compared to adults, with adolescents achieving higher BACs and increasing alcohol consumption over successive cycles of the binge procedure. Conversely, adolescent mice exhibited a dose-dependent reduction in sensitivity to the aversive properties of alcohol, as compared to adult mice, with adolescent mice failing to develop a CTA to 3 g/kg alcohol. Finally, extinction of an alcohol CTA was observed following conditioning with a higher dose of alcohol in adolescent, versus adult, mice. These results indicate that adolescent mice consume more alcohol, per kilogram body weight, than adults in a binge-like model of alcohol drinking and demonstrate a blunted sensitivity to the conditioned aversive effects of alcohol. Overall, this supports a behavioral framework by which heightened binge alcohol intake during

  9. Shifts in metabolomic profiles of the parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis associated with elevated cold tolerance induced by the parasitoid's diapause, host diapause and host diet augmented with proline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuyan; Zhang, Lisheng; Chen, Hongyin; Koštál, Vladimir; Simek, Petr; Moos, Martin; Denlinger, David L

    2015-08-01

    The ectoparasitoid wasp, Nasonia vitripennis can enhance its cold tolerance by exploiting a maternally-induced larval diapause. A simple manipulation of the fly host diapause status and supplementation of the host diet with proline also dramatically increase cold tolerance in the parasitoid. In this study, we used a metabolomics approach to define alterations in metabolite profiles of N. vitripennis caused by diapause in the parasitoid, diapause of the host, and augmentation of the host's diet with proline. Metabolic profiles of diapausing and nondiapausing parasitoid were significantly differentiated, with pronounced distinctions in levels of multiple cryoprotectants, amino acids, and carbohydrates. The dynamic nature of diapause was underscored by a shift in the wasp's metabolomic profile as the duration of diapause increased, a feature especially evident for increased concentrations of a suite of cryoprotectants. Metabolic pathways involved in amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism were distinctly enriched during diapause in the parasitoid. Host diapause status also elicited a pronounced effect on metabolic signatures of the parasitoid, noted by higher cryoprotectants and elevated compounds derived from glycolysis. Proline supplementation of the host diet did not translate directly into elevated proline in the parasitoid but resulted in an alteration in the abundance of many other metabolites, including elevated concentrations of essential amino acids, and reduction in metabolites linked to energy utilization, lipid and amino acid metabolism. Thus, the enhanced cold tolerance of N. vitripennis associated with proline augmentation of the host diet appears to be an indirect effect caused by the metabolic perturbations associated with diet supplementation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. NMR metabolomics profiling of blood plasma mimics shows that medium- and long-chain fatty acids differently release metabolites from human serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupin, M.; Michiels, P. J.; Girard, F. C.; Spraul, M.; Wijmenga, S. S.

    2014-02-01

    Metabolite profiling by NMR of body fluids is increasingly used to successfully differentiate patients from healthy individuals. Metabolites and their concentrations are direct reporters of body biochemistry. However, in blood plasma the NMR-detected free-metabolite concentrations are also strongly affected by interactions with the abundant plasma proteins, which have as of yet not been considered much in metabolic profiling. We previously reported that many of the common NMR-detected metabolites in blood plasma bind to human serum albumin (HSA) and many are released by fatty acids present in fatted HSA. HSA is the most abundant plasma protein and main transporter of endogenous and exogenous metabolites. Here, we show by NMR how the two most common fatty acids (FAs) in blood plasma - the long-chain FA, stearate (C18:0) and medium-chain FA, myristate (C14:0) - affect metabolite-HSA interaction. Of the set of 18 common NMR-detected metabolites, many are released by stearate and/or myristate, lactate appearing the most strongly affected. Myristate, but not stearate, reduces HSA-binding of phenylalanine and pyruvate. Citrate signals were NMR invisible in the presence of HSA. Only at high myristate-HSA mole ratios 11:1, is citrate sufficiently released to be detected. Finally, we find that limited dilution of blood-plasma mimics releases HSA-bound metabolites, a finding confirmed in real blood plasma samples. Based on these findings, we provide recommendations for NMR experiments for quantitative metabolite profiling.

  11. Mouse gastric tumor models with prostaglandin E2 pathway activation show similar gene expression profiles to intestinal-type human gastric cancer

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    Oshima Masanobu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastric cancers are generally classified into better differentiated intestinal-type tumor and poorly differentiated diffuse-type one according to Lauren's histological categorization. Although induction of prostaglandin E2 pathway promotes gastric tumors in mice in cooperation with deregulated Wnt or BMP signalings, it has remained unresolved whether the gastric tumor mouse models recapitulate either of human gastric cancer type. This study assessed the similarity in expression profiling between gastric tumors of transgenic mice and various tissues of human cancers to find best-fit human tumors for the transgenic mice models. Results Global expression profiling initially found gastric tumors from COX-2/mPGES-1 (C2mE-related transgenic mice (K19-C2mE, K19-Wnt1/C2mE, and K19-Nog/C2mE resembled gastric cancers among the several tissues of human cancers including colon, breast, lung and gastric tumors. Next, classification of the C2mE-related transgenic mice by a gene signature to distinguish human intestinal- and diffuse-type tumors showed C2mE-related transgenic mice were more similar to intestinal-type compared with diffuse one. We finally revealed that induction of Wnt pathway cooperating with the prostaglandin E2 pathway in mice (K19-Wnt1/C2mE mice further reproduce features of human gastric intestinal-type tumors. Conclusion We demonstrated that C2mE-related transgenic mice show significant similarity to intestinal-type gastric cancer when analyzed by global expression profiling. These results suggest that the C2mE-related transgenic mice, especially K19-Wnt1/C2mE mice, serve as a best-fit model to study molecular mechanism underlying the tumorigenesis of human gastric intestinal-type cancers.

  12. Transcriptome profiling in conifers and the PiceaGenExpress database show patterns of diversification within gene families and interspecific conservation in vascular gene expression

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    Raherison Elie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conifers have very large genomes (13 to 30 Gigabases that are mostly uncharacterized although extensive cDNA resources have recently become available. This report presents a global overview of transcriptome variation in a conifer tree and documents conservation and diversity of gene expression patterns among major vegetative tissues. Results An oligonucleotide microarray was developed from Picea glauca and P. sitchensis cDNA datasets. It represents 23,853 unique genes and was shown to be suitable for transcriptome profiling in several species. A comparison of secondary xylem and phelloderm tissues showed that preferential expression in these vascular tissues was highly conserved among Picea spp. RNA-Sequencing strongly confirmed tissue preferential expression and provided a robust validation of the microarray design. A small database of transcription profiles called PiceaGenExpress was developed from over 150 hybridizations spanning eight major tissue types. In total, transcripts were detected for 92% of the genes on the microarray, in at least one tissue. Non-annotated genes were predominantly expressed at low levels in fewer tissues than genes of known or predicted function. Diversity of expression within gene families may be rapidly assessed from PiceaGenExpress. In conifer trees, dehydrins and late embryogenesis abundant (LEA osmotic regulation proteins occur in large gene families compared to angiosperms. Strong contrasts and low diversity was observed in the dehydrin family, while diverse patterns suggested a greater degree of diversification among LEAs. Conclusion Together, the oligonucleotide microarray and the PiceaGenExpress database represent the first resource of this kind for gymnosperm plants. The spruce transcriptome analysis reported here is expected to accelerate genetic studies in the large and important group comprised of conifer trees.

  13. Tobacco seeds expressing feedback-insensitive cystathionine gamma-synthase exhibit elevated content of methionine and altered primary metabolic profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The essential sulfur-containing amino acid methionine plays a vital role in plant metabolism and human nutrition. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the regulatory role of the first committed enzyme in the methionine biosynthesis pathway, cystathionine γ-synthase (CGS), on methionine accumulation in tobacco seeds. We also studied the effect of this manipulation on the seed’s metabolism. Results Two forms of Arabidopsis CGS (AtCGS) were expressed under the control of the seeds-specific promoter of legumin B4: feedback-sensitive F-AtCGS (LF seeds), and feedback-insensitive T-AtCGS (LT seeds). Unexpectedly, the soluble content of methionine was reduced significantly in both sets of transgenic seeds. Amino acids analysis and feeding experiments indicated that although the level of methionine was reduced, the flux through its synthesis had increased. As a result, the level of protein-incorporated methionine had increased significantly in LT seeds by up to 60%, but this was not observed in LF seeds, whose methionine content is tightly regulated. This increase was accompanied by a higher content of other protein-incorporated amino acids, which led to 27% protein content in the seeds although this was statistically insignificantly. In addition, the levels of reducing sugars (representing starch) were slightly but significantly reduced, while that of oil was insignificantly reduced. To assess the impact of the high expression level of T-AtCGS in seeds on other primary metabolites, metabolic profiling using GC-MS was performed. This revealed significant alterations to the primary seed metabolism manifested by a significant increase in eight annotated metabolites (mostly sugars and their oxidized derivatives), while the levels of 12 other metabolites were reduced significantly in LT compared to wild-type seeds. Conclusion Expression of T-AtCGS leads to an increase in the level of total Met, higher contents of total amino acids, and significant changes in the

  14. Percutaneous coronary intervention-related time delay, patient's risk profile, and survival benefits of primary angioplasty vs lytic therapy in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

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    De Luca, Giuseppe; Cassetti, Ettore; Marino, Paolo

    2009-07-01

    Previous reports have suggested an impact of patient's risk profile and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)-related time delay on the benefits of primary angioplasty as compared with fibrinolysis. However, several factors, such as inappropriate interpretation and definition of delays, missing currently available trials, and arguable risk-benefit analysis, limit the value of these reports. Thus, the aim of the current review is to assess whether the prognostic impact of PCI-related time delay may vary according to patient's risk profile, presentation delay, and type of lytic therapy. We obtained results from all randomized trials comparing fibrinolysis and primary angioplasty in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. The literature was scanned by formal searches of electronic databases (MEDLINE and CENTRAL) for papers published from January 1990 to April 2007. The following key words were used: randomized trial, myocardial infarction, reperfusion, primary angioplasty, rescue angioplasty, fibrinolysis, thrombolysis, duteplase, reteplase, tenecteplase, and alteplase. Major clinical end point assessed was mortality at 30-day follow-up. The relationship between mortality benefits from primary angioplasty, patient's risk profile, and PCI-related time delay was evaluated by using a weighted least-square regression in which results from each trial were weighted by the square root of the number of patients of each trial. A total of 27 trials were finally included, with 4399 patients randomized to primary angioplasty and 4474 patients randomized to fibrinolysis. The relationship between the benefits from primary angioplasty and PCI-related time changed according to risk profile. The higher the risk profile, the larger the reduction in mortality benefits from primary angioplasty as compared with fibrinolysis per each 10 minutes of PCI-related time delay (0.75%, 0.45%, and 0%, in high-, medium-, and low-risk patients, respectively). Furthermore, the impact was

  15. DNA Methylation Profiling of Human Prefrontal Cortex Neurons in Heroin Users Shows Significant Difference between Genomic Contexts of Hyper- and Hypomethylation and a Younger Epigenetic Age

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    Alexey Kozlenkov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We employed Illumina 450 K Infinium microarrays to profile DNA methylation (DNAm in neuronal nuclei separated by fluorescence-activated sorting from the postmortem orbitofrontal cortex (OFC of heroin users who died from heroin overdose (N = 37, suicide completers (N = 22 with no evidence of heroin use and from control subjects who did not abuse illicit drugs and died of non-suicide causes (N = 28. We identified 1298 differentially methylated CpG sites (DMSs between heroin users and controls, and 454 DMSs between suicide completers and controls (p < 0.001. DMSs and corresponding genes (DMGs in heroin users showed significant differences in the preferential context of hyper and hypo DM. HyperDMSs were enriched in gene bodies and exons but depleted in promoters, whereas hypoDMSs were enriched in promoters and enhancers. In addition, hyperDMGs showed preference for genes expressed specifically by glutamatergic as opposed to GABAergic neurons and enrichment for axonogenesis- and synaptic-related gene ontology categories, whereas hypoDMGs were enriched for transcription factor activity- and gene expression regulation-related terms. Finally, we found that the DNAm-based “epigenetic age” of neurons from heroin users was younger than that in controls. Suicide-related results were more difficult to interpret. Collectively, these findings suggest that the observed DNAm differences could represent functionally significant marks of heroin-associated plasticity in the OFC.

  16. Gene expression profiling reveals multiple differences in platelets from patients with stable angina or non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Gualtiero; Gertow, Karl; Marenzi, Giancarlo; Brambilla, Marta; De Metrio, Monica; Tremoli, Elena; Camera, Marina

    2011-08-01

    Platelets play a key role in coronary artery disease. They have the capacity of protein synthesis through translation of megakaryocyte-derived mRNAs, which may influence pathophysiological functions. The present study aimed to prove the concept that platelets from patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) have differential mRNA expression profiles, in the hypothesis that this may influence their thrombogenicity. Gene expression profiles were determined in RNA pools from resting platelets of patients with stable angina (SA, n = 14) or NSTE-ACS (n = 15) using a glass microarray platform. Validation was done by real-time PCR and immunoblot analyses in independent sets of individual samples (26 SA and 17 NSTE-ACS patients, in total). Parallel comparison with healthy subjects was performed to relate the relative abundance of validated genes in CAD patients to a control expression level. Microarray analysis identified 45 transcripts with a significant ≥ ± 2.0-fold difference in expression between NSTE-ACS and SA platelet pools. Thus, gene expression profiles at least partially discriminate unstable from stable CAD. Validation confirmed a significant over-expression of 3 genes in NSTE-ACS at both mRNA and protein level. In particular, the glycoprotein Ib β-polypeptide (GP1BB) was increased in NSTE-ACS also in comparison with healthy subjects. This study provides evidence that NSTE-ACS platelets are potentially preconditioned to a higher degree of reactivity on the transcriptional level. Our data suggest that a different composition of the mRNA pool might mediate an increased platelet prothrombotic potential in NSTE-ACS patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Expression Profile of Antioxidant Enzymes in Hemocytes from Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii Exposed to an Elevated Level of Copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui; Miao, Yu-Tao; Xian, Jian-An; Qian, Kun; Wang, An-Li

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated the expression level of antioxidant enzymes Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in hemocytes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii exposed to copper by real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results showed that the mRNA expression of Cu, Zn-SOD increased to reach a peak at 6 h, then recovered to its normal level at 48 h. CAT expression level was significantly increased at 12 h and reached a peak at 24 h, but recovered to its normal level later. GPx expression level was significantly increased at 6 h and reached the peak at 12 h. GST expression level was significantly induced from 12 to 24 h and then dropped to its normal level at 48 h. These results indicated that antioxidant enzymes were inducible, possibly for removing excessive reactive oxygen species to protect prawn from oxidative stress.

  18. Elevated plasma and urinary concentrations of green tea catechins associated with improved plasma lipid profile in healthy Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takechi, Ryusuke; Alfonso, Helman; Hiramatsu, Naoko; Ishisaka, Akari; Tanaka, Akira; Tan, La'Belle; Lee, Andy H

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated green tea catechins in plasma and urine and chronic disease biomarkers. We hypothesized that plasma and urinary concentration of green tea catechins are associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes biomarkers. First void urine and fasting plasma samples were collected from 57 generally healthy females aged 38 to 73 years (mean, 52 ± 8 years) recruited in Himeji, Japan. The concentrations of plasma and urinary green tea catechins were determined by liquid chromatography coupled with mass tandem spectrometer. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, and C-reactive protein in plasma/serum samples were analyzed by a commercial diagnostic laboratory. Statistical associations were assessed using Spearman correlation coefficients. The results showed weak associations between plasma total catechin and triglyceride (r = -0.30) and LDL cholesterol (r = -0.28), whereas plasma (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate, and (-)-epicatechin exhibited weak to moderate associations with triglyceride or LDL cholesterol, but little associations with HDL cholesterol, body fat, and body mass index were evident. Urinary total catechin was weakly associated with triglyceride (r = -0.19) and LDL cholesterol (r = -0.15), whereas urinary (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (r = -0.33), (-)-epigallocatechin (r = -0.23), and (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (r = -0.33) had weak to moderate correlations with triglyceride and similarly with body fat and body mass index. Both plasma (r = -0.24) and urinary (r = -0.24) total catechin, as well as individual catechins, were weakly associated with glycated hemoglobin. Plasma total and individual catechins were weakly to moderately associated with C-reactive protein, but not the case for urinary catechins. In conclusion, we found weak to moderate associations between plasma and urinary green tea

  19. Chia Seed Shows Good Protein Quality, Hypoglycemic Effect and Improves the Lipid Profile and Liver and Intestinal Morphology of Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Bárbara Pereira; Dias, Desirrê Morais; de Castro Moreira, Maria Eliza; Toledo, Renata Celi Lopes; da Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto; Lucia, Ceres Mattos Della; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria

    2016-09-01

    Chia has been consumed by the world population due to its high fiber, lipids and proteins content. The objective was to evaluate the protein quality of chia untreated (seed and flour) and heat treated (90 °C/20 min), their influence on glucose and lipid homeostasis and integrity of liver and intestinal morphology of Wistar rats. 36 male rats, weanling, divided into six groups which received control diet (casein), free protein diet (aproteic) and four diet tests (chia seed; chia seed with heat treatment; chia flour and chia flour with heat treatment) for 14 days were used. The protein efficiency ratio (PER), net protein ratio (NPR) and true digestibility (TD) were evaluated. The biochemical variables and liver and intestinal morphologies of animals were determined. The values of PER, NPR and TD did not differ among the animals that were fed with chia and were lower than the control group. The animals that were fed with chia showed lower concentrations of glucose; triacylglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol than the control group. The liver weight of animals that were fed with chia was lower than the control group. Crypt depth and thickness of intestinal muscle layers were higher in groups that were fed with chia. The consumption of chia has shown good digestibility, hypoglycemic effect, improved lipid and glycemic profiles and reduced fat deposition in liver of animals, and also promoted changes in intestinal tissue that enhanced its functionality.

  20. Anti-inflammatory treatment for major depressive disorder: implications for patients with an elevated immune profile and non-responders to standard antidepressant therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopschina Feltes, Paula; Doorduin, Janine; Klein, Hans C; Juárez-Orozco, Luis Eduardo; Dierckx, Rudi AJO; Moriguchi-Jeckel, Cristina M; de Vries, Erik FJ

    2017-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent and disabling psychiatric disease with rates of non-responsiveness to antidepressants ranging from 30–50%. Historically, the monoamine depletion hypothesis has dominated the view on the pathophysiology of depression. However, the lack of responsiveness to antidepressants and treatment resistance suggests that additional mechanisms might play a role. Evidence has shown that a subgroup of depressive patients may have an underlying immune deregulation that could explain the lack of therapeutic benefit from antidepressants. Stimuli like inflammation and infection can trigger the activation of microglia to release pro-inflammatory cytokines, acting on two main pathways: (1) activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary adrenal axis, generating an imbalance in the serotonergic and noradrenergic circuits; (2) increased activity of the enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase, resulting in depletion of serotonin levels and the production of quinolinic acid. If this hypothesis is proven true, the subgroup of MDD patients with increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, mainly IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β, might benefit from an anti-inflammatory intervention. Here, we discuss the pre-clinical and clinical studies that have provided support for treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in depressed patients with inflammatory comorbidities or an elevated immune profile, as well as evidences for anti-inflammatory properties of standard antidepressants. PMID:28653857

  1. An altered hormonal profile and elevated rate of bone loss are associated with low bone mass in professional horse-racing jockeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Eimear; McGoldrick, Adrian; Davenport, Colin; Kelleher, Grainne; Byrne, Brendan; Tormey, William; Smith, Diarmuid; Warrington, Giles D

    2012-09-01

    Horse-racing jockeys are a group of weight-restricted athletes, who have been suggested as undertaking rapid and extreme weight cycling practices in order to comply with stipulated body-mass standards. The aim of this study was to examine bone mass, turnover and endocrine function in jockeys and to compare this group with age, gender and body mass index matched controls. Twenty male professional jockeys and 20 healthy male controls participated. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scans and early morning fasting blood and urine samples were used to measure bone mass, turnover and a hormonal profile. Total body bone mineral density (BMD) was significantly lower in jockeys (1.143 ± 0.05 vs. 1.27 ± 0.06 g cm(-3), p < 0.01). Bone resorptive activity was elevated in the jockey group as indicated by significantly higher urinary NTx/creatinine (76.94 ± 29.52 vs. 55.9 ± 13.9 nmol mmol(-1), p < 0.01), resulting in a significantly negative uncoupling index between bone resorption and formation. Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels were significantly higher in jockeys (41.21 ± 9.77 vs. 28.24 ± 9.98 nmol L(-1), p < 0.01) with a lower percentage of bioavailable testosterone (48.89 ± 7.38 vs. 59.18 ± 6.74 %, p < 0.01). SHBG and insulin-like growth factor-1 were independent predictors of total body and femoral neck BMD, respectively (p < 0.05). In conclusion, it appears that professional jockeys have an elevated rate of bone loss and reduced bone mass that appears to be associated with disrupted hormonal activity. It is likely that this may have occurred in response to the chronic weight cycling habitually experienced by this group.

  2. Knockdown of astrocyte elevated gene-1 inhibits tumor growth and modifies microRNAs expression profiles in human colorectal cancer cells

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    Huang, Sujun [East Department of Gastroenterology, Institute of Geriatrics, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080 (China); Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515 (China); Wu, Binwen, E-mail: wubinwengd@aliyun.com [East Department of Gastroenterology, Institute of Geriatrics, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080 (China); Li, Dongfeng; Zhou, Weihong; Deng, Gang; Zhang, Kaijun; Li, Youjia [East Department of Gastroenterology, Institute of Geriatrics, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080 (China)

    2014-02-14

    Highlights: • AEG-1 expression in CRC cell lines and down-regulation or upregulation of AEG-1 in vitro. • Knockdown of AEG-1 inhibits cell proliferation, colony formation and invasion. • Upregulation of AEG-1 enhances proliferation, invasion and colony formation. • Knockdown of AEG-1 accumulates G0/G1-phase cells and promotes apoptosis in CRC cells. • AEG-1 knockdown increases 5-FU cytotoxicity. - Abstract: Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1), upregulated in various types of malignancies including colorectal cancer (CRC), has been reported to be associated with the carcinogenesis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are widely involved in the initiation and progression of cancer. However, the functional significance of AEG-1 and the relationship between AEG-1 and microRNAs in human CRC remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether AEG-1 could serve as a potential therapeutic target of human CRC and its possible mechanism. We adopted a strategy of ectopic overexpression or RNA interference to upregulate or downregulate expression of AEG-1 in CRC models. Their phenotypic changes were analyzed by Western blot, MTT and transwell matrix penetration assays. MicroRNAs expression profiles were performed using microarray analysis followed by validation using qRT-PCR. Knockdown of AEG-1 could significantly inhibit colon cancer cell proliferation, colony formation, invasion and promotes apoptosis. Conversely, upregulation of AEG-1 could significantly enhance cell proliferation, invasion and reduced apoptisis. AEG-1 directly contributes to resistance to chemotherapeutic drug. Targeted downregulation of AEG-1 might improve the expression of miR-181a-2{sup ∗}, -193b and -193a, and inversely inhibit miR-31 and -9{sup ∗}. Targeted inhibition of AEG-1 can lead to modification of key elemental characteristics, such as miRNAs, which may become a potential effective therapeutic strategy for CRC.

  3. Host plant secondary metabolite profiling shows a complex, strain-dependent response of maize to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria of the genus Azospirillum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Vincent; Bertrand, Cédric; Bellvert, Floriant; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Bally, René; Comte, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Most Azospirillum plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) benefit plant growth through source effects related to free nitrogen fixation and/or phytohormone production, but little is known about their potential effects on plant physiology. These effects were assessed by comparing the early impacts of three Azospirillum inoculant strains on secondary metabolite profiles of two different maize (Zea mays) cultivars. After 10d of growth in nonsterile soil, maize methanolic extracts were analyzed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and secondary metabolites identified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Seed inoculation resulted in increased shoot biomass (and also root biomass with one strain) of hybrid PR37Y15 but had no stimulatory effect on hybrid DK315. In parallel, Azospirillum inoculation led to major qualitative and quantitative modifications of the contents of secondary metabolites, especially benzoxazinoids, in the maize plants. These modifications depended on the PGPR strain×plant cultivar combination. Thus, Azospirillum inoculation resulted in early, strain-dependent modifications in the biosynthetic pathways of benzoxazine derivatives in maize in compatible interactions. This is the first study documenting a PGPR effect on plant secondary metabolite profiles, and suggests the establishment of complex interactions between Azospirillum PGPR and maize. © The Authors (2010). Journal compilation © New Phytologist Trust (2010).

  4. ASGR1 and ASGR2, the Genes that Encode the Asialoglycoprotein Receptor (Ashwell Receptor, Are Expressed in Peripheral Blood Monocytes and Show Interindividual Differences in Transcript Profile

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    Rebecca Louise Harris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR is a hepatic receptor that mediates removal of potentially hazardous glycoconjugates from blood in health and disease. The receptor comprises two proteins, asialoglycoprotein receptor 1 and 2 (ASGR1 and ASGR2, encoded by the genes ASGR1 and ASGR2. Design and Methods. Using reverse transcription amplification (RT-PCR, expression of ASGR1 and ASGR2 was investigated in human peripheral blood monocytes. Results. Monocytes were found to express ASGR1 and ASGR2 transcripts. Correctly spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms of ASGR1 and ASGR2 were present in monocytes. The profile of transcript variants from both ASGR1 and ASGR2 differed among individuals. Transcript expression levels were compared with the hepatocyte cell line HepG2 which produces high levels of ASGPR. Monocyte transcripts were 4 to 6 orders of magnitude less than in HepG2 but nonetheless readily detectable using standard RT-PCR. The monocyte cell line THP1 gave similar results to monocytes harvested from peripheral blood, indicating it may provide a suitable model system for studying ASGPR function in this cell type. Conclusions. Monocytes transcribe and correctly process transcripts encoding the constituent proteins of the ASGPR. Monocytes may therefore represent a mobile pool of the receptor, capable of reaching sites remote from the liver.

  5. Pea fiber and wheat bran fiber show distinct metabolic profiles in rats as investigated by a 1H NMR-based metabolomic approach.

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    Guangmang Liu

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effect of pea fiber (PF and wheat bran fiber (WF supplementation in rat metabolism. Rats were assigned randomly to one of three dietary groups and were given a basal diet containing 15% PF, 15% WF, or no supplemental fiber. Urine and plasma samples were analyzed by NMR-based metabolomics. PF significantly increased the plasma levels of 3-hydroxybutyrate, and myo-inositol as well as the urine levels of alanine, hydroxyphenylacetate, phenylacetyglycine, and α-ketoglutarate. However, PF significantly decreased the plasma levels of isoleucine, leucine, lactate, and pyruvate as well as the urine levels of allantoin, bile acids, and trigonelline. WF significantly increased the plasma levels of acetone, isobutyrate, lactate, myo-inositol, and lipids as well as the urine levels of alanine, lactate, dimethylglycine, N-methylniconamide, and α-ketoglutarate. However, WF significantly decreased the plasma levels of amino acids, and glucose as well as the urine levels of acetate, allantoin, citrate, creatine, hippurate, hydroxyphenylacetate, and trigonelline. Results suggest that PF and WF exposure can promote antioxidant activity and can exhibit common systemic metabolic changes, including lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, glycogenolysis and glycolysis metabolism, protein biosynthesis, and gut microbiota metabolism. PF can also decrease bile acid metabolism. These findings indicate that different fiber diet may cause differences in the biofluid profile in rats.

  6. Guanine α-carboxy nucleoside phosphonate (G-α-CNP) shows a different inhibitory kinetic profile against the DNA polymerases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzarini, Jan; Menni, Michael; Das, Kalyan; van Berckelaer, Lizette; Ford, Alan; Maguire, Nuala M; Liekens, Sandra; Boehmer, Paul E; Arnold, Eddy; Götte, Matthias; Maguire, Anita R

    2017-07-15

    α-Carboxy nucleoside phosphonates (α-CNPs) are modified nucleotides that represent a novel class of nucleotide-competing reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (NcRTIs). They were designed to act directly against HIV-1 RT without the need for prior activation (phosphorylation). In this respect, they differ from the nucleoside or nucleotide RTIs [N(t)RTIs] that require conversion to their triphosphate forms before being inhibitory to HIV-1 RT. The guanine derivative (G-α-CNP) has now been synthesized and investigated for the first time. The (L)-(+)-enantiomer of G-α-CNP directly and competitively inhibits HIV-1 RT by interacting with the substrate active site of the enzyme. The (D)-(-)-enantiomer proved inactive against HIV-1 RT. In contrast, the (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of G-α-CNP inhibited herpes (i.e. HSV-1, HCMV) DNA polymerases in a non- or uncompetitive manner, strongly indicating interaction of the (L)-(+)- and the (D)-(-)-G-α-CNPs at a location different from the polymerase substrate active site of the herpes enzymes. Such entirely different inhibition profile of viral polymerases is unprecedented for a single antiviral drug molecule. Moreover, within the class of α-CNPs, subtle differences in their sensitivity to mutant HIV-1 RT enzymes were observed depending on the nature of the nucleobase in the α-CNP molecules. The unique properties of the α-CNPs make this class of compounds, including G-α-CNP, direct acting inhibitors of multiple viral DNA polymerases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Leaf metabolite profile of the Brazilian resurrection plant Barbacenia purpurea Hook. (Velloziaceae shows two time-dependent responses during desiccation and recovering

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    Vanessa Fuentes Suguiyama

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Barbacenia purpurea is a resurrection species endemic to rock outcrops, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It tolerates great temperature variations, which are associated to periods of up to 30 days without precipitation. Using a metabolomic approach, we analyzed, under winter and summer conditions, changes in the leaf metabolite profile (MP of potted plants of B. purpurea submitted to daily watered and water deficit for at least 20 days and subsequent slow rehydration for 5 days. Leaves were collected at different time points and had their MP analyzed by GC/MS, HPAEC, and UHPLC techniques, allowing the identification of more than 60 different compounds, including organic and amino acids, sugars, and polyols, among others. In the winter experiment, results suggest the presence of two time-dependent responses in B. purpurea under water stress. The first one starts with the increase in the content of caffeoyl-quinic acids, substances with strong antioxidant activity, until the 16th day of water suppression. When RWC reached less than 80% and 70%, in winter and summer respectively, it was observed an increase in polyols and monosaccharides, followed by an increment in the content of RFO, suggesting osmotic adjustment. Amino acids, such as GABA and asparagine, also increased due to 16 days of water suppression. During rehydration, the levels of the mentioned compounds became similar to those found at the beginning of the experiment and when compared to daily watered plants. We conclude that the tolerance of B. purpurea to dehydration involves the perception of water deficit intensity, which seems to result in different strategies to overcome the gradient of water availability imposed along a certain period of stress mainly during winter. Data from summer experiment indicate that the metabolism of B. pupurea was already primed for drought stress. The accumulation of phenolics in summer seemed to be more temperature and irradiance-dependent than on the RWC.

  8. Sesquiterpene lactone containing extracts from two cultivars of forage chicory (Cichorium intybus) show distinctive chemical profiles and in vitro activity against Ostertagia ostertagi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Boas, Ulrik; Williams, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    .01), while Puna II-extract had increased levels of 11, 13-dihydrolactucin (P EC50 (P ... interfered with the exsheathment of L3 (P > 0.05). In the AMIA, both SL-containing extracts induced a dose-dependent effect but Spadona-extract showed greater activity and exerted faster worm paralysis than Puna II-extract with significantly lower EC50 (P

  9. Giant cell glioblastoma and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma show different immunohistochemical profiles for neuronal antigens and p53 but share reactivity for class III beta-tubulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Diaz, Hilda; Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, B K; Powell, Suzanne Z; Yachnis, Anthony T

    2003-09-01

    Giant cell glioblastoma multiforme (GCGBM) and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) are clinically, radiographically, and histologically distinct tumors of the central nervous system. However, they share features of gross circumscription, reticulin deposition, lymphocytic infiltrates, and prominent populations of tumor giant cells. Neuronal antigens have been detected in the neoplastic cells of PXAs, but to our knowledge have not been studied previously in GCGBMs. While TP53 is mutated in most GCGBMs, a feature usually paralleled by strong immunostaining of the protein, the expression pattern of PXAs has not been extensively studied. To compare the immunoprofiles of GCGBM and PXA with regard to neuronal antigens and p53 and to evaluate the potential diagnostic utility of such a panel. Archival paraffin sections of 9 GCGBMs and 9 PXAs were immunostained for class III beta-tubulin, neuronal nuclear antigen, neurofilament protein, synaptophysin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and p53. Giant cell glioblastomas were strongly immunoreactive for class III beta-tubulin and glial fibrillary acidic protein, but showed only rare staining for the other neuronal polypeptides. In contrast, PXAs usually showed at least focal staining of individual tumor cells for most of the neuronal antigens tested. Tubulin was strongly positive in tumor giant cells and in smaller neoplastic cells of both tumor types. Double-immunolabeling revealed distinct populations of tumor cells that expressed either glial fibrillary acidic protein or tubulin and dual-labeling of individual cells in GCGBM and PXA. Strong p53 staining was observed in many tumor cells in 5 of 8 GCGBMs tested, while staining for this antigen was negative or focally positive in 6 of 8 PXAs examined. Giant cell glioblastoma multiforme and PXA show distinct patterns of immunoreactivity for neuronal antigens and p53 that may be useful diagnostically in difficult cases or in limited samples. These results provide further evidence

  10. Activating FLT3 mutants show distinct gain-of-function phenotypes in vitro and a characteristic signaling pathway profile associated with prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Janke

    Full Text Available About 30% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML harbour mutations of the receptor tyrosine kinase FLT3, mostly internal tandem duplications (ITD and point mutations of the second tyrosine kinase domain (TKD. It was the aim of this study to comprehensively analyze clinical and functional properties of various FLT3 mutants. In 672 normal karyotype AML patients FLT3-ITD, but not FLT3-TKD mutations were associated with a worse relapse free and overall survival in multivariate analysis. In paired diagnosis-relapse samples FLT3-ITD showed higher stability (70% compared to FLT3-TKD (30%. In vitro, FLT3-ITD induced a strong activating phenotype in Ba/F3 cells. In contrast, FLT3-TKD mutations and other point mutations--including two novel mutations--showed a weaker but clear gain-of-function phenotype with gradual increase in proliferation and protection from apoptosis. The pro-proliferative capacity of the investigated FLT3 mutants was associated with cell surface expression and tyrosine 591 phosphorylation of the FLT3 receptor. Western blot experiments revealed STAT5 activation only in FLT3-ITD positive cell lines, in contrast to FLT3-non-ITD mutants, which displayed an enhanced signal of AKT and MAPK activation. Gene expression analysis revealed distinct difference between FLT3-ITD and FLT3-TKD for STAT5 target gene expression as well as deregulation of SOCS2, ENPP2, PRUNE2 and ART3. FLT3-ITD and FLT3 point mutations show a gain-of-function phenotype with distinct signalling properties in vitro. Although poor prognosis in AML is only associated with FLT3-ITD, all activating FLT3 mutations can contribute to leukemogenesis and are thus potential targets for therapeutic interventions.

  11. Aqueous and lipid nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomic profiles of the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa show potential as an indicator species for environmental metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jeffrey N; Samuelsson, Linda; Bernardi, Giuliana; Gooneratne, Ravi; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2014-10-01

    The common pasture earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa has often been neglected in environmental metabolomics in favor of species easily bred in the laboratory. The present study assigns aqueous metabolites in A. caliginosa using high-resolution 1- and 2-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In total, 51 aqueous metabolites were identified, including typical amino acids (alanine, leucine, asparagine, phenylalanine), sugars (maltose, glucose), the dominant earthworm-specific 2-hexyl-5-ethyl-furansulfonate, and several previously unreported metabolites (oxoglutarate, putrescine). Examining the lesser-known earthworm lipid metabolome showed various lipid fatty acyl chains, cholesterol, and phosphatidylcholine. To briefly test if the NMR metabolomic techniques could differentiate A. caliginosa from different sites, earthworms were collected from 2 adjacent farms. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis detected metabolomic differences, suggesting the worms from the 2 sites differed in their energy metabolism, as indicated by altered levels of alanine, glutamine, glutamate, malate, fumarate, and lipids. Evidence of greater utilization of lipid energy reserves and onset of protein catabolism was also present. While the precise cause of the metabolomic differences could not be determined, the results show the potential of this species for further environmental metabolomic studies. © 2014 SETAC.

  12. Data Elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-29

    Data Elevator: Efficient Asynchronous Data Movement in Hierarchical Storage Systems Multi-layer storage subsystems, including SSD-based burst buffers and disk-based parallel file systems (PFS), are becoming part of HPC systems. However, software for this storage hierarchy is still in its infancy. Applications may have to explicitly move data among the storage layers. We propose Data Elevator for transparently and efficiently moving data between a burst buffer and a PFS. Users specify the final destination for their data, typically on PFS, Data Elevator intercepts the I/O calls, stages data on burst buffer, and then asynchronously transfers the data to their final destination in the background. This system allows extensive optimizations, such as overlapping read and write operations, choosing I/O modes, and aligning buffer boundaries. In tests with large-scale scientific applications, Data Elevator is as much as 4.2X faster than Cray DataWarp, the start-of-art software for burst buffer, and 4X faster than directly writing to PFS. The Data Elevator library uses HDF5's Virtual Object Layer (VOL) for intercepting parallel I/O calls that write data to PFS. The intercepted calls are redirected to the Data Elevator, which provides a handle to write the file in a faster and intermediate burst buffer system. Once the application finishes writing the data to the burst buffer, the Data Elevator job uses HDF5 to move the data to final destination in an asynchronous manner. Hence, using the Data Elevator library is currently useful for applications that call HDF5 for writing data files. Also, the Data Elevator depends on the HDF5 VOL functionality.

  13. Sesquiterpene lactone containing extracts from two cultivars of forage chicory (Cichorium intybus) show distinctive chemical profiles and in vitro activity against Ostertagia ostertagi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Espinoza, Miguel; Boas, Ulrik; Williams, Andrew R; Thamsborg, Stig M; Simonsen, Henrik T; Enemark, Heidi L

    2015-12-01

    The study investigated direct anthelmintic effects of sesquiterpene lactones (SL)-containing extracts from forage chicory against free-living and parasitic stages of Ostertagia ostertagi. Freeze-dried leaves from chicory cultivars 'Spadona' and 'Puna II' were extracted using methanol/water. Total SL were further fractionated by solid-phase extraction and resulting extracts were characterised by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). O. ostertagi eggs from faeces of mono-infected calves were hatched and L1 were used in a larval feeding inhibition assay (LFIA), while cultured L3 were used in a larval exsheathment inhibition assay (LEIA). Adult worms were immediately recovered after slaughter and used for motility inhibition assays (AMIA). Electron microscopy (EM) was performed on adult O. ostertagi exposed to 1000 μg extract mL(-1) of both chicory cultivars. In all assays, decreasing concentrations of SL-containing extracts in PBS (1% DMSO) were tested in replicates with 1% DMSO in PBS as negative controls. HPLC demonstrated similar concentrations of most SL in both extracts. However, Spadona-extract contained significantly higher concentrations of 11, 13-dihydro-8-deoxylactucin (P = 0.01), while Puna II-extract had increased levels of 11, 13-dihydrolactucin (P LFIA, both extracts reduced larval feeding at increasing concentrations, but Spadona-extract showed higher potency confirmed by significantly lower EC50 (P  0.05). In the AMIA, both SL-containing extracts induced a dose-dependent effect but Spadona-extract showed greater activity and exerted faster worm paralysis than Puna II-extract with significantly lower EC50 (P < 0.0001). No cuticular damage was observed by EM in worms exposed to any of the extracts. We have demonstrated that SL-containing extracts from forage chicory can inhibit feeding of free-living larvae and exert direct effects against parasitic stages of O. ostertagi. Our results may contribute to the identification of natural

  14. Sesquiterpene lactone containing extracts from two cultivars of forage chicory (Cichorium intybus show distinctive chemical profiles and in vitro activity against Ostertagia ostertagi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Peña-Espinoza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated direct anthelmintic effects of sesquiterpene lactones (SL-containing extracts from forage chicory against free-living and parasitic stages of Ostertagia ostertagi. Freeze-dried leaves from chicory cultivars ‘Spadona’ and ‘Puna II’ were extracted using methanol/water. Total SL were further fractionated by solid-phase extraction and resulting extracts were characterised by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. O. ostertagi eggs from faeces of mono-infected calves were hatched and L1 were used in a larval feeding inhibition assay (LFIA, while cultured L3 were used in a larval exsheathment inhibition assay (LEIA. Adult worms were immediately recovered after slaughter and used for motility inhibition assays (AMIA. Electron microscopy (EM was performed on adult O. ostertagi exposed to 1000 μg extract mL−1 of both chicory cultivars. In all assays, decreasing concentrations of SL-containing extracts in PBS (1% DMSO were tested in replicates with 1% DMSO in PBS as negative controls. HPLC demonstrated similar concentrations of most SL in both extracts. However, Spadona-extract contained significantly higher concentrations of 11, 13-dihydro-8-deoxylactucin (P = 0.01, while Puna II-extract had increased levels of 11, 13-dihydrolactucin (P  0.05. In the AMIA, both SL-containing extracts induced a dose-dependent effect but Spadona-extract showed greater activity and exerted faster worm paralysis than Puna II-extract with significantly lower EC50 (P < 0.0001. No cuticular damage was observed by EM in worms exposed to any of the extracts. We have demonstrated that SL-containing extracts from forage chicory can inhibit feeding of free-living larvae and exert direct effects against parasitic stages of O. ostertagi. Our results may contribute to the identification of natural anti-parasitic compounds and to interpret the in vivo anthelmintic effects of forage chicory.

  15. Evaluation of non-ST segment elevation acute chest pain syndromes with a novel low-profile continuous imaging ultrasound transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandraratna, P Anthony N; Mohar, Dilbahar S; Sidarous, Peter F; Brar, Prabhjyot; Miller, Jeffrey; Shah, Nissar; Kadis, John; Ali, Ashgar; Mohar, Prabhsimran

    2012-09-01

    This investigation was designed to test the hypothesis that continuous cardiac imaging using an ultrasound transducer developed in our laboratory (ContiScan) is superior to electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with acute non-ST segment elevation chest pain syndromes. Seventy patients with intermediate to high probability of CAD who presented with typical anginal chest pain and no evidence of ST segment elevation on the ECG were studied. The 2.5-MHz transducer is spherical in its distal part mounted in an external housing to permit steering in 360 degrees. The transducer was placed at the left sternal border to image the left ventricular short-axis view and recorded on video tape at baseline, during and after episodes of chest pain. Two ECG leads were continuously monitored. The presence of CAD was confirmed by coronary arteriography or nuclear or echocardiographic stress testing. Twenty-four patients had regional wall motion abnormalities (RWMA) on their initial echo which were unchanged during the period of monitoring. All had evidence of CAD. Twenty-eight patients had transient RWMA. All had evidence of CAD. Eighteen patients had normal wall motion throughout the monitoring period, 14 of these had no evidence of CAD, and four had evidence of CAD. These four patients did not have chest pain during monitoring. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of echocardiographic monitoring for diagnosing non-ST elevation myocardial infarction was 88%, 100%, and 91% respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the ECG for diagnosis of CAD were 31%, 100%, and 52%, respectively. Echocardiography was superior to ECG (P patients presenting with acute non-ST segment elevation chest pain syndromes. This technique could be a useful adjunct to ECG monitoring for myocardial ischemia in the acute care setting. © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Elevated CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoosbeek, Marcel R.

    2016-01-01

    Sustained increased productivity of trees growing in elevated CO2 depends in part on their stoichiometric flexibility, i.e., increasing their nutrient use efficiency, or on increased nutrient uptake from the soil. Phosphorus (P) may be a nutrient as limiting as nitrogen (N) in

  17. A Subgroup of First-Degree Relatives of Crohn's Disease Patients Shows a Profile of Inflammatory Markers in the Blood Which is More Typical of Crohn's Disease Patients Than of Normal Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Family member with IBD is the greatest risk factor for developing the disease. The hematological profileof first-degree relatives (FDRs of Crohn's disease (CD patients was studied in order to identify healthy FDRs at risk to develop disease. Materials and methods. Thirty CD patients, 90 FDRs, and 28 non-related individuals (controls were enrolled. Hematological profile and C-reactive protein were determined. Results. All hematological parameters were significantly different in CD patients compared to controls, with significantly higher levels of CRP, WBC, PMN, MONO, and PLT and lower Hb and lymphocyte count. The hematological profile of FDRs showed values between the controls and CD patients with ten FDRs that their parameters matched those of CD patients and significantly different from other FDRs. This group was defined as high-risk relatives (HRRs. Conclusions. Analysis of the hematological profile and CRP level might be proven as a fast, reliable, and less money-consuming tool to identify FDRs with a probable increased risk to develop the disease.

  18. Elevated 1-h post-load plasma glucose levels in subjects with normal glucose tolerance are associated with a pro-atherogenic lipid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreozzi, Francesco; Mannino, Gaia C; Perticone, Maria; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Evidence suggests that plasma glucose concentration ≥155 mg/dl at 1h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (NGT 1 h-high) predicts both development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular events, among adults with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). An atherogenic lipid profile is detectable in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and T2DM. Whether individuals with NGT-1h-high also exhibit a pro-atherogenic lipid profile is still uncertain. The study cohort includes 1011 non-diabetic Caucasian adults participating in the CATAMERI study. All participants were submitted to anthropometrical evaluation before undergoing an OGTT. Subjects were categorized into NGT 1 h-low (1 h glucose Lipid profile includes triglycerides, total and HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and ApoA-1. 510 subjects were NGT 1 h-low, 211 NGT 1 h-high, 232 IGT and 58 were newly diagnosed T2DM. Triglyceride and ApoB levels were significantly higher in NGT 1 h-high, IGT and T2DM subjects compared to NGT 1 h-low, and HDL cholesterol was significantly lower. Triglycerides-to-HDL cholesterol ratio was significantly higher in NGT 1 h-high, IGT and T2DM groups compared with NGT 1 h-low individuals. The ApoB/ApoA-1 ratio was significantly higher in NGT 1 h-high, IGT and T2DM groups than in the NGT 1 h-low group. NGT 1 h-high, IGT and T2DM subjects exhibited reduced LDL/ApoB ratio compared with NGT 1 h-low. Noticeably, there were no significant differences in ApoB/ApoA-1 and LDL/ApoB ratios when comparing NGT 1 h-high with IGT and T2DM. Individuals with NGT 1-h-high exhibited an atherogenic lipid pattern qualitatively and quantitatively similar to that observed in individuals with IGT and newly diagnosed T2DM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hyper-coagulable profile with elevated pro-thrombotic biomarkers and increased cerebro- and cardio-vascular disease risk exist among healthy dyslipidemic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Cláudia N; Carvalho, Maria G; Reis, Helton J; Gomes, Karina B; Sousa, Marinez O; Palotás, András

    2014-05-01

    Dyslipidemia is one of the pathognomonic elements of athero-genesis, as well as cerebro- and cardio-vascular disease (CCVD). Hemostatic factors are also involved in athero-sclerosis and ischemic changes, however their relationship with disrupted lipid homeostasis is not well characterized. The aim of this study was to determine the coagulation state of dyslipidemic patients and to evaluate their association with CCVD risk factors. Biochemical and hematological parameters, as well as neuro-psychiatric profile of 109 dyslipidemic subjects and 107 normo-lipidic healthy volunteers were assessed. Serum bio-marker levels and cognitive performance generally did not differ in the groups, but prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2) and D-dimer concentrations were markedly higher among women. Hyper-coagulability was not associated with dyslipidemia, but was correlated with the female gender, which might pose an increased thromboembolic risk in asymptomatic women.

  20. Antigen-specific CD4 T cells are induced after intravesical BCG-instillation therapy in patients with bladder cancer and show similar cytokine profiles as in active tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Elsäßer

    Full Text Available Specific T cell immunity in patients with active tuberculosis is associated with a decrease in multifunctionality. However, it is unknown whether cytokine profiles differ in patients with primary infection and those with prior contact. We therefore used intravesical immunotherapy with attenuated live Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG in patients with urothelial carcinoma as a model to characterise the induction of systemic immunity towards purified protein derivate (PPD and to study whether cytokine profiles differ depending on pre-existing immunity. Eighteen patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer were recruited during the BCG-induction course. Fifty-four healthy individuals served as controls. Interferon (IFN-γ and interleukin (IL-2 producing PPD-specific CD4 T cells were analysed longitudinally before each instillation using a rapid flow-cytometric whole blood immunoassay. Baseline levels of IFN-γ producing PPD-specific T cells were comparable to controls. T cells showed a 5-fold increase to 0.23% by week 2/3, and further increased 8-fold by week 4/5 (to 0.42%, p=0.0007. Systemic immunity was induced in all patients, although the increase was less pronounced in patients with pre-existing immunity. As in active TB, cytokine profiling during therapy revealed a lower percentage of multifunctional IFN-γ/IL-2 double-positive T cells compared to controls (60.2% vs. 71.9%, p=0.0003. Of note, when comparing patients with and without pre-existing immunity, cytokine profiles in patients with primary immunity were shifted towards IL-2 single producing T cells (p=0.02, whereas those in patients with pre-existing immunity were shifted towards IFN-γ single-positivity (p=0.01. In conclusion, systemic T cell responses were induced after BCG-therapy, and their kinetics and cytokine profile depended on pre-existing immunity. Decreased functionality is a typical feature of specific immunity in both patients with active tuberculosis and BCG

  1. Brazilian female crack users show elevated serum aluminum levels

    OpenAIRE

    Pechansky,Flavio; Kessler, Felix Henrique Paim; Diemen, Lisia von; Bumaguin, Daniela Benzano; Surratt, Hilary L.; Inciardi,James A

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There is no information in the literature on the impact of crack smoking using crushed aluminum cans as makeshift pipes, a common form of crack use in Brazil. Since aluminum intake is associated with neurological damage, we measured serum aluminum levels in crack smokers. The objective of this study was to ascertain the levels of aluminum in crack users who smoke on makeshift aluminum pipes. METHOD: 71 female crack smokers, their mean age being 28.0 (± 7.7), provided information ab...

  2. Modelling the effects of macrofauna on sediment transport and bed elevation: Application over a cross-shore mudflat profile and model validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orvain, Francis; Le Hir, Pierre; Sauriau, Pierre-Guy; Lefebvre, Sébastien

    2012-08-01

    The effects of 2 functional groups of bioturbators have been predicted in terms of long-term impact on erodability: (1) one superficial mobile deposit-feeder, the gastropod Hydrobia ulvae; and (2) one endobenthic deposit-feeder, the bivalve Scrobicularia plana. Different scenarios of morphodynamical cross-shore 1DH/1DV model were performed to simulate the equilibrium profile of an intertidal mudflat under tide and wave forcings. This process-based model for erosion is able to simulate multiphasic sequential resuspension, by discriminating various erosion behaviour like benthos-generated fluff-layer erosion (BGFL) and general bed loosening and burrowing activity in deep layers. The results were analysed and compared to examine the long-term effect of macrofauna after 14 years. It reveals that the impact of the bivalve S. plana is very significant after only 4 years of simulation while the effect of the gastropod H. ulvae is negligible in terms of sediment transport even after 14 years. More generally, this reveals the strong impact of stationary endobenthic bioturbators that induces a high downward shift of the upper shore while the effects of superficial motile bioturbators remain very low. This impact is mainly due to the effect of endobenthic species in deep layers associated to burrowing activities and their consequences on the bed erosion, but the production of a fluff layer by surface grazer like H. ulvae at the sediment surface can be neglected. The importance of macrofauna mediation of bed erodability is discussed in this study by comparing the activities of the two functional groups of bioturbation on the general functioning of intertidal mudflats. The model outcomes (transferred in a 1DV framework) were in close agreement with the measured results of flume data at 3 different bathymetric levels of the mudflat over the cross-shore profile. This validation step revealed that model of sediment transport under influence of biota effects does not need further

  3. Systematic review and meta-analysis shows a specific micronutrient profile in people with Down Syndrome: Lower blood calcium, selenium and zinc, higher red blood cell copper and zinc, and higher salivary calcium and sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghazadeh, Amene; Mahmoudi, Maryam; Dehghani Ashkezari, Atefeh; Oliaie Rezaie, Nooshin; Rezaei, Nima

    2017-01-01

    Different metabolic profiles as well as comorbidities are common in people with Down Syndrome (DS). Therefore it is relevant to know whether micronutrient levels in people with DS are also different. This systematic review was designed to review the literature on micronutrient levels in people with DS compared to age and sex-matched controls without DS. We identified sixty nine studies from January 1967 to April 2016 through main electronic medical databases PubMed, Scopus, and Web of knowledge. We carried out meta-analysis of the data on four essential trace elements (Cu, Fe, Se, and Zn), six minerals (Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na, and P), and five vitamins (vitamin A, B9, B12, D, and E). People with DS showed lower blood levels of Ca (standard mean difference (SMD) = −0.63; 95% confidence interval (CI): −1.16 to −0.09), Se (SMD = -0.99; 95% CI: -1.55 to -0.43), and Zn (SMD = -1.30; 95% CI: -1.75 to -0.84), while red cell levels of Zn (SMD = 1.88; 95% CI: 0.48 to 3.28) and Cu (SMD = 2.77; 95% CI: 1.96 to 3.57) were higher. They had also higher salivary levels of Ca (SMD = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.38 to 1.33) and Na (SMD = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.39 to 1.69). Our findings that micronutrient levels are different in people with DS raise the question whether these differences are related to the different metabolic profiles, the common comorbidities or merely reflect DS. PMID:28422987

  4. Systematic review and meta-analysis shows a specific micronutrient profile in people with Down Syndrome: Lower blood calcium, selenium and zinc, higher red blood cell copper and zinc, and higher salivary calcium and sodium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amene Saghazadeh

    Full Text Available Different metabolic profiles as well as comorbidities are common in people with Down Syndrome (DS. Therefore it is relevant to know whether micronutrient levels in people with DS are also different. This systematic review was designed to review the literature on micronutrient levels in people with DS compared to age and sex-matched controls without DS. We identified sixty nine studies from January 1967 to April 2016 through main electronic medical databases PubMed, Scopus, and Web of knowledge. We carried out meta-analysis of the data on four essential trace elements (Cu, Fe, Se, and Zn, six minerals (Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na, and P, and five vitamins (vitamin A, B9, B12, D, and E. People with DS showed lower blood levels of Ca (standard mean difference (SMD = -0.63; 95% confidence interval (CI: -1.16 to -0.09, Se (SMD = -0.99; 95% CI: -1.55 to -0.43, and Zn (SMD = -1.30; 95% CI: -1.75 to -0.84, while red cell levels of Zn (SMD = 1.88; 95% CI: 0.48 to 3.28 and Cu (SMD = 2.77; 95% CI: 1.96 to 3.57 were higher. They had also higher salivary levels of Ca (SMD = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.38 to 1.33 and Na (SMD = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.39 to 1.69. Our findings that micronutrient levels are different in people with DS raise the question whether these differences are related to the different metabolic profiles, the common comorbidities or merely reflect DS.

  5. Luminescence dating of the Stratzing loess profile (Austria) – Testing the potential of an elevated temperature post-IR IRSL protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiel, Christine; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Murray, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    , which leads to significant age underestimation. Fading corrections have been proposed but these corrections are reliant on inherent assumptions and in any case are inapplicable at large doses (as the growth curve approaches saturation). Recent studies have identified a post-IR IRSL signal that shows...... less fading and is thus less dependent on accurate fading corrections. This study builds upon these investigations and applies a post-IR IRSL SAR dating protocol to polymineral fine-grain samples of the loess/palaeosol sequence in Stratzing, Lower Austria. After a preheat at 320 °C (60 s) and an IR...... to 20 Gy are observed. For the oldest samples, the natural signal is in, or close to, saturation, indicating that fading is negligible in nature. This observation is inconsistent with the measured laboratory fading rates of 1–1.5%/decade and needs further investigation....

  6. National Elevation Dataset (NED)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a National Elevation Database (NED). The NED is a seamless mosaic of best-available elevation data. The 7.5-minute elevation...

  7. Elevated Liver Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Elevated liver enzymes By Mayo Clinic Staff Elevated liver enzymes may indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or ... than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes, into the bloodstream, which can result in elevated ...

  8. Photosynthetic down-regulation in N2-fixing alfalfa under elevated CO2 alters rubisco content and decreases nodule metabolism via nitrogenase and tricarboxylic acid cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Erice, Gorka; Sanz-Sáez, Álvaro; Ricardo F Aroca; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel; Avice, Jean Christophe; Irigoyen, Juan José; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel; Aranjuelo, Iker

    2014-01-01

    Although responsiveness of N2-fixing plants to elevated CO2 conditions have been analyzed in previous studies, important uncertainties remain in relation to the effect enhanced CO2 in nodule proteomic profile and its implication in leaf responsiveness. The aim of our study was to deepen our understanding of the relationship between leaf and nodule metabolism of N2-fixing alfalfa plants after long-term exposure to elevated CO2. After 30-day exposure to elevated CO2, plants showed photosyntheti...

  9. Beach Profile Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Beaches are commonly characterized by cross-shore surveys. The resulting profiles represent the elevation of the beach surface and nearshore seabed from the back of...

  10. β-D-xylosides stimulate GAG synthesis in chondrocyte cultures due to elevation of the extracellular GAG domains, accompanied by the depletion of the intra-pericellular GAG pools, with alterations in the GAG profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Talia; Evron, Zoharia; Trebicz-Geffen, Meirav; Aviv, Moran; Robinson, Dror; Kollander, Yehuda; Nevo, Zvi

    2012-01-01

    The familial disease of hereditary multiple exostoses is characterized by abnormal skeletal deformities requiring extensive surgical procedures. In hereditary multiple exostoses patients there is a shortage in the pericellular glycosaminoglycan (GAG) of heparan sulfate (HS), related to defective activity of HS glycosyltransferases, mainly in the pericellular regions of chondrocytes. This study searched for a novel approach employing xylosides with different aglycone groups priming a variety of GAG chains, in attempting to alter the GAG compositional profile. Cell cultures of patients with osteochondroma responded to p-nitrophenyl β-D-xyloside by a significant increase in total GAG synthesis, expressed mainly in the extracellular domains, limited to chondroitin sulfate). The different β-D-xylosides, in addition to increasing the synthesis of extracellular GAGs, led to a significant depletion of the intracellular GAG domains. In mouse chondrocyte cultures, β-D-xylosides with different aglycones created a unique distribution of the GAG pools. Of special interest was the finding that the naphthalene methanol β-D-xyloside showed the highest absolute levels of HS-GAGs in both extracellular and intra-pericellular moieties compared with other β-D-xylosides and with controls without xyloside. In summary, β-D-xylosides can be utilized in chondrocyte cultures to modify the distribution of GAGs between the extracellular and intracellular compartments. In addition, xylosides may alter the profile of specific GAG chains in each moiety.

  11. Genome-wide gene expression profiling and a forward genetic screen show that differential expression of the sodium ion transporter Ena21 contributes to the differential tolerance of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis to osmotic stress.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Enjalbert, Brice

    2009-04-01

    Candida albicans is more pathogenic than Candida dubliniensis. However, this disparity in virulence is surprising given the high level of sequence conservation and the wide range of phenotypic traits shared by these two species. Increased sensitivity to environmental stresses has been suggested to be a possible contributory factor to the lower virulence of C. dubliniensis. In this study, we investigated, in the first comparison of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis by transcriptional profiling, global gene expression in each species when grown under conditions in which the two species exhibit differential stress tolerance. The profiles revealed similar core responses to stresses in both species, but differences in the amplitude of the general transcriptional responses to thermal, salt and oxidative stress. Differences in the regulation of specific stress genes were observed between the two species. In particular, ENA21, encoding a sodium ion transporter, was strongly induced in C. albicans but not in C. dubliniensis. In addition, ENA21 was identified in a forward genetic screen for C. albicans genomic sequences that increase salt tolerance in C. dubliniensis. Introduction of a single copy of CaENA21 was subsequently shown to be sufficient to confer salt tolerance upon C. dubliniensis.

  12. Iowa Bedrock Surface Elevation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the bedrock surface elevation in Iowa was compiled using all available data, principally information from GEOSAM, supplemented...

  13. Frequency of MMPI Profile Types in Three Chronic Illness Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naliboff, Bruce D.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Developed sorting rules to identify Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory configurations and applied these to patients with chronic low back pain, migraine headaches, hypertension, and diabetes (N=157). Results showed that profile types did not differ in frequency among the groups but were more elevated in the back pain patients. (LLL)

  14. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies...... are made from digital scans of the original dias slides located in the collection of the Museum of Contemporary Art in Roskilde. In front of the audience entering the space and placed on it’s own stand, is an original 60s style telephone with turning dial. Action begins when the audience lift the phone...... and dial a number. Any number will make the Dias change. All numbers are also assigned to specific sound documents: clips form rare interviews and the complete sound-re-enactment of the Show-Bix piece ‘Omringning’ (‘Surrounding’) in five channels (a quintophonie). This was originally produced...

  15. Show and Tell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Fredag d. 1 november blev Kunsthal Charlottenborg indtaget af performanceprogrammet Show & Tell med et bredspektret program af danske og internationale kunstnere indenfor performance-, lyd- og installationskunst. Programmet præsenterer værker, der undersøger kroppens stadig mere symbiotiske forhold...... og studienævnet på Performance-design. Show & Tell - Performance program: kl. 16.30-19 Adresse: Kunsthal Charlottenborg, Nyhavn 2, 1051 København K...

  16. De stille elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Det er blevet en afgørende samværskompetence i uddannelsessystemet at stå aktivt frem og deltage verbalt i skoleklassens liv både fagligt og socialt. Men ikke alle elever deltager lige villigt verbalt i plenum. Artiklen handler om de stille elever og konsekvenserne af stillehed i skolen. Det...... foreslås at skolesystemet sanktionerer ældre elever hårdere for stillehed end yngre elever og det forklares med at skolelivet også er en kultivering henimod elevhed som social identitet og denne er der forventning om at eleverne mestrer i udskolingen....

  17. Talking with TV shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication....... More specifically, the article demonstrates how online comments posted on the day of Voice’s 2012 season finale can be grouped into four basic action types: (1) Invitation to consume content, (2) Request for participation, (3) Request for collaboration and (4) Online commenting. These action types...

  18. Um show de cacau

    OpenAIRE

    Rezende, José Francisco; UNIGRANRIO / PPGA; Mello, Simone; UNIGRANRIO

    2016-01-01

    O caso de ensino apresenta a trajetória de Alexandre Tadeu da Costa e da chocolateria Cacau Show. Seu objetivo é levar os estudantes a identificar alternativas e tomar decisões sobre posicionamento para continuidade do desenvolvimento de vantagens competitivas, sustentação de competência logística e possíveis abordagens ao mercado externo. 

  19. Undervisning af tosprogede elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horst, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Artiklen fremdrager hovedresultaterne fra Virginia P. Collier's og Wayne P. Thomas's længdeundersøgelser af tosprogede elever i USA, som formentlig er de mest omfattende undersøgelser af undervisningen af tosprogede elever overhovedet. Resultaterne diskuteres i relation til udviklingen af en...

  20. Taking in a Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    Many medical practices have cut back on education and staff development expenses, especially those costs associated with conventions and conferences. But there are hard-to-value returns on your investment in these live events--beyond the obvious benefits of acquired knowledge and skills. Major vendors still exhibit their services and wares at many events, and the exhibit hall is a treasure-house of information and resources for the savvy physician or administrator. Make and stick to a purposeful plan to exploit the trade show. You can compare products, gain new insights and ideas, and even negotiate better deals with representatives anxious to realize returns on their exhibition investments.

  1. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  2. Persistently elevated alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Jitin; Gorard, David A

    2012-08-24

    A 32-year-old overweight asymptomatic man was found to have a persistently raised serum alkaline phosphatase at 250-300 U/l (normal range liver function tests were unremarkable apart from an initial marginally elevated alanine transaminase, which normalised with weight reduction. Abdominal imaging revealed a fatty liver but an extensive serological search for significant hepatobiliary disease was negative. Subsequent isoenzyme electrophoresis revealed normal liver and bone fractions of alkaline phosphatase but a grossly elevated intestinal fraction. Elevated intestinal fraction of alkaline phosphatase should be considered in the investigation of unexplained alkaline phosphatase, particularly when the usual associated hepatobiliary and bony pathologies are not present. Although an elevated intestinal fraction of alkaline phosphatase can be linked to significant gastrointestinal pathology, this case report highlights that it can be a benign biochemical finding.

  3. Indsatser for tosprogede elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dines; Jakobsen, Vibeke; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup

    Fagligt set klarer tosprogede elever sig dårligere i skolen og det videre uddannelsessystem end ’danske’ elever. Kommuner og folkeskoler har derfor sat en række tiltag i værk, som sigter mod at forbedre de tosprogede elevers skole- og uddannelsessituation. Rapporten kortlægger og analyserer...... af klasseundervisningen. Analysen viser, at de elever, der bliver taget ud af klassen for at få ekstra undervisning i dansk som andetsprog, klarer sig dårligere end elever, der modtager ekstraundervisningen i klassen eller uden for skoletid. Undersøgelsen er baseret på spørgeskemaundersøgelser blandt...... kommunale forvaltningschefer, skoleledere, lærere og forældre til børn i 2. klasse samt lærere til og elever i 9. klasse, SFI’s forløbsundersøgelse af årgang 1995 og registerdata. Undersøgelsen er via Ministeriet for Børn og Undervisning betalt med midler fra satspuljeaftalen 2009 om integration....

  4. Do girls with anorexia nervosa have elevated autistic traits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron-Cohen, Simon; Jaffa, Tony; Davies, Sarah; Auyeung, Bonnie; Allison, Carrie; Wheelwright, Sally

    2013-07-31

    Patients with anorexia may have elevated autistic traits. In this study, we tested test whether patients with anorexia nervosa (anorexia) have an elevated score on a dimensional measure of autistic traits, the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), as well as on trait measures relevant to the autism spectrum: the Empathy Quotient (EQ), and the Systemizing Quotient (SQ). Two groups were tested: (1) female adolescents with anorexia: n = 66, aged 12 to 18 years; and (2) female adolescents without anorexia: n =1,609, aged 12 to 18 years. Both groups were tested using the AQ, EQ, and SQ, via the parent-report adolescent versions for patients aged 12 to 15 years old, and the self-report adult versions for patients aged over 16 years. As predicted, the patients with anorexia had a higher AQ and SQ. Their EQ score was reduced, but only for the parent-report version in the younger age group. Using EQ-SQ scores to calculate 'cognitive types', patients with anorexia were more likely to show the Type S profile (systemizing (S) better than empathy (E)), compared with typical females. Females with anorexia have elevated autistic traits. Clinicians should consider if a focus on autistic traits might be helpful in the assessment and treatment of anorexia. Future research needs to establish if these results reflect traits or states associated with anorexia.

  5. Udeskole og elevers handlekompetence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiting, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Elever elsker at komme væk fra undervisningen i skolen. Er det positivt eller negativt? Og hvad har betydning for, at eleverne får mest muligt ud af oplevelserne uden for skolen? Forskellige former for udeskole giver nogle oplagte muligheder, så eleverne udvikler sig som engagerede borgere i et...

  6. Interaktive tavler - interaktive elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reusch, Charlotte; Otzen, Elsebeth

    2012-01-01

    Abstract, Poster-præsentation 13.-14. juni 2012, Pilotprojekt: Interaktive tavler ? interaktive elever Lektor, cand. pæd., Elsebeth Otzen og Lektor, cand. mag., Charlotte Reusch, Institut for Skole og Læring, Læreruddannelsen, Professionshøjskolen Metropol, København Hvordan motiverer en interaktiv...... tavle lærere og elever? Hvad sker der mellem elev, stof og lærer, når læreren bliver i stand til at billedliggøre og dynamisere sine oplæg på tavlen? Bliver læreroplæg prioriteret? Bliver eleverne aktive, eller ender den interaktive tavle med blot at understøtte lærerens envejskommunikation til klassen......? Og hvad sker der mellem eleverne? Disse spørgsmål var igangsættende for arbejdet med pilotprojektet Interaktive tavler ? interaktive elever, som blev afviklet i skoleåret 2010-2011. Projektet blev udført af en tværfaglig gruppe, bestående af lektorer i matematik, biologi og dansk i læreruddannelsen...

  7. Appending High-Resolution Elevation Data to GPS Speed Traces for Vehicle Energy Modeling and Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E.; Burton, E.; Duran, A.; Gonder, J.

    2014-06-01

    Accurate and reliable global positioning system (GPS)-based vehicle use data are highly valuable for many transportation, analysis, and automotive considerations. Model-based design, real-world fuel economy analysis, and the growing field of autonomous and connected technologies (including predictive powertrain control and self-driving cars) all have a vested interest in high-fidelity estimation of powertrain loads and vehicle usage profiles. Unfortunately, road grade can be a difficult property to extract from GPS data with consistency. In this report, we present a methodology for appending high-resolution elevation data to GPS speed traces via a static digital elevation model. Anomalous data points in the digital elevation model are addressed during a filtration/smoothing routine, resulting in an elevation profile that can be used to calculate road grade. This process is evaluated against a large, commercially available height/slope dataset from the Navteq/Nokia/HERE Advanced Driver Assistance Systems product. Results will show good agreement with the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems data in the ability to estimate road grade between any two consecutive points in the contiguous United States.

  8. Skuldertesten "Kombineret Elevation"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Mikkel Bek; Overkær, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Formål: At udarbejde en testprotokol for testen Kombineret Elevation (KE) og undersøge test-retest variationen ved test af elite svømmere, samt diskutere testens relevans og validitet. Materiale og Metode: 9 elite og 10 sub-elite svømmere, heraf var 11 mænd og 8 kvinder, gennemførte testen KE 2...

  9. [Elevated liver enzymes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstege, Axel

    2016-10-01

    Elevated liver enzymes are a frequent finding in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients necessitating further evaluation to clarify the underlying disease. Three different patterns of increased liver enzymes can be defined to allow for a more precise and rational further diagnostic approach. A predominant increase in transaminase activities reflects a disturbance of hepatocellular integrity which can be found in patients with viral hepatitis, genetic liver diseases like Wilson`s disease or hemochromatosis, and drug-induced liver diseases. A second pattern is characterized by high serum alkaline phosphatase and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase activities indicating cholestatic liver diseases. The next important diagnostic measure in this group is an ultrasound study discerning intra- from extrahepatic cholestasis. Intrahepatic cholestatic diseases include primary and secondary sclerosing cholangitis, genetic disturbances of canalicular membrane transporters or drug-induced liver dieseases. Extrahepatic cholestasis involves obstruction of the large bile ducts by gall stones or tumors. The third enzym pattern is defined by a predominant rise in γ-glutamyl transpeptidase which is observed in alcoholic or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and infiltrating liver diseases. A rise in liver enzymes is not necessarily indicative of a primary hepatic origin. Extrahepatic diseases often cause similarly increased serum activities. In addition even higher values can be observed under normal conditions during pregnancy or in adolescens. Lower values in asymptomatic patients should only be controlled since more than 30% of elevated transaminases spontaneously normalize during follow-up. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Significantly Elevated Liver Alkaline Phosphatase in Congestive Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamban, Leonid; Patel, Brijesh; Williams, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Congestive hepatopathy can have a mildly elevated liver profile, which should normalize with appropriate therapy. Liver specific alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in decompensated heart failure (HF) can be mildly elevated. The levels exceeding beyond the expected rise should be a concern and lead to further investigation. The literature reports insubstantial number of cases regarding significantly elevated levels of ALP and congestive hepatopathy. We report a case of a 45-year-old female with known history of severe cardiomyopathy that had persistently elevated levels of ALP. The extensive workup was negative for any specific pathology. The liver biopsy was consistent with congestive hepatopathy. The patient's ALP levels decreased with aggressive diuretic therapy but still remained elevated.

  11. An unusual ST-segment elevation: apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy shows the ace up its sleeve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santis, Francesco; Pergolini, Amedeo; Zampi, Giordano; Pero, Gaetano; Pino, Paolo Giuseppe; Minardi, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is part of the broad clinical and morphologic spectrum of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We report a patient with electrocardiographic abnormalities in whom acute coronary syndrome was excluded and apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was demonstrated by careful differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2012 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Mice lacking pituitary tumor transforming gene show elevated exposure of DGalNAc carbohydrate determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutsyk A. D.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the influence of pituitary tumor transforming gene (pttg-1 knockout on glycome of parenchimal organs by means of lectin histochemistry. Methods. DGalNAc, DGlcNAc, NeuNAc carbohydrate determinants were labelled with soybean agglutinin (SBA and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA, conjugated to peroxidase, with subsequent visualization of the lectin-binding sites with diaminobenzidine. The testes and kidneys of murine strain BL6/C57 with the pttg-1 gene knockout (PTTG-KO were compared to the wild type (PTTG-WT animals, both groups 1 month of age. Results. Knockout of the pttg-1 gene was accompanied by enhanced exposure of the DGalNAc sugar residues within the Golgi complex of secondary spermatocytes, in a brush border of renal tubules and on the lumenal surface of collecting ducts. Conclusions. This study suggests that knockout of the pttg-1 gene may lead to the changes in carbohydrate processing in mammalian organism.

  13. Airborne Surface Profiling of Alaskan Glaciers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of glacier outline, laser altimetry profile, and surface elevation change data for 46 glaciers in Alaska and British Columbia, Canada,...

  14. Flood-profile analysis, Big Darby Creek at State Route 762, Orient, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, W.P.; Sherwood, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Ohio Department of Transportation, made a hydraulic analysis of the 25- and 100-year floods on Big Darby Creek where State Route 762 crosses the stream at Orient, Ohio. Two proposed bridge plans were analyzed to determine the effects on flood profiles subsequent to the placement of a 376-foot-long, four-span deck bridge across the stream 90 feet upstream of the existing State Route 762 bridge. In plan 1, the brigde is set at a 25-degrees skew to the river and at sufficient elevation to pass the 100-year flood below it. In plan 2, the skew is 28 degrees and elevations are 3 feet lower than in plan 1, which result in partial submergence of the bridge during the 100-year flood. This analysis shows that the 25-year flood profiles upstream of the new bridge would increase by 0.4 foot if plan 1 is adopted and by 0.3 foot if plan 2 is adopted. Both profiles converge with the present-condition profiles 5,750 feet upstream. The profiles for the 100-year flood would increase by 0.6 foot plan 1 and 1.1 feet for plan 2. This additional backwater affects profiles is 0.1 foot higher than for present conditions, and the plan 2 profile is 0.2 foot higher than profiles for present conditions.

  15. Elevation leads to altruistic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Simone; Roper, Jean; Fessler, Daniel M T

    2010-03-01

    Feelings of elevation, elicited by witnessing another person perform a good deed, have been hypothesized to motivate a desire to help others. However, despite growing interest in the determinants of prosocial behavior, there is only limited evidence that elevation leads to increases in altruistic behavior. In two experiments, we tested the relationship between elevation and helping behavior. Prior to measuring helping behavior, we measured elevation among participants in an elevation-inducing condition and control conditions in order to determine whether witnessing altruistic behavior elicited elevation. In Experiment 1, participants experiencing elevation were more likely to volunteer for a subsequent unpaid study than were participants in a neutral state. In Experiment 2, participants experiencing elevation spent approximately twice as long helping the experimenter with a tedious task as participants experiencing mirth or a neutral emotional state. Further, feelings of elevation, but not feelings of amusement or happiness, predicted the amount of helping. Together, these results provide evidence that witnessing another person's altruistic behavior elicits elevation, a discrete emotion that, in turn, leads to tangible increases in altruism.

  16. Purwarupa Sistem Kontrol Elevator Berbasis Programable Logic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathahillah Fathahillah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Various methods / types of controls developed in accordance with industry needs one of them in the field of building automation system. One of the controls in the field of building automation system is the elevator control system (elevator. Early elevator control systems that transport humans or goods as vertical transportation vehicles are still conventional using human power, then evolved using steam engines, until now the elevators use AC motors equipped with control systems. The purpose of this research is to design the prototype of elevator control system using programmable logic control (PLC. The type of PLC controller used in the study using Omron PLC. The results show the design of prototype of elevator control system using PLC successfully and can control eleveator in accordance with its function, besides its programming form can be more simple.

  17. Data Profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Hladíková, Radka

    2010-01-01

    Title: Data Profiling Author: Radka Hladíková Department: Department of Software Engineering Supervisor: Ing. Vladimír Kyjonka Supervisor's e-mail address: Abstract: This thesis puts mind on problems with data quality and data profiling. This Work analyses and summarizes problems of data quality, data defects, process of data quality, data quality assessment and data profiling. The main topic is data profiling as a process of researching data available in existing...

  18. Elevational distribution and extinction risk in birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L White

    Full Text Available Mountainous regions are hotspots of terrestrial biodiversity. Unlike islands, which have been the focus of extensive research on extinction dynamics, fewer studies have examined mountain ranges even though they face increasing threats from human pressures - notably habitat conversion and climate change. Limits to the taxonomic and geographical extent and resolution of previously available information have precluded an explicit assessment of the relative role of elevational distribution in determining extinction risk. We use a new global species-level avian database to quantify the influence of elevational distribution (range, maximum and midpoint on extinction risk in birds at the global scale. We also tested this relationship within biogeographic realms, higher taxonomic levels, and across phylogenetic contrasts. Potential confounding variables (i.e. phylogenetic, distributional, morphological, life history and niche breadth were also tested and controlled for. We show that the three measures of elevational distribution are strong negative predictors of avian extinction risk, with elevational range comparable and complementary to that of geographical range size. Extinction risk was also found to be positively associated with body weight, development and adult survival, but negatively associated with reproduction and niche breadth. The robust and consistent findings from this study demonstrate the importance of elevational distribution as a key driver of variation in extinction dynamics in birds. Our results also highlight elevational distribution as a missing criterion in current schemes for quantifying extinction risk and setting species conservation priorities in birds. Further research is recommended to test for generality across non-avian taxa, which will require an advance in our knowledge of species' current elevational ranges and increased efforts to digitise and centralise such data.

  19. Lærer-elev-relationer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Per Fibæk; Nielsen, Anne Maj

    2015-01-01

    I kapitlet belyser vi relationskompetence i forholdet mellem lærer og elever og hvordan læreren kan arbejde med forhold til elever og med sin opmærksomhed på relationsarbejdet. Afslutningsvis ser vi på hvordan lærere fortsat kan udvikle deres relationskompetence.......I kapitlet belyser vi relationskompetence i forholdet mellem lærer og elever og hvordan læreren kan arbejde med forhold til elever og med sin opmærksomhed på relationsarbejdet. Afslutningsvis ser vi på hvordan lærere fortsat kan udvikle deres relationskompetence....

  20. Specific rhizosphere bacterial and fungal groups respond differently to elevated atmospheric CO(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drigo, Barbara; van Veen, Johannes A; Kowalchuk, George A

    2009-10-01

    Soil community responses to increased atmospheric CO(2) concentrations are expected to occur mostly through interactions with changing vegetation patterns and plant physiology. To gain insight into the effects of elevated atmospheric CO(2) on the composition and functioning of microbial communities in the rhizosphere, Carex arenaria (a non-mycorrhizal plant species) and Festuca rubra (a mycorrhizal plant species) were grown under defined atmospheric conditions with either ambient (350 p.p.m.) or elevated (700 p.p.m.) CO(2) concentrations. PCR-DGGE (PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) and quantitative-PCR were carried out to analyze, respectively, the structure and abundance of the communities of actinomycetes, Fusarium spp., Trichoderma spp., Pseudomonas spp., Burkholderia spp. and Bacillus spp. Responses of specific functional groups, such as phloroglucinol, phenazine and pyrrolnitrin producers, were also examined by quantitative-PCR, and HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) was employed to assess changes in exuded sugars in the rhizosphere. Multivariate analysis of group-specific community profiles showed disparate responses to elevated CO(2) for the different bacterial and fungal groups examined, and these responses were dependent on plant type and soil nutrient availability. Within the bacterial community, the genera Burkholderia and Pseudomonas, typically known as successful rhizosphere colonizers, were significantly influenced by elevated CO(2), whereas the genus Bacillus and actinomycetes, typically more dominant in bulk soil, were not. Total sugar concentrations in the rhizosphere also increased in both plants in response to elevated CO(2). The abundances of phloroglucinol-, phenazine- and pyrrolnitrin-producing bacterial communities were also influenced by elevated CO(2), as was the abundance of the fungal genera Fusarium and Trichoderma.

  1. Altered skeletal pattern of gene expression in response to spaceflight and hindlimb elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikle, D. D.; Harris, J.; Halloran, B. P.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1994-01-01

    Spaceflight leads to osteopenia, in part by inhibiting bone formation. Using an animal model (hindlimb elevation) that simulates the weightlessness of spaceflight, we and others showed a reversible inhibition of bone formation and bone mineralization. In this study, we have measured the mRNA levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR), alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin in the tibiae of rats flown aboard National Aeronautics and Space Administration Shuttle Flight STS-54 and compared the results with those obtained from their ground-based controls and from the bones of hindlimb-elevated animals. Spaceflight and hindlimb elevation transiently increase the mRNA levels for IGF-I, IGF-IR, and alkaline phosphatase but decrease the mRNA levels for osteocalcin. The changes in osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase mRNA levels are consistent with a shift toward decreased maturation, whereas the rise in IGF-I and IGF-IR mRNA levels may indicate a compensatory response to the fall in bone formation. We conclude that skeletal unloading during spaceflight or hindlimb elevation resets the pattern of gene expression in the osteoblast, giving it a less mature profile.

  2. Pitch Elevation in Male-to-female Transgender Persons-the Würzburg Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Jonas; Hagen, Rudolf; Shehata-Dieler, Wafaa; Kühn, Heike; Kraus, Fabian; Kleinsasser, Norbert

    2017-03-01

    The present study reports objective and subjective voice results of Wendler's glottoplasty modified by Hagen. This is an outcomes research study. A total of 21 patients underwent Wendler's glottoplasty modified by Hagen. Parameters in the follow-up session were laryngoscopy, voice range profile, Voice Handicap Index, Life Satisfaction Questionnaire, and a visual analog scale for individual satisfaction with the voice. The fundamental frequency was elevated into the typical female fundamental frequency range. Furthermore, an elevation of the lower frequency limit was shown without a reduction of the frequency range. About one third of the population feels affected by the restricted dynamic range. This change of the vocal pitch is seen as part of the voice feminization by some of the patients. The Dysphonia Severity Index as a marker for voice quality was unchanged. Subjective satisfaction with the voice showed a strong correlation with the individual elevation of the pitch. Wendler's glottoplasty modified by Hagen is an effective and low-risk method of raising the vocal pitch of male-to-female transgender persons. However, elevated Scores of the Voice Handicap Index indicated that in everyday life, transgender persons continue to feel handicapped because of their voice. Another indicator for the lack of social acceptance and integration is the reduced general life satisfaction in the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire especially in the domain "friends, acquaintances, relatives." Therefore, a better multidisciplinary therapy concept for voice feminization is necessary. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Space Elevator Concept Considered a Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The `once upon a time' science fiction concept of a space elevator has been envisioned and studied as a real mass transportation system in the latter part of the 21st century. David Smitherman of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Projects Office has compiled plans for such an elevator. The space elevator concept is a structure extending from the surface of the Earth to geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) at 35,786 km in altitude. The tower would be approximately 50 km tall with a cable tethered to the top. Its center mass would be at GEO such that the entire structure orbits the Earth in sync with the Earth's rotation maintaining a stationary position over its base attachment at the equator. Electromagnetic vehicles traveling along the cable could serve as a mass transportation system for transporting people, payloads, and power between space and Earth. This illustration by artist Pat Rawling shows the concept of a space elevator as viewed from the geostationary transfer station looking down the length of the elevator towards the Earth.

  4. Hey Teacher, Your Personality's Showing!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, James R.

    1977-01-01

    A study of 30 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade teachers and 300 of their students showed that a teacher's age, sex, and years of experience did not relate to students' mathematics achievement, but that more effective teachers showed greater "freedom from defensive behavior" than did less effective teachers. (DT)

  5. Planning a Successful Tech Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikirk, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…

  6. ST-segment elevation: Distinguishing ST elevation myocardial infarction from ST elevation secondary to nonischemic etiologies

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande, Alok; Birnbaum, Yochai

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of early perfusion in ST elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMI) are established; however, early perfusion of non-ST elevation myocardial infarctions has not been shown to be beneficial. In addition, ST elevation (STE) caused by conditions other than acute ischemia is common. Non-ischemic STE may be confused as STEMI, but can also mask STEMI on electrocardiogram (ECG). As a result, activating the primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) protocol often depends on determi...

  7. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  8. Studieintro: fra elev til studerende

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    2011-01-01

    Dette kompendium indeholder materiale til kurset Studieintro: fra elev til studerende. Kurset er obligatorisk for studerende på bacheloruddannelsens første år.......Dette kompendium indeholder materiale til kurset Studieintro: fra elev til studerende. Kurset er obligatorisk for studerende på bacheloruddannelsens første år....

  9. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...... of the scale's reliability, factor structure, and validity on the basis of analyzing data from independent samples of exhibitors at the international trade shows SIAL (Paris) and ANUGA (Cologne); and it concludes with a discussion of potential managerial applications and implications for future research. New...

  10. Space Station tethered elevator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Michael H.; Anderson, Loren A.; Hosterman, K.; Decresie, E.; Miranda, P.; Hamilton, R.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The tethered elevator is an unmanned, mobile structure which operates on a ten-kilometer tether spanning the distance between Space Station Freedom and a platform. Its capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The report discusses the potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design. Emphasis is placed on the elevator's structural configuration and three major subsystem designs. First, the design of elevator robotics used to aid in elevator operations and tethered experimentation is presented. Second, the design of drive mechanisms used to propel the vehicle is discussed. Third, the design of an onboard self-sufficient power generation and transmission system is addressed.

  11. Genes responsive to elevated CO2 concentrations in triploid white poplar and integrated gene network analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjuan Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The atmospheric CO2 concentration increases every year. While the effects of elevated CO2 on plant growth, physiology and metabolism have been studied, there is now a pressing need to understand the molecular mechanisms of how plants will respond to future increases in CO2 concentration using genomic techniques. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gene expression in triploid white poplar ((Populus tomentosa ×P. bolleana ×P. tomentosa leaves was investigated using the Affymetrix poplar genome gene chip, after three months of growth in controlled environment chambers under three CO2 concentrations. Our physiological findings showed the growth, assessed as stem diameter, was significantly increased, and the net photosynthetic rate was decreased in elevated CO2 concentrations. The concentrations of four major endogenous hormones appeared to actively promote plant development. Leaf tissues under elevated CO2 concentrations had 5,127 genes with different expression patterns in comparison to leaves under the ambient CO2 concentration. Among these, 8 genes were finally selected for further investigation by using randomized variance model corrective ANOVA analysis, dynamic gene expression profiling, gene network construction, and quantitative real-time PCR validation. Among the 8 genes in the network, aldehyde dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase were situated in the core and had interconnections with other genes. CONCLUSIONS: Under elevated CO2 concentrations, 8 significantly changed key genes involved in metabolism and responding to stimulus of external environment were identified. These genes play crucial roles in the signal transduction network and show strong correlations with elevated CO2 exposure. This study provides several target genes, further investigation of which could provide an initial step for better understanding the molecular mechanisms of plant acclimation and evolution in future rising CO2 concentrations.

  12. Optimal timing of coronary invasive strategy in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarese, Eliano P; Gurbel, Paul A; Andreotti, Felicita

    2013-01-01

    The optimal timing of coronary intervention in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACSs) is a matter of debate. Conflicting results among published studies partly relate to different risk profiles of the studied populations....

  13. Lipid Profiles of Persons With Paraplegia and Tetraplegia: Sex Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Andreas; Knöebber, Judith; Vogt, Stefan; König, Daniel; Deibert, Peter; Bültermann, Dirk; Heinrich, Lothar; Baumstark, Manfred W; Berg, Aloys; Storch, Max-Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    Background/Objective: To examine the lipoprotein profiles of men and women with paraplegia and tetraplegia. Impairment of the sympathetic nervous system (dependent on the level of injury) and the extent of physical capacity and activity were correlated with the lipid profile in men with spinal cord injury (SCI). Sex-related differences of the lipoprotein profiles could be found in nondisabled and premenopausal women with SCI mainly because of the different effects of sexual hormones. Methods: Lipoprotein profiles of 112 participants with SCI (32 premenopausal women, 80 men) were analyzed and correlated to sex, lesion level, and physical performance capacity. Results: Women with tetraplegia or paraplegia showed significantly higher levels of high-density lipoprotein and lower ratios of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol compared with men with corresponding lesion levels, without a difference in peak oxygen consumption. Concentrations of very-low-density lipoproteins were lower in women with paraplegia than in men with paraplegia; no differences were found in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Sex-independent elevations in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol were associated with paraplegia, and sex-independent elevations in triglyceride levels were associated with tetraplegia. Conclusions: Persons with SCI showed sex-related differences in their lipoprotein profiles. Independent of physical fitness, the lipoprotein profile of premenopausal women with SCI did not exhibit the adverse lipoprotein characteristics observed in men with SCI, probably because of the influence of sexual hormones independent of lesion level. PMID:18795478

  14. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  15. Monocytes of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia show alterations in cholesterol metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soufi Muhidien

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated plasma cholesterol promotes the formation of atherosclerotic lesions in which monocyte-derived lipid-laden macrophages are frequently found. To analyze, if circulating monocytes already show increased lipid content and differences in lipoprotein metabolism, we compared monocytes from patients with Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH with those from healthy individuals. Methods Cholesterol and oxidized cholesterol metabolite serum levels of FH and of healthy, gender/age matched control subjects were measured by combined gas chromatography – mass spectroscopy. Monocytes from patients with FH and from healthy subjects were isolated by antibody-assisted density centrifugation. Gene expression profiles of isolated monocytes were measured using Affymetrix HG-U 133 Plus 2.0 microarrays. We compared monocyte gene expression profiles from FH patients with healthy controls using a Welch T-test with correction for multiple testing (p Results Using microarray analysis we found in FH patients a significant up-regulation of 1,617 genes and a down-regulation of 701 genes compared to monocytes from healthy individuals. These include genes of proteins that are involved in the uptake, biosynthesis, disposition, and cellular efflux of cholesterol. In addition, plasma from FH patients contains elevated amounts of sterols and oxysterols. An increased uptake of oxidized as well as of native LDL by FH monocytes combined with a down-regulation of NPC1 and ABCA1 explains the lipid accumulation observed in these cells. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that circulating FH monocytes show differences in cell physiology that may contribute to the early onset of atherosclerosis in this disease.

  16. Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

  17. Coastal Digital Elevation Models (DEMs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digital elevation models (DEMs) of U.S. and other coasts that typically integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography. The DEMs support NOAA's mission to understand...

  18. Elevated Fixed Platform Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Elevated Fixed Platform (EFP) is a helicopter recovery test facility located at Lakehurst, NJ. It consists of a 60 by 85 foot steel and concrete deck built atop...

  19. FEMA DFIRM Base Flood Elevations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Base Flood Elevation (BFE) table is required for any digital data where BFE lines will be shown on the corresponding Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally,...

  20. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biologic...

  1. Elevation Derivatives for National Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation Derivatives for National Applications (EDNA) is a seamless, nationwide, multi-layered three-dimensional (3D) hydrologic database derived from a version of...

  2. Base Flood Elevation (BFE) Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Base Flood Elevation (BFE) table is required for any digital data where BFE lines will be shown on the corresponding Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally if...

  3. Elevated fetal steroidogenic activity in autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron-Cohen, S; Auyeung, B; Nørgaard-Pedersen, B; Hougaard, D M; Abdallah, M W; Melgaard, L; Cohen, A S; Chakrabarti, B; Ruta, L; Lombardo, M V

    2015-01-01

    Autism affects males more than females, giving rise to the idea that the influence of steroid hormones on early fetal brain development may be one important early biological risk factor. Utilizing the Danish Historic Birth Cohort and Danish Psychiatric Central Register, we identified all amniotic fluid samples of males born between 1993 and 1999 who later received ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision) diagnoses of autism, Asperger syndrome or PDD-NOS (pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified) (n=128) compared with matched typically developing controls. Concentration levels of Δ4 sex steroids (progesterone, 17α-hydroxy-progesterone, androstenedione and testosterone) and cortisol were measured with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. All hormones were positively associated with each other and principal component analysis confirmed that one generalized latent steroidogenic factor was driving much of the variation in the data. The autism group showed elevations across all hormones on this latent generalized steroidogenic factor (Cohen's d=0.37, P=0.0009) and this elevation was uniform across ICD-10 diagnostic label. These results provide the first direct evidence of elevated fetal steroidogenic activity in autism. Such elevations may be important as epigenetic fetal programming mechanisms and may interact with other important pathophysiological factors in autism. PMID:24888361

  4. ST Segment Elevation ECG Changes During Pharmacologic Stress With Regadenoson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamruddin, Salima; Huang, Henry W; Mehra, Anil; Bonyadlou, Shahram; Yoon, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Regadenoson is a pharmacologic stress agent that has been widely adopted as an alternative over other pharmacologic vasodilator agents due to its ease of use, patient tolerance, and safety profile. We report the case of dynamic ST-segment elevation electrocardiogram changes after regadenoson injection during an inpatient single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion stress test, with subsequent coronary angiography revealing the presence of hemodynamically significant coronary artery disease. Our findings confirm that transient regadenoson-induced ST-segment elevations are a marker for hemodynamically significant disease even in the setting of low-risk SPECT perfusion images.

  5. Elevated Lipoprotein(A Impairs Platelet Radiolabeling Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Granegger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Platelet radiolabeling in clinical routine usually results in labeling efficiencies (LE above 80%. A variety of risk factors and clinical conditions are known to impair platelet labeling yield, among them elevated triglycerides and low-density lipoproteins. The potential influence of lipoprotein(a (Lp(a, an atherogenic lipoprotein particle containing a kringle subunit, which is widely found in the proteins of fibrinolysis pathway, has never been studied. Normal Lp(a levels range below 30 mg/ dl. The exact prevalence of elevated Lp(a is unknown, most likely ranging below 10%. Even more rare is an isolated elevation despite an otherwise normal lipoprotein profile. Methods: We examined the role of isolated elevated Lp(a (> 50 mg/dl, ranging up to 440 mg/dl compared to patients with normal lipid profile. Platelets were radiolabeled with in-111-oxine at 37 °C for 5 minutes using ISORBE-consensus methodology. Results: The findings indicate that already at levels below 100 mg/dl Lp(a decreases LE. LE assessment after cross-incubation of hyper-Lp(a platelets with normal Lp(a plasma and vice versa reveals that platelets rather than the plasmatic environment are responsible for the deterioration of labeling yield. This behavior already has been reported for elevated low-density lipoproteins. Apparently, the quantitative influence of LDL and Lp(a/mg is comparable. Plotting the sum of LDL and Lp(a versus LE reveals a clear significant negative correlation. Conclusion: As extremely elevated Lp(a, particularly above 150 mg/dl, may significantly impair labeling results. We therefore recommend to include extremely elevated Lp(a into the list of parameters, which should be known before performing radiolabeling of human platelets.

  6. Are patients with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction undertreated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosselink AT Marcel

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The worse prognosis in patients without ST-elevation (non-STEMI as compared to ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, may be due to treatment differences. We aimed to evaluate the differences in characteristics, treatment and outcome in patients with non-STEMI versus STEMI in an unselected patient population. Methods Individual patient data from all patients in our hospital with a discharge diagnosis of MI between Jan 2001 and Jan 2002 were evaluated. Follow-up data were obtained until December 2004. Patients were categorized according to the presenting electrocardiogram into non-STEMI or STEMI. Results A total of 824 patients were discharged with a diagnosis of MI, 29% with non-STEMI and 71% with STEMI. Patients with non-STEMI were significantly older and had a higher cardiovascular risk profile. They underwent less frequently coronary angiography and revascularization and received less often clopidogrel and ACE-inhibitor on discharge. Long-term mortality was significantly higher in the non-STEMI patients as compared to STEMI patients, 20% vs. 12%, p = 0.006, respectively. However, multivariate analysis showed that age, diabetes, hypertension and no reperfusion therapy (but not non-STEMI presentation were independent and significant predictors of long-term mortality. Conclusion In an unselected cohort of patients discharged with MI, there were significant differences in baseline characteristics, and (invasive treatment between STEMI and non-STEMI. Long-term mortality was also different, but this was due to differences in baseline characteristics and treatment. More aggressive treatment may improve outcome in non-STEMI patients.

  7. Show Me My Health Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C. Politi PhD

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since the Affordable Care Act was passed, more than 12 million individuals have enrolled in the health insurance marketplace. Without support, many struggle to make an informed plan choice that meets their health and financial needs. Methods: We designed and evaluated a decision aid, Show Me My Health Plans (SMHP, that provides education, preference assessment, and an annual out-of-pocket cost calculator with plan recommendations produced by a tailored, risk-adjusted algorithm incorporating age, gender, and health status. We evaluated whether SMHP compared to HealthCare.gov improved health insurance decision quality and the match between plan choice, needs, and preferences among 328 Missourians enrolling in the marketplace. Results: Participants who used SMHP had higher health insurance knowledge (LS-Mean = 78 vs. 62; P < 0.001, decision self-efficacy (LS-Mean = 83 vs. 75; P < 0.002, confidence in their choice (LS-Mean = 3.5 vs. 2.9; P < 0.001, and improved health insurance literacy (odds ratio = 2.52, P < 0.001 compared to participants using HealthCare.gov . Those using SMHP were 10.3 times more likely to select a silver- or gold-tier plan (P < 0.0001. Discussion: SMHP can improve health insurance decision quality and the odds that consumers select an insurance plan with coverage likely needed to meet their health needs. This study represents a unique context through which to apply principles of decision support to improve health insurance choices.

  8. Behavioral Profiles Associated with Objective Sleep Duration in Young Children with Insomnia Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Susan L; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Mayes, Susan D; Liao, Duanping; Bixler, Edward O

    2017-02-01

    Based on previous studies reporting on the association of objective sleep duration and physiologic changes (i.e., increased cortisol) in children, we examined the role of objective sleep duration on differentiating behavioral profiles in children with insomnia symptoms. Seven hundred children (ages 5-12, 47.8% male) from the Penn State Child Cohort underwent a nine-hour polysomnography and parent completed Pediatric Behavior Scale. Insomnia symptoms were defined as parent report of difficulty falling and/or staying asleep, sleep disordered breathing as an AHI of ≥1, and objective short sleep duration as a total sleep time Children with insomnia symptoms demonstrated more overall behavioral problems than controls. Significant interactions between insomnia symptoms and objective sleep duration on scores of externalizing behaviors, mood variability and school problems were found. Profile analyses showed that children with insomnia symptoms and normal sleep duration were associated with clinically elevated externalizing behaviors, inattention, mood variability, and school problems, while children with insomnia and short sleep duration were associated with an overall elevated profile in which internalizing behaviors were more prominent. Childhood insomnia symptoms are associated with a wide array of behavioral problems, for which objective sleep duration is useful in differentiating behavioral profiles. Children with insomnia symptoms and normal sleep duration had a behavioral profile consistent with limit-setting and rule-breaking behaviors, while children with insomnia symptoms and short sleep duration had a behavioral profile more consistent with internalizing behaviors resembling that of psychophysiological disorders.

  9. Temporal and spatial evolution of dynamic support from river profiles: A framework for Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gareth G.; Paul, Jonathan D.; White, Nicky; Winterbourne, Jeffrey

    2012-04-01

    We present a strategy for calculating uplift rates as a function of space and time from large sets of longitudinal river profiles. This strategy assumes that the shape of a river profile is controlled by the history of uplift rate and moderated by the erosional process. We assume that upstream drainage area is invariant. The algorithm was tested on a set of ˜100 river profiles which were extracted from a digital elevation model of Madagascar. This set of profiles was simultaneously inverted to obtain uplift rate as a smooth function of space and time. The fit between observed and calculated profiles is excellent and suggests that Madagascar was uplifted by 1-2 km at rates of 0.2-0.4 mm/yr during the last ˜15 Myrs. The location of Madagascar suggests that its topographic elevation is maintained by convective circulation of the sub-lithospheric mantle. Residual depth anomalies of oceanic fragments encompassing the island show that the island straddles a dynamic topographic gradient which generates asymmetric Neogene uplift. Volcanism, warped peneplains and uplifted marine terraces corroborate the existence of youthful uplift. We suggest that sets of longitudinal river profiles contain useful information about the history of regional uplift which can be extracted by inverse modeling and calibrated by independent geologic observations.

  10. Biophysical Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and pregnancy High-risk pregnancy Biophysical profile About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  11. Profiling cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciro, Marco; Bracken, Adrian P; Helin, Kristian

    2003-01-01

    In the past couple of years, several very exciting studies have demonstrated the enormous power of gene-expression profiling for cancer classification and prediction of patient survival. In addition to promising a more accurate classification of cancer and therefore better treatment of patients......, gene-expression profiling can result in the identification of novel potential targets for cancer therapy and a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cancer....

  12. Troponin elevation in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis N. Mavridis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Troponin (tr elevation in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH patients is often difficult to be appropriately assessed by clinicians, causing even disagreements regarding its management between neurosurgeons and cardiologists. The purpose of this article was to review the literature regarding the clinical interpretation of tr elevation in SAH. We searched for articles in PubMed using the key words: “troponin elevation” and “subarachnoid hemorrhage”. All of them, as well as relative neurosurgical books, were used for this review. Some type of cardiovascular abnormality develops in most SAH patients. Neurogenic stunned myocardium is a frequent SAH complication, due to catecholamine surge which induces cardiac injury, as evidenced by increased serum tr levels, electrocardiographic (ECG changes and cardiac wall motion abnormalities. Tr elevation, usually modest, is an early and specific marker for cardiac involvement after SAH and its levels peak about two days after SAH. Cardiac tr elevation predictors include poor clinical grade, intraventricular hemorrhage, loss of consciousness at ictus, global cerebral edema, female sex, large body surface area, lower systolic blood pressure, higher heart rate and prolonged Q-Tc interval. Elevated tr levels are associated with disability and death (especially tr >1 μg/L, worse neurological grade, systolic and diastolic cardiac dysfunction, pulmonary congestion, longer intensive care unit stay and incidence of vasospasm. Tr elevation is a common finding in SAH patients and constitutes a rightful cause of worry about the patients' cardiac function and prognosis. It should be therefore early detected, carefully monitored and appropriately managed by clinicians.

  13. The Comparison Between Chinese Puppet Show and Chinese-Javanese Blend Puppet Show in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustinus Sufianto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Since some centuries ago, Indonesia has been one of the destinations for immigrating Chinese. When the Chinese came to Indonesia, they also brought their cultures and customs. Some of them have a cultural-cross marriage with local Indonesian and brought their cultures to be introduced to local Indonesian. When the relationship between Chinese and Indonesian became stronger in some fields such as trade, education and politic, some of Chinese cultures has been adapted by local Indonesian or has been assimilated with local cultures. This adaption process was hindered when the New Order of Soeharto government had banned all Chinese culture, including anything closely related. So, the Chinese-Javanese blend puppet show that also brings Chinese culture couldn’t get any supports and its development faces difficulties. The writer using a qualitative methodology interviewed some of Chinese-Javanese puppet show artist and observation of the puppet show performance to make a comparison between Chinese puppet show and Chinese-Javanese blend puppet show in Indonesia. Chinese-Javanese puppet show or usually can be determined as Indonesian potehi puppet Show has some differences from Chinese puppet show. The differences can be found in the making of puppet, puppet profiles, performance way and stories. 

  14. ST-segment elevation: Distinguishing ST elevation myocardial infarction from ST elevation secondary to nonischemic etiologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Alok; Birnbaum, Yochai

    2014-10-26

    The benefits of early perfusion in ST elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMI) are established; however, early perfusion of non-ST elevation myocardial infarctions has not been shown to be beneficial. In addition, ST elevation (STE) caused by conditions other than acute ischemia is common. Non-ischemic STE may be confused as STEMI, but can also mask STEMI on electrocardiogram (ECG). As a result, activating the primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) protocol often depends on determining which ST elevation patterns reflect transmural infarction due to acute coronary artery thrombosis. Coordination of interpreting the ECG in its clinical context and appropriately activating the pPCI protocol has proved a difficult task in borderline cases. But its importance cannot be ignored, as reflected in the 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association guidelines concerning the treatment of ST elevation myocardial infarction. Multiples strategies have been tested and studied, and are currently being further perfected. No matter the strategy, at the heart of delivering the best care lies rapid and accurate interpretation of the ECG. Here, we present the different patterns of non-ischemic STE and methods of distinguishing between them. In writing this paper, we hope for quicker and better stratification of patients with STE on ECG, which will lead to be better outcomes.

  15. Methylphenidatinduceret ST-elevations-myokardieinfarkt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Martin Huth; Ruwald, Anne-Christine Huth; Tønder, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Adult attention deficit and hyperkinetic disorder (ADHD) is increasingly diagnosed and treated with methylphenidate. We present the case of an 20 year-old man, who was diagnosed with ADHD and suffered a ST elevation acute myocardial infarction due to coronary vasospasm related to an overdose...

  16. Elevated lactate during psychogenic hyperventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Avest, E.; Patist, F. M.; ter Maaten, J. C.; Nijsten, M. W. N.

    Study objective Elevated arterial lactate levels are closely related to morbidity and mortality in various patient categories. In the present retrospective study, the relation between arterial lactate, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco(2)) and pH was systematically investigated in patients who

  17. Evaluating Swallowing Muscles Essential for Hyolaryngeal Elevation by Using Muscle Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, William G., E-mail: bp1@bu.edu [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hindson, David F. [Department of Radiology, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Langmore, Susan E. [Department of Otolaryngology, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Speech and Hearing Sciences, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Zumwalt, Ann C. [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Reduced hyolaryngeal elevation, a critical event in swallowing, is associated with radiation therapy. Two muscle groups that suspend the hyoid, larynx, and pharynx have been proposed to elevate the hyolaryngeal complex: the suprahyoid and longitudinal pharyngeal muscles. Thought to assist both groups is the thyrohyoid, a muscle intrinsic to the hyolaryngeal complex. Intensity modulated radiation therapy guidelines designed to preserve structures important to swallowing currently exclude the suprahyoid and thyrohyoid muscles. This study used muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging (mfMRI) in normal healthy adults to determine whether both muscle groups are active in swallowing and to test therapeutic exercises thought to be specific to hyolaryngeal elevation. Methods and Materials: mfMRI data were acquired from 11 healthy subjects before and after normal swallowing and after swallowing exercise regimens (the Mendelsohn maneuver and effortful pitch glide). Whole-muscle transverse relaxation time (T2 signal, measured in milliseconds) profiles of 7 test muscles were used to evaluate the physiologic response of each muscle to each condition. Changes in effect size (using the Cohen d measure) of whole-muscle T2 profiles were used to determine which muscles underlie swallowing and swallowing exercises. Results: Post-swallowing effect size changes (where a d value of >0.20 indicates significant activity during swallowing) for the T2 signal profile of the thyrohyoid was a d value of 0.09; a d value of 0.40 for the mylohyoid, 0.80 for the geniohyoid, 0.04 for the anterior digastric, and 0.25 for the posterior digastric-stylohyoid in the suprahyoid muscle group; and d values of 0.47 for the palatopharyngeus and 0.28 for the stylopharyngeus muscles in the longitudinal pharyngeal muscle group. The Mendelsohn maneuver and effortful pitch glide swallowing exercises showed significant effect size changes for all muscles tested, except for the thyrohyoid. Conclusions

  18. Normal range MMPI-A profiles among psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilts, Darolyn; Moore, James M

    2003-09-01

    The present study examined the base rates of normal range Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) profiles in an inpatient sample and examined the differences between adolescents with apparently valid normal range profiles (all clinical scale T-scores MMPI-A validity scale scores and other indexes of underreporting. Normal range profiles cannot be adequately explained by a less pathological history prior to hospitalization or by defensiveness. Thirty percent of male and 25% of female adolescents produced valid MMPI-A profiles in which none of the clinical scales were elevated. Both male and female adolescents with normal range profiles were generally less likely to report internalizing symptoms than those with elevated profiles, but both groups report externalizing symptoms. Neither the standard MMPI-A validity scales nor additional validity scales discriminated between profile groups. Clinicians should not assume that normal range profiles indicate an absence of problems.

  19. Elevated lactate dehydrogenase activity and increased cardiovascular mortality in the arsenic-endemic areas of southwestern Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Ya-Tang [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Jen [Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Li, Wan-Fen [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Ling-I [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Li-Yu; Huang, Yeou-Lih [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan (China); Sun, Chien-Wen [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wei J., E-mail: wjchen@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genetic Epidemiology Core Laboratory, National Taiwan University Center for Genomic Medicine, Taiwan (China); Wang, Shu-Li, E-mail: slwang@nhri.org.tw [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-01

    Arsenic ingestion has been linked to increasing global prevalence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD); arsenic can be removed from drinking water to reduce related health effects. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is used for the evaluation of acute arsenic toxicity in vivo and in vitro, but it is not validated for the evaluation of long-term, chronic arsenic exposure. The present study examined the long-term effect of chronic arsenic exposure on CVD and serum LDH levels, after consideration of arsenic metabolism capacity. A total of 380 subjects from an arseniasis-endemic area and 303 from a non-endemic area of southwestern Taiwan were recruited in 2002. Various urinary arsenic species were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and hydride generation systems. Fasting serum was used for quantitative determination of the total LDH activity. A significant dose–response relationship was observed between arsenic exposure and LDH elevation, independent of urinary arsenic profiles (P < 0.001). Furthermore, abnormal LDH elevation was associated with CVD mortality after adjustment for Framingham risk scores for 10-year CVD and arsenic exposure (hazard ratio, 3.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–14.81). LDH was elevated in subjects with arsenic exposure in a dose-dependent manner. LDH is a marker of arsenic toxicity associated with CVD mortality. Results of this study have important implications for use in ascertaining long-term arsenic exposure risk of CVD. -- Highlights: ► We showed that arsenic exposure was correlated with LDH elevation. ► LDH elevation was related to arsenic methylation capacity. ► Abnormal LDH elevation can be a marker of susceptibility to CVD mortality.

  20. elevatr: Access Elevation Data from Various APIs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several web services are available that provide access to elevation data. This package provides access to several of those services and returns elevation data either as a SpatialPointsDataFrame from point elevation services or as a raster object from raster elevation services. ...

  1. The Human Pancreas Proteome Defined by Transcriptomics and Antibody-Based Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerberg, Linn; Hallström, Björn M.; Schwenk, Jochen M.; Uhlén, Mathias; Korsgren, Olle; Lindskog, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    The pancreas is composed of both exocrine glands and intermingled endocrine cells to execute its diverse functions, including enzyme production for digestion of nutrients and hormone secretion for regulation of blood glucose levels. To define the molecular constituents with elevated expression in the human pancreas, we employed a genome-wide RNA sequencing analysis of the human transcriptome to identify genes with elevated expression in the human pancreas. This quantitative transcriptomics data was combined with immunohistochemistry-based protein profiling to allow mapping of the corresponding proteins to different compartments and specific cell types within the pancreas down to the single cell level. Analysis of whole pancreas identified 146 genes with elevated expression levels, of which 47 revealed a particular higher expression as compared to the other analyzed tissue types, thus termed pancreas enriched. Extended analysis of in vitro isolated endocrine islets identified an additional set of 42 genes with elevated expression in these specialized cells. Although only 0.7% of all genes showed an elevated expression level in the pancreas, this fraction of transcripts, in most cases encoding secreted proteins, constituted 68% of the total mRNA in pancreas. This demonstrates the extreme specialization of the pancreas for production of secreted proteins. Among the elevated expression profiles, several previously not described proteins were identified, both in endocrine cells (CFC1, FAM159B, RBPJL and RGS9) and exocrine glandular cells (AQP12A, DPEP1, GATM and ERP27). In summary, we provide a global analysis of the pancreas transcriptome and proteome with a comprehensive list of genes and proteins with elevated expression in pancreas. This list represents an important starting point for further studies of the molecular repertoire of pancreatic cells and their relation to disease states or treatment effects. PMID:25546435

  2. Fellow Profile

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fellow Profile. Elected: 1971 Section: Chemistry. Narasimhan, Prof. Palliakaranai Thirumalai Ph.D. (Madras), FNA, FNASc. Date of birth: 28 July 1928. Date of death: 3 May 2013. Specialization: Theoretical Chemistry and Magnetic Resonance Last known address: 1013, Lupine Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94086, USA. YouTube ...

  3. Når elever producerer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremholm, Jesper; Hansen, Rune; Slot, Marie Falkesgaard

    2017-01-01

    Dette kapitel præsenterer centrale resultater fra studiet Elevopgaver og elevproduktion i det 21. århundrede der blandt andet rummer den første større kvantitative undersøgelse af opgavedidaktik og elevers produktive arbejde i den danske grundskole. Studiet omfatter også en kvalitativ del, og i...... undersøgelsen præsenteres og diskuteres gennem en række konkrete eksempler fra de berørte fag. I forhold til elevers produktive arbejde peger undersøgelsens resultater både på potentialer og særlige barrierer i forbindelse med at udvikle en kompetenceorienteret undervisning. I kapitlet argumenteres desuden...

  4. Læring mellem elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgsen, Marianne; Davidsen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    I denne rapport præsenteres resultater fra følgeforskningen til projektet Læring gennem Bevægelse, som er gennemført på Søndervangskolen i Hammel i perioden august 2009 - maj 2010. Projektet er gennemført i samspil mellem lærere, it-vejleder, elever og skolens ledelse. Projektets overordnede formål...

  5. Differences in faecal profiles of porphyrins among river otters exposed to the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blajeski, A; Duffy, L K; Bowyer, R T

    1996-01-01

    Abstract River otters (Lutra canadensis) living in marine environments of Prince William Sound, Alaska, exposed to crude oil from the Exxon Valdez spill in March 1989, showed significantly elevated levels of faecal porphyrin over those of otters from non-oiled areas (oiled mean = 48.2, andnon-oiled mean = 34.5 nmol g(-1) dry faeces). Profiles of uro-, hepta-, hexa-, penta-, copro-, andprotoporphyrin profiles were qualitatively characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography. These findings suggest that river otters may serve as a suitable indicator species in which porphyrin profiles can be used to monitor the effects of marine andfreshwater crude oil exposure. Also, this is the first model showing the effects of an oil spill on porphyrins on a free-ranging mammal using a non-lethal methodology. These effects were detectable 1 year after the spill andfollowing a major effort to clean oil from the shorelines of Prince William Sound.

  6. Country Education Profiles: Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Bureau of Education, Geneva (Switzerland).

    One of a series of profiles prepared by the Cooperative Educational Abstracting Service, this brief outline provides basic background information on educational principles, system of administration, structure and organization, curricula, and teacher training in Algeria. Statistics provided by the Unesco Office of Statistics show enrollment at all…

  7. Measuring the role of seagrasses in regulating sediment surface elevation

    KAUST Repository

    Potouroglou, Maria

    2017-09-13

    Seagrass meadows provide numerous ecosystem services and their rapid global loss may reduce human welfare as well as ecological integrity. In common with the other \\'blue carbon\\' habitats (mangroves and tidal marshes) seagrasses are thought to provide coastal defence and encourage sediment stabilisation and surface elevation. A sophisticated understanding of sediment elevation dynamics in mangroves and tidal marshes has been gained by monitoring a wide range of different sites, located in varying hydrogeomorphological conditions over long periods. In contrast, similar evidence for seagrasses is sparse; the present study is a contribution towards filling this gap. Surface elevation change pins were deployed in four locations, Scotland, Kenya, Tanzania and Saudi Arabia, in both seagrass and unvegetated control plots in the low intertidal and shallow subtidal zone. The presence of seagrass had a highly significant, positive impact on surface elevation at all sites. Combined data from the current work and the literature show an average difference of 31 mm per year in elevation rates between vegetated and unvegetated areas, which emphasizes the important contribution of seagrass in facilitating sediment surface elevation and reducing erosion. This paper presents the first multi-site study for sediment surface elevation in seagrasses in different settings and species.

  8. Group Elevator Peak Scheduling Based on Robust Optimization Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG, J.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling of Elevator Group Control System (EGCS is a typical combinatorial optimization problem. Uncertain group scheduling under peak traffic flows has become a research focus and difficulty recently. RO (Robust Optimization method is a novel and effective way to deal with uncertain scheduling problem. In this paper, a peak scheduling method based on RO model for multi-elevator system is proposed. The method is immune to the uncertainty of peak traffic flows, optimal scheduling is realized without getting exact numbers of each calling floor's waiting passengers. Specifically, energy-saving oriented multi-objective scheduling price is proposed, RO uncertain peak scheduling model is built to minimize the price. Because RO uncertain model could not be solved directly, RO uncertain model is transformed to RO certain model by elevator scheduling robust counterparts. Because solution space of elevator scheduling is enormous, to solve RO certain model in short time, ant colony solving algorithm for elevator scheduling is proposed. Based on the algorithm, optimal scheduling solutions are found quickly, and group elevators are scheduled according to the solutions. Simulation results show the method could improve scheduling performances effectively in peak pattern. Group elevators' efficient operation is realized by the RO scheduling method.

  9. Measuring the role of seagrasses in regulating sediment surface elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potouroglou, Maria; Bull, James C.; Krauss, Ken W.; Kennedy, Hilary A.; Fusi, Marco; Daffonchio, Daniele; Mangora, Mwita M.; Githaiga, Michael N.; Diele, Karen; Huxham, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Seagrass meadows provide numerous ecosystem services and their rapid global loss may reduce human welfare as well as ecological integrity. In common with the other ‘blue carbon’ habitats (mangroves and tidal marshes) seagrasses are thought to provide coastal defence and encourage sediment stabilisation and surface elevation. A sophisticated understanding of sediment elevation dynamics in mangroves and tidal marshes has been gained by monitoring a wide range of different sites, located in varying hydrogeomorphological conditions over long periods. In contrast, similar evidence for seagrasses is sparse; the present study is a contribution towards filling this gap. Surface elevation change pins were deployed in four locations, Scotland, Kenya, Tanzania and Saudi Arabia, in both seagrass and unvegetated control plots in the low intertidal and shallow subtidal zone. The presence of seagrass had a highly significant, positive impact on surface elevation at all sites. Combined data from the current work and the literature show an average difference of 31 mm per year in elevation rates between vegetated and unvegetated areas, which emphasizes the important contribution of seagrass in facilitating sediment surface elevation and reducing erosion. This paper presents the first multi-site study for sediment surface elevation in seagrasses in different settings and species.

  10. Measuring the role of seagrasses in regulating sediment surface elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potouroglou, Maria; Bull, James C; Krauss, Ken W; Kennedy, Hilary A; Fusi, Marco; Daffonchio, Daniele; Mangora, Mwita M; Githaiga, Michael N; Diele, Karen; Huxham, Mark

    2017-09-20

    Seagrass meadows provide numerous ecosystem services and their rapid global loss may reduce human welfare as well as ecological integrity. In common with the other 'blue carbon' habitats (mangroves and tidal marshes) seagrasses are thought to provide coastal defence and encourage sediment stabilisation and surface elevation. A sophisticated understanding of sediment elevation dynamics in mangroves and tidal marshes has been gained by monitoring a wide range of different sites, located in varying hydrogeomorphological conditions over long periods. In contrast, similar evidence for seagrasses is sparse; the present study is a contribution towards filling this gap. Surface elevation change pins were deployed in four locations, Scotland, Kenya, Tanzania and Saudi Arabia, in both seagrass and unvegetated control plots in the low intertidal and shallow subtidal zone. The presence of seagrass had a highly significant, positive impact on surface elevation at all sites. Combined data from the current work and the literature show an average difference of 31 mm per year in elevation rates between vegetated and unvegetated areas, which emphasizes the important contribution of seagrass in facilitating sediment surface elevation and reducing erosion. This paper presents the first multi-site study for sediment surface elevation in seagrasses in different settings and species.

  11. The dark phase intraocular pressure elevation and retinal ganglion cell degeneration in a rat model of experimental glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Jacky M K; Vo, Nancy; Quan, Ann; Nam, Michael; Kyung, Haksu; Yu, Fei; Piri, Natik; Caprioli, Joseph

    2013-07-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation is considered as a major risk factor causing the progression of vision deterioration in glaucoma. Although it is known that the IOP level changes widely throughout the day and night, how the dark or light phase IOP elevation contributes to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration is still largely unclear. To examine the profile of IOP, modified laser photocoagulation was applied to the trabecular meshwork of Brown Norway rats and both light and dark phase IOPs were monitored approximately 1-2 times a week. The relationship between IOP elevation and RGC degeneration was investigated while RGC body loss was analyzed with Rbpms immunolabeling on retinal wholemount and axonal injury in the optic nerve was semi-quantified. The baseline awake dark and light IOPs were 30.4 ± 2.7 and 20.2 ± 2.1 mmHg respectively. The average dark IOP was increased to 38.2 ± 3.2 mmHg for five weeks after the laser treatment on 270° trabecular meshwork. However, there was no significant loss of RGC body and axonal injury. After laser treatment on 330° trabecular meshwork, the dark and light IOPs were significantly increased to 43.8 ± 4.6 and 23 ± 3.7 mmHg respectively for 5 weeks. The cumulative dark and light IOP elevations were 277 ± 86 and 113 ± 50 mmHg days respectively while the cumulative total (light and dark) IOP elevation was 213 ± 114 mmHg days. After 5 weeks, regional RGC body loss of 29.5 ± 15.5% and moderate axonal injury were observed. Axonal injury and loss of RGC body had a high correlation with the cumulative total IOP elevation (R(2) = 0.60 and 0.65 respectively). There was an association between the cumulative dark IOP elevation and RGC body loss (R(2) = 0.37) and axonal injury (R(2) = 0.51) whereas the associations between neuronal damages and the cumulative light IOP elevation were weak (for RGC body loss, R(2) = 0.01; for axonal injury, R(2) = 0.26). Simple linear regression model

  12. Analysis of River Profiles in northwestern Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Palézieux, Larissa; Leith, Kerry; Loew, Simon

    2017-04-01

    With large alluvial plains, narrow gorges, prominent knick points, and chains of terraces or cut-off ridges, the deeply-incised valleys in Bhutan reflect an environment of diverse erosional activity. Topography ranges from 97 m to 7570 m, with characteristic postglacial landscapes typically located above ca 4200 m. The lower latitudes below ca 3000 m show high relief and terraced or linear hillslopes indicative of a fluvial origin. Although full channel analyses in the region suggest significant local tectonic contributions to longitudinal river profiles (Adams et al., 2016), we develop a method to isolate rivers in an apparently homogeneous tectonic block in the mid- to upper- elevations. Profiles of rivers in this region show a consistent pattern with a marked topographic step covering 2000 m of elevation change within 10 km. Field observations of knick points, terraces and cut-off ridges associated with the step suggest a regionally consistent signal resulting from changes in relative uplift or erosion rate. Chi plots correlate well for all channels when the base level is chosen to isolate rivers below the main alluvial plain, suggesting similar fluvial erosion histories in upstream regions. Employing third order topographic derivatives (Minár et al., 2013), we identify low angle slope sections/plateaus corresponding to terraces and/or extrapolated ridges that project onto former valley floor levels. Employing similar methods as those used to correlate fluvial knickpoints, these will be used to test for regionally consistent changes in fluvial and hillslope activity that may be tied to major tectonic or climatic changes. REFERENCES Adams, B., Whipple, K. X., Hodges, K. V. & Heimsath, A. M. 2016: In situ development of high-elevation, low-relief landscapes via duplex deformation in the Eastern Himalayan hinterland, Bhutan, in Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, 925-938. Minár, J., Jenčo, M., Evans, I. S., Minár, J., Kadlec, M., Krcho, J., Pacina

  13. The aperture for UHE tau neutrinos of the Auger fluorescence detector using a Digital Elevation Map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miele, Gennaro [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Pastor, Sergio [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia), Ed. Institutos de Investigacion, Apdo. 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)]. E-mail: pastor@ific.uv.es; Pisanti, Ofelia [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy)

    2006-03-09

    We perform a new study of the chances of the fluorescence detector (FD) at the Pierre Auger Observatory to detect the tau leptons produced by Earth-skimming ultra high energy {nu}{sub {tau}}'s. We present a new and more detailed evaluation of the effective aperture of the FD that considers a reliable fiducial volume for the experimental set up. In addition, we take into account the real elevation profile of the area near Auger. We find a significant increase in the number of expected events with respect to the predictions of a previous semi-analytical determination, and our results show the enhancement effect for neutrino detection from the presence of the near mountains.

  14. Elevated lactate during psychogenic hyperventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Avest, E; Patist, F M; Ter Maaten, J C; Nijsten, M W N

    2011-04-01

    Elevated arterial lactate levels are closely related to morbidity and mortality in various patient categories. In the present retrospective study, the relation between arterial lactate, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco(2)) and pH was systematically investigated in patients who visited the emergency department (ED) with psychogenic hyperventilation. Over a 5-month period, all the patients who visited the ED of a university hospital with presumed psychogenic hyperventilation were evaluated. Psychogenic hyperventilation was presumed to be present when an increased respiratory rate (>20 min) was documented at or before the ED visit and when somatic causes explaining the hyperventilation were absent. Arterial blood gas and lactate levels (reference values 0.5-1.5 mmol/l) were immediately measured by a point-of-care analyser that was managed and calibrated by the central laboratory. During the study period, 46 patients were diagnosed as having psychogenic hyperventilation. The median (range) Pco(2) for this group was 4.3 (2.0-5.5) kPa, the pH was 7.47 (7.40-7.68) and the lactate level was 1.2 (0.5-4.4) mmol/l. 14 participants (30%) had a lactate level above the reference value of 1.5 mmol/l. Pco(2) was the most important predictor of lactate in multivariate analysis. None of the participants underwent any medical treatment other than observation at the ED or had been hospitalised after their ED visit. In patients with psychogenic hyperventilation, lactate levels are frequently elevated. Whereas high lactates are usually associated with acidosis and an increased risk of poor outcome, in patients with psychogenic hyperventilation, high lactates are associated with hypocapnia and alkalosis. In this context, elevated arterial lactate levels should not be regarded as an adverse sign.

  15. How accurately can videokeratographic systems measure surface elevation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, R A; Nuñez, R; Buettner, J; Howland, H C

    1995-11-01

    transition. If areas of abrupt transition exist, the TMS-1 elevation file provides more accurate surface profile data.

  16. ICESat: Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwally, Jay; Shuman, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    Ice exists in the natural environment in many forms. The Earth dynamic ice features shows that at high elevations and/or high latitudes,snow that falls to the ground can gradually build up tu form thick consolidated ice masses called glaciers. Glaciers flow downhill under the force of gravity and can extend into areas that are too warm to support year-round snow cover. The snow line, called the equilibrium line on a glacier or ice sheet, separates the ice areas that melt on the surface and become show free in summer (net ablation zone) from the ice area that remain snow covered during the entire year (net accumulation zone). Snow near the surface of a glacier that is gradually being compressed into solid ice is called firm.

  17. Inelastic Seismic Torsional Behaviour of Elevated Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    DUTTA, S. C.; JAIN, S. K.; MURTY, C. V. R.

    2001-04-01

    Torsional failure of elevated tanks has occurred in past earthquakes. The overall axisymmetric structural geometry and mass distribution of such structures may leave only a small accidental eccentricity between centre of stiffness and centre of mass. Such a small accidental eccentricity is not expected to cause a torsional failure. This paper studies the possibility of amplified torsional behaviour of elevated water tanks due to such small accidental eccentricity in inelastic range through detailed case studies; using two simple idealized systems with two coupled lateral-torsional degrees of freedom and, strength-deteriorating and elasto-plastic hysteresis models. The systems are capable of retaining the characteristics of two extreme categories of water tanks namely, (a) tanks on staging with less number of columns and panels and (b) tanks on staging with large number of columns and panels. The study shows that the presence of a small eccentricity may lead to localized unsymmetrical yielding in some of the reinforced concrete staging elements. This may lead to progressive strength deterioration through successive yieldings in same elements under cyclic loading during earthquakes. Such localized strength drop may increasingly develop large strength eccentricity resulting in large localized inelastic displacement and ductility demand, leading to failure. These observations are also verified for a real-life example elevated tank. The tanks supported on staging with fewer columns and panels are found to have greater torsional vulnerability. The tanks located near a fault are found to be vulnerable under near-fault pulses with a large duration compared to the lateral period of tank.

  18. Leaf Wax δ13C Varies with Elevation in the Peruvian Andes and Western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M. S.; Feakins, S. J.; Ponton, C.; Peters, T.; West, A. J.; Galy, V.; Bentley, L. P.; Salinas, N.; Shenkin, A.; Martin, R.; Asner, G. P.; Malhi, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Plant leaf wax carbon isotopic composition (δ13Cwax) reflects the net isotopic effects associated with diffusion into the leaf, fixation of carbon by Rubisco and biosynthesis of individual leaf wax biochemicals. As declining pCO2 with elevation affects the first two fractionations, we expect to find an isotopic gradient in δ13Cwax, if the fractionation of leaf wax biosynthesis is constant. To test this, we report δ13Cwax values from 500 samples of leaves collected by tree-climbers from the upper canopy from 9 forest-inventory plots spanning a 3.5km elevation transect in the Peruvian Andes and western Amazonia during the CHAMBASA field campaign. These samples provide a unique opportunity to study the relationship between δ13Cwax and pCO2 in diverse species across this remote tropical montane forest and lowland rainforest. The very wet climate throughout (2-5 m rainfall per year) minimizes fractionation effects due to stomatal restrictions (i.e. water use efficiency) that may be an important factor elsewhere. Preliminary results show δ13Cwax values on average increase with elevation by ~1.5‰/km, a trend consistent with bulk plant δ13C in previous studies. The mean epsilon between bulk and C29 n-alkane is -7.3±2.2‰. Inter-sample differences are large on the order of 10‰. Shaded leaves and understory leaves are found to be depleted relative to sunlit leaves, presumably due to a lower photosynthetic rate and use of respired CO2 in the understory. C29 n-alkanes are on average ~2.5‰ more depleted than C30 n-alkanoic acids, indicating fractionation during selective decarboxylation. We further compare results from plants with soil and river sediments to provide insights into how leaf wax signals are archived in soils and exported from the landscape. We find a ~1.4‰/km gradient in forest soils similar to plants. We observe a ~2‰ offset between C29 n-alkane in plant leaves and in soils across the elevation profile, which is likely a signal of degradation

  19. Intelligent elevator management system using image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, H. Sai; Karunamurthy, Vignesh; Kumar, R. Barath

    2015-03-01

    In the modern era, the increase in the number of shopping malls and industrial building has led to an exponential increase in the usage of elevator systems. Thus there is an increased need for an effective control system to manage the elevator system. This paper is aimed at introducing an effective method to control the movement of the elevators by considering various cases where in the location of the person is found and the elevators are controlled based on various conditions like Load, proximity etc... This method continuously monitors the weight limit of each elevator while also making use of image processing to determine the number of persons waiting for an elevator in respective floors. Canny edge detection technique is used to find out the number of persons waiting for an elevator. Hence the algorithm takes a lot of cases into account and locates the correct elevator to service the respective persons waiting in different floors.

  20. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) 24K

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is the terminology adopted by the USGS to describe terrain elevation data sets in a digital raster form. The standard DEM consists of a...

  1. Digitial Elevation Model (DEM) 100K

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is the terminology adopted by the USG to describe terrain elevation data sets in a digital raster form. The standard DEM consists of a...

  2. Community and ecosystem responses to elevational gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundqvist, Maja K.; Sanders, Nate; Wardle, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Community structure and ecosystem processes often vary along elevational gradients. Their responses to elevation are commonly driven by changes in temperature, and many community- and ecosystem-level variables therefore frequently respond similarly to elevation across contrasting gradients. There...... will provide powerful information that can improve predictions of climate change impacts within and across ecosystems.......Community structure and ecosystem processes often vary along elevational gradients. Their responses to elevation are commonly driven by changes in temperature, and many community- and ecosystem-level variables therefore frequently respond similarly to elevation across contrasting gradients...... elevational gradients for understanding community and ecosystem responses to global climate change at much larger spatial and temporal scales than is possible through conventional ecological experiments. However, future studies that integrate elevational gradient approaches with experimental manipulations...

  3. Digtial Elevation Model (DEM) 250K

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is the terminology adopted by the USGS to describe terrain elevation data sets in a digital raster form. The standard DEM consists of a...

  4. MPI Profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, D K; Jones, T R

    2005-02-11

    The Message Passing Interface (MPI) is the de facto message-passing standard for massively parallel programs. It is often the case that application performance is a crucial factor, especially for solving grand challenge problems. While there have been many studies on the scalability of applications, there have not been many focusing on the specific types of MPI calls being made and their impact on application performance. Using a profiling tool called mpiP, a large spectrum of parallel scientific applications were surveyed and their performance results analyzed.

  5. Interactive Effects of Elevated [CO2] and Water Stress on Physiological Traits and Gene Expression during Vegetative Growth in Four Durum Wheat Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Susan; Vicente, Rubén; Amador, Amaya; Araus, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of elevated [CO2] and water stress will have an effect on the adaptation of durum wheat to future climate scenarios. For the Mediterranean basin these scenarios include the rising occurrence of water stress during the first part of the crop cycle. In this study, we evaluated the interactive effects of elevated [CO2] and moderate to severe water stress during the first part of the growth cycle on physiological traits and gene expression in four modern durum wheat genotypes. Physiological data showed that elevated [CO2] promoted plant growth but reduced N content. This was related to a down-regulation of Rubisco and N assimilation genes and up-regulation of genes that take part in C-N remobilization, which might suggest a higher N efficiency. Water restriction limited the stimulation of plant biomass under elevated [CO2], especially at severe water stress, while stomatal conductance and carbon isotope signature revealed a water saving strategy. Transcript profiles under water stress suggested an inhibition of primary C fixation and N assimilation. Nevertheless, the interactive effects of elevated [CO2] and water stress depended on the genotype and the severity of the water stress, especially for the expression of drought stress-responsive genes such as dehydrins, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. The network analysis of physiological traits and transcript levels showed coordinated shifts between both categories of parameters and between C and N metabolism at the transcript level, indicating potential genes and traits that could be used as markers for early vigor in durum wheat under future climate change scenarios. Overall the results showed that greater plant growth was linked to an increase in N content and expression of N metabolism-related genes and down-regulation of genes related to the antioxidant system. The combination of elevated [CO2] and severe water stress was highly dependent on the genotypic variability, suggesting specific genotypic

  6. Potential impacts of elevated aerosol layers on high energy laser aerial defense engagements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorino, Steven T.; Shirey, Stephen M.; Via, Michelle F.; Grahn, Daniel J.; Krizo, Matthew J.

    2012-06-01

    This study quantifies the impacts on high energy laser (HEL) air defense performance due to atmospheric effects in the marine boundary layer driven by varying elevated aerosol layers. The simulations are run using several different engagement geometries to more completely show the effects of aerosols. High adaptive optics are applied to reduce the turbulence effects. The atmospheric effects are defined using the worldwide probabilistic climatic database available in the High Energy Laser End-to-End Operational Simulation (HELEEOS) model. The anticipated effects on HEL propagation performance is assessed at 1.0642 μm across the world's oceans, mapped on a 1° × 1° grid, and at 573 land sites. The scenarios evaluated are primarily near-surface and horizontal over ranges up to 10000 meters. Seasonal and boundary layer variations (summer and winter) for a range of relative humidity percentile conditions are considered. In addition to realistic vertical profiles of molecular and aerosol absorption and scattering, correlated optical turbulence profiles in probabilistic (percentile) format are used. Results indicate profound effects of elevated aerosol layers on HEL engagements as compared to standard scenarios without elevated layers. Also, results suggest changing optical properties to have additional significant effects. HELEEOS includes a fast-calculating, first principles, worldwide surface to 100 km, atmospheric propagation and characterization package. This package enables the creation of profiles of temperature, pressure, water vapor content, optical turbulence, atmospheric particulates and hydrometeors as they relate to line-by-line layer transmission, path and background radiance at wavelengths from the ultraviolet to radio frequencies. Physics-based cloud and precipitation characterizations are coupled with a probability of cloud free line of sight (CFLOS) algorithm for air-to-air, air-tosurface, and surface-to-air (or space) look angles. HELEEOS

  7. Influence of Cut-outs in Elevator on the Static Longitudinal Stability and on the Static Elevator Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biechteler, Curt

    1934-01-01

    The rudder effect of a sport airplane at high angles of attack was to be improved. This made it necessary to make a cut-out in the center of the continuous elevator so as to enlarge the rudder downward. This cut-out which reduced the rudder area by 12.5 percent changed the static stability of the airplane as well as the elevator effect. Flight measurements showed the stability zone with locked elevator to be 1.8 percent less at full throttle and at idling to be 1.3 percent less than the mean wing chord. The effect of the cut-out on the control forces could not be determined owing to insufficient instrumental accuracy at the extremely low existing forces. The measurement of the static controllability resulting from the cut-out manifested an 18 percent drop in elevator effect at full throttle and a 10 to 20 percent drop at idling, depending on lift.

  8. 76 FR 15900 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations... County, Hawaii, the headings are corrected to read as set forth below: * Elevation in feet (NGVD... Communities affected Elevation in feet (LTD) Effective Modified Maui County, Hawaii * * * * * BILLING CODE...

  9. Elever med adfærdsvanskeligheder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Poul

    2001-01-01

    Artikel i særnummer om folkeskolens urolige elever, hvor der redegøres for den viden der aktuelt er i Danmark på området samt vanskelighederne med at skelne mellem de elever i skolen, der reagerer "sundt" på omgivelsernes pres og de elever som har alvorligere problemer. De kan se ens ud på...

  10. Elevated Tank Due to Earthquake Even

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotrasová Kamila

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Elevated reservoirs are mainly used for storing of variety water. During earthquake activity the fluid exerts impulsive and convective (sloshing effects on the walls and bottom of tank. This paper provides theoretical background for analytical calculating of elevated water tank due to earthquake even and deals with simplified seismic design procedures for elevated tanks.

  11. Effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide on soil nitrogen cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmockel, Kirsten S.

    Human activities including fossil fuel combustion, deforestation, and land conversion to agriculture have caused the concentration of atmospheric CO2 to increase since the Industrial Revolution. One approach to atmospheric CO2 reduction is sequestration in forest ecosystems. Presently little is known about the overall impact of elevated atmospheric CO2 on net ecosystem carbon storage, particularly in terms of nutrient limitations. In this dissertation I tested the hypothesis that elevated atmospheric CO2 will stimulate soil N availability, supporting long-term CO 2 sequestration in southeastern forests, examined asymbiotic N2 fixation, amino acid assimilation and ecosystem scale N cycling to understand changes in soil N cycling induced by elevated atmospheric CO 2. All research was conducted at the Duke Forest free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment, where atmospheric CO2 concentrations have been maintained at 200 ul l-1 above ambient levels in the 30-m diameter treatment plots since 1996. This body of research indicates that elevated atmospheric CO2 does not stimulate soil N cycling at the decadal time scale. Field measurements of exogenous N inputs via asymbiotic N2 fixing bacteria reveal no CO2 stimulation. Soil moisture was the most important factor controlling field rates of N2 fixation. Changes in endogenous N cycling were evaluated using stable isotope tracer field experiments. Short-term experiments showed that more amino acid N was assimilated by both fine roots and microbes under ambient compared to elevated CO2. This significant treatment effect indicates that soil C limitation was a stronger driver of amino acid cycling than N limitation. Intact amino acid assimilation was comparable to NH4 assimilation and may make a small, but important contribution to plant N uptake in warm-temperate forest ecosystems. Inorganic N cycling was not affected by elevated atmospheric CO2. After two growing seasons, a 15N field tracer experiment showed no effects of

  12. Lipid profile in adult patients with Fabry disease - Ten-year follow up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina M. Stepien

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Adult patients with Fabry disease have remarkably elevated HDL-cholesterol and as a result, elevated total cholesterol. It is possible that elevated HDL-cholesterol has a cardioprotective effect in patients with this condition. Long term ERT does not have a significant impact on lipid profile in female and male population with Fabry disease.

  13. Social structure varies with elevation in an Alpine ant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Jessica; Pellissier, Loïc; Chapuisat, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Insect societies vary greatly in social organization, yet the relative roles of ecological and genetic factors in driving this variation remain poorly understood. Identifying how social structure varies along environmental gradients can provide insights into the ecological conditions favouring alternative social organizations. Here, we investigate how queen number variation is distributed along elevation gradients within a socially polymorphic ant, the Alpine silver ant Formica selysi. We sampled low- and high-elevation populations in multiple Alpine valleys. We show that populations belonging to different drainage basins are genetically differentiated. In contrast, there is little genetic divergence between low- and high-elevation populations within the same drainage basin. Thus, elevation gradients in each of the drainage basins represent independent contrasts. Whatever the elevation, all well-sampled populations are socially polymorphic, containing both monogynous (= one queen) and polygynous (= multiple queen) colonies. However, the proportion of monogynous colonies per population increases at higher elevation, while the effective number of queens in polygynous colonies decreases, and this pattern is replicated in each drainage basin. The increased prevalence of colonies with a single queen at high elevation is correlated with summer and winter average temperature, but not with precipitation. The colder, unpredictable and patchy environment encountered at higher elevations may favour larger queens with the ability to disperse and establish incipient monogynous colonies independently, while the stable and continuous habitat in the lowlands may favour large, fast-growing polygynous colonies. By highlighting differences in the environmental conditions favouring monogynous or polygynous colonies, this study sheds light on the ecological factors influencing the distribution and maintenance of social polymorphism. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Elevational speciation in action? Restricted gene flow associated with adaptive divergence across an altitudinal gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, W. C.; Murphy, M.A.; Hoke, K. L.; Muths, Erin L.; Amburgey, Staci M.; Lemmon, Emily M.; Lemmon, A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that divergent selection pressures across elevational gradients could cause adaptive divergence and reproductive isolation in the process of ecological speciation. Although there is substantial evidence for adaptive divergence across elevation, there is less evidence that this restricts gene flow. Previous work in the boreal chorus frog (Pseudacris maculata) has demonstrated adaptive divergence in morphological, life history and physiological traits across an elevational gradient from approximately 1500–3000 m in the Colorado Front Range, USA. We tested whether this adaptive divergence is associated with restricted gene flow across elevation – as would be expected if incipient speciation were occurring – and, if so, whether behavioural isolation contributes to reproductive isolation. Our analysis of 12 microsatellite loci in 797 frogs from 53 populations revealed restricted gene flow across elevation, even after controlling for geographic distance and topography. Calls also varied significantly across elevation in dominant frequency, pulse number and pulse duration, which was partly, but not entirely, due to variation in body size and temperature across elevation. However, call variation did not result in strong behavioural isolation: in phonotaxis experiments, low-elevation females tended to prefer an average low-elevation call over a high-elevation call, and vice versa for high-elevation females, but this trend was not statistically significant. In summary, our results show that adaptive divergence across elevation restricts gene flow in P. maculata, but the mechanisms for this potential incipient speciation remain open.

  15. Plant population differentiation and climate change: responses of grassland species along an elevational gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Esther R; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Matter, Philippe; Heggli, Martin; Pluess, Andrea R

    2014-02-01

    Mountain ecosystems are particularly susceptible to climate change. Characterizing intraspecific variation of alpine plants along elevational gradients is crucial for estimating their vulnerability to predicted changes. Environmental conditions vary with elevation, which might influence plastic responses and affect selection pressures that lead to local adaptation. Thus, local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity among low and high elevation plant populations in response to climate, soil and other factors associated with elevational gradients might underlie different responses of these populations to climate warming. Using a transplant experiment along an elevational gradient, we investigated reproductive phenology, growth and reproduction of the nutrient-poor grassland species Ranunculus bulbosus, Trifolium montanum and Briza media. Seeds were collected from low and high elevation source populations across the Swiss Alps and grown in nine common gardens at three different elevations with two different soil depths. Despite genetic differentiation in some traits, the results revealed no indication of local adaptation to the elevation of population origin. Reproductive phenology was advanced at lower elevation in low and high elevation populations of all three species. Growth and reproduction of T. montanum and B. media were hardly affected by garden elevation and soil depth. In R. bulbosus, however, growth decreased and reproductive investment increased at higher elevation. Furthermore, soil depth influenced growth and reproduction of low elevation R. bulbosus populations. We found no evidence for local adaptation to elevation of origin and hardly any differences in the responses of low and high elevation populations. However, the consistent advanced reproductive phenology observed in all three species shows that they have the potential to plastically respond to environmental variation. We conclude that populations might not be forced to migrate to higher elevations

  16. EVALUATION DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL GENERATED BY SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Makineci

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital elevation model, showing the physical and topographical situation of the earth, is defined a tree-dimensional digital model obtained from the elevation of the surface by using of selected an appropriate interpolation method. DEMs are used in many areas such as management of natural resources, engineering and infrastructure projects, disaster and risk analysis, archaeology, security, aviation, forestry, energy, topographic mapping, landslide and flood analysis, Geographic Information Systems (GIS. Digital elevation models, which are the fundamental components of cartography, is calculated by many methods. Digital elevation models can be obtained terrestrial methods or data obtained by digitization of maps by processing the digital platform in general. Today, Digital elevation model data is generated by the processing of stereo optical satellite images, radar images (radargrammetry, interferometry and lidar data using remote sensing and photogrammetric techniques with the help of improving technology. One of the fundamental components of remote sensing radar technology is very advanced nowadays. In response to this progress it began to be used more frequently in various fields. Determining the shape of topography and creating digital elevation model comes the beginning topics of these areas. It is aimed in this work , the differences of evaluation of quality between Sentinel-1A SAR image ,which is sent by European Space Agency ESA and Interferometry Wide Swath imaging mode and C band type , and DTED-2 (Digital Terrain Elevation Data and application between them. The application includes RMS static method for detecting precision of data. Results show us to variance of points make a high decrease from mountain area to plane area.

  17. Evaluation Digital Elevation Model Generated by Synthetic Aperture Radar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makineci, H. B.; Karabörk, H.

    2016-06-01

    Digital elevation model, showing the physical and topographical situation of the earth, is defined a tree-dimensional digital model obtained from the elevation of the surface by using of selected an appropriate interpolation method. DEMs are used in many areas such as management of natural resources, engineering and infrastructure projects, disaster and risk analysis, archaeology, security, aviation, forestry, energy, topographic mapping, landslide and flood analysis, Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Digital elevation models, which are the fundamental components of cartography, is calculated by many methods. Digital elevation models can be obtained terrestrial methods or data obtained by digitization of maps by processing the digital platform in general. Today, Digital elevation model data is generated by the processing of stereo optical satellite images, radar images (radargrammetry, interferometry) and lidar data using remote sensing and photogrammetric techniques with the help of improving technology. One of the fundamental components of remote sensing radar technology is very advanced nowadays. In response to this progress it began to be used more frequently in various fields. Determining the shape of topography and creating digital elevation model comes the beginning topics of these areas. It is aimed in this work , the differences of evaluation of quality between Sentinel-1A SAR image ,which is sent by European Space Agency ESA and Interferometry Wide Swath imaging mode and C band type , and DTED-2 (Digital Terrain Elevation Data) and application between them. The application includes RMS static method for detecting precision of data. Results show us to variance of points make a high decrease from mountain area to plane area.

  18. Elevated Interleukin-10: A New Cause of Dyslipidemia Leading to Severe HDL Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraitis, Andreas G; Freeman, Lita A; Shamburek, Robert D; Wesley, Robert; Wilson, Wyndham; Grant, Cliona M; Price, Susan; Demosky, Stephen; Thacker, Seth G; Zarzour, Abdalrahman; Hornung, Ronald L; Pucino, Frank; Csako, Gyorgy; Yarboro, Cheryl; McInnes, Iain B; Kuroiwa, Takashi; Boumpas, Dimitrios; Rao, V. Koneti; Illei, Gabor G; Remaley, Alan T

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) is a risk factor for coronary artery disease. Investigating mechanisms underlying acquired severe HDL deficiency in noncritically ill patients (“Disappearing HDL Syndrome”) could provide new insights into HDL metabolism. OBJECTIVE To determine the cause of low HDL-C in patients with severe acquired HDL deficiency. METHODS AND RESULTS Patients with intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL, n=2), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL, n=1), and autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS, n=1) presenting with markedly decreased HDL-C, low LDL-C and elevated triglycerides were identified. The abnormal lipoprotein profile returned to normal following therapy in all four cases. All cases were found to have markedly elevated serum interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels that also normalized following therapy. In a cohort of ALPS patients (n=93), IL-10 showed a strong inverse correlation with HDL-C (R2=0·3720, PIL-10 in inducing the observed changes in lipoproteins was established in a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of recombinant human IL-10 (rhIL-10) in psoriatic arthritis patients (n=18). Within a week of initiating subcutaneous rhIL-10 injections, HDL-C precipitously decreased to near-undetectable levels. LDL-C also decreased by over 50% (PIL-10 therapy. CONCLUSION Increased IL-10 causes severe HDL-C deficiency, low LDL-C and elevated triglycerides. IL-10 is thus a potent modulator of lipoprotein levels, a potential new biomarker for B-cell disorders, and a novel cause of Disappearing HDL syndrome. PMID:25670364

  19. Acute Elevated Glucose Promotes Abnormal Action Potential-Induced Ca2+ Transients in Cultured Skeletal Muscle Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Quinton; Schneider, Martin F.

    2017-01-01

    A common comorbidity of diabetes is skeletal muscle dysfunction, which leads to compromised physical function. Previous studies of diabetes in skeletal muscle have shown alterations in excitation-contraction coupling (ECC)—the sequential link between action potentials (AP), intracellular Ca2+ release, and the contractile machinery. Yet, little is known about the impact of acute elevated glucose on the temporal properties of AP-induced Ca2+ transients and ionic underlying mechanisms that lead to muscle dysfunction. Here, we used high-speed confocal Ca2+ imaging to investigate the temporal properties of AP-induced Ca2+ transients, an intermediate step of ECC, using an acute in cellulo model of uncontrolled hyperglycemia (25 mM, 48 h.). Control and elevated glucose-exposed muscle fibers cultured for five days displayed four distinct patterns of AP-induced Ca2+ transients (phasic, biphasic, phasic-delayed, and phasic-slow decay); most control muscle fibers show phasic AP-induced Ca2+ transients, while most fibers exposed to elevated D-glucose displayed biphasic Ca2+ transients upon single field stimulation. We hypothesize that these changes in the temporal profile of the AP-induced Ca2+ transients are due to changes in the intrinsic excitable properties of the muscle fibers. We propose that these changes accompany early stages of diabetic myopathy. PMID:28835899

  20. Plasma proteomics shows an elevation of the anti-inflammatory protein APOA-IV in chronic equine laminitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steelman Samantha M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Equine laminitis is a devastating disease that causes severe pain in afflicted horses and places a major economic burden on the horse industry. In acute laminitis, the disintegration of the dermal-epidermal junction can cause the third phalanx to detach from the hoof wall, leaving the horse unable to bear weight on the affected limbs. Horses that survive the acute phase transition into a chronic form of laminitis, which is often termed “founder”. Some evidence suggests that chronic laminar inflammation might be associated with alterations in the endocrine and immune systems. We investigated this broad hypothesis by using DIGE to assess global differences in the plasma proteome between horses with chronic laminitis and controls. Results We identified 16 differentially expressed proteins; the majority of these were involved in the interrelated coagulation, clotting, and kininogen cascades. Clinical testing of functional coagulation parameters in foundered horses revealed a slight delay in prothrombin (PT clotting time, although most other indices were within normal ranges. Upregulation of the intestinal apolipoprotein APOA-IV in horses with chronic laminitis was confirmed by western blot. Conclusions Our results support the hypothesis that localized laminar inflammation may be linked to systemic alterations in immune regulation, particularly in the gastrointestinal system. Gastrointestinal inflammation has been implicated in the development of acute laminitis but has not previously been associated with chronic laminitis.

  1. Generation R birth cohort study shows that specific enamel defects were not associated with elevated serum transglutaminase type 2 antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beth, S.A.; Jansen, M.A.E.; Elfrink, M.E.C.; Kiefte-de Jong, J.C.; Wolvius, E.B.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Zelm, M.C. van; Moll, H.A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Coeliac disease can induce specific enamel defects (SED), but little is known about the consequences of antitissue transglutaminase (TG2A) autoimmunity. We investigated whether TG2A positivity in children and their mothers was associated with SED in the primary dentition. Methods: Maternal and

  2. An elevational diversity gradient of bacteria on Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G.; Yuan, Y.; Si, G.; Han, C.; Wang, J.; Zhao, J.; Luo, T.; Zhou, J.

    2013-12-01

    A central focus of biogeography is to determine the factors that govern spatial variation in biodiversity. Classic biogeography pattern of macroorganisms along altitudinal gradients was well observed and studied well over two centuries ago, while elevation patterns of microorganisms remains poorly understood. Using functional gene microarray (GeoChip) and pryosequencing methods, we examined the soil bacterial diversity pattern within alpine wetlands along an elevational gradient on the Tibetan Plateau. We found that observed patterns of plant and microbial diversity decreased monotonically from the lowest to the highest elevations. Our results showed the richness of genes involved in carbon and nitrogen cycling were significantly decreased with increasing elevations and the gene abundance of carbon degradation and nitrogen cycling were also decreased at high latitude which was consistent with soil enzyme activities. Further statistical tests showed that microbial functional diversities are structured primarily by environmental filtering caused by temperature. This work indicated that temperature maybe the common driving force structuring bacterial and plant communities along elevational gradients on Tibetan Plateau

  3. The space station tethered elevator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Loren A.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The elevator is an unmanned mobile structure which operates on a ten kilometer tether spanning the distance between the Space Station and a tethered platform. Elevator capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design are discussed. Engineering development of the tethered elevator is the result of work conducted in the following areas: structural configurations; robotics, drive mechanisms; and power generation and transmission systems. The structural configuration of the elevator is presented. The structure supports, houses, and protects all systems on board the elevator. The implementation of robotics on board the elevator is discussed. Elevator robotics allow for the deployment, retrieval, and manipulation of tethered objects. Robotic manipulators also aid in hooking the elevator on a tether. Critical to the operation of the tethered elevator is the design of its drive mechanisms, which are discussed. Two drivers, located internal to the elevator, propel the vehicle along a tether. These modular components consist of endless toothed belts, shunt-wound motors, regenerative power braking, and computer controlled linear actuators. The designs of self-sufficient power generation and transmission systems are reviewed. Thorough research indicates all components of the elevator will operate under power provided by fuel cells. The fuel cell systems will power the vehicle at seven kilowatts continuously and twelve kilowatts maximally. A set of secondary fuel cells provides redundancy in the unlikely event of a primary system failure. Power storage exists in the form of Nickel-Hydrogen batteries capable of powering the elevator under maximum loads.

  4. Variations in Tectonic Activities of the Central and Southwestern Foothills, Taiwan, Inferred from River Hack Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chieh Chen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A longitudinal profile of a river under static equilibrium shows no degradation or aggradation and can be ideally described as a straight line on a semi-logarithmic graph. This type of profile is called a “Hack profile”. If a river runs across uprising active structure systems, its Hack profile becomes convex. Accumulated tectonic strain varies positively with the intensity of the upwarping in Hack-profile convexity. In this paper, we compare curvature changes in Hack profiles of a series of rivers running through faults in the central and southwestern Foothills of Taiwan. Longitudinal profiles of these rivers were derived from two versions of topographic maps (1904 and 1985 and recent DTM data (2000. Prior to comparisons, we calibrated the 1904 topographic map, named “Taiwan Bautu”, by “offsetting” horizontal coordinates north and westward approximately 440 m and then “linear transforming” the elevation values. The Tungtzchiau fault of the central Foothills has remained inactive since 1935. Here relatively high uplift activity near the Wu River is indicated by significantly convex Hack profiles. This strain accumulation can be attributed to a lack of small magnitude earthquakes along the fault over the past 70 years. In the southwestern Foothills, relatively high uplift activity of similar intensity to the central Foothills is indicted near the Neocho River. Significant profiles with concave segments below the ideal graded profiles, at the lower reaches of rivers where continuous small magnitude strain release events have occurred, can only be found along the Sandieh, Neocho and Bazhang rivers in the southwestern Foothills. All these findings indicate that fault systems in the central Foothills tend to be locked and these faults could yield large earthquakes similar to the Chi-Chi event.

  5. The Fulfillment of Others' Needs Elevates Children's Body Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepach, Robert; Vaish, Amrisha; Tomasello, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Much is known about young children's helping behavior, but little is known about the underlying motivations and emotions involved. In 2 studies we found that 2-year-old children showed positive emotions of similar magnitude--as measured by changes in their postural elevation using depth sensor imaging technology--after they achieved a goal for…

  6. Scientific Return of a Lunar Elevator

    OpenAIRE

    Eubanks, T.M.; Radley, C. F.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a space elevator dates back to Tsilokovsky, but they are not commonly considered in near-term plans for space exploration, perhaps because a terrestrial elevator would not be possible without considerable improvements in tether material. A Lunar Space Elevator (LSE), however, can be built with current technology using commercially available tether polymers. This paper considers missions leading to infrastructure capable of shortening the time, lowering the cost and enhancing th...

  7. B Cell, Th17, and Neutrophil Related Cerebrospinal Fluid Cytokine/Chemokines Are Elevated in MOG Antibody Associated Demyelination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Kothur

    Full Text Available Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody (MOG Ab associated demyelination represents a subgroup of autoimmune demyelination that is separate from multiple sclerosis and aquaporin 4 IgG-positive NMO, and can have a relapsing course. Unlike NMO and MS, there is a paucity of literature on immunopathology and CSF cytokine/chemokines in MOG Ab associated demyelination.To study the differences in immunopathogenesis based on cytokine/chemokine profile in MOG Ab-positive (POS and -negative (NEG groups.We measured 34 cytokines/chemokines using multiplex immunoassay in CSF collected from paediatric patients with serum MOG Ab POS [acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM = 8, transverse myelitis (TM = 2 n = 10] and serum MOG Ab NEG (ADEM = 5, TM = 4, n = 9 demyelination. We generated normative data using CSF from 20 non-inflammatory neurological controls.The CSF cytokine and chemokine levels were higher in both MOG Ab POS and MOG Ab NEG demyelination groups compared to controls. The CSF in MOG Ab POS patients showed predominant elevation of B cell related cytokines/chemokines (CXCL13, APRIL, BAFF and CCL19 as well as some of Th17 related cytokines (IL-6 AND G-CSF compared to MOG Ab NEG group (all p<0.01. In addition, patients with elevated CSF MOG antibodies had higher CSF CXCL13, CXCL12, CCL19, IL-17A and G-CSF than patients without CSF MOG antibodies.Our findings suggest that MOG Ab POS patients have a more pronounced CNS inflammatory response with elevation of predominant humoral associated cytokines/chemokines, as well as some Th 17 and neutrophil related cytokines/chemokines suggesting a differential inflammatory pathogenesis associated with MOG antibody seropositivity. This cytokine/chemokine profiling provides new insight into disease pathogenesis, and improves our ability to monitor inflammation and response to treatment. In addition, some of these molecules may represent potential immunomodulatory targets.

  8. Cholecystokinin elevates mouse plasma lipids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichun Zhou

    Full Text Available Cholecystokinin (CCK is a peptide hormone that induces bile release into the intestinal lumen which in turn aids in fat digestion and absorption in the intestine. While excretion of bile acids and cholesterol into the feces eliminates cholesterol from the body, this report examined the effect of CCK on increasing plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in mice. Our data demonstrated that intravenous injection of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK at a dose of 50 ng/kg significantly increased plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels by 22 and 31%, respectively, in fasting low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR(-/- mice. The same dose of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK induced 6 and 13% increases in plasma triglyceride and cholesterol, respectively, in wild-type mice. However, these particular before and after CCK treatment values did not achieve statistical significance. Oral feeding of olive oil further elevated plasma triglycerides, but did not alter plasma cholesterol levels in CCK-treated mice. The increased plasma cholesterol in CCK-treated mice was distributed in very-low, low and high density lipoproteins (VLDL, LDL and HDL with less of an increase in HDL. Correspondingly, the plasma apolipoprotein (apo B48, B100, apoE and apoAI levels were significantly higher in the CCK-treated mice than in untreated control mice. Ligation of the bile duct, blocking CCK receptors with proglumide or inhibition of Niemann-Pick C1 Like 1 transporter with ezetimibe reduced the hypercholesterolemic effect of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK in LDLR(-/- mice. These findings suggest that CCK-increased plasma cholesterol and triglycerides as a result of the reabsorption of biliary lipids from the intestine.

  9. Using Airborne SAR Interferometry to Measure the Elevation of a Greenland Ice Cap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Keller, K.; Madsen, S.N.

    2000-01-01

    A digital elevation model (DEM) of an ice cap in Greenland has been generated from airborne SAR interferometry data, calibrated with a new algorithm, and compared with airborne laser altimetry profiles and carrier-phase differential GPS measurements of radar reflectors deployed on the ice cap...

  10. Elevated oxidative stress among coronary artery disease patients on statin therapy: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabitha Palazhy

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions: Though coronary artery disease subjects had healthy lipid profile, oxidative stress, a recognized risk factor for coronary events, was still elevated among this patient group. Novel risk factors were not found to be major predictors for coronary artery disease among the study subjects.

  11. Comparison of digital elevation models and relevant derived attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinchuan; Zhang, Youjing; Jin, Xiuliang; He, Qiaoning; Zhang, Xiuping

    2017-10-01

    The digital elevation model (DEM) and its derivative attributes are important parameters for evaluating any process using digital terrain analysis. Five freely available global DEM products including Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer-Global Digital Elevation Model version 2 (ASTER GDEM2), Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission version 4.1 (SRTM V4.1), Global Multiresolution Terrain Elevation Data 2010 (GMTED2010), EarthEnv-DEM90, and Global 30 Arc-Second Elevation (GTOPO30) were assessed in this study. The objective of this study was to compare the differences of elevations, slopes, and topographic wetness indices (TWIs) derived from these five DEM products. SRTM V4.1 showed a better accuracy [root mean square error (RMSE)=4.87 m] than ASTER GDEM2 (RMSE=7.08 m) based on ICESat/GLAS (the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite/Geoscience Laser Altimeter System) laser altimetry points. ICESat/GLAS data were then selected as the benchmark to rectify the SRTM V4.1 data using the simple kriging (SK) interpolation method. The corrected high-accuracy SRTM V4.1 data (RMSE=1.14 m) were then regarded as the reference data. EarthEnv-DEM90 displayed the best accuracy in the DEM and slope, whereas the TWI accuracy of GMTED2010 was best. The accuracy of topographic attributes was sensitive to the roughness of the terrain. DEM and slope displayed a larger error variance as the elevation increased. DEM was sensitive to the data source and slope was sensitive to the data source and spatial resolution. TWI was influenced by data source and spatial resolution. As the spatial resolution decreased, the differences of topographic attributes tended to decrease.

  12. The effect of pressurization path on high pressure gas forming of Ti-3Al-2.5V at elevated temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Gang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High pressure gas forming is a tubular component forming technology with pressurized gas at elevated temperature, based on QPF, HMGF and Hydroforming. This process can be used to form tube blank at lower temperatures with high energy efficiency and also at higher strain rates. With Ti-3Al-2.5V Ti-alloy tube, the potential of HPGF was studied further through experiments at the elevated temperatures of 650 ∘C and 700 ∘C. In order to know the formability of the Ti-alloy tube, tensile tests were also carried out. The results show that: at the temperatures of 650 ∘C and 700 ∘C, the flow curves exhibit the power-law constitutive relation until peak stress is reached and the deformability is suitable for the HPGF process of Ti-3Al-2.5V alloy tube. The effects of pressurization path on the corner filling process and thickness profile are obvious. The high pressure inflow process can result in temperature difference between the straight wall area and corner area, which makes the thickness profile special. Besides, with the stepped pressurization path, the more constant filling rate and better thickness profile can be obtained.

  13. Fecal estrone sulfate profile of a sow showing abnormal pregnancy with fetal mummification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtaki, T; Moriyoshi, M; Nakada, K; Nakao, T

    2000-03-01

    Fecal and plasma E1S of a sow with mummified fetuses, was compared with normal delivery cases. Fecal and plasma fluctuation patterns in E1S were similar. In the sow with fetal mummification both fecal and plasma E1S concentration rapidly decreased after day 80-90 compared to normal farrowing sows. This coincided with the estimated time of fetal death.

  14. Soybean roots grown under heat stress show global changes in their transcriptional and proteomic profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo eValdes-Lopez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress is likely to be a key factor in the negative impact of climate change on crop production. Heat stress significantly influences the functions of roots, which provide support, water and nutrients to other plant organs. Likewise, roots play an important role in the establishment of symbiotic associations with different microorganisms. Despite the physiological relevance of roots, few studies have examined their response to heat stress. In this study, we performed genome-wide transcriptomic and proteomic analyses on isolated root hairs, which are a single, epidermal cell type, and compared their response to stripped roots. On average, we identified 1,849 and 3,091 genes differentially regulated in root hairs and stripped roots, respectively, in response to heat stress. Our gene regulatory module analysis identified ten key modules that might control the majority of the transcriptional response to heat stress. We also conducted proteomic analysis on membrane fractions isolated from root hairs and compared these responses to stripped roots. These experiments identified a variety of proteins whose expression changed within 3 hours of application of heat stress. Most of these proteins were predicted to play a significant role in thermo-tolerance, as well as in chromatin remodeling and post-transcriptional regulation. The data presented represent an in-depth analysis of the heat stress response of a single cell type in soybean.

  15. Plasma lipid profiling shows similar associations with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Meikle

    Full Text Available The relationship between lipid metabolism with prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus is poorly defined. We hypothesized that a lipidomic analysis of plasma lipids might improve the understanding of this relationship. We performed lipidomic analysis measuring 259 individual lipid species, including sphingolipids, phospholipids, glycerolipids and cholesterol esters, on fasting plasma from 117 type 2 diabetes, 64 prediabetes and 170 normal glucose tolerant participants in the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab then validated our findings on 1076 individuals from the San Antonio Family Heart Study (SAFHS. Logistic regression analysis of identified associations with type 2 diabetes (135 lipids and prediabetes (134 lipids, after adjusting for multiple covariates. In addition to the expected associations with diacylglycerol, triacylglycerol and cholesterol esters, type 2 diabetes and prediabetes were positively associated with ceramide, and its precursor dihydroceramide, along with phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol. Significant negative associations were observed with the ether-linked phospholipids alkylphosphatidylcholine and alkenylphosphatidylcholine. Most of the significant associations in the AusDiab cohort (90% were subsequently validated in the SAFHS cohort. The aberration of the plasma lipidome associated with type 2 diabetes is clearly present in prediabetes, prior to the onset of type 2 diabetes. Lipid classes and species associated with type 2 diabetes provide support for a number of existing paradigms of dyslipidemia and suggest new avenues of investigation.

  16. Gene expression profiling in the Cynomolgus macaque Macaca fascicularis shows variation within the normal birth range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickers Mark H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although an adverse early-life environment has been linked to an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome, the molecular mechanisms underlying altered disease susceptibility as well as their relevance to humans are largely unknown. Importantly, emerging evidence suggests that these effects operate within the normal range of birth weights and involve mechanisms of developmental palsticity rather than pathology. Method To explore this further, we utilised a non-human primate model Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus macaque which shares with humans the same progressive history of the metabolic syndrome. Using microarray we compared tissues from neonates in the average birth weight (50-75th centile to those of lower birth weight (5-25th centile and studied the effect of different growth trajectories within the normal range on gene expression levels in the umbilical cord, neonatal liver and skeletal muscle. Results We identified 1973 genes which were differentially expressed in the three tissue types between average and low birth weight animals (P Conclusion These differences in gene expression levels between animals in the upper and lower percentiles of the normal birth weight range may point towards early life metabolic adaptations that in later life result in differences in disease risk.

  17. Incipient ovarian failure and premature ovarian failure show the same immunological profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kasteren, YM; von Blomberg, M; Hoek, A; de Koning, C; Lambalk, N; van Montfrans, J; Kuik, J

    PROBLEM: Incipient ovarian failure (IOF) is characterized by regular menstrual cycles, infertility and a raised early-follicular FSH in women under 40. IOF might be a precursor or a mitigated form of premature ovarian failure (POF). Disturbances in the immune system may play a role in ovarian

  18. Soybean Roots Grown under Heat Stress Show Global Changes in Their Transcriptional and Proteomic Profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdés-López, Oswaldo; Batek, Josef; Gomez-Hernandez, Nicolas; Nguyen, Cuong T.; Isidra-Arellano, Mariel C.; Zhang, Ning; Joshi, Trupti; Xu, Dong; Hixson, Kim K.; Weitz, Karl K.; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Stacey, Gary

    2016-04-25

    Heat stress is likely to be a key factor in the negative impact of climate change on crop production. Roots provide support, water and nutrients to other plant organs. Likewise, roots play an important role in the establishment of symbiotic associations with different microorganisms. Despite the physiological relevance of roots, few studies have examined the response of these plant organs to heat stress. In this study, we performed genome-wide transcriptomic and proteomic analyses on isolated root hairs, which are a single, epidermal cell type, and compared their response to whole roots. We identified 2,013 genes differentially regulated in root hairs in response to heat stress. Our gene regulatory module analysis identified ten, key modules that controlled the majority of the transcriptional response to heat stress. We also conducted proteomic analysis on membrane fractions isolated from roots and root hairs. These experiments identified a variety of proteins whose expression changed within 3 hours of application of heat stress. Most of these proteins were predicted to play a role in thermotolerance, as well as in chromatin remodeling and post-transcriptional regulation. The data presented represent an in-depth analysis of the heat stress response of a single cell type in soybean.

  19. Airborne Vertical Profiling of Mercury Speciation near Tullahoma, TN, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Brooks

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric transport and in situ oxidation are important factors influencing mercury concentrations at the surface and wet and dry deposition rates. Contributions of both natural and anthropogenic processes can significantly impact burdens of mercury on local, regional and global scales. To address these key issues in atmospheric mercury research, airborne measurements of mercury speciation and ancillary parameters were conducted over a region near Tullahoma, Tennessee, USA, from August 2012 to June 2013. Here, for the first time, we present vertical profiles of Hg speciation from aircraft for an annual cycle over the same location. These airborne measurements included gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM and particulate bound mercury (PBM, as well as ozone (O3, sulfur dioxide (SO2, condensation nuclei (CN and meteorological parameters. The flights, each lasting ~3 h, were conducted typically one week out of each month to characterize seasonality in mercury concentrations. Data obtained from 0 to 6 km altitudes show that GEM exhibited a relatively constant vertical profile for all seasons with an average concentration of 1.38 ± 0.17 ng∙m−3. A pronounced seasonality of GOM was observed, with the highest GOM concentrations up to 120 pg∙m−3 in the summer flights and lowest (0–20 pg∙m−3 in the winter flights. Vertical profiles of GOM show the maximum levels at altitudes between 2 and 4 km. Limited PBM measurements exhibit similar levels to GOM at all altitudes. HYSPLIT back trajectories showed that the trajectories for elevated GOM (>70 pg∙m−3 or PBM concentrations (>30 pg∙m−3 were largely associated with air masses coming from west/northwest, while events with low GOM (<20 pg∙m−3 or PBM concentrations (<5 pg∙m−3 were generally associated with winds from a wider range of wind directions. This is the first set of speciated mercury vertical profiles collected in a single location over the course

  20. Diurnal Profiles of Melatonin Synthesis-Related Indoles, Catecholamines and Their Metabolites in the Duck Pineal Organ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Lewczuk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study characterizes the diurnal profiles of ten melatonin synthesis-related indoles, the quantitative relations between these compounds, and daily variations in the contents of catecholamines and their metabolites in the domestic duck pineal organ. Fourteen-week-old birds, which were reared under a 12L:12D cycle, were killed at two-hour intervals. The indole contents were measured using HPLC with fluorescence detection, whereas the levels of catecholamines and their metabolites were measured using HPLC with electrochemical detection. All indole contents, except for tryptophan, showed significant diurnal variations. The 5-hydroxytryptophan level was approximately two-fold higher during the scotophase than during the photophase. The serotonin content increased during the first half of the photophase, remained elevated for approximately 10 h and then rapidly decreased in the middle of the scotophase. N-acetylserotonin showed the most prominent changes, with a more than 15-fold increase at night. The melatonin cycle demonstrated only an approximately 5-fold difference between the peak and nadir. The 5-methoxytryptamine content was markedly elevated during the scotophase. The 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, 5-hydroxytryptophol, 5-methoxyindole acetic acid and 5-methoxytryptophol profiles were analogous to the serotonin rhythm. The norepinephrine and dopamine contents showed no significant changes. The DOPA, DOPAC and homovanillic acid levels were higher during the scotophase than during the photophase. Vanillylmandelic acid showed the opposite rhythm, with an elevated level during the daytime.

  1. Diurnal profiles of melatonin synthesis-related indoles, catecholamines and their metabolites in the duck pineal organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewczuk, Bogdan; Ziółkowska, Natalia; Prusik, Magdalena; Przybylska-Gornowicz, Barbara

    2014-07-16

    This study characterizes the diurnal profiles of ten melatonin synthesis-related indoles, the quantitative relations between these compounds, and daily variations in the contents of catecholamines and their metabolites in the domestic duck pineal organ. Fourteen-week-old birds, which were reared under a 12L:12D cycle, were killed at two-hour intervals. The indole contents were measured using HPLC with fluorescence detection, whereas the levels of catecholamines and their metabolites were measured using HPLC with electrochemical detection. All indole contents, except for tryptophan, showed significant diurnal variations. The 5-hydroxytryptophan level was approximately two-fold higher during the scotophase than during the photophase. The serotonin content increased during the first half of the photophase, remained elevated for approximately 10 h and then rapidly decreased in the middle of the scotophase. N-acetylserotonin showed the most prominent changes, with a more than 15-fold increase at night. The melatonin cycle demonstrated only an approximately 5-fold difference between the peak and nadir. The 5-methoxytryptamine content was markedly elevated during the scotophase. The 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, 5-hydroxytryptophol, 5-methoxyindole acetic acid and 5-methoxytryptophol profiles were analogous to the serotonin rhythm. The norepinephrine and dopamine contents showed no significant changes. The DOPA, DOPAC and homovanillic acid levels were higher during the scotophase than during the photophase. Vanillylmandelic acid showed the opposite rhythm, with an elevated level during the daytime.

  2. Diurnal Profiles of Melatonin Synthesis-Related Indoles, Catecholamines and Their Metabolites in the Duck Pineal Organ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewczuk, Bogdan; Ziółkowska, Natalia; Prusik, Magdalena; Przybylska-Gornowicz, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This study characterizes the diurnal profiles of ten melatonin synthesis-related indoles, the quantitative relations between these compounds, and daily variations in the contents of catecholamines and their metabolites in the domestic duck pineal organ. Fourteen-week-old birds, which were reared under a 12L:12D cycle, were killed at two-hour intervals. The indole contents were measured using HPLC with fluorescence detection, whereas the levels of catecholamines and their metabolites were measured using HPLC with electrochemical detection. All indole contents, except for tryptophan, showed significant diurnal variations. The 5-hydroxytryptophan level was approximately two-fold higher during the scotophase than during the photophase. The serotonin content increased during the first half of the photophase, remained elevated for approximately 10 h and then rapidly decreased in the middle of the scotophase. N-acetylserotonin showed the most prominent changes, with a more than 15-fold increase at night. The melatonin cycle demonstrated only an approximately 5-fold difference between the peak and nadir. The 5-methoxytryptamine content was markedly elevated during the scotophase. The 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, 5-hydroxytryptophol, 5-methoxyindole acetic acid and 5-methoxytryptophol profiles were analogous to the serotonin rhythm. The norepinephrine and dopamine contents showed no significant changes. The DOPA, DOPAC and homovanillic acid levels were higher during the scotophase than during the photophase. Vanillylmandelic acid showed the opposite rhythm, with an elevated level during the daytime. PMID:25032843

  3. National requirements for improved elevation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Gregory I.; Sugarbaker, Larry J.; Jason, Allyson L.; Maune, David F.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the results of surveys, structured interviews, and workshops conducted to identify key national requirements for improved elevation data for the United States and its territories, including coastlines. Organizations also identified and reported the expected economic benefits that would be realized if their requirements for improved elevation were met (appendixes 1–3). This report describes the data collection methodology and summarizes the findings. Participating organizations included 34 Federal agencies, 50 States and two territories, and a sampling of local governments, tribes, and nongovernmental orgnizations. The nongovernmental organizations included The Nature Conservancy and a sampling of private sector businesses. These data were collected in 2010-2011 as part of the National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA), a study to identify program alternatives for better meeting the Nation’s elevation data needs. NEEA tasks included the collection of national elevation requirements; analysis of the benefits and costs of meeting these requirements; assessment of emerging elevation technologies, lifecycle data management needs, and costs for managing and distributing a national-scale dataset and derived products; and candidate national elevation program alternatives that balance costs and benefits in meeting the Nation’s elevation requirements. The NEEA was sponsored by the National Digital Elevation Program (NDEP), a government coordination body with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as managing partner that includes the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), among the more than a dozen agencies and organizations. The term enhanced elevation data as used in this report refers broadly to three-dimensional measurements of land or

  4. Profiling and Racial Profiling: An Interactive Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Racial Profiling has been recognized as a serious problem that affects many segments of our society and is especially notable in law enforcement. Governments and police services have pronounced that racial profiling is not acceptable and will not be tolerated. They have gone to great lengths in trying to eradicate racial profiling through…

  5. 77 FR 76916 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... referenced Depth in feet Communities affected elevation above ground Elevation in meters (MSL) modified Cobb... Mountain Creek confluence. * National Geodetic Vertical Datum. + North American Vertical Datum. Depth in... At the Hurricane Creek +975 Unincorporated Areas of confluence. Douglas County. Approximately 1,200...

  6. 75 FR 19328 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ...) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) Location of referenced Depth in feet above Flooding source(s) elevation ground... upstream of the confluence with Gray Creek. Hurricane Creek (Backwater effects From the confluence None... Geodetic Vertical Datum. + North American Vertical Datum. Depth in feet above ground. Mean Sea Level...

  7. 77 FR 46980 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... are amended as follows: * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) # Depth Flooding source...-1207 Hurricane Creek Approximately 500 feet +125 Town of Clarks, Village downstream of the of Grayson. railroad. Approximately 0.66 mile +160 upstream of State Highway 126. Hurricane Creek/Branch 2-3...

  8. 78 FR 29652 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... referenced Depth in feet Communities affected elevation above ground Elevation in meters (MSL) Modified... Smalling +85 Road. Hurricane Creek Just downstream of I-20.. +79 Unincorporated Areas of Richland Parish... downstream of Jaggers Lane. * National Geodetic Vertical Datum. + North American Vertical Datum. Depth in...

  9. 77 FR 18766 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... Incorporated Areas * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) Depth in feet above Flooding source(s... Cass upstream of U.S. Route County. 59. Hurricane Creek Approximately 250 feet None +237 Unincorporated... Datum. + North American Vertical Datum. Depth in feet above ground. Mean Sea Level, rounded to the...

  10. 76 FR 46701 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... follows: * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) Depth in feet above State City/town/county... Datum. + North American Vertical Datum. Depth in feet above ground. Mean Sea Level, rounded to the... Areas of Caldwell Parish, Louisiana Louisiana Unincorporated Areas of Hurricane Creek/Branch 2-3...

  11. 77 FR 76929 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... as follows: * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) Depth in feet Flooding source(s.... Approximately 1,390 feet +510 upstream of Berry Lane. Hurricane Creek (backwater effects from Approximately 0.75... County. ] Approximately 0.8 mile +381 upstream of County Road 13. Hurricane Creek I (backwater effects...

  12. 76 FR 21695 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... follows: * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) Location of referenced Depth in feet above... +608 of Williams Avenue Southwest. Hurricane Creek Approximately 0.9 mile None +612 Town of Gurley... Meadow Road Northwest. * National Geodetic Vertical Datum. + North American Vertical Datum. Depth in feet...

  13. Vibration analysis of an elevated railway track

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Courage, W.M.G.; Staalduinen, P.C. van; Ruiter, B. de

    1996-01-01

    The results of a study are described with respect to the vibration analysis of an elevated railway track. In this study a numerical model was developed. This model is validated and tuned by means of measurements. For a new elevated railway track in design stage, the model is used for calculating the

  14. 76 FR 58436 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... Road. Waiakea Stream/Waiakea Flood Control Approximately 460 feet 53 54 Hawaii County. Channel... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities...

  15. 76 FR 73534 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... Tulare County, California California Unincorporated Areas of Lake Kaweah Entire shoreline None +722 Tulare County. California Unincorporated Areas of Middle Fork Kaweah River Approximately 1.0 mile... follows: * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) Depth in feet above State City/town/county...

  16. 75 FR 61377 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    .... West Clarks Run. At the northern county None +941 boundary. Ohio River Approximately 60 feet None +690... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities...

  17. 77 FR 76420 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... County, West Virginia, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1229 Big Sandy River At the Ohio River... Agency 44 CFR Part 67 [Docket ID FEMA-2012-0003] Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations...

  18. 75 FR 29219 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... Boulevard, Louisa, KY 41230. Meade County, Kentucky, and Incorporated Areas Ohio River Approximately 2.8... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities...

  19. 76 FR 8978 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... from ly 1.0 mile of Chariton Missouri River). downstream County. of Ohio Road to approximate ly 825... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities...

  20. 76 FR 10253 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... Areas of Lockwood Ditch. Vanderburgh County. At State Road 66 +389 Ohio River Approximately 7.3 miles... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Docket ID FEMA-2010-0003 Final Flood Elevation...-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs are made final for the communities listed below. The...

  1. Acute Pancreatitis Associated with Elevated Troponin Levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    becomes debatable. To the best of our knowledge, there are no such reported cases in the medical literature of acute pancreatitis with non ST‑segment elevation myocardial infarction. The most common cause of elevated troponin levels in the absence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is the myocyte‑necrosis, mainly.

  2. High elevation white pines educational website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna W. Schoettle; Michele Laskowski

    2011-01-01

    The high elevation five-needle white pines are facing numerous challenges ranging from climate change to invasion by a non-native pathogen to escalation of pest outbreaks. This website (http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/highelevationwhitepines/) serves as a primer for managers and the public on the high elevation North American five-needle pines. It presents information on each...

  3. Character profiles and life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hwanjin; Suh, Byung Seong; Kim, Won Sool; Lee, Hye-Kyung; Park, Seon-Cheol; Lee, Kounseok

    2015-04-01

    There is a surge of interest in subjective well-being (SWB), which concerns how individuals feel about their happiness. Life satisfaction tends to be influenced by individual psychological traits and external social factors. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between individual character and SWB. Data from 3522 university students were analyzed in this study. Character profiles were evaluated using the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised Short version (TCI-RS). Life satisfaction was assessed using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). All statistical tests regarding the correlations between each character profile and life satisfaction were conducted using ANOVAs, t-tests, multiple linear regression models and correlation analyses. The creative (SCT) profile was associated with the highest levels of life satisfaction, whereas the depressive (sct) profile was associated with the lowest levels of life satisfaction. Additionally, high self-directedness, self-transcendence and cooperation were associated with high life satisfaction. The results of gender-adjusted multiple regression analysis showed that the effects of self-directedness were the strongest in the assessment of one's quality of life, followed by self-transcendence and cooperativeness, in that order. All of the three-character profiles were significantly correlated with one's quality of life, and the character profiles of TCI-RS explained 27.6% of life satisfaction in total. Among the three-character profiles, the self-directedness profile was most associated with life satisfaction. Our study was cross-sectional, and self-reported data from students at a single university were analyzed. The results of this study showed that, among the character profiles, the effects of self-directedness were the strongest for predicting life satisfaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Predictors of Intramyocardial Hemorrhage After Reperfused ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amier, R.P.; Tijssen, R.Y.G.; Teunissen, P.F.A.; Fernandez-Jimenez, R.; Pizarro, G.; Garcia-Lunar, I.; Bastante, T.; Ven, P.M. van de; Beek, A.M.; Smulders, M.W.; Bekkers, S.C.; Royen, N. van; Ibanez, B.; Nijveldt, R.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Findings from recent studies show that microvascular injury consists of microvascular destruction and intramyocardial hemorrhage (IMH). Patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) with IMH show poorer prognoses than patients without IMH. Knowledge on predictors for

  5. The benefits of improved national elevation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Gregory I.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes how the National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA) has identified substantial benefits that could come about if improved elevation data were publicly available for current and emerging applications and business uses such as renewable energy, precision agriculture, and intelligent vehicle navigation and safety. In order to support these diverse needs, new national elevation data with higher resolution and accuracy are needed. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative was developed to meet the majority of these needs and it is expected that 3DEP will result in new, unimagined information services that would result in job growth and the transformation of the geospatial community. Private-sector data collection companies are continuously evolving sensors and positioning technologies that are needed to collect improved elevation data. An initiative of this scope might also provide an opportunity for companies to improve their capabilities and produce even higher data quality and consistency at a pace that might not have otherwise occurred.

  6. Elevational Distribution and Conservation Biogeography of Phanaeine Dung Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Sebastian K.; Hamel-Leigue, A. Caroli; Larsen, Trond H.; Mann, Darren J.; Soria-Auza, Rodrigo W.; Gill, Bruce D.; Edmonds, W. D.; Spector, Sacha

    2013-01-01

    Insect macroecology and conservation biogeography studies are disproportionately scarce, especially in the Neotropics. Dung beetles are an ideal focal taxon for biodiversity research and conservation. Using distribution and body size data on the ecologically important Phanaeini, the best-known Neotropical dung beetle tribe, we determined elevational patterns of species richness, endemism, body size, and elevational range in Bolivia, specifically testing Bergmann’s and Rapoport’s rule. Richness of all 39 species and of 15 ecoregional endemics showed a hump-shaped pattern peaking at 400 m, but overall declined strongly with elevation up to 4000 m. The relationship between endemic and total species richness appeared to be curvilinear, providing only partial support for the null hypothesis that species-rich areas are more likely to be centers of endemism by chance alone. An elevational increase in the proportion of ecoregional endemics suggests that deterministic factors also appear to influence endemism in the Andes. When controlling for the effect of area using different species-area relationships, the statistically significant richness peak became more pronounced and shifted upslope to 750 m. Larger species did not have higher elevational mid-points, and mean body size decreased significantly with elevation, contradicting Bergmann’s rule. Rapoport’s rule was supported: species with higher elevational mid-points had broader elevational ranges, and mean elevational range increased significantly with elevation. The elevational decrease of phanaeine richness is in accordance with studies that demonstrated the combined influence of temperature and water availability on species diversity, but also is consistent with niche conservatism. For invertebrates, confirmation of Rapoport’s and refutation of Bergmann’s rule appear to be scale-invariant general patterns. Analyses of biogeographic patterns across elevational gradients can provide important insights for

  7. Elevational distribution and conservation biogeography of phanaeine dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Sebastian K; Hamel-Leigue, A Caroli; Larsen, Trond H; Mann, Darren J; Soria-Auza, Rodrigo W; Gill, Bruce D; Edmonds, W D; Spector, Sacha

    2013-01-01

    Insect macroecology and conservation biogeography studies are disproportionately scarce, especially in the Neotropics. Dung beetles are an ideal focal taxon for biodiversity research and conservation. Using distribution and body size data on the ecologically important Phanaeini, the best-known Neotropical dung beetle tribe, we determined elevational patterns of species richness, endemism, body size, and elevational range in Bolivia, specifically testing Bergmann's and Rapoport's rule. Richness of all 39 species and of 15 ecoregional endemics showed a hump-shaped pattern peaking at 400 m, but overall declined strongly with elevation up to 4000 m. The relationship between endemic and total species richness appeared to be curvilinear, providing only partial support for the null hypothesis that species-rich areas are more likely to be centers of endemism by chance alone. An elevational increase in the proportion of ecoregional endemics suggests that deterministic factors also appear to influence endemism in the Andes. When controlling for the effect of area using different species-area relationships, the statistically significant richness peak became more pronounced and shifted upslope to 750 m. Larger species did not have higher elevational mid-points, and mean body size decreased significantly with elevation, contradicting Bergmann's rule. Rapoport's rule was supported: species with higher elevational mid-points had broader elevational ranges, and mean elevational range increased significantly with elevation. The elevational decrease of phanaeine richness is in accordance with studies that demonstrated the combined influence of temperature and water availability on species diversity, but also is consistent with niche conservatism. For invertebrates, confirmation of Rapoport's and refutation of Bergmann's rule appear to be scale-invariant general patterns. Analyses of biogeographic patterns across elevational gradients can provide important insights for identifying

  8. Varied growth response of cogongrass ecotypes to elevated CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Brett Runion

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cogongrass [Imperata cylindrica (L. P. Beauv] is an invasive C4 perennial grass which is listed as one of the top ten worst weeds in the world and is a major problem in the Southeast US. Five cogongrass ecotypes (Florida, Hybrid, Louisiana, Mobile, and North Alabama collected across the Southeast and a red-tip ornamental variety were container grown for six months in open top chambers under ambient and elevated (ambient plus 200 ppm atmospheric CO2. Elevated CO2 increased average dry weight (13% which is typical for grasses. Elevated CO2 increased height growth and both nitrogen and water use efficiencies, but lowered tissue nitrogen concentration; again, these are typical plant responses to elevated CO2. The hybrid ecotype tended to exhibit the greatest growth (followed by Louisiana, North Alabama, and Florida ecotypes while the red-tip and Mobile ecotypes were smallest. Interactions of CO2 with ecotype generally showed that the hybrid, Louisiana, Florida, and/or North Alabama ecotypes showed a positive response to CO2 while the Mobile and red-tip ecotypes did not. Cogongrass is a problematic invasive weed in the southeastern U.S. and some ecotypes may become more so as atmospheric CO2 continues to rise.

  9. Suppressive effect of resistant maltodextrin on postprandial blood triacylglycerol elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Yuka; Oga, Hiroshi; Tagami, Hiroyuki; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Gordon, Dennis T

    2007-04-01

    As the physiological functions of soluble dietary fibre, the favourable efficacy, such as attenuating the absorption of saccharides or lipids, is expected. Resistant maltodextrin, a soluble dietary fibre, was investigated and found that it delays the glucose absorption and attenuates the postprandial rise in the blood glucose levels, however, the efficacy of resistant maltodextrin on lipid metabolism is not yet reported. We conducted an animal experiment and a human experiment to investigate the effect of resistant maltodextrin on postprandial blood triacylglycerol elevation. 1. Rats were fed corn oil with or without resistant maltodextrin and the postprandial changes in triacylglycerol were examined. 2. We then conducted a dietary loading experiment on 13 healthy adult male and female subjects using a meal containing approximately 50 g fat. A beverage not containing resistant maltodextrin was used as a placebo; subjects consumed the loading meal and a beverage containing either 5 g or 10 g resistant maltodextrin; blood was periodically collected to see the changes in serum constituents. 1. The corn oil administration experiment using rats showed that resistant maltodextrin dose-dependently suppressed elevation of blood triacylglycerol levels after corn oil administration. 2. The dietary loading experiment on 13 healthy subjects with 5 or 10 g of resistant maltodextrin showed that; in each administration group, resistant maltodextrin significantly suppressed postprandial elevation of blood triacylglycerol, RLP-cholesterol and insulin. These results indicate that resistant maltodextrin ingested with fatty meals suppresses the postprandial elevation of blood triacylglycerol levels.

  10. Continuous and optimized 3-arcsecond elevation model for the United States east coast (32-bit GeoTiff, geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Investigations of coastal change and coastal resources often require continuous elevation profiles from the seafloor to coastal terrestrial landscapes. Differences...

  11. Continuous and optimized 3-arcsecond elevation model for the United States west coast (32-bit GeoTiff, geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Investigations of coastal change and coastal resources often require continuous elevation profiles from the seafloor to coastal terrestrial landscapes. Differences...

  12. Anger profiles in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versella, Mark V; Piccirillo, Marilyn L; Potter, Carrie M; Olino, Thomas M; Heimberg, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) exhibit elevated levels of anger and anger suppression, which are both associated with increased depression, diminished quality of life, and poorer treatment outcomes. However, little is known about how anger experiences differ among individuals with SAD and whether any heterogeneity might relate to negative outcomes. This investigation sought to empirically define anger profiles among 136 treatment-seeking individuals with SAD and to assess their association with distress and impairment. A latent class analysis was conducted utilizing the trait subscales of the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 as indicators of class membership. Analysis revealed four distinct anger profiles, with greatest distress and impairment generally demonstrated by individuals with elevated trait anger, a greater tendency to suppress the expression of anger, and diminished ability to adaptively control their anger expression. These results have implications for tailoring more effective interventions for socially anxious individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Elevated CO2 enhances biological contributions to elevation change in coastal wetlands by offsetting stressors associated with sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Grace, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    1. Sea-level rise, one indirect consequence of increasing atmospheric CO2, poses a major challenge to long-term stability of coastal wetlands. An important question is whether direct effects of elevated CO 2 on the capacity of marsh plants to accrete organic material and to maintain surface elevations outweigh indirect negative effects of stressors associated with sea-level rise (salinity and flooding). 2. In this study, we used a mesocosm approach to examine potential direct and indirect effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration, salinity and flooding on elevation change in a brackish marsh community dominated by a C3 species, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a C4 grass, Spartina patens. This experimental design permitted identification of mechanisms and their role in controlling elevation change, and the development of models that can be tested in the field. 3. To test hypotheses related to CO2 and sea-level rise, we used conventional anova procedures in conjunction with structural equation modelling (SEM). SEM explained 78% of the variability in elevation change and showed the direct, positive effect of S. americanus production on elevation. The SEM indicated that C3 plant response was influenced by interactive effects between CO2 and salinity on plant growth, not a direct CO2 fertilization effect. Elevated CO2 ameliorated negative effects of salinity on S. americanus and enhanced biomass contribution to elevation. 4. The positive relationship between S. americanus production and elevation change can be explained by shoot-base expansion under elevated CO 2 conditions, which led to vertical soil displacement. While the response of this species may differ under other environmental conditions, shoot-base expansion and the general contribution of C3 plant production to elevation change may be an important mechanism contributing to soil expansion and elevation gain in other coastal wetlands. 5. Synthesis. Our results revealed previously unrecognized interactions and

  14. Validating Flood Mapping Products Using a Digital Elevation Model Comparison Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayne, J.

    2014-12-01

    This preliminary study assessed the validity of a pixel analysis elevation comparison technique and determined necessary steps for improvement. The pixel analysis sought to assess the probability of a flood occurring in a particular area by comparing the spatial extent of flood mapping products to the local elevation. The method was developed to determine if the physical relationship between elevation and floods as shown in satellite images is accurately represented in a flood mapping product. The data incorporated in this study are raster digital elevation model (DEM) tiles, a scene from Landsat 5 during a flood period, and a scene from the NASA DEVELOP Flood Disasters Team Flood Product. Pixels representing flooded areas were compared to the elevation height pixels using horizontal transect lines to create pixel value profiles across a 727 km transect of Vietnam and Cambodia. The elevation model comparison validates the Flood Product by depicting water presence in alignment with areas of low elevation. Initial findings indicate that the technique can be used to improve the assessment of flood mapping products in transects less than 10 km. Future research will focus on streamlining the pixel analysis process to yield comprehensive results for larger areas.

  15. Elevated tumour marker: an indication for imaging?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMahon, Colm J

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of imaging examinations in patients with elevated tumour markers when (a) the tumour marker is not validated for as a primary diagnostic test; (b) the patient had no personal history of cancer and (c) the patient had no other imaging indication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients without known cancer who had abnormal carcinoembryonic antigen, CA19-9, CA125 and\\/or CA15-3 serology over a one-year period were included. A retrospective medical record review was performed to assess the number of these cases who underwent imaging because of \\'elevated tumour marker\\' in the absence of a clinical indication for imaging. The number and result of these imaging studies were evaluated. RESULTS: Eight hundred and nineteen patients were included. Of those, 25 patients (mean age: 67.8 [range 41-91] y), were imaged to evaluate: \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. They underwent 29 imaging studies (mean [+\\/-standard deviation (SD)] per patient = 1.2 [+\\/-0.4]), and had 42 elevated tumour marker serology tests (mean [+\\/-SD] per patient = 1.7 [+\\/-0.7]). Four patients had >1 imaging test. No patient had an imaging study which diagnosed a malignancy or explained the elevated tumour marker. CONCLUSION: The non-judicious use of tumour markers can prompt further unnecessary investigations including imaging. In this study, there was no positive diagnostic yield for imaging performed for investigation of \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. \\'Elevated tumour marker\\

  16. Distinct soil bacterial communities along a small-scale elevational gradient in alpine tundra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congcong eShen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The elevational diversity pattern for microorganisms has received great attention recently but is still understudied, and phylogenetic relatedness is rarely studied for microbial elevational distributions. Using a bar-coded pyrosequencing technique, we examined the biodiversity patterns for soil bacterial communities of tundra ecosystem along 2000–2500 m elevations on Changbai Mountain in China. Bacterial taxonomic richness displayed a linear decreasing trend with increasing elevation. Phylogenetic diversity and mean nearest taxon distance (MNTD exhibited a unimodal pattern with elevation. Bacterial communities were more phylogenetically clustered than expected by chance at all elevations based on the standardized effect size of MNTD metric. The bacterial communities differed dramatically among elevations, and the community composition was significantly correlated with soil total carbon, total nitrogen, C:N ratio, and dissolved organic carbon. Multiple ordinary least squares regression analysis showed that the observed biodiversity patterns strongly correlated with soil total carbon and C:N ratio. Taken together, this is the first time that a significant bacterial diversity pattern has been observed across a small-scale elevational gradient. Our results indicated that soil carbon and nitrogen contents were the critical environmental factors affecting bacterial elevational distribution in Changbai Mountain tundra. This suggested that ecological niche-based environmental filtering processes related to soil carbon and nitrogen contents could play a dominant role in structuring bacterial communities along the elevational gradient.

  17. CryoTop - CryoSat-2 swath elevation and derived Digital Elevation Models and rates of elevation change products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourmelen, N.; Hogg, A.; Escorihuela, M. J.; Wuite, J.; Nagler, T.; Roca, M.; Shepherd, A.; Drinkwater, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Reference and repeat-observations of ice sheet margin topography is critical to identify changes in ice thickness, provide estimates of mass gain or loss and thus quantify the contribution of the cryosphere to sea level change. The ESA Altimetry mission CryoSat-2 aims at gaining better insight into the evolution of the cryosphere, in particular over the steep slopes typically found along ice sheet margins where the majority of the mass loss is taking place. CryoSat's revolutionary design features a Synthetic Interferometric Radar Altimeter (SIRAL), with two antennas for interferometry, the corresponding SAR Interferometer (SARIn) mode of operation increases spatial resolution while resolving the angular origin of off-nadir echoes occurring over sloping terrain. The SARIn mode is activated over ice sheet margins and the elevation for the Point Of Closest Approach (POCA), or level-2, is a standard product of the CryoSat-2 mission. CryoSat-2 SARIn mode allows a new approach for more comprehensively exploiting the CryoSat-2 record and produce ice elevation and elevation change with enhanced spatial resolution compared to standard CryoSat-2 level-2 products. In this so-called CryoSat-2 Swath SARIn (CSSARIn) approach, the entire waveform is analysed providing elevation beyond the POCA, leading to between 1 and 2 orders of magnitude more elevation measurements than conventional level-2 product. As part of the European Space Agency project CryoTop Evolution we are generating CSSARIn elevation, Digital Elevation Models and maps of rates of surface elevation change over the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets. These products will be generated and distributed to the community. Here we will present the methods and quality assessment of the products as well as showcase examples of the added value of the products.

  18. The Physics of Equestrian Show Jumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinner, Art

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the kinematics and dynamics of equestrian show jumping. For some time I have attended a series of show jumping events at Spruce Meadows, an international equestrian center near Calgary, Alberta, often referred to as the "Wimbledon of equestrian jumping." I have always had a desire to write an article such as this…

  19. Plant invasion and speciation along elevational gradients on the oceanic island La Palma, Canary Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinbauer, Manuel; Irl, Severin David Howard; González-Mancebo, Juana Maria

    2017-01-01

    systematically along three elevational gradients covering large parts of the climatic range of La Palma, Canary Islands. Results: Species richness was negatively correlated with elevation, while the percentage of Canary endemic species showed a positive relationship. However, the percentage of Canary...... from high elevations indicating directional ecological filtering. Increasing ecological isolation with elevation drives diversification and thus increased percentages of Canary endemics. The best preserved eastern transect, including mature laurel forests is an exception. The high percentage of Canary......-Madeira endemics indicates the cloud forest’s environmental uniqueness – and thus ecological isolation - beyond the Macaronesian islands....

  20. Elevated Temperature and Allelopathy Impact Coral Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritson-Williams, Raphael; Ross, Cliff; Paul, Valerie J

    2016-01-01

    As climate change continues to alter seawater temperature and chemistry on a global scale, coral reefs show multiple signs of degradation. One natural process that could facilitate the recovery of reef ecosystems is coral recruitment, which can be influenced by the benthic organisms in a local habitat. We experimentally tested both a global stressor (increased seawater temperature) and a local stressor (exposure to microcolin A, a natural product from a common marine benthic cyanobacterium) to determine how these stressors impacted coral larval sublethal stress, survival and settlement. Larvae of Porites astreoides had the same survival and settlement as the controls after exposure to increased temperature alone, but elevated temperature did cause oxidative stress. When exposed to natural concentrations of microcolin A, larval survival and settlement were significantly reduced. When larvae were exposed to these two stressors sequentially there was no interactive effect; but when exposed to both stressors simultaneously, there was a synergistic reduction in larval survival and an increase in oxidative stress more than in either stressor treatment alone. Increased seawater temperatures made larvae more susceptible to a concurrent local stressor disrupting a key process of coral reef recovery and resilience. These results highlight the importance of understanding how interactive stressors of varying spatial scales can impact coral demographics.

  1. Elevated Temperature and Allelopathy Impact Coral Recruitment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Ritson-Williams

    Full Text Available As climate change continues to alter seawater temperature and chemistry on a global scale, coral reefs show multiple signs of degradation. One natural process that could facilitate the recovery of reef ecosystems is coral recruitment, which can be influenced by the benthic organisms in a local habitat. We experimentally tested both a global stressor (increased seawater temperature and a local stressor (exposure to microcolin A, a natural product from a common marine benthic cyanobacterium to determine how these stressors impacted coral larval sublethal stress, survival and settlement. Larvae of Porites astreoides had the same survival and settlement as the controls after exposure to increased temperature alone, but elevated temperature did cause oxidative stress. When exposed to natural concentrations of microcolin A, larval survival and settlement were significantly reduced. When larvae were exposed to these two stressors sequentially there was no interactive effect; but when exposed to both stressors simultaneously, there was a synergistic reduction in larval survival and an increase in oxidative stress more than in either stressor treatment alone. Increased seawater temperatures made larvae more susceptible to a concurrent local stressor disrupting a key process of coral reef recovery and resilience. These results highlight the importance of understanding how interactive stressors of varying spatial scales can impact coral demographics.

  2. Elevation changes measured on Svalbard glaciers and ice caps from airborne laser data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.; Bamber, J.L.; Krabill, W.; Raper, V.; Dowdeswell, J.A.

    Precise airborne laser surveys were conducted during spring in 1996 and 2002 on 17 ice caps and glaciers in the Svalbard archipelago covering the islands of Spitsbergen and Nordaustlandet. We present the derived elevation changes. Lower-elevation glaciers in south Spitsbergen show the largest

  3. MATERNAL HEMOLYSIS, ELEVATED LIVER-ENZYMES AND LOW PLATELETS SYNDROME - SPECIFIC PROBLEMS IN THE NEWBORN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    EELTINK, CM; VANLINGEN, RA; AARNOUDSE, JG; DERKS, JB; OKKEN, A

    To evaluate the effects of maternal haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome on the fetus and neonate we retrospectively investigated the outcome of 87 pregnancies. All women showed thrombocytopenia, elevated liver enzymes and haemolysis. None of them died. Nine infants

  4. Disentangling the drivers of ß diversity along latitudinal and elevational gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Nathan J. B.; Comita, Liza S.; Chase, Jonathan M.

    2011-01-01

    that sampling alone predicts changes in ß diversity caused simply by changes in the sizes of species pools. For example, forest inventories sampled along latitudinal and elevational gradients show the well-documented pattern that ß diversity is higher in the tropics and at low elevations. However, after...

  5. Combined anterior and inferior ST segment elevation during the exercise stress testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygul, Nazif; Ozdemir, Kurtulus; Aydin, Meryem Ulku; Duzenli, Mehmet Akif

    2008-11-28

    Exercise induced ST elevation, especially in anterior derivations, does localize the ischemic region. We describe a patient who presented with exercise induced ST elevation in both anterior and inferior leads without prior myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography showed a "wrap around LAD" with significant proximal lesion.

  6. Voyeurismo Televisivo, Reality Shows e Brasilidade Televisiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Kilpp

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years we watched a boom of reality shows in the media and also in the academic production specialized in this subject. It remains, however, a epistemological gap related to the aesthetic and techniques (which are related to the televisions grammars that TV uses in these programs to enunciate ethics directions to its own voyeurism, that goes far beyond reality shows, having repercussions on social imaginary of transparency and surveillance, and the redesign of public and private spaces. In this gap, the article points out the debate of Brazilian reality shows in the perspective of the televisions grammars.

  7. Recommendations for processing atmospheric attenuated backscatter profiles from Vaisala CL31 ceilometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotthaus, Simone; O'Connor, Ewan; Münkel, Christoph; Charlton-Perez, Cristina; Haeffelin, Martial; Gabey, Andrew M.; Grimmond, C. Sue B.

    2016-08-01

    Ceilometer lidars are used for cloud base height detection, to probe aerosol layers in the atmosphere (e.g. detection of elevated layers of Saharan dust or volcanic ash), and to examine boundary layer dynamics. Sensor optics and acquisition algorithms can strongly influence the observed attenuated backscatter profiles; therefore, physical interpretation of the profiles requires careful application of corrections. This study addresses the widely deployed Vaisala CL31 ceilometer. Attenuated backscatter profiles are studied to evaluate the impact of both the hardware generation and firmware version. In response to this work and discussion within the CL31/TOPROF user community (TOPROF, European COST Action aiming to harmonise ground-based remote sensing networks across Europe), Vaisala released new firmware (versions 1.72 and 2.03) for the CL31 sensors. These firmware versions are tested against previous versions, showing that several artificial features introduced by the data processing have been removed. Hence, it is recommended to use this recent firmware for analysing attenuated backscatter profiles. To allow for consistent processing of historic data, correction procedures have been developed that account for artefacts detected in data collected with older firmware. Furthermore, a procedure is proposed to determine and account for the instrument-related background signal from electronic and optical components. This is necessary for using attenuated backscatter observations from any CL31 ceilometer. Recommendations are made for the processing of attenuated backscatter observed with Vaisala CL31 sensors, including the estimation of noise which is not provided in the standard CL31 output. After taking these aspects into account, attenuated backscatter profiles from Vaisala CL31 ceilometers are considered capable of providing valuable information for a range of applications including atmospheric boundary layer studies, detection of elevated aerosol layers, and model

  8. Diabetes Drug Shows Promise Against Parkinson's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_167612.html Diabetes Drug Shows Promise Against Parkinson's Byetta improved symptoms of motor disease in small, ... may do double duty as a treatment for Parkinson's disease, a new study suggests. "This is a ...

  9. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  10. Career development at London Vet Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-03

    Are you considering a career change? Perhaps you want help to develop within your current role? Either way, you will find a relevant session in the BVA Career Development stream at the London Vet Show in November. British Veterinary Association.

  11. Laser Therapy Shows Promise Against Eye 'Floaters'

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167324.html Laser Therapy Shows Promise Against Eye 'Floaters' These spots ... 2017 THURSDAY, July 20, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A laser treatment can reduce spots in people's vision known ...

  12. Virginia Beach, Virginia Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  13. La Push, Washington Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  14. Shemya, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  15. Montauk, New York Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  16. Central Oregon Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  17. Mariana Trench Bathymetric Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) created a bathymetric digital elevation model (DEM) for the Mariana Trench and adjacent seafloor in the Western...

  18. Akutan, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  19. Lahaina, Hawaii Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  20. Mayaguez, Puerto Rico Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  1. Adak, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  2. Guayama, Puerto Rico Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  3. United States Interagency Elevation Inventory (USIEI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Interagency Elevation Inventory displays high-accuracy topographic and bathymetric data for the United States and its territories. The project is a...

  4. Taholah, Washington Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  5. Cordova, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  6. Crescent City, California Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  7. Fajardo, Puerto Rico Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  8. Arecibo, Puerto Rico Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  9. Panama City, Florida Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  10. Santa Monica, California Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  11. Atka, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  12. Fort Bragg, California Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  13. Chenega, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  14. Ocean City, Maryland Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  15. Central California Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  16. Keauhou, Hawaii Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  17. Port Alexander Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  18. Nantucket, Massachusetts Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  19. Juneau, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  20. Puerto Rico Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  1. Portland, Maine Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  2. Savannah, Georgia Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  3. Corpus Christi, Texas Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  4. New Orleans, Louisiana Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions in the Gulf of Mexico....

  5. Galveston, Texas Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  6. Ponce, Puerto Rico Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  7. Gustavus, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  8. Arena Cove, California Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  9. Sitka, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  10. Biloxi, Mississippi Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  11. ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) was developed jointly by the U.S. National...

  12. Hoonah, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  13. Yakutat, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  14. King Cove, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  15. Tatitlek, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  16. Key West, Florida Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  17. Elevation Data for Jefferson County, WI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Land Elevation TINs (Triangulated Irregular Networks) in this directory are generated from 2 foot contour lines from Jefferson County. Little is known about the...

  18. Monterey, California Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  19. Sand Point, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  20. Hilo, Hawaii Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  1. Garibaldi, Oregon Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  2. Port Orford, Oregon Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  3. Shaded Relief of Minnesota Elevation - Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This file is a product of a shaded relief process on the 30 meter resolution Digital Elevation Model data (dem30im3). This image was created using a custom AML...

  4. Chignik, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  5. Hanalei, Hawaii Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  6. Craig, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  7. Dutch Harbor, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  8. Unalaska, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  9. Kawaihae, Hawaii Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  10. Whittier, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  11. Midway Atoll Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  12. Shaded Relief of Minnesota Elevation - Black & White

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This file is a product of a shaded relief process on the 30 meter resolution Digital Elevation Model data (dem30im3). This image was created using a custom AML...

  13. ASTER Digital Elevation Model V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ASTER Digital Elevation Model (DEM) product is generated using bands 3N (nadir-viewing) and 3B (backward-viewing) of an ASTER Level-1A image acquired by the...

  14. Vegetation Composition and Marsh Surface Elevation, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data table contains plant composition and marsh surface elevation data for 64 plots where Salicornia pacifica litter was buried at 7 sites in 2015. These data...

  15. Santa Barbara, California Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  16. Oahu, Hawaii Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  17. Southeast Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  18. Kachemak Bay, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  19. Daytona Beach, Florida Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  20. Heterogeneity of Systemic Oxidative Stress Profiles in COPD: A Potential Role of Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Maury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress (OS plays a key role in the muscle impairment and exercise capacity of COPD patients. However, the literature reveals that systemic OS markers show great heterogeneity, which may hinder the prescription of effective antioxidant supplementation. This study therefore aimed to identify OS markers imbalance of COPD patients, relative to validated normal reference values, and to investigate the possibility of systemic OS profiles. We measured systemic enzymatic/nonenzymatic antioxidant and lipid peroxidation (LP levels in 54 stable COPD patients referred for a rehabilitation program. The main systemic antioxidant deficits in these patients concerned vitamins and trace elements. Fully 89% of the COPD patients showed a systemic antioxidant imbalance which may have caused the elevated systemic LP levels in 69% of them. Interestingly, two patient profiles (clusters 3 and 4 had a more elevated increase in LP combined with increased copper and/or decreased vitamin C, GSH, and GPx. Further analysis revealed that the systemic LP level was higher in COPD women and associated with exercise capacity. Our present data therefore support future supplementations with antioxidant vitamins and trace elements to improve exercise capacity, but COPD patients will probably show different positive responses.

  1. Electrostatic Climber for Space Elevator and Launcher

    OpenAIRE

    Bolonkin, A.

    2007-01-01

    Author details research on the new, very prospective, electrostatic Space Elevator climber based on a new electrostatic linear engine previously offered at the 42nd Joint Propulsion Conference (AIAA-2006-5229) and published in AEAT, Vol.78, No.6, 2006, pp. 502-508. The electrostatic climber discussed can have any speed (and braking), the energy for climber movement is delivered by a lightweight high-voltage line into a Space Elevator-holding cable from Earth electric generator. This electric ...

  2. Effects of lixisenatide on elevated liver transaminases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Lise L; Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist lixisenatide on elevated liver blood tests in patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: Electronic and manual searches were combined. STUDY SELECTION: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs......) on lixisenatide versus placebo or active comparators for type 2 diabetes were included. PARTICIPANTS: Individual patient data were retrieved to calculate outcomes for patients with elevated liver blood tests. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Normalisation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase...

  3. Elevation Change, Ice Dynamics and Surface Roughness over Dome A, Antarctica using Satellite and AGAP Aerogeophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, I.; Bell, R. E.; Wolovick, M.; Creyts, T. T.; Frearson, N.; Scambos, T. A.

    2011-12-01

    pass filtering lidar along track elevation profiles followed by subtracting consecutive lidar elevation shots which are 2m apart from the low pass filtered surface yields an enhanced surface roughness map. This map is used to identify areas of accumulation and ablation and is found to correlate well with the grey scale RAMP image. Our analysis shows that the surface over subglacial water is characterized by increased roughness due to preferential formation of wind features like sastrugi over flat surfaces. Basal freeze-on, on the other hand almost always correlates with the presence of surface slope and is associated with lower surface roughness due to wind glaze.

  4. Genesis of elevated aerosol loading over the Indian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prijith, S. S.; Rao, P. V. N.; Mohan, Mannil

    2016-05-01

    Elevated aerosols assume importance as the diabatic heating due to aerosol absorption is more intense at higher altitudes where the atmosphere becomes thinner. Indian region, especially its central and northern latitudes, experiences significant loading of elevated aerosols during pre-monsoon and summer months. Genesis of elevated aerosol loading over Indian region is investigated in the present study, using multi-year satellite observations from Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) along with reanalysis winds from MERRA. Central India is observed to have prominent aerosols loading at higher altitudes during pre-monsoon season, whereas it is during summer months over north-west India. Further analysis reveals that the elevated aerosols over Indian region in pre-monsoon and summer months are significantly contributed by transported mineral dust from the arid continental regions at west. In addition to the mineral dust advection, aerosols at higher altitudes over Indian region are enriched by strong convection and associated vertical transport of surface level aerosols. Vertical transport of aerosols observed over Indian region during pre-monsoon and summer months is aided by intense convergence at the surface level and divergence at the upper level. Moreover, aerosol source/sink strength estimated using aerosol flux continuity equation show significant aerosol production over central India during pre-monsoon. Strong vertical transport prevails during pre-monsoon uplifts the locally produced aerosols, with considerable anthropogenic fraction, to higher altitudes where their impacts would be more intense.

  5. Accuracy Assessment of Open Source Digital Elevation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqeel Abboud Abdul Hassan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Digital Elevation Model is a three-dimensional representation of the earth's surface, which is essential for Geoscience and hydrological implementations. DEM can be created utilizing Photogrammetry techniques, radar interferometry, laser scanning and land surveying. There are some world agencies provide open source digital elevation models which are freely available for all users, such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency’s (JAXA and others. ALOS, SRTM and ASTER are satellite based DEMs which are open source products. The technologies that are used for obtaining raw data and the methods used for its processing and on the other hand the characteristics of natural land and land cover type, these and other factors are the cause of implied errors produced in the digital elevation model which can't be avoided. In this paper, ground control points observed by the differential global positioning system DGPS were used to compare the validation and performance of different satellite based digital elevation models. For validation, standard statistical tests were applied such as Mean Error (ME and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE which showed ALOS DEM had ME and RMSE are -1.262m and 1.988m, while SRTM DEM had ME of -0.782m with RMSE of 2.276m and ASTER DEM had 4.437m and 6.241m, respectively. These outcomes can be very helpful for analysts utilizing such models in different areas of work.

  6. Helicopter blades running elevation measurement using omnidirectional vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengtao CAI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Omnidirectional dynamic space parameters of high-speed rotating helicopter blades are precise 3D vector description of the blades. In particular, the elevation difference is directly related to the aerodynamic performance and maneuverability of the helicopter. The state of the art detection techniques based on optics and common vision have several drawbacks, such as high demands on devices but poor extensibility, limited measurement range and fixed measurement position. In this paper, a novel approach of helicopter blades running elevation measurement is proposed based on omnidirectional vision. With the advantages of panoramic visual imaging integration, 360° field of view and rotation in-variance, high-resolution images of all rotating blades positions are obtained at one time. By studying the non-linear calibration and calculation model of omnidirectional vision system, aiming at solving the problem of inaccurate visual space mapping model, the omnidirectional and full-scale measurement of the elevation difference are finalized. Experiments are carried out on our multifunctional simulation blades test system and the practical blades test tower, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method and show that the proposed method can considerably reduce the complexity of measurement. Keywords: Full-scale measurement, Helicopter blades elevation, Non-linear calibration, Omnidirectional vision, Unified sphere model

  7. P Elevator: An Innovatively Designed Elevator for Extraction of Third Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pradeep; Xiao, Shui Sheng; Ajmera, Deepal Haresh

    2015-01-01

    To modify the conventional straight elevator with a unique and innovative design in respect to approach and accessibility during extraction for patients with abrasions around corners of the mouth and with thick buccal mucosa, without causing overstretching of angles of the mouth. The shank of the straight elevator in the shape of a 'U' was modified, giving it a shape similar to 'P' in the English alphabet hence it is named the P Elevator. The P elevator utilises a 'U' shaped bend in the shank of the conventional straight elevator making space for the buccal soft tissues and the angle of the mouth, to accommodate properly in the 'U' shank. The application of this elevator in the successful removal of third molars is described. Two hundred patients underwent extraction of third molars with the P elevator including 166 patients with disimpaction of all third molars, 23 patients with abrasion around the angle of the mouth, and 11 patients with thick buccal mucosa. Satisfactory results were obtained in all the cases with no postoperative complications. The P elevator permits prudent, meticulous, innovative and proficient extraction of third molars in patients with thick buccal mucosa and abrasions around the angle of the mouth, without overstretching the corners of the mouth. We introduce novel applications of the P elevator in third molar extraction that provide substantial advantages over a conventional straight elevator.

  8. Investigations of Sooting Laminar Coflow Diffusion Flames at Elevated Pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Steinmetz, Scott A.

    2016-12-01

    sizes plateau. Particle size in the annulus is more sensitive to pressure. Next, the development of an alternative particle size measuring technique is studied. Time Resolved Laser Induced Incandescence (TiRe-LII) is a commonly used technique to measure soot concentrations and particle size at atmospheric pressure. However, Laser Induced Incandescence (LII) models suffer from an incomplete understanding of the effects of elevated pressures on the absorption, annealing, and cooling of soot. The present study focuses on what affect the laser temporal pulse shape and duration may have on particle sizing. TiRe-LII in flames at 1 and 15 bar is carried out, using laser pulses with tophat or Gaussian temporal profiles of varying duration. Mono-disperse equivalent primary particle diameters are calculated using the KAUST LII model. Little difference in particle sizing is found for different laser pulses. However, this data will be useful for validating the KAUST LII model when absorption and poly-dispersion are accounted for. In an effort to move one step closer to logistical fuel studies, the sooting tendencies of a number of liquid fuels are studied at pressures up to 10. Of parallel relevance, a sooting index for surrogate development is evaluated for elevated pressure applications. The Yield Sooting Index (YSI) methodology is applied to 11 normal, cyclic, and branched alkanes. When referencing to two n-alkane fuels, the YSI of n-alkanes determined at atmospheric pressures accurately reflects the relative sooting tendencies of these fuels at elevated pressures. The relative sooting tendencies of cyclo- and methyl-alkanes have a lower pressure sensitivity than n-alkanes.

  9. Online Italian fandoms of American TV shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has changed media fandom in two main ways: it helps fans connect with each other despite physical distance, leading to the formation of international fan communities; and it helps fans connect with the creators of the TV show, deepening the relationship between TV producers and international fandoms. To assess whether Italian fan communities active online are indeed part of transnational online communities and whether the Internet has actually altered their relationship with the creators of the original text they are devoted to, qualitative analysis and narrative interviews of 26 Italian fans of American TV shows were conducted to explore the fan-producer relationship. Results indicated that the online Italian fans surveyed preferred to stay local, rather than using geography-leveling online tools. Further, the sampled Italian fans' relationships with the show runners were mediated or even absent.

  10. 2008 LHC Open Days Physics: the show

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    A host of events and activities await visitors to the LHC Open Days on 5 and 6 April. A highlight will be the physics shows funded by the European Physical Society (EPS), which are set to surprise and challenge children and adults alike! School children use their experience of riding a bicycle to understand how planets move around the sun (Copyright : Circus Naturally) Participating in the Circus Naturally show could leave a strange taste in your mouth! (Copyright : Circus Naturally) The Rino Foundation’s experiments with liquid nitrogen can be pretty exciting! (Copyright: The Rino Foundation)What does a bicycle have in common with the solar system? Have you ever tried to weigh air or visualise sound? Ever heard of a vacuum bazooka? If you want to discover the answers to these questions and more then come to the Physics Shows taking place at the CERN O...

  11. Satire og diskurs i The Daily Show

    OpenAIRE

    Rygaard, Alexander Leicht; Dall, Christoffer; Jakobsen, Sebastian Rasch; Duvander, Søren; Knøster, Morten; Kirkegaard, Elissa Valles; Wallin, Dea

    2014-01-01

    This project examines how The Daily Show and its host Jon Stewart takes part in the American political debate. Furthermore, the term satire is explained by linguist Paul Simpson who reckons that satire is not as much a genre as it is a practice of discourse. By the use of detailed statistics by Gallup and Pew Research Center, a picture of the American media and its consumers is provided to explain why The Daily Show has gained more viewership through the years. Throughout a critical discourse...

  12. Elevated serum angiotensin converting enzyme levels in metastatic ovarian dysgerminoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, T P

    2012-02-03

    A case of a 32-year-old XY genotype female is described, presenting with mediastinal and abdominal lymphadenopathy and associated with an elevated serum angiotensin I converting enzyme (SACE) level. Lymph node histology showed a malignant dysgerminoma of ovarian origin. Combined chemotherapy led to a radiological regression of the lymphadenopathy and coincided with a decrease in SACE concentration. The authors suggest that SACE may be a marker for disseminated germinoma tumours and may be useful for monitoring treatment.

  13. Climate Impacts on Soil Carbon Processes along an Elevation Gradient in the Tropical Luquillo Experimental Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingfang Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forests play an important role in regulating the global climate and the carbon cycle. With the changing temperature and moisture along the elevation gradient, the Luquillo Experimental Forest in Northeastern Puerto Rico provides a natural approach to understand tropical forest ecosystems under climate change. In this study, we conducted a soil translocation experiment along an elevation gradient with decreasing temperature but increasing moisture to study the impacts of climate change on soil organic carbon (SOC and soil respiration. As the results showed, both soil carbon and the respiration rate were impacted by microclimate changes. The soils translocated from low elevation to high elevation showed an increased respiration rate with decreased SOC content at the end of the experiment, which indicated that the increased soil moisture and altered soil microbes might affect respiration rates. The soils translocated from high elevation to low elevation also showed an increased respiration rate with reduced SOC at the end of the experiment, indicating that increased temperature at low elevation enhanced decomposition rates. Temperature and initial soil source quality impacted soil respiration significantly. With the predicted warming climate in the Caribbean, these tropical soils at high elevations are at risk of releasing sequestered carbon into the atmosphere.

  14. ICESat Lidar and Global Digital Elevation Models: Application to DESDynI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabajal, Claudia C.; Harding, David J.; Suchdeo, Vijay P.

    2010-01-01

    Geodetic control is extremely important in the production and quality control of topographic data sets, enabling elevation results to be referenced to an absolute vertical datum. Global topographic data with improved geodetic accuracy achieved using global Ground Control Point (GCP) databases enable more accurate characterization of land topography and its change related to solid Earth processes, natural hazards and climate change. The multiple-beam lidar instrument that will be part of the NASA Deformation, Ecosystem Structure and Dynamics of Ice (DESDynI) mission will provide a comprehensive, global data set that can be used for geodetic control purposes. Here we illustrate that potential using data acquired by NASA's Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICEsat) that has acquired single-beam, globally distributed laser altimeter profiles (+/-86deg) since February of 2003 [1, 2]. The profiles provide a consistently referenced elevation data set with unprecedented accuracy and quantified measurement errors that can be used to generate GCPs with sub-decimeter vertical accuracy and better than 10 m horizontal accuracy. Like the planned capability for DESDynI, ICESat records a waveform that is the elevation distribution of energy reflected within the laser footprint from vegetation, where present, and the ground where illuminated through gaps in any vegetation cover [3]. The waveform enables assessment of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) with respect to the highest, centroid, and lowest elevations observed by ICESat and in some cases with respect to the ground identified beneath vegetation cover. Using the ICESat altimetry data we are developing a comprehensive database of consistent, global, geodetic ground control that will enhance the quality of a variety of regional to global DEMs. Here we illustrate the accuracy assessment of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEM produced for Australia, documenting spatially varying elevation biases of several meters

  15. TV-Show Retrieval and Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musto, C.; Narducci, F.; Lops, P.; Semeraro G.; Gemmis, M. de; Barbieri, M.; Korst, J.H.M.; Pronk, S.P.P.; Clout, R.A.W.

    2012-01-01

    Recommender systems are becoming popular tools to aid users in finding interesting and relevant TV-shows and other digital video assets,based on implicitly learned user preferences. In this context, a common assumption is that user preferences can be specified by program types (movie, sports, ...)

  16. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the

  17. Mike Pentz showing visitors around CESAR

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1964-01-01

    Mike Pentz, leader of the CESAR Group, shows visitors around the 2 MeV electron storage ring. Here they are in the vault of the injector (a 2 MV van de Graaff generator), next to the 2 beam lines, one leading to the ring, the other to the spectrometer.

  18. Show Them You Really Want the Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

  19. Laser entertainment and light shows in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaratnam, Andrew T.; Symons, Charles

    2002-05-01

    Laser shows and beam effects have been a source of entertainment since its first public performance May 9, 1969, at Mills College in Oakland, California. Since 1997, the Photonics Center, NgeeAnn Polytechnic, Singapore, has been using laser shows as a teaching tool. Students are able to exhibit their creative skills and learn at the same time how lasers are used in the entertainment industry. Students will acquire a number of skills including handling three- phase power supply, operation of cooling system, and laser alignment. Students also acquire an appreciation of the arts, learning about shapes and contours as they develop graphics for the shows. After holography, laser show animation provides a combination of the arts and technology. This paper aims to briefly describe how a krypton-argon laser, galvanometer scanners, a polychromatic acousto-optic modulator and related electronics are put together to develop a laser projector. The paper also describes how students are trained to make their own laser animation and beam effects with music, and at the same time have an appreciation of the operation of a Class IV laser and the handling of optical components.

  20. See you at London Vet Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-05

    London Vet Show is fast approaching: it takes place from November 17 to 18 and is being held at ExCeL London for the first time. Zoe Davies, marketing manager, highlights some of what BVA is offering at the event. British Veterinary Association.

  1. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives us a safe way to see how the sun damages our skin. In the UV photos that ... on the right, you can see what hidden sun damage looks like. Compare these UV photos with ...

  2. Cytokinin and Auxin Display Distinct but Interconnected Distribution and Signaling Profiles to Stimulate Cambial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immanen, Juha; Nieminen, Kaisa; Smolander, Olli-Pekka; Kojima, Mikiko; Alonso Serra, Juan; Koskinen, Patrik; Zhang, Jing; Elo, Annakaisa; Mähönen, Ari Pekka; Street, Nathaniel; Bhalerao, Rishikesh P; Paulin, Lars; Auvinen, Petri; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Helariutta, Ykä

    2016-08-08

    Despite the crucial roles of phytohormones in plant development, comparison of the exact distribution profiles of different hormones within plant meristems has thus far remained scarce. Vascular cambium, a wide lateral meristem with an extensive developmental zonation, provides an optimal system for hormonal and genetic profiling. By taking advantage of this spatial resolution, we show here that two major phytohormones, cytokinin and auxin, display different yet partially overlapping distribution profiles across the cambium. In contrast to auxin, which has its highest concentration in the actively dividing cambial cells, cytokinins peak in the developing phloem tissue of a Populus trichocarpa stem. Gene expression patterns of cytokinin biosynthetic and signaling genes coincided with this hormonal gradient. To explore the functional significance of cytokinin signaling for cambial development, we engineered transgenic Populus tremula × tremuloides trees with an elevated cytokinin biosynthesis level. Confirming that cytokinins function as major regulators of cambial activity, these trees displayed stimulated cambial cell division activity resulting in dramatically increased (up to 80% in dry weight) production of the lignocellulosic trunk biomass. To connect the increased growth to hormonal status, we analyzed the hormone distribution and genome-wide gene expression profiles in unprecedentedly high resolution across the cambial zone. Interestingly, in addition to showing an elevated cambial cytokinin content and signaling level, the cambial auxin concentration and auxin-responsive gene expression were also increased in the transgenic trees. Our results indicate that cytokinin signaling specifies meristematic activity through a graded distribution that influences the amplitude of the cambial auxin gradient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Lunar transportation scenarios utilising the Space Elevator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Kilian A

    2005-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) concept has begun to receive an increasing amount of attention within the space community over the past couple of years and is no longer widely dismissed as pure science fiction. In light of the renewed interest in a, possibly sustained, human presence on the Moon and the fact that transportation and logistics form the bottleneck of many conceivable lunar missions, it is interesting to investigate what role the SE could eventually play in implementing an efficient Earth to Moon transportation system. The elevator allows vehicles to ascend from Earth and be injected into a trans-lunar trajectory without the use of chemical thrusters, thus eliminating gravity loss, aerodynamic loss and the need of high thrust multistage launch systems. Such a system therefore promises substantial savings of propellant and structural mass and could greatly increase the efficiency of Earth to Moon transportation. This paper analyzes different elevator-based trans-lunar transportation scenarios and characterizes them in terms of a number of benchmark figures. The transportation scenarios include direct elevator-launched trans-lunar trajectories, elevator launched trajectories via L1 and L2, as well as launch from an Earth-based elevator and subsequent rendezvous with lunar elevators placed either on the near or on the far side of the Moon. The benchmark figures by which the different transfer options are characterized and evaluated include release radius (RR), required delta v, transfer times as well as other factors such as accessibility of different lunar latitudes, frequency of launch opportunities and mission complexity. The performances of the different lunar transfer options are compared with each other as well as with the performance of conventional mission concepts, represented by Apollo. c2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Seasonal dynamics of mobile carbon supply in Quercus aquifolioides at the upper elevational limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wan-Ze; Cao, Min; Wang, San-Gen; Xiao, Wen-Fan; Li, Mai-He

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have tried to explain the physiological mechanisms of the alpine treeline phenomenon, but the debate on the alpine treeline formation remains controversial due to opposite results from different studies. The present study explored the carbon-physiology of an alpine shrub species (Quercus aquifolioides) grown at its upper elevational limit compared to lower elevations, to test whether the elevational limit of alpine shrubs (above sea level (a.s.l.) on Zheduo Mt., SW China. The tissue NSC concentrations along the elevational gradient varied significantly with season, reflecting the season-dependent carbon balance. The NSC levels in tissues were lowest at the beginning of the growing season, indicating that plants used the winter reserve storage for re-growth in the early spring. During the growing season, plants grown at the elevational limit did not show lower NSC concentrations compared to plants at lower elevations, but during the winter season, storage tissues, especially roots, had significantly lower NSC concentrations in plants at the elevational limit compared to lower elevations. The present results suggest the significance of winter reserve in storage tissues, which may determine the winter survival and early-spring re-growth of Q. aquifolioides shrubs at high elevation, leading to the formation of the uppermost distribution limit. This result is consistent with a recent hypothesis for the alpine treeline formation.

  5. Elevational Distribution of Adult Trees and Seedlings in a Tropical Montane Transect, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Song

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Montane habitats are characterized by high variation of environmental factors within small geographic ranges, which offers opportunities to explore how forest assemblages respond to changes in environmental conditions. Understanding the distributional transition of adult trees and seedlings will provide insight into the fate of forest biodiversity in response to future climate change. We investigated the elevational distribution of 156 species of adult trees and 152 species of seedlings in a tropical montane forest in Xishuangbanna, southwest China. Adult trees and seedlings were surveyed within 5 replicate plots established at each of 4 elevational bands (800, 1000, 1200, and 1400 m above sea level. We found that species richness of both adult trees and seedlings changed with elevation, showing a notable decline in diversity values from 1000 to 1200 m. Tree species composition also demonstrated distinct differences between 1000 and 1200 m, marking the division between tropical seasonal rain forest (800 and 1000 m and tropical montane evergreen broad-leaved forest (1200 and 1400 m. The results suggested that soil moisture and temperature regimes were associated with elevational distribution of tree species in this region. We also observed that seedlings from certain species found at high elevations were also distributed in low-elevation zones, but no seedlings of species from low elevations were distributed in high-elevation zones. The increase in temperature and droughts predicted for this region may result in the contraction of tropical seasonal rain forest at lower elevations and a downhill shift of higher tropical montane tree species.

  6. Project Listen Compute Show (LCS) - Marine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT NATICK/TR-04/010 APA ^QO^U PROJECT LISTEN, COMPUTE, SHOW (LCS) - MARINE by Victor Zue* John Wroclawski* and Michael Bolotski...Voice Communication Strategy 37 6.3 Adaptive Channel Multiplexing 38 6.4 Web Performance and the Cache Information Protocol 41 7. Handheld Device...view of the BB-4 stack. The digital board is at the top. Most of the area is the large FPGA and the two frame buffer memories 61 Figure 14

  7. Trematode Hemoglobins Show Exceptionally High Oxygen Affinity

    OpenAIRE

    Kiger, Laurent; Rashid, Aftab K.; Griffon, Nathalie; Haque, Masoodul; Moens, Luc; Gibson, Quentin H.; Poyart, Claude; Marden, Michael C.

    1998-01-01

    Ligand binding studies were made with hemoglobin (Hb) isolated from trematode species Gastrothylax crumenifer (Gc), Paramphistomum epiclitum (Pe), Explanatum explanatum (Ee), parasitic worms of water buffalo Bubalus bubalis, and Isoparorchis hypselobagri (Ih) parasitic in the catfish Wallago attu. The kinetics of oxygen and carbon monoxide binding show very fast association rates. Whereas oxygen can be displaced on a millisecond time scale from human Hb at 25 degrees C, the dissociation of ox...

  8. Reality, ficción o show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ruíz Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para tener un punto de vista claro y objetivo frente a la polémica establecida en torno al programa “Protagonistas de novela” y la tendiente proliferación de los reality show en las parrillas de programación de la televisión colombiana, se realizó un análisis de texto y contenido de dicho programa, intentando definirlo desde sus posibilidades de realidad, ficción y show. Las unidades de análisis y el estudio de su tratamiento arrojaron un alto contenido que gira en torno a las emociones del ser humano relacionadas con la convivencia, tratadas a manera de show y con algunos aportes textuales de ficción, pero sin su elemento mediador básico, el actor, quitándole toda la posibilidad de tener un tratamiento con la profundidad, distancia y ética que requieren los temas de esta índole. El resultado es un formato que sólo busca altos índices de sintonía y que pertenece más a la denominada televisión “trash”, que a una búsqueda de realidad del hombre y mucho menos de sociedad.

  9. Unexpected Elevated Free Thyroid Hormones in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teti, Claudia; Nazzari, Elena; Galletti, Marina Raffaella; Mandolfino, Mattia Grazia; Pupo, Francesca; Pesce, Giampaola; Lillo, Flavia; Bagnasco, Marcello; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2016-11-01

    The use of thyrotropin and free thyroid hormone assays to evaluate thyroid function is widespread, but in some situations the results are inconsistent with the patient's thyroid status. A 35-year-old woman with a known diagnosis of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis was referred to the authors' clinic at week 26 of her second pregnancy. The patient was clinically euthyroid. Consistent with this, her serum thyrotropin (TSH) was normal (0.79 mIU/L), but she had elevated free thyroid hormones-free triiodothyronine (fT3) and free thyroxine (fT4)-as determined by a one-step chemiluminescent assay. The patient was taking levothyroxine replacement therapy (125 μg/day), and the dose was confirmed. Previous blood tests showed concordance between TSH and free thyroid hormone values. The patient was followed up throughout gestation and at 12 months postpartum. During gestation, her free thyroid hormones remained high using one-step methods, while the total thyroid hormone concentration values were within the reference range, in agreement with the TSH values. Postpartum fT4 and fT3 values returned progressively to normality, in agreement with the TSH values. The presence of circulating thyroid hormone autoantibodies (THAb) was hypothesized, which are known to interfere, although to a variable extent, with thyroid hormone one-step assays. Using stored frozen sera, this hypothesis was confirmed indirectly by measuring normal levels of fT3 and fT4 with a two-step method, and directly by demonstrating THAb against the two hormones. Despite their relative rarity, circulating THAb may be suspected when laboratory data are not consistent and contrast with the clinical picture. To the authors' knowledge, no previous case of transient appearance of THAb in pregnancy has been described.

  10. Prognostic value of TIMI score versus GRACE score in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Luis C L; Garcia, Guilherme; Kalil, Felipe; Ferreira, Felipe; Carvalhal, Manuela; Oliveira, Ruan; Silva, André; Vasconcelos, Isis; Henri, Caio; Noya-Rabelo, Márcia

    2014-08-01

    The TIMI Score for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) was created and validated specifically for this clinical scenario, while the GRACE score is generic to any type of acute coronary syndrome. Between TIMI and GRACE scores, identify the one of better prognostic performance in patients with STEMI. We included 152 individuals consecutively admitted for STEMI. The TIMI and GRACE scores were tested for their discriminatory ability (C-statistics) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow) in relation to hospital death. The TIMI score showed equal distribution of patients in the ranges of low, intermediate and high risk (39 %, 27 % and 34 %, respectively), as opposed to the GRACE Score that showed predominant distribution at low risk (80 %, 13 % and 7%, respectively). Case-fatality was 11%. The C-statistics of the TIMI score was 0.87 (95%CI = 0.76 to 0.98), similar to GRACE (0.87, 95%CI = 0.75 to 0.99) - p = 0.71. The TIMI score showed satisfactory calibration represented by χ2 = 1.4 (p = 0.92), well above the calibration of the GRACE score, which showed χ2 = 14 (p = 0.08). This calibration is reflected in the expected incidence ranges for low, intermediate and high risk, according to the TIMI score (0 %, 4.9 % and 25 %, respectively), differently to GRACE (2.4%, 25% and 73%), which featured middle range incidence inappropriately. Although the scores show similar discriminatory capacity for hospital death, the TIMI score had better calibration than GRACE. These findings need to be validated populations of different risk profiles.

  11. Prognostic Value of TIMI Score versus GRACE Score in ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C. L. Correia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The TIMI Score for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI was created and validated specifically for this clinical scenario, while the GRACE score is generic to any type of acute coronary syndrome. Objective: Between TIMI and GRACE scores, identify the one of better prognostic performance in patients with STEMI. Methods: We included 152 individuals consecutively admitted for STEMI. The TIMI and GRACE scores were tested for their discriminatory ability (C-statistics and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow in relation to hospital death. Results: The TIMI score showed equal distribution of patients in the ranges of low, intermediate and high risk (39 %, 27 % and 34 %, respectively, as opposed to the GRACE Score that showed predominant distribution at low risk (80 %, 13 % and 7%, respectively. Case-fatality was 11%. The C-statistics of the TIMI score was 0.87 (95%CI = 0.76 to 0.98, similar to GRACE (0.87, 95%CI = 0.75 to 0.99 - p = 0.71. The TIMI score showed satisfactory calibration represented by χ2 = 1.4 (p = 0.92, well above the calibration of the GRACE score, which showed χ2 = 14 (p = 0.08. This calibration is reflected in the expected incidence ranges for low, intermediate and high risk, according to the TIMI score (0 %, 4.9 % and 25 %, respectively, differently to GRACE (2.4%, 25% and 73%, which featured middle range incidence inappropriately. Conclusion: Although the scores show similar discriminatory capacity for hospital death, the TIMI score had better calibration than GRACE. These findings need to be validated populations of different risk profiles.

  12. High-Resolution Vertical Profile Measurements for Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapour Concentrations Within and Above Crop Canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, Patrizia; Graf, Alexander

    2017-10-01

    We present a portable elevator-based facility for measuring CO2 , water vapour, temperature and wind-speed profiles between the soil surface and the atmospheric surface layer above crop canopies. The end of a tube connected to a closed-path gas analyzer is continuously moved up and down over the profile range (in our case, approximately 2 m) while concentrations are logged at a frequency of 20 s^{-1} . Using campaign measurements in winter wheat, winter barley and a catch crop mixture (spring 2015 to autumn 2016) during different stages of crop development and different times of the day, we demonstrate a simple approach to correct for time lags, and the resulting profiles of 30-min mean mole fractions of CO2 and H2O over height increments of 0.025 m. The profiles clearly show the effects of soil respiration and photosynthetic carbon assimilation, varying both during the diurnal cycle and during the growing season. Profiles of temperature and wind speed are based on a ventilated finewire thermocouple and a hot-wire anemometer, respectively. Measurements over bare soil and a short plant canopy were analyzed in the framework of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory to check the validity of the measurements and raw-data-processing approach. Derived fluxes of CO2 , latent and sensible heat and momentum show good agreement with eddy-covariance measurements.

  13. Software for portable laser light show system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buruchin, Dmitrey J.; Leonov, Alexander F.

    1995-04-01

    Portable laser light show system LS-3500-10M is connected to the parallel port of IBM PC/AT compatible computer. Computer performs output of digital control data describing images. Specially designed control device is used to convert digital data coming from parallel port to the analog signal driving scanner. Capabilities of even cost nothing 286 computer are quite enough for laser graphics control. Technology of scanning used in laser graphics system LS-3500-10M essentially differs from widely spread systems based on galvanometers with mobile core or with mobile magnet. Such devices are based on the same principle of work as electrically driven servo-mechanism. As scanner we use elastic system with hydraulic dampen oscillations and opened loop. For most of applications of laser graphics such system provides satisfactory precision and speed of scanning. LS-3500-10M software gives user ability to create on PC and play his own laser graphics demonstrations. It is possible to render recognizable text and pictures using different styles, 3D and abstract animation. All types of demonstrations can be mixed in slide-show. Time synchronization is supported. Software has the following features: (1) Different types of text output. Built-in text editor for typing and editing of textural information. Different fonts can be used to display text. User can create his own fonts using specially developed font editor. (2) Editor of 3D animation with library of predefined shapes. (3) Abstract animation provided by software routines. (4) Support of different graphics files formats (PCX or DXF). Original algorithm of raster image tracing was implemented. (5) Built-in slide-show editor.

  14. Asteroid Ida - 6 Views Showing Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This composite image shows the asteroid 243 Ida as seen from the Galileo spacecraft during its approach on August 28, 1993. The six views were shuttered through the camera's green filter and show Ida's rotation over a period of about 3 hours 18 minutes. The asteroid makes a complete rotation every 4 hours 38 minutes; therefore, this set of images spans about 3/4 of Ida's rotation period and shows most of Ida's surface. By combining the information in these views with that from the highest resolution images returned from the spacecraft in September 1993, the size and shape of this irregular body can now be determined accurately The asteroid appears to be about 58 kilometers (36 miles) long and about 23 kilometers wide, with a very irregular shape and volume of some 16,000 cubic kilometers. The images are arranged in chronological order from a time 3 hours 51 minutes before closest approach (upper left), through upper right, middle left, middle right lower left and lower right (33 minutes before closest approach). The six images show Ida at the same scale throughout. Ida's rotation axis is roughly vertical in these images, and the rotation causes the right-hand end of Ida to move toward the viewer as time progresses. The first image was taken from a range of about 171,000 km (106,000 miles) and provides an image resolution of about 1,700 meters per pixel (the highest resolution achieved for Ida is about 25 meters per pixel). The second, taken 70 minutes later, is from 119,000 kilometers, followed by 102,000 kilometers, 85,000 kilometers, 50,000 kilometers, and 25,000 kilometers. The features on Ida are less sharp in the earlier views because of the greater distances. Prominent in the middle three views is a deep depression across the short axis of the Asteroid. This feature tends to support the idea that Ida may have originally been formed from two or more separate large objects that collided softly and stuck together. Also visible in the lower left view is an

  15. Elevated ghrelin predicts food intake during experimental sleep restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Josiane L; Kilkus, Jennifer M; Delebecque, Fanny; Abraham, Varghese; Day, Andrew; Whitmore, Harry R; Tasali, Esra

    2016-01-01

    Sleep curtailment has been linked to obesity, but underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. This study assessed whether sleep restriction alters 24-h profiles of appetite-regulating hormones ghrelin, leptin, and pancreatic polypeptide during a standardized diet and whether these hormonal alterations predict food intake during ad libitum feeding. Nineteen healthy, lean men were studied under normal sleep and sleep restriction in a randomized crossover design. Blood samples were collected for 24 h during standardized meals. Subsequently, participants had an ad libitum feeding opportunity (buffet meals and snacks) and caloric intake was measured. Ghrelin levels were increased after sleep restriction as compared with normal sleep (P sleep restriction did not alter leptin or pancreatic polypeptide profiles. Sleep restriction was associated with an increase in total calories from snacks by 328 ± 140 kcal (P = 0.03), primarily from carbohydrates (P = 0.02). The increase in evening ghrelin during sleep restriction was correlated with higher consumption of calories from sweets (r = 0.48, P = 0.04). Sleep restriction as compared with normal sleep significantly increases ghrelin levels. The increase in ghrelin is associated with higher consumption of calories. Elevated ghrelin may be a mechanism by which sleep loss leads to increased food intake and the development of obesity. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  16. Elevated ghrelin predicts food intake during experimental sleep restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Josiane L.; Kilkus, Jennifer M.; Delebecque, Fanny; Abraham, Varghese; Day, Andrew; Whitmore, Harry R.; Tasali, Esra

    2015-01-01

    Objective Sleep curtailment has been linked to obesity, but underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. We assessed whether sleep restriction alters 24-hour profiles of appetite-regulating hormones ghrelin, leptin and pancreatic polypeptide during a standardized diet, and whether these hormonal alterations predict food intake during ad libitum feeding. Methods Nineteen healthy, lean men were studied under normal sleep and sleep restriction in a randomized crossover design. Blood samples were collected for 24-hours during standardized meals. Subsequently, participants had an ad libitum feeding opportunity (buffet meals and snacks) and caloric intake was measured. Results Ghrelin levels were increased after sleep restriction as compared to normal sleep (psleep restriction did not alter leptin or pancreatic polypeptide profiles. Sleep restriction was associated with an increase in total calories from snacks by 328 ± 140 Kcal (p=0.03), primarily from carbohydrates (p=0.02). The increase in evening ghrelin during sleep restriction was correlated with higher consumption of calories from sweets (r=0.48, p=0.04). Conclusions Sleep restriction as compared to normal sleep significantly increases ghrelin levels. The increase in ghrelin is associated with more consumption of calories. Elevated ghrelin may be a mechanism by which sleep loss leads to increased food intake and the development of obesity. PMID:26467988

  17. Trematode hemoglobins show exceptionally high oxygen affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiger, L; Rashid, A K; Griffon, N; Haque, M; Moens, L; Gibson, Q H; Poyart, C; Marden, M C

    1998-08-01

    Ligand binding studies were made with hemoglobin (Hb) isolated from trematode species Gastrothylax crumenifer (Gc), Paramphistomum epiclitum (Pe), Explanatum explanatum (Ee), parasitic worms of water buffalo Bubalus bubalis, and Isoparorchis hypselobagri (Ih) parasitic in the catfish Wallago attu. The kinetics of oxygen and carbon monoxide binding show very fast association rates. Whereas oxygen can be displaced on a millisecond time scale from human Hb at 25 degrees C, the dissociation of oxygen from trematode Hb may require a few seconds to over 20 s (for Hb Pe). Carbon monoxide dissociation is faster, however, than for other monomeric hemoglobins or myoglobins. Trematode hemoglobins also show a reduced rate of autoxidation; the oxy form is not readily oxidized by potassium ferricyanide, indicating that only the deoxy form reacts rapidly with this oxidizing agent. Unlike most vertebrate Hbs, the trematodes have a tyrosine residue at position E7 instead of the usual distal histidine. As for Hb Ascaris, which also displays a high oxygen affinity, the trematodes have a tyrosine in position B10; two H-bonds to the oxygen molecule are thought to be responsible for the very high oxygen affinity. The trematode hemoglobins display a combination of high association rates and very low dissociation rates, resulting in some of the highest oxygen affinities ever observed.

  18. Do all leaf photosynthesis parameters of rice acclimate to elevated CO2, elevated temperature, and their combination, in FACE environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chuang; Li, Gang; Yang, Hailong; Yang, Jiaheng; Liu, Hong; Struik, Paul C; Luo, Weihong; Yin, Xinyou; Di, Lijun; Guo, Xuanhe; Jiang, Wenyu; Si, Chuanfei; Pan, Genxing; Zhu, Jianguo

    2018-04-01

    Leaf photosynthesis of crops acclimates to elevated CO 2 and temperature, but studies quantifying responses of leaf photosynthetic parameters to combined CO 2 and temperature increases under field conditions are scarce. We measured leaf photosynthesis of rice cultivars Changyou 5 and Nanjing 9108 grown in two free-air CO 2 enrichment (FACE) systems, respectively, installed in paddy fields. Each FACE system had four combinations of two levels of CO 2 (ambient and enriched) and two levels of canopy temperature (no warming and warmed by 1.0-2.0°C). Parameters of the C 3 photosynthesis model of Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry (the FvCB model), and of a stomatal conductance (g s ) model were estimated for the four conditions. Most photosynthetic parameters acclimated to elevated CO 2 , elevated temperature, and their combination. The combination of elevated CO 2 and temperature changed the functional relationships between biochemical parameters and leaf nitrogen content for Changyou 5. The g s model significantly underestimated g s under the combination of elevated CO 2 and temperature by 19% for Changyou 5 and by 10% for Nanjing 9108 if no acclimation was assumed. However, our further analysis applying the coupled g s -FvCB model to an independent, previously published FACE experiment showed that including such an acclimation response of g s hardly improved prediction of leaf photosynthesis under the four combinations of CO 2 and temperature. Therefore, the typical procedure that crop models using the FvCB and g s models are parameterized from plants grown under current ambient conditions may not result in critical errors in projecting productivity of paddy rice under future global change. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. DAST in Flight Showing Diverging Wingtip Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    -104 chase plane. When the DAST's mission ended, it deployed a parachute and then a specially equipped Air Force helicopter recovered the drone in mid-air. On the ground, a pilot controlled the DAST vehicle from a remote cockpit while researchers in another room monitored flight data transmitted via telemetry. They made decisions on the conduct of the flight while the DAST was in the air. In case of failure in any of the ground systems, the DAST vehicle could also be flown to a recovery site using a backup control system in the F-104. The DAST Program experienced numerous problems. Only eighteen flights were achieved, eight of them captive (in which the aircraft flew only while still attached to the launch aircraft). Four of the flights were aborted and two resulted in crashes--one on June 12, 1980, and the second on June 1, 1983. Meanwhile, flight experiments with higher profiles, better funded remotely piloted research vehicles took priority over DAST missions. After the 1983 crash, which was caused by a malfunction that disconnected the landing parachute from the drone, the program was disbanded. Because DAST drones were considered expendable, certain losses were anticipated. Managers and researchers involved in other high-risk flight projects gained insights from the DAST program that could be applied to their own flight research programs. The DAST aircraft had a wingspan of 14 feet, four inches and a nose-to-tail length of 28 feet, 4 inches. The fuselage had a radius of about 2.07 feet. The aircraft's maximum loaded weight was about 2,200 pounds. It derived its power from a Continental YJ69-T-406 engine.

  20. GLL RPT IONOSPHERE PROFILES

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Galileo Radio Propagation Team Ionosphere Profile data set is small number of electron density profiles derived from radio occultation data collected while...

  1. GHGRP Industrial Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program periodically produces detailed profiles of the various industries that report under the program. These profiles contain detailed analyses. This page hosts data highlights for all sectors.

  2. HOPWA Performance Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HOPWA Performance Profiles are generated quarterly for all agencies receiving HOPWA formula or competitive grants. Performance Profiles are available at the national...

  3. Scientific Return of a Lunar Elevator

    CERN Document Server

    Eubanks, T M

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a space elevator dates back to Tsilokovsky, but they are not commonly considered in near-term plans for space exploration, perhaps because a terrestrial elevator would not be possible without considerable improvements in tether material. A Lunar Space Elevator (LSE), however, can be built with current technology using commercially available tether polymers. This paper considers missions leading to infrastructure capable of shortening the time, lowering the cost and enhancing the capabilities of robotic and human explorers. These missions use planetary scale tethers, strings many thousands of kilometers long stabilized either by rotation or by gravitational gradients. These systems promise major reduction in transport costs versus chemical rockets, in a rapid timeframe, for a modest investment. Science will thus benefit as well as commercial activities.

  4. Measuring elevated intracranial pressure through noninvasive methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansson, Helena; Nissborg, Emelie; Bartek, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    techniques available. Several methods for noninvasive measuring of elevated ICP have been proposed: radiologic methods including computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, transcranial Doppler, electroencephalography power spectrum analysis, and the audiological and ophthalmological techniques......Elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) is an important cause of secondary brain injury, and a measurement of ICP is often of crucial value in neurosurgical and neurological patients. The gold standard for ICP monitoring is through an intraventricular catheter, but this invasive technique...... is associated with certain risks. Intraparenchymal ICP monitoring methods are considered to be a safer alternative but can, in certain conditions, be imprecise due to zero drift and still require an invasive procedure. An accurate noninvasive method to measure elevated ICP would therefore be desirable...

  5. A new bed elevation dataset for Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Bamber

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a new bed elevation dataset for Greenland derived from a combination of multiple airborne ice thickness surveys undertaken between the 1970s and 2012. Around 420 000 line kilometres of airborne data were used, with roughly 70% of this having been collected since the year 2000, when the last comprehensive compilation was undertaken. The airborne data were combined with satellite-derived elevations for non-glaciated terrain to produce a consistent bed digital elevation model (DEM over the entire island including across the glaciated–ice free boundary. The DEM was extended to the continental margin with the aid of bathymetric data, primarily from a compilation for the Arctic. Ice thickness was determined where an ice shelf exists from a combination of surface elevation and radar soundings. The across-track spacing between flight lines warranted interpolation at 1 km postings for significant sectors of the ice sheet. Grids of ice surface elevation, error estimates for the DEM, ice thickness and data sampling density were also produced alongside a mask of land/ocean/grounded ice/floating ice. Errors in bed elevation range from a minimum of ±10 m to about ±300 m, as a function of distance from an observation and local topographic variability. A comparison with the compilation published in 2001 highlights the improvement in resolution afforded by the new datasets, particularly along the ice sheet margin, where ice velocity is highest and changes in ice dynamics most marked. We estimate that the volume of ice included in our land-ice mask would raise mean sea level by 7.36 m, excluding any solid earth effects that would take place during ice sheet decay.

  6. Microbiological and environmental issues in show caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2012-07-01

    Cultural tourism expanded in the last half of the twentieth century, and the interest of visitors has come to include caves containing archaeological remains. Some show caves attracted mass tourism, and economical interests prevailed over conservation, which led to a deterioration of the subterranean environment and the rock art. The presence and the role of microorganisms in caves is a topic that is often ignored in cave management. Knowledge of the colonisation patterns, the dispersion mechanisms, and the effect on human health and, when present, over rock art paintings of these microorganisms is of the utmost importance. In this review the most recent advances in the study of microorganisms in caves are presented, together with the environmental implications of the findings.

  7. PROFILER: 1D galaxy light profile decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciambur, Bogdan C.

    2017-05-01

    Written in Python, PROFILER analyzes the radial surface brightness profiles of galaxies. It accurately models a wide range of galaxies and galaxy components, such as elliptical galaxies, the bulges of spiral and lenticular galaxies, nuclear sources, discs, bars, rings, and spiral arms with a variety of parametric functions routinely employed in the field (Sérsic, core-Sérsic, exponential, Gaussian, Moffat and Ferrers). In addition, Profiler can employ the broken exponential model (relevant for disc truncations or antitruncations) and two special cases of the edge-on disc model: namely along the major axis (in the disc plane) and along the minor axis (perpendicular to the disc plane).

  8. Genotypically defined lissencephalies show distinct pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Mark S; Squier, Waney; Dobyns, William B; Golden, Jeffrey A

    2005-10-01

    Lissencephaly is traditionally divided into 2 distinct pathologic forms: classic (type I) and cobblestone (type II). To date, mutations in 4 genes, LIS1, DCX, RELN, and ARX, have been associated with distinct type I lissencephaly syndromes. Each of these genes has been shown to play a role in normal cell migration, consistent with the presumed pathogenesis of type I lissencephaly. Based on these data, we hypothesized that all forms of radiographically defined type I lissencephaly independent of genotype would be pathologically similar. To test this hypothesis, we examined brains from 16 patients, including 15 lissencephalic patients and one patient with subcortical band heterotopia. Of these 16 patients, 6 had LIS1 deletions, 2 had DCX mutations, and 2 had ARX mutations. In addition, 6 patients had no defined genetic defect, although the patient with subcortical band heterotopia exhibited the same pattern of malformation expected with an XLIS mutation. In all cases, the cortex was thickened; however, the topographic distribution of the cortical pathology varied, ranging from frontal- to occipital-biased pathology to diffuse involvement of the neocortex. Although brains with LIS1 deletions exhibited the classic 4-layer lissencephalic architecture, patients with DCX and ARX mutations each had unique cytoarchitectural findings distinct from LIS1. Furthermore, 2 of the 5 patients with no known genetic defect showed a fourth type of histopathology characterized by a 2-layered cortex. Interestingly, the 2 brains with the fourth type of lissencephaly showed profound brainstem and cerebellar abnormalities. In summary, we identified at least 4 distinct histopathologic subtypes of lissencephaly that stratify with the underlying genetic defect. Based on these data, a new classification for lissencephaly is proposed that incorporates both pathologic and genetic findings.

  9. Faster rates of post-puberty kidney deterioration in males is correlated with elevated oxidative stress in males vs females at early puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Petra

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-puberty deterioration of kidneys is more rapid in males than in females. To reveal the underlying molecular mechanisms for this difference, we analyzed gender-dependent gene expression in kidneys of three groups of 36 day-old rats. Results The number of genes exhibiting gender-dependent expression was highly influenced by the genetic background of the rat group examined. 373, 288 and 79 genes showed differential gene expression between males and females (p = 0.001 in US, Mhm and Mhm*BN rats, respectively. Of all gender dependently expressed genes, only 39 genes were differentially expressed in all tested groups and the direction of expression change was the same for those genes for all groups. The gene expression profile suggests higher metabolic and transport activities, enhanced cell proliferation, elevated oxidative stress, and altered vascular biology in males. Furthermore, elevated levels of superoxide anion (two- to three-fold in males compared to females were detected at early puberty, but neither at pre-puberty nor at late puberty/early adulthood. Conclusion Our data suggest that early puberty, with gender-related elevation in oxidative stress in males, is a key compromising factor on kidneys in males.

  10. Forest succession at elevated CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, James S.; Schlesinger, William H.

    2002-02-01

    We tested hypotheses concerning the response of forest succession to elevated CO2 in the FACTS-1 site at the Duke Forest. We quantified growth and survival of naturally recruited seedlings, tree saplings, vines, and shrubs under ambient and elevated CO2. We planted seeds and seedlings to augment sample sites. We augmented CO2 treatments with estimates of shade tolerance and nutrient limitation while controlling for soil and light effects to place CO2 treatments within the context of natural variability at the site. Results are now being analyzed and used to parameterize forest models of CO2 response.

  11. Elevated progesterone during ovarian stimulation for IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Azemi, M; Kyrou, D; Kolibianakis, E M

    2012-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate regarding the impact of premature progesterone rise on the IVF outcome. The objective of this review is to assess evidence of poorer ongoing pregnancy rate in IVF cycles with elevated serum progesterone at the end of follicular phase in ovarian stimulation. It also...... of premature progesterone in stimulated IVF cycles. There is an ongoing debate regarding the impact of premature progesterone rise on the IVF outcome. The objective of this review is to assess evidence of poorer ongoing pregnancy rate in IVF cycles with elevated serum progesterone at the end of follicular...... should document the cause and origin of premature progesterone in stimulated IVF cycles....

  12. FGF23 is elevated in Gambian children with rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Ann; Ceesay, Mustapha; Nigdikar, Shailja; Allen, Stephen J; Pettifor, John M

    2008-04-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a phosphaturic factor that is elevated in several diseases associated with hypophosphatemia and rickets. Rickets in the absence of vitamin D deficiency has been reported in African and Asian populations with a low calcium intake but the definition of risk factors has proved elusive. The aim of the study was to characterize the biochemical profile and measure FGF23 in a series of Gambian children who had presented with rickets of unknown etiology and a plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) above the range typical of vitamin D-deficiency rickets. The 46 patients (30 males, 16 females) had bone deformities typical of rickets and were 1.1-16.4 years old (geometric mean, 3.4 years). Active rickets (on radiographs and/or elevated plasma alkaline phosphatase) was present in 28%. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D was above 20 nmol/l in all patients. Concentrations of plasma FGF23, phosphate and other relevant biochemical analytes were measured in stored samples of fasting, early morning plasma and compared with those measured in samples collected from local children and stored under similar conditions. The rickets patients had lower plasma phosphate, lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D, higher 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and elevated total alkaline phosphatase than local children. Those with active rickets had raised parathyroid hormone concentration. The patients had significantly higher FGF23 concentration than local children (geometric mean (-1SD, +1SD, range) RU/ml: 367 (87, 1552, 46-7052, n=39) vs 51 (23, 112, 3-130, n=30), pchildren, some grossly so (up to 50-fold). There was no significant difference in FGF23 concentration between those with active rickets and the other patients. Plasma phosphate was significantly and inversely correlated with FGF23 concentration. Some clinical improvements were noted after 6-12 months, during which time calcium and vitamin D had been prescribed, but FGF23 remained elevated in many patients. These data suggest that

  13. Elevated peptides in lung lavage fluid associated with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Stone

    Full Text Available The objective of this discovery-level investigation was to use mass spectrometry to identify low mass compounds in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from lung transplant recipients that associate with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome.Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from lung transplant recipients were evaluated for small molecules using ESI-TOF mass spectrometry and correlated to the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. Peptides associated with samples from persons with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome and controls were identified separately by MS/MS analysis.The average bronchoalveolar lavage fluid MS spectrum profile of individuals that developed bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome differed greatly compared to controls. Controls demonstrated close inter-sample correlation (R = 0.97+/-0.02, average+/-SD while bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome showed greater heterogeneity (R = 0.86+/-0.09, average+/-SD. We identified 89 features that were predictive of developing BOS grade 1 and 66 features predictive of developing BOS grade 2 or higher. Fractions from MS analysis were pooled and evaluated for peptide content. Nearly 10-fold more peptides were found in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome relative to controls. C-terminal residues suggested trypsin-like specificity among controls compared to elastase-type enzymes among those with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome.Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from individuals with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome has an increase in low mass components detected by mass spectrometry. Many of these features were peptides that likely result from elevated neutrophil elastase activity.

  14. Reduced group delay dispersion in quantum dot passively mode-locked lasers operating at elevated temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, J. K.; Raghunathan, R.; Murrell, D.; Braga, A.; Li, Y.; Lester, L. F.

    2014-09-01

    A detailed study of the pulse characteristics emitted from a monolithic Quantum Dot (QD) passively Mode-Locked Laser (MLL) has been performed using a state-of-the-art Frequency Resolved Optical Gating (FROG) pulse measurement system. While traditionally the time-domain pulse characteristics of semiconductor MLLs have been studied using digital sampling oscilloscope or intensity autocorrelation techniques, the FROG measurements allow for simultaneous characterization of time and frequency, which has been shown to be necessary and sufficient for true determination of mode-locked stability. In this paper, FROG pulse measurements are presented on a two-section QD MLL operating over wide temperature excursions. The FROG measurement allows for extraction of the temporal and spectral intensity and phase profiles from which the Group Delay Dispersion (GDD) can be determined. The magnitude of the GDD is found to decrease from 16.1 to 3.5 ps/nm when the temperature is increased from 20 to 50 oC, mirroring the trend of pulse width reduction at elevated temperature, which has been shown to correlate strongly with reduced unsaturated absorption. The possibility to further optimize pulse generation via intra-cavity dispersion compensation in a novel three-section MLL design is also examined, and shows strong potential toward providing valuable insight into the optimal cavity designs and operating parameters for QD MLLs.

  15. Individual ant workers show self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Stephanie; Czaczkes, Tomer J

    2017-10-01

    Often, the first option is not the best. Self-control can allow humans and animals to improve resource intake under such conditions. Self-control in animals is often investigated using intertemporal choice tasks-choosing a smaller reward immediately or a larger reward after a delay. However, intertemporal choice tasks may underestimate self-control, as test subjects may not fully understand the task. Vertebrates show much greater apparent self-control in more natural foraging contexts and spatial discounting tasks than in intertemporal choice tasks. However, little is still known about self-control in invertebrates. Here, we investigate self-control in the black garden ant Lasius niger We confront individual workers with a spatial discounting task, offering a high-quality reward far from the nest and a poor-quality reward closer to the nest. Most ants (69%) successfully ignored the closer, poorer reward in favour of the further, better one. However, when both the far and the close rewards were of the same quality, most ants (83%) chose the closer feeder, indicating that the ants were indeed exercising self-control, as opposed to a fixation on an already known food source. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. An equilibrium profile model for tidal environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Bernabeu

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available During a full tidal cycle, the beach profile is exposed to continuously changing hydrodynamical conditions. Consequently, the profile evolves constantly to adapt to these changes. The equilibrium condition on tidal beaches is defined in terms of the relative occurrence of swash, surf zone and shoaling processes. We have assumed that the tidal beach profile is in equilibrium when the net sediment transport along a tidal cycle is zero. In this model the contribution of swash is considered negligible. A simple and easy-to-apply equilibrium profile formulation is proposed. This model is based on the assumption that surf zone processes dominate the profile morphology wherever wave breaking occurs during the tidal cycle. The obtained equilibrium profile is valid from the high tide level to the breaker point at low tide level. The tidal influence on the profile morphology is the lengthening of the surf profile. The higher the tidal range, the longer the surf profile. The model was tested against field and laboratory data, showing reasonable predictions of measured beach profiles.

  17. Expansion of the Phenotypic Spectrum of Propionic Acidemia with Isolated Elevated Propionylcarnitine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuccio, Gerarda; Atwal, Paldeep S; Donti, Taraka R; Ugarte, Kiki; Merchant, Nadia; Craigen, William J; Sutton, V Reid; Elsea, Sarah H

    2017-01-01

    We report three patients with elevations of propionylcarnitine (C3), one without elevations of 2-methylcitrate and 3-hydroxypropionate in urine organic acid analysis, and the other two showing only mild elevations, all of whom were subsequently confirmed to have propionic acidemia by molecular analysis of PCCA and PCCB genes. To date, they have had a mild clinical course. These cases illustrate the importance of considering high C3 as the only biochemical abnormality in a diagnosis of propionic acidemia. Since mild C3 elevations may be overlooked and considered non-diagnostic in isolation, we advise considering a diagnosis of propionic acidemia even in the absence of significant elevations 2-methylcitrate or 3-hydroxypropionate in urine organic acid analysis.

  18. Histomorphological study of palatal shelf elevation during murine secondary palate formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kai; Ornitz, David M

    2011-07-01

    During mammalian secondary palate development, the palatal shelves undergo dramatic morphological changes to elevate from a vertical to a horizontal plane in the oral-nasal cavity. We found that E14.5 mouse embryos displayed marked variations in shelf morphology that represent various intermediate states of the elevation process. With these variations, we reconstructed the sequence of shelf morphological changes that take place during the elevation process and discovered distinct patterns in different regions along the anterior-posterior (AP) axis. Moreover, our study revealed that during the elevation process, shelf morphological changes are accompanied by tongue morphological changes, which also show distinct characteristics along the AP axis. We further discuss how to divide the palate along the AP axis based on morphological criteria. Our study provides a framework that recognizes variation in timing of palatal morphogenesis along the AP axis that will aid in the investigation of the mechanisms regulating palatal shelf elevation. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Transient elevation of ST-segment due to pneumothorax and pneumopericardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Martins Brandão

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ST-segment elevation, observed in the critically ill patients, almost always raises the suspicion of ischemic heart disease. However, nonischemic myocardial and non-myocardial problems in these patients may also lead to ST-segment elevation. Pneumothorax and pneumopericardium have been rarely reported as a cause of transient ST-segment elevation. The authors report the case of a patient admitted to the emergency care unit because of a respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilatory support. As the patient showed signs of clinical deterioration, a pneumothorax was clinically diagnosed. Chest radiography after thorax drainage also disclosed a pneumopericardium. The 12-lead electrocardiogram recorded before the thoracic drainage revealed an ST-segment elevation, which normalized after the surgical procedure. Ischemic myocardial biomarkers were negative. The authors call attention to the right-sided pneumothorax associated with pneumopericardium as an unusual cause of ST-segment elevation.

  20. Google Earth elevation data extraction and accuracy assessment for transportation applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinsong; Zou, Yajie; Henrickson, Kristian; Wang, Yinhai; Tang, Jinjun; Park, Byung-Jung

    2017-01-01

    Roadway elevation data is critical for a variety of transportation analyses. However, it has been challenging to obtain such data and most roadway GIS databases do not have them. This paper intends to address this need by proposing a method to extract roadway elevation data from Google Earth (GE) for transportation applications. A comprehensive accuracy assessment of the GE-extracted elevation data is conducted for the area of conterminous USA. The GE elevation data was compared with the ground truth data from nationwide GPS benchmarks and roadway monuments from six states in the conterminous USA. This study also compares the GE elevation data with the elevation raster data from the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Dataset (USGS NED), which is a widely used data source for extracting roadway elevation. Mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean squared error (RMSE) are used to assess the accuracy and the test results show MAE, RMSE and standard deviation of GE roadway elevation error are 1.32 meters, 2.27 meters and 2.27 meters, respectively. Finally, the proposed extraction method was implemented and validated for the following three scenarios: (1) extracting roadway elevation differentiating by directions, (2) multi-layered roadway recognition in freeway segment and (3) slope segmentation and grade calculation in freeway segment. The methodology validation results indicate that the proposed extraction method can locate the extracting route accurately, recognize multi-layered roadway section, and segment the extracted route by grade automatically. Overall, it is found that the high accuracy elevation data available from GE provide a reliable data source for various transportation applications.

  1. Biogeographical Interpretation of Elevational Patterns of Genus Diversity of Seed Plants in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Feng, Jianmeng

    2015-01-01

    This study tests if the biogeographical affinities of genera are relevant for explaining elevational plant diversity patterns in Nepal. We used simultaneous autoregressive (SAR) models to investigate the explanatory power of several predictors in explaining the diversity-elevation relationships shown in genera with different biogeographical affinities. Delta akaike information criterion (ΔAIC) was used for multi-model inferences and selections. Our results showed that both the total and tropical genus diversity peaked below the mid-point of the elevational gradient, whereas that of temperate genera had a nearly symmetrical, unimodal relationship with elevation. The proportion of temperate genera increased markedly with elevation, while that of tropical genera declined. Compared to tropical genera, temperate genera had wider elevational ranges and were observed at higher elevations. Water-related variables, rather than mid-domain effects (MDE), were the most significant predictors of elevational patterns of tropical genus diversity. The temperate genus diversity was influenced by energy availability, but only in quadratic terms of the models. Though climatic factors and mid-domain effects jointly explained most of the variation in the diversity of temperate genera with elevation, the former played stronger roles. Total genus diversity was most strongly influenced by climate and the floristic overlap of tropical and temperate floras, while the influences of mid-domain effects were relatively weak. The influences of water-related and energy-related variables may vary with biogeographical affinities. The elevational patterns may be most closely related to climatic factors, while MDE may somewhat modify the patterns. Caution is needed when investigating the causal factors underlying diversity patterns for large taxonomic groups composed of taxa of different biogeographical affinities. Right-skewed diversity-elevation patterns may be produced by the differential

  2. Biogeographical Interpretation of Elevational Patterns of Genus Diversity of Seed Plants in Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Li

    Full Text Available This study tests if the biogeographical affinities of genera are relevant for explaining elevational plant diversity patterns in Nepal. We used simultaneous autoregressive (SAR models to investigate the explanatory power of several predictors in explaining the diversity-elevation relationships shown in genera with different biogeographical affinities. Delta akaike information criterion (ΔAIC was used for multi-model inferences and selections. Our results showed that both the total and tropical genus diversity peaked below the mid-point of the elevational gradient, whereas that of temperate genera had a nearly symmetrical, unimodal relationship with elevation. The proportion of temperate genera increased markedly with elevation, while that of tropical genera declined. Compared to tropical genera, temperate genera had wider elevational ranges and were observed at higher elevations. Water-related variables, rather than mid-domain effects (MDE, were the most significant predictors of elevational patterns of tropical genus diversity. The temperate genus diversity was influenced by energy availability, but only in quadratic terms of the models. Though climatic factors and mid-domain effects jointly explained most of the variation in the diversity of temperate genera with elevation, the former played stronger roles. Total genus diversity was most strongly influenced by climate and the floristic overlap of tropical and temperate floras, while the influences of mid-domain effects were relatively weak. The influences of water-related and energy-related variables may vary with biogeographical affinities. The elevational patterns may be most closely related to climatic factors, while MDE may somewhat modify the patterns. Caution is needed when investigating the causal factors underlying diversity patterns for large taxonomic groups composed of taxa of different biogeographical affinities. Right-skewed diversity-elevation patterns may be produced by the

  3. Acclimation of nitrogen uptake capacity of rice to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimono, Hiroyuki; Bunce, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Nitrogen (N) is a major factor affecting yield gain of crops under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations [CO2]. It is well established that elevated [CO2] increases root mass, but there are inconsistent reports on the effects on N uptake capacity per root mass. In the present study, it was hypothesized that the responses of N uptake capacity would change with the duration of exposure to elevated [CO2]. Methods The hypothesis was tested by measuring N uptake capacity in rice plants exposed to long-term and short-term [CO2] treatments at different growth stages in plants grown under non-limiting N conditions in hydroponic culture. Seasonal changes in photosynthesis rate and transpiration rate were also measured. Key Results In the long-term [CO2] study, leaf photosynthetic responses to intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) were not affected by elevated [CO2] before the heading stage, but the initial slope in this response was decreased by elevated [CO2] at the grain-filling stage. Nitrate and ammonium uptake capacities per root dry weight were not affected by elevated [CO2] at panicle initiation, but thereafter they were reduced by elevated [CO2] by 31–41 % at the full heading and mid-ripening growth stages. In the short-term study (24 h exposures), elevated [CO2] enhanced nitrate and ammonium uptake capacities at the early vegetative growth stage, but elevated [CO2] decreased the uptake capacities at the mid-reproductive stage. Conclusions This study showed that N uptake capacity was downregulated under long-term exposure to elevated [CO2] and its response to elevated [CO2] varied greatly with growth stage. PMID:18952623

  4. Thermoregulation in the lizard Psammodromus algirus along a 2200-m elevational gradient in Sierra Nevada (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Camacho, Francisco Javier; Reguera, Senda; Moreno-Rueda, Gregorio

    2016-05-01

    Achieving optimal body temperature maximizes animal fitness. Since ambient temperature may limit ectotherm thermal performance, it can be constrained in too cold or hot environments. In this sense, elevational gradients encompass contrasting thermal environments. In thermally pauperized elevations, ectotherms may either show adaptations or suboptimal body temperatures. Also, reproductive condition may affect thermal needs. Herein, we examined different thermal ecology and physiology capabilities of the lizard Psammodromus algirus along a 2200-m elevational gradient. We measured field (Tb) and laboratory-preferred (Tpref) body temperatures of lizards with different reproductive conditions, as well as ambient (Ta) and copper-model operative temperature (Te), which we used to determine thermal quality of the habitat (de), accuracy (db), and effectiveness of thermoregulation (de-db) indexes. We detected no Tb trend in elevation, while Ta constrained Tb only at high elevations. Moreover, while Ta decreased more than 7 °C with elevation, Tpref dropped only 0.6 °C, although significantly. Notably, low-elevation lizards faced excess temperature (Te > Tpref). Notably, de was best at middle elevations, followed by high elevations, and poorest at low elevations. Nonetheless, regarding microhabitat, high-elevation de was more suitable in sun-exposed microhabitats, which may increase exposition to predators, and at midday, which may limit daily activity. As for gender, db and de-db were better in females than in males. In conclusion, P. algirus seems capable to face a wide thermal range, which probably contributes to its extensive corology and makes it adaptable to climate changes.

  5. Mechanical and Microstructural Evaluations of Lightweight Aggregate Geopolymer Concrete before and after Exposed to Elevated Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkareem, Omar A; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Hussin, Kamarudin; Ismail, Khairul Nizar; Binhussain, Mohammed

    2013-10-09

    This paper presents the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of a lightweight aggregate geopolymer concrete (LWAGC) synthesized by the alkali-activation of a fly ash source (FA) before and after being exposed to elevated temperatures, ranging from 100 to 800 °C. The results show that the LWAGC unexposed to the elevated temperatures possesses a good strength-to-weight ratio compared with other LWAGCs available in the published literature. The unexposed LWAGC also shows an excellent strength development versus aging times, up to 365 days. For the exposed LWAGC to the elevated temperatures of 100 to 800 °C, the results illustrate that the concretes gain compressive strength after being exposed to elevated temperatures of 100, 200 and 300 °C. Afterward, the strength of the LWAGC started to deteriorate and decrease after being exposed to elevated temperatures of 400 °C, and up to 800 °C. Based on the mechanical strength results of the exposed LWAGCs to elevated temperatures of 100 °C to 800 °C, the relationship between the exposure temperature and the obtained residual compressive strength is statistically analyzed and achieved. In addition, the microstructure investigation of the unexposed LWAGC shows a good bonding between aggregate and mortar at the interface transition zone (ITZ). However, this bonding is subjected to deterioration as the LWAGC is exposed to elevated temperatures of 400, 600 and 800 °C by increasing the microcrack content and swelling of the unreacted silicates.

  6. Natural current profiles in a tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J.B.

    1990-08-01

    In this paper I show how one may arrive at a universal, or natural, family of Tokamak profiles using only accepted physical principles. These particular profiles are similar to ones proposed previously on the basis of ad hoc variational principles and the point of the present paper is to provide a justification for them. However in addition, the present work provides an interesting view of Tokamak fluctuations and leads to a new result -- a relationship between the inward particle pinch velocity, the diffusion coefficient and the current profile. The basic Tokamak model is described in this paper. Then an analogy is developed between Tokamak profiles and the equilibrium of a realisable dynamical system. Then the equations governing the natural Tokamak profiles are derived by applying standard statistical mechanics to this analog. The profiles themselves are calculated and some other results of the theory are described.

  7. Offshore technology stresses substance over show

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, T.R. Jr.; Abraham, K.S.

    1988-07-01

    Emphasis these days continues to be on practical, cost-effective solutions to real problems. With a couple of exceptions, gone are the glitz and glamour of big-ticket items developed on speculation for projects and situations that don't yet exist. Manufacturers are cautiously spending money on R and D for more down-to-earth items. There seems to be a motto that ''less can be more,'' if researchers focus their limited resources on developing items that are more efficient, easier to install and operate, and save money. Items reviewed on this and other pages by WORLD OIL this year are certainly reflective of such attitudes. Short on show, but long on substance, they provide practical answers to everyday, routine problems encountered by offshore operators. They range from a subsea wireline lubricator developed by BP and Schlumberger, to a new ''armoring'' system that coats platform risers and saves them from the ravages of Mother Nature. There are also an electric safety valve and assorted other goodies. In addition, engineers have completed a fascinating study, which determined why some drilling vessels really sank during blowouts. It is incorrect to assume that large-sized innovations have disappeared completely. For instance, Conoco and others have designed a single-leg, tension-leg platform for Gulf of Mexico duty, which is featured below. Keep in mind, however, the primary motivation for this design was to improve logistics, shorten the timeframe, and save money.

  8. Characteristics and contributions of hyperandrogenism to insulin resistance and other metabolic profiles in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong; Zheng, Jun; Li, Shengxian; Tao, Tao; Ma, Jing; Liu, Wei

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the different characteristics in Chinese Han women with polycystic ovary syndrome, and to analyze the significance of hyperandrogenism in insulin resistance and other metabolic profiles. A cross-sectional study. Medical university hospital. A total of 229 women with polycystic ovary syndrome aged 18-45 years. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome, diagnosed by Rotterdam criteria, were divided into four groups according to the quartile intervals of free androgen index levels. Comparisons between groups were performed using one-way analysis of variance. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance and independent variables. Within the four phenotypes, women with phenotype 1 (hyperandrogenism, oligo/anovulation, and polycystic ovaries) exhibited higher total testosterone, free androgen index, androstenedione, low-density lipoprotein, and lower quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (p polycystic ovaries) showed lower total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, but higher high-density lipoprotein (p < 0.05). The levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance significantly increased, but high-density lipoprotein and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index decreased with the elevation of free androgen index intervals. After adjustment for lipid profiles, free androgen index was significantly associated with homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance in both lean and overweight/obese women (odds ratio 1.302, p = 0.039 in lean vs. odds ratio 1.132, p = 0.036 in overweight/obese). Phenotypes 1 and 4 represent groups with the most and least severe metabolic profiles, respectively. Hyperandrogenism, particularly with elevated free androgen index, is likely a key contributing factor for insulin resistance and for the aggravation

  9. Personality Assessment Inventory profiles of veterans: Differential effects of mild traumatic brain injury and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskey, Holly M; Shura, Robert D; Yoash-Gantz, Ruth E; Rowland, Jared A

    2015-09-01

    Neuropsychiatric complaints often accompany mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), a common condition in post-deployed Veterans. Self-report, multi-scale personality inventories may elucidate the pattern of psychiatric distress in this cohort. This study investigated valid Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) profiles in post-deployed Veterans. Measures of psychopathology and mTBI were examined in a sample of 144 post-deployed Veterans divided into groups: healthy controls (n = 40), mTBI only (n = 31), any mental health diagnosis only (MH; n = 25), comorbid mTBI and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (mTBI/PTSD; n = 23), and comorbid mTBI, PTSD, and other psychological diagnoses (mTBI/PTSD/MDD+; n = 25). There were no significant differences between the mTBI and the control group on mean PAI subscale elevation, or number of subscale elevations above 60T or 70T. The other three groups had significantly higher overall mean scores, and more elevations above 60 and 70T compared to both controls and mTBI only. The mTBI/PTSD/MDD+ group showed the highest and most elevations. After entering demographics, PTSD, and number of other psychological diagnoses into hierarchical regressions using the entire sample, mTBI history did not predict mean PAI subscale score or number of elevations above 60T or 70T. PTSD was the only significant predictor. There were no interaction effects between mTBI and presence of PTSD, or between mTBI and total number of diagnoses. This study suggests that mTBI alone is not uniquely related to psychiatric distress in Veterans, but that PTSD accounts for self-reported symptom distress.

  10. Kas Euroopale oma "Elevant"? / Tiina Lokk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lokk, Tiina, 1955-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmar Raagi mängufilm "Klass" võitis 42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivalil kaks auhinda - ametliku kõrvalvõistlusprogrammi "East of the West" eripreemia "Special mention" ja Euroopa väärtfilmikinode keti Europa Cinemas preemia. Ka teistest võistlusprogrammi filmidest ja "Klassi" võrdlus Gus Van Santi filmiga "Elevant"

  11. Elevated plasma homocysteine in association with decreased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    monoamine neurotransmitters and depression of mood.7 A. Elevated plasma homocysteine in association with decreased vitamin. B12, folate, serotonin, lipids and lipoproteins in depressed patients. MO Ebesunun1, HU Eruvulobi1, T Olagunju1, OA Owoeye2. 1Chemical Pathology, Obafemi Awolowo College of Health ...

  12. Talentudvikling og differentiering af elever i talentklasser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Dansk uddannelsespolitik har gennem de senere år haft stigende fokus på at fremme talentudvikling gennem uddannelserne. Fokuseringen på talent har på grundskoleniveau blandt andet ført til oprettelse af forskellige former for talentklasser, hvor særligt talentfulde elever kan dyrke og få ekstra...... udfordringer inden for bestemte områder. Når det gælder talent for skolearbejde som sådan, de bogligt stærke elever, er det blevet en udbredt praksis inden for landets kommuner at tilbyde undervisning for disse elever i såkaldte talentklasser, som foregår efter almindelig skoletid, ofte i ungdomsskoleregi....... Denne artikel ser nærmere på, hvad der socialt og i relation til talent kendetegner de elever, som opsøger og følger en sådan talentklasseundervisning, og diskuterer dernæst talentklasser som en form for social differentiering legitimeret gennem uddannelsessystemet. Det empiriske grundlag for artiklens...

  13. ELEVATED TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON THE ELECTRICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of elevated temperatures on the electrical properties of Bi metal probe to Si thin films had been investigated for electric field values 10-100V/m. Measurements of current (I) – voltage (V) characteristics were obtained at temperatures 300,320,340,360,380 and 400K respectively. The results indicated linear I–V ...

  14. 75 FR 32684 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... flexibility analysis is not required. Executive Order 12866, Regulatory Planning and Review. This proposed...) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) Depth in feet above Flooding source(s) Location of referenced ground Communities... upstream of Country Club Boulevard. * National Geodetic Vertical Datum. + North American Vertical Datum...

  15. Climatic change at high elevation sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Henry F. Diaz

    1998-07-23

    A Workshop on climatic change at high elevation sites was held September 11-15, 1995 in Wengen, Switzerland. The meeting was sponsored by both U.S. (Department of Energy, National Science Foundation and National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration) and European (Swiss National Science Foundation, European Science Foundation, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology) agencies. The goals of the workshop were to (1) focus the attention of the world climate community on the existence of unique high elevation geophysical records around the world, (2) highlight the value of these observing sites for climate change detection efforts and to help insure the continued support of governments and of relevant institutions in the maintenance of these high elevation data gathering efforts, (3) discuss and evaluate climatic trends that may be present in these records, and to compare the information with available paleoenvironmental records of glaciers, tree-rings and varved sediments from the alpine zones, and (4) discuss and evaluate information about elevational differences in current and projected greenhouse-gas induced climatic changes in coupled General Circulation Models.

  16. Battling against Marginalisation: Towards the Elevation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Battling against Marginalisation: Towards the Elevation of Indigenous Languages in Zimbabwe. ... The study is informed by afrocentrism theory which calls for all African phenomena, activities and way of life to be looked at and be given meaning from the standpoint and worldview of Africans. Ife PsychologIA, 20(2), ...

  17. Elevated transferrin saturation and risk of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; Andersen, Henrik Ullits

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We tested the hypothesis that elevated transferrin saturation is associated with an increased risk of any form of diabetes, as well as type 1 or type 2 diabetes separately. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used two general population studies, The Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS, N = 9...

  18. Nurses' accuracy in estimating backrest elevation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-08-02

    Aug 2, 2007 ... study days as routine procedures such as endotracheal suctioning and dressings had usually been completed by this time. The backrest angle of purposively selected mechanically ventilated patients was measured at the breakpoint of the bed frame using an angle finder. Backrest elevation was defined as ...

  19. 75 FR 8814 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    .... Coshocton County, Ohio, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1020 Muskingum River 170 feet upstream of... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood...

  20. 78 FR 6743 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... County, Ohio, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1192 Auglaize River Approximately 0.7 mile + 909... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood...

  1. 75 FR 55480 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... upstream of the Jo Daviess County. confluence with the Ohio River (approximately 0.6 mile upstream of West Diggen Hill Road extended). Approximately 572.3 miles +608 upstream of the confluence with the Ohio River... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY...

  2. 76 FR 72627 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ..., Illinois, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1134 Ohio River Approximately 1,666 feet +367... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood...

  3. 75 FR 34381 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... Gulfport, (approximately 395 miles Village of Lomax. upstream of the confluence with the Ohio River... the Ohio River). * National Geodetic Vertical Datum. + North American Vertical Datum. Depth in feet... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY...

  4. 76 FR 79098 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... downstream of Mt. Zion Road. Ohio Canal At the confluence with +825 City of Lancaster, the Hocking River... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood...

  5. 75 FR 19895 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ..., confluence with the Ohio Unincorporated Areas of River (approximately 0.1 Mercer County. mile downstream of 50th Street extended). 437 miles upstream of the +550 confluence with the Ohio River (approximately 0.2... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY...

  6. 76 FR 39305 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ..., Ohio, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1120 Great Miami River Approximately 1.0 mile +854 City... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood...

  7. Implementation of four layer automatic elevator controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, B. K. V.; Kumar, P. Satish; Charles, B. S.; Srilakshmi, G.

    2017-07-01

    In this modern era, elevators have become an integral part of any commercial or public complex. It facilitates the faster movement of people and luggage between floors. The lift control system is one among the keenest aspects in electronics controlling module that are used in auto motive filed. Usually elevators are designed for a specific building taking into account the main factors like the measure of the building, the count of persons travelling to each floor and the expected periods of large usage. The lift system was designed with different control strategies. This implementation is based on FPGA, which could be used for any building with any number of floors, with the necessary inputs and outputs. This controller can be implemented based on the required number of floors by merely changing a control variable from the HDL code. This approach is based on an algorithm which reduces the number of computation necessary, on concentrating only on the relevant principles that improves the score and ability of the club of elevator structure. The elevator controller is developed using Verilog HDL and is perfectly executed on a Xilinx ISE 12.4 and Spartan -3E FPGA.

  8. 78 FR 45877 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ..., Environmental Consideration. An environmental impact assessment has not been prepared. Regulatory Flexibility... communities listed below. Elevations at selected locations in each community are shown. National Environmental... mile 28 southeast of the intersection of Mill Street and Thane Road. Jordan Creek Approximately 1,080...

  9. [Postoperative temporal elevation of tumor marker in primary lung cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, S; Nonaka, M; Kataoka, D; Yamamoto, S; Kadokura, M; Takaba, T

    2004-06-01

    Serum tumor marker measurement in addition to radiological examination is useful to detect postoperative recurrence and metastasis. Surgically treated 8 primary non-small cell lung cancer patients who showed negative serum tumor marker postoperatively elevated their markers temporally. Five of the 8 patients did not show recurrence or metastasis in their last confirmation days. These 5 patients had inflammatory disease when the postoperative marker became positive temporally. Remaining 3 patients did not have inflammatory disease when the marker elevated temporally. The marker of the 3 patients became negative again, however, the 3 patients showed recurrence or metastasis during 1 year after temporally elevated day. In conclusion, if there is no inflammatory disease when the negative marker becomes positive temporally, the recurrence or metastasis may be observed during 1 year after temporally elevated day. And when the recurrence or metastasis is observed radiologically, the marker may become negative.

  10. The immunopathology of human schistosomiasis-III: immunoglobulin isotype profiles and response to praziquantel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romelia M Ramírez

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin (Ig isotype (IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, IgM, IgD and IgE levels were investigated, both pre- and post-treatment with praziquantel (PZQ, in 43 adults and children chronically infected with Schistosoma mansoni , by means of a two-site, isotype-specific immunoenzymometric assay. The patients were classified as responders (R or non-responders (NR on the basis of their circumoval precipitin test (COPT results 12 months after treatment. In comparison with controls, pre-treatment R children showed significantly higher levels of IgG, IgG1, IgG4 (p<0.001 and IgE (p<0.01, and diminished IgG2 (p<0.05, while NR children showed significantly elevated levels only of IgE (p<0.05. Twelve months after therapy, R children maintained significantly lower levels of IgG2, but showed significantly decreased levels of IgG, IgG1, IgG4, and IgE, while the Ig isotype profile of NR children was unaltered. Adult R and NR showed similar isotype profiles before chemotherapy, with the exception of significantly elevated IgM levels in R. Twelve months after therapy, R adults showed significantly decreased levels of IgG, IgG1, and IgG4, while NR adults showed only diminshed IgG4 levels. These results reveal different Ig isotype profiles in untreated adults and children chronically infected with S. mansoni. The results further show that the pre-treatment Ig isotype profile may be significantly modified after an effective R to chemotherapy, accounted for by down regulation of the IgG1 isotype in association with negative seroconversion of the COPT in R patients. The COPT reaction has been associated with the highly specific egg glycoprotein antigen w1, which shows a significant reduction in reactivity six months after treatment. IgG1 may thus play a main role in the response against the w1 antigen.

  11. Patterns of oribatid mite species diversity: testing the effects of elevation, area and sampling effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumladze, Levan; Murvanidze, Maka; Maraun, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Elevational gradients in species diversity and species area relationships are two well established patterns that are not mutually exclusive in space and time. Elevation and area are both considered as good proxies to detect and characterize the patterns of species diversity distribution. However, such studies are hampered by the incomplete biodiversity data available for ecologists, which may affect the pattern perceptions. Using the large dataset of oribatid mite communities sampled in Georgia, we tested the effects of altitude and area on species distribution using various approaches, while explicitly considering the biases from sampling effort. Our results showed that elevation and area are strongly correlated (with increasing absolute elevation, land area decreases) and both have strong linear effects on species diversity distribution when studied separately. Approaches based on multiple regression and direct removal of co-varied factors, indicated that the effect of area can actually override the effect of elevation in describing the oribatid species diversity distribution along with elevation. On the other hand, the bias of sampling proved significant in perception of elevational species richness pattern with less effect on elevational species area relationship. We suggest that the sampling alone may be responsible for patterns observed and thus should be considered in ecological studies when eligible.

  12. Outcomes Following Traumatic Grain Elevator Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolefree, Sydnei; Truong, Anthony; Ward, Jeanette; Dong, Fanglong; Ablah, Elizabeth; Haan, James

    2017-01-01

    The absence of a comprehensive database of grain elevator-associated injuries hinders accurate evaluation of injury prevalence and may lead to discordant information about injury frequencies. The main purpose of this study was to identify the most common mechanisms of injury related to grain elevator events. Comparisons of hospital outcomes between patients who sustained traumatic injuries associated with grain elevators at Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)-regulated industrial sites versus those on OSHA-exempt farming operations were also made. A retrospective review was conducted of all patients' presenting with grain elevator-related injuries at a level-1 trauma center between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2013. Data collected included demographics, mechanism of injury, injury severity, hospitalization details, and discharge disposition. Data were summarized, and comparisons were made between the groups. All patients (N = 18) in the study were male, with a mean age of 37 years. Falls and being caught in equipment each accounted for 27.8% of injuries. Among the 18 patients, there were a total of 37 injuries. The majority of injuries were either lower extremity (29.7%) or chest injuries (21.6%). The average hospital length of stay was 4 ± 4.5 days, and one patient required mechanical ventilation. There were no reported deaths. The literature reports entrapments as the leading cause of grain elevator-related injuries; however, this study found that falls and being caught in equipment were the most common mechanisms of injury. This suggests that a greater emphasis should be placed on fall prevention and equipment safety.

  13. Serum Protein Profile Alterations in Hemodialysis Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, G A; Davies, R W; Choi, M W; Perkins, J; Turteltaub, K W; McCutchen-Maloney, S L; Langlois, R G; Curzi, M P; Trebes, J E; Fitch, J P; Dalmasso, E A; Colston, B W; Ying, Y; Chromy, B A

    2003-11-18

    Background: Serum protein profiling patterns can reflect the pathological state of a patient and therefore may be useful for clinical diagnostics. Here, we present results from a pilot study of proteomic expression patterns in hemodialysis patients designed to evaluate the range of serum proteomic alterations in this population. Methods: Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (SELDI-TOFMS) was used to analyze serum obtained from patients on periodic hemodialysis treatment and healthy controls. Serum samples from patients and controls were first fractionated into six eluants on a strong anion exchange column, followed by application to four array chemistries representing cation exchange, anion exchange, metal affinity and hydrophobic surfaces. A total of 144 SELDI-TOF-MS spectra were obtained from each serum sample. Results: The overall profiles of the patient and control samples were consistent and reproducible. However, 30 well-defined protein differences were observed; 15 proteins were elevated and 15 were decreased in patients compared to controls. Serum from one patient exhibited novel protein peaks suggesting possible additional changes due to a secondary disease process. Conclusion: SELDI-TOF-MS demonstrated dramatic serum protein profile differences between patients and controls. Similarity in protein profiles among dialysis patients suggests that patient physiological responses to end-stage renal disease and/or dialysis therapy have a major effect on serum protein profiles.

  14. Multi Car Elevator Control by using Learning Automaton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Kazuaki; Hamagami, Tomoki; Hirata, Hironori

    We study an adaptive control technique for multi car elevators (MCEs) by adopting learning automatons (LAs.) The MCE is a high performance and a near-future elevator system with multi shafts and multi cars. A strong point of the system is that realizing a large carrying capacity in small shaft area. However, since the operation is too complicated, realizing an efficient MCE control is difficult for top-down approaches. For example, “bunching up together" is one of the typical phenomenon in a simple traffic environment like the MCE. Furthermore, an adapting to varying environment in configuration requirement is a serious issue in a real elevator service. In order to resolve these issues, having an autonomous behavior is required to the control system of each car in MCE system, so that the learning automaton, as the solutions for this requirement, is supposed to be appropriate for the simple traffic control. First, we assign a stochastic automaton (SA) to each car control system. Then, each SA varies its stochastic behavior distributions for adapting to environment in which its policy is evaluated with each passenger waiting times. That is LA which learns the environment autonomously. Using the LA based control technique, the MCE operation efficiency is evaluated through simulation experiments. Results show the technique enables reducing waiting times efficiently, and we confirm the system can adapt to the dynamic environment.

  15. A magnetic resonance imaging study of double elevator palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadera, W; Bloom, J N; Karlik, S; Viirre, E

    1997-06-01

    The pathophysiology of double elevator palsy is poorly understood. We assessed two patients with this condition using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate the appearance of the extraocular muscles. Cross-sectional study. Radiology department of a university-affiliated hospital in London, Ont. Two patients from a private ophthalmology practice who had undergone complete transpositions of the horizontal rectus muscles to treat hypotropia associated with double elevator palsy. MRI. A volume scanning technique was used to obtain maximum information about the muscles. Appearance of the extraocular muscles. In both patients MRI showed decreased volume of the superior rectus muscle on the affected side. The other rectus muscles were normal. This suggested either congenital hypoplasia or paresis of the involved superior rectus muscle. In addition, the full tendon transpositions of the medial and lateral recti did not appreciably change the middle and deep orbital pathways of the transposed horizontal rectus muscles. MRI may be a useful adjunct to saccadic velocity assessments in differentiating between primary inferior rectus restriction, primary superior rectus paresis and congenital supranuclear elevator deficiency.

  16. Root and shoot phenologies differ on an arctic elevation gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume-Werry, G.; Milbau, A.; Kreyling, J.; Wilson, S. D.

    2012-12-01

    The length of the growing season is usually determined from aboveground phenology, but our understanding of seasonal root growth and its coupling to shoot growth remains rudimentary. In many ecosystems the majority of plant biomass is belowground, and insights into belowground growth patterns are important for predicting arctic ecosystem responses to global change. We measured root and shoot phenology, with minirhizotrons and digital photography, over the growing season in three common vegetation types along an altitude gradient in northern Sweden. In addition, soil temperature and soil moisture were measured to assess the influence of abiotic factors. The growing season belowground was 35% longer than aboveground, with shoot growth ending 2 weeks prior to root growth. The largest time lag between the end of the growing season below and above the ground (25 days) occurred in birch forest at the lowest elevation. Fine root production was more evenly distributed throughout the season in the forest compared with the higher elevations. The importance of soil temperature and photoperiod in governing root growth increased with increasing elevation. Our results show that the overall growing season length at high latitudes is severely underestimated if aboveground phenology is used as the single indicator for seasonal plant productivity. This has important implications for modeling responses of tundra ecosystems to global change, in which roots are the main source of carbon in the soil, and which play a key role in global carbon storage.

  17. Elevated fingernail cortisol levels in major depressive episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herane-Vives, Andres; Fischer, Susanne; de Angel, Valeria; Wise, Toby; Cheung, Eric; Chua, Kia-Chong; Arnone, Danilo; Young, Allan H; Cleare, Anthony J

    2018-02-01

    The extent to which cortisol levels are elevated in major depressive episodes (MDE), and hence could act as a biomarker of illness, remains unclear. Although patient characteristics may explain some of this variation - for example elevated cortisol being more often found in patients with severe, psychotic or melancholic depression - problems with the methods used to measure cortisol may also have contributed to the inconsistent findings. Fingernails are a novel sample that can be used to assess aggregate cortisol concentrations over a 15-day period, and may provide a more accurate reflection of longer term cortisol level changes in MDE and help clarify this issue. This methodology has not yet been utilised in MDE. Cortisol levels reflecting a period of 15days were measured using fingernails in a group of 26 subjects experiencing a major depressive episode (MDE) and in an age and gender matched group of 45 healthy controls. Depressed subjects showed significantly higher mean cortisol levels measured in fingernails when compared with control subjects. Higher levels of cortisol were associated with higher depression severity scores, a diagnosis of non-reactive depression, and more prominent melancholic symptoms. Conversely, fatigue was negatively correlated with cortisol levels. There is elevated cortisol in MDE when assessed using an aggregate measure over two weeks.Alterations in fingernail cortisol correlate with key clinical symptoms and subtypes of depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Plasma sphingosine-1-phosphate is elevated in obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg M Kowalski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dysfunctional lipid metabolism is a hallmark of obesity and insulin resistance and a risk factor for various cardiovascular and metabolic complications. In addition to the well known increase in plasma triglycerides and free fatty acids, recent work in humans and rodents has shown that obesity is associated with elevations in the bioactive class of sphingolipids known as ceramides. However, in obesity little is known about the plasma concentrations of sphinogsine-1-phosphate (S1P, the breakdown product of ceramide, which is an important signaling molecule in mammalian biology. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of obesity on circulating S1P concentration and its relationship with markers of glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Plasma S1P levels were determined in high-fat diet (HFD-induced and genetically obese (ob/ob mice along with obese humans. Circulating S1P was elevated in both obese mouse models and in obese humans compared with lean healthy controls. Furthermore, in humans, plasma S1P positively correlated with total body fat percentage, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, HbA1c (%, total and LDL cholesterol. In addition, fasting increased plasma S1P levels in lean healthy mice. CONCLUSION: We show that elevations in plasma S1P are a feature of both human and rodent obesity and correlate with metabolic abnormalities such as adiposity and insulin resistance.

  19. Cerebral Pulsatility Index Is Elevated in Patients with Elevated Right Atrial Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Shouri; Schlick, Konrad H; Padrick, Matthew M; Rinsky, Brenda; Gonzalez, Nestor; Jones, Heather; Mayer, Stephan A; Lyden, Patrick D

    2018-01-01

    Extracerebral venous congestion can precipitate intracranial hypertension due to obstruction of cerebral blood outflow. Conditions that increase right atrial pressure, such as hypervolemia, are thought to increase resistance to jugular venous outflow and contribute to cerebro-venous congestion. Cerebral pulsatility index (CPI) is considered a surrogate marker of distal cerebrovascular resistance and is elevated with intracranial hypertension. Thus, we sought to test the hypothesis that elevated right atrial pressure is associated with increased CPI compared to normal right atrial pressure. We retrospectively reviewed 61 consecutive patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. We calculated CPI from transcranial Doppler studies and correlated these with echocardiographic measures of right atrial pressure. CPIs were compared from patients with elevated and normal right atrial pressure. There was a significant difference between CPI obtained from all patients with elevated right atrial pressure compared to those with normal right atrial pressure (P right and left hemispheric CPI from patients with both elevated and normal right atrial pressure. Patients with elevated right atrial pressure had significantly higher CPI compared to patients with normal right atrial pressure. These findings suggest that cerebro-venous congestion due to impaired jugular venous outflow may increase distal cerebrovascular resistance as measured by CPI. Since elevated CPI is associated with poor outcome in numerous neurological conditions, future studies are needed to elucidate the significance of these results in other populations. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  20. Sensing the wind profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, A.

    2009-03-15

    This thesis consists of two parts. The first is a synopsis of the theoretical progress of the study that is based on a number of journal papers. The papers, which constitute the second part of the report, aim to analyze, measure, and model the wind prole in and beyond the surface layer by combining observations from cup anemometers with lidars. The lidar is necessary to extend the measurements on masts at the Horns Rev offshore wind farm and over at land at Hoevsoere, Denmark. Both sensing techniques show a high degree of agreement for wind speed measurements performed at either sites. The wind speed measurements are averaged for several stability conditions and compare well with the surface-layer wind profile. At Hoevsoere, it is sufficient to scale the wind speed with the surface friction velocity, whereas at Horns Rev a new scaling is added, due to the variant roughness length. This new scaling is coupled to wind prole models derived for flow over the sea and tested against the wind proles up to 160 m at Horns Rev. The models, which account for the boundary-layer height in stable conditions, show better agreement with the measurements than compared to the traditional theory. Mixing-length parameterizations for the neutral wind prole compare well with length-scale measurements up to 300 m at Hoevsoere and 950 m at Leipzig. The mixing-length-derived wind proles strongly deviate from the logarithmic wind prole, but agree better with the wind speed measurements. The length-scale measurements are compared to the length scale derived from a spectral analysis performed up to 160 m at Hoevsoere showing high agreement. Mixing-length parameterizations are corrected to account for stability and used to derive wind prole models. These compared better to wind speed measurements up to 300 m at Hoevsoere than the surface-layer wind prole. The boundary-layer height is derived in nearneutral and stable conditions based on turbulent momentum uxes only and in unstable conditions

  1. Elevation of Urinary 2-Hydroxyglutarate in IDH-Mutant Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Amir T; Nahed, Brian V; Wander, Seth A; Iafrate, A John; Borger, Darrell R; Hu, Ranliang; Thabet, Ashraf; Cahill, Daniel P; Perry, Ashley M; Joseph, Christelle P; Muzikansky, Alona; Chi, Andrew S

    2016-02-01

    Recurrent mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 genes, which are frequent in gliomas, result in marked accumulation of the metabolic by-product 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) within tumors. In other malignancies, such as acute myeloid leukemia, presence of IDH mutation is associated with elevated 2-HG levels in serum or urine compartments. Circulating 2-HG in patients with glial malignancies has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we analyzed 2-HG levels in the serum and urine of a large set of patients with IDH-mutant and IDH-wild-type glioma, and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from a subset of this cohort. We found that 2-HG was elevated in the urine of patients with IDH-mutant versus IDH-wild-type glioma, although no significant differences in 2-HG levels were observed in the serum or the small set of CSF samples obtained. Among patients with IDH-mutant glioma, 2-HG levels did not differ based on the histopathologic grade, genetic subtype (TP53 mutant or 1p/19q codeleted), presence of a canonical (IDH1 R132H) or noncanonical (any other IDH variant) mutation, or treatment type. Our finding suggests that urinary 2-HG is increased among patients with IDH-mutant gliomas, and may represent a future surrogate, noninvasive biomarker to aid in diagnosis, prognosis, and management. Patients with glioma who harbor mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase genes showed selective elevation of the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate in the urine. Similar elevations were not identified in the serum or cerebrospinal fluid. 2-Hydroxyglutarate may serve as a useful, noninvasive biomarker to stratify patients newly diagnosed with glioma with regard to prognosis and management. ©AlphaMed Press.

  2. Mechanical lift of profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Mahoney, H.

    1999-04-01

    Continuous ship unloaders (CSUs) are continuing to become more popular than grab unloaders for dealing with greater capacities of coal. The article surveys current major manufacturers` equipment. Krupp Foerdertechnik, for example, offers seven mechanical ship unloaders, including CSU with scraper chain or L-shaped bucket-elevators, CSU with vertical screw conveyor and horizontal screw-type feeder conveyors. CSU with bucket-elevator and feeding scraper and a continuous barge unloader with bucket elevator, BMH Marine Siwertell continues to be the benchmark for technology advances. HW Carlsan has recently entered the field with a new screw-type ship unloader. 4 photos.

  3. Characterisation and concentration profile of aluminium during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterisation and concentration profile of aluminium during drinking-water treatment. ... at a surface water treatment plant (Buffalo Pound Water Treatment Plant ... Seasonal evaluations of Al at BPWTP showed that raw lake water total ...

  4. TecDEM: A MATLAB Based Toolbox for understanding Tectonics from Digital Elevation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, F.; Mahmood, S. A.; Gloaguen, R.

    2009-04-01

    TecDEM is a MATLAB based tool box for understanding the tectonics from digital elevation models (DEMs) of any area. These DEMs can be derived from data of any spatial resolution (Low, medium and High). In the first step we extract drainage network from the DEMs using flow grid approach. Drainage network is a group of streams having elevation and catchment area information as a function of spatial locations. We implement an array of stream structure to study this drainage network. Knickpoints can be identified on each stream of the drainage network by a graphical user interface and are helpful for understanding stream morphology. Stream profile analysis in steady state condition is applied on all streams to calculate geomorphic parameters and regional uplift rates. Hack index is calculated for all the profiles at a certain interval and over the change of knickpoints. Reports menu of this tool box generates detailed statistics report, complete tabulated report, graphical output of each analyzed stream profile and Hack index profile. All the calculated values are part of stream structure and is saved as .mat file for later use with this tool box. The spatial distribution of geomorphic parameters, uplift rates and knickpoints are exported as a shape files for visualization in professional GIS software. We test this tool box on DEMs from different tectonic settings worldwide and received verifiable results with other studies.

  5. Calculation and Error Analysis of a Digital Elevation Model of Hofsjokull, Iceland from SAR Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Jonathan S.; Hall, Dorothy K.; Sigurosson, Oddur; Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Smith, Laurence C.; Garvin, James B.

    1999-01-01

    Two ascending European Space Agency (ESA) Earth Resources Satellites (ERS)-1/-2 tandem-mode, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) pairs are used to calculate the surface elevation of Hofsjokull, an ice cap in central Iceland. The motion component of the interferometric phase is calculated using the 30 arc-second resolution USGS GTOPO30 global digital elevation product and one of the ERS tandem pairs. The topography is then derived by subtracting the motion component from the other tandem pair. In order to assess the accuracy of the resultant digital elevation model (DEM), a geodetic airborne laser-altimetry swath is compared with the elevations derived from the interferometry. The DEM is also compared with elevations derived from a digitized topographic map of the ice cap from the University of Iceland Science Institute. Results show that low temporal correlation is a significant problem for the application of interferometry to small, low-elevation ice caps, even over a one-day repeat interval, and especially at the higher elevations. Results also show that an uncompensated error in the phase, ramping from northwest to southeast, present after tying the DEM to ground-control points, has resulted in a systematic error across the DEM.

  6. Recent elevation changes in the upper reaches of Fedchenko Glacier, Pamir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, Astrid; Mayer, Christoph; Wendt, Anja; Floricioiu, Dana; Völksen, Christof

    2017-04-01

    The Fedchenko Glacier in the central Pamir is one of the largest mountain glaciers worldwide. It shows only a small area change during the last nine decades, which is mainly due to its supraglacial debris cover on the lower part of the glacier tongue. However, a considerable elevation decrease of more than 70 m at the terminus could be derived from the comparison of the first available map from 1928 and more recent elevation models. A negative elevation trend for the long term evolution is also observed in the upper part of the glacier, but here the situation is more complex. In the accumulation area a slight elevation increase has been observed during the first decade of the new millennium. A series of kinematic GNSS surveys were carried out on the glacier since 2009. The results show that the elevation increase in the upper part is almost compensated by a lowering during recent years. In addition to the GNSS measurements, a time series of InSAR elevation models has been derived from the satellite radar mission TanDEM-X. Based on these data we are able to determine the seasonal differences in penetration depth for the X-band radar for different altitudes in the accumulation area. This allows us to derive the spatial and temporal variation of the glacier elevation changes above 4300 m.

  7. Explaining Andean megadiversity: the evolutionary and ecological causes of glassfrog elevational richness patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Carl R; Guayasamin, Juan M; Wiens, John J

    2013-09-01

    The Tropical Andes are an important global biodiversity hotspot, harbouring extraordinarily high richness and endemism. Although elevational richness and speciation have been studied independently in some Andean groups, the evolutionary and ecological processes that explain elevational richness patterns in the Andes have not been analysed together. Herein, we elucidate the processes underlying Andean richness patterns using glassfrogs (Centrolenidae) as a model system. Glassfrogs show the widespread mid-elevation diversity peak for both local and regional richness. Remarkably, these patterns are explained by greater time (montane museum) rather than faster speciation at mid-elevations (montane species pump), despite the recency of the major Andean uplift. We also show for the first time that rates of climatic-niche evolution and elevational change are related, supporting the hypothesis that climatic-niche conservatism decelerates species' shifts in elevational distributions and underlies the mid-elevation richness peak. These results may be relevant to other Andean clades and montane systems globally. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  8. Elevated serum levels of soluble CD154 in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeft Andrew S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Cytokines play important roles in mediating inflammation in autoimmunity. Several cytokines are elevated in serum and synovial fluid samples from children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA. Soluble CD154 (sCD154 is elevated in other autoimmune disorders, but has not been characterized in JIA. Our objectives were to determine if sCD154 is elevated in JIA, and to examine correlations between sCD154 and other inflammatory cytokines. Methods Serum from 77 children with JIA and 81 pediatric controls was analyzed for interleukin (IL1β, IL2, IL4, IL5, IL6, IL8, IL10, IL12, IL13, sCD154, interferon-γ (IFNγ, soluble IL2 receptor (sIL2R, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα, using the Luminex Multi-Analyte Profiling system. Differences in levels of cytokines between cases and controls were analyzed. Logistic regression was also performed. Results sCD154 was significantly elevated in cases compared to controls (p Conclusion Serum levels of sCD154, IL1β, IL6, IL8, sIL2R and TNFα are elevated in most JIA subtypes, suggesting a major role for sCD154, and these cytokines and cytokine receptors in the pathogenesis of JIA.

  9. Creation of a digital elevation model of the bottom according to echosounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, Elena

    2017-09-01

    Regular echosounding bottom topography allows to monitoring changes in elevation of the reservoirs bottom and the position of coastline, allows to track the migration of the longshore underwater bars, allows to find many morphometric parameters for hand-made and naturals lakes. In this connection, there is a question of creating a correct and accurate digital elevation models bottom of the reservoirs according to the echosounding data. The article discusses the complex method includes, field and office works. Field works include - bottom topography surveying; shoreline position survey; if necessary, coastal profiles survey, etc. Cameral works include - reduction of all field data into a single system, echosounding data processing, building digital elevation models of bottom, comparing multi-temporal digital elevation models, preparation of various reservoirs parameters using DEM, etc. The article gives examples of different scale digital elevation models of the bottom. The article deals with the problem of comparing multi-temporal data, the problem of using the minimum amount of echosounding data for the optimal DEM and other.

  10. Within-footprint roughness measurements using ICESat/GLAS waveform and LVIS elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolu; Xu, Kai; Xu, Lijun

    2016-12-01

    The surface roughness is an important characteristic over an ice sheet or glacier, since it is an identification of boundary-layer meteorology and is an important limiter on the accuracy of surface-height measurements. In this paper, we propose a simulation method to derive the within-footprint roughness (called simulation-derived roughness) using ICESat/GLAS echo waveform, laser vegetation imaging sensor (LVIS) elevations, and laser profile array (LPA) images of ICESat/GLAS. By dividing the within-footprint surface into several elements, a simulation echo waveform can be obtained as the sum of the elementary pulses reflected from each surface element. The elevation of the surface elements, which is utilized to get the return time of the elementary pulses, is implemented based on an LVIS interpolated elevation using a radial basis function (RBF) neural network. The intensity of the elementary pulses can be obtained from the thresholded LPA images. Based on the return time and the intensity of the elementary pulses, we used the particle swarm optimization (PSO) method to approximate the simulation waveform to the ICESat/GLAS echo waveform. The full width at half maximum) (FWHM) of the elementary pulse was extracted from the simulation waveform for estimating the simulation-derived roughness. By comparing with the elevation-derived roughness (derived from the elevation) and the waveform-derived roughness (derived from the ICESat/GLAS waveform), the proposed algorithm can exclude the slope effect from waveform width broadening for describing the roughness of the surface elements.

  11. Gender-related differences in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: results from the registry study of the ST elevation myocardial infarction network Essen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailer, Birgit; Naber, Christoph; Koslowski, Bernd; van Leeuwen, Peter; Schäfer, Harald; Budde, Thomas; Jacksch, Rainer; Sabin, Georg; Erbel, Raimund

    2011-05-01

    The Myocardial Infarction Network Essen was initiated in order to establish a standardized procedure with immediate reopening of the infarcted vessel for patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in the city of Essen, Germany. The present study aims to evaluate gender-related differences in presentation of disease and clinical outcome. Gender is associated with differences in presentation and outcome of STEMI. All patients with STEMI were included without exception. Parameters such as risk profile, mortality, and relevant time intervals were documented. The follow-up period was 1 year. For this study, 1365 patients (72.1% male) were recruited. Women were significantly older, with higher prevalence of diabetes (28.1% vs 20.3%, P = 0.004) and hypertension (76.5% vs 64.8%, P<0.0005). Analysis of time intervals between symptoms to actions showed no significant differences. However, women tended to wait longer before calling for medical assistance (358 vs 331 min, P = 0.091). In-hospital mortality was comparable with respect to gender, whereas women had higher 1-year mortality (18.6% vs 13.2%). Age and diabetes were associated with a higher mortality. Adjusted for age, gender is no longer an independent risk factor. In the follow-up period, significantly more women were readmitted to the hospital without a difference in the frequency of reangiography, surgery, or target-vessel revascularization. The present data display a successful implementation of a standardized procedure in patients with STEMI. Although differences between genders are not as obvious as expected, efforts should be taken to perform a gender-specific risk analysis as well as to promote education about proper behavior in case of new onset of angina. 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Elevated mutation rate during meiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattray, Alison; Santoyo, Gustavo; Shafer, Brenda; Strathern, Jeffrey N

    2015-01-01

    Mutations accumulate during all stages of growth, but only germ line mutations contribute to evolution. While meiosis contributes to evolution by reassortment of parental alleles, we show here that the process itself is inherently mutagenic. We have previously shown that the DNA synthesis associated with repair of a double-strand break is about 1000-fold less accurate than S-phase synthesis. Since the process of meiosis involves many programmed DSBs, we reasoned that this repair might also be mutagenic. Indeed, in the early 1960's Magni and Von Borstel observed elevated reversion of recessive alleles during meiosis, and found that the revertants were more likely to be associated with a crossover than non-revertants, a process that they called "the meiotic effect." Here we use a forward mutation reporter (CAN1 HIS3) placed at either a meiotic recombination coldspot or hotspot near the MAT locus on Chromosome III. We find that the increased mutation rate at CAN1 (6 to 21 -fold) correlates with the underlying recombination rate at the locus. Importantly, we show that the elevated mutation rate is fully dependent upon Spo11, the protein that introduces the meiosis specific DSBs. To examine associated recombination we selected for random spores with or without a mutation in CAN1. We find that the mutations isolated this way show an increased association with recombination (crossovers, loss of crossover interference and/or increased gene conversion tracts). Polζ appears to contribute about half of the mutations induced during meiosis, but is not the only source of mutations for the meiotic effect. We see no difference in either the spectrum or distribution of mutations between mitosis and meiosis. The correlation of hotspots with elevated mutagenesis provides a mechanism for organisms to control evolution rates in a gene specific manner.

  13. Aerodynamics profile not in stationary flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.А. Загорулько

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available  Consider the question about influence of unsteady flight on the size of drag and lift coefficients of theaerodynamic profile. Distinctive features of this investigation are obtaining data about aerodynamic drag chancing in process unsteady on high angle at attack and oscillation profile in subsonic and transonic flight. Given analysis of oscillation profile show, that dynamic loops accompany change of lift and dray force. The researches show that it is necessary to clarity the mathematic model of the airplane flight dynamics by introducing numbers, with take into account unsteady effects.

  14. Study on Rail Profile Optimization Based on the Nonlinear Relationship between Profile and Wear Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxi Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a rail profile optimization method that takes account of wear rate within design cycle so as to minimize rail wear at the curve in heavy haul railway and extend the service life of rail. Taking rail wear rate as the object function, the vertical coordinate of rail profile at range optimization as independent variable, and the geometric characteristics and grinding depth of rail profile as constraint conditions, the support vector machine regression theory was used to fit the nonlinear relationship between rail profile and its wear rate. Then, the profile optimization model was built. Based on the optimization principle of genetic algorithm, the profile optimization model was solved to achieve the optimal rail profile. A multibody dynamics model was used to check the dynamic performance of carriage running on optimal rail profile. The result showed that the average relative error of support vector machine regression model remained less than 10% after a number of training processes. The dynamic performance of carriage running on optimized rail profile met the requirements on safety index and stability. The wear rate of optimized profile was lower than that of standard profile by 5.8%; the allowable carrying gross weight increased by 12.7%.

  15. Gene expression profile of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Noesel Carel JM

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS is a proliferation of aberrant vascular structures lined by spindle cells, and is caused by a gammaherpes virus (HHV8/KSHV. Its course is aggravated by co-infection with HIV-1, where the timing of infection with HIV-1 and HHV8 is important for the clinical outcome. Methods In order to better understand the pathogenesis of KS, we have analysed tissue from two AIDS-KS lesions, and from normal skin by serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was then used to validate the results. Results The expression profile of AIDS-related KS (AIDS-KS reflects an active process in the skin. Transcripts of HHV8 were found to be very low, and HIV-1 mRNA was not detected by SAGE, although it could be found using RT-PCR. Comparing the expression profile of AIDS-KS tissue with publicly available SAGE libraries suggested that AIDS-KS mRNA levels are most similar to those in an artificially mixed library of endothelial cells and leukocytes, in line with the description of KS lesions as containing spindle cells with endothelial characteristics, and an inflammatory infiltrate. At least 64 transcripts were found to be significantly elevated, and 28 were statistically downregulated in AIDS-KS compared to normal skin. Five of the upregulated mRNAs, including Tie 1 and sialoadhesin/CD169, were confirmed by semi-quantitative PCR to be elevated in additional AIDS-KS biopsies. Antibodies to sialoadhesin/CD169, a known marker of activated macrophages, were shown to specifically label tumour macrophages. Conclusion The expression profile of AIDS-KS showed 64 genes to be significantly upregulated, and 28 genes downregulated, compared with normal skin. One of the genes with increased expression was sialoadhesin (CD169. Antibodies to sialoadhesin/CD169 specifically labelled tumour-associated macrophages, suggesting that macrophages present in AIDS-KS lesions belong to a subset of human CD169+ macrophages.

  16. Abdominal obesity is associated with microalbuminuria and an elevated cardiovascular risk profile in patients with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Thoenes

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Martin Thoenes1,2, Jan-Christian Reil3, Bobby Varkey Khan4, Peter Bramlage1, Massimo Volpe5,6, Wilhelm Kirch1,  Michael Böhm31Institute for Clinical Pharmacology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Technical University Dresden, Germany; 2Sanofi Aventis, Global Medical Affairs, Paris, France; 3Klinik für Innere Medizin III, Kardiologie, Angiologie and Internistische Intensivmedizin, Universität des Saarlandes, Homburg, Saar, Germany; 4Department of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, USA; 5University of Rome “Sapienza”, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, S. Andrea Hospital, Rome; 6IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli, italyBackground: Overweight and obesity are frequently associated with preventable death and have emerged as a major challenge to public health. There is an ongoing debate on the role of abdominal obesity and its value in predicting cardiovascular and renal outcomes. The present analysis evaluates the prevalence of microalbuminuria (MAU and conventional cardiovascular risk factors in relation to measures of general and abdominal obesity.Methods: In this multinational, observational study, 20,828 hypertensive out-patients from 26 countries including Europe, North and Latin America, Middle East, and Asia were analyzed. Urinary dipstick screening for MAU was performed as well as data on patient demographics, anthropometric measures, cardiovascular risk factors, comorbid conditions, and cardiovascular drug therapy collected. MAU prevalence was determined by a stepwise logistic regression analysis with cardiovascular risk factors as univariate.Results: In the univariate analysis, MAU prevalence systematically increased with body mass index (BMI from 54.4% (1st tertial to 62.1% (3rd tertial (p < 0.0001, an increase which was also observed for waist circumference (WC. At any level of BMI, MAU increased with WC from 53.5%, 54.8%, and 55.0% (1st tertial of WC in all three BMI tertials to 61.4%, 62.1%, and 64.0% (3rd tertial of WC in all BMI tertials (p < 0.0001. In the multivariate analysis, WC, but not BMI was independently associated with MAU. Furthermore, overweight/obesity were associated with the presence of modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors.Conclusion: An abnormal WC, but not BMI appears to be independently associated with MAU, an early marker of cardiovascular and renal risk. Increasing WC confers an incremental risk for MAU at any level of BMI, underlining the prognostic importance of abdominal fat accumulation beyond general obesity.Keywords: obesity, abdominal, microalbuminuria, cardiovascular, renal

  17. An elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine profile in multiple chemical sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz; Elberling, J.; Brix, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    proposed as part of the pathophysiology. ObjectiveTo compare plasma levels of cytokines in Danish MCS individuals with a healthy, sex- and age-matched control group. MethodBlood samples were obtained from 150 un-exposed MCS individuals and from 148 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Plasma...... concentrations of 14 cytokines, chemokines and growth and allergen-specific IgE were measured. All participants completed a questionnaire including questions on MCS, psychological distress, morbidities and medication use at the time of the study. ResultsPlasma levels of interleukin-1β, -2, -4, and -6 were...

  18. Rotating Space Elevators: Classical and Statistical Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Steven

    We investigate a novel and unique dynamical system, the Rotating Space Elevator (RSE). The RSE is a multiply rotating system of strings reaching beyond the Earth geo-synchronous satellite orbit. Objects sliding along the RSE string ("climbers") do not require internal engines or propulsion to be transported far away from the Earth's surface. The RSE thus solves a major problem in the space elevator technology which is how to supply the energy to the climbers moving along the string. The RSE is a double rotating floppy string. The RSE can be made in various shapes that are stabilized by an approximate equilibrium between the gravitational and inertial forces acting in the double rotating frame. The RSE exhibits a variety of interesting dynamical phenomena studied in this thesis.

  19. Plasma viscosity elevations with simulated weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D. G.; Convertino, V. A.; Goldwater, D.; Ferguson, E. W.; Schoomaker, E. B.

    1986-01-01

    A hypothesis correlating an increase in blood viscosity during bed rest to a decrease in aerobic capacity during simulated weightlessness is tested. Eight human subjects were studied on the sixth day of bed rest during two consecutive 10-d bed rest periods separated by a 14-d recovery interval designed to simulate the flight-layover schedule of Shuttle astronauts. Plasma viscosity and volume were measured, together with maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max). An increase in hematocrit, plasma protein, and fibrinogen concentrations was found, contributing to an elevation in plasma viscosity. VO2max decreased significantly in the first, but not the second bed rest cycle, and though many individuals exhibited a decrease in plasma volume and aerobic capacity coupled with elevated plasma viscosity, correlations between these variables were lacking. It is concluded that the decrease in VO2max observed following simulated weightlessness cannot be attributed to alterations in muscle blood flow resulting from increased blood viscosity.

  20. Coastal National Elevation Dataset (CoNED) - Topobathymetric Digital Elevation Model (TBDEM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Accurate, high-resolution elevation information is vital to understanding highly dynamic U.S. coastal regions. The new dataset consists of a detailed and highly...

  1. Seasonal dynamics of mobile carbon supply in Quercus aquifolioides at the upper elevational limit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Ze Zhu

    Full Text Available Many studies have tried to explain the physiological mechanisms of the alpine treeline phenomenon, but the debate on the alpine treeline formation remains controversial due to opposite results from different studies. The present study explored the carbon-physiology of an alpine shrub species (Quercus aquifolioides grown at its upper elevational limit compared to lower elevations, to test whether the elevational limit of alpine shrubs (<3 m in height are determined by carbon limitation or growth limitation. We studied the seasonal variations in non-structural carbohydrate (NSC and its pool size in Q. aquifolioides grown at 3000 m, 3500 m, and at its elevational limit of 3950 m above sea level (a.s.l. on Zheduo Mt., SW China. The tissue NSC concentrations along the elevational gradient varied significantly with season, reflecting the season-dependent carbon balance. The NSC levels in tissues were lowest at the beginning of the growing season, indicating that plants used the winter reserve storage for re-growth in the early spring. During the growing season, plants grown at the elevational limit did not show lower NSC concentrations compared to plants at lower elevations, but during the winter season, storage tissues, especially roots, had significantly lower NSC concentrations in plants at the elevational limit compared to lower elevations. The present results suggest the significance of winter reserve in storage tissues, which may determine the winter survival and early-spring re-growth of Q. aquifolioides shrubs at high elevation, leading to the formation of the uppermost distribution limit. This result is consistent with a recent hypothesis for the alpine treeline formation.

  2. Elevational Ranges of Montane Birds and Deforestation in the Western Andes of Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Ocampo-Peñuela

    Full Text Available Deforestation causes habitat loss, fragmentation, degradation, and can ultimately cause extinction of the remnant species. Tropical montane birds face these threats with the added natural vulnerability of narrower elevational ranges and higher specialization than lowland species. Recent studies assess the impact of present and future global climate change on species' ranges, but only a few of these evaluate the potentially confounding effect of lowland deforestation on species elevational distributions. In the Western Andes of Colombia, an important biodiversity hotspot, we evaluated the effects of deforestation on the elevational ranges of montane birds along altitudinal transects. Using point counts and mist-nets, we surveyed six altitudinal transects spanning 2200 to 2800 m. Three transects were forested from 2200 to 2800 m, and three were partially deforested with forest cover only above 2400 m. We compared abundance-weighted mean elevation, minimum elevation, and elevational range width. In addition to analysing the effect of deforestation on 134 species, we tested its impact within trophic guilds and habitat preference groups. Abundance-weighted mean and minimum elevations were not significantly different between forested and partially deforested transects. Range width was marginally different: as expected, ranges were larger in forested transects. Species in different trophic guilds and habitat preference categories showed different trends. These results suggest that deforestation may affect species' elevational ranges, even within the forest that remains. Climate change will likely exacerbate harmful impacts of deforestation on species' elevational distributions. Future conservation strategies need to account for this by protecting connected forest tracts across a wide range of elevations.

  3. Continuous and discontinuous variation in ecosystem carbon stocks with elevation across a treeline ecotone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, J. D. M.; Martinsen, V.; Hester, A. J.; Holand, Ø.; Mulder, J.; Mysterud, A.; Austrheim, G.

    2015-03-01

    Treelines differentiate vastly contrasting ecosystems: open tundra from closed forest. Treeline advance has implications for the climate system due to the impact of the transition from tundra to forest ecosystem on carbon (C) storage and albedo. Treeline advance has been seen to increase above-ground C stocks as low vegetation is replaced with trees but decrease organic soil C stocks as old carbon is decomposed. However, studies comparing across the treeline typically do not account for elevational variation within the ecotone. Here we sample ecosystem C stocks along an elevational gradient (970 to 1300 m), incorporating a large-scale and long-term livestock grazing experiment, in the southern Norwegian mountains. We investigate whether there are continuous or discontinuous changes in C storage across the treeline ecotone, and whether these are modulated by grazing. We find that vegetation C stock decreases with elevation, with a clear breakpoint between the forest line and treeline above which the vegetation C stock is constant. C stocks in organic surface horizons of the soil were higher above the treeline than in the forest, whereas C stocks in mineral soil horizons are unrelated to elevation. Total ecosystem C stocks also showed a discontinuous elevational pattern, increasing with elevation above the treeline (8 g m-2 per metre increase in elevation), but decreasing with elevation below the forest line (-15 g m-2 per metre increase in elevation), such that ecosystem C storage reaches a minimum between the forest line and treeline. We did not find any effect of short-term (12 years) grazing on the elevational patterns. Our findings demonstrate that patterns of C storage across the treeline are complex, and should be taken account of when estimating ecosystem C storage with shifting treelines.

  4. Elevational Ranges of Montane Birds and Deforestation in the Western Andes of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo-Peñuela, Natalia; Pimm, Stuart L

    2015-01-01

    Deforestation causes habitat loss, fragmentation, degradation, and can ultimately cause extinction of the remnant species. Tropical montane birds face these threats with the added natural vulnerability of narrower elevational ranges and higher specialization than lowland species. Recent studies assess the impact of present and future global climate change on species' ranges, but only a few of these evaluate the potentially confounding effect of lowland deforestation on species elevational distributions. In the Western Andes of Colombia, an important biodiversity hotspot, we evaluated the effects of deforestation on the elevational ranges of montane birds along altitudinal transects. Using point counts and mist-nets, we surveyed six altitudinal transects spanning 2200 to 2800 m. Three transects were forested from 2200 to 2800 m, and three were partially deforested with forest cover only above 2400 m. We compared abundance-weighted mean elevation, minimum elevation, and elevational range width. In addition to analysing the effect of deforestation on 134 species, we tested its impact within trophic guilds and habitat preference groups. Abundance-weighted mean and minimum elevations were not significantly different between forested and partially deforested transects. Range width was marginally different: as expected, ranges were larger in forested transects. Species in different trophic guilds and habitat preference categories showed different trends. These results suggest that deforestation may affect species' elevational ranges, even within the forest that remains. Climate change will likely exacerbate harmful impacts of deforestation on species' elevational distributions. Future conservation strategies need to account for this by protecting connected forest tracts across a wide range of elevations.

  5. Potential host number in cuckoo bees (Psithyrus subgen. increases toward higher elevations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Nicolas Pradervand

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In severe and variable conditions, specialized resource selection strategies should be less frequent because extinction risks increase for species that depend on a single and unstable resource. Psithyrus (Bombus subgenus Psithyrus are bumblebee parasites that usurp Bombus nests and display inter‐specific variation in the number of hosts they parasitize. Using a phylogenetic comparative framework, we show that Psithyrus species at higher elevations display a higher number of hosts species compared with species restricted to lower elevations. Species inhabiting high elevations also cover a larger temperature range, suggesting that species able to occur in colder conditions may benefit from recruitment from populations occurring in warmer conditions. Our results provide evidence for an ‘altitudinal niche breadth hypothesis’ in parasitic species, showing a decrease in the parasites’ specialization along the elevational gradient, and also suggesting that Rapoport’s rule might apply to Psithyrus. 

  6. Når "elever" bliver "talenter"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    er også vigtigt at holde sig for øje, hvad det er for forståelser af elev, læring, præstation m.m., der følger med, når begreber vandrer. Artiklen falder i to dele. I den første del om forskningstraditionen ridser jeg tre grundlæggende tilgange til studiet af sportsfolks vej fra talent til ekspert op...

  7. Markedly Elevated Troponin in Diabetic Ketoacidosis without Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Menekşe Gerede

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Troponin gives excellent accuracy in the identification of myocardial necrosis, however, it may elevate also in a series of non-atherosclerotic heart diseases. We report the case of a 58-year-old woman with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA. She had markedly increased levels (90 fold of cardiac biomarkers (troponin I and CK-MB and initial electrocardiography changes compatible with myocardial infarction. She had normal a coronary angiogram. This case shows that nonspecific myocardial injury may occur in DKA with the findings mimicking myocardial infarction including increased level of cardiac biomarkers and electrocardiography changes.

  8. Anisotropic Third-Order Regularization for Sparse Digital Elevation Models

    KAUST Repository

    Lellmann, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of interpolating a surface based on sparse data such as individual points or level lines. We derive interpolators satisfying a list of desirable properties with an emphasis on preserving the geometry and characteristic features of the contours while ensuring smoothness across level lines. We propose an anisotropic third-order model and an efficient method to adaptively estimate both the surface and the anisotropy. Our experiments show that the approach outperforms AMLE and higher-order total variation methods qualitatively and quantitatively on real-world digital elevation data. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  9. The Tilt of the Elevator Shaft of Bunker Skutina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel KALENDA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of deformations of the elevator shaft in the Skutina fortress between the 2nd floor and the depth of 33 m below the surface took place in 2009. These measurements showed that, in addition to the tides, the diurnal thermoelastic wave deforms the body of the bunker, particularly in the NS direction. The amplitude of this deformation depends mainly on the cloudiness (opposite to the irradiance. Morning and evening deformation curves depend mainly on the time of sunrise and the geometry of the body of the bunker (irradiance of the bunker walls and less of the outside temperature.

  10. Discovery of Novel Lipid Profiles in PCOS: Do Insulin and Androgen Oppositely Regulate Bioactive Lipid Production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengxian; Chu, Qianqian; Ma, Jing; Sun, Yun; Tao, Tao; Huang, Rong; Liao, Yu; Yue, Jiang; Zheng, Jun; Wang, Lihua; Xue, Xinli; Zhu, Mingjiang; Kang, Xiaonan; Yin, Huiyong; Liu, Wei

    2017-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex syndrome showing clinical features of an endocrine/metabolic disorder, including hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and their derivatives, both tightly linked to PCOS and obesity, play important roles in inflammation and reproduction. This study aimed to investigate serum lipid profiles in newly diagnosed patients with PCOS using lipidomics and correlate these features with the hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism associated with PCOS and obesity. Thirty-two newly diagnosed women with PCOS and 34 controls were divided into obese and lean subgroups. A PCOS rat model was used to validate results of the human studies. Serum lipid profiles, including phospholipids, free fatty acids (FFAs), and bioactive lipids, were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS) and liquid chromatography-MS. Elevation in phosphatidylcholine and a concomitant decrease in lysophospholipid were found in obese patients with PCOS vs lean controls. Obese patients with PCOS had decreased PUFA levels and increased levels of long-chain saturated fatty acids vs lean controls. Serum bioactive lipids downstream of arachidonic acid were increased in obese controls, but reduced in both obese and lean patients with PCOS vs their respective controls. Patients with PCOS showed abnormal levels of phosphatidylcholine, FFAs, and PUFA metabolites. Circulating insulin and androgens may have opposing effects on lipid profiles in patients with PCOS, particularly on the bioactive lipid metabolites derived from PUFAs. These clinical observations warrant further studies of the molecular mechanisms and clinical implications of PCOS and obesity.

  11. YOUNG ATHLETES' MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Moreno Murcia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between motivational characteristics and dispositional flow. In order to accomplish this goal, motivational profiles emerging from key constructs within Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory were related to the dispositional flow measures. A sample of 413 young athletes (Age range 12 to 16 years completed the PMCSQ-2, POSQ, SMS and DFS measures. Cluster analysis results revealed three profiles: a "self-determined profile" characterised by higher scores on the task-involving climate perception and on the task orientation; a "non-self-determined profile", characterised by higher scores on ego-involving climate perception and ego orientation; and a "low self-determined and low non-self-determined profile" which had the lowest dispositional flow. No meaningful differences were found between the "self-determined profile" and the "non-self-determined profile" in dispositional flow. The "self-determined profile" was more commonly associated with females, athletes practising individual sports and those training more than three days a week. The "non-self-determined profile" was more customary of males and athletes practising team sports as well as those training just two or three days a week

  12. Elevated-Temperature Tribology of Metallic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The wear of metals and alloys takes place in many forms, and the type of wear that dominates in each instance is influenced by the mechanics of contact, material properties, the interfacial temperature, and the surrounding environment. The control of elevated-temperature friction and wear is important for applications like internal combustion engines, aerospace propulsion systems, and metalworking equipment. The progression of interacting, often synergistic processes produces surface deformation, subsurface damage accumulation, the formation of tribolayers, and the creation of free particles. Reaction products, particularly oxides, play a primary role in debris formation and microstructural evolution. Chemical reactions are known to be influenced by the energetic state of the exposed surfaces, and that surface energy is in turn affected by localized deformation and fracture. At relatively low temperatures, work-hardening can occur beneath tribo-contacts, but exposure to high temperatures can modify the resultant defect density and grain structure to affect the mechanisms of re-oxidation. As research by others has shown, the rate of wear at elevated temperatures can either be enhanced or reduced, depending on contact conditions and nature of oxide layer formation. Furthermore, the thermodynamic driving force for certain chemical reactions is moderated by kinetics and microstructure. The role of deformation, oxidation, and tribo-corrosion in the elevated temperature tribology of metallic alloys will be exemplified by three examples involving sliding wear, single-point abrasion, and repetitive impact plus slip.

  13. Elevers læring og progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    praksisbaserede anbefalinger til, hvordan data om elevernes progression kan indsamles, sammenstilles, vises og understøtte elevernes udvikling, så alle elever bliver så dygtige, som de kan. Rapporten består af et resumé af en forskningskortlægning af danske og internationale studier af, hvordan man måler læring...... og progression, og hvordan fagprofessionelle kan arbejde med elevdata for at understøtte elevers læring og progression. Derefter følger opsamling på en spørgeskemaundersøgelse blandt private leverandører af digitale læremidler til folkeskolen og resultaterne af en erfaringsopsamling blandt lærere......, elever og forældre. Endelig præsenteres erfaringerne med et konkret udviklingsarbejde på en række områder, hvor elevdata spiller en væsentlig rolle samt fagdidaktiske overvejelser om fagprofessionelles brug af elevdata. På baggrund af undersøgelsen præsenteres anbefalinger til overordnede systembehov...

  14. Experimental prototype of an electric elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiceanu, M.; Epure, S.; Ciuta, S.

    2016-08-01

    The main objective is to achieve an elevator prototype powered by a three-phase voltage system via a bidirectional static power converter ac-ac with regenerating capability. In order to diminish the power size of the electric motor up to 1/3 of rated power, the elevator contains two carriages of the same weight, one serving as the payload, and the other as counterweight. Before proper operation of the static power converter, the capacitor must be charged at rated voltage via a precharge circuit. At the moment of stabilizing the DC voltage at nominal value, the AC-AC power converter can operates in the proper limits. The functions of the control structure are: the load control task, speed and torque controls. System includes transducers for current measuring, voltage sensors and encoder. As reserve power sources the hybrid battery-photovoltaic panels are used. The control voltage is modulated by implementing four types of pulse width modulations: sinusoidal, with reduced commutation, third order harmonic insertion, and the space vector modulation. Therefore, the prototype could operates with an increased efficiency, in spite of the existing ones. The experimental results confirm the well design of the chosen solution. The control solution assures bidirectional power flow control, precharge control, and load control and it is implemented on a digital signal processor. The elevator capacity is between 300-450 kg, and it is driven by using a 1.5 kW three-phase asynchronous machine.

  15. Elevated dietary intake of L-tryptophan counteracts the stress-induced elevation of plasma cortisol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, Olivier; Tottmar, Olof; Winberg, Svante

    2002-12-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout were isolated in individual compartments and allowed to acclimate for 1 week, during which they were fed commercial trout pellets. The feed was then replaced by pelleted feed supplemented with L-tryptophan (TRP) at two, four or eight times the concentration in the commercial feed. Fish were fed these supplemented feeds daily to satiety for 1 week, after which half of the fish were stressed, by lowering the water level for 2 h, while the remaining fish were left undisturbed. In undisturbed fish, supplementary dietary TRP resulted in slightly elevated plasma cortisol levels. In response to the stress, fish that had been fed control feed showed elevated plasma cortisol levels, but fish fed the TRP-supplemented feed displayed a significant reduction in this stress-induced elevation of plasma cortisol levels. Plasma and brain TRP levels were elevated in fish fed TRP-supplemented feed. TRP is the precursor of the monoamine neurotransmitter serotonin. Brain serotonergic activity was elevated by stress and also tended to be increased by elevated dietary TRP intake. The central serotonergic system is involved in the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis, the action of serotonin being to stimulate or inhibit this neuroendocrine axis through different projections.

  16. Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Cherry, J.A.; Megonigala, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient + 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr−1in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO2 effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas.

  17. These images show thermal infrared radiation from Jupiter at different wavelengths which are diagnos

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    These images show thermal infrared radiation from Jupiter at different wavelengths which are diagnostic of physical phenomena The 7.85-micron image in the upper left shows stratospheric temperatures which are elevated in the region of the A fragment impact (to the left of bottom). Temperatures deeper in the atmosphere near 150-mbar are shown by the 17.2-micron image in the upper right. There is a small elevation of temperatures at this depth, indicated by the arrow, and confirmed by other measurements near this wavelength. This indicates that the influence of the impact of fragment A on the troposphere has been minimal. The two images in the bottom row show no readily apparent perturbation of the ammmonia condensate cloud field near 600 mbar, as diagnosed by 8.57-micron radiation, and deeper cloud layers which are diagnosed by 5-micron radiation.

  18. Stimulated Leaf Dark Respiration in Tomato in an Elevated Carbon Dioxide Atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Xin Li; Guanqun Zhang; Bo Sun; Shuai Zhang; Yiqing Zhang; Yangwenke Liao; Yanhong Zhou; Xiaojian Xia; Kai Shi; Jingquan Yu

    2013-01-01

    It is widely accepted that leaf dark respiration is a determining factor for the growth and maintenance of plant tissues and the carbon cycle. However, the underlying effect and mechanism of elevated CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) on dark respiration remain unclear. In this study, tomato plants grown at elevated [CO2] showed consistently higher leaf dark respiratory rate, as compared with ambient control plants. The increased respiratory capacity was driven by a greater abundance of proteins, car...

  19. Dual impact of elevated temperature on plant defence and bacterial virulence in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Huot, Bethany; Castroverde, Christian Danve M.; Velásquez, André C.; Hubbard, Emily; Pulman, Jane A.; Yao, Jian; Childs, Kevin L.; Tsuda, Kenichi; Montgomery, Beronda L.; He, Sheng Yang

    2017-01-01

    Environmental conditions profoundly affect plant disease development; however, the underlying molecular bases are not well understood. Here we show that elevated temperature significantly increases the susceptibility of Arabidopsis to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 independently of the phyB/PIF thermosensing pathway. Instead, elevated temperature promotes translocation of bacterial effector proteins into plant cells and causes a loss of ICS1-mediated salicylic acid (SA) biosynth...

  20. Anatomical aspects of sinus floor elevations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bergh, J P; ten Bruggenkate, C M; Disch, F J; Tuinzing, D B

    2000-06-01

    Inadequate bone height in the lateral part of the maxilla forms a contra-indication for implant surgery. This condition can be treated with an internal augmentation of the maxillary sinus floor. This sinus floor elevation, formerly called sinus lifting, consists of a surgical procedure in which a top hinge door in the lateral maxillary sinus wall is prepared and internally rotated to a horizontal position. The new elevated sinus floor, together with the inner maxillary mucosa, will create a space that can be filled with graft material. Sinus lift procedures depend greatly on fragile structures and anatomical variations. The variety of anatomical modalities in shape of the inner aspect of the maxillary sinus defines the surgical approach. Conditions such as sinus floor convolutions, sinus septum, transient mucosa swelling and narrow sinus may form a (usually relative) contra-indication for sinus floor elevation. Absolute contra-indications are maxillary sinus diseases (tumors) and destructive former sinus surgery (like the Caldwell-Luc operation). The lateral sinus wall is usually a thin bone plate, which is easily penetrated with rotating or sharp instruments. The fragile Schneiderian membrane plays an important role for the containment of the bonegraft. The surgical procedure of preparing the trap door and luxating it, together with the preparation of the sinus mucosa, may cause a mucosa tear. Usually, when these perforations are not too large, they will fold together when turning the trap door inward and upward, or they can be glued with a fibrin sealant, or they can be covered with a resorbable membrane. If the perforation is too large, a cortico-spongious block graft can be considered. However, in most cases the sinus floor elevation will be deleted. Perforations may also occur due to irregularities in the sinus floor or even due to immediate contact of sinus mucosa with oral mucosa. Obstruction of the antro-nasal foramen is, due to its high location, not a